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1

Low-Dose Radiation Induces Genes Promoting Cell Survival  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apoptosis is an important process controlling homeostasis of the body. It is influenced by stimuli constantly arising from the external and internal environment of the organism. It is well known that radiation could induce apoptosis of cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the dose-effect relationship of apoptosis extending to the low-dose range has scarcely been studied. Here, the molecular basis of the phenomenon is explored by examining the changes in expression of some of the proapoptotic and antiapoptotic genes.

Liu, Shu-Zheng; Chen, Dong; Mu, Ying

1999-06-06

2

Low dose radiation induced bystander effect and its mechanism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate whether the supernatant (the conditioned fluid) of myeloid cells suspension after low dose radiation (6 cGy) in vitro could result in hormesis on the normal or radiation damage cells and its mechanism. Methods: Mice myeloid cell suspension was irradiated by 0, 2 and 5 Gy, respectively, and cultured in vitro. MTT method was used to measure the reproductive activity of cells. Cytochrome C reduction method was used to determine the concentration of O2-, the immunohistochemical method to test the protein expression of c-fos. Results: Co-cultured with the conditioned fluid, the reproductive activity of the myeloid cells after high dose irradiation (P2- and the protein expression of c-fos were enhanced (P2- and the protein expression of c-fos. (authors)

2009-01-01

3

Low-dose radiation induces drosophila innate immunity through toll pathway activation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous studies report that exposing certain organisms to low-dose radiation induces beneficial effects on lifespan, tumorigenesis, and immunity. By analyzing survival after bacterial infection and antimicrobial peptide gene expression in irradiated flies, we demonstrate that low-dose irradiation of Drosophila enhances innate immunity. Low-dose irradiation of flies significantly increased resistance against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections, as well as expression of several antimicrobial peptide genes. Additionally, low-dose irradiation also resulted in a specific increase in expression of key proteins of the Toll signaling pathway and phosphorylated forms of p38 and N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results indicate that innate immunity is activated after low-dose irradiation through Toll signaling pathway in Drosophila. (author)

2012-01-01

4

The relevance of radiation induced bystander effects for low dose radiation carcinogenic risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Where epidemiology studies lack the ability to prescribe radiation doses, customise sample sizes and replicate findings, radiobiology experiments provide greater flexibility to control experimental conditions. This control simplifies the process of answering questions concerning carcinogenic risk after low dose radiation exposures. However, the flexibility requires critical evaluation of radiobiology findings to ensure that the right questions are being asked, the experimental conditions are relevant to human exposure scenarios and that the data are cautiously interpreted in the context of the experimental model. In particular, low dose radiobiology phenomena such as adaptive responses, genomic instability and bystander effects need to be investigated thoroughly, with continual reference to the way these phenomena might occur in the real world. Low dose radiation induced bystander effects are of interest since their occurrence in vivo could complicate the shape of the radiation dose-response curve in the low dose range for a number of biological endpoints with subsequent effects on radiation-induced cancer risk. Conversely, radiation-induced abscopal effects implicate biological consequences of radiation exposure outside irradiated volumes, and complicate the notion of effective dose calculations. Achieving a consensus on the boundaries that distinguish the radiobiology phenomena of bystander and abscopal effects will aid progress towards understanding their relevance to in vivo radiation exposures. A proposed framework for discussing bystander effects and abscopal effects in their appropriate context will be outlined, with a discussion on the future investigation of radiation-induced bystander effects. Such frameworks can assist the integration of results from experimental radiobiology to risk evaluation and management practice. This research was funded by the Low Dose Radiation Research Program, BioI. and Environ. Research, US Dept. of Energy, Grant DE-FG02-05ER64I 04.

2011-01-01

5

Low doses of ionizing radiation induce immune-stimulatory responses in isolated human primary monocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The health effects arising from exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation are of particular concern, mainly due to the increased application of diagnostic and therapeutic X-ray modalities. The mechanisms behind the cell and tissue responses to low doses remain to be elucidated. Accumulating evidence suggests that low doses of ionizing radiation induce activation of the immune response; however, the processes involved have yet to be adequately investigated. Monocytes are key players in the induction of an immune response. Within the context of this study, we investigated the activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs), mitogen?activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-?B signaling in isolated human primary monocytes in response to low doses (0.05 and 0.1 Gy) and a high dose (1 Gy) of ionizing radiation. Using quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA techniques, our results showed a positive regulation of TLR signaling in response to low doses but a less significant response at high doses. This activation was demonstrated via the activation of TLR signaling molecules (HMGB1, TLR4, TLR9, MyD88 and IRAK1). Furthermore, and in contrast to the high dose, the low doses showed increased phosphorylation levels of the protein I?B?, and therefore positive signaling of the NF-?B pathway. This result denotes pro-survival and pro-inflammatory responses. Additionally, MAPKs were activated in response to 0.05 Gy, while 0.1 and 1 Gy showed a downregulatory trend that may be related to activation of the PF4 gene. On the other hand, there was highly significant involvement of activated p53 and damaged genes in response to high but not low doses. In conclusion, this study addressed the need to re-evaluate health risks arising from exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation, particularly in view of the accumulating evidence reporting inflammatory and oncogenic consequences from these exposures.

El-Saghire H; Michaux A; Thierens H; Baatout S

2013-12-01

6

Low doses of ionizing radiation induce immune-stimulatory responses in isolated human primary monocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The health effects arising from exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation are of particular concern, mainly due to the increased application of diagnostic and therapeutic X-ray modalities. The mechanisms behind the cell and tissue responses to low doses remain to be elucidated. Accumulating evidence suggests that low doses of ionizing radiation induce activation of the immune response; however, the processes involved have yet to be adequately investigated. Monocytes are key players in the induction of an immune response. Within the context of this study, we investigated the activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs), mitogen?activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-?B signaling in isolated human primary monocytes in response to low doses (0.05 and 0.1 Gy) and a high dose (1 Gy) of ionizing radiation. Using quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA techniques, our results showed a positive regulation of TLR signaling in response to low doses but a less significant response at high doses. This activation was demonstrated via the activation of TLR signaling molecules (HMGB1, TLR4, TLR9, MyD88 and IRAK1). Furthermore, and in contrast to the high dose, the low doses showed increased phosphorylation levels of the protein I?B?, and therefore positive signaling of the NF-?B pathway. This result denotes pro-survival and pro-inflammatory responses. Additionally, MAPKs were activated in response to 0.05 Gy, while 0.1 and 1 Gy showed a downregulatory trend that may be related to activation of the PF4 gene. On the other hand, there was highly significant involvement of activated p53 and damaged genes in response to high but not low doses. In conclusion, this study addressed the need to re-evaluate health risks arising from exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation, particularly in view of the accumulating evidence reporting inflammatory and oncogenic consequences from these exposures. PMID:24085242

El-Saghire, Houssein; Michaux, Arlette; Thierens, Hubert; Baatout, Sarah

2013-09-30

7

Using Drosophila larval imaginal discs to study low-dose radiation-induced cell cycle arrest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Under genotoxic stress, activation of cell cycle checkpoint responses leads to cell cycle arrest, which allows cells to repair DNA damage before continuing to cycle. Drosophila larval epithelial sacs, called imaginal discs, are an excellent in vivo model system for studying radiation-induced cell cycle arrest. Larval imaginal discs go into cell cycle arrest after being subjected to low-dose irradiation, are subject to easy genetic manipulation, are not crucial for survival of the organism, and can be dissected easily for further molecular or cellular analysis. In this chapter, we describe methods for assessing low-dose irradiation-induced cell cycle arrest. Mitotic cells are identified by immunofluorescence staining for the mitotic marker phosphorylated histone H3 (phospho-histone H3 or pH3). When wandering third-instar control larvae, without transgene expression, are exposed to 500 rads of X-ray or ?-ray irradiation, the number of pH3-positive cells in wing imaginal discs is reduced from hundreds before irradiation to approximately 30 after irradiation, with an equal distribution between the anterior and posterior compartments (Yan et al., 2011, FASEB J). Using the GAL4/UAS system, RNAi, cDNA, or microRNA sponge transgenes can be expressed in the posterior compartment of the wing disc using drivers such as engrailed (en)-Gal4, while the anterior compartment serves as an internal control. This approach makes it possible to do genome-wide genetic screening for molecules involved in radiation-induced cell cycle arrest.

Yan SJ; Li WX

2011-01-01

8

Pre-irradiation with a low dose-rate depressed radiation-induced apoptosis in BALB/c mice spleens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We aim to elucidate the effects of pre-irradiation to the whole-body with a low dose-rate on the acute radiation-induced apoptosis in the spleens of BALB/c mice. We found significant suppression of apoptosis induced by challenging irradiation at 2.0 Gy (1 Gy/min) immediately after chronic irradiation at 1.5 Gy with a low dose-rate (0.001 Gy/min). These findings suggest that chronic pre-irradiation with a low dose-rate induces some kind of radical detoxification systems and/or repair mechanisms against DNA damage which induces apoptosis. (author)

2003-01-01

9

Estrogen Protects against Radiation-Induced Cataractogenesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Cataractogenesis is a complication of radiotherapy when the eye is included in the treatment field. Low doses of densely ionizing space radiation may also result in an increased risk of cataracts in astronauts. We previously reported that estrogen (17-?-estradiol), when administered to ovariectomized rats commencing 1 week before ? irradiation of the eye and continuously thereafter, results in a significant increase in the rate and incidence of cataract formation and a decreased latent period compared to an ovariectomized control group. We therefore concluded that estrogen accelerates progression of radiation-induced opacification. We now show that estrogen, if administered continuously, but commencing after irradiation, protects against radiation cataractogenesis. Both the rate of progression and incidence of cataracts were greatly reduced in ovariectomized rats that received estrogen treatment after irradiation compared to ovariectomized rats. As in our previous study, estradiol administered 1 week prior to irradiation at the time of ovariectomy and throughout the period of observation produced an enhanced rate of cataract progression. Estrogen administered for only 1 week prior to irradiation had no effect on the rate of progression but resulted in a slight reduction in the incidence. We conclude that estrogen may enhance or protect against radiation cataractogenesis, depending on when it is administered relative to the time of irradiation, and may differentially modulate the initiation and progression phases of cataractogenesis. These data have important implications for astronauts and radiotherapy patients.

Dynlacht, Joseph R.; Valluri, Shailaja; Lopez, Jennifer; Greer, Falon; DesRosiers, Colleen; Caperell-Grant, Andrea; Mendonca, Marc S.; Bigsby, Robert M.

2008-01-01

10

J.Hoffman 'Radiation-induced cancer from low dose exposure: an independent analysis', Moscow, 1994, v. 1,2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The review of the monography of J.Hoffman 'Radiation-induced cancer from low dose exposure: an independent analysis', Moscow, 1994, v. 1,2, related to cancerogenic effect of ionizing radiation, is presented. The main conclusion is that the risk of cancer induction, expressed in the quantity of its lethal outcomes pro dose unit of ionizing radiation is relatively higher by low doses and approximately by 30 times more as compared to the estimates of the UNO NKDAR Scientific Committee on atomic radiation effects and the USA Committee on biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR), 1990. The data, related to the citizens of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, are used in the book

1997-01-01

11

Uncomfortable issues in radiation protection posed by low-dose radiobiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper aims to stimulate discussion about the relevance for radiation protection of recent findings in low-dose radiobiology. Issues are raised which suggest that low-dose effects are much more complex than has been previously assumed. These include genomic instability, bystander effects, multiple stressor exposures and chronic exposures. To date, these have been accepted as being relevant issues, but there is no clear way to integrate knowledge about these effects into the existing radiation protection framework. A further issue which might actually lead to some fruitful approaches for human radiation protection is the need to develop a new framework for protecting non-human biota. The brainstorming that is being applied to develop effective and practical ways to protect ecosystems widens the debate from the narrow focus of human protection which is currently about protecting humans from radiation-induced cancers.

Mothersill C; Seymour C

2013-08-01

12

Low dose radiation-induced adaptive survival response in mouse spleen T-lymphocytes in vivo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Induction of an adaptive survival response in B6C3F1 mice exposed to whole-body irradiation by low doses of X-rays (priming exposure) then to high doses of X-rays (challenge exposure) was examined. The adaptive survival response was determined by comparing the cloning efficiency of low dose-irradiated spleen T-lymphocytes to that of unprimed controls. Maximal expression of the adaptive survival response induced by exposure to low doses of X-rays occurred 7 hours after the priming exposure. The optimal low dose range for the induction of the adaptive survival response was 0.05-0.1 Gy. Thus, low dose X-irradiation induces the adaptive response in spleen T-lymphocytes of B6C3F1 mice as assessed by survival. The duration of this response is short, and there is an optimal low dose range. The Dq value for the primed cells was somewhat larger than that for the unprimed ones. Low dose exposure may enhance the capacity of spleen cells for repair during priming. (author).

Yoshida, Naoki; Imada, Hajime; Kunugita, Naoki; Norimura, Toshiyuki (University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu. Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine)

1993-12-01

13

Gamma ray radiation induced visible light absorption in P-doped silica fibers at low dose levels  

CERN Document Server

A CCD Fiber Optic Spectrometer has been used to monitor the gamma ray radiation induced loss in P-doped fibers at different dopant concentrations (1, 5 and 10 mol%) with a light source (an incandescent bulb with a temperature of 2800-3000 K). The range of dose rates is limited to that used in medical applications (cancer treatments), that is 0.1 to 1.0 Gray per minute (Gy/min). At low integral dose level (<2.0 Gy) four absorption peaks were observed (470, 502, 540 and 600 nm) within the visible region. It has been observed that the radiation induced loss at 470 and 600 nm depends strongly on dose rate. At dose rates of 0.2 and 0.5 Gy/min the induced loss shows nonlinear relation to the total dose. However, at high dose rate (1.0 Gy/min) and low dose rate (0.1 Gy/min) it seems to have a linear dependence with total dose. The conversion from NBOHCs to GeX centers was observed during gamma radiation at low dose rates (0.1-0.5 Gy/min). At the wavelength of 502 and 540 nm, the radiation induced losses show exce...

Lu Ping; Kulkarni, N S; Brown, K

1999-01-01

14

Mechanisms of Low Dose Radiation-induced T helper Cell Function  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure to radiation above levels normally encountered on Earth can occur during wartime, accidents such as those at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, and detonation of “dirty bombs” by terrorists. Relatively high levels of radiation exposure can also occur in certain occupations (low-level waste sites, nuclear power plants, nuclear medicine facilities, airline industry, and space agencies). Depression or dysfunction of the highly radiosensitive cells of the immune system can lead to serious consequences, including increased risk for infections, cancer, hypersensitivity reactions, poor wound healing, and other pathologies. The focus of this research was on the T helper (Th) subset of lymphocytes that secrete cytokines (proteins), and thus control many actions and interactions of other cell types that make up what is collectively known as the immune system. The Department of Energy (DOE) Low Dose Radiation Program is concerned with mechanisms altered by exposure to high energy photons (x- and gamma-rays), protons and electrons. This study compared, for the first time, the low-dose effects of two of these radiation forms, photons and protons, on the response of Th cells, as well as other cell types with which they communicate. The research provided insights regarding gene expression patterns and capacity to secrete potent immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive cytokines, some of which are implicated in pathophysiological processes. Furthermore, the photon versus proton comparison was important not only to healthy individuals who may be exposed, but also to patients undergoing radiotherapy, since many medical centers in the United States, as well as worldwide, are now building proton accelerators. The overall hypothesis of this study was that whole-body exposure to low-dose photons (gamma-rays) will alter CD4+ Th cell function. We further proposed that exposure to low-dose proton radiation will induce a different pattern of gene and functional changes compared to photons. Over the course of this research, tissues other than spleens were archived and with funding obtained from other sources, including the Department of Radiation Medicine at the Loma Linda University Medical Center, some additional assays were performed. Furthermore, groups of additional mice were included that were pre-exposed to low-dose photons before irradiating with acute photons, protons, and simulated solar particle event (SPE) protons. Hence, the original support together with the additional funding for our research led to generation of much valuable information that was originally not anticipated. Some of the data has already resulted in published articles, manuscripts in review, and a number of presentations at scientific conferences and workshops. Difficulties in reliable and reproducible quantification of secreted cytokines using multi-plex technology delayed completion of this study for a period of time. However, final analyses of the remaining data are currently being performed and should result in additional publications and presentations in the near future. Some of the most notable conclusions, thus far, are briefly summarized below: - Distribution of leukocytes were dependent upon cell type, radiation quality, body compartment analyzed, and time after exposure. Low-dose protons tended to have less effect on numbers of major leukocyte populations and T cell subsets compared to low-dose photons. - The patterns of gene and cytokine expression in CD4+ T cells after protracted low-dose irradiation were significantly modified and highly dependent upon the total dose and time after exposure. - Patterns of gene and cytokine expression differed substantially among groups exposed to low-dose photons versus low-dose protons; differences were also noted among groups exposed to much higher doses of photons, protons, and simulated SPE protons. - Some measurements indicated that exposure to low-dose photon radiation, especially 0.01 Gy, significantly “normalized” at least some adverse effects of simulated SPE protons, thereby suggesting that this l

Gridley, Daila S.

2008-10-31

15

Spontaneous and radiation-induced micronucleus frequencies in low dose radiation exposed worker's peripheral blood lymphocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many studies have been performed to assess the development and application of potentially useful biodosimetry. At present, although chromosome dicentric assay is a sensitive method for dose estimation, it is laborious and requires enough experience for estimation, and without automation its scope for population screening is limited. Therefore, we need an alternative cytogenetic dosimetry to estimate the absorbed dose of victims after low dose exposure such as radiation accidents in hospital workers and workers of radiation related facilities. An alternative and simple cytogenetic technique is the measurement of the micronucleus frequency in cultured human lymphocytes. The reliability of conventional micronucleus (MN) assays is diminished owing to the inclusion of nondividing cells in the estimate, but this problem has been overcome by the development of the cytokinesisblocked (CB) MN assay. The reliable and ease assays of the cytokinesis blocked-approach are obvious advantages in biological monitoring, but there are no developed recognizable and reliable techniques for biological dosimetry of a low dose exposure until recently. Adaptive response is important in determining the biological responses at low doses of radiation and has the potential to impact the shape of the dose-response relationship. We analyzed the frequency of both spontaneous and in vitro 137Cs ?-rays-induced MNs to estimate the low dose radiation-exposed workers as a screening test

2005-01-01

16

Research of prediction method of radiation induced leakage current at low dose rate irradiation in space environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A radiation response model of total dose effect for CMOS devices in a space environment is presented to predict the radiation-induced leakage current. Total effects for CC4007RH and C4007B devices at different dose rates irradiation of ? rays were calculated by using the established model. So long as total dose irradiation test and post-irradiation annealing test at room temperature were carried out by choosing one dose rate at random, total dose irradiation effects at other dose rates can be predicted by using the established models. Finally, the prediction results of 10-4-10-2 rad·s-1 low dose rate irradiation for CC4007RH and C4007B devices in space environment were presented. (authors)

2006-01-01

17

Radiation-induced bystander effects and adaptive responses--the Yin and Yang of low dose radiobiology?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the induction of bystander effects by low doses of high or low LET ionizing radiation is reviewed. The question of what actually constitutes a protective effect is discussed in the context of adaptive (often referred to as hormetic or protective) responses. Finally the review considers critically, how bystander effects may be related to observed adaptive responses or other seemingly protective effects of low doses exposures. Bystander effects induce responses at the tissue level, which are similar to generalized stress responses. Most of the work involving low LET radiation exposure discussed in the existing literature measures a death response. Since many cell populations carry damaged cells without being exposed to radiation (so-called 'background damage'), it is possible that low doses exposures cause removal of cells carrying potentially problematic lesions, prior to exposure to radiation. This mechanism could lead to the production of 'U-shaped' or hormetic dose-response curves. The level of adverse, adaptive or apparently beneficial response will be related to the background damage carried by the original cell population, the level of organization at which damage or harm are scored and the precise definition of 'harm'. This model may be important when attempting to predict the consequences of mixed exposures involving low doses of radiation and other environmental stressors.

Mothersill, Carmel [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences Unit, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., L8S 4K1 (Canada)]. E-mail: mothers@mcmaster.ca; Seymour, Colin [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences Unit, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., L8S 4K1 (Canada)]. E-mail: seymouc@mcmaster.ca

2004-12-02

18

Radiation-induced bystander effects and adaptive responses--the Yin and Yang of low dose radiobiology?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the induction of bystander effects by low doses of high or low LET ionizing radiation is reviewed. The question of what actually constitutes a protective effect is discussed in the context of adaptive (often referred to as hormetic or protective) responses. Finally the review considers critically, how bystander effects may be related to observed adaptive responses or other seemingly protective effects of low doses exposures. Bystander effects induce responses at the tissue level, which are similar to generalized stress responses. Most of the work involving low LET radiation exposure discussed in the existing literature measures a death response. Since many cell populations carry damaged cells without being exposed to radiation (so-called 'background damage'), it is possible that low doses exposures cause removal of cells carrying potentially problematic lesions, prior to exposure to radiation. This mechanism could lead to the production of 'U-shaped' or hormetic dose-response curves. The level of adverse, adaptive or apparently beneficial response will be related to the background damage carried by the original cell population, the level of organization at which damage or harm are scored and the precise definition of 'harm'. This model may be important when attempting to predict the consequences of mixed exposures involving low doses of radiation and other environmental stressors

2004-12-02

19

Low dose rate ionizing radiation induces increased growth capacities of d-deletion retinoblastoma skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Skin fibroblasts from normal children and three children with a 13q deletion retinoblastoma (Rb) were exposed to cumulative low doses of gamma rays. The typical response of normal donors was a reduction in the lifespan of irradiated fibroblasts, the precocity of the decline being inversely related to the dose received. In contrast, the lifespan of one Rb cell line (Rb1) was prolonged; irradiated cells with an increased growth potential showed a higher number of cells at confluency and more cells were entering DNA synthesis phase than in non-irradiated cells. Another Rb cell line (Rb2) demonstrated a normal lifespan following irradiation but foci were observed in irradiated cultures. Cytogenetic analysis revealed no selection of abnormal clones in these cell populations. The third Rb line examined (Rb3) responded like a normal cell line. We suggest that irradiated skin fibroblasts derived from some patients with Rb are in certain cases able to express abnormal growth capacities which may be one of the manifestations of the high susceptibility of the individual's stromal cells to carcinogenic agents

1984-01-01

20

Radiation induced bystander effects: mechanisms and implication for low dose radiation risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Using a precision microbeam to target an exact fraction of cells in a population and irradiated their nuclei with exactly one alpha particle each, we found that the frequencies of induced mutations and chromosomal changes in populations where some known fractions of nuclei were hit are consistent with non-hit cells contributing significantly to the response. In fact, irradiation of 10% of a mammalian cell population with a single alpha particle per cell results in a mutant yield similar to that observed when all of the cells in the population are irradiated. Although the bystander observations have been well established, the underlying mechanism(s) remain largely unknown. There are indications that multiple pathways are involved in the bystander phenomenon and different cell types respond differently to the bystander signaling. In confluent monolayers, there is evident that gap junctional communication is crucial in mediating the bystander effect whereas reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species have been implicated as the mediating molecules in sub-confluent cultures. Although p53 is not necessary for the expression of bystander effect, there is evident that repair deficient cells may express a higher bystander response. Using cDNA microarrays, a number of cellular signaling genes have been shown to be differentially expressed among bystander cells. The functional roles of these genes in the bystander effect will be discussed. The bystander observations imply that the relevant target for various radiobiological endpoints is larger than an individual cell and suggest a need to reconsider the validity of the linear extrapolation in making risk estimate for low dose radiation exposure. (Work supported by NIH grants CA 49062 and CA-RR11623)

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Do low doses of radiation induce a response modulating induction or repair of DNA single-strand breaks?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many recent reports have indicated interesting structure in the low-dose region of survival curves for mammalian cells (e.g., variations in the effects of oxygen, high-order modulation of the dose-response function, induction of repair, activation of protein-modifying enzymes, influences of cytokines, etc.). Since we have recently identified and corrected several problems causing variability in the results of the alkaline elution methodology, we felt that it was important to investigate the formation and repair of single-strand breaks (SSBs) in this low-dose region. To date we have asked three questions relevant to the structure features noted above: (1) Is the dose response linear at very low radiation doses? (2) Is repair of SSBs complete? (3) Do low {open_quotes}priming{close_quotes} doses of radiation induce subsequent variations in the sensitivity, or rate or extent of repair? To date, we have found no basis in SSB induction and repair for the interesting substructure noted in the survival responses above. At doses from 0.25 Gy to 4 Gy in air, no significant deviations from a linear dose response were observed, and a {open_quotes}priming{close_quotes} dose of 2 Gy has a minimal effect on subsequent sensitivity of SSB formation. Repair of SSBs appears complete at clinical doses of 2 Gy, but substantial unrepaired SSB damage remains 1 h after doses (11 Gy) corresponding to a surviving fraction of 0.01. No significant change in repair of SSBs at 4 h after a 2-Gy priming dose has yet been determined. 16 refs., 3 figs.

Koch, C.J.; Giandomenico, A.R. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1994-04-01

22

The issue of risk in complex adaptive systems: the case of low-dose radiation induced cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Living systems exist in hierarchical levels of biological organization, ascending from the basic atomic-molecular level, to the cellular level, the tissue-organ level, and the whole organism. All levels and elements at each level communicate with each other though intricate intra- and intercellular signaling through many specified molecular interactions. These regulate homeostasis between the system levels and their individual elements. The probability of a defined effect at the basic atomic-molecular level per impact increment of a toxic agent, such as ionizing radiation, at that level appears constant at low doses, even if the probability constant may change as a consequence of a previous exposure. Thus, at a given state of the system, the incidence of effect at the atomic-molecular level increases linearly with the number of impact increments in terms of energy deposition events. Primary effects may amplify to damage and there are immediate attempts at repairing the damage from an effect. Amplification and propagation of damage at, and from, the basic to higher levels of biological organization meets resistance, the degree of which per impact increment is not constant. It changes with the number of impact increments. This resistance encompasses both physico-chemical and biochemical reactions. The corresponding biochemical reactions express the physiological system's capacity to respond to perturbations of homeostasis at and between the various levels. Types and degrees of these responses depend on the system and the degree of homeostatic perturbation. At relatively mild to moderate degrees of perturbation, protective responses appear with a delay of hours and may last for months, shield also against endogenous non-radiogenic damage, and in doing so may prevail over radiogenic damage. With increasing degrees of homeostatic perturbation, damage eventually overwhelms adaptive protection. Thus, systems do not respond in a linear function of impact increments at the lowest level of biological organization. For assessing the probability of radiation damage per absorbed dose, i.e., risk, in complex adaptive systems, both damaging and protecting responses need attention, and to exclude one for the other is scientifically unjustified and misleading. PMID:16459709

Feinendegen, L E; Neumann, R D

2006-01-01

23

Protection by WR-2721 against radiation-induced carcinogenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were performed to determine whether WR-2721 inhibits radiation-induced carcinogenesis. The right hind thighs of C3Hf/Kam mice, bearing fibrosarcoma transplants, were exposed to graded doses of gamma rays. Thirty min. before irradiation, approximately half of the mice were given WR-2721 (400 mg/kg) i.p. WR-2721 did not affect the radioresponse of tumor transplants, as assessed by the TCD/sub 50/ assay at 100 days after irradiation, but it did protect against radiation-induced leg contractures in mice cured of their tumors by the protection factor of 1.5. This protection factor remained more or less stable during the entire observation period from 100 to 340 days after leg irradiation. The mice cured of their tumors in the above study (two separate experiments) were also followed up to 786 days after leg irradiation with 3400 to 5700 rad for development of radiation-induced tumors within the irradiated tissue. The tumors began to appear 300 days after irradiation. The cumulative tumor incidence shows that at the end of the observation period new tumors developed in 28 of 30 (93%) mice that received irradiation alone compared to 11 of 37 (30%) mice that received WR-2721 prior to leg irradiation. Therefore, in addition to effective protection of legs against radiation-induced late damage (leg contractures), WR-2721 exhibited a potent inhibition of development of radiation-induced tumors in the same legs

1984-03-01

24

Cloning of low dose radiation induced gene RIG1 by RACE based on non-cloned cDNA library  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To obtain full-length cDNA of radiation induced new gene RIG1 based on its EST fragment. Methods: Based on non-cloned cDNA library, enhanced nested RACE PCR and biotin-avidin labelled probe for magnetic bead purification was used to obtain full-length cDNA of RIG1. Results: About 1 kb of 3' end of RIG1 gene was successfully cloned by this set of methods and cloning of RIG1 5' end is proceeding well. Conclusion: The result is consistent with the design of experiment. This set of protocol is useful for cloning of full-length gene based on EST fragment

2001-01-01

25

Apoptosis is signalled early by low doses of ionising radiation in a radiation-induced bystander effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is known that ionising radiation (IR) induces a complex signalling apoptotic cascade post-exposure to low doses ultimately to remove damaged cells from a population, specifically via the intrinsic pathway. Therefore, it was hypothesised that bystander reporter cells may initiate a similar apoptotic response if exposed to low doses of IR (0.05Gy and 0.5Gy) and compared to directly irradiated cells. Key apoptotic genes were selected according to their role in the apoptotic cascade; tumour suppressor gene TP53, pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl2, pro-apoptotic JNK and anti-apoptotic ERK, initiator caspase 2 and 9 and effector caspase 3, 6 and 7. The data generated consolidated the role of apoptosis following direct IR exposure for all doses and time points as pro-apoptotic genes such as Bax and JNK as well as initiator caspase 7 and effector caspase 3 and 9 were up-regulated. However, the gene expression profile for the bystander response was quite different and more complex in comparison to the direct response. The 0.05Gy dose point had a more significant apoptosis gene expression profile compared to the 0.5Gy dose point and genes were not always expressed within 1h but were sometimes expressed 24h later. The bystander data clearly demonstrates initiation of the apoptotic cascade by the up-regulation of TP53, Bax, Bcl-2, initiator caspase 2 and effector caspase 6. The effector caspases 3 and 7 of the bystander samples demonstrated down-regulation in their gene expression levels at 0.05Gy and 0.5Gy at both time points therefore not fully executing the apoptotic pathway. Extensive analysis of the mean-fold gene expression changes of bystander data demonstrated that the apoptosis is initiated in the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic and initiator genes but may not very well be executed to final stages of cell death due to down-regulation of effector genes. PMID:23454491

Furlong, Hayley; Mothersill, Carmel; Lyng, Fiona M; Howe, Orla

2013-02-20

26

Apoptosis is signalled early by low doses of ionising radiation in a radiation-induced bystander effect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is known that ionising radiation (IR) induces a complex signalling apoptotic cascade post-exposure to low doses ultimately to remove damaged cells from a population, specifically via the intrinsic pathway. Therefore, it was hypothesised that bystander reporter cells may initiate a similar apoptotic response if exposed to low doses of IR (0.05Gy and 0.5Gy) and compared to directly irradiated cells. Key apoptotic genes were selected according to their role in the apoptotic cascade; tumour suppressor gene TP53, pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl2, pro-apoptotic JNK and anti-apoptotic ERK, initiator caspase 2 and 9 and effector caspase 3, 6 and 7. The data generated consolidated the role of apoptosis following direct IR exposure for all doses and time points as pro-apoptotic genes such as Bax and JNK as well as initiator caspase 7 and effector caspase 3 and 9 were up-regulated. However, the gene expression profile for the bystander response was quite different and more complex in comparison to the direct response. The 0.05Gy dose point had a more significant apoptosis gene expression profile compared to the 0.5Gy dose point and genes were not always expressed within 1h but were sometimes expressed 24h later. The bystander data clearly demonstrates initiation of the apoptotic cascade by the up-regulation of TP53, Bax, Bcl-2, initiator caspase 2 and effector caspase 6. The effector caspases 3 and 7 of the bystander samples demonstrated down-regulation in their gene expression levels at 0.05Gy and 0.5Gy at both time points therefore not fully executing the apoptotic pathway. Extensive analysis of the mean-fold gene expression changes of bystander data demonstrated that the apoptosis is initiated in the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic and initiator genes but may not very well be executed to final stages of cell death due to down-regulation of effector genes.

Furlong H; Mothersill C; Lyng FM; Howe O

2013-01-01

27

CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF LOW DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION  

Science.gov (United States)

Carcinogenic Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation R Julian Preston, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 The form of the dose-response curve for radiation-induced cancers, particu...

28

Mitigating effects of L-selenomethionine on low-dose iron ion radiation-induced changes in gene expression associated with cellular stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ionizing radiation associated with highly energetic and charged heavy (HZE) particles poses a danger to astronauts during space travel. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the patterns of gene expression associated with cellular exposure to low-dose iron ion irradiation, in the presence and absence of L-selenomethionine (SeM). Human thyroid epithelial cells (HTori-3) were exposed to low-dose iron ion (1 GeV/n) irradiation at 10 or 20 cGy with or without SeM pretreatment. The cells were harvested 6 and 16 h post-irradiation and analyzed by the Affymetrix U133Av2 gene chip arrays. Genes exhibiting a 1.5-fold expression cut-off and 5% false discovery rate (FDR) were considered statistically significant and subsequently analyzed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) for pathway analysis. Representative genes were further validated by real-time RT-PCR. Even at low doses of radiation from iron ions, global genome profiling of the irradiated cells revealed the upregulation of genes associated with the activation of stress-related signaling pathways (ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, p53 signaling, cell cycle and apoptosis), which occurred in a dose-dependent manner. A 24-h pretreatment with SeM was shown to reduce the radiation effects by mitigating stress-related signaling pathways and downregulating certain genes associated with cell adhesion. The mechanism by which SeM prevents radiation-induced transformation in vitro may involve the suppression of the expression of genes associated with stress-related signaling and certain cell adhesion events.

Nuth M; Kennedy AR

2013-07-01

29

Radiation induced cancer risk, detriment and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recommendations on radiation protection limits for workers and for the public depend mainly on the total health detriment estimated to be the result of low dose ionizing radiation exposure. This detriment includes the probability of a fatal cancer, an allowance for the morbidity due to non-fatal cancer and the probability of severe hereditary effects in succeeding generations. In a population of all ages, special effects on the fetus particularly the risk of mental retardation at defined gestational ages, should also be included. Among these components of detriment after low doses, the risk of fatal cancer is the largest and most important. The estimates of fatal cancer risk used by ICRP in the 1990 recommendations were derived almost exclusively from the study of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs of 1945. How good are these estimates? Uncertainties associated with them, apart from those due to limitations in epidemiological observation and dosimetry, are principally those due to projection forward in time and extrapolation from high dose and dose rate to low dose and dose rate, each of which could after the estimate by a factor of 2 or so. Recent estimates of risk of cancer derived directly from low dose studies are specific only within very broad ranges of risk. Nevertheless, such studies are important as confirmation or otherwise of the estimates derived from the atomic bomb survivors. Recent U.S. British and Russian studies are examined in this light. (author).

1992-01-01

30

A functional genomics approach using radiation-induced changes in gene expression to study low dose radiation effects in vitro and in vivo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract for final report for project entitled â??A functional genomics approach using radiation-induced changes in gene expression to study low dose radiation effects in vitro and in vivoâ? which has been supported by the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program for approximately 7 years. This project has encompassed two sequential awards, ER62683 and then ER63308, in the Gene Response Section in the Center for Cancer Research at the National Cancer Institute. The project was temporarily suspended during the relocation of the Principal Investigatorâ??s laboratory to the Dept. of Genetics and Complex Diseases at Harvard School of Public Health at the end of 2004. Remaining support for the final year was transferred to this new site later in 2005 and was assigned the DOE Award Number ER64065. The major aims of this project have been 1) to characterize changes in gene expression in response to low-dose radiation responses; this includes responses in human cells lines, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), and in vivo after human or murine exposures, as well as the effect of dose-rate on gene responses; 2) to characterize changes in gene expression that may be involved in bystander effects, such as may be mediated by cytokines and other intercellular signaling proteins; and 3) to characterize responses in transgenic mouse models with relevance to genomic stability. A variety of approaches have been used to study transcriptional events including microarray hybridization, quantitative single-probe hybridization which was developed in this laboratory, quantitative RT-PCR, and promoter microarray analysis using genomic regulatory motifs. Considering the frequent responsiveness of genes encoding cytokines and related signaling proteins that can affect cellular metabolism, initial efforts were initiated to study radiation responses at the metabolomic level and to correlate with radiation-responsive gene expression. Productivity includes twenty-four published and in press manuscripts, as well as a U.S. patent. There are several additional publications that will be submitted in 2007 that were supported in part by this program. These future publications include one manuscript on in vivo expression profiling analysis in mouse models, one manuscript on radiation responses in human cell lines, at least one on development of stress signatures in human cells, and three manuscripts on radiation metabolomics.

Fornace, Jr, A J

2007-03-03

31

Low-dose ?-radiation-induced oxidative stress response in mouse brain and gut: regulation by NF?B-MnSOD cross-signaling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation-induced amplification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be a sensing mechanism for activation of signaling cascades that influence cell fate. However, the regulated intrinsic mechanisms and targets of low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) are still unclear. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of LDIR on NF?B signal transduction and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) activity in mice brain and gut. LDIR resulted in both dose-dependent and persistent NF?B activation in gut and brain. QPCR displayed a dose- and tissue-dependent differential modulation of 88 signaling molecules. With stringent criteria, a total of 15 (2cGy), 43 (10cGy) and 19 (50cGy) genes were found to be commonly upregulated between brain and gut. SOD2 immunostaining showed a LDIR-dose dependent increase. Consistent with the NF?B results, we observed a persistent increase in SOD2 activity after LDIR. Moreover, muting of LDIR-induced NF?B attenuated SOD2 transactivation and cellular localization. These results imply that exposure of healthy tissues to LDIR results in induced NF?B and SOD2 activity and transcriptional activation of NF?B-signal transduction/target molecules. More importantly, the results suggest that NF?B initiates a feedback response through transcriptional activation of SOD2 that may play a key role in the LDIR-induced oxidative stress response and may control the switch that directs cell fate. PMID:21056117

Veeraraghavan, Jamunarani; Natarajan, Mohan; Herman, Terence S; Aravindan, Natarajan

2010-11-04

32

Low-dose ?-radiation-induced oxidative stress response in mouse brain and gut: regulation by NF?B-MnSOD cross-signaling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radiation-induced amplification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be a sensing mechanism for activation of signaling cascades that influence cell fate. However, the regulated intrinsic mechanisms and targets of low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) are still unclear. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of LDIR on NF?B signal transduction and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) activity in mice brain and gut. LDIR resulted in both dose-dependent and persistent NF?B activation in gut and brain. QPCR displayed a dose- and tissue-dependent differential modulation of 88 signaling molecules. With stringent criteria, a total of 15 (2cGy), 43 (10cGy) and 19 (50cGy) genes were found to be commonly upregulated between brain and gut. SOD2 immunostaining showed a LDIR-dose dependent increase. Consistent with the NF?B results, we observed a persistent increase in SOD2 activity after LDIR. Moreover, muting of LDIR-induced NF?B attenuated SOD2 transactivation and cellular localization. These results imply that exposure of healthy tissues to LDIR results in induced NF?B and SOD2 activity and transcriptional activation of NF?B-signal transduction/target molecules. More importantly, the results suggest that NF?B initiates a feedback response through transcriptional activation of SOD2 that may play a key role in the LDIR-induced oxidative stress response and may control the switch that directs cell fate.

Veeraraghavan J; Natarajan M; Herman TS; Aravindan N

2011-01-01

33

Etoposide protects mice from radiation-induced bone marrow death  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Etoposide is known to inhibit the activity of topoisomerase II, and to possess radiosensitizing effects. In this paper we show that pretreatment of mice with etoposide one day before whole-body irradiation had a protective effect against radiation-induced bone marrow death. The LD50/30 of mice given radiation alone was 8.26 Gy while that of mice given etoposide one day before whole-body irradiation was 10.35 Gy. The number of endogenous colony-forming units surviving in whole body-irradiated mice was significantly increased by pretreatment with etoposide. (author).

1990-01-01

34

Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Lee, Su-Jae; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

35

Radiation protection and environment day the low doses in everyday life  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of low doses exposures are difficult to explore and the studies give often place to controversies. According to the are, differences exist in the methodological approaches. It results from it a confusion on the acceptable levels of exposure, even on the definition of low dose. This day organised by the sections 'non ionizing and research and health of the French society of radiation protection (S.F.R.P.), will be a meeting between professionals of different disciplines, to compare the approaches used for the ionizing and non ionizing radiations as well as the chemical and microbiological agents. It will allow to share the knowledge and the abilities and to progress on methodologies adapted to the evaluation and the management of risks in relation with low doses. (N.C.)

2007-01-25

36

Radiation induced diffusion as a method to protect surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation induced diffusion forms a coating adeherent and without interface on the surface of metalic substrates. This coating improves the behaviour of metal to corrosion and abrasion. The effect of radiation induced diffusion of tin and calcium on pure iron surface is described and analyzed in this work. (author)

1980-12-01

37

Protecting effects specifically from low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells challenge the concept of linearity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced changes in intracellular signaling that induce mechanisms of DNA damage control different from those operating at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that by use of microdosimetric concepts, the energy deposited in cell mass can be related to the occurrence of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive.

Feinendegen, L.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.; Bond, V.P. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Sondhaus, C.A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Control Office; Altman, K.I. [Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics

1998-12-31

38

Protecting effects specifically from low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells challenge the concept of linearity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced changes in intracellular signaling that induce mechanisms of DNA damage control different from those operating at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that by use of microdosimetric concepts, the energy deposited in cell mass can be related to the occurrence of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive

1998-06-08

39

A Low-Dose Electron Diffraction Assay for Protection of Protein Structure against Damage from Drying  

Science.gov (United States)

A new assay using low-dose electron diffraction to measure the protection of protein structure against damage from drying is described. When thin single crystals of catalase are dried within water alone, low-dose electron diffraction yields no Bragg spots. Drying within an experimental aqueous solution that permits detection of diffraction spots thereby indicates a positive result, and the extent of these Bragg reflections into the high angle range gives a quantitative measure of the degree of protection. Bragg spots out to 3.7 3.9 [Angstrom capital A, ring] are recorded for drying within 100 mM solutions of the known structure-preserving sugars, sucrose, tannin, and trehalose. The ability of trehalose to maintain native protein structure during drying starts between 10 and 25 mM, and changes only slightly at concentrations above this threshold; with drying in 150-mM trehalose, catalase crystals yield diffraction spots out to 3.7 [Angstrom capital A, ring]. Drying within the organic nonsugar polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone gives Bragg spots to 4.0 [Angstrom capital A, ring]. This new assay should be useful to measure the unexamined structure-preserving capabilities of modified sugars, other nonsugars, and mixtures to identify which protective matrix maintains native protein structure to the greatest extent during drying; electron crystallography using that optimal matrix should yield protein structure at improved levels of high resolution.

Massover, William H.

2004-04-01

40

Low doses of ionizing radiation incurred at low dose rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper is a draft report by a Task Group of the International Nuclear Societies Council. It addresses the scientific information available on the biological effects of low radiation doses and dose rates, defined for the purpose of the report as total doses less than 10 mSv, received at high rates in single events, or dose rates less than 20 mSv per year, received continuously. It is concluded that there is no scientific evidence which supports the hypothesis that radiation causes an increase in the incidences of cancers or hereditary effects in humans at low doses. For radiation protection purposes, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends the assumption that the risk of radiation induced cancer is proportional to the dose without a threshold. However, at low doses and low dose rates, the available evidence indicates either that there is no significant risk or that there may be benefits from exposure. For all purposes other than scientific research, the Task Group therefore recommends the assumption (on the current basis of information) that there is no significant biological effect from low doses of radiation. There is a range of views amongst members of the Task Group on several matters, particularly the bio-positive effects of low radiation doses. However, there is complete agreement that the possibility and significance of bio-positive effects from radiation exposure of humans need to be accepted and investigated without prejudice

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Lipotropes promote immunobiochemical plasticity and protect fish against low-dose pesticide-induced oxidative stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of different lipotropes in modulating immunity and biochemical plasticity under conditions of sublethal low-dose pesticide-induced stress in fish. Labeo rohita fish fingerlings were divided in two sets with one set of fish continuously exposed to low-dose endosulfan (1/10th of 96-h LC50) for 21 days, the other was unexposed, and both sets of fish were fed with practical diets supplemented with either 2 % lecithin, 0.5 % betaine, or 0.1 % choline and compared against unsupplemented diet. Low-dose endosulfan exposure had adverse effects (P?protect enzyme and showed a stabilizing effect. The supplements also helped maintain integrity of histoarchitecture of the hepatocytes in endosulfan-exposed fish to a great extent. Feeding lipotropes to fish reared in endosulfan-free water also improved hematological and serum protein and lipid profiles and were immunostimulatory. In conclusion, dietary lipotropes, especially betaine and lecithin at the levels used, improve erythropoiesis, serum protein and lipid profile, anti-oxidant status, immunocompetence, neurotransmission, and protect the livers of L. rohita fingerlings even when continuously exposed to low-dose endosulfan.

Muthappa NA; Gupta S; Yengkokpam S; Debnath D; Kumar N; Pal AK; Jadhao SB

2013-05-01

42

Platelet protection by low-dose aprotinin in cardiopulmonary bypass: electron microscopic study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To evaluate the effect of low-dose aprotinin during cardiopulmonary bypass on platelet function and clinical hemostasis, 30 patients undergoing various cardiopulmonary bypass procedures employing bubble oxygenators were randomized to receive either low-dose aprotinin (2 x 10(6) KIU in the cardiopulmonary bypass priming solution, 15 patients [group A]) or placebo (15 patients [group B]). Blood samples were collected before and after cardiopulmonary bypass to assess platelet count and aggregation on extracellular matrix, which was studied by a scanning electron microscope. On a scale of 1 to 4 preoperative mean platelet aggregation grades were similar in both groups (3.8 +/- 0.5 and 3.5 +/- 0.5 for groups A and B, respectively). Postoperatively, platelet aggregation on extracellular matrix decreased slightly in group A (2.8 +/- 1.3; p < 0.01) and significantly in group B (1.3 +/- 0.5; p < 0.001). Eleven of the 15 patients in group A remained in aggregation grade 3 or 4 compared with none of the group B patients. Platelet count was similar in both groups preoperatively and postoperatively. Total 24-hour postoperative bleeding and blood requirement were lower in the aprotinin group (487 +/- 121 mL and 2.3 +/- 1.0 units) than in the placebo group (752 +/- 404 mL and 6.8 +/- 5.1 units; p < 0.01). These results show that the use of low-dose aprotinin during cardiopulmonary bypass provides improved postoperative hemostasis, which might be related to the protection of the platelet aggregating capacity.

Lavee J; Raviv Z; Smolinsky A; Savion N; Varon D; Goor DA; Mohr R

1993-01-01

43

Platelet protection by low-dose aprotinin in cardiopulmonary bypass: electron microscopic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the effect of low-dose aprotinin during cardiopulmonary bypass on platelet function and clinical hemostasis, 30 patients undergoing various cardiopulmonary bypass procedures employing bubble oxygenators were randomized to receive either low-dose aprotinin (2 x 10(6) KIU in the cardiopulmonary bypass priming solution, 15 patients [group A]) or placebo (15 patients [group B]). Blood samples were collected before and after cardiopulmonary bypass to assess platelet count and aggregation on extracellular matrix, which was studied by a scanning electron microscope. On a scale of 1 to 4 preoperative mean platelet aggregation grades were similar in both groups (3.8 +/- 0.5 and 3.5 +/- 0.5 for groups A and B, respectively). Postoperatively, platelet aggregation on extracellular matrix decreased slightly in group A (2.8 +/- 1.3; p < 0.01) and significantly in group B (1.3 +/- 0.5; p < 0.001). Eleven of the 15 patients in group A remained in aggregation grade 3 or 4 compared with none of the group B patients. Platelet count was similar in both groups preoperatively and postoperatively. Total 24-hour postoperative bleeding and blood requirement were lower in the aprotinin group (487 +/- 121 mL and 2.3 +/- 1.0 units) than in the placebo group (752 +/- 404 mL and 6.8 +/- 5.1 units; p < 0.01). These results show that the use of low-dose aprotinin during cardiopulmonary bypass provides improved postoperative hemostasis, which might be related to the protection of the platelet aggregating capacity. PMID:7678061

Lavee, J; Raviv, Z; Smolinsky, A; Savion, N; Varon, D; Goor, D A; Mohr, R

1993-01-01

44

Low dose radiation induced adaptive response upon salt stress and vacuum stress: a possible mechanism for the effect of saddle-like dose response curve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To explore mechanism for the effect of saddle-like dose-response curve, the relationship of irradiation-vacuum stress, and irradiation-salt stress, was investigated with rice seeds irradiated to 60-560 Gy by 60Co ?-rays. The dose-response curve was simulated based on seedling height data, which showed obedient to linear-quadratic model. During germination,the irradiated rice seeds were stressed by 10-3 Pa vacuum, or by NaCl in different concentrations. After that, the dose-response curve manifested a saddle-like shape. The results indicate that while low dose irradiation could retard seedling growth synergistically with vacuum stress and salt stress, it could also induce adaptive response upon vacuum stress and salt stress. Low dose irradiation induced adaptive response upon environmental adverse factors could contribute to the mechanism for the effect of saddle-like dose-response curve. (authors)

2011-01-01

45

Spinacia oleracea protects against radiation induced lipid peroxidation in Swiss albino mice brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim of the present study is to investigate protective effects of alcoholic extract of Spinacia oleracea (SE) against radiation induced lipid peroxidation in brain of Swiss albino mice which is a rich source of carotene and other substance (vit. B, C, minerals, thiamine and flavonoids, iron etc.). Brain is highly susceptible to radiation induced oxidative damage due to its high utilization of oxygen and rather poorly developed anti-oxidative defense mechanism

2002-01-01

46

Reduced protection of stem spermatogonia by WR-2721 at low doses of irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioprotection of normal cells with WR-2721 at low doses of radiation (about 2 Gy per fraction) was investigated using testicular stem cells. Survival of stem spermatogonia to single doses of irradiation, measured using sperm head counts at 56 days postirradiation, indicated no protection factor (PF = 1.00) at 2 GY by 400 mg/kg WR-2721, but a significant PF = 1.44 at 12 Gy. Stem cell survival was also measured after 5 fractions. When daily fractionation was used with 300 mg/kg WR-2721, given prior to each irradiation, little or no protection was observed at 2 Gy using the sperm head assay (PF = 0.98) or at 2.4 Gy using counts of repopulating tubules at 35 days postirradiation (PF = 1.12). In contrast, there was more significant protection (PF's = 1.22 and 1.27) for these two assays when 300 mg/kg WR-2721 was used with single high doses of radiation. When 4-hour fractionation was used with 300 mg/kg WR-2721, given prior to the first dose and 150 mg/kg prior to subsequent doses, minimal protection was observed at 2 Gy/fraction using the sperm head assay (PF = 0.98) and the repopulating tubule assay (PF = 1.09). Thus, protection of these cells in the clinical dose range is much lower than that observed at doses above 10 Gy. These results may be explained by a decrease in the intrinsic ability of WR-2721 to protect at lower radiation doses plus a cytotoxic effect of WR-2721

1984-03-01

47

Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Enhancement of Thymic Lymphomagenesis in Lck-Bax Mice is Dependent on LET and Gender.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction and increased superoxide levels in thymocytes over expressing Bax (Lck-Bax1 and Lck-Bax38&1) contributes to lymphomagenesis after low-dose radiation was tested. Lck-Bax1 single-transgenic and Lck-Bax38&1 double-transgenic mice were exposed to single whole-body doses of 10 or 100 cGy of (137)Cs or iron ions (1,000 MeV/n, 150 keV/?m) or silicon ions (300 MeV/n, 67 keV/?m). A 10 cGy dose of (137)Cs significantly increased the incidence and onset of thymic lymphomas in female Lck-Bax1 mice. In Lck-Bax38&1 mice, a 100 cGy dose of high-LET iron ions caused a significant dose dependent acceleration of lymphomagenesis in both males and females that was not seen with silicon ions. To determine the contribution of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, Lck-Bax38&1 over expressing mice were crossed with knockouts of the mitochondrial protein deacetylase, Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), which regulates superoxide metabolism. Sirt3(-/-)/Lck-Bax38&1 mice demonstrated significant increases in thymocyte superoxide levels and acceleration of lymphomagenesis (P < 0.001). These results show that lymphomagenesis in Bax over expressing animals is enhanced by radiation exposure in both an LET and gender dependent fashion. These findings support the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction leads to increased superoxide levels and accelerates lymphomagenesis in Lck-Bax transgenic mice.

Jacobus JA; Duda CG; Coleman MC; Martin SM; Mapuskar K; Mao G; Smith BJ; Aykin-Burns N; Guida P; Gius D; Domann FE; Knudson CM; Spitz DR

2013-08-01

48

Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15 Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5 Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues.

2007-04-06

49

Protective Effect of Curcumin on ? - radiation Induced Chromosome Aberrations in Human Blood Lymphocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work is aimed at evaluating the radioprotective effect of curcumin on ? radiation induced genetic toxicity. The DNA damage was analyzed by the frequencies of chromosome aberrations assay. Human lymphocytes were treated in vitro with 5.0 ?g/ml of curcumin for 30 min at 37 degree C then exposed to 1, 2 and 4 Gy gamma-radiation. The lymphocytes which were pre-treated with curcumin exhibited a significant decrease in the frequency of chromosome aberration at 1 and 2 Gy radiation-induced chromosome damage as compared with the irradiated cells which did not receive the curcumin pretreatment. Thus, pretreatment with curcumin gives protection to lymphocytes against ?-radiation induced chromosome aberration at certain doses. (author)

2008-01-01

50

Low-dose atorvastatin, losartan, and particularly their combination, provide cardiovascular protection in isolated rat heart and aorta.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Statins and angiotensin receptor blockers at therapeutic doses have beneficial cardiovascular effects, which can be applied for cardiovascular protection. We explored whether low doses of atorvastatin, losartan, and particularly their combination, possess important pleiotropic vasodilatory effects. Wistar rats were treated daily with low-dose atorvastatin (2 mg/kg, n = 15), low-dose losartan (5 mg/kg, n = 15), their combination (n = 15), or saline (n = 15). After 4, 6, or 8 weeks the animals were anesthetized, blood samples taken, and their hearts and thoracic aortas isolated. Two kinds of experiments were performed: the measurement of coronary flow rate after ischemia/reperfusion myocardial injury and endothelium-dependent relaxation of thoracic aorta. In both models, maximal vasodilation activity was obtained in rats treated for 6 weeks. In the ischemia/reperfusion myocardial injury model, coronary flow increased (atorvastatin or losartan 1.9-fold, P < 0.01; combination 2.4-fold, P < 0.001) compared with controls. In the thoracic aorta model, endothelium-dependent relaxation significantly increased only in the combination group compared with the control group (up to 1.4-fold; P < 0.01). Simultaneously, we detected increased anti-inflammatory activity and increased nitric oxide concentration, but no changes in lipids and blood pressure. In a rat model we showed important vasodilatory activity of low-dose atorvastatin, losartan, and particularly their combination. The effects of the low-dose combination were accompanied by, and probably at least partly achieved by, anti-inflammatory and nitric oxide pathways. Overall, these results could be valuable for the development of new vascular protective strategies focusing on a low-dose regimen of statins and sartans, and particularly their combination.

Lunder M; Ziberna L; Jani? M; Jerin A; Skitek M; Sabovi? M; Drevenšek G

2013-03-01

51

CDDO-Me protects against space radiation-induced transformation of human colon epithelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation-induced carcinogenesis is a major concern both for astronauts on long-term space missions and for cancer patients being treated with therapeutic radiation. Exposure to radiation induces oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, which are critical initiators and promoters of carcinogenesis. Many studies have demonstrated that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antioxidants can reduce the risk of radiation-induced cancer. In this study, we found that a synthetic triterpenoid, CDDO-Me (bardoxolone methyl), was able to protect human colon epithelial cells (HCECs) against radiation-induced transformation. HCECs that were immortalized by ectopic expression of hTERT and cdk4 and exhibit trisomy for chromosome 7 (a non-random chromosome change that occurs in 37% of premalignant colon adenomas) can be transformed experimentally with one combined exposure to 2 Gy of protons at 1 GeV/nucleon followed 24 h later by 50 cGy of (56)Fe ions at 1 GeV/nucleon. Transformed cells showed an increase in proliferation rate and in both anchorage-dependent and independent colony formation ability. A spectrum of chromosome aberrations was observed in transformed cells, with 40% showing loss of 17p (e.g. loss of one copy of p53). Pretreatment of cells with pharmacological doses of CDDO-Me, which has been shown to induce antioxidative as well as anti-inflammatory responses, prevented the heavy-ion-induced increase in proliferation rate and anchorage-dependent and independent colony formation efficiencies. Taken together, these results demonstrate that experimentally immortalized human colon epithelial cells with a non-random chromosome 7 trisomy are valuable premalignant cellular reagents that can be used to study radiation-induced colorectal carcinogenesis. The utility of premalignant HCECs to test novel compounds such as CDDO-Me that can be used to protect against radiation-induced neoplastic transformation is also demonstrated. PMID:20681796

Eskiocak, Ugur; Kim, Sang Bum; Roig, Andres I; Kitten, Erin; Batten, Kimberly; Cornelius, Crystal; Zou, Ying S; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

2010-07-01

52

CDDO-Me protects against space radiation-induced transformation of human colon epithelial cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radiation-induced carcinogenesis is a major concern both for astronauts on long-term space missions and for cancer patients being treated with therapeutic radiation. Exposure to radiation induces oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, which are critical initiators and promoters of carcinogenesis. Many studies have demonstrated that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antioxidants can reduce the risk of radiation-induced cancer. In this study, we found that a synthetic triterpenoid, CDDO-Me (bardoxolone methyl), was able to protect human colon epithelial cells (HCECs) against radiation-induced transformation. HCECs that were immortalized by ectopic expression of hTERT and cdk4 and exhibit trisomy for chromosome 7 (a non-random chromosome change that occurs in 37% of premalignant colon adenomas) can be transformed experimentally with one combined exposure to 2 Gy of protons at 1 GeV/nucleon followed 24 h later by 50 cGy of (56)Fe ions at 1 GeV/nucleon. Transformed cells showed an increase in proliferation rate and in both anchorage-dependent and independent colony formation ability. A spectrum of chromosome aberrations was observed in transformed cells, with 40% showing loss of 17p (e.g. loss of one copy of p53). Pretreatment of cells with pharmacological doses of CDDO-Me, which has been shown to induce antioxidative as well as anti-inflammatory responses, prevented the heavy-ion-induced increase in proliferation rate and anchorage-dependent and independent colony formation efficiencies. Taken together, these results demonstrate that experimentally immortalized human colon epithelial cells with a non-random chromosome 7 trisomy are valuable premalignant cellular reagents that can be used to study radiation-induced colorectal carcinogenesis. The utility of premalignant HCECs to test novel compounds such as CDDO-Me that can be used to protect against radiation-induced neoplastic transformation is also demonstrated.

Eskiocak U; Kim SB; Roig AI; Kitten E; Batten K; Cornelius C; Zou YS; Wright WE; Shay JW

2010-07-01

53

Radioprotection from radiation-induced lymphedema without tumor protection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lymphedema or tissue swelling from impaired lymph drainage commonly occurs after regional nodal dissection and/or radiation therapy for cancer control. Treatment options for this disabling and life-altering complication involve long-term labor-intensive commitments. Sentinel node biopsy can forestall removal of negative regional nodes, offering some protection against lymphedema, however, most preventive measures are elusive, ineffective, or unproven. Our goal was to determine whether the radioprotectant amifostine could prevent or retard the development of lymphedema in a rodent radiation therapy-dependent model yet not offer tumor protection from the therapeutic effects of radiation therapy. We pre-treated rats after unilateral radical groin dissection with the organic thiophosphate radioprotectant amifostine or placebo prior to single dose post-operative groin radiation therapy and monitored hindlimb volumes, wound scores, and tissue lymphostasis. In addition, we determined whether amifostine protected human MCF7 breast cancer cells exposed to a range of radiation therapy doses in an in vitro clonogenic assay and an in vivo MCF7 tumor xenograft model. Our findings indicate that amifostine markedly reduced the volume of limb lymphedema and dramatically improved wound healing and tissue lymphostasis in the rodent lymphedema model. The in vivo and in vitro studies further demonstrated that amifostine offered no MCF7 tumor protection from radiation therapy. These pre-clinical findings provide proof-of-principle to further delineate specific mechanisms underlying amifostine's beneficial effects, determine optimal amifostine-radiation therapy dosing regimens, and thereby expedite translation into clinical trials to reduce lymphedema incidence and severity in cancer patients at high lymphedema risk in whom radiation therapy is the recommended therapy.

Daley SK; Bernas MJ; Stea BD; Bracamonte F; McKenna M; Stejskal A; Hirleman ED; Witte MH

2010-06-01

54

Radioprotection from radiation-induced lymphedema without tumor protection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lymphedema or tissue swelling from impaired lymph drainage commonly occurs after regional nodal dissection and/or radiation therapy for cancer control. Treatment options for this disabling and life-altering complication involve long-term labor-intensive commitments. Sentinel node biopsy can forestall removal of negative regional nodes, offering some protection against lymphedema, however, most preventive measures are elusive, ineffective, or unproven. Our goal was to determine whether the radioprotectant amifostine could prevent or retard the development of lymphedema in a rodent radiation therapy-dependent model yet not offer tumor protection from the therapeutic effects of radiation therapy. We pre-treated rats after unilateral radical groin dissection with the organic thiophosphate radioprotectant amifostine or placebo prior to single dose post-operative groin radiation therapy and monitored hindlimb volumes, wound scores, and tissue lymphostasis. In addition, we determined whether amifostine protected human MCF7 breast cancer cells exposed to a range of radiation therapy doses in an in vitro clonogenic assay and an in vivo MCF7 tumor xenograft model. Our findings indicate that amifostine markedly reduced the volume of limb lymphedema and dramatically improved wound healing and tissue lymphostasis in the rodent lymphedema model. The in vivo and in vitro studies further demonstrated that amifostine offered no MCF7 tumor protection from radiation therapy. These pre-clinical findings provide proof-of-principle to further delineate specific mechanisms underlying amifostine's beneficial effects, determine optimal amifostine-radiation therapy dosing regimens, and thereby expedite translation into clinical trials to reduce lymphedema incidence and severity in cancer patients at high lymphedema risk in whom radiation therapy is the recommended therapy. PMID:20848992

Daley, S K; Bernas, M J; Stea, B D; Bracamonte, F; McKenna, M; Stejskal, A; Hirleman, E D; Witte, M H

2010-06-01

55

Sucralfate protects intestinal epithelial cells from radiation-induced apoptosis in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiotherapy for malignant pelvic disease is often followed by acute radiation colitis (ARC). It has been reported that sucralfate treatment has a protective effect against ARC, though the mechanisms of action are unknown. The effects of sucralfate on X-ray radiation-induced apoptosis was studied at 4 Gy in the colonic crypt cells of rats. Sucralfate enemas given prior to radiation resulted in the following: reduction in number of apoptotic colonic crypt cells; reduction in number of caspase-3 positive cells; decreases in p53 accumulation and p21 expression; decreases of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. The protective effects of sucralfate against ARC may be partially due to the suppression of radiation-induced apoptosis by way of p53 in the colon and the protection of the colonic epithelial stem cell region. (author)

2006-01-01

56

Antioxidant protection from solar-simulated radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity to the recall antigen nickel sulfate in human skin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Solar radiation induces suppression of the local effector mechanisms involved in immune responses to recall antigens. By using a low-dose solar-simulated radiation protocol, we investigated whether oral supplementation of the antioxidants RRR-alpha-tocopherol combined with L-ascorbic acid prevented radiation-induced suppression of the contact hypersensitivity response to nickel sulfate. In a prospective, randomized study, nickel-sensitive individuals were given RRR-alpha-tocopherol 2 g/d oral supplements combined with L-ascorbic acid 3 g/d for 50 d (group 1). Individuals in the control group were given a placebo (group 2). The reaction to a standardized patch test with serial dilutions of nickel sulfate and the irritant skin reaction to sodium lauryl sulfate were assessed by visual grading and by reflectance spectrophotometry in radiation-exposed and nonexposed skin 50 days after supplementation. Results showed that the contact hypersensitivity response to the recall antigen nickel sulfate was significantly suppressed in the radiation-exposed skin of those who took the placebo. Supplementation with RRR-alpha-tocopherol combined with L-ascorbic acid significantly protected against the radiation-induced suppression of the contact hypersensitivity response to nickel sulfate. The irritant reaction to sodium lauryl sulfate was not suppressed by radiation, and antioxidant supplementation did not modulate this response. In conclusion, a combination therapy of systemic high-dose RRR-alpha-tocopherol combined with L-ascorbic acid prevented solar-simulated radiation-induced suppression of the local immune response to the recall antigen nickel sulfate in human skin. This immunoprotective effect of combined RRR-alpha-tocopherol and L-ascorbic acid could be exploited for the prevention of solar radiation-induced skin cancer in an antioxidant intervention study.

Fuchs J; Packer L

1999-08-01

57

The protective effect of low-dose methotrexate on ischemia-reperfusion injury of the rabbit spinal cord.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methotrexate was developed as a cytostatic agent, but at low doses, it has shown potent anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effects of methotrexate are primarily mediated by the release of adenosine. In this study, we hypothesized that low-dose methotrexate has protective effects in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rabbits were randomized into the following four groups of eight animals each: group 1 (control), group 2 (ischemia), group 3 (methylprednisolone) and group 4 (methotrexate). In the control group only a laparotomy was performed. In all the other groups, the spinal cord ischemia model was created by the occlusion of the aorta just caudal to the renal artery. Neurological evaluation was performed with the Tarlov scoring system. Levels of myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde and catalase were analyzed, as were the activities of xanthine oxidase and caspase-3. Histopathological and ultrastructural evaluations were also performed. After ischemia-reperfusion injury, increases were found in the serum and tissue myeloperoxidase levels, tissue malondialdehyde levels, xanthine oxidase activity and caspase-3 activity. In contrast, both serum and tissue catalase levels were decreased. After the administration of a low-dose of methotrexate, decreases were observed in the serum and tissue myeloperoxidase levels, tissue malondialdehyde levels, xanthine oxidase activity and caspase-3 activity. In contrast, both the serum and tissue catalase levels were increased. Furthermore, low-dose methotrexate treatment showed improved results concerning the histopathological scores, the ultrastructural score and the Tarlov scores. Our results revealed that low-dose methotrexate exhibits meaningful neuroprotective activity following ischemia-reperfusion injury of the spinal cord.

Kertmen H; Gürer B; Y?lmaz ER; Sanl? AM; Sorar M; Ar?kök AT; Sargon MF; Kanat MA; Ergüder BI; Sekerci Z

2013-08-01

58

Protection of human cells from the effect of cadmium chloride pre-treated by vitamins, interferon and low dose ?-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protective properties of interferon, vitamins in comparison with low-dose irradiation were considered. Results of induction of DNA breaks and their resynthesis in human cells treated with cadmium chloride under formation of adaptive response and in case of preliminary treatment with vitamins and interferon. It was shown that pretreatment of cells by combination of retinol and ascorbic acid resulted in complete repair of DNA injuries, induced by cadmium chloride. The presented data permitted to recommend combination of A and C vitamins fro protection of man exposed to the effect of heavy metal salts and cadmium compound in particular.

1992-01-01

59

Protective effect of prostaglandin E1 on radiation-induced proliferative inhibition and apoptosis in keratinocytes and healing of radiation-induced skin injury in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examined the effects of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on radiation-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in keratinocytes and healing of radiation-induced skin injury in a rat model. PGE1 had a protective effect on radiation-induced growth inhibition in keratinocytes in vitro, but not in fibroblasts. Varying concentrations of PGE1 were subcutaneously administered into the posterior neck region. X-irradiation at a dose of 20 Gy was administrated to the lower part of the back using a lead sheet with two holes 30 min to 1 h before or after the administration of PGE1. Although X-irradiation induced epilation, minor erosions, or skin ulcers in almost all rats, PGE1 administration prior to irradiation reduced these irradiation injuries. Staining with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling showed that proportions of apoptotic keratinocytes in the X-irradiated skin of PGE1-administered rats were significantly lower than for those in the skin of rats which did not receive PGE1. Cutaneous full-thickness defective wounds were then formed in X-irradiated areas to examine the time course of wound healing. Wound healing was significantly delayed because of X-irradiation, but PGE1 administration prior to irradiation led to a significantly shorter delay in wound healing compared with controls. Decreasing delay in wound healing was correlated with concentration of PGE1 administrated. Thus, PGE1-administration may potentially alleviate the radiation-induced skin injury. (author)

2012-01-01

60

Protection against radiation induced oxidative stress by Syzygium cumini seed extract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living beings against the deleterious effects of radiation. Earlier, the synthetic chemical substances, which could minimize the pathological changes in the living systems after exposure to ionizing radiation, were looked into. However, the practical applicability of these compounds remained limited owing to high toxicity at their optimum protective dose. Jambul (Syzygium cumini) is an evergreen tropical tree in the flowering plant family Myrtaceae, native to Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Indonesia. This tree species has been of interest to researchers because the chemical constituents such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin and related ellagitannins, 3,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-glucose and its isomer, 4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucose, 1-galloyl glucose, 3-galloyl glucose and quercetin is reported in the alcoholic extract of Jambul seeds. In the present study, the radioprotective effect of Syzygium cumini seed extract (SCE) was studied on radiation-induced deleterious alterations. Oral administration of such extract (25 mg/kg b. wt./day/animal) for 5 consecutive days, half an hr. before whole-body exposure to 6 Gy gamma radiation, enhanced the 30 days survival and also inhibited the radiogenic sickness, weight loss and life shortening. SCE ameliorated radiation induced depletion in glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GST) as well as elevation of lipid peroxidation (LPO) level in blood and liver of mice. The significant reduction in the yield of LPO demonstrates that Syzygium cumini seed protects the membranes against radiation-induced oxidative damage. These findings conclude that such seed extract provides significant radioprotection, and it may be potentially valuable in the prevention of injuries caused during planned and unplanned radiation exposure. (author)

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Melatonin protects human blood lymphocytes from radiation-induced chromosome damage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cells in human peripheral blood were treated in vitro with increasing concentrations of melatonin (0.5 or 1.0 or 2.0 mM) for 20 min at 37[+-]1C and then exposed to 150 cGy [gamma]-radiation from a [sup 137]Cs source. The lymphocytes which were pre-treated with melatonin exhibited a significant and concentration-dependent decrease in the frequency of radiation-induced chromosome damage as compared with the irradiated cells which did not receive the pre-treatment. The extent of the reduction in radiation-induced chromosome damage observed with 2.0 mM melatonin was similar to that found in lymphocytes pre-treated with 1.0 M dimethyl sulfoxide, a known free radical scavenger. Melatonin at 2.0 mM (a 500x lower concentration) was as effective in decreasing the radiation-induced chromosome damage as dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0 M. These observations may have implications for human protection against damage due to endogenously produced free radicals and also due to exposure to free radical producing physical and chemical mutagens and carcinogens

Vijayalaxmi; Meltz, Martin L. (Department of Radiology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)); Reiter, Russel J. (Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States))

1995-01-01

62

Protection by pantothenol and ?-carotene against liver damage produced by low-dose ? radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rats were exposed to a total dose of 0.75 Gy of ? radiation from a 60Co source, receiving three doses of 0.25 Gy at weekly intervals. During two days before each irradiation, the animals received daily intragastric doses of 26 mg pantothenol or 15 mg ?-carotene per kg body mass. The animals were killed after the third irradiation session, and their blood and livers were analyzed. As found previously, in livers of animals not supplied with either pantothenol or ?-carotene and killed one hour after the irradiation, a large accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, as conjugated dienes, ketotrienes and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, could be observed. The contents of CoA, pantothenic acid, total phospholipids, total glutathione and GSH/GSSG ratio were considerably decreased, whereas the NAD/NADH ratio was increased. All these effects were alleviated in animals supplied with beta-carotene and were completely abolished in animals supplied with pantothenol. In the present paper, we extended our observations of irradiation effects over a period of up to 7 days after the last irradiation session. We found that most of these changes, with the exception of GSH/GSSG ratio, disappeared spontaneously, whereas supplementation with beta-carotene shortened the time required for the normalization of biochemical parameters. In addition, we found that the activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and NADP-dependent malate (decarboxylating) dehydrogenase ('malic enzyme') in liver were also significantly decreased one hour after irradiation but returned to the normal level within 7 days. Little or no decrease in these activities, already 1 h after the irradiation, could be seen in animals supplemented with either beta-carotene or pantothenol. It is concluded that pantothenol is an excellent radioprotective agent against low-dose ? radiation. (author)

1999-01-01

63

The Protective Effect of Curcumin on Ionizing Radiation-induced Cataractogenesis in Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the protective effect of curcumin against ionizing radiation-induced cataract in the lens of rats. Material and Methods: Rats were divided into six groups. Group 1: Control, Group 2: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), Group 3: DMSO+curcumin, Group 4: Irradiation, Group 5: Irradiation+DMSO, Group 6: Irradiation+DMSO+curcumin. A 15 Gy total dose was given to 4, 5, 6 groups for radiation damage. Curcumin (100 mg/kg) was dissolved in DMSO and given by intragastric intubation for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, lenses were graded and enucleated. The lenticular activity of the antioxidant enzymes, total antioxidant and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured.Results: 100% Cataract was seen in the irradiation group. Cataract rate fell to 40% and was limited at grade 1 and 2 in the curcumin group. In the irradiation group, antioxidant enzyme levels were decreased, MDA levels were increased. There was an increase in antioxidant enzyme levels and a significant decrease in MDA in the group which was given curcumin.Conclusion: Curcumin has antioxidant and radioprotective properties and is likely to be a valuable agent for protection against ionizing radiation. Hence, it may be used as an antioxidant and radioprotector against radiation-induced cataractogenesis.

Seher Çimen Özgen; Dikmen Dökmeci; Meryem Akpolat; Hakan Karada?; Özgür Gündüz; Hakan Erba?; Ömer Benian; Cem Uzal; Fatma Nesrin Turan

2012-01-01

64

Baicalein protects mice against radiation-induced DNA damages and genotoxicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Baicalein is the major flavonoid extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicaleins. This flavonoid is used extensively in Chinese herbal medicine. In the present study baicalein is evaluated for its radioprotective properties. Human blood cells when exposed to the ?-radiation ex vivo in presence of baicalein underwent the reduced DNA damage compared to the control. Baicalein administration prior to the whole-body ?-radiation (4 Gy) exposure of mice resulted in protecting the damage to the DNA as measured in their blood cells by alkaline comet assay. Mice when exposed to the radiation (whole body; 1.7 Gy) resulted in damage to the bone marrow as measured by micronucleated reticulocyte (MNRET) formation. Baicalein pre-treatment reduces the radiation induced damage to the bone marrow cells, as there was decrease in the percentage MNRET formation. These findings indicate radio-protecting ability of baicalein.

Gandhi NM

2013-07-01

65

Baicalein protects mice against radiation-induced DNA damages and genotoxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Baicalein is the major flavonoid extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicaleins. This flavonoid is used extensively in Chinese herbal medicine. In the present study baicalein is evaluated for its radioprotective properties. Human blood cells when exposed to the ?-radiation ex vivo in presence of baicalein underwent the reduced DNA damage compared to the control. Baicalein administration prior to the whole-body ?-radiation (4 Gy) exposure of mice resulted in protecting the damage to the DNA as measured in their blood cells by alkaline comet assay. Mice when exposed to the radiation (whole body; 1.7 Gy) resulted in damage to the bone marrow as measured by micronucleated reticulocyte (MNRET) formation. Baicalein pre-treatment reduces the radiation induced damage to the bone marrow cells, as there was decrease in the percentage MNRET formation. These findings indicate radio-protecting ability of baicalein. PMID:23606056

Gandhi, Nitin Motilal

2013-04-20

66

Extract of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects against gamma-radiation induced testicular damage in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionizing radiation is an important environmental risk factor and, a major therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of extract of Xylopia aethiopica (XA) on gamma-radiation-induced testicular damage in rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as the reference antioxidant during the study. The study consists of 4 groups of 11 rats each. Group I received corn oil (vehicle), groups II and IV were pretreated with XA (250 mg/kg) and VC (250mg/kg) for 6 weeks before and 8 weeks after exposure to gamma-radiation; group III was exposed to a single dose of gamma-radiation (5 Gy). Biochemical analysis revealed that gamma-irradiation caused a significant increase (p Xylopia aethiopica has a protective effect by inhibiting oxidative damage in testes of irradiated rats. PMID:21305847

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Adedara, Isaac Adegboyega; Popoola, Bosede; Farombi, Ebenezer Olatunde

2010-01-01

67

Protection by dinitrophenol against radiation-induced hemolysis in hen erythrocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Hen erythrocytes were ?-irradiated (up to 15 kR) and incubated at 370C for 20 hr in a slightly hypotonic saline solution (0.10 M NaCl buffered with 5 mM phosphate, pH 7.4) to which 2,4-dinitrophenol, glucose, NaF, or pyruvate were added in different combinations. Hemolysis was measured at the end of the incubation period. Dinitrophenol (2 x 10-4 M) reduced the radiation-induced hemolysis in both ATP-containing and ATP-depleted erythrocytes. Glucose (10 mM) and pyruvate (10 mM) antagonized the protective effect of dinitrophenol against radiation-hemolysis. NaF suppressed the antagonistic action of glucose on the protective effect of dinitrophenol

1978-01-01

68

Radiation-induced bystander effects: Relevance for radiation protection of human and non-human biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper our current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the induction of bystander effects by low dose low LET ionizing radiation is reviewed in the context of relevance to radiation protection issues. The question of how bystander effects may be related to observed adaptive responses, systemic genomic instability or other effects of low doses exposures is also considered. Bystander effects appear to be the result of a generalized stress response in tissues or cells. The signals may be produced by all exposed cells, but the response may require additional system parameters to exist in order to be expressed. The major response involving low LET radiation exposure discussed in the existing literature is a death response. This can manifest as apoptotic cell death, terminal differentiation, reproductive cell death or necrosis. While a death response might appear to be adverse, the position is argued in this paper, that it can in fact be protective and remove damaged cells from the reproducing population. Since many cell populations carry damaged cells without being exposed to radiation (so-called 'background damage'), it is possible that low dose radiation exposures cause removal of cells damaged by agents other than the test dose of radiation. This mechanism would lead to the production of 'u- or n-shaped' dose response curves. In this scenario, the level of harmful or beneficial response will be related to the background damage carried by the cell population and the genetic program determining response to damage. This model--may be particularly important when attempting to predict the consequences of mixed exposures involving radiation and other environmental stressors on biota. (author)

2005-01-01

69

The protective effects of CD39 overexpression in multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Islet allograft survival limits the long-term success of islet transplantation as a potential curative therapy for type 1 diabetes. A number of factors compromise islet survival, including recurrent diabetes. We investigated whether CD39, an ectonucleotidase that promotes the generation of extracellular adenosine, would mitigate diabetes in the T cell-mediated multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDS) model. Mice null for CD39 (CD39KO), wild-type mice (WT), and mice overexpressing CD39 (CD39TG) were subjected to MLDS. Adoptive transfer experiments were performed to delineate the efficacy of tissue-restricted overexpression of CD39. The role of adenosine signaling was examined using mutant mice and pharmacological inhibition. The susceptibility to MLDS-induced diabetes was influenced by the level of expression of CD39. CD39KO mice developed diabetes more rapidly and with higher frequency than WT mice. In contrast, CD39TG mice were protected. CD39 overexpression conferred protection through the activation of adenosine 2A receptor and adenosine 2B receptor. Adoptive transfer experiments indicated that tissue-restricted overexpression of CD39 conferred robust protection, suggesting that this may be a useful strategy to protect islet grafts from T cell-mediated injury.

Chia JS; McRae JL; Thomas HE; Fynch S; Elkerbout L; Hill P; Murray-Segal L; Robson SC; Chen JF; d'Apice AJ; Cowan PJ; Dwyer KM

2013-06-01

70

The protective effects of CD39 overexpression in multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Islet allograft survival limits the long-term success of islet transplantation as a potential curative therapy for type 1 diabetes. A number of factors compromise islet survival, including recurrent diabetes. We investigated whether CD39, an ectonucleotidase that promotes the generation of extracellular adenosine, would mitigate diabetes in the T cell-mediated multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDS) model. Mice null for CD39 (CD39KO), wild-type mice (WT), and mice overexpressing CD39 (CD39TG) were subjected to MLDS. Adoptive transfer experiments were performed to delineate the efficacy of tissue-restricted overexpression of CD39. The role of adenosine signaling was examined using mutant mice and pharmacological inhibition. The susceptibility to MLDS-induced diabetes was influenced by the level of expression of CD39. CD39KO mice developed diabetes more rapidly and with higher frequency than WT mice. In contrast, CD39TG mice were protected. CD39 overexpression conferred protection through the activation of adenosine 2A receptor and adenosine 2B receptor. Adoptive transfer experiments indicated that tissue-restricted overexpression of CD39 conferred robust protection, suggesting that this may be a useful strategy to protect islet grafts from T cell-mediated injury. PMID:23364452

Chia, Joanne S J; McRae, Jennifer L; Thomas, Helen E; Fynch, Stacey; Elkerbout, Lorraine; Hill, Prue; Murray-Segal, Lisa; Robson, Simon C; Chen, Jiang-Fan; d'Apice, Anthony J F; Cowan, Peter J; Dwyer, Karen M

2013-01-30

71

Protection by polaprezinc against radiation-induced apoptosis in rat jejunal crypt cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polaprezinc, an anti-ulcer drug, is a chelate compound consisting of zinc and L-carnosine. Polaprezinc has been shown to prevent gastric mucosal injury. The anti ulcer effects of polaprezinc have been ascribed to its antioxidative property. The effect of polaprezinc on ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis was studied in the jejunal epithelial crypt cells of rats. Seven-to eight week-old Wistar rats, which were treated with 100 mg/kg of polaprezinc orally 1 h before irradiation or 2% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium in controls, were exposed to whole body X-ray irradiation at 2 Gy. The number of apoptotic cells per jejunum crypt was counted in haematoxylin and eosin stained sections at 0-6 h after irradiation. TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) positive cells and immunopositive cells for active caspase-3 per crypt were also counted. Accumulation of p53, p21WAF1/CIP1 and Bax expression in the jejunum after irradiation were examined by Western blot analyses. Polaprezinc treatment given prior to radiation resulted in a significant reduction in numbers of apoptotic cells, TUNEL positive cells and active caspase-3 immunopositive cells in jejunal crypt cells. Polaprezinc treatment resulted in decreases of p53 accumulation, p21WAF1/CIP1 and Bax expression after irradiation. Polaprezinc has a protective effect against ionizing radiation induced apoptosis in rat jejunal crypt cells. (author)

2008-01-01

72

Gene-modified mesenchymal stem cells protect against radiation-induced lung injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) presents a common and major obstacle in the radiotherapy of thoracic cancers. The aim of this study was to examine whether RILI could be alleviated by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing soluble transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) type II receptor via an adenovirus (Ad-sT?R). Here, we systemically administered male MSCs into female mice challenged with thoracic irradiation. The data showed that either MSCs or Ad-sT?R transduced MSCs (Ad-sT?R-MSCs) specifically migrated into radiation-injured lung. Ad-sT?R-MSCs obviously alleviated lung injury, as reflected by survival and histopathology data, as well as the assays of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroxyproline, plasma cytokines, and the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). Furthermore, MSCs and Ad-sT?R-MSCs could adopt the characteristics of alveolar type II (ATII) cells. However, the MSCs levels in the lungs were relatively low to account for the noted therapeutic effects, suggesting the presence of other mechanisms. In vivo, MSCs-conditioned medium (MSCs CM) significantly attenuated RILI. In vitro, MSCs CM protected ATII cells against radiation-induced apoptosis and DNA damage, and modulated the inflammatory response, indicating the beneficial effects of MSCs are largely due to its paracrine activity. Our results provide a novel insight for RILI therapy that currently lack efficient treatments.

Xue J; Li X; Lu Y; Gan L; Zhou L; Wang Y; Lan J; Liu S; Sun L; Jia L; Mo X; Li J

2013-02-01

73

Protective capacity of Rosemary extract against radiation induced hepatic injury in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out to observe the radioprotective effects of Rosemarinus officinalis leaves extract (ROE) against radiation-induced histopathological alterations in liver of mice. Materials and Methods: Adult Swiss albino mice were exposed to 6 Gy gamma radiation in the presence (experimental) or absence (control) of ROE to study the qualitative and quantitative alterations in the liver. Results: Normal hepatocyte counts were found to be declined up to day 10th post-irradiation in both the groups but thereafter such cells increased reaching to near normal level at the last autopsy interval, only in experimental group. Contrary, frequency of abnormal hepatocytes increased up to day 10th after irradiation in both the groups. Bi nucleate hepatic cells showed a biphasic mode of elevation after irradiation, first at 12 hours and second on day 10th in control group; whereas in experimental group, the elevation was comparatively less marked and even the second peak was not evident. Irradiation of animals resulted in an elevation in lipid peroxidation (L Px) and a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) concentration in liver as well as in blood. Conversely, experimental group showed a significant decline in LPx and an elevation in GSH concentration. Conclusion: These results indicate that Rosemarinus officinalis leaves extract (ROE) is able to protect the liver of Swiss albino mice against radiation induced histopathol-ogical alterations

2007-01-01

74

Protective effect of esculentoside A on radiation-induced dermatitis and fibrosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To investigate the effect of esculentoside A (EsA) on radiation-induced cutaneous and fibrovascular toxicity and its possible molecular mechanisms, both in vivo and in vitro. Methods and Materials: Mice received drug intervention 18 hours before 30 Gy to the right hind leg. Alterations in several cytokines expressed in skin tissue 2 days after irradiation were determined by ELISA. Early skin toxicity was evaluated 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation by skin scoring, and both tissue contraction and expression of TGF-?1 were determined for soft-tissue fibrosis 3 months after irradiation. In vitro, the effect of EsA on radiation-induced nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine production in different cell types was measured by application of 2, 4, and 8 Gy. Results: In vivo, EsA reduced levels of IL-1?, MCP-1, VEGF, and TGF-?1 in cutaneous tissue and reduced soft-tissue toxicity. In vitro, EsA inhibited the IL-1? ordinarily produced after 4 Gy in A431 cells. In Raw264.7 cells, EsA reduced levels of IL-1?, IL-1?, and NO production costimulated by radiation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In L-929 cells, EsA inhibited VEGF, TNF, and MCP-1 production at 2, 4, and 8 Gy. Conclusions: Esculentoside A protects soft tissues against radiation toxicity through inhibiting the production of several proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators in epithelial cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, and skin tissue

2006-07-01

75

Prunus armeniaca L (apricot) protects rat testes from detrimental effects of low-dose x-rays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure to low x-ray doses damages the spermatozoa, mainly by late-onset (ie, after 3 months) oxidative stress. Antioxidants ameliorate oxidation and prevent tissue damage. Prunus armeniaca L (apricot), rich in carotenoids and vitamins, is a potent natural antioxidant. We hypothesized that an apricot-rich diet might ameliorate the detrimental effects of low-dose x-rays on testis tissue. A 20% apricot diet was composed isoenergetically to the regular rodent diet. The total phenolic content, reducing power, and antioxidant capacity of both diets were determined. Sprague-Dawley rats received apricot-rich diets before and after x-ray exposure. Regular diets were given to controls. Rats were exposed to 0.2 Gy x-rays at the eighth week and were euthanized at the 20th postexposure week. Testicular oxidative status was determined by tissue thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities. For histologic evaluation, qualitative and quantitative microscopic determinations were performed, and Leydig and Sertoli cell counts and Johnsen scores were measured. The control diet group had significant testicular oxidative stress and mild tissue deterioration. Leydig and Sertoli cell counts, tubule diameters, and Johnsen scores were significantly decreased in the exposure groups. Apricot-rich diet significantly ameliorated the oxidative status and prevented the damage in tubular histology. The protective effects were prominent when the diet was maintained throughout the time course and were partially protected when the diet was initiated after exposure. The natural antioxidant activity of apricot ameliorates the delayed detrimental effects of low-dose irradiation on testis tissue. The high total antioxidant capacity of the apricot deserves further investigation.

Ugras MY; Kurus M; Ates B; Soylemez H; Otlu A; Yilmaz I

2010-03-01

76

Partial neural protection with prophylactic low-dose melatonin after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melatonin is a naturally occurring indolamine with mild antioxidant properties that is neuroprotective in perinatal animals. There is limited information on its effects on preterm brain injury. In this study, 23 chronically instrumented fetal sheep received 25?minutes of complete umbilical cord occlusion at 101 to 104 days gestation (term is 147 days). Melatonin was administered to the ewe 15?minutes before occlusion (0.1?mg/kg bolus followed by 0.1?mg/kg per hour for 6?hours, n=8), or the equivalent volume of vehicle (2% ethanol, n=7), or saline (n=8), or maternal saline plus sham occlusion (n=8). Sheep were killed after 7 days recovery in utero. Fetal blood pressure, heart rate, nuchal activity, and temperature were similar between groups. Vehicle infusion was associated with improved neuronal survival in the caudate nucleus, but greater neuronal loss in the regions of the hippocampus, with reduced proliferation and increased ameboid microglia in the white matter (P<0.05). Maternal melatonin infusion was associated with faster recovery of fetal EEG, prolonged reduction in carotid blood flow, similar neuronal survival to vehicle, improved numbers of mature oligodendrocytes, and reduced microglial activation in the white matter (P<0.05). Prophylactic maternal melatonin treatment is partially protective but its effects may be partly confounded by ethanol used to dissolve melatonin.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 9 October 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.174.

Drury PP; Davidson JO; Bennet L; Booth LC; Tan S; Fraser M; van den Heuij LG; Gunn AJ

2013-10-01

77

Protective effect of triphala on radiation induced acute intestinal mucosal damage in Sprague Dawley rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim of the study was to determine protective effect of triphala on radiation-induced rectal mucosal damage. Male Sprague Dawley rats (30) were divided into 5 groups. Rats in group A were sham irradiated and rats in group B underwent only irradiation. Rats in group C were administered triphala 1g/kg/day orally for 5 consecutive days before irradiation. Rats in group D and E were administered triphala 1 and 1.5 g/kg/day orally for 10 consecutive days, respectively. Rectal mucosal damage was induced by a single fraction of 12.5Gy gamma irradiation (192Ir) on 5th day. All the rats were autopsied on 11th day and histological changes in surface epithelium, glands, and lamina propria were assessed. Proctitis showed significant improvement in surface epithelium (P

2012-01-01

78

In Vitro Neutralization of Low Dose Inocula at Physiological Concentrations of a Monoclonal Antibody Which Protects Macaques against SHIV Challenge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Passive transfer of antibodies can be protective in the simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) - rhesus macaque challenge model. The human monoclonal antibody IgG1 b12 neutralizes human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) in vitro and protects against challenge by SHIV. Our hypothesis is that neutralizing antibodies can only completely inactivate a relatively small number of infectious virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have used GHOST cell assays to quantify individual infectious events with HIV-1SF162 and its SHIV derivatives: the relatively neutralization sensitive SHIVSF162P4 isolate and the more resistant SHIVSF162P3. A plot of the number of fluorescent GHOST cells with increasing HIV-1SF162 dose is not linear. It is likely that with high-dose inocula, infection with multiple virus produces additive fluorescence in individual cells. In studies of the neutralization kinetics of IgG1 b12 against these isolates, events during the absorption phase of the assay, as well as the incubation phase, determine the level of neutralization. It is possible that complete inactivation of a virus is limited to the time it is exposed on the cell surface. Assays can be modified so that neutralization of these very low doses of virus can be quantified. A higher concentration of antibody is required to neutralize the same dose of resistant SHIVSF162P3 than the sensitive SHIVSF162P4. In the absence of selection during passage, the density of the CCR5 co-receptor on the GHOST cell surface is reduced. Changes in the CD4 : CCR5 density ratio influence neutralization. CONCLUSIONS: Low concentrations of IgG1 b12 completely inactivate small doses of the neutralization resistant SHIV SF162P3. Assays need to be modified to quantify this effect. Results from modified assays may predict protection following repeated low-dose shiv challenges in rhesus macaques. It should be possible to induce this level of antibody by vaccination so that modified assays could predict the outcome of human trials.

Davis D; Koornstra W; Fagrouch Z; Verschoor EJ; Heeney JL; Bogers WM

2013-01-01

79

Advanced Computational Approaches for Characterizing Stochastic Cellular Responses to Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Exposures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OAK - B135 This project final report summarizes modeling research conducted in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Low Dose Radiation Research Program at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute from October 1998 through June 2003. The modeling research described involves critically evaluating the validity of the linear nonthreshold (LNT) risk model as it relates to stochastic effects induced in cells by low doses of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals. The LNT model plays a central role in low-dose risk assessment for humans. With the LNT model, any radiation (or genotoxic chemical) exposure is assumed to increase one¡¯s risk of cancer. Based on the LNT model, others have predicted tens of thousands of cancer deaths related to environmental exposure to radioactive material from nuclear accidents (e.g., Chernobyl) and fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Our research has focused on developing biologically based models that explain the shape of dose-response curves for low-dose radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells. Understanding the shape of the dose-response curve for radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells helps to better understand the shape of the dose-response curve for cancer induction in humans. We have used a modeling approach that facilitated model revisions over time, allowing for timely incorporation of new knowledge gained related to the biological basis for low-dose-induced stochastic effects in cells. Both deleterious (e.g., genomic instability, mutations, and neoplastic transformation) and protective (e.g., DNA repair and apoptosis) effects have been included in our modeling. Our most advanced model, NEOTRANS2, involves differing levels of genomic instability. Persistent genomic instability is presumed to be associated with nonspecific, nonlethal mutations and to increase both the risk for neoplastic transformation and for cancer occurrence. Our research results, based on applications of NEOTRANS2, indicate that nonlinear threshold-type, dose-response relationships for excess stochastic effects (problematic nonlethal mutations, neoplastic transformation) should be expected after exposure to low linear energy transfer (LET) gamma rays or gamma rays in combination with high-LET alpha radiation. Similar thresholds are expected for low-dose-rate low-LET beta irradiation. We attribute the thresholds to low-dose, low-LET radiation induced protection against spontaneous mutations and neoplastic transformations. The protection is presumed mainly to involve selective elimination of problematic cells via apoptosis. Low-dose, low-LET radiation is presumed to trigger wide-area cell signaling, which in turn leads to problematic bystander cells (e.g., mutants, neoplastically transformed cells) selectively undergoing apoptosis. Thus, this protective bystander effect leads to selective elimination of problematic cells (a tissue cleansing process in vivo). However, this protective bystander effects is a different process from low-dose stimulation of the immune system. Low-dose, low-LET radiation stimulation of the immune system may explain why thresholds for inducing excess cancer appear much larger (possibly more than 100-fold larger) than thresholds for inducing excess mutations and neoplastic transformations, when the dose rate is low. For ionizing radiation, the current risk assessment paradigm is such that the relative risk (RR) is always ¡Ý 1, no matter how small the dose. Our research results indicate that for low-dose or low-dose-rate, low-LET irradiation, RR < 1 may be more the rule than the exception. Directly tied to the current RR paradigm are the billion-dollar cleanup costs for radionuclide-contaminated DOE sites. Our research results suggest that continued use of the current RR paradigm for which RR ¡Ý 1 could cause more harm than benefit to society (e.g., by spreading unwarranted fear about phantom excess risks associated with low-dose low-LET radiation). Such phantom risks also may arise from risk assessments conducted for com

Scott, Bobby, R., Ph.D.

2003-06-27

80

Protective Effects of 5-Androstendiol (5-AED) on Radiation-induced Intestinal Injury  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We examined the radioprotective effects of 5-androstendiol (5-AED), a natural hormone produced in the reticularis of the adrenal cortex, as a result of intestinal damage in gamma-irradiated C3H/HeN mice. Thirty mice (C3H/HeN) were divided into three groups; 1) non-irradiated control group, 2) irradiated group, and 3) 5-AED-treated group prior to irradiation. Next, 5-AED (50 mg/kg per body weight) was subcutaneously injected 24 hours before irradiation. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 10 Gy for the histological examination of jejunal crypt survival and the determination of the villus morphology including crypt depth, crypt size, number of villi, villus height, and length of basal lamina, as well as 5 Gy for the detection of apoptosis. The 5-AED pre-treated group significantly increased the survival of the jejunal crypt, compared to irradiation controls (p<0.05 vs. irradiation controls at 3.5 days after 10 Gy). The evaluation of morphological changes revealed that the administration of 5-AED reduced the radiation-induced intestinal damages such as villus shortening and increased length of the basal lamina of enterocytes (p<0.05 vs irradiation controls on 3.5 day after 10 Gy, respectively). The administration of 5-AED decreased the radiation-induced apoptosis in the intestinal crypt, with no significant difference between the vehicle and 5-AED at 12 hours after 5 Gy. The results of this study suggest that the administration of 5-AED has a protective effect on intestinal damage induced by {gamma}-irradiation. In turn, these results suggest that 5-AED could be a useful candidate for radioprotection against intestinal mucosal injury following irradiation.

Kim, Joong Sun; Lee, Seung Sook; Jang, Won Suk; Lee, Sun Joo; Park, Sun Hoo; Kim, MinSook; Cho, Soo Youn [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University College of Veterinary Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2010-11-15

 
 
 
 
81

Protective Role of Clove Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antioxidants in food play an important role in preventing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Clove is widely used in Egypt as a spice which is a potent scavenger of a variety of free radicals. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum, Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) is the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of cloves against oxidative stress and tissue injury, in animals, induced by gamma irradiation. Rats were subjected to two doses of gamma radiation (2 and 4 Gy). Four weeks before irradiation animals received cloves in basal diets. In liver and serum of irradiated animals, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) showed a significant increase associated to a marked decrease in glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT). The level of total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed significant increase in the serum of irradiated rats. On the other hand, the level of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), total protein, albumin and total globulins showed significant decrease. Rats fed on a basal diet containing cloves during a period of 4 weeks before irradiation showed significant improvement in the oxidant/antioxidant status denoted by a significant reduction in TBARS level associated with significant increase in GSH and CAT. Moreover, the radiation-induced changes in lipids, proteins and enzyme activities were significantly ameliorated. It could be concluded that cloves possibly protect against radiation-induced oxidative stress and tissue damage

2011-01-01

82

Caffeine potentiates or protects against radiation-induced DNA and chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes depending on temperature and concentration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of caffeine on radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations and DNA strand breaks in unstimulated human lymphocytes was investigated. When present prior to and during the radiation exposure, caffeine treatment was found to cause either potentiation or protection against induction of chromosomal aberrations depending on the concentration and temperature. When the nucleoid sedimentation technique was applied, enhancement or reduction of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks by caffeine was also found to be dependent on temperature and caffeine concentration. It is proposed that caffeine, in addition to its suspected ability to influence DNA repair, can also influence the induction of DNA damage, leading to alterations in the yield of chromosomal aberrations.

Stoilov LM; Mullenders LH; Natarajan AT

1994-12-01

83

Caffeine potentiates or protects against radiation-induced DNA and chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes depending on temperature and concentration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of caffeine on radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations and DNA strand breaks in unstimulated human lymphocytes was investigated. When present prior to and during the radiation exposure, caffeine treatment was found to cause either potentiation or protection against induction of chromosomal aberrations depending on the concentration and temperature. When the nucleoid sedimentation technique was applied, enhancement or reduction of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks by caffeine was also found to be dependent on temperature and caffeine concentration. It is proposed that caffeine, in addition to its suspected ability to influence DNA repair, can also influence the induction of DNA damage, leading to alterations in the yield of chromosomal aberrations.

1994-01-01

84

Caffeine potentiates or protects against radiation-induced DNA and chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes depending on temperature and concentration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of caffeine on radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations and DNA strand breaks in unstimulated human lymphocytes was investigated. When present prior to and during the radiation exposure, caffeine treatment was found to cause either potentiation or protection against induction of chromosomal aberrations depending on the concentration and temperature. When the nucleoid sedimentation technique was applied, enhancement or reduction of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks by caffeine was also found to be dependent on temperature and caffeine concentration. It is proposed that caffeine, in addition to its suspected ability to influence DNA repair, can also influence the induction of DNA damage, leading to alterations in the yield of chromosomal aberrations.

Stoilov, L.M. (Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Genetics, Sofia (Bulgaria)); Mullenders, L.H.F.; Natarajan, A.T. (J.A. Cohen Institute, Interuniversity Research Institute for Radiopathology and Radiation Protection, Leiden (Netherlands))

1994-12-01

85

Protection from radiation induced changes in liver and serum transaminase of whole body gamma irradiated rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whole body gamma irradiation of rats with a dose of 5.5 Gy induced significant changes in the activity of liver and serum transaminase. The results indicated that this radiation dose caused a significant increase in the activity of serum Got and GPT on the third and seventh days after irradiation. This was followed by significant decreases on the fourteenth post-irradiation day. The activity of Got returned to is control activity, while the activity of GPT was significantly above the control on the twenty ones post-irradiation day. The activity of Got, in the liver of irradiated rats was elevated during the post-irradiation days, but on the twenty one day activity was about the normal value. The activity of liver GPT firstly decreased and then increased very much but attained the control level on the fourteenth after irradiation. The intraperitoneal injection of testosterone-vitamin E mixture 10 days before whole body gamma irradiation caused complete recovery for the activity of liver and serum Got. No indication of remarkable recovery in the case of GPT activity was recorded either in liver or in serum of irradiated rats. The applied mixture could protect against radiation induced changes in Got activity of liver and serum but could not protect or ameliorate the changes which occurred in the activity of GPT of the two tissues. 2 tab

1986-01-01

86

Radiological protection optimization derived from radiation induced lesions in interventional cardiology finding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interventional Cardiology is one of the specialties in which patients are submitted to the greatest radiation doses with x ray systems used for diagnostic purposes and then, it is also a specialty of high occupational radiation risk. In the last years, several cases of radiation induced lesions produced on patients derived of new complex interventional procedures have been described. As consequence, different rules for avoiding this kind of incidents have been recommended by International Organisations and regulatory Bodies. Nevertheless it has been devoted relatively few attention to the evaluation of the occupational risks that inevitably are also high in these facilities. In this work, some cases of radioinduced skin lesions produced on patients submitted to cardiac ablation procedures are described. Radiological protection considerations of interest for the regulatory Bodies are made, that permit to minimize the probability of these incidents, in what to the X-rays equipment is referred as well as to the operation procedures and level of radiation protection training of the medical specialists. (author).

1997-01-01

87

Extract of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects against gamma-radiation induced testicular damage in Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ionizing radiation is an important environmental risk factor and, a major therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of extract of Xylopia aethiopica (XA) on gamma-radiation-induced testicular damage in rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as the reference antioxidant during the study. The study consists of 4 groups of 11 rats each. Group I received corn oil (vehicle), groups II and IV were pretreated with XA (250 mg/kg) and VC (250mg/kg) for 6 weeks before and 8 weeks after exposure to gamma-radiation; group III was exposed to a single dose of gamma-radiation (5 Gy). Biochemical analysis revealed that gamma-irradiation caused a significant increase (p < .05) in serum and testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels by 217% and 221%, respectively. Irradiated rats had markedly decreased testicular catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Irradiation resulted in 59% and 40% decreases in spermatozoa motility and live/dead sperm count, respectively, and a 161% increase in total sperm abnormalities. Histologically, testes of the irradiated rats showed extensive degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and defoliation of spermatocytes. Supplementation of XA and VC reversed the adverse effects of gamma-radiation on biochemical and histological indices of the rats. These findings demonstrated that Xylopia aethiopica has a protective effect by inhibiting oxidative damage in testes of irradiated rats.

Adaramoye OA; Adedara IA; Popoola B; Farombi EO

2010-01-01

88

Protection from radiation-induced damage to spermatogenesis in the androgen pretreated rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protection of spermatogenesis from radiation-induced damage has been investigated in the adult Wistar rat. Silastic tubing containing either cholesterol or testosterone was implanted subcutaneously 7 weeks before 4 equal daily fractions of either 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 Gy of 230 kVp X-rays locally to the testes. Implants were removed on the day following the last fraction and 8 weeks after irradiation 88.6%, 83.8%, 63.6% and 28.9% tubule cross-sections respectively were found regenerating in rats pretreated with testosterone. In contrast, 68.45%, 58.6%, 38.2% and 17.3% tubule cross-sections regenerating were obtained in rats pretreated with cholesterol. Changes in testis weight however were found to show the reverse trend (i.e. a greater weight loss was observed following androgen pretreatment). These results show that protection of spermatogenesis from fractionated irradiation may be achieved in rat testis by androgen pretreatment. 25 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 table.

1988-01-01

89

Protection against radiation induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by mentha piperita (Linn)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Mentha piperita linn or peppermint (Family - Labiatae) is aromatic and has stimulant and carminative properties. The protective effects of mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g kg-1 day-1) for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days of post-irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. There was significantly less degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and Leydig cells. Significant decreases in the LPO and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The methanolic extract of M. piperita showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonol. Leaf extract of M. piperita has significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and flavonol content of extract of M. piperita may be held responsible for its radioprotective effect. (author)

2008-01-01

90

Experimental study of the protective effect of ambroxol on radiation-induced pulmonary injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the protective effect of ambroxol on radiation induced pulmonary injury. Methods: 240 BALB/c male mice were divided randomly into control group (C), irradiation alone (SI) and irradiation plus ambroxol (SI + A) groups. The right chests (size:2 cm x 2.5 cm) of mice were irradiated by 4 MV linear accelerator for a total doses of 25 Gy, 5 Gy/time, one time /day, 5 time/week; ambroxol was orally administered (50 mg ? kg-1 ?d-1) from one week before irradiation until the mice were killed. Hydroxyproline content of lung-irradiated tissue and plasma TGF-?1 level were detected from 1 to 8 months. Results: Hydroxyproline content increased starting from 3 month, reaching peak at 5 and 6 month, and it was higher in SI group than that in A + SI group; contents in A + SI group was also higher than that of C group in 5-6 months respectively. Cell ultramicro-structure of lung tissue was damaged at different level in 1 and 3 months, a large fribric tissue was even accumulated at 6 months in SI group, while above cases were obviously slight in SI + A group. Conclusions: Irradiation could induce the hydroxyproline increase in lung-irradiated tissue, change plasma TGF-?1 level lung tissue, ambroxol may reduce the radiation lung injury. (authors)

2006-01-01

91

Protective effect of cerium ion against ultraviolet B radiation-induced water stress in soybean seedlings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effects of cerium ion (Ce(III)) on water relations of soybean seedlings (Glycine max L.) under ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) stress were investigated under laboratory conditions. UV-B radiation not only affected the contents of two osmolytes (proline, soluble sugar) in soybean seedlings, but also inhibited the transpiration in soybean seedlings by decreasing the stomatal density and conductance. The two effects caused the inhibition in the osmotic and metabolic absorption of water, which decreased the water content and the free water/bound water ratio. Obviously, UV-B radiation led to water stress, causing the decrease in the photosynthesis in soybean seedlings. The pretreatment with 20 mg L(-1) Ce(III) could alleviate UV-B-induced water stress by regulating the osmotic and metabolic absorption of water in soybean seedlings. The alleviated effect caused the increase in the photosynthesis and the growth of soybean seedlings. It is one of the protective effect mechanisms of Ce(III) against the UV-B radiation-induced damage to plants.

Mao CX; Chen MM; Wang L; Zou H; Liang CJ; Wang LH; Zhou Q

2012-06-01

92

Protective effect of an extract of Phyllanthus amarus against radiation-induced damage in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioprotective effect of an extract of the plant Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) was investigated in adult BALB/c mice. P. amarus extract (750 mg/kg b.wt and 250 mg/kg b.wt) was administered orally to mice for five days prior to whole body radiation (6 Gy) and for one month after radiation. The animals were sacrificed on days 3, 9, 12, and 30 after radiation. P. amarus significantly increased the total white blood cell (W.B.C) count, bone marrow cellularity, and ?-esterase activity as compared to untreated radiation-exposed animals. P. amarus treatment also increased the activity of various antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR), both in blood and tissue, which were reduced by radiation treatment. There was also a significant increase in the glutathione (GSH) levels of blood and tissue. Lipid peroxidation levels, which were increased after radiation, were significantly reduced by P. amarus treatment, both in serum and liver. The results collectively indicate that P. amarus extract could increase the antioxidant defense mechanism in mice and there by protect the animals from radiation-induced cellular damage. (author)

2004-01-01

93

Protective effects of WR-2721 against radiation-induced injury of murine gut, testis, lung, and lung tumor nodules  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

WR-2721 (S-3-(3 aminopropylamino) ethylphosphorothioic acid) has been investigated for its ability to protect gut, lung, and testis, as well as fibrosarcoma (FSa) tumor nodules, in the lungs of mice from gamma-radiation injury. This compound greatly protected jejunum and testis epithelial cells. FSa micrometastases in the lung were protected in a lesser extent than jejunum and testis. Conversely, WR-2721 was not able to protect the lung against radiation-induced enhancement of tumor metastases formation generated by intravenously injected FSa cells.

Milas, L.; Hunter, N.; Reid, B.O.

1982-03-01

94

Protective effects of WR-2721 against radiation-induced injury of murine gut, testis, lung, and lung tumor nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

WR-2721 (S-3-(3 aminopropylamino) ethylphosphorothioic acid) has been investigated for its ability to protect gut, lung, and testis, as well as fibrosarcoma (FSa) tumor nodules, in the lungs of mice from gamma-radiation injury. This compound greatly protected jejunum and testis epithelial cells. FSa micrometastases in the lung were protected in a lesser extent than jejunum and testis. Conversely, WR-2721 was not able to protect the lung against radiation-induced enhancement of tumor metastases formation generated by intravenously injected FSa cells

1982-01-01

95

Radiation-induced late brain injury and the protective effect of traditional Chinese medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective: To investigate whether radiation-induced late injury of the brain can be ameliorated by traditional Chinese Medicine through blocking the primary events. Methods: This trial included five animal groups: sham irradiation, irradiation only, and three treatment groups. The whole brain of BALB/C mouse was irradiated with 22 Gy by using a 6 MV linear accelerator. Step down method was used to evaluate the study and memory abilities. Mouse weight was also recorded every week before and after irradiation. On D90, all mice alive were euthanized and Glee's silver dye method and Bielschousky silver dye method were used to detect the senile plaque and the neurofibrillary tangle. One-Way ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences among the groups in the various aspects of study and memory abilities as well as quality of life. Kaplan-Meier was used to evaluate the survival. Log-rank was used to detect the differences among the survival groups. Results: 1. There was no significant difference in survival among the treatment groups, even though Salvia Miltiorrhiza (SM) was able to improve the quality of life. As to the cognition function, it was shown that whole brain radiation would make a severe cognition damage with the learning and memorizing ability of the irradiated mice being worse than those of the sham irradiation group. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Salvia Miltiorrhiza possesses the role of a protective agent against cognition function damage induced by irradiation. 2. Glee's silver dye and Bielschousky silver dye show much more senile plaque and the neurofibrillary tangle in brain tissue of R group and R + 654-2 group than those in the R + SM group. Conclusions: Salvia Miltiorrhiza is able to protect the mouse from cognition function damage induced by irradiation and improve the quality of life by ameliorating the primary events, though it does not improve the survival

2004-01-01

96

In vitro and in vivo protective effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor against radiation-induced intestinal injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal injury is a major cause of death after high-dose radiation exposure. The use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to treat radiation injury has focused on enhancing recovery from hematopoietic radiation syndrome. We evaluated G-CSF for its ability to protect against radiation-induced intestinal injury in rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) and BALB/c mouse models. For in vitro tests, pre-radiation addition of G-CSF to IEC-6 prevented cytotoxicity and the loss of cell viability. Pre-radiation G-CSF treatment also reduced radiation-induced cleavage of caspase-3 and p53 in IEC-6. For in vivo tests, examination 12 h after abdominal irradiation showed that G-CSF-treated mice were protected against apoptosis of the jejunal crypts. G-CSF-treated mice also showed attenuated intestinal morphological changes 3.5 days after abdominal radiation (10 Gy). G-CSF also reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? after radiation. This study showed that G-CSF may protect against radiation-induced intestinal damage through its anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects. These results suggest that G-CSF is promising candidate for protection against intestinal mucosal injury following irradiation. PMID:23728838

Kim, Joong-Sun; Yang, Miyoung; Lee, Chang-Geun; Kim, Sung-Dae; Kim, Jung-Ki; Yang, Kwangmo

2013-06-01

97

In vitro and in vivo protective effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor against radiation-induced intestinal injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intestinal injury is a major cause of death after high-dose radiation exposure. The use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to treat radiation injury has focused on enhancing recovery from hematopoietic radiation syndrome. We evaluated G-CSF for its ability to protect against radiation-induced intestinal injury in rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) and BALB/c mouse models. For in vitro tests, pre-radiation addition of G-CSF to IEC-6 prevented cytotoxicity and the loss of cell viability. Pre-radiation G-CSF treatment also reduced radiation-induced cleavage of caspase-3 and p53 in IEC-6. For in vivo tests, examination 12 h after abdominal irradiation showed that G-CSF-treated mice were protected against apoptosis of the jejunal crypts. G-CSF-treated mice also showed attenuated intestinal morphological changes 3.5 days after abdominal radiation (10 Gy). G-CSF also reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? after radiation. This study showed that G-CSF may protect against radiation-induced intestinal damage through its anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects. These results suggest that G-CSF is promising candidate for protection against intestinal mucosal injury following irradiation.

Kim JS; Yang M; Lee CG; Kim SD; Kim JK; Yang K

2013-06-01

98

Protection against radiation-induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The protective effects of Mentha piperita leaf extract against radiation-induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given M. piperita leaf extract orally (1 g/kg body weight/day) for three consecutive days before radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma-radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days after irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, and acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. Radiation treatment showed reduction in the testis weight during all days of observation, however, in the M. piperita leaf extract-pretreated irradiated group there was a significant increase in testis weight. Radiation treatment induced moderate to severe testicular atrophy with degeneration of germ cells in seminiferous tubules. The tubules were shrunken and greatly depleted of germ cells. Sertoli cells with few germ cells were observed in the lumen. However, animals pre-treated with M. piperita leaf extract and exposed to radiation showed normal testicular morphology with regular arrangement of germ cells and slight degeneration of seminiferous epithelium. Significant decreases in the lipid peroxidation and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The M. piperita leaf extract showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonols. The results of the present study suggest that M. piperita has a significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, the content of flavonoids and flavonols of M. piperita leaf extract may be held responsible for radioprotective effect due to their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

Samarth RM; Samarth M

2009-04-01

99

Silymarin protects epidermal keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis and DNA damage by nucleotide excision repair mechanism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a well recognized epidemiologic risk factor for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. This observation has been linked to the accumulation of UVB radiation-induced DNA lesions in cells, and that finally lead to the development of skin cancers. Earlier, we have shown that topical treatment of skin with silymarin, a plant flavanoid from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), inhibits photocarcinogenesis in mice; however it is less understood whether chemopreventive effect of silymarin is mediated through the repair of DNA lesions in skin cells and that protect the cells from apoptosis. Here, we show that treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) with silymarin blocks UVB-induced apoptosis of NHEK in vitro. Silymarin reduces the amount of UVB radiation-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by reduced amounts of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and as measured by comet assay, and that ultimately may lead to reduced apoptosis of NHEK. The reduction of UV radiation-induced DNA damage by silymarin appears to be related with induction of nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes, because UV radiation-induced apoptosis was not blocked by silymarin in NER-deficient human fibroblasts. Cytostaining and dot-blot analysis revealed that silymarin repaired UV-induced CPDs in NER-proficient fibroblasts from a healthy individual but did not repair UV-induced CPD-positive cells in NER-deficient fibroblasts from patients suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum complementation-A disease. Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that silymarin did not reduce the number of UVB-induced sunburn/apoptotic cells in the skin of NER-deficient mice, but reduced the number of sunburn cells in their wild-type counterparts. Together, these results suggest that silymarin exert the capacity to reduce UV radiation-induced DNA damage and, thus, prevent the harmful effects of UV radiation on the genomic stability of epidermal cells.

Katiyar SK; Mantena SK; Meeran SM

2011-01-01

100

Investigations of antioxidant-mediated protection and mitigation of radiation-induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in murine skin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Purpose: Radioprotection and mitigation effects of the antioxidants, Eukarion (EUK)-207, curcumin, and the curcumin analogs D12 and D68, on radiation-induced DNA damage or lipid peroxidation in murine skin were investigated. These antioxidants were studied because they have been previously reported to protect or mitigate against radiation-induced skin reactions. Methods: DNA damage was assessed using two different assays. A cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (MN) assay was performed on primary skin fibroblasts harvested from the skin of C3H/HeJ male mice 1 day, 1 week and 4 weeks after 5 Gy or 10 Gy irradiation. Local skin or whole body irradiation (100 kVp X-rays or caesium (Cs)-137 ?-rays respectively) was performed. DNA damage was further quantified in keratinocytes by immunofluorescence staining of ?-histone 2AX (?-H2AX) foci in formalin-fixed skin harvested 1 hour or 1 day post-whole body irradiation. Radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in the skin was investigated at the same time points as the MN assay by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) with a Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Results: None of the studied antioxidants showed significant mitigation of skin DNA damage induced by local irradiation. However, when EUK-207 or curcumin were delivered before irradiation they provided some protection against DNA damage. In contrast, all the studied antioxidants demonstrated significant mitigating and protecting effects on radiation-induced lipid peroxidation at one or more of the three time points after local skin irradiation. Conclusion: Our results show no evidence for mitigation of DNA damage by the antioxidants studied in contrast to mitigation of lipid peroxidation. Since these agents have been reported to mitigate skin reactions following irradiation, the data suggest that changes in lipid peroxidation levels in skin may reflect developing skin reactions better than residual post-irradiation DNA damage in skin cells. Further direct comparison studies are required to confirm this inference from the data.

Jelveh S; Kaspler P; Bhogal N; Mahmood J; Lindsay PE; Okunieff P; Doctrow SR; Bristow RG; Hill RP

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
101

Studies on protective effects of superoxide dismutase on radiation induced-chromosomal aberrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study demonstrates that radiation induced-chromosomal aberrations are not only due to the direct effect of radiation hit, but the indirect effect of free radical as well. Therefore, chromosome damage induced by radiation may be reduced by adding exogenous SOD into the radiation exposed lymphocyte culture to eliminate the superoxide free radical which damages DNA. On the other hand, however, the radiosensitivity of lymphocytes can be raised by adding SOD inhibitor (DDC) into the lymphocyte culture, which makes radiation induced-chromosomal damages more severely

1987-01-01

102

Caffeine potentiates or protects against radiation-induced DNA and chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes depending on temperature and concentration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of caffeine on radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations and DNA strand breaks in unstimulated human lymphocytes was investigated. When present prior to and during the radiation exposure, caffeine treatment was found to cause either potentiation or protection against induction of chromosomal aberrations depending on the concentration and temperature. When the nucleoid sedimentation technique was applied, enhancement or reduction of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks by caffeine was also found to be dependent on temperature and caffeine concentration. It is proposed that caffeine, in addition to its suspected ability to influence DNA repair, can also influence the induction of DNA damage, leading to alterations in the yield of chromosomal aberrations. PMID:7526181

Stoilov, L M; Mullenders, L H; Natarajan, A T

1994-12-01

103

Esomeprazole for prevention and resolution of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients treated with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular protection: the OBERON trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is recommended for prevention of cardiovascular events in at-risk patients, its long-term use can be associated with the risk of peptic ulcer and upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that may impact treatment compliance. This prespecified secondary analysis of the OBERON study (NCT00441727) determined the efficacy of esomeprazole for prevention/resolution of low-dose ASA-associated upper GI symptoms. A post hoc analysis of predictors of symptom prevention/resolution was also conducted. Helicobacter pylori-negative patients taking low-dose ASA (75-325 mg) for cardiovascular protection who had ?1 upper GI risk factor were eligible. The patients were randomized to once-daily esomeprazole 40 mg, 20 mg, or placebo, for 26 weeks; 2303 patients (mean age 67.6 years; 36% aged >70 years) were evaluable for upper GI symptoms. The proportion of patients with dyspeptic or reflux symptoms (self-reported Reflux Disease Questionnaire) was significantly lower (P esomeprazole versus in those treated with placebo. Treatment with esomeprazole (P 70 years (P esomeprazole is effective in preventing and resolving patient-reported upper GI symptoms in low-dose ASA users at increased GI risk. PMID:23188121

Scheiman, James M; Herlitz, Johan; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander J; Lanas, Angel; Agewall, Stefan; Nauclér, Emma C; Svedberg, Lars-Erik; Nagy, Péter

2013-03-01

104

Esomeprazole for prevention and resolution of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients treated with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular protection: the OBERON trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is recommended for prevention of cardiovascular events in at-risk patients, its long-term use can be associated with the risk of peptic ulcer and upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that may impact treatment compliance. This prespecified secondary analysis of the OBERON study (NCT00441727) determined the efficacy of esomeprazole for prevention/resolution of low-dose ASA-associated upper GI symptoms. A post hoc analysis of predictors of symptom prevention/resolution was also conducted. Helicobacter pylori-negative patients taking low-dose ASA (75-325 mg) for cardiovascular protection who had ?1 upper GI risk factor were eligible. The patients were randomized to once-daily esomeprazole 40 mg, 20 mg, or placebo, for 26 weeks; 2303 patients (mean age 67.6 years; 36% aged >70 years) were evaluable for upper GI symptoms. The proportion of patients with dyspeptic or reflux symptoms (self-reported Reflux Disease Questionnaire) was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in those treated with esomeprazole versus in those treated with placebo. Treatment with esomeprazole (P < 0.0001), age >70 years (P < 0.01), and the absence of upper GI symptoms at baseline (P < 0.0001) were all factors associated with prevention/resolution of upper GI symptoms. Together, these analyses demonstrate that esomeprazole is effective in preventing and resolving patient-reported upper GI symptoms in low-dose ASA users at increased GI risk.

Scheiman JM; Herlitz J; Veldhuyzen van Zanten SJ; Lanas A; Agewall S; Nauclér EC; Svedberg LE; Nagy P

2013-03-01

105

Protective effects of fucoidan against ?-radiation-induced damage of blood cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from brown algae including Fucus vesiculosus and Laminaria japonica, has a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant and antitumor activities. Here, we investigated the radioprotective effects of fucoidan on human monoblastic leukemia cell line U937. Further, animal tests were carried out using Balb/c mice in order to determine the radiation-induced changes in the counts of blood cells, including thrombocytes, erythrocytes, leukocytes and hematocrit. Cell viability was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, wherein fucoidan (1, 10, and 100 ?g/mL) was observed to improve recovery from damage caused by 8-Gy radiation in a dose dependent manner. The viability of U937 cells pre-treated with fucoidan also increased in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, fucoidan at 100 mg/kg was found to protect against changes in the counts of blood cells as follows: on day 28 after irradiation, the thrombocyte count in the irradiated controls decreased to 45% compared with the non-irradiated controls, while that in the fucoidan-treated group was 60%. The hematocrit in the fucoidan-treated group recovered to 75% on day 28, while that in the irradiated control was 68%. The erythrocyte count in the irradiated controls consistently ranged from 64% to 67% throughout the experiment, but that in the fucoidan-treated group increased gradually, ranging from 75% to 80%. The mean number of survival days and 50-day actuarial survival rate increased dose dependently in the fucoidan-treated group. The mean number of survival days and the 50-day actuarial survival rate in this group was 16, 21, and 29 days and 12%, 20%, and 30% at fucoidan doses of 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg. The values of these parameters in the control group were 9 days and 0%, although the difference between the test and control groups was not statistically significant. Our results may prove valuable in the field of radioprotection.

Rhee KH; Lee KH

2011-04-01

106

Protective Effects of Lycopene on the ?-radiation Induced Chromosomal Damage and Cell Killing in Cultured Human Fibroblast Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Lycopene is one of the most potent antioxidants. It is a red, fat soluble pigment found in certain plants and microorganisms. Several studies have demonstrated the ability of lycopene to protect the cells from ionizing radiation induced damage, however, the mechanisms involved are remained to be clear. In the present study, we investigated the radioprotective effect of lycopene on ?-radiation induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human cultured fibroblasts. Subjects and Methods: In irradiated groups fibroblast cells were irradiated with 1, 2 and 4Gy. In lycopene groups fibroblast cells were pretreated with different concentrations of lycopene (2, 10 and 20uM) then exposed to different doses of gamma radiation. The extent of cytotoxicity was determined by colony formation assay. The level of genotoxicity was detected by analysis of chromosmome breaks. Results: Using colony formation assay, we observed the increase in cell killing with the increase in ?-radiation dose (1, 2 and 4Gy). Pre-treatment with lycopene (2, 10 and 20?M) restored the cell survival, suggesting that lycopene can protect the cells from killing by ionizing radiation. Similarly, lycopene significantly diminished the level of chromosome and chromatid breaks induced by gamma radiations. The maximum protection of fibroblast cells was observed at 10?M of lycopene pretreatment. Conclusion: Data showed that pretreatment with lycopene reduced the level of cell killing and chromosomal breaks and this protecive activity was dependent on the concentration of lycopene. Our finding indicate that lycopene protects human cells from radiation-induced genomic instability, and can reduce the cancerogenic effect of ionizing radiation.Sci Med J 2011;10(5):573-81

AH Saberi; M Kowsari

2011-01-01

107

Protection from radiation induced damages to biological system in mice exposed to whole body ?-radiation by phytophenol gallic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Ionizing radiation can induce various deleterious effects on mammalian system. Radiation induced suppression of hematopoiesis and immune function has been considered to be one of the most life-threatening consequences of radiation exposure, and radiation-induced damages in vital cellular targets such as genomic DNA and membranes preventing the normal growth and proliferation of the cells are responsible for other deleterious consequences. The present study is aimed to evaluate radioprotecting ability of the natural polyphenol, gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) in Swiss albino mice exposed to , whole body gamma radiation. Radiation induced damages in cellular DNA of different tissues were analyzed by alkaline comet assay; genotoxicity was assessed by micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberrations analysis. The bone marrow cellularity, WBC counts and spleen colony formation were also monitored in mice orally administered with GA prior to whole body ?-radiation exposure. Exposure of mice to whole body gamma-radiation resulted in the formation of micronuclei in blood reticulocytes and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. The oral administration of GA resulted in the inhibition of micronucleus formation, chromosomal aberrations, and also showed an enhancement in the rate of cellular DNA repair process in irradiated animals. There was a significant increase in bone marrow cellularity, WBC counts and endogenous spleen colony formation following GA administration, in animals administered with GA and exposed to whole body gamma-radiation. The results from the study reveal the significant protection offered by phytopolyphenol gallic acid to mammalian system on radiation exposure. (author)

2013-01-01

108

Protection against radiation induced biochemical changes in cerebrum of Swiss albino mice by Grewia asiatica fruit extract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of Grewia asiatica fruit pulp extract (GAE) on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. In the present study radioprotective efficacy of Grewia asiatica (rich in anthocyanin, carotenes, Vit.C, etc.) was studied against radiation induced biochemical alterations in mice cerebrum. For experimental study, healthy Swiss Albino mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. Group I (normal) did not receive any treatment. Group II was orally supplemented (GAE) once daily at the dose of 700 mg/Kg.b.wt/day for fifteen consecutive days. Group III (control) received distilled water orally equivalent to GAE for fifteen days than exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation. Group IV (IR+Drug) was administered orally (GAE) for 15 consecutive days once daily after exposed to single dose of 5Gy of gamma radiation respectively. Mice were sacrificed at different autopsy intervals viz. 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days and cerebrum were removed for various biochemical estimations viz. glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein. GAE post treatment renders protection against various biochemical changes in mice cerebrum. Radiation induced augmentation in the levels of LPO was significantly ameliorated by GAE post-treatment. Radiation-induced depletion in the level of GSH, protein was checked significantly by GAE administration

2007-01-01

109

The polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C60(OH)24 protects mice from ionizing-radiation-induced immune and mitochondrial dysfunction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the protective effect of the polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C60(OH)n against ionizing radiation is an area of much interest, the mechanisms relating to how polyhydroxylated fullerene derivatives improve mitochondrial dysfunction remain unknown. In order to find new and effective radioprotective agents, we synthesized a new polyhydroxylated fullerene molecule with 24 hydroxyl groups of known positions on C60 and studied its protective effects in mice subjected to irradiation. Mice were pretreated with C60(OH)24 for 2 weeks (daily, 40 mg/kg i. p.), then subjected to a lethal dose of whole body ?-irradiation (from a 60Co source). Survival was observed for 30 days after irradiation. Immune and mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage were analyzed in mice with the same C60(OH)24 pretreatment and irradiation except that the animals were euthanized at day 5 after the irradiation. It was found that 2-week C60(OH)24 pretreatment effectively reduced whole body irradiation-induced mortality without apparent toxicity. C60(OH)24 pretreatment also showed significant protective effects against ionizing-radiation-induced decreases in immune and mitochondrial function and antioxidant defense in the liver and spleen. These results suggest that the polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C60(OH)24 protects against ionizing-radiation-induced mortality, possibly by enhancing immune function, decreasing oxidative damage and improving mitochondrial function.

2000-01-00

110

Protective effect of polysaccharide-protein complex from a polypore mushroom, Phellinus rimosus against radiation-induced oxidative stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Ionizing radiation induces severe oxidative stress in the body resulting an imbalance in prooxidant and antioxidant status in the cell. The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of polysaccharide protein complex (PPC-Pr) isolated from the mushroom Phellinus rimosus against the oxidative stress induced by gamma radiation. METHODOLOGY: PPC-Pr complex was isolated from the aqueous extracts of P. rimosus. The complex was administered to Swiss albino mice at a concentration of 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally for 5 days consecutively and exposed to 4 Gy of gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 1 day after irradiation and the antioxidant parameters such as glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase as well as lipid peroxidation were evaluated in both liver and brain tissues to evaluate oxidative stress. Amifostine, a standard radioprotective agent, was used as a positive control. In vitro DNA damage was assessed using the comet assay. Survival studies were also carried out to determine the protective role of PPC-Pr against radiation-induced delayed oxidative stress. RESULTS: PPC-Pr treatment enhanced the declined levels of antioxidants and comet parameters to a significant level, indicating its antioxidant as well as DNA protecting potential. Significant increase in the survival rate of animals was also observed in irradiated animals treated with PPC-Pr complex. The results were comparable to the standard drug amifostine. DISCUSSION: The results indicate profound effects of PPC-Pr against radiation-induced oxidative stress. The findings suggest potential therapeutic use of PPC-Pr in radiotherapy.

Joseph J; Panicker SN; Janardhanan KK

2012-01-01

111

Low dose gamma irradiation enhances defined signaling components of intercellular reactive oxygen-mediated apoptosis induction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transformed cells are selectively removed by intercellular ROS-mediated induction of apoptosis. Signaling is based on the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite pathway (major pathways) and the nitryl chloride and the metal-catalyzed Haber-Weiss pathway (minor pathways). During tumor progression, resistance against intercellular induction of apoptosis is acquired through expression of membrane-associated catalase. Low dose radiation of nontransformed cells has been shown to enhance intercellular induction of apoptosis. The present study was performed to define the signaling components which are modulated by low dose gamma irradiation. Low dose radiation induced the release of peroxidase from nontransformed, transformed and tumor cells. Extracellular superoxide anion generation was strongly enhanced in the case of transformed cells and tumor cells, but not in nontransformed cells. Enhancement of peroxidase release and superoxide anion generation either increased intercellular induction of apoptosis of transformed cells, or caused a partial protection under specific signaling conditions. In tumor cells, low dose radiation enhanced the production of major signaling components, but this had no effect on apoptosis induction, due to the strong resistance mechanism of tumor cells. Our data specify the nature of low dose radiation-induced effects on specific signaling components of intercellular induction of apoptosis at defined stages of multistep carcinogenesis.

2011-01-01

112

Hydrogen-rich PBS protects cultured human cells from ionizing radiation/induced cellular damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydroxyl radicals play an important role in ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage, while hydrogen can selectively reduce hydroxyl radicals in vitro. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that hydrogen-rich PBS may be an effective radioprotective agent in vitro. Compared to cells pretreated without hydrogen, we demonstrated that treating cells with hydrogen-rich PBS before irradiation could significantly inhibit IR-induced apoptosis, increase viability of human intestinal crypt cells, significantly increase endogenous antioxidant, and decrease malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine concentrations of human lymphocyte AHH-1 cells. It is concluded that hydrogen has a potential as an effective and safe radioprotective agent. (author)

2010-01-01

113

Hydrogen-rich PBS protects cultured human cells from ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydroxyl radicals play an important role in ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage, while hydrogen can selectively reduce hydroxyl radicals in vitro. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that hydrogen-rich PBS may be an effective radioprotective agent in vitro. Compared to cells pretreated without hydrogen, we demonstrated that treating cells with hydrogen-rich PBS before irradiation could significantly inhibit IR-induced apoptosis, increase viability of human intestinal crypt cells, significantly increase endogenous antioxidant, and decrease malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine concentrations of human lymphocyte AHH-1 cells. It is concluded that hydrogen has a potential as an effective and safe radioprotective agent.

Qian Liren; Li Bailong; Cao Fei; Huang Yuecheng; Liu Shulin; Cai Jianming; Gao Fu

2010-01-01

114

Protective effect of superoxide dismutase in radiation-induced intestinal inflammation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To analyze the therapeutic value of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) supplementation in an experimental model of radiation-induced intestinal inflammation and explore its mechanistic effects. Methods and materials: Mice were subjected to abdominal irradiation with 10 Gy or sham irradiation and studied 24 or 72 hours after radiation. Groups of mice were treated with 0.1, 4, or 6 mg/kg/day of SOD1 or vehicle. Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in intestinal venules were assessed by intravital microscopy. Endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was determined with radiolabeled antibodies. Effects of SOD1 on histologic damage and levels of lipid hydroperoxides were also measured. Results: A significant increase in the flux of rolling leukocytes and number of firmly adherent leukocytes in intestinal venules was observed at 24 and 72 hours after irradiation. Treatment with SOD1 had no effect on leukocyte rolling but significantly and dose-dependently decreased firm leukocyte adhesion to intestinal venules. Treatment with SOD1 at doses that reduced leukocyte recruitment abrogated the increase in hydroperoxides in intestinal tissue and ICAM-1 upregulation in intestinal endothelial cells. The inflammatory score, but not a combined histology damage score, was also significantly reduced by SOD1. Conclusions: Treatment with SOD1 decreases oxidative stress and adhesion molecule upregulation in response to abdominal irradiation. This is associated with an attenuation of the radiation-induced intestinal inflammatory response.

2005-03-15

115

New risk estimates at low doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The age of molecular radiation epidemiology may be at hand. The techniques are available to establish with the degree of precision required to determine whether agent-specific mutations can be identified consistently. A concerted effort to examine radiation-induced changes in as many relevant genes as possible appears to be justified. Cancers in those exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation should be chosen for the investigation. Parallel studies of radiation-induced cancers in experimental animals would not only complement the human studies, but perhaps reveal approaches to extrapolation of risk estimates across species. A caveat should be added to this optimistic view of what molecular studies might contribute to the knotty problem of risk estimates at low doses. The suggestions are made by one with no expertise in the field of molecular biology

1992-01-01

116

Synergistic protective effects of escin and low?dose glucocorticoids on blood?retinal barrier breakdown in a rat model of retinal ischemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Escin, a natural mixture of triterpenoid saponins isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), has been demonstrated to possess glucocorticoid (GC)?like anti?edematous and anti?in?ammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether escin exhibits synergistic protective effects on blood?retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown when combined with GCs in a rat model of retinal ischemia. Low concentrations of escin and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) alone did not affect BRB permeability. However, when administered together, low?dose escin and TA significantly reduced BRB permeability following ischemia. Furthermore, low?dose escin and TA alone did not affect the expression of occludin in the ischemic retina; however, when administered together, they significantly increased occludin expression in the ganglion cell layer of the ischemic retina. This indicates that escin and GCs have synergistic protective effects on BRB breakdown and the molecular mechanisms may be correlated with the upregulation of occludin. Therefore, the administration of escin may allow a reduction in the dose of GCs for the treatment of macular edema. The combination of escin with GCs is potentially a beneficial treatment method for BRB breakdown and warrants further investigation. PMID:23525122

Zhang, Fenglan; Li, Yuanbin; Zhang, Leiming; Mu, Guoying

2013-03-15

117

Protective effect of recombinant protein SOD-TAT on radiation-induced lung injury in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Radiation-induced lung injury is one of the limiting factors for radiation therapy. SOD-TAT, a fusion protein of HIV-1 Tat protein transduction domain and hCuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), has been proved to be effective in preventing and treating the damage of the skin of guinea pigs by UVB radiation. In this study, we demonstrated SOD-TAT's radioprotective effects on lung injury in irradiated mice. MAIN METHODS: SOD-TAT was purified from yeast culture with ion exchange chromatography. Kunming mice were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, a group injected with wild SOD and a group injected with SOD-TAT. Pulmonary SOD activity of mice was determined 4.5h after injection. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, an irradiation group, an irradiation group treated with amifostine 0.5h before the irradiation and an irradiation group treated with SOD-TAT 4.5h before irradiation. The monthly growth rate of every mouse's weight was calculated and the level of hydroxyproline content and antioxidant activity in lung were determined 5 months after irradiation. KEY FINDINGS: SOD-TAT was transduced into the lung in vivo. SOD-TAT pretreatment could improve the growth rate of irradiated mice, significantly reduce the pulmonary hydroxyproline content, and maintain the SOD activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and total anti-oxidation capacity (T-AOC). Compared with amifostine, SOD-TAT was more effective in increasing the activities of pulmonary antioxidant enzymes. SIGNIFICANCE: Compared with amifostine, SOD-TAT treatment more effectively enhanced pulmonary antioxidant ability, reduced radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and improved the living quality of irradiated mice.

Pan J; Su Y; Hou X; He H; Liu S; Wu J; Rao P

2012-08-01

118

Protection by S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid against radiation-induced leg contractures in mice. [Gamma Radiation  

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S-2-(3-Aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) was shown to provide marked protection against development of radiation-induced leg contractures in C3Hf/Kam mice whose legs were exposed to single doses of gamma-radiation. The radiation doses ranged from 3300 to 6200 rads delivered to the right hind thighs from two parallelly opposed 137Cs sources. WR-2721 was given i.p. 30 min before irradiation. The severity of radiation-induced leg contractures in untreated and WR-2721-treated mice was followed for 342 days after irradiation. The degree of leg contractures in both control and WR-2721-treated mice increased up to 100 days after radiation, when the change stabilized, remaining more or less at the same level to the end of the observation period. During this entire period, the severity of contractures was less in WR-2721-treated mice. The dose-modifying factor for the level of 5 mm reduction in leg extension was 1.5 at 182 days after irradiation. Since WR-2721 did not prevent the radiocurability of 8-mm fibrosarcomas growing in the same legs, these data imply that WR-2721 has a high potential for increasing therapeutic gain when combined with irradiation in the treatment of tumors of an appreciable size.

Hunter, N.; Milas, L.

1983-04-01

119

Protection by S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid against radiation-induced leg contractures in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

S-2-(3-Aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) was shown to provide marked protection against development of radiation-induced leg contractures in C3Hf/Kam mice whose legs were exposed to single doses of gamma-radiation. The radiation doses ranged from 3300 to 6200 rads delivered to the right hind thighs from two parallelly opposed 137Cs sources. WR-2721 was given i.p. 30 min before irradiation. The severity of radiation-induced leg contractures in untreated and WR-2721-treated mice was followed for 342 days after irradiation. The degree of leg contractures in both control and WR-2721-treated mice increased up to 100 days after radiation, when the change stabilized, remaining more or less at the same level to the end of the observation period. During this entire period, the severity of contractures was less in WR-2721-treated mice. The dose-modifying factor for the level of 5 mm reduction in leg extension was 1.5 at 182 days after irradiation. Since WR-2721 did not prevent the radiocurability of 8-mm fibrosarcomas growing in the same legs, these data imply that WR-2721 has a high potential for increasing therapeutic gain when combined with irradiation in the treatment of tumors of an appreciable size

1983-01-01

120

Bystander effects and biota: implications of radiation-induced bystander effects for protection of the environment from ionising radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Bystander effects are now known to be induced by both high and low LET in a variety of cells in culture. They have been proven to occur in vivo in mice following 0.5Gy total body irradiation and in blood from humans being treated for cancer by radiotherapy. Effects have also been detected in fish, crustacea and molluscs. The important questions now are not whether bystander effects occur but why and what implications they have, if any, for radiation protection. Different species and different genetic backgrounds within a species produce different types of bystander effect, different organs also produce different effects. This paper will review the data in this field and will discuss likely implications for protection of man and non-human biota. In particular it will look at the potential long-term outcomes for different organisational levels, from cell to ecosystem, of bystander mechanisms. In view of new concerns about the effects of low level radiation on non-human biota, emphasis will be placed on considering how bystander effects might operate at chronic low doses versus acute accidental low doses. Problems of radiation interaction with chemicals, whether chemicals can also induce 'bystander effects' , and how regulators might handle these situations which occur all the time in real environments, will be presented for discussion. Finally the paper will discuss likely implications of these mechanisms for evolutionary biology

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Protective action of testosterone propionate and vitamin E for recovery from radiation induced changes in serum nitrogen of irradiated rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A mixture of testosterone propionate and vitamin E has no influence on the serum protein nitrogen of rats. It was found that the intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg testosterone propionate and 10 mg vitamin E/100 g body weigh, or even ten times more than this concentration, could not exert any toxic effects. When this mixture was used as radioprotector, the rats were injected 10 days before whole body gamma -irradiation by dose of 5.5 Gy. These changes were characterized by significant increase in both protein and nonprotein nitrogen levels all post-irradiation periods. Testosterone mixture succeeded in providing complete protection for the radiation induced changes in the contents of protein nitrogen in the serum of irradiated rats. The significant changes which were recorded in irradiated rats ultimately disappeared 3 days after whole body gamma-irradiation of rats, previously treated with the mixture of testosterone and vitamin E.1 fig

1991-01-01

122

Protective role of 3-nitrotyrosine against gamma radiation-induced DNA strand breaks: A comparison study with tyrosine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

3-Nitrotyrosine(3-NY) has been reported as a potential source of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). In this work, plasmid pBR322 DNA was irradiated by gamma rays in aqueous solution in presence and absence of 3-NY, DNA strand breaks were analyzed by neutral electrophoresis followed by quantification with image analysis software. It was found that the presence of 3-NY could effectively reduce radiation-induced DNA strand breaks. A side-by-side comparison was performed between 3-NY and tyrosine, the results showed that the protective role 3-NY was comparable with tyrosine, which might imply that protein tyrosine nitration might not significantly decrease its ability as a free radical scavenger.

2008-01-01

123

Protective role of 3-nitrotyrosine against gamma radiation-induced DNA strand breaks: A comparison study with tyrosine  

Science.gov (United States)

3-Nitrotyrosine(3-NY) has been reported as a potential source of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). In this work, plasmid pBR322 DNA was irradiated by gamma rays in aqueous solution in presence and absence of 3-NY, DNA strand breaks were analyzed by neutral electrophoresis followed by quantification with image analysis software. It was found that the presence of 3-NY could effectively reduce radiation-induced DNA strand breaks. A side-by-side comparison was performed between 3-NY and tyrosine, the results showed that the protective role 3-NY was comparable with tyrosine, which might imply that protein tyrosine nitration might not significantly decrease its ability as a free radical scavenger.

Shi, Wei-Qun; Ni, Mei-Nan; Kong, Fu-Quan; Sui, Li; Hu, Jia; Xu, Dian-Dou; Li, Yan-Mei

2008-10-01

124

Protection against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The protective effects of Mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Mice were given either double distilled water or leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g/kg b.wt./day) once a day for three consecutive days, and after 30 min of treatments on the third day were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation. Mice were autopsied at 12, 24, 48 hrs and 5, 10 and 20 days post-irradiation to evaluate the percentage of bone marrow cells, frequency of micronuclei and erythropoietin level in serum. An exposure to gamma radiation resulted in a significant decline in the number of bone marrow cells such as leucoblasts, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band/stab forms, polymorphs, pronormoblasts and normoblasts, lymphocytes, and megakaryocytes. Pretreatment with leaf extract of M. piperita followed by radiation exposure resulted in significant increases in the numbers of leucoblasts, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band/stab forms, polymorphs, pronormoblasts and normoblasts, lymphocytes, and megakaryocytes in bone marrow as compared to the control group. Pretreatment with leaf extract of M. piperita followed by radiation exposure also resulted in significant decreases in micronucleus frequencies in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice. A significant increase in erythropoietin level was observed at all the studied intervals in leaf extract of M. piperita pretreated irradiated animals as compared to control animals (radiation alone). The results of the present investigation suggest the protective effects of leaf extract of M. piperita against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow may be attributed to the maintenance of erythropoietin (EPO) level in Swiss albino mice. (author)

2007-01-01

125

Small Molecular Inhibitor of Transforming Growth Factor-? Protects Against Development of Radiation-Induced Lung Injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine whether an anti-transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) type 1 receptor inhibitor (SM16) can prevent radiation-induced lung injury. Methods and Materials: One fraction of 28 Gy or sham radiotherapy (RT) was administered to the right hemithorax of Sprague-Dawley rats. SM16 was administered in the rat chow (0.07 g/kg or 0.15 g/kg) beginning 7 days before RT. The rats were divided into eight groups: group 1, control chow; group 2, SM16, 0.07 g/kg; group 3, SM16, 0.15 g/kg; group 4, RT plus control chow; group 5, RT plus SM16, 0.07 g/kg; group 6, RT plus SM16, 0.15 g/kg; group 7, RT plus 3 weeks of SM16 0.07 g/kg followed by control chow; and group 8, RT plus 3 weeks of SM16 0.15 g/kg followed by control chow. The breathing frequencies, presence of inflammation/fibrosis, activation of macrophages, and expression/activation of TGF-? were assessed. Results: The breathing frequencies in the RT plus SM16 0.15 g/kg were significantly lower than the RT plus control chow from Weeks 10-22 (p

2008-07-01

126

Protective effect of zingerone, a dietary compound against radiation induced damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioprotective potential of phenolic alkanone, Zingerone (ZO) was investigated using human peripheral blood lymphocytes as well as Chinese hamster fibroblast (V79) cells growing in vitro and in vivo by using Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. In the in vivo studies, mice were administered with ZO (10-100 mg/kg b.wt), once daily for five consecutive days. One hour after the last administration of ZO on the fifth day, animals were whole body exposed to 10 Gy gamma radiations. The radioprotective potential was assessed using animal survival, haemopoietic stem cell survival (CFU) assay, mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, histological observations of intestinal and bone marrow damage. Effect of ZO pretreatment on radiation-induced changes in glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPx) levels was also analyzed. ZO treatment resulted increase in the LD50/30 by 1.8 Gy (dose reduction factor = 1.2). The number of spleen colonies after whole body irradiation of mice (4.5 or 7.5 Gy) was increased when ZO was administered 1 h prior to irradiation. The histological observations indicated a decline in the villus height and crypt number with an increase in goblet and dead cell population in the irradiated group, which was normalized by pretreatment with ZO. A significant (p

2012-01-01

127

Radiation-induced adaptive response for protection against micronucleus formation and neoplastic transformation in C3H 10T1/2 mouse embryo cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have monitored the end points of cellular survival, micronucleus formation and neoplastic transformation frequency to assess adaptation to ionizing radiation in the C3H 10T1/2 mouse embryo cell system. Plateau-phase cells were pre-exposed to an adapting dose of 0.1 to 1.5 Gy low-dose-rate ? radiation 3.5 h prior to an acute challenge dose of 4 Gy. No adapting dose improved clonogenic survival detectably, whether the cells were plated immediately after the acute exposure or held in plateau phase for 3.5 h before plating. However, all chronic adapting doses resulted in both a reduction of micronucleus frequency in binucleate cells and about a twofold reduction in neoplastic transformation frequency per viable cell when cells were subsequently exposed to the 4-Gy challenge dose. Our data suggest that a low-dose-rate pre-exposure to ionizing radiation induces an adaptive response in C3H 10T1/2 cells, and that this response enhances DNA double-strand break repair when cells are subsequently exposed to a second radiation dose. This enhanced repair appears to be error-free since these adapted cells are also less susceptible to radiation-induced neoplastic transformation. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

1994-01-01

128

Radiation-induced adaptive response for protection against micronucleus formation and neoplastic transformation in C3H 10T1/2 mouse embryo cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have monitored the end points of cellular survival, micronucleus formation and neoplastic transformation frequency to assess adaptation to ionizing radiation in the C3H 10T1/2 mouse embryo cell system. Plateau-phase cells were pre-exposed to an adapting dose of 0.1 to 1.5 Gy low-dose-rate {gamma} radiation 3.5 h prior to an acute challenge dose of 4 Gy. No adapting dose improved clonogenic survival detectably, whether the cells were plated immediately after the acute exposure or held in plateau phase for 3.5 h before plating. However, all chronic adapting doses resulted in both a reduction of micronucleus frequency in binucleate cells and about a twofold reduction in neoplastic transformation frequency per viable cell when cells were subsequently exposed to the 4-Gy challenge dose. Our data suggest that a low-dose-rate pre-exposure to ionizing radiation induces an adaptive response in C3H 10T1/2 cells, and that this response enhances DNA double-strand break repair when cells are subsequently exposed to a second radiation dose. This enhanced repair appears to be error-free since these adapted cells are also less susceptible to radiation-induced neoplastic transformation. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

Azzam, E.I. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)]|[Univ. of Ottawa (Canada); Raaphorst, G.P. [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada); Mitchel, R.E.J. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)

1994-04-01

129

Low-dose CT of the paranasal sinuses with eye lens protection: effect on image quality and radiation dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of lens protection on image quality and radiation dose to the eye lenses in CT of the paranasal sinuses. In 127 patients referred to rule out sinusitis, an axial spiral CT with a lens protection placed on the patients eyes was obtained (1.5/2/1, 50 mAs, 120 kV). Coronal views were reconstructed at 5-mm interval. To quantify a subjective impression of image quality, three regions of interest within the eyeball were plotted along a line perpendicular to the protection at 2, 5, and 9 mm beneath skin level on the axial images. Additionally, dose reduction of a bismuth-containing latex shield was measured using a film-dosimetry technique. The average eyeball density was 17.97 HU (SD 3.7 HU). The relative increase in CT density was 180.6 (17.7), 103.3 (11.7), and 53.6 HU (9.2), respectively. There was no diagnostic information loss on axial and coronal views observed. Artifacts were practically invisible on images viewed in a bone window/level setting. The use of the shield reduced skin radiation from 7.5 to 4.5 mGy. The utilization of a radioprotection to the eye lenses in paranasal CT is a suitable and effective means of reducing skin radiation by 40%. (orig.)

2002-01-01

130

Functional analysis of molecular mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis, that are not mediated by DNA damages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The effects of low-dose irradiation pose new challenges on the radiation protection efforts. Enhanced cellular radiation sensitivity is displayed by disturbed cellular reactions and resulting damage like cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. Apoptosis serves as genetically determinate parameter for the individual radiation sensitivity. In the frame of the project the radiation-induced apoptosis was mechanistically investigated. Since ionizing radiation induced direct DNA damage and generates a reactive oxygen species, the main focus of the research was the differentiation and weighting of DNA damage mediated apoptosis and apoptosis caused by the reactive oxygen species (ROS).

2012-01-01

131

ß-cell specific overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 does not protect against multiple low dose streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes in mice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated the impact of ß-cell specific overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 (SOCS-3) on the development of multiple low dose streptozotocin (MLDSTZ) induced Type 1 diabetes and the possible mechanisms involved. MLDSTZ treatment was administered to RIP-SOCS-3 transgenic and wild-type (wt) mice and progression of hyperglycemia monitored. Isolated islets from both strains were exposed to human IL-1ß (25U/ml) or a combination of human IL-1ß (25U/ml) and murine IFN-¿ (1000U/ml) for 24h or 48h and we investigated the expression of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) mRNA in islet cells and secretion of IL-1Ra into culture medium. MLDSTZ treatment caused gradual hyperglycemia both in the wt mice and in the transgenic mice with the latter tending to be more sensitive. In vitro experiments on wt and transgenic islets did not reveal any differences in sensitivity to damaging effects of STZ. Exposure of wt islets to IL-1ß or IL-1ß+IFN-¿ seemed to lead to a failing IL-1Ra response from SOCS-3 transgenic islets. It could be that an increased expression of a possible protective molecule against ß-cell destruction may lead to a dampered response of another putative protective molecule. This may have counteracted a protective effect against MLDSTZ in SOCS-3 transgenic mice.

Börjesson, A; RØnn, S G

2011-01-01

132

Studies of ionising radiation induced bystander effects in 3D artificial tissue system and applications for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. The bystander effect cannot be comprehensively explained on the basis of a single cell reaction. It is well known that an organism is composed of different cell types that interact as functional units in a way to maintain normal tissue function. Therefore the radiation response is not simply the sum of cellular responses as assumed in classical radiobiology, predominantly from studies using cell cultures. Experimental models, which maintain tissue-like intercellular cell signalling and 3D structure, are essential for proper understanding of the bystander effect. Our work relates to experimentation with novel 3D artificial human tissue systems available from MatTek Corporation (Boston, USA). Air-liquid interface culture technique is used to grow artificial tissues, which allow to model conditions present in vivo. The Gray Cancer Institute (Northwood, UK) charged particle microbeam was used to irradiate tissue samples in a known pattern with a known number of 3He2+ particles or protons. After irradiation, the tissues models were incubated for 3 days, fixed in 10 % NBF, paraffin embedded and then sliced into 5 ?m histological sections located at varying distances from the plane of the irradiated cells. We studied in situ apoptosis and markers of differentiation. Significantly elevated bystander induced apoptosis was observed with 3'-OH DNA end-labelling based technique in 3D artificial tissue systems. Our results also suggested an importance of proliferation and differentiation status for bystander effect induction. A single 2 ?m location on tissue section was pre-irradiated with 1-10 3He2+ particles (5 MeV; LET 75 keV/?m) using microbeam system. Even although only a single region of the tissue section was targeted, thousands of additional cells were found to undergo bystander induced differentiation. This resulted in an overall increase in the fraction of differentiated cells for approximately 10-15 %, which are much greater than that observed for the induction of damage (not more than 1-2 % of apoptotic cells). Our theory is that the main functions of bystander effect are to decrease the risk of transformation in a multi cultural organism exposed to radiation by removing a group of potentially damaged cells via apoptosis and increased differentiation. (author)

2008-01-01

133

Inhibitory effect of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol on melanogenesis and its protective effect against UV-B radiation-induced cell damage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, potential inhibitory effect of 21 species of marine algae on melanogenesis was assessed via tyrosinase inhibitory effect. The Ishige okamurae extract tested herein evidenced profound tyrosinase inhibitory effect, compared to that exhibited by other marine algae extracts. Thus, I. okamurae was selected for use in further experiments, and was partitioned with different organic solvents. Profound tyrosinase inhibitory effect was detected in the ethyl acetate fraction, and the active compound was identified as the carmalol derivative, diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), which evidenced higher levels of activity than that of commercial whitening agent. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation was reduced by the addition of DPHC and cell viability was dose-dependently increased. Moreover, DPHC demonstrated strong protective properties against UV-B radiation via damaged DNA tail length and morphological changes in fibroblast. Hence, these results indicate that DPHC isolated from I. okamurae has potential whitening effects and prominent protective effects on UV-B radiation-induced cell damages which might be used in pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.

Heo SJ; Ko SC; Kang SM; Cha SH; Lee SH; Kang DH; Jung WK; Affan A; Oh C; Jeon YJ

2010-05-01

134

Potential protection of green tea polyphenols against 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation-induced injury on rat cortical neurons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) are harmful to public health, but the certain anti-irradiation mechanism is not clear yet. The present study was performed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea polyphenols against electromagnetic radiation-induced injury in the cultured rat cortical neurons. In this study, green tea polyphenols were used in the cultured cortical neurons exposed to 1800 MHz EMFs by the mobile phone. We found that the mobile phone irradiation for 24 h induced marked neuronal cell death in the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) and TUNEL (TdT mediated biotin-dUTP nicked-end labeling) assay, and protective effects of green tea polyphenols on the injured cortical neurons were demonstrated by testing the content of Bcl-2 Assaciated X protein (Bax) in the immunoprecipitation assay and Western blot assay. In our study results, the mobile phone irradiation-induced increases in the content of active Bax were inhibited significantly by green tea polyphenols, while the contents of total Bax had no marked changes after the treatment of green tea polyphenols. Our results suggested a neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols against the mobile phone irradiation-induced injury on the cultured rat cortical neurons.

Liu ML; Wen JQ; Fan YB

2011-10-01

135

Potential protection of green tea polyphenols against 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation-induced injury on rat cortical neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) are harmful to public health, but the certain anti-irradiation mechanism is not clear yet. The present study was performed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea polyphenols against electromagnetic radiation-induced injury in the cultured rat cortical neurons. In this study, green tea polyphenols were used in the cultured cortical neurons exposed to 1800 MHz EMFs by the mobile phone. We found that the mobile phone irradiation for 24 h induced marked neuronal cell death in the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) and TUNEL (TdT mediated biotin-dUTP nicked-end labeling) assay, and protective effects of green tea polyphenols on the injured cortical neurons were demonstrated by testing the content of Bcl-2 Assaciated X protein (Bax) in the immunoprecipitation assay and Western blot assay. In our study results, the mobile phone irradiation-induced increases in the content of active Bax were inhibited significantly by green tea polyphenols, while the contents of total Bax had no marked changes after the treatment of green tea polyphenols. Our results suggested a neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols against the mobile phone irradiation-induced injury on the cultured rat cortical neurons. PMID:21293955

Liu, Mei-Li; Wen, Jian-Qiang; Fan, Yu-Bo

2011-02-04

136

Protective role of grape seed extract against radiation induced oxidative stress in rats: Role of endogenous antioxidants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of grape seed extract against ?-irradiation induced oxidative stress in hepatic tissue. Animals were divided into four groups; Control group, Grape seed extract (GSE) group: animals were administered GSE for 14 consecutive days (100 mg/kg). Irradiated (IRR) group: rats were received dist. water for 7 days and then rats were irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy and dist. water was maintained for 7 additional days. GSE-IRR group: rats were treated with GSE for 7 consecutive days, one hour later after the last dose of GSE, rats were irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy and GSE was maintained for 7 additional days. Administration of GSE for 14 consecutive days resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), in hepatic tissues which were reduced by radiation treatment. Also, GSE resulted in a significant decrease in total nitrate/nitrite (NO(x)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in hepatic tissues and a significant decrease in Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities and NO(x) level compared to irradiated group. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicate that GSE could increase the endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism in rat and thereby protect the animals from radiation-induced hepatotoxicity

2011-01-01

137

Relief with rapamycin: mTOR inhibition protects against radiation-induced mucositis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Iglesias-Bartolome et al. (2012) show that mTOR inhibition with rapamycin protects against mucositis in mice, suggesting potential treatment strategies against this harmful side effect of anticancer therapies. In normal tissues, rapamycin prevents epithelial stem cell senescence by reducing oxidative stress through increased MnSOD.

Finkel T

2012-09-01

138

Reduction in radiation-induced brain injury by use of pentobarbital or lidocaine protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine if barbiturates would protect brain at high doses of radiation, survival rates in rats that received whole-brain x-irradiation during pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia were compared with those of control animals that received no medication and of animals anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were shielded so that respiratory and digestive tissues would not be damaged by the radiation. Survival rates in rats that received whole-brain irradiation as a single 7500-rad dose under pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia was increased from between from 0% and 20% to between 45% and 69% over the 40 days of observation compared with the other two groups (p less than 0.007). Ketamine anesthesia provided no protection. There were no notable differential effects upon non-neural tissues, suggesting that pentobarbital afforded protection through modulation of ambient neural activity during radiation exposure. Neural suppression during high-dose cranial irradiation protects brain from acute and early delayed radiation injury. Further development and application of this knowledge may reduce the incidence of radiation toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and may permit the safe use of otherwise unsafe doses of radiation in patients with CNS neoplasms.

Oldfield, E.H.; Friedman, R.; Kinsella, T.; Moquin, R.; Olson, J.J.; Orr, K.; DeLuca, A.M. (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-05-01

139

Reduction in radiation-induced brain injury by use of pentobarbital or lidocaine protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine if barbiturates would protect brain at high doses of radiation, survival rates in rats that received whole-brain x-irradiation during pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia were compared with those of control animals that received no medication and of animals anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were shielded so that respiratory and digestive tissues would not be damaged by the radiation. Survival rates in rats that received whole-brain irradiation as a single 7500-rad dose under pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia was increased from between from 0% and 20% to between 45% and 69% over the 40 days of observation compared with the other two groups (p less than 0.007). Ketamine anesthesia provided no protection. There were no notable differential effects upon non-neural tissues, suggesting that pentobarbital afforded protection through modulation of ambient neural activity during radiation exposure. Neural suppression during high-dose cranial irradiation protects brain from acute and early delayed radiation injury. Further development and application of this knowledge may reduce the incidence of radiation toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and may permit the safe use of otherwise unsafe doses of radiation in patients with CNS neoplasms

1990-01-01

140

Subthreshold UV radiation-induced peroxide formation in cultured corneal epithelial cells: the protective effects of lactoferrin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acute exposure to suprathreshold ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) is known to cause photokeratitis resulting from the necrosis and shedding of corneal epithelial cells. However, the corneal effects of low dose UV-B in the environmental range is less clear. In this study, subthreshold UV-B was demonstrated to cause non-necrotic peroxide formation in cultured corneal epithelial cells, which was attenuated by the major tear protein lactoferrin. Intracellular oxidative insults and cell viability of rabbit corneal epithelial cells (RCEC) were assessed by dual-color digital microfluorography using carboxydichlorofluorescin (CDCFH) diacetate bis (acetoxymethyl) ester, a hydroperoxide-sensitive fluoroprobe, and propidium iodode (PI) respectively. The magnitude of UV-induced oxidative insults was calibrated by concentrations of exogenously applied H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which evoke compatible levels of CDCFH oxidation. Exposure of RCEC to low-dose UV-B (2.0 mJ cm{sup -2} at 313 nm, 10.0 mJ cm{sup -2} total UV-B) caused intracellular oxidative changes which were equivalent to those elicited by 240 {mu}M hydrogen peroxide under the conditions of the study. The changes were dose dependent, non-necrotic, and were partially inhibited by lactoferrin ( 1 mg ml{sup -1}) but not by iron-saturated lactoferrin. Pretreatment with deferoxamine (2 m{Mu}) or catalase (100 U ml{sup -1}) also attenuated the UV-induced oxidative stress. The results indicate that UV-B comparable to solar irradiation levels causes significant intracellular peroxide formation in corneal epithelial cells, and that lactoferrin in tears may have a physiological role in protecting the corneal epithelium from solar UV irradiation. (Author).

Shimmura, Shigeto; Suematsu, Makoto; Shimoyama, Masaru; Oguchi, Yoshihisa; Ishimura, Yuzuru [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Tsubota, Kazuo [Tokyo Dental Coll. (Japan)

1996-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

Subthreshold UV radiation-induced peroxide formation in cultured corneal epithelial cells: the protective effects of lactoferrin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acute exposure to suprathreshold ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) is known to cause photokeratitis resulting from the necrosis and shedding of corneal epithelial cells. However, the corneal effects of low dose UV-B in the environmental range is less clear. In this study, subthreshold UV-B was demonstrated to cause non-necrotic peroxide formation in cultured corneal epithelial cells, which was attenuated by the major tear protein lactoferrin. Intracellular oxidative insults and cell viability of rabbit corneal epithelial cells (RCEC) were assessed by dual-color digital microfluorography using carboxydichlorofluorescin (CDCFH) diacetate bis (acetoxymethyl) ester, a hydroperoxide-sensitive fluoroprobe, and propidium iodode (PI) respectively. The magnitude of UV-induced oxidative insults was calibrated by concentrations of exogenously applied H2O2 which evoke compatible levels of CDCFH oxidation. Exposure of RCEC to low-dose UV-B (2.0 mJ cm-2 at 313 nm, 10.0 mJ cm-2 total UV-B) caused intracellular oxidative changes which were equivalent to those elicited by 240 ?M hydrogen peroxide under the conditions of the study. The changes were dose dependent, non-necrotic, and were partially inhibited by lactoferrin ( 1 mg ml-1) but not by iron-saturated lactoferrin. Pretreatment with deferoxamine (2 m?) or catalase (100 U ml-1) also attenuated the UV-induced oxidative stress. The results indicate that UV-B comparable to solar irradiation levels causes significant intracellular peroxide formation in corneal epithelial cells, and that lactoferrin in tears may have a physiological role in protecting the corneal epithelium from solar UV irradiation. (Author).

1996-01-01

142

Subthreshold UV radiation-induced peroxide formation in cultured corneal epithelial cells: the protective effects of lactoferrin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute exposure to suprathreshold ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) is known to cause photokeratitis resulting from the necrosis and shedding of corneal epithelial cells. however, the corneal effects of low dose UV-B in the environmental range is less clear. In this study, subthreshold UV-B was demonstrated to cause non-necrotic peroxide formation in cultured corneal epithelial cells, which was attenuated by the major tear protein lactoferrin. Intracellular oxidative insults and cell viability of rabbit corneal epithelial cells (RCEC) were assessed by dual-color digital microfluorography using carboxydichlorofluorescin (CDCFH) diacetate bis (acetoxymethyl) ester, a hydroperoxide-sensitive fluoroprobe, and propidium iodide (PI), respectively. The magnitude of UV-induced oxidative insults was calibrated by concentrations of exogenously applied H2O2 which evoke compatible levels of CDCFH oxidation. Exposure of RCEC to low-dose UV-B (2.0 mJ cm-2 at 313 nm, 10.0 mJ cm-2 total UV-B) caused intracellular oxidative changes which were equivalent to those elicited by 240 microM hydrogen peroxide under the conditions of the study. The changes were dose dependent, non-necrotic, and were partially inhibited by lactoferrin (1 mg ml-1) but not by iron-saturated lactoferrin. Pretreatment with deferoxamine (2 mM) or catalase (100 U ml-1) also attenuated the UV-induced oxidative stress. The results indicate that UV-B comparable to solar irradiation levels causes significant intracellular peroxide formation in corneal epithelial cells, and that lactoferrin in tears may have a physiological role in protecting the corneal epithelium from solar UV irradiation. PMID:8994355

Shimmura, S; Suematsu, M; Shimoyama, M; Tsubota, K; Oguchi, Y; Ishimura, Y

1996-11-01

143

Subthreshold UV radiation-induced peroxide formation in cultured corneal epithelial cells: the protective effects of lactoferrin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acute exposure to suprathreshold ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) is known to cause photokeratitis resulting from the necrosis and shedding of corneal epithelial cells. however, the corneal effects of low dose UV-B in the environmental range is less clear. In this study, subthreshold UV-B was demonstrated to cause non-necrotic peroxide formation in cultured corneal epithelial cells, which was attenuated by the major tear protein lactoferrin. Intracellular oxidative insults and cell viability of rabbit corneal epithelial cells (RCEC) were assessed by dual-color digital microfluorography using carboxydichlorofluorescin (CDCFH) diacetate bis (acetoxymethyl) ester, a hydroperoxide-sensitive fluoroprobe, and propidium iodide (PI), respectively. The magnitude of UV-induced oxidative insults was calibrated by concentrations of exogenously applied H2O2 which evoke compatible levels of CDCFH oxidation. Exposure of RCEC to low-dose UV-B (2.0 mJ cm-2 at 313 nm, 10.0 mJ cm-2 total UV-B) caused intracellular oxidative changes which were equivalent to those elicited by 240 microM hydrogen peroxide under the conditions of the study. The changes were dose dependent, non-necrotic, and were partially inhibited by lactoferrin (1 mg ml-1) but not by iron-saturated lactoferrin. Pretreatment with deferoxamine (2 mM) or catalase (100 U ml-1) also attenuated the UV-induced oxidative stress. The results indicate that UV-B comparable to solar irradiation levels causes significant intracellular peroxide formation in corneal epithelial cells, and that lactoferrin in tears may have a physiological role in protecting the corneal epithelium from solar UV irradiation.

Shimmura S; Suematsu M; Shimoyama M; Tsubota K; Oguchi Y; Ishimura Y

1996-11-01

144

Protection from radiation-induced damage to spermatogenesis by hormone treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Infertility caused by killing of the spermatogonial stem cells occurs frequently in men treated for cancer with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We investigated whether pretreatment of rats with testosterone plus estradiol, which reversibly inhibits the completion of spermatogenesis and protects spermatogonial stem cells from procarbazine-induced damage, would also protect these cells from radiation. Adult male LBNF rats were implanted for 6 weeks with capsules containing testosterone and estradiol and then irradiated with doses from 2.5-7.0 Gy. Controls were irradiated with 1.8-3.5 Gy. Implants were removed 1 day after irradiation, and all animals were killed 10 weeks later for assessment of stem cell survival by counting repopulating tubules in histological sections and by sperm head counts. At doses of 2.5 and 3.5 Gy the repopulation indices and sperm head counts were significantly higher (P

1994-01-01

145

Radiation-induced inhibition of splenocyte locomotion and its protection by C. parvum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Normal C57/BL mice were stimulated by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Corynebacterium parvum (CP) prior to sublethal whole-body or local (leg) irradiation. At different times after irradiation, spleens were removed and the direct leukocyte migration assay carried out in comparison with unirradiated controls. CP causes enlarged spleens with white pulp depleted of germinal centers, and red pulp increased due to nucleated cell proliferation. X irradiation causes depletion both in white and red pulp, and a reduction in splenocyte locomotion ability. Reduction in splenocyte locomotion due to whole-body irradiation was significantly less in CP-treated than in control mice. A factor of 1.5 to 3.3 for protection of migration by CP was obtained, depending upon timing between CP stimulation, whole-body irradiation, and migration assay. The largest protection factor 1 day postirradiation was observed when migration was 7 to 14 days post-CP treatment. It is postulated that nonspecific immune adjuvant stimulation of the reticuloendothelial system by CP induces greater repopulation of the radiation-depleted spleen by leukocytes having migration capability. These findings may have relevance to the clinical use of local radiation therapy combined with CP stimulation of host immune response

1978-01-01

146

Semiquinone derivative isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1 protects cellular antioxidant enzymes from ?-radiation-induced renal toxicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was focused to evaluate protection of indigenous antioxidant system of mice against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress using a semiquinone (SQGD)-rich fraction isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1. Male C57bl/6 mice were administered SQGD (50 mg/kgb.w.i.p.) 2 h before irradiation (10 Gy) and modulation in antioxidant enzymes activities was estimated at different time intervals and compared with irradiated mice which were not pretreated by SQGD. Compared to untreated controls, SQGD pretreatment significantly (p < 0.05) accelerates superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH, and glutathione-S-transferase activities. Similarly, significant (p < 0.05) increase in the expression of superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH, and glutathione-S-transferase was observed in irradiated mice pretreated by SQGD, compared to only irradiated groups. Total antioxidant status equivalent to trolox was estimated in renal tissue of the mice after SQGD administration. Significant ABTS(+) radical formation was observed in H2O2-treated kidney homogenate, due to oxidative stress in the tissue. However, significant decrease in the levels of ABTS(+) radical was observed in kidney homogenate of the mice pretreated with SQGD. Therefore, it can be concluded that SQGD neutralizes oxidative stress by induction of antioxidant enzymes activities and thus improved total antioxidant status in cellular system and hence contributes to radioprotection.

Mishra S; Reddy DS; Jamwal VS; Bansal DD; Patel DD; Malhotra P; Gupta AK; Singh PK; Jawed S; Kumar R

2013-07-01

147

Semiquinone derivative isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1 protects cellular antioxidant enzymes from ?-radiation-induced renal toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was focused to evaluate protection of indigenous antioxidant system of mice against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress using a semiquinone (SQGD)-rich fraction isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1. Male C57bl/6 mice were administered SQGD (50 mg/kgb.w.i.p.) 2 h before irradiation (10 Gy) and modulation in antioxidant enzymes activities was estimated at different time intervals and compared with irradiated mice which were not pretreated by SQGD. Compared to untreated controls, SQGD pretreatment significantly (p trolox was estimated in renal tissue of the mice after SQGD administration. Significant ABTS(+) radical formation was observed in H2O2-treated kidney homogenate, due to oxidative stress in the tissue. However, significant decrease in the levels of ABTS(+) radical was observed in kidney homogenate of the mice pretreated with SQGD. Therefore, it can be concluded that SQGD neutralizes oxidative stress by induction of antioxidant enzymes activities and thus improved total antioxidant status in cellular system and hence contributes to radioprotection. PMID:23543190

Mishra, S; Reddy, D S K; Jamwal, V S; Bansal, D D; Patel, D D; Malhotra, P; Gupta, A K; Singh, P K; Jawed, S; Kumar, Raj

2013-04-01

148

Protective effect of ferulic acid on ?-radiation-induced micronuclei, dicentric aberration and lipid peroxidation in human lymphocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: In this study we examined radioprotective effect of ferulic acid (FA) on gamma radiation- induced micronuclei, dicentric aberration and lipid peroxidation with reference to alterations in cellular antioxidant status in cultured lymphocytes. To establish most effective protective support we used three different concentrations of FA (1, 5 and 10 ?g/ml) and three different doses of ?-radiation (1, 2 and 4 Gy). Treatment of lymphocytes with FA alone (at 10 ?g/ml) gave no significant change in micronuclei (MN), dicentric aberration (DC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) or glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities when compared with normal lymphocytes; irradiation at 1, 2 and 4Gy increased the MN and DC frequencies in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with FA for 30 min before radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline of MN and DC yields as FA concentration increased. Compared to 1Gy exposure alone, the extent to which FA (1 ?g/ml) reduced the MN and DC yields was 75% and 50%, respectively. With 4Gy irradiation, FA (10 ?g/ml) decreased 45% MN and 25% DC frequencies. FA-pretreated lymphocytes (1, 5 and 10 ?g/ml) showed progressively decreased TBARS levels after irradiation. Irradiation (1, 2 and 4 Gy) significantly decreased GSH levels, SOD, CAT and GPx activities in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with 10 ?g/ml of FA significantly (p

2007-01-01

149

Protective effects of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Hibiscus sabdariffa and vitamin C against radiation-induced liver damage in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The radioprotective efficacy of methanolic extracts of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS), and vitamin C (VIT C) against gamma radiation (4 Gy) induced liver damage was studied in male Wistar albino rats. VIT C was administered at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, while VA and HS were administered at doses; 200, 400 and 800-mg/kg body weight, orally for 4 weeks prior to radiation and 5 weeks after irradiation. The rats were sacrificed at 24 hours and 5 weeks after irradiation. Treatment with VIT C and VA (800 mg/kg) significantly (p VIT C and VA (800 mg/kg) significantly (p VIT C, VA and HS significantly (p VIT C and VA alone decreased the levels of conjugated bilirubin. Furthermore, treatment with VA (400 and 800 mg/kg) decreased the serum ALT activities by 25% and 34%, respectively, at 5 weeks after irradiation. Similarly, alkaline phosphatase and LPO levels were significantly (p VIT C and VA (400 and 800 mg/kg) at 5 weeks after irradiation. In addition, treatment with VIT C, VA (800 mg/kg) and HS (400 and 800 mg/kg) significantly (p VIT C and extracts at 5 weeks. Taken together, the results suggest that the extracts of VA and HS, and VIT C could increase the antioxidant defense systems and may probably protect animals from radiation-induced liver damage. PMID:18250564

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin; Ogungbenro, Bayo; Anyaegbu, Oluchi; Fafunso, Michael

2008-02-05

150

Sunscreen protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced pyrimidine dimers in mouse epidermal DNA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces a number of pathologic conditions of mammalian skin including erythema, oedema, hyperplasia, sunburn cell formation and skin cancer. Consequently, UVR-induced DNA damage has been implicated as one of the photochemical events that results in the formation of these pathological changes. The ability of sunscreens to protect against UVR-induced DNA damage has not been well characterized especially with UVA (320-400 nm) wavelengths and UVA absorbers. In this paper we present results of a study aimed at determining the efficacy of two sunscreens at preventing the induction of pyrmidine dimers in basal cell DNA of mice exposed to solar-simulated UVR (SSUV) wavelengths (290-400 nm) or to UVA (320-400 nm). (author).

Ley, R.D. [The Lovelace Institutes, Albuqeurque, NM (United States). Photomdecine Program; Fourtanier, A. [L`Oreal, Advanced Research, Clichy (France)

1997-06-01

151

Structural stability of human fibroblast growth factor-1 is essential for protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal damage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with ?-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. RESULTS: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal damage. Therefore, Q40P/S47I/H93G is pharmacologically one of the most promising candidates for clinical applications for radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.

Nakayama F; Umeda S; Yasuda T; Asada M; Motomura K; Suzuki M; Zakrzewska M; Imamura T; Imai T

2013-02-01

152

Ciliary derived neurotrophic factor protects oligodendrocytes against radiation induced damage in vitro by a mechanism independent of a proliferative effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose/Objective: Radiation-induced damage to the central nervous system in the from of myelopathy is a dose-limiting complication in the treatment of tumors situated in or close to the spinal cord. The target cell for this damage is not definitively identified, but demyelination due to oligodendrocyte damage is strongly implicated. Multiple neurotrophic factors have recently been identified which demonstrate a survival effect on oligodendrocytes. We investigated the effect of Ciliary Derived Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF), Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) on the radiosensitivity of oligodendrocytes in vitro to determine if this may ameliorate radiation damage, as a model for reducing myelopathy in vivo. Materials and Methods: Mature oligodendrocytes were cultured from the cortex of newborn Sprague-Dawley white rats and maintained on poly-d-lysine plates. The experimental arm was exposed to CNTF (0.01-100ng/ml), NGF (100ng/ml) or NT-3 (20ng/ml) for 24 hours prior to radiation, and control and experimental arms radiated using a cobalt 60 irradiator at a dose rate of .87 Gy/min with doses from 2 Gy to 10 Gy. Oligodendrocytes were identified using an O4 antibody, assessed for viability at 5 days using an MTT assay and counted using a phase contrast microscope. Combination studies of CNTF and NT-3 were also performed. BrdU studies were performed to determine if the various neurotrophins induced proliferation, with BrdU added for the 24 hour period prior to radiation only, for the 5 day period following radiation only, or for both periods combined. Results: The proportion of mature oligodendrocytes surviving 5 days after irradiation was not significantly increased by NGF, and was only modestly increased by NT-3. However, CNTF significantly increased the surviving proportion at all doses The addition of NT-3 to CNTF did not further increase the proportion of oligodendrocytes surviving. CNTF dose escalation studies confirmed 20ng/ml as an optimal dose. BrdU studies showed that CNTF did not function as a mitogen when added to the mature oligodendrocyte cultures. Following radiation, cells incorporating BrdU appeared to be non-viable. Conclusion: CNTF appeared to protect mature oligodendrocytes from irradiation by a mechanism other than proliferation. Our in vitro studies suggest that CNTF might have the potential for preventing or alleviating radiation induced myelopathy

1997-01-01

153

Protective effects of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Hibiscus sabdariffa and vitamin C against radiation-induced liver damage in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The radioprotective efficacy of methanolic extracts of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS), and vitamin C (VIT C) against gamma radiation (4 Gy) induced liver damage was studied in male Wistar albino rats. VIT C was administered at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, while VA and HS were administered at doses; 200, 400 and 800-mg/kg body weight, orally for 4 weeks prior to radiation and 5 weeks after irradiation. The rats were sacrificed at 24 hours and 5 weeks after irradiation. Treatment with VIT C and VA (800 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the gamma radiation-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities at 24 hours after irradiation, whereas, HS (400 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the serum ALT activity only. Similarly, treatment with VIT C and VA (800 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the serum conjugated bilirubin levels by 56% and 29%, respectively at 24 hours. Furthermore, VIT C, VA and HS significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the levels of serum lipid peroxidation (LPO) and increased the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities at 24 hours. Treatment for 5 weeks after irradiation with VITC, VA and HS significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the levels of unconjugated bilirubin, while VIT C and VA alone decreased the levels of conjugated bilirubin. Furthermore, treatment with VA (400 and 800 mg/kg) decreased the serum ALT activities by 25% and 34%, respectively, at 5 weeks after irradiation. Similarly, alkaline phosphatase and LPO levels were significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated following treatment with VIT C and VA (400 and 800 mg/kg) at 5 weeks after irradiation. In addition, treatment with VIT C, VA (800 mg/kg) and HS (400 and 800 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) elevated the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) by 61%, 56%, 41% and 44%, respectively, at 5 weeks. Similar elevation of antioxidant enzymes; SOD, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase were obtained in animals treated with VIT C and extracts at 5 weeks. Taken together, the results suggest that the extracts of VA and HS, and VIT C could increase the antioxidant defense systems and may probably protect animals from radiation-induced liver damage.

Adaramoye O; Ogungbenro B; Anyaegbu O; Fafunso M

2008-03-01

154

CpG-Oligodeoxynucleotide Treatment Protects against Ionizing Radiation-Induced Intestine Injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: the bone marrow and the intestine are the major sites of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced injury. Our previous study demonstrated that CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) treatment mitigated IR-induced bone marrow injury, but its effect on the intestine is not known. In this study, we sought to determine if CpG-ODN have protective effect on IR-induced intestine injury, and if so, to determine the mechanism of its effect. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mice were treated with CpG-ODN after IR. The body weight and survival were daily monitored for 30 days consecutively after exposure. The number of surviving intestinal crypt was assessed by the microcolony survival assay. The number and the distribution of proliferating cell in crypt were evaluated by TUNEL assay and BrdU assay. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 in crypt were analyzed by Immunohistochemistry assay. The findings showed that the treatment for irradiated mice with CpG-ODN diminished body weight loss, improved 30 days survival, enhanced intestinal crypts survival and maintained proliferating cell population and regeneration in crypt. The reason might involve that CpG-ODN up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 protein and down-regulated the expression of Bax protein and caspase-3 protein. CONCLUSION: CpG-ODN was effective in protection of IR-induced intestine injury by enhancing intestinal crypts survival and maintaining proliferating cell population and regeneration in crypt. The mechanism might be that CpG-ODN inhibits proliferating cell apoptosis through regulating the expression of apoptosis-related protein, such as Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3.

Zhang C; Ni J; Li BL; Gao F; Liu H; Liu W; Huang YJ; Cai JM

2013-01-01

155

Protective Effect of Anthocyanins from Lingonberry on Radiation-induced Damages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants has gradually expanded from the previous chemicals to the use of natural anti-radiation drugs and functional foods. Some reports have confirmed that anthocyanins are good antioxidants, which can effectively eliminate free radicals, but studies on the immunoregulatory and anti-radiation effects of anthocyanins from lingonberry (ALB) are less reported. In this experiment, mice were given orally once daily for 14 consecutive days before exposure to 6 Gy of gamma-radiation and were sacrificed on the 7th day post-irradiation. The results showed that the selected dose of extract did not lead to acute toxicity in mice; while groups given anthocyanins orally were significantly better than radiation control group according to blood analysis; pretreatment of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the thymus and spleen indices and spleen cell survival compared to the irradiation control group. Pretreatment with anthocyanins before irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). These findings indicate that anthocyanins have immunostimulatory potential against immunosuppression induced by the radiation.

Zi-Luan Fan; Zhen-Yu Wang; Li-Li Zuo; Shuang-Qi Tian

2012-01-01

156

Tualang honey protects keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation-induced inflammation and DNA damage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaysian tualang honey possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we evaluated the effect of tualang honey on early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis employing PAM212 mouse keratinocyte cell line. Keratinocytes were treated with tualang honey (1.0%, v/v) before a single UVB (150 mJ cm(-2) ) irradiation. We found that the treatment of tualang honey inhibited UVB-induced DNA damage, and enhanced repair of UVB-mediated formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine. Treatment of tualang honey inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-?B and degradation of I?B? in murine keratinocyte cell line. The treatment of tualang honey also inhibited UVB-induced inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression. Furthermore, the treatment of tualang honey inhibited UVB-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Taken together, we provide evidence that the treatment of tualang honey to keratinocytes affords substantial protection from the adverse effects of UVB radiation via modulation in early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis and provide suggestion for its photochemopreventive potential.

Ahmad I; Jimenez H; Yaacob NS; Yusuf N

2012-09-01

157

Tualang honey protects keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation-induced inflammation and DNA damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaysian tualang honey possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we evaluated the effect of tualang honey on early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis employing PAM212 mouse keratinocyte cell line. Keratinocytes were treated with tualang honey (1.0%, v/v) before a single UVB (150 mJ cm(-2) ) irradiation. We found that the treatment of tualang honey inhibited UVB-induced DNA damage, and enhanced repair of UVB-mediated formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine. Treatment of tualang honey inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-?B and degradation of I?B? in murine keratinocyte cell line. The treatment of tualang honey also inhibited UVB-induced inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression. Furthermore, the treatment of tualang honey inhibited UVB-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Taken together, we provide evidence that the treatment of tualang honey to keratinocytes affords substantial protection from the adverse effects of UVB radiation via modulation in early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis and provide suggestion for its photochemopreventive potential. PMID:22276569

Ahmad, Israr; Jimenez, Hugo; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Yusuf, Nabiha

2012-02-21

158

Tualang Honey protects keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation induced inflammation and DNA damage†  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaysian tualang honey possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we evaluated the effect of tualang honey on early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis employing PAM212 mouse keratinocyte cell line. Keratinocytes were treated with tualang honey (1.0%, v/v) before a single UVB (150 mJ/cm2) irradiation. We found that treatment of tualang honey inhibited UVB-induced DNA damage, and enhanced repair of UVB-mediated formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). Treatment of tualang honey inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-?B, and degradation of I?B? in murine keratinocyte cell line. Treatment of tualang honey also inhibited UVB-induced inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression. Furthermore, treatment of tualang honey inhibited UVB-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Taken together, we provide evidence that treatment of tualang honey to keratinocytes affords substantial protection from the adverse effects of UVB radiation via modulation in early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis and provide suggestion for its photochemopreventive potential.

Ahmad, Israr; Jimenez, Hugo; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Yusuf, Nabiha

2012-01-01

159

Ambient ultraviolet radiation induces protective responses in soybean but does not attenuate indirect defense  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigated the effects of ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation on (i) the performance and chemistry of soybean plants, (ii) the performance of Spodoptera frugiperda and (iii) the foraging behavior of the herbivore's natural enemy Cotesia marginiventris which exploits herbivore-induced plant volatiles (VOC) for host location. The accumulation of protective phenolics was faster in plants receiving ambient UV than in controls exposed to sun light lacking UV. Accordingly, isorhamnetin- and quercetin-based flavonoids were increased in UV exposed plants. No UV effects were found on the performance and feeding behavior of S. frugiperda. Herbivore-damaged plants emitted the same VOC when grown under ambient or attenuated UV for 5, 10 or 30 days. Consequently, C. marginiventris was attracted but did not discriminate between exposed and unexposed soybeans. In summary, ambient UV radiation affected soybean morphology and physiology but did not destabilize interactions between trophic levels. - Ambient ultraviolet radiation does not alter induced VOC emission in soybean and thus host location of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris remains effective.

2008-01-01

160

Proteasome inhibition protects human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from radiation-induced oxidative stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The study aimed to analyze the impact of the proteasome inhibitors MG132 (N-carbobenzyoxyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal), lactacystin and celastrol on manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase and glutathione-S-transferase-? (GST-?), and on the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), exposed to ionizing radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Changes in protein levels were analyzed by Western blot. Cellular viability, proteasome activity, level of oxidative stress and apoptosis were determined by standard colorimetric and fluorescence assays. RESULTS: MG132 and lactacystin induced an increase in the intracellular levels of Hsp70. MnSOD was up-regulated by MG132 and celastrol, and GST-? was up-regulated by MG132 and lactacystin. Notably, the proteasome inhibitors significantly modified the protein levels in the irradiated cells and dramatically reduced the intracellular pool of oxidative species. The combined effect of radiation and proteasome inhibition was a dose-dependent up-regulation of the antioxidant enzymes and Hsp70. CONCLUSIONS: All three proteasome inhibitors showed antioxidant effects in PBMC and up-regulated the antioxidant enzymes MnSOD, catalase and GST-? and the stress protein Hsp70, modifying the early radiation response, and conferring protection against the effects of ionizing radiation.

Stankova K; Ivanova K; Nikolov V; Aneva N; Georgieva R; Boteva R

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Ambient ultraviolet radiation induces protective responses in soybean but does not attenuate indirect defense  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigated the effects of ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation on (i) the performance and chemistry of soybean plants, (ii) the performance of Spodoptera frugiperda and (iii) the foraging behavior of the herbivore's natural enemy Cotesia marginiventris which exploits herbivore-induced plant volatiles (VOC) for host location. The accumulation of protective phenolics was faster in plants receiving ambient UV than in controls exposed to sun light lacking UV. Accordingly, isorhamnetin- and quercetin-based flavonoids were increased in UV exposed plants. No UV effects were found on the performance and feeding behavior of S. frugiperda. Herbivore-damaged plants emitted the same VOC when grown under ambient or attenuated UV for 5, 10 or 30 days. Consequently, C. marginiventris was attracted but did not discriminate between exposed and unexposed soybeans. In summary, ambient UV radiation affected soybean morphology and physiology but did not destabilize interactions between trophic levels. - Ambient ultraviolet radiation does not alter induced VOC emission in soybean and thus host location of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris remains effective.

Winter, Thorsten R. [Department of Botany II, Julius-von-Sachs Institute for Biosciences, University of Wuerzburg, Julius-von-Sachs-Platz 3, 97082 Wuerzburg (Germany); Rostas, Michael [Department of Botany II, Julius-von-Sachs Institute for Biosciences, University of Wuerzburg, Julius-von-Sachs-Platz 3, 97082 Wuerzburg (Germany)], E-mail: rostas@botanik.uni-wuerzburg.de

2008-09-15

162

Mentha piperita (Linn.) leaf extract provides protection against radiation induced chromosomal damage in bone marrow of mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oral administration of M. piperita (1 g/kg body weight/day) before exposure to gamma radiation was found to be effective in protecting against the chromosomal damage in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice. Animals exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation showed chromosomal aberrations in the form of chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks, centric rings, dicentrics, exchanges and acentric fragments. There was a significant increase in the frequency of aberrant cells at 6 hr after irradiation. Maximum aberrant cells were observed at 12 hr post-irradiation autopsy time. Further the frequency of aberrant cells showed decline at late post-irradiation autopsy time. However in the animals pretreated with Mentha extract, there was a significant decrease in the frequency of aberrant cells as compared to the irradiated control. Also significant increase in percentage of chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks, centric rings, dicentrics, exchanges, acentric fragments. total aberrations and aberrations/damaged cell was observed at 12 hr post-irradiation autopsy time in control animals, whereas Mentha pre-treated irradiated animals showed a significant decrease in percentage of such aberrations. A significant decrease in GSH content and increase in LPO level was observed in control animals, whereas Mentha pretreated irradiated animals exhibited a significant increase in GSH content and decrease in LPO level but the values remained below the normal. The radioprotective effect of Mentha was also demonstrated by determining the LD50/30 values (DRF=1.78). The results from the present study suggest that Mentha pretreatment provides protection against radiation induced chromosomal damage in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice. (author)

2003-01-01

163

Protective Role of Mint oil (MO) Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The whole body exposure to high doses of gamma radiation resulted in alterations in the biological functions of vital organs in the body. This study is divided in two main parts: Part I - A preliminary study designed to determine the optimal dose of mint oil (MO) which delayed the onset of mortality and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the irradiated group. Male albino rats were assorted into two main groups. 1-Animals of this group were exposed to whole body (8 Gy) gamma irradiation. 2-Animals of this group were subdivided into 4 subgroups that received four different concentrations of mint essential oil (100, 150, 200, 250 ?1/animal/ day) for three consecutive days before irradiation. All animals were observed during 30 days for signs of radiation sickness, body weight change and mortality. The results revealed that pretreatment of rats with different doses of the MO prior to exposure to 8 Gy of gamma radiation resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in the survival time up to 200 ?1/kg b. wt., where the highest number of survival (80%) was observed 30 days post irradiation, when compared with the 8 Gy irradiated control (33.5%). The optimum protection against irradiation was observed at a dose 200 ?1/kg b. wt. and was used for the further investigations. The 2nd part intended to investigate the radio-protective effects of MO on some biochemical and haematological parameters. For this purpose, Swiss albino rats were selected and assorted into 4 groups. Animals in Group I control: animals without any treatment. Group II mint oil (MO): rats were administered orally MO once daily at a dose of 200 ?1for 3 consecutive days. Group III, Irradiated (IRR): animals were exposed to a single dose of 6 Gy gamma radiations. Group IV Rats were treated with MO (as in Group-II), and exposed to 6 Gy after half an hour of the last administration of MO. Animals of each group were sacrificed 1, 7 and 28 days post-irradiation for biochemical estimation in blood , liver, kidney and testis. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in haemoglobin, hematocrite values, and erythrocytes and leucocytes counts. Significant decreases in serum EPO level, GSH content and ALP was observed in all specimens. Meanwhile, the values of MDA, serum acid phosphatase were significantly higher in irradiated rats as compared to control group. In MO pretreated irradiated animals, a significant increase was observed in blood constituents, EPO (erythropoietin) level, GSH content and ALP level in testes, liver and blood accompanied with remarkable decrease in the values of MDA, serum acid phosphatase. The results show that MO could exert a radioprotective effect by antioxidant activity, and might stimulate cellular regeneration, that may be attributed to the synergistic effects of its constituents.

2012-01-01

164

Effects of low doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Actually, even though it is comfortable for the risk management, the hypothesis of the dose-effect relationship linearity is not confirmed for any model. In particular, in the area of low dose rate delivered by low let emitters. this hypothesis is debated at the light of recent observations, notably these ones relative to the mechanisms leading to genetic instability and induction eventuality of DNA repair. The problem of strong let emitters is still to solve. (N.C.)

2001-01-01

165

Radiation-induced apoptosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Apoptosis is an active process of gene-directed cellular self-destruction that can be induced in many cell types via numerous physiological and pathological stimuli. We found that interphasedeath of thymocytes is a typical apoptosis showing the characteristic features of apoptosis including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA degradation. Moderate dose of radiation induces extensive apoptosis in rapidly proliferating cell population such as the epithelium of intestinal crypt. Recent reports indicate that the ultimate form of radiation-induced mitotic death in several cells is also apoptosis. One of the hallmarks of apoptosis is the enzymatic internucleosomal degradation of chromatin DNA. We identified an endonuclease responsible for the radiation-induced DNA degradation in rat thymocytes. The death-sparing effects of interrupting RNA and protein synthesis suggested a cell genetic program for apoptosis. Apoptosis of thymocytes initiated by DNA damage, such as radiation and radio mimetic substance, absolutely requires the protein of p53 cancer suppresser gene. The cell death induced by glucocorticoid, or aging, has no such requirement. Expression of oncogene bcl-2 rescues cells from the apoptosis. Massive apoptosis in radiosensitive cells induced by higher dose radiation may be fatal. It is suggested that selective apoptotic elimination of cells would play an important role for protection against carcinogenesis and malformation through removal of cells with unrepaired radiation-induced DNA damages. Data to evaluate the significance of apoptosis in the radiation risk are still poor. Further research should be done in order to clarify the roles of the cell death on the acute and late effects of irradiation. (author)

1995-01-01

166

Radiation-induced apoptosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apoptosis is an active process of gene-directed cellular self-destruction that can be induced in many cell types via numerous physiological and pathological stimuli. We found that interphasedeath of thymocytes is a typical apoptosis showing the characteristic features of apoptosis including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA degradation. Moderate dose of radiation induces extensive apoptosis in rapidly proliferating cell population such as the epithelium of intestinal crypt. Recent reports indicate that the ultimate form of radiation-induced mitotic death in several cells is also apoptosis. One of the hallmarks of apoptosis is the enzymatic internucleosomal degradation of chromatin DNA. We identified an endonuclease responsible for the radiation-induced DNA degradation in rat thymocytes. The death-sparing effects of interrupting RNA and protein synthesis suggested a cell genetic program for apoptosis. Apoptosis of thymocytes initiated by DNA damage, such as radiation and radio mimetic substance, absolutely requires the protein of p53 cancer suppresser gene. The cell death induced by glucocorticoid, or aging, has no such requirement. Expression of oncogene bcl-2 rescues cells from the apoptosis. Massive apoptosis in radiosensitive cells induced by higher dose radiation may be fatal. It is suggested that selective apoptotic elimination of cells would play an important role for protection against carcinogenesis and malformation through removal of cells with unrepaired radiation-induced DNA damages. Data to evaluate the significance of apoptosis in the radiation risk are still poor. Further research should be done in order to clarify the roles of the cell death on the acute and late effects of irradiation. (author)

Ohyama, Harumi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

1995-12-01

167

Second International MELODI Workshop on Low Dose Risk Research - Slides of the presentations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MELODI (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative) mission is to impulse low dose risk research in Europe through a strategic research agenda (SRA) and road-map of priorities. The last presentation is dedicated to the SRA and its preference research programs. The other presentations deal principally with the low-dose exposure in medical uses of ionizing radiations, radiosensitivity, radiation-induced cataracts, or epidemiology and radiobiology of cardiovascular disease. This document is composed of the slides of the presentations

2011-01-01

168

Mammography-oncogenecity at low doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Controversy exists regarding the biological effectiveness of low energy x-rays used for mammography breast screening. Recent radiobiology studies have provided compelling evidence that these low energy x-rays may be 4.42 ± 2.02 times more effective in causing mutational damage than higher energy x-rays. These data include a study involving in vitro irradiation of a human cell line using a mammography x-ray source and a high energy source which matches the spectrum of radiation observed in survivors from the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Current radiation risk estimates rely heavily on data from the atomic bomb survivors, and a direct comparison between the diagnostic energies used in the UK breast screening programme and those used for risk estimates can now be made. Evidence highlighting the increase in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of mammography x-rays to a range of x-ray energies implies that the risks of radiation-induced breast cancers for mammography x-rays are potentially underestimated by a factor of four. A pooled analysis of three measurements gives a maximal RBE (for malignant transformation of human cells in vitro) of 4.02 ± 0.72 for 29 kVp (peak accelerating voltage) x-rays compared to high energy electrons and higher energy x-rays. For the majority of women in the UK NHS breast screening programme, it is shown that the benefit safely exceeds the risk of possible cancer induction even when this higher biological effectiveness factor is applied. The risk/benefit analysis, however, implies the need for caution for women screened under the age of 50, and particularly for those with a family history (and therefore a likely genetic susceptibility) of breast cancer. In vitro radiobiological data are generally acquired at high doses, and there are different extrapolation mechanisms to the low doses seen clinically. Recent low dose in vitro data have indicated a potential suppressive effect at very low dose rates and doses. Whilst mammography is a low dose exposure, it is not a low dose rate examination, and protraction of dose should not be confused with fractionation. Although there is potential for a suppressive effect at low doses, recent epidemiological data, and several international radiation risk assessments, continue to promote the linear no-threshold (LNT) model. Finally, recent studies have shown that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is more sensitive than mammography in detecting invasive breast cancer in women with a genetic sensitivity. Since an increase in the risk associated with mammographic screening would blur the justification of exposure for this high risk subgroup, the use of other (non-ionising) screening modalities is preferable.

2009-06-01

169

Low doses effects and gamma radiations low dose rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This expose wishes for bringing some definitions and base facts relative to the problematics of low doses effects and low dose rates effects. It shows some already used methods and some actual experimental approaches by focusing on the effects of ionizing radiations with a low linear energy transfer. (N.C.)

1999-01-01

170

1,4 Naphthoquinone protects radiation induced cell death and DNA damage in lymphocytes by activation Nrf2/are pathway and enhancing DNA repair  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1,4-Naphthoquinone (NQ) is the parent molecule of many clinically approved anticancer, anti-infective, and antiparasitic drugs such as anthracycline, mitomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, diospyrin, and malarone. Presence of NQ during a-irradiation (4Gy) significantly reduced the death of irradiated murine splenic lymphocytes in a dose dependent manner (0.05-liM), with complete protection at liM as assessed by PI staining. Radioprotection by NQ was further confirmed by inhibition of caspase activation, decrease in cell size, DNA-fragmentation, nuclear-blebbing and clonogenic assay. All trans retinoic acid which is inhibitor of Nrf-2 pathway, completely abrogated the radioprotective effect of NQ, suggesting that radioprotective activity of NQ may be due to activation of Nrf-2 signaling pathways. Further, addition of NQ to lymphocytes activated Nrf-2 in time dependent manner as shown by confocal microscopy, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and quantitative real time PCR. It also increased the expression of Nrf-2 dependent cytoprotective genes like hemeoxygenase-1, MnSOD, catalse as demonstrated by real time PCR and flowcytometry. NQ protected lymphocytes significantly against radiation-induced cell death even when added after irradiation. Complete protection was observed by addition of NQ up to 2 h after irradiation. However, percentage protection decreased with increasing time interval. These results suggested that NQ may offer protection to lymphocytes activating repair pathways. Repair of radiation induced DNA strand breaks was studied by comet assay. Pretreatment of lymphocytes with NQ induced single strand breaks up to 6h but not double strand breaks in DNA. However, NQ mediated single strand breaks were repaired completely at longer time intervals. Addition of NQ to lymphocytes prior to 4 Gy a-radiation exposure showed decrease in the yield of DNA double strand breaks. The observed time-dependent decrease in the DNA strand breaks could be attributed to enhanced DNA repair in NQ treated lymphocytes. Furthermore, microarray analysis indicated that treatment of lymphocytes with NQ induces upregulation of several DNA repair genes including mismatch repair (Msh6, Pms2, and Rfc1), nucleotide and base excision repair pathways like pole4, parp1, parp4. Induction of these genes in NQ treated lymphocytes were confirmed by quantitative real time PCR. Further, treatment of lymphocytes with NQ resulted in increased expression of proteins as revealed by 2D protein blot analysis. Proteomic analysis of these spots corresponds to RIKEN protein which is known to exhibits as radio-resistance in the cells. Thus in addition to anti-cancer and anti-parasitic activity, NQ offered protection against a-radiation-induced cell death in lymphocytes via activation of Nrf-2/ARE and DNA repair pathways. (author)

2012-01-01

171

Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irr (more) adiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

Bakkal, B.H.; Gultekin, F.A.; Guven, B.; Turkcu, U.O.; Bektas, S.; Can, M.

2013-08-01

172

Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage. PMID:23969972

Bakkal, B H; Gultekin, F A; Guven, B; Turkcu, U O; Bektas, S; Can, M

2013-09-27

173

Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irr (more) adiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

Bakkal, B.H.; Gultekin, F.A.; Guven, B.; Turkcu, U.O.; Bektas, S.; Can, M.

2013-09-01

174

Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

Bakkal BH; Gultekin FA; Guven B; Turkcu UO; Bektas S; Can M

2013-09-01

175

Influence of substances offering protection against radiation-induced delayed damage to the liver of the mouse. Der Einfluss von Strahlenschutzsubstanzen auf strahleninduzierte Spaetschaeden der Maeuseleber  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of various radiation protection substances, among them cystamine, WR 638, WR 2721 and polymer-bound WR 2721, on the formation of liver tumours was investigated on a histological basis in long-term experiments in male mice following wholebody irradiation at the 2.5 Gy dose level, in the 7 Gy to 8 Gy dose range and at the 15 Gy level as well as following irradiation of the liver region alone with a dose of 5 Gy. Tumours in the liver region were observed to develop no earlier than 170 days after exposure. With the exception of a dextrane (WR 2721) conjugate/amine, there were no indications whatsoever that radiation protection substances may prevent the occurrence of radiation-induced liver tumours or reduce the tumour rate. The available body of evidence appears to suggest that liver tumours largely are primary changes. The radiation-induced hepatic tumours found in the mice studied showed great histological resemblance to those caused in man by toxic substances or the influences of thorotrast. The mechanisms underlying the formation of liver tumours are discussed in detail. (orig./MG)

Oehlert, W. (Institut fuer Pathologie, Histologie und Zytologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Moenig, H.

1993-01-01

176

Responses to low doses of ionizing radiation in biological systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological tissues operate through cells that act together within signaling networks. These assure coordinated cell function in the face of constant exposure to an array of potentially toxic agents, externally from the environment and endogenously from metabolism. Living tissues are indeed complex adaptive systems.To examine tissue effects specific for low-dose radiation, (1) absorbed dose in tissue is replaced by the sum of the energies deposited by each track event, or hit, in a cell-equivalent tissue micromass (1 ng) in all micromasses exposed, that is, by the mean energy delivered by all microdose hits in the exposed micromasses, with cell dose expressing the total energy per micromass from multiple microdoses; and (2) tissue effects are related to cell damage and protective cellular responses per average microdose hit from a given radiation quality for all such hits in the exposed micromasses.The probability of immediate DNA damage per low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) average micro-dose hit is extremely small, increasing over a certain dose range in proportion to the number of hits. Delayed temporary adaptive protection (AP) involves (a) induced detoxification of reactive oxygen species, (b) enhanced rate of DNA repair, (c) induced removal of damaged cells by apoptosis followed by normal cell replacement and by cell differentiation, and (d) stimulated immune response, all with corresponding changes in gene expression. These AP categories may last from less than a day to weeks and be tested by cell responses against renewed irradiation. They operate physiologically against nonradiogenic, largely endogenous DNA damage, which occurs abundantly and continually. Background radiation damage caused by rare microdose hits per micromass is many orders of magnitude less frequent. Except for apoptosis, AP increasingly fails above about 200 mGy of low-LET radiation, corresponding to about 200 microdose hits per exposed micromass. This ratio appears to exceed approximately 1 per day for protracted exposure. The balance between damage and protection favors protection at low cell doses and damage at high cell doses. Bystander effects from high-dosed cells to nonirradiated neighboring cells appear to include both damage and protection.Regarding oncogenesis, a model based on the aforementioned dual response pattern at low doses and dose rates is consistant with the nonlinear reponse data and contradicts the linear no-threshold dose-risk hypothesis for radiation-induced cancer. Indeed, a dose-cancer risk function should include both linear and nonlinear terms. PMID:19330141

Feinendegen, Ludwig E; Pollycove, Myron; Sondhaus, Charles A

2004-07-01

177

Paeoniflorin protects human EA.hy926 endothelial cells against gamma-radiation induced oxidative injury by activating the NF-E2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pulmonary endothelial cells have been demonstrated to have a critical role in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced lung injury. Our preliminary experiments indicated that paeoniflorin protected human EA.hy926 endothelial cells from radiation-induced oxidative injury. This study was designed to confirm the protective effect of paeoniflorin against radiation-induced endothelial cellular damage and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Preincubation of EA.hy926 cells with paeoniflorin before ?-radiation resulted in significant inhibition of apoptosis, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and enhanced cell viability. In particular, we showed that paeoniflorin significantly reduced the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and enhanced production of the endogenous antioxidants, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in EA.hy926 cells. Treatment of these cells with paeoniflorin significantly induced HO-1 expression. Moreover, paeoniflorin promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor-2 (Nrf-2). The paeoniflorin-induced HO-1 expression was abrogated by Nrf2 siRNA. Furthermore, inhibition of HO-1 with zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZNPP) significantly reversed the protective effect of paeoniflorin against radiation-induced damage in EA.hy926 cells. Our findings confirmed that paeoniflorin protected EA.hy926 cells against radiation-induced injury through the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

Yu J; Zhu X; Qi X; Che J; Cao B

2013-04-01

178

Screening of protective effect of amifostine on radiation-induced structural and functional variations in rat liver microsomal membranes by FT-IR spectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the protective effect of amifostine, which is the only FDA-approved radioprotective agent, was investigated against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on rat liver microsomal membranes at molecular level. Sprague-Dawley rats, which were either administered amifostine or not, were whole-body irradiated with a single dose of 800 cGy and decapitated after 24 h. The microsomal membranes isolated from the livers of these rats were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy. The results revealed that radiation caused a significant decrease in the lipid-to-protein ratio and the degradation of lipids into smaller fragments that contain less CH(2) and more carbonyl esters, olefinic?CH and CH(3) groups, which could be interpreted as a result of lipid peroxidation. Radiation altered the secondary structure of proteins by inducing a decrease in the ?-sheet structures and an increase in the turns and random coil structures. Moreover, a dramatic increase in lipid order and a significant decrease in the membrane dynamics were observed in the irradiated group. The administration of amifostine before ionizing radiation inhibited all the radiation induced compositional, structural, and functional damages. In addition, these results suggest that FT-IR spectroscopy provides a novel approach to monitoring radiation-induced damage on biological membranes.

Cakmak G; Zorlu F; Severcan M; Severcan F

2011-04-01

179

Screening of protective effect of amifostine on radiation-induced structural and functional variations in rat liver microsomal membranes by FT-IR spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the protective effect of amifostine, which is the only FDA-approved radioprotective agent, was investigated against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on rat liver microsomal membranes at molecular level. Sprague-Dawley rats, which were either administered amifostine or not, were whole-body irradiated with a single dose of 800 cGy and decapitated after 24 h. The microsomal membranes isolated from the livers of these rats were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy. The results revealed that radiation caused a significant decrease in the lipid-to-protein ratio and the degradation of lipids into smaller fragments that contain less CH(2) and more carbonyl esters, olefinic?CH and CH(3) groups, which could be interpreted as a result of lipid peroxidation. Radiation altered the secondary structure of proteins by inducing a decrease in the ?-sheet structures and an increase in the turns and random coil structures. Moreover, a dramatic increase in lipid order and a significant decrease in the membrane dynamics were observed in the irradiated group. The administration of amifostine before ionizing radiation inhibited all the radiation induced compositional, structural, and functional damages. In addition, these results suggest that FT-IR spectroscopy provides a novel approach to monitoring radiation-induced damage on biological membranes. PMID:21410135

Cakmak, Gulgun; Zorlu, Faruk; Severcan, Mete; Severcan, Feride

2011-03-16

180

Protective effect of curcumin and its analog on ?-radiation induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in cultured human lymphocytes and isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation is known to induce oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in an imbalance of the pro-oxidant and antioxidant status in the cells, which is suggested to culminate in cell death. The present work was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of curcumin and its analog on ?-radiation induced toxicity in cultured human lymphocytes and rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver of rats by collagenase perfusion. The cellular changes were estimated using lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH). The DNA damage was analyzed by comet assay, cytokinesis blocked micro nucleus assay, dicentric aberrations and translocation frequency. Cell cycle distribution and measurement of the percentage of apoptotic cells were performed by flow cytometry analysis. To investigate whether the dietary agents like curcumin and its analog have a role on cell cycle regulation, we analyzed the changes in cell cycle profiles by using fluorescence activated cell sorter. The increase in the severity of DNA damage was observed with the increase dose (1, 2 and 4 Gy) of ?-radiation in cultured lymphocytes and hepatocytes. TBARS were increased significantly, whereas the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in ?-irradiated hepatocytes and lymphocytes. On pretreatment with curcumin and its analog (1, 5 and 10 ?g/ml) showed a significant decrease in the levels of TBARS and DNA damage. The antioxidant enzymes were increased significantly along with the levels of GSH. The maximum protection of hepatocytes and lymphocytes was observed at 10 ?g/ml curcumin and 5 ?g/ml curcumin analog pretreatment. Thus, pretreatment with curcumin and its analog helps in protecting the normal hepatocytes and lymphocytes against ?-radiation induced cellular damage and can be developed as an effective radioprotector during radiotherapy in near future

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Protective effect of peach kernel extracts on radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood lymphocytes in the comet assay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, the comet assay, has been applied to the detection of DNA damage from a number of chemical and biological factors in vivo and in vitro. The comet assay is a novel method to assess DNA single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites in individual cells. We evaluated the effect of peach kernel extracts on radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood lymphocytes using the comet assay. The lymphocytes, with or without pretreatment of the extracts, were exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy of 60Co gamma ray. Significantly increased tail moment, which was a marker of DNA strand breaks in the comet assay, showed an excellent dose-response relationship. The treatment of the peach kernel extracts prominently reduced the DNA damage in irradiated groups compared to that in non-treated control groups. The result indicated that the extracts showed radioprotective effect on lymphocyte DNA when assessed by the comet assay

1999-01-01

182

Protective effect of peach kernel extracts on radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood lymphocytes in the comet assay  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, the comet assay, has been applied to the detection of DNA damage from a number of chemical and biological factors in vivo and in vitro. The comet assay is a novel method to assess DNA single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites in individual cells. We evaluated the effect of peach kernel extracts on radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood lymphocytes using the comet assay. The lymphocytes, with or without pretreatment of the extracts, were exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy of {sup 60}Co gamma ray. Significantly increased tail moment, which was a marker of DNA strand breaks in the comet assay, showed an excellent dose-response relationship. The treatment of the peach kernel extracts prominently reduced the DNA damage in irradiated groups compared to that in non-treated control groups. The result indicated that the extracts showed radioprotective effect on lymphocyte DNA when assessed by the comet assay.

Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Chang Joo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Won; Chai, Young Gyu [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1999-05-01

183

Antioxidant properties of probiotics and their protective effects in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced enteritis and colitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radiation therapy has become one of the most important treatment modalities for human malignancy, but certain immediate and delayed side-effects on the normal surrounding tissues limit the amount of effective radiation that can be administered. After exposure of the abdominal region to ionizing radiation, nearly all patients experience transient symptoms of irradiation of the bowel. Acute-phase symptoms may persist for a short time, yet long-term complications can represent significant clinical conditions with high morbidity. Data from both experimental studies and clinical trials suggest the potential benefit for probiotics in radiation-induced enteritis and colitis. On the other hand, it is well evidenced that both useful and harmful effects of therapeutic applications of ionizing radiation upon living systems are ascribed to free-radical production. Therefore, the hypothesis that probiotics reinforce antioxidant defense systems of normal mucosal cells exposed to ionizing radiation may explain to an extent their beneficial action. The aim of this review is threefold: First, to make a short brief into the natural history of radiation injury to the intestinal tract. Second, to describe the primary interaction of ionizing radiation at the cellular level and demonstrate the participation of free radicals in the mechanisms of injury and, third, to try a more profound investigation into the antioxidant abilities of probiotics and prebiotics based on the available experimental and clinical data.

Spyropoulos BG; Misiakos EP; Fotiadis C; Stoidis CN

2011-02-01

184

Decrease in radiation-induced biological effects due to prior radiation exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We are constantly exposed to environmental radiation. ICRP recommends annual limitations of radiation exposure of 1 and 50 mSv for the general public and for radiation workers, respectively. Initially, there were doubts about different limitations between the two groups based on radiation sensitivity. Regarding the dose/effect relationship, two discrepant hypotheses are the linear no-threshold theory and non-linear with threshold theory, which form the basis of the current radiation protection programs. The radioadaptive response fully occurs near the range of natural radiation and radiation-related working area. This response is a biological defense mechanism in which low dose and low dose-rate irradiation elicits cellular resistance to the genotoxic effects of subsequent irradiation. However, its molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This article reviews the trends in research and our recent findings on decreases in radiation-induced biological effects due to prior radiation exposure.

Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Ken; Ohnishi, Takeo [Nara Medical Univ., Nara (Japan)

2002-07-01

185

Decrease in radiation-induced biological effects due to prior radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We are constantly exposed to environmental radiation. ICRP recommends annual limitations of radiation exposure of 1 and 50 mSv for the general public and for radiation workers, respectively. Initially, there were doubts about different limitations between the two groups based on radiation sensitivity. Regarding the dose/effect relationship, two discrepant hypotheses are the linear no-threshold theory and non-linear with threshold theory, which form the basis of the current radiation protection programs. The radioadaptive response fully occurs near the range of natural radiation and radiation-related working area. This response is a biological defense mechanism in which low dose and low dose-rate irradiation elicits cellular resistance to the genotoxic effects of subsequent irradiation. However, its molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This article reviews the trends in research and our recent findings on decreases in radiation-induced biological effects due to prior radiation exposure.

2002-01-01

186

Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

1997-01-01

187

Ferulic acid protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells from radiation induced oxidative stress by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ferulic acid (FA) has been demonstrated to have a remarkable antioxidant activity, the mechanism of FA of protecting human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from radiation induced oxidative stress was investigated in the present study. The oxidative protection of FA was assessed by cellular glutathione (GSH) content, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) levels, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation was detected using Western blotting. The upstream signaling pathway involved in FA mediated Nrf2 activation was determined by signaling inhibitors. FA significantly increased the transcription of antioxidant related genes such as GCLC (glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit), GCLM (glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit), NQO1 (NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA in radiated cells, and these changes involved in a significant increase of the intracellular GSH content and the expression of NAPDH. FA evidently promoted NrfT2 translocation into nuclei and increased the intracellular GSH and NADPH levels in radiated cells. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathways were associated with FA-induced Nrf2 activation. The results suggested that FA-induced Nrf2 activation play key role in cytoprotective effect of FA against oxidative stress via PI3K and ERK signaling pathways. (author)

2010-01-01

188

Moderate acute intake of de-alcoholised red wine, but not alcohol, is protective against radiation-induced DNA damage ex vivo-Results of a comparative in vivo intervention study in younger men  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Moderate intake of wine is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and possibly cancer however it remains unclear whether the potential health benefits of wine intake are due to alcohol or the non-alcoholic fraction of wine. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the non-alcoholic fraction of wine protects against genome damage induced by oxidative stress in a crossover intervention study involving six young adult males aged 21-26 years. The participants adhered to a low plant phenolic compound diet for 48 h prior to consuming 300 mL of complete red wine, dealcoholised red wine or ethanol on separate occasions 1 week apart. Blood samples were collected 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 h after beverage consumption. Baseline and radiation-induced genome damage was measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and total plasma catechin concentration was measured. Consumption of dealcoholised red wine significantly decreased the gamma radiation-induced DNA damage at 1 and 2 h post-consumption by 20%. In contrast alcohol tended to increase radiation-induced genome damage and complete wine protected against radiation-induced genome damage relative to alcohol. The observed effects were only weakly correlated with the concentration of total plasma catechin (R = -0.23). These preliminary data suggest that only the non-alcoholic fraction of red wine protects DNA from oxidative damage but this effect cannot be explained solely by plasma catechin.

Greenrod, W. [CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Genome Health and Nutrigenomics Laboratory, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia); Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Stockley, C.S. [Australian Wine Research Institute, South Australia (Australia); Burcham, P. [Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Abbey, M. [CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Genome Health and Nutrigenomics Laboratory, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia); Fenech, M. [CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Genome Health and Nutrigenomics Laboratory, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia)]. E-mail: michael.fenech@hsn.csiro.au

2005-12-11

189

Peroxiredoxin IV Protects Cells From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Purpose: Human peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are known as a family of thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes, among which Prx-I and -II play an important role in protecting cells from irradiation-induced cell death. It is not known whether Prx-IV also protects cells from ionizing radiation (IR). Methods and Materials: To evaluate the protective role of Prx-IV in IR, we transfected full-length Prx-IV cDNA into AMC-HN3 cells, which weakly express endogenous Prx-IV, and knocked down the expression of Prx-IV with siRNA methods using AMC-HN7 cells, which express high levels of endogenous Prx-IV. Radiosensitivity profiles in these cells were evaluated using clonogenic assay, FACS analysis, cell viability, and TUNEL assay. Results: Three Prx-IV expressing clones were isolated. Prx-IV regulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and made cells more resistant to IR-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the knockdown of Prx-IV with siRNA made cells more sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: The results of these studies suggest that Prx-IV may play an important role in protecting cells from IR-induced apoptosis in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma

2009-03-15

190

Low doses effects of ionizing radiation on Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The exposure of living cells to low doses of ionizing radiation induce in response the activation of cellular protection mechanisms against subsequent larger doses of radiation. This cellular adaptive response may vary depending on radiation intensity and time of exposure, and also on the testing probes used whether they were mammalian cells, yeast, bacteria and other organisms or cell types. The mechanisms involved are the genome activation, followed by DNA repair enzymes synthesis. Due to the prompt cell response, the cell cycle can be delayed, and the secondary detoxification of free radicals and/or activation of membrane bound receptors may proceed. All these phenomena are submitted to intense scientific research nowadays, and their elucidation will depend on the complexity of the organism under study. In the present work, the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation (gamma rays) over a suspension of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) was studied, mainly in respect to survival rate and radio-adaptive response. At first, the yeast surviving curve was assessed towards increasing doses, and an estimation of Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) was made. The irradiation tests were performed at LINAC (electrons Linear Accelerator) where electron energy reached approximately 2.65 MeV, and gamma-radiation was produced for bremsstrahlung process over an aluminium screen target. A series of experiments of conditioning doses was performed and an increment surviving fraction was observed when the dose was 2.3 Gy and a interval time between this and a higher dose (challenging dose) of 27 Gy was 90 minutes. A value of 58 ± 4 Gy was estimated for LD50, at a dose rate of 0.44 ± 0.03 Gy/min These quantities must be optimized. Besides data obtained over yeast survival, an unusual increasing amount of tiny yeast colonies appeared on the agar plates after incubation, and this number increased as increasing the time exposure. Preliminary results indicate these colonies as 'petite' (mutants with mt DNA damage). (author)

2000-01-01

191

Dietary glucoraphanin-rich broccoli sprout extracts protect against UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Feeding broccoli sprout extracts providing daily doses of 10 micromol of glucoraphanin to SKH-1 hairless mice with prior chronic exposure to UV radiation (30 mJ cm(-2) of UVB, twice a week, for 17 weeks) inhibited the development of skin tumors during the subsequent 13 weeks; compared to the controls, tumor incidence, multiplicity, and volume were reduced by 25, 47, and 70%, respectively, in the animals that received the protective agent.

Dinkova-Kostova AT; Fahey JW; Benedict AL; Jenkins SN; Ye L; Wehage SL; Talalay P

2010-04-01

192

Dietary glucoraphanin-rich broccoli sprout extracts protect against UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Feeding broccoli sprout extracts providing daily doses of 10 ?mol of glucoraphanin to SKH-1 hairless mice with prior chronic exposure to UV radiation (30 mJ cm-2 of UVB, twice a week, for 17 weeks) inhibited the development of skin tumors during the subsequent 13 weeks; compared to the controls, tumor incidence, multiplicity, and volume were reduced by 25, 47, and 70%, respectively, in the animals that received the protective agent.

Fahey, Jed W.; Benedict, Andrea L.; Jenkins, Stephanie N.; Ye, Lingxiang; Wehage, Scott L.; Talalay, Paul

2011-01-01

193

Functional analysis of molecular mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis, that are not mediated by DNA damages; Funktionelle Analyse molekularer Mechanismen der strahleninduzierten Apoptose, die nicht ueber direkte DNA-Schaeden vermittelt werden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of low-dose irradiation pose new challenges on the radiation protection efforts. Enhanced cellular radiation sensitivity is displayed by disturbed cellular reactions and resulting damage like cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. Apoptosis serves as genetically determinate parameter for the individual radiation sensitivity. In the frame of the project the radiation-induced apoptosis was mechanistically investigated. Since ionizing radiation induced direct DNA damage and generates a reactive oxygen species, the main focus of the research was the differentiation and weighting of DNA damage mediated apoptosis and apoptosis caused by the reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Angermeier, Marita; Moertl, Simone [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie

2012-09-15

194

Effect of low dose radiation on the immune system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the work is to sum-up data concerning the low dose radiation effect on the immune system, the role of some immune factors for the radiosensitivity, as well as to propose methods for assessment of occupationally exposed persons. The question of the impact of such doses on immune parameters is discussed with a certain stimulating effect being also presumed. The application of cell sorting methods by FACS or MACS, as well as the molecular techniques PCR or RT-PCR for amplifying of DNA or RNA sequences, give a clearer idea about radiation-induced changes at cellular or molecular level (author)

1998-01-01

195

Low Dose IR Creates an Oncogenic Microenvironment by Inducing Premature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Introduction Much of the work addressing ionizing radiation-induced cellular response has been carried out mainly with the traditional cell culture technique involving only one cell type, how cellular response to IR is influenced by the tissue microenvironment remains elusive. By use of a three-dimensional (3D) co-culture system to model critical interactions of different cell types with their neighbors and with their environment, we recently showed that low-dose IR-induced extracellular signaling via the tissue environment affects profoundly cellular responses. This proposal aims at determining the response of mammary epithelial cells in a tissue-like setting.

Yuan, Zhi-Min [Harvard School of Public Health

2013-04-28

196

Protective Role of Hsp27 Protein Against Gamma Radiation-Induced Apoptosis and Radiosensitization Effects of Hsp27 Gene Silencing in Different Human Tumor Cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The ability of heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) to protect cells from stressful stimuli and its increased levels in tumors resistant to anticancer therapeutics suggest that it may represent a target for sensitization to radiotherapy. In this study, we investigate the protective role of Hsp27 against radiation-induced apoptosis and the effect of its attenuation in highly expressing radioresistant cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: We examined clonogenic death and the kinetics of apoptotic events in different tumor cell lines overexpressing or underexpressing Hsp27 protein irradiated with photons. The radiosensitive Jurkat cell line, which does not express Hsp27 constitutively or in response to ?-rays, was stably transfected with Hsp27 complementary DNA. Attenuation of Hsp27 expression was accomplished by antisense or RNAi (interfering RNA) strategies in SQ20B head-and-neck squamous carcinoma, PC3 prostate cancer, and U87 glioblastoma radioresistant cells. Results: We measured concentration-dependent protection against the cytotoxic effects of radiation in Jurkat-Hsp27 cells, which led to a 50% decrease in apoptotic cells at 48 hours in the highest expressing cells. Underlying mechanisms leading to radiation resistance involved a significant increase in glutathione levels associated with detoxification of reactive oxygen species, a delay in mitochondrial collapse, and caspase activation. Conversely, attenuation of Hsp27 in SQ20B cells, characterized by their resistance to apoptosis, sensitizes cells to irradiation. This was emphasized by increased apoptosis, decreased glutathione basal level, and clonogenic cell death. Sensitization to irradiation was confirmed in PC3 and U87 radioresistant cells. Conclusion: Hsp27 gene therapy offers a potential adjuvant to radiation-based therapy of resistant tumors.

2008-02-01

197

Protective effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The protective properties of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) against intestinal damage were examined by evaluating its effects on jejunal crypt survival, morphological changes, and apoptosis in gamma-irradiated mice. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 12 Gy for the examination of jejunal crypt survival and any morphological changes and with 2 Gy for the detection of apoptosis and Ki-67 labeling. Irradiation was conducted using (60)Co gamma-rays. HemoHIM treatment was administered intraperitonially at a dosage of 50 mg/kg of body weight at 36 and 12 hours pre-irradiation and 30 minutes post-irradiation or orally at a dosage of 250 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 or 11 days before necropsy. The HemoHIM-treated group displayed a significant increase in survival of jejunal crypts, when compared to the irradiation controls. HemoHIM treatment decreased intestinal morphological changes such as crypt depth, villus height, mucosal length, and basal lamina length of 10 enterocytes after irradiation. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM protected intestinal cells from irradiation-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that HemoHIM may be therapeutically useful to reduce intestinal injury following irradiation.

Kim SH; Lee HJ; Kim JS; Moon C; Kim JC; Park HR; Jung U; Jang JS; Jo SK

2009-12-01

198

Protective effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The protective properties of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) against intestinal damage were examined by evaluating its effects on jejunal crypt survival, morphological changes, and apoptosis in gamma-irradiated mice. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 12 Gy for the examination of jejunal crypt survival and any morphological changes and with 2 Gy for the detection of apoptosis and Ki-67 labeling. Irradiation was conducted using (60)Co gamma-rays. HemoHIM treatment was administered intraperitonially at a dosage of 50 mg/kg of body weight at 36 and 12 hours pre-irradiation and 30 minutes post-irradiation or orally at a dosage of 250 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 or 11 days before necropsy. The HemoHIM-treated group displayed a significant increase in survival of jejunal crypts, when compared to the irradiation controls. HemoHIM treatment decreased intestinal morphological changes such as crypt depth, villus height, mucosal length, and basal lamina length of 10 enterocytes after irradiation. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM protected intestinal cells from irradiation-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that HemoHIM may be therapeutically useful to reduce intestinal injury following irradiation. PMID:20041793

Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jang, Jong Sik; Jo, Sung Kee

2009-12-01

199

COMP-Ang1, angiopoietin-1 variant protects radiation-induced bone marrow damage in C57BL/6 mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) is a vasculogenic factor which is signaled through the endothelial and bone marrow cell-specific, Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase and has potential therapeutic applications for the induction of angiogenesis, enhancing endothelial cell survival, and preventing vascular leakage. In this study, we examined whether Ang1 directly exhibits bone marrow protection after ionizing radiation (IR) using an adenoviral vector of COMP-Ang1 (Ad-COMP-Ang1). This is a variant of Ang1 by replacement of the N-terminal portion of Ang1 with short coiled-coil domains of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein-Angiopoietin 1 (COMP-Ang1) which are, long enough for oligomerization but short enough to avoid problems of aggregation and insolubility. A spleen colony assay after 4.5 Gy whole body radiation, indicated that COMP-Ang1 significantly increased the mean colony numbers. Both the decrease in bone marrow cellularity and increased TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling) positive cells produced by radiation in bone marrow were significantly inhibited by COMP-Ang1 transfer. The expression of the ligands of Ang1 and Tie2 receptors were increased by radiation and, the COMP-Ang1 transfer potentiated this protein expression. Pre-treatment of Ang1 could be beneficial in protecting bone marrow from damage by radiation and COMP-Ang1 may be an effective alternative to native Ang1 for therapeutic purposes. (author)

2008-01-01

200

1,2,3,4,6-penta-?-galloyl-?-D-glucose protects splenocytes against radiation-induced apoptosis in murine splenocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antioxidant property and hematopoietic repair capacity are important characteristics of radioprotective agents. Some studies have demonstrated that 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (PGG), a molecule isolated from the waterlily, has antioxidant, hematopoietic repair, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we try to determine whether PGG extracted from a lily, Nymphaea tetragona var. angusta, has radioprotective effects on splenocytes in vitro against 60Co ?-ray irradiation with absorption doses of 2 Gy and 4 Gy. Results show that PGG treatment dramatically enhances the proliferation of splenocytes compared with irradiated but untreated controls. In addition, PGG treatment before irradiation protects the splenocytes from lethal effects of irradiation and decreases DNA damages as identified by the alkaline comet assay. PGG-treated cells also show less radiation-induced apoptosis. These cells have lower concentrations of the pro-apoptotic protein p53 and more of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. The results presented in this study suggest that PGG has a cytoprotective effect on immune cells exposed to normally damaging amount of radiation. Thus, PGG could be an effective, non-toxic radioprotective agent. (author)

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Characterizing low dose and dose rate effects in rodent and human neural stem cells exposed to proton and gamma irradiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Past work has shown that exposure to gamma rays and protons elicit a persistent oxidative stress in rodent and human neural stem cells (hNSCs). We have now adapted these studies to more realistic exposure scenarios in space, using lower doses and dose rates of these radiation modalities, to further elucidate the role of radiation-induced oxidative stress in these cells. Rodent neural stem and precursor cells grown as neurospheres and human neural stem cells grown as monolayers were subjected to acute and multi-dosing paradigms at differing dose rates and analyzed for changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), nitric oxide and superoxide for 2 days after irradiation. While acute exposures led to significant changes in both cell types, hNSCs in particular, exhibited marked and significant elevations in radiation-induced oxidative stress. Elevated oxidative stress was more significant in hNSCs as opposed to their rodent counterparts, and hNSCs were significantly more sensitive to low dose exposures in terms of survival. Combinations of protons and ?-rays delivered as lower priming or higher challenge doses elicited radioadaptive changes that were associated with improved survival, but in general, only under conditions where the levels of reactive species were suppressed compared to cells irradiated acutely. Protective radioadaptive effects on survival were eliminated in the presence of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, suggesting further that radiation-induced oxidative stress could activate pro-survival signaling pathways that were sensitive to redox state. Data corroborates much of our past work and shows that low dose and dose rate exposures elicit significant changes in oxidative stress that have functional consequences on survival.

Tseng BP; Lan ML; Tran KK; Acharya MM; Giedzinski E; Limoli CL

2013-01-01

202

Characterizing low dose and dose rate effects in rodent and human neural stem cells exposed to proton and gamma irradiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Past work has shown that exposure to gamma rays and protons elicit a persistent oxidative stress in rodent and human neural stem cells (hNSCs). We have now adapted these studies to more realistic exposure scenarios in space, using lower doses and dose rates of these radiation modalities, to further elucidate the role of radiation-induced oxidative stress in these cells. Rodent neural stem and precursor cells grown as neurospheres and human neural stem cells grown as monolayers were subjected to acute and multi-dosing paradigms at differing dose rates and analyzed for changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), nitric oxide and superoxide for 2 days after irradiation. While acute exposures led to significant changes in both cell types, hNSCs in particular, exhibited marked and significant elevations in radiation-induced oxidative stress. Elevated oxidative stress was more significant in hNSCs as opposed to their rodent counterparts, and hNSCs were significantly more sensitive to low dose exposures in terms of survival. Combinations of protons and ?-rays delivered as lower priming or higher challenge doses elicited radioadaptive changes that were associated with improved survival, but in general, only under conditions where the levels of reactive species were suppressed compared to cells irradiated acutely. Protective radioadaptive effects on survival were eliminated in the presence of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, suggesting further that radiation-induced oxidative stress could activate pro-survival signaling pathways that were sensitive to redox state. Data corroborates much of our past work and shows that low dose and dose rate exposures elicit significant changes in oxidative stress that have functional consequences on survival. PMID:24024148

Tseng, Bertrand P; Lan, Mary L; Tran, Katherine K; Acharya, Munjal M; Giedzinski, Erich; Limoli, Charles L

2013-01-19

203

Low dose radiation and diabetes mellitus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Induction of hormesis and adaptive response by low-dose radiatio (LDR) has been extensively indicated. It's mechanism may be related with the protective protein and antioxidants that LDR induced, which take effects on the diabetes mellitus (DM) and other diseases. This review will summarize available dat with emphasis on three points: the preventive effect of LDR on the development of diabetes, the therapeutic effect of LDR on diabetic complications and possible mechanisms by which LDR prevents the development of diabetes and diabetic complications. Finally, the perspectives of LDR clinical, diabetes-related implication are discussed. (authors)

2006-01-01

204

THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF ONION OIL (ALLIUM CEPA LINN) AGAINST RADIATION-INDUCED HAZARDS IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation poses a major currently irresolvable risk for human. Onion is a major source of dietary flavonoids. The present investigation was carried out to study the protective effects of treating rats with onion oil (150 mg/kg body weight) for consecutive 3 weeks against damages induced by whole body gamma irradiation (7 Gy). Exposure of rats to gamma irradiation caused a significant increase in levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides as well as activities of AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, uric acid and lipid peroxides. Exposure to gamma rays resulted in an increase in the mentioned parameters accompanied by a decrease in urea, total protein, albumin, glutathione content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. It could be concluded that onion oil capable of reducing the biological hazards induced by gamma irradiation.

2008-01-01

205

protective effect of certain vitamins against radiation-induced biochemical and histological changes in kidney of male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation is a potent mutagenic and carcinogenic agent due to the liberation of free radicals. It is, therefore, essential to search for radioprotective measures. Some antioxidant cocktails are considered as free radical scavengers, which ameliorate the effects of ionizing radiation. The antioxidant action of some vitamins including vitamins E, A and C beside selenium (selenium vit) can designate them as radio-protective agents. Fifty five male Swiss albino rats were divided into 4 groups, the first one served as control. Rats of the second group were exposed to 7 Gy of whole body gamma irradiation. Rats of the third group were subjected to daily oral administration of selenium vit (0.45 g/kg body weight) for 15 days. The fourth group of animals received the same dose of selenium vit followed by radiation exposure.The protective effect of selenium vit was monitored by studying the serum levels of sodium (Na), potassium (K), urea and creatinine.The results showed that whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 7 Gy (single dose) induced significant elevations in the levels of K, urea and creatinine after 3 and 10 days post-irradiation exposure. Conversely, the level of serum Na showed significant depletion. The histopathological results showed different distortion in the renal corpuscles and renal convoluted tubular epithelial cells. These distortions varied from swelling, vacillation to necrosis and complete degeneration of the epithelial cells of the proximal and distal tubules. The kidney glomeruli were shrunken and obvious lesions in the fine structure of the renal tissue were detected such as swelling and cristalysis of the mitochondria. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) exhibited various degrees of damage dilatation, fragmentation, degranulation and destruction. Lysosomes were abundant and destruction of the brush border was evident. The nuclei showed irregular nuclear membrane besides clumped marginal chromatin.

2005-01-01

206

Elevated ultraviolet-B radiation induces cross-protection to cold in leaves of Rhododendron under field conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previously, we have shown a cold-hardening response in Rhododendron 'English Roseum' exposed to elevated ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) under growth chamber conditions. We have conducted the present study under field conditions to provide for a higher ratio of photosynthetically active radiation to UV-B (PAR:UV-B) than is possible in the laboratory and to more accurately reflect natural conditions of solar irradiance. Leaf disks taken after 3 months from UV-B-exposed plants exhibited a greater tolerance to freezing temperatures than those from control plants that received no supplemental UV-B exposure during this time. Leaf disks taken from UV-B-irradiated plants survived temperatures below -8 degrees C, whereas control disks were killed at -6 degrees C. Cold hardiness did not significantly increase until September, when environmental cues such as decreasing day length and night temperatures also may have enhanced hardening. Our field findings confirm our previous laboratory study, demonstrating that elevated UV-B induces cross-protection to cold in Rhododendron leaf tissues.

Chalker-Scott L; Scott JD

2004-02-01

207

Reduction of arthritic symptoms by low dose radiation therapy (LD-RT) is associated with an anti-inflammatory phenotype.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this paper was to provide an integrative mechanistic appraisal to account for consistent observations of protective effects of ionizing radiation on the occurrence/ progression of arthritis in multiple animal models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A critical analysis of the biomedical literature was undertaken to assess mechanisms by which low doses of ionizing radiation prevent and/or reduce the occurrence of experimental-induced arthritis in animal models. RESULTS: Detailed mechanistic-related research indicates that low doses of ionizing radiation induce a highly integrated multiple pathway process that results in the formation of a generalized anti-inflammatory phenotype which can both prevent the occurrence of arthritic changes and/or reverse such effects. CONCLUSIONS: The manifestation of the anti-inflammatory features occurred within the context of highly consistent hormetic (i.e., biphasic dose) responses across studies, biological models and mechanisms. The reduction of multiple bioindicators of experimentally-induced arthritis by exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation was associated with the occurrence of a generalized anti-inflammatory phenotype.

Calabrese EJ; Calabrese V

2013-04-01

208

Protective effect of propolis on radiation-induced chromosomal damage on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last years, particular interest has been given to investigations concerning natural, effective and nontoxic compounds with radioprotective capacity in concert with increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them, propolis, a resinous mixture of substances collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera) has been considered promising since it presents several advantageous characteristics, i.e., antiinflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial and free radical scavenging action. It is, therefore, a direct antioxidant that protects cells and organisms from the adverse effects of ionizing radiation. These relevant biological activities are mainly mediated by the flavonoids, present at relatively high concentrations in the propolis. Considering that the chemical composition and, consequently, the biological activity of propolis is variable according to the environmental plant ecology, the present study was conducted in order to evaluate the radioprotective capacity of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, against genotoxic damages induced by 60Co ?-radiation in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). for this purpose, micronucleus induction was analyzed concerning irreparable damage, specifically related to DNA double-strand breaks, that are potentially carcinogenic. CHO-K1 cells were submitted to different concentrations of propolis (3 - /ml), 1 h before irradiation, with 1 Gy of ? radiation (0.722 Gy/min). The data obtained showed a decreasing tendency in the quantity of radioinduced damage on cells previously treated with propolis. The radioprotective effect was more prominent at higher propolis concentration. The treatment with propolis alone did not induce genotoxic effects on CHO-K1 cells. Beside that, the treatment with propolis, associated or not with radiation, did not influence the kinetics of cellular proliferation. (author)

2009-10-02

209

Protective effect of propolis on radiation-induced chromosomal damage on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the last years, particular interest has been given to investigations concerning natural, effective and nontoxic compounds with radioprotective capacity in concert with increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them, propolis, a resinous mixture of substances collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera) has been considered promising since it presents several advantageous characteristics, i.e., antiinflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial and free radical scavenging action. It is, therefore, a direct antioxidant that protects cells and organisms from the adverse effects of ionizing radiation. These relevant biological activities are mainly mediated by the flavonoids, present at relatively high concentrations in the propolis. Considering that the chemical composition and, consequently, the biological activity of propolis is variable according to the environmental plant ecology, the present study was conducted in order to evaluate the radioprotective capacity of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, against genotoxic damages induced by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). for this purpose, micronucleus induction was analyzed concerning irreparable damage, specifically related to DNA double-strand breaks, that are potentially carcinogenic. CHO-K1 cells were submitted to different concentrations of propolis (3 - 33 {mu}g/ml), 1 h before irradiation, with 1 Gy of {gamma} radiation (0.722 Gy/min). The data obtained showed a decreasing tendency in the quantity of radioinduced damage on cells previously treated with propolis. The radioprotective effect was more prominent at higher propolis concentration. The treatment with propolis alone did not induce genotoxic effects on CHO-K1 cells. Beside that, the treatment with propolis, associated or not with radiation, did not influence the kinetics of cellular proliferation. (author)

Spigoti, Geyza; Bartolini, Paolo; Okazaki, Kayo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: kokazaki@ipen.br; Tsutsumi, Shiguetoshi [Amazon Food Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)], e-mail: fwip5138@mb.infoweb.ne.jp

2009-07-01

210

Radiation carcinogenesis following low dose or low dose rate exposures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A variety of dose responses have been observed for cancer induction following low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. In general, however, the response is curvilinear, with a rapidly rising component in the intermediate dose range followed by a plateau or decline in incidence at high doses. The response is more linear at low doses, whereas the response at intermediate doses is approximated by a dose-squared relationship. Models for this response are based on the biophysical theory of cellular effects. However, many types of effects contribute to the tumorigenic processes, and host factors play a major role. At low dose rates the carcinogenic effect is generally reduced, which is caused by a dimunition of the dose-squared component and results in a linear response. Effects of fractionation can vary with total dose, fraction size, and fraction interval. High LET radiation is more tumorigenic. The dose-response relationships are more nearly linear and are less dose-rate dependent. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) varies with dose, dose rate, fractionation, and target tissue. 14 refs., 1 fig

1986-01-01

211

Application of Bayesian inference to characterize risks associated with low doses of low-LET radiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Improved risk characterization for stochastic biological effects of low doses of low-LET radiation is important for protecting nuclear workers and the public from harm from radiation exposure. Here we present a Bayesian approach to characterize risks of stochastic effects from low doses of low-LET radiation. The stochastic effect considered is neoplastic transformation of cells because it relates closely to cancer induction. We have used a published model of neoplastic transformation called NEOTRANS1. It is based on two different classes of cellular sensitivity for asynchronous, exponentially growing populations (in vitro). One sensitivity class is the hypersensitive cell; the other is the resistant cell. NEOTRANS1 includes the effects of genomic damage accumulation, DNA repair during cell cycle arrest, and DNA misrepair (non-lethal repair errors). The model-associated differential equations are solved for conditions of in vitro irradiation at a fixed rate. Previously published solutions apply only to high dose rates and were incorrectly assumed to apply to only high-LET radiation. Solutions provided here apply to any fixed dose rate and to both high- and low-LET radiations. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are used to carry out the Bayesian inference of the low-dose risk for neoplastic transformation of aneuploid C3H 10T1/2 cells for X-ray doses from 0 to 1000 mGy. We have assumed that for this low-dose range only the hypersensitive fraction of the cells are affected. Our results indicate that the initial slope of the risk vs dose relationship for neoplastic transformation is as follows: (1) directly proportional to the fraction, f1, of hypersensitive cells; (2) directly proportional to the radiosensitivity of the genomic target; and (3) inversely proportional to the rate at which hypersensitive cells with radiation-induced damage are committed to undergo correct repair of genomic damage. Further, our results indicate that very fast molecular events are associated with the commitment of cells to the correct repair pathway. Results also indicate a relatively large probability for misrepair that leads to genomic instability. Our results are consistent with the view that for very low doses, dose rate is not an important variable for characterizing low-LET radiation risks so long as age-related changes in sensitivity do not occur during irradiation.

Schöllnberger H; Scott BR; Hanson TE

2001-09-01

212

MELODI - Multidisciplinary European Low dose Initiative - First Draft of Strategic Research Agenda (SRA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SRA Working Group of MELODI (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative) was tasked to develop a long-term strategic research agenda (SRA) to guide the coherent integration of national low dose research programmes. Priorities that need to be addressed concern fundamental mechanistic research ranging from radiation track structure and the deposition of energy in biologically important molecules; the resultant homeostatic perturbations and the steps in the cellular and tissue metabolic pathways that eventually lead to disease pathologies. In fact, the main priorities are here the step-wise elucidation of the mechanisms of radiation-induced (oxidative) stress responses and their impact on radiation-induced cancers and non cancer diseases. To achieve this a holistic approach is proposed staring with radiation-specific effects, radiation-induced molecular, biological and pathological effects involving a systems biology approach as well as molecular epidemiology and mathematical modelling in order to come up with more solid low dose health risk assessments. The pathologies considered are outlined in the report where the need is stressed for the MELODI platform to involve a constellation of classical and emerging technologies in a highly multidisciplinary approach. Elucidating the shapes of low-dose response relationships and resolving the question of thresholds is paramount to resolving questions of risk for both populations and individuals. Much is known about radiation-induced cancer in humans and animal models but this needs to be pursued particularly at low doses. More recently, the scientific community has realised that low radiation-induced health effects range well beyond cancer. The priority non-cancer areas that need to be brought into focus are cardiovascular, neurological and ophthalmic. (A.C.)

2010-01-01

213

Final Technical Report for the grant entitled "Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation"  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this proposal was to test the hypothesis that mice heterozygous for the Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS1) gene are genetically susceptible to low doses of ionizing radiation. The rationale for this is that patients with NBS are radiation sensitive, because of defects in cellular responses to radiation induced genetic damage and haploinsufficiency at this genetic locus provides the potential for genetic susceptibility to low doses of ionizing radiation. Wild type and heterozygous NBS1 mice were irradiated and followed over their lifetime for radiation induced genomic instability, carcinogenesis and non-specific life shortening. No differences in cytogenetic damage, cancer induction or life span were observed between the hypomorphic mice indicating that genetic imbalance at the NBS1 loci does not modulate low dose radiation sensitivity.

Morgan, William, F., Ph.D., D.Sc.

2006-11-22

214

Two pediatric cases of high dose radiation-induced meningiomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There have been many reports of low dose radiation-induced meningiomas, and the number of reports of high dose radiation-induced meningiomas has been increasing recently. In this report, we present two cases of pediatric radiation-induced meningiomas, one 14 years after 36 Gy of radiation therapy for medulloblastoma and the other 8 years after 20 Gy of local radiation therapy for germinoma. Both patients underwent surgical removal of the meningiomas. The case of medulloblastoma was later revealed to be basal cell phacomatosis syndrome. Basal cell phacomatosis syndrome is a disease that occurs as a result of abnormality of chromosome 9. We speculate that the occurrence of radiation-induced meningioma may have been related to the basic genetic vulnerability of the patients. (author)

2001-01-01

215

Two pediatric cases of high dose radiation-induced meningiomas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There have been many reports of low dose radiation-induced meningiomas, and the number of reports of high dose radiation-induced meningiomas has been increasing recently. In this report, we present two cases of pediatric radiation-induced meningiomas, one 14 years after 36 Gy of radiation therapy for medulloblastoma and the other 8 years after 20 Gy of local radiation therapy for germinoma. Both patients underwent surgical removal of the meningiomas. The case of medulloblastoma was later revealed to be basal cell phacomatosis syndrome. Basal cell phacomatosis syndrome is a disease that occurs as a result of abnormality of chromosome 9. We speculate that the occurrence of radiation-induced meningioma may have been related to the basic genetic vulnerability of the patients. (author)

Nagai, Miho [National Yokosuka Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Nagashima, Goro; Fujimoto, Tsukasa; Aoyagi, Masaru; Takasato, Yoshio

2001-10-01

216

Cellular responses to low doses of ionizing radiation: radioadaptive response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various kinds of modulating effects on the activities of organisms have been observed to be produced by low doses of ionizing radiation, contrasting markedly with detrimental effects that predominate at higher dose level. Radioadaptive response is one of the most interesting and ubiquitous phenomena. Following the pioneer studies by Wolff et al. in human lymphocytes, we demonstrated that Chinese hamster cells pre-exposed to a low 'priming' dose of radiation showed the reduced frequencies of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges by a subsequent 'challenge' dose (1987). Further to elucidate the mechanism behind radioadaptive response, we have performed a series of experiments and revealed several important characteristics: (1) Radioadaptive response is caused by a narrow window of low doses (cGy level) for the full expression. (2) Gamma rays and X-rays elicit radioadaptive response like tritium beta-rays. (3) A 4-h interval is required for the full expression of the response, which decays rather rapidly with the progression of cell proliferation. (4) The expression of adaptive response is suppressed by the treatments with metabolic inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, cytosolic protein synthesis, RNA polymerase II and protein kinase C. (5) Radioadaptive response cross-react to clastogenic lesions induced by other physical and chemical DNA-damaging agents. (6) Several proteins are newly synthesized concurrently with the expression of radioadaptive response after low doses, viewed by two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis of cellular proteins. (7) The repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks is apparently stimulated, especially during the early stage of their repair, in adapted cells but not in non-adapted cells. (8) The telomerase activity is hormetically induced by low-dose exposure. These observations suggest that radioadaptive response may be described as the induction of DNA damage repair mediated by a low-dose activated signaling pathway. A possible chain of molecular events in the process of radioadaptive response will be discussed. (author)

2001-01-01

217

Prophylactic role of melatonin against radiation induced damage in mouse cerebellum with special reference to Purkinje cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Melatonin, a hormone with a proven antioxidative efficacy, crosses all morphophysiological barriers, including the blood-brain barrier, and distributes throughout the cell. The present study is an attempt to investigate the prophylactic influence of a chronic low level of melatonin against an acute radiation induced oxidative stress in the cerebellum of Swiss albino mice, with special reference to Purkinje cells. After 15 days of treatment the mice were sacrificed at various intervals from 1 to 30 days. Biochemical parameters included lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) levels as the endpoints. The quantitative study included alterations in number and volume of Purkinje cells. Swiss albino mice were orally administered a very low dose of melatonin (0.25 mg/mouse/day) for 15 consecutive days before single exposure to 4 Gy gamma radiation. Melatonin checked the augmented levels of LPO, by approximately 55%, by day 30 day post-exposure. Radiation induced depleted levels of GSH could be raised by 68.9% by day 30 post-exposure. Radiation exposure resulted in a reduction of the volume of Purkinje cells and their total number. The administration of melatonin significantly protected against the radiation induced decreases in Purkinje cell volume and number. Results indicate the antioxidative properties of melatonin resulting in its prophylactic property against radiation induced biochemical and cellular alterations in the cerebellum. The findings support the idea that melatonin may be used as an anti-irradiation drug due to its potent free radical scavenging and antioxidative efficacy.

Sisodia, Rashmi; Kumari, Seema; Verma, Rajesh Kumar; Bhatia, A L [Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 (India)

2006-06-15

218

Overexpression of glutamate-cysteine ligase protects human COV434 granulosa tumour cells against oxidative and gamma-radiation-induced cell death.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionizing radiation is toxic to ovarian follicles and can cause infertility. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the toxicity of ionizing radiation in several cell types. We have shown that depletion of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) sensitizes follicles and granulosa cells to toxicant-induced apoptosis and that supplementation of GSH is protective. The rate-limiting reaction in GSH biosynthesis is catalysed by glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), which consists of a catalytic subunit (GCLC) and a regulatory subunit (GCLM). We hypothesized that overexpression of Gclc or Gclm to increase GSH synthesis would protect granulosa cells against oxidant- and radiation-induced cell death. The COV434 line of human granulosa tumour cells was stably transfected with vectors designed for the constitutive expression of Gclc, Gclm, both Gclc and Gclm or empty vector. GCL protein and enzymatic activity and total GSH levels were significantly increased in the GCL subunit-transfected cells. GCL-transfected cells were resistant to cell killing by treatment with hydrogen peroxide compared to control cells. Cell viability declined less in all the GCL subunit-transfected cell lines 1-8 h after 0.5 mM hydrogen peroxide treatment than in control cells. We next examined the effects of GCL overexpression on responses to ionizing radiation. ROS were measured using a redox-sensitive fluorogenic dye in cells irradiated with 0, 1 or 5 Gy of gamma-rays. There was a dose-dependent increase in ROS within 30 min in all cell lines, an effect that was significantly attenuated in Gcl-transfected cells. Apoptosis, assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling and activated caspase-3 immunoblotting, was significantly decreased in irradiated Gclc-transfected cells compared to irradiated control cells. Suppression of GSH synthesis in Gclc-transfected cells reversed resistance to radiation. These findings show that overexpression of GCL in granulosa cells can augment GSH synthesis and ameliorate various sequelae associated with exposure to oxidative stress and irradiation. PMID:19153097

Cortes-Wanstreet, Mabel M; Giedzinski, Erich; Limoli, Charles L; Luderer, Ulrike

2009-01-18

219

Overexpression of glutamate-cysteine ligase protects human COV434 granulosa tumour cells against oxidative and ?-radiation-induced cell death  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionizing radiation is toxic to ovarian follicles and can cause infertility. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the toxicity of ionizing radiation in several cell types. We have shown that depletion of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) sensitizes follicles and granulosa cells to toxicant-induced apoptosis and that supplementation of GSH is protective. The rate-limiting reaction in GSH biosynthesis is catalysed by glutamate–cysteine ligase (GCL), which consists of a catalytic subunit (GCLC) and a regulatory subunit (GCLM). We hypothesized that overexpression of Gclc or Gclm to increase GSH synthesis would protect granulosa cells against oxidant- and radiation-induced cell death. The COV434 line of human granulosa tumour cells was stably transfected with vectors designed for the constitutive expression of Gclc, Gclm, both Gclc and Gclm or empty vector. GCL protein and enzymatic activity and total GSH levels were significantly increased in the GCL subunit-transfected cells. GCL-transfected cells were resistant to cell killing by treatment with hydrogen peroxide compared to control cells. Cell viability declined less in all the GCL subunit-transfected cell lines 1–8 h after 0.5 mM hydrogen peroxide treatment than in control cells. We next examined the effects of GCL overexpression on responses to ionizing radiation. ROS were measured using a redox-sensitive fluorogenic dye in cells irradiated with 0, 1 or 5 Gy of ?-rays. There was a dose-dependent increase in ROS within 30 min in all cell lines, an effect that was significantly attenuated in Gcl-transfected cells. Apoptosis, assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling and activated caspase-3 immunoblotting, was significantly decreased in irradiated Gclc-transfected cells compared to irradiated control cells. Suppression of GSH synthesis in Gclc-transfected cells reversed resistance to radiation. These findings show that overexpression of GCL in granulosa cells can augment GSH synthesis and ameliorate various sequelae associated with exposure to oxidative stress and irradiation.

Cortes-Wanstreet, Mabel M.; Giedzinski, Erich; Limoli, Charles L.; Luderer, Ulrike

2009-01-01

220

Overexpression of glutamate-cysteine ligase protects human COV434 granulosa tumour cells against oxidative and gamma-radiation-induced cell death.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ionizing radiation is toxic to ovarian follicles and can cause infertility. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the toxicity of ionizing radiation in several cell types. We have shown that depletion of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) sensitizes follicles and granulosa cells to toxicant-induced apoptosis and that supplementation of GSH is protective. The rate-limiting reaction in GSH biosynthesis is catalysed by glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), which consists of a catalytic subunit (GCLC) and a regulatory subunit (GCLM). We hypothesized that overexpression of Gclc or Gclm to increase GSH synthesis would protect granulosa cells against oxidant- and radiation-induced cell death. The COV434 line of human granulosa tumour cells was stably transfected with vectors designed for the constitutive expression of Gclc, Gclm, both Gclc and Gclm or empty vector. GCL protein and enzymatic activity and total GSH levels were significantly increased in the GCL subunit-transfected cells. GCL-transfected cells were resistant to cell killing by treatment with hydrogen peroxide compared to control cells. Cell viability declined less in all the GCL subunit-transfected cell lines 1-8 h after 0.5 mM hydrogen peroxide treatment than in control cells. We next examined the effects of GCL overexpression on responses to ionizing radiation. ROS were measured using a redox-sensitive fluorogenic dye in cells irradiated with 0, 1 or 5 Gy of gamma-rays. There was a dose-dependent increase in ROS within 30 min in all cell lines, an effect that was significantly attenuated in Gcl-transfected cells. Apoptosis, assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling and activated caspase-3 immunoblotting, was significantly decreased in irradiated Gclc-transfected cells compared to irradiated control cells. Suppression of GSH synthesis in Gclc-transfected cells reversed resistance to radiation. These findings show that overexpression of GCL in granulosa cells can augment GSH synthesis and ameliorate various sequelae associated with exposure to oxidative stress and irradiation.

Cortes-Wanstreet MM; Giedzinski E; Limoli CL; Luderer U

2009-05-01

 
 
 
 
221

Radiation-induced pneumothorax  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of radiation therapy to the chest. The proposed pathogenesis is radiation-induced fibrosis promoting subpleural bleb formation that ruptures resulting in pneumothorax. We report on two young patients with primary sarcomas without pulmonary metastases who developed spontaneous pneumothorax after irradiation. Neither patient had antecedent radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis

1983-01-01

222

Radiation-induced pneumothorax  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of radiation therapy to the chest. The proposed pathogenesis is radiation-induced fibrosis promoting subpleural bleb formation that ruptures resulting in pneumothorax. We report on two young patients with primary sarcomas without pulmonary metastases who developed spontaneous pneumothorax after irradiation. Neither patient had antecedent radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis.

Epstein, D.M.; Littman, P.; Gefter, W.B.; Miller, W.T.; Raney, R.B. Jr.

1983-01-01

223

Radiation-induced hypopituitarism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Progressive and irreversible neuro-endocrine dysfunction following radiation-induced damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary (h-p) axis is the most common complication in cancer survivors with a history of cranial radiotherapy involving the h-p axis and in patients with a history of conventional or stereotactic pituitary radiotherapy for pituitary tumours. This review examines the controversy about the site and pathophysiology of radiation damage while providing an epidemiological perspective on the frequency and pattern of radiation-induced hypopituitarism. RECENT FINDINGS: Contrary to the previously held belief that h-p axis irradiation with doses less than 40?Gy result in a predominant hypothalamic damage with time-dependent secondary pituitary atrophy, recent evidence in survivors of nonpituitary brain tumours suggests that cranial radiation causes direct pituitary damage with compensatory increase in hypothalamic release activity. Sparing the hypothalamus from significant irradiation with sterteotactic radiotherapy for pituitary tumours does not appear to reduce the long-term risk of hypopituitarism. SUMMARY: Radiation-induced h-p dysfunction may occur in up to 80% of patients followed long term and is often associated with an adverse impact on growth, body image, skeletal health, fertility, sexual function and physical and psychological health. A detailed understanding of pathophysiological and epidemiological aspects of radiation-induced h-p axis dysfunction is important to provide targeted and reliable long-term surveillance to those at risk so that timely diagnosis and hormone-replacement therapy can be provided.

Darzy KH

2013-08-01

224

Radiation-induced myocarditis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Myocardium is more resistant to radiations than pericardium. Radiation-induced pericarditis are well-known, but the possibility of myocarditis induced by radiotherapy must also be considered. Experimental data are provided, but clinical experience is limited. A case is presented, which is of interest because of its clinical picture: congestive myocarditis

1977-02-16

225

Radiation-induced apoptosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This review concerns the apoptosis which is a kind of cell death defined in 1972 and differs from the necrosis in the morphology and function. Apoptosis occurs in the order of pycnosis, cell atrophy, blebbing and cell fragmentation into apoptotic bodies and is an active process while necrosis is a passive one. The molecular mechanism involves the signal reception for apoptosis; its transduction and gene expression; protein degradation by caspases and DNA fragmentation by endonucleases; and removal of apoptotic bodies. Radiation-induced cell death involves the interphase and reproductive (or mitotic) death, the former of which, the authors found, was a typical apoptosis in thymocytes and is important in radiation therapy. A part of the latter death is also considered to be apoptosis. In the radiation-induced apoptosis, there are processes through p53 and interferon regulatory factor-1, and through membrane ceramide formation. Radiation-induced apoptosis has such means as the cause of radiation damage, the mechanism for the damage removal and the therapy of cancer. Research of the radiation-induced apoptosis was concluded important in the future. (K.H.)

1999-01-01

226

Radiation-induced apoptosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review concerns the apoptosis which is a kind of cell death defined in 1972 and differs from the necrosis in the morphology and function. Apoptosis occurs in the order of pycnosis, cell atrophy, blebbing and cell fragmentation into apoptotic bodies and is an active process while necrosis is a passive one. The molecular mechanism involves the signal reception for apoptosis; its transduction and gene expression; protein degradation by caspases and DNA fragmentation by endonucleases; and removal of apoptotic bodies. Radiation-induced cell death involves the interphase and reproductive (or mitotic) death, the former of which, the authors found, was a typical apoptosis in thymocytes and is important in radiation therapy. A part of the latter death is also considered to be apoptosis. In the radiation-induced apoptosis, there are processes through p53 and interferon regulatory factor-1, and through membrane ceramide formation. Radiation-induced apoptosis has such means as the cause of radiation damage, the mechanism for the damage removal and the therapy of cancer. Research of the radiation-induced apoptosis was concluded important in the future. (K.H.)

Yamada, Takeshi [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Ohyama, Harumi

1999-03-01

227

Plants ecotoxicology. A case of low doses and multi pollutant exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report, results of long-term laboratory, 'green-house' and field experiments carried out on different species of wild and agricultural plants (spring barley, Scots pine, spider wort, bulb onion and others) to study toxic and genotoxic effects of low doses and concentrations of such common pollutants as acute and chronic {gamma}-radiation, heavy natural radionuclides, compounds of heavy and alkaline earth metals, pesticides are presented for the first time. Special attention is paid to eco-toxic effects of chronic low dose exposures, the dose-rate effect, synergistic and antagonistic effects of different factors' combined exposures and biological effects of incorporated radionuclides. The results of long-term field experiments in the 30-km Chernobyl NPP zone, in the vicinity of the facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (Leningrad region), in the vicinity of the radium production industry storage cell (Komi Republic), at the site of an underground nuclear explosion (Perm region) are discussed. These findings suggest that the further evolution of investigations in this field would issue in the development of a theoretical bases and practical procedures for environmental protection against radioactivity, taking into account the new experimentally confirmed facts about the presence of such essentially important singularities of the biological effect of low ionizing radiation doses as the nonlinearity of a dose-effect relationship, radiation-induced genomic instability, phenomenon of radio-adaptation, increased probability of synergetic and antagonistic effects of the combined action of different nature factors. A development of a new concept of radiation protection for a human and biota should be based on the clear understanding of these effects and their contribution to the response of biological objects. (author)

Geras' Kin, S.; Kim, J.; Evseeva, T.; Oudalova, A.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

2004-07-01

228

Biological Effects of Low-Dose Exposure  

CERN Document Server

On the basis of the two-protection reaction model an analysis of stochastic radiobiological effects of low-dose exposure of different biological objects has been carried out. The stochastic effects are the results published in the last decade: epidemiological studies of human cancer mortality, the yield of thymocyte apoptosis of mice and different types of chromosomal aberrations. The results of the analysis show that as dependent upon the nature of biological object, spontanous effect, exposure conditions and radiation type one or another form dose - effect relationship is realized: downwards concave, near to linear and upwards concave with the effect of hormesis included. This result testifies to the incomplete conformity of studied effects of 1990 ICRP recomendations based on the linear no-threshold hypothesis about dose - effect relationship. Because of this the methodology of radiation risk estimation recomended by ICRP needs more precisian and such quantity as collective dose ought to be classified into...

Komochkov, M M

2000-01-01

229

REC-2006-A Fractionated Extract of Podophyllum hexandrum Protects Cellular DNA from Radiation-Induced Damage by Reducing the Initial Damage and Enhancing Its Repair In Vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Podophyllum hexandrum, a perennial herb commonly known as the Himalayan May Apple, is well known in Indian and Chinese traditional systems of medicine. P. hexandrum has been widely used for the treatment of venereal warts, skin infections, bacterial and viral infections, and different cancers of the brain, lung and bladder. This study aimed at elucidating the effect of REC-2006, a bioactive fractionated extract from the rhizome of P. hexandrum, on the kinetics of induction and repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in murine thymocytes in vivo. We evaluated its effect on non-specific radiation-induced DNA damage by the alkaline halo assay in terms of relative nuclear spreading factor (RNSF) and gene-specific radiation-induced DNA damage via semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Whole body exposure of animals with gamma rays (10?Gy) caused a significant amount of DNA damage in thymocytes (RNSF values 17.7?±?0.47, 12.96?±?1.64 and 3.3?±?0.014) and a reduction in the amplification of ?-globin gene to 0, 28 and 43% at 0, 15 and 60 min, respectively. Administrating REC-2006 at a radioprotective concentration (15?mg?kg(-1) body weight) 1?h before irradiation resulted in time-dependent reduction of DNA damage evident as a decrease in RNSF values 6.156?±?0.576, 1.647?±?0.534 and 0.496?±?0.012, and an increase in ?-globin gene amplification 36, 95 and 99%, at 0, 15 and 60?min, respectively. REC-2006 scavenged radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner stabilized DPPH free radicals and also inhibited superoxide anions. Various polyphenols and flavonoides present in REC-2006 might contribute to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals, thereby preventing DNA damage and stimulating its repair. PMID:20008078

Chaudhary, Pankaj; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

2011-06-16

230

REC-2006--A Fractionated Extract of Podophyllum hexandrum Protects Cellular DNA from Radiation-Induced Damage by Reducing the Initial Damage and Enhancing Its Repair In Vivo  

Science.gov (United States)

Podophyllum hexandrum, a perennial herb commonly known as the Himalayan May Apple, is well known in Indian and Chinese traditional systems of medicine. P. hexandrum has been widely used for the treatment of venereal warts, skin infections, bacterial and viral infections, and different cancers of the brain, lung and bladder. This study aimed at elucidating the effect of REC-2006, a bioactive fractionated extract from the rhizome of P. hexandrum, on the kinetics of induction and repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in murine thymocytes in vivo. We evaluated its effect on non-specific radiation-induced DNA damage by the alkaline halo assay in terms of relative nuclear spreading factor (RNSF) and gene-specific radiation-induced DNA damage via semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Whole body exposure of animals with gamma rays (10?Gy) caused a significant amount of DNA damage in thymocytes (RNSF values 17.7?±?0.47, 12.96?±?1.64 and 3.3?±?0.014) and a reduction in the amplification of ?-globin gene to 0, 28 and 43% at 0, 15 and 60 min, respectively. Administrating REC-2006 at a radioprotective concentration (15?mg?kg?1 body weight) 1?h before irradiation resulted in time-dependent reduction of DNA damage evident as a decrease in RNSF values 6.156?±?0.576, 1.647?±?0.534 and 0.496?±?0.012, and an increase in ?-globin gene amplification 36, 95 and 99%, at 0, 15 and 60?min, respectively. REC-2006 scavenged radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner stabilized DPPH free radicals and also inhibited superoxide anions. Various polyphenols and flavonoides present in REC-2006 might contribute to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals, thereby preventing DNA damage and stimulating its repair.

Chaudhary, Pankaj; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

2011-01-01

231

REC-2006-A Fractionated Extract of Podophyllum hexandrum Protects Cellular DNA from Radiation-Induced Damage by Reducing the Initial Damage and Enhancing Its Repair In Vivo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Podophyllum hexandrum, a perennial herb commonly known as the Himalayan May Apple, is well known in Indian and Chinese traditional systems of medicine. P. hexandrum has been widely used for the treatment of venereal warts, skin infections, bacterial and viral infections, and different cancers of the brain, lung and bladder. This study aimed at elucidating the effect of REC-2006, a bioactive fractionated extract from the rhizome of P. hexandrum, on the kinetics of induction and repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in murine thymocytes in vivo. We evaluated its effect on non-specific radiation-induced DNA damage by the alkaline halo assay in terms of relative nuclear spreading factor (RNSF) and gene-specific radiation-induced DNA damage via semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Whole body exposure of animals with gamma rays (10?Gy) caused a significant amount of DNA damage in thymocytes (RNSF values 17.7?±?0.47, 12.96?±?1.64 and 3.3?±?0.014) and a reduction in the amplification of ?-globin gene to 0, 28 and 43% at 0, 15 and 60 min, respectively. Administrating REC-2006 at a radioprotective concentration (15?mg?kg(-1) body weight) 1?h before irradiation resulted in time-dependent reduction of DNA damage evident as a decrease in RNSF values 6.156?±?0.576, 1.647?±?0.534 and 0.496?±?0.012, and an increase in ?-globin gene amplification 36, 95 and 99%, at 0, 15 and 60?min, respectively. REC-2006 scavenged radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner stabilized DPPH free radicals and also inhibited superoxide anions. Various polyphenols and flavonoides present in REC-2006 might contribute to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals, thereby preventing DNA damage and stimulating its repair.

Chaudhary P; Shukla SK; Sharma RK

2011-01-01

232

Suppression subtractive hybridization in construction of radiation-induced EST library  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To clone and identify radiation-induced genes from 0.5 Gy ?-ray irradiated human embryo lung cells (HEL). The identification and functional studies of radiation-induced genes will prompt the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of low dose radiation-induced biological effects. It will also profit the understanding of the basic processes of cellular metabolisms. Methods: A low dose radiation-induced differentially displaying EST library has been constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization from HEL cells irradiated with 0.5 Gy ?-rays. The EST library was screened by reverse Northern hybridization analysis. Positive clones were sequenced and the similarity was searched against the DNA database in GenBank. Results: Altogether 90 positive cDNA clones with increased expression after 0.5 Gy irradiation were identified which corresponded to 21 individual genes. These genes involved in the processes of cell cycle control, signal transduction, cell skeleton, metabolism and protein synthesis, etc. All these demonstrated the diverse responses of cells to low dose radiation. Moreover, four novel cDNA were obtained. Conclusions: Low dose radiation induces ESTs which relate to cell proliferation, cell cycle control, signal transduction, cell skeleton, metabolism, protein synthesis and stress response etc were cloned and identified by SSH. Authors' data suggest that these genes could play important roles in the biological response of cells to low dose radiation

2001-01-01

233

Radiation-induced angiosarcoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced angiosarcomas are uncommon adverse sequelae related to treatment of tumors. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to successful management. PURPOSE: The purpose of this case study is to describe the clinical characteristics of radiation-induced angiosarcomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical literature using PubMed, searching the terms angiosarcoma, breast, post, radiation, and treatment. Patient reports and previous reviews of the subject were critically assessed and the salient features are presented. RESULTS: Approximately one hundred patients have been diagnosed with radiation-induced angiosarcomas. The condition presents within the radiation field, approximately six years after initial treatment. We describe the dramatic efficacious response of our patient's angiosarcoma to adjuvant chemotherapy both preoperatively (gemcitabine and docetaxel) and postoperatively (gemcitabine and docetaxel followed by ifosfamide and adriamycin). CONCLUSION: We recommend that new skin lesions within or adjacent to radiation ports should be considered for biopsy. Also, for lesions that are larger, ill-defined, or both, several sites should be sampled to ensure an accurate diagnosis and to prevent the possibility of a false negative interpretation.

Anzalone CL; Cohen PR; Diwan AH; Prieto VG

2013-01-01

234

Protection against radiation-induced mutations at the hprt locus by spermine and N,N{double_prime}-(dithiodi-2,1-ethanediyl)bis-1,3-propanediamine (WR-33278). WR-33278 and spermine protect against mutation induction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The polyamine spermine and the disulfide N,N{double_prime}-(dithiodi-2,1-ethanediyl)bis-1,3-propanediamine (WR-33278) are structurally similar agents capable of binding to DNA. WR-33278 is the disulfide moiety of the clinically studied radioprotective agent S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721). Because of their reported structural and functional similarities, it was of interest to characterize and compare their radioprotective properties using the endpoints of cell survival and mutation induction at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in Chinese hamster AA8 cells. In order to facilitate both the uptake of WR-33278 into cells and the direct comparison between the protective properties of WR-33278 and spermine, these agents (at concentrations of 0.01 mM and 0.001 mM) were electroporated into cells. The exposure of cells to both electroporation and irradiation gave rise to enhanced cell killing and mutation induction, with the sequence of irradiation followed 3 h later by electroporation being the more toxic protocol. Enhanced cell survival was observed following electroporation of 0.01 mM of spermine and WR-33278 30 min prior to irradiation; protection factors (PF) of 1.3 and 1.8, respectively. Neither agent was protective at a concentration of 0.001 mM. Protection against radiation-induced hprt mutations was observed for both spermine and WR-33278 under all experimental conditions tested. These data suggest that the properties of radioprotection and chemoprevention exhibited by the phosphorothioate (WR-2721) and associated aminothiol (WR-1065) and disulfide (WR-33278) metabolites may be mediated via endogenous spermine-like polyamine processes. Such a mechanism would have important implications with respect to the design and development of new generation drugs for use in radioprotection and chemoprevention.

Grdina, D.J.; Shigematsu, N.; Schwartz, J.L.

1994-08-01

235

The effects of chronic low dose irradiation on drosophila melanogaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was investigated the influence of the chronic gamma-irradiation in the dose rate of 0.17 cGy/h on the rate of genetic variability and on the life-span in the laboratory strains of Drosophila melanogaster with genotypic distinguishes in mobile genetic elements and defects in the DNA repair processes. It is shown that the radiation-induced alteration of the traits under study depends from genotype of investigated strains. In the different strains we have observed an increase as well as a decrease of the mutation rate and life-span. Also it was established that irradiation leads to the frequencies of the GD-sterility and mutability of the snw and h(w+) in the P-M and H-E dysgenic crosses. The obtained results suggest that mobile genetic elements play an important role in the forming of genetic effects in response to low dose irradiation. (author)

2001-09-00

236

Effect of low dose radiation on apoptosis in mouse spleen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective: To study the effect of whole body irradiation (WBI) with different doses of X-ray on apoptosis in mouse spleen. Methods: Time course changes and dose-effect relationship of apoptosis in mouse spleen induced by WBI were observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) qualitatively and TUNEL method semi-quantitatively. Results: Many typical apoptotic lymphocytes were found by TEM in mouse spleen after WBI with 2 Gy. No marked alterations of ultrastructure were found following WBI with 0.075 Gy. It was observed by TUNEL that the apoptosis of splenocytes increased after high dose radiation and decreased following low dose radiation (LDR). The dose-effect relationship of radiation-induced apoptosis showed a J-shaped curve. Conclusion: The effect of different doses of ionizing radiation on apoptosis in mouse spleen was distinct. And the decrease of apoptosis after LDR is considered a manifestation of radiation hormesis

1999-01-01

237

Prevention of gamma radiation induced anaemia in mice by diltiazem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intraperitoneal administration of diltiazem (DTZ), half an hour prior to whole body gamma irradiation (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 Gy), showed the protection of animals from radiation-induced anaemia. Radiation exposure significantly (p

2004-01-01

238

Low Dose Risk, Decisions, and Risk Communication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall research objective was to establish new levels of information about how people, groups, and communities respond to low dose radiation exposure. This is basic research into the social psychology of individual, group, and community responses to radiation exposures. The results of this research are directed to improving risk communication and public participation in management of environmental problems resulting from low dose radiation.

Flynn, James

2002-09-14

239

Radiation-induced bystander effects induce radio-adaptive response by low-dose radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When normal human fibroblast cells (MRC-5) received a priming irradiation of 3-20 mGy 4 h prior to irradiation with 1000 mGy, the number of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) decreased significantly to 18.2-18.7 per cell compared with 21 per cell when there was no priming irradiation. This result indicates that a priming irradiation of 3-20 mGy induces a radio-adaptive response in MRC-5. The authors' previous study had indicated that DSBs induced by

2011-01-01

240

Molecular targets for radioprotection by low dose radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Adaptive response is a reduced effect from a higher challenging dose of a stressor after a smaller inducing dose had been applied a few hrs earlier. Radiation induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) cells did not show such an adaptive response, i.e. a reduced effect from a higher challenging dose (2 Gy) of a radiation after a priming dose (1 cGy) had been applied 4 or 7 hrs earlier, but its thermoresistant clone (TR) did. Since inducible HSP70 and HSP25 expressions were different between these two cell lines, the role of inducible HSP70 and HSP25 in adaptive response was examined. When inducible hsp70 or hsp25 genes were transfected to RIF cells, radioresistance in clonogenic survival and reduction of apoptosis was detected. The adaptive response was also acquired in these two cell lines, and inducible hsp70 transfectant showed more pronounced adaptive response than hsp25 transfectant. From these results, inducible HSP70 and HSP25 are at least partly responsible for the induction of adaptive response in these cells. Moreover, when inducible HSP70 or HSP25 genes were transfected to RIF cells, coregulation of each gene was detected and heat shock factor (HSF) was found to be responsible for these phenomena. In continuation of our earlier study on the involvement of heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and HSP70 in the induction of adaptive response, we have now examined the involvement of these proteins in the induction of the adaptive response, using an animal model system. C57BL6 mice were irradiated with 5 cGy of gamma radiation 3 times for a week (total of 15cGy) and a high challenge dose (6Gy) was given on the day following the last low dose irradiation. Survival rate of the low dose pre-irradiated mice was increased to 30%. Moreover, high dose-mediated induction of apoptosis was also reduced by low dose pre-irradiation. To elucidate any link existing between HSP and induction of the adaptive response, reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was performed using splenocytes. High dose radiation up-regulated the expression of HSP25 and especially HSP70; while expression of other HSPs such as HSC70, HSP90, and ?B-crystalline did not change. When splenocytes from HSP70 transgenic mice were pre-irradiated with a low dose of radiation, a reduction in cell death by high dose radiation was observed. These results, suggest that HSP70 is a key molecule in radioprotective effect by low dose radiation

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Molecular targets for radioprotection by low dose radiation exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Adaptive response is a reduced effect from a higher challenging dose of a stressor after a smaller inducing dose had been applied a few hrs earlier. Radiation induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) cells did not show such an adaptive response, i.e. a reduced effect from a higher challenging dose (2 Gy) of a radiation after a priming dose (1 cGy) had been applied 4 or 7 hrs earlier, but its thermoresistant clone (TR) did. Since inducible HSP70 and HSP25 expressions were different between these two cell lines, the role of inducible HSP70 and HSP25 in adaptive response was examined. When inducible hsp70 or hsp25 genes were transfected to RIF cells, radioresistance in clonogenic survival and reduction of apoptosis was detected. The adaptive response was also acquired in these two cell lines, and inducible hsp70 transfectant showed more pronounced adaptive response than hsp25 transfectant. From these results, inducible HSP70 and HSP25 are at least partly responsible for the induction of adaptive response in these cells. Moreover, when inducible HSP70 or HSP25 genes were transfected to RIF cells, coregulation of each gene was detected and heat shock factor (HSF) was found to be responsible for these phenomena. In continuation of our earlier study on the involvement of heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and HSP70 in the induction of adaptive response, we have now examined the involvement of these proteins in the induction of the adaptive response, using an animal model system. C57BL6 mice were irradiated with 5 cGy of gamma radiation 3 times for a week (total of 15cGy) and a high challenge dose (6Gy) was given on the day following the last low dose irradiation. Survival rate of the low dose pre-irradiated mice was increased to 30%. Moreover, high dose-mediated induction of apoptosis was also reduced by low dose pre-irradiation. To elucidate any link existing between HSP and induction of the adaptive response, reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was performed using splenocytes. High dose radiation up-regulated the expression of HSP25 and especially HSP70; while expression of other HSPs such as HSC70, HSP90, and {alpha}B-crystalline did not change. When splenocytes from HSP70 transgenic mice were pre-irradiated with a low dose of radiation, a reduction in cell death by high dose radiation was observed. These results, suggest that HSP70 is a key molecule in radioprotective effect by low dose radiation.

Seo, Hang Rhan; Lee, Yoon Jin; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Su Jae; Bae, Sang woo; Lee, Yun Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2004-07-01

242

Gamma radiation-induced conditioned taste aversions in rats: A comparison of the protective effects of area postrema lesions with differing doses of radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lesions which destroy the area postrema (AP) and damage the adjacent nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) attenuate or abolish conditioned taste aversions (CTA) induced by a variety of pharmacological agents as well as exposure to radiation. In the present experiment, 4 groups of male rats received lesions of AP and 4 groups were given sham lesions. One sham-lesioned and one AP-lesioned group were given a single pairing of 1-hr access to a novel 0.10% sodium saccharin solution followed immediately with exposure to 0, 100, 200, or 400 rad of gamma radiation, respectively. Four days later all groups were given daily two-bottle preference tests (saccharin vs. water) on 4 consecutive days. The sham-lesioned groups exposed to the radiation (100, 200, or 400 rad) developed profound aversions to the saccharin on all test days (p less than 0.001). In contrast, all of the AP-lesioned groups as well as the sham-irradiated (0 rad) sham-lesioned group exhibited strong, comparable (p greater than 0.30) preferences for saccharin. Thus, lesion of AP abolished the radiation-induced CTA at all dose levels of radiation. These results raise the possibility of pharmacological intervention at the level of AP to prevent radiation-induced CTA in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy.

Ossenkopp, K.P.; Giugno, L. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

1989-10-01

243

Gamma radiation-induced conditioned taste aversions in rats: a comparison of the protective effects of area postrema lesions with differing doses of radiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lesions which destroy the area postrema (AP) and damage the adjacent nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) attenuate or abolish conditioned taste aversions (CTA) induced by a variety of pharmacological agents as well as exposure to radiation. In the present experiment, 4 groups of male rats received lesions of AP and 4 groups were given sham lesions. One sham-lesioned and one AP-lesioned group were given a single pairing of 1-hr access to a novel 0.10% sodium saccharin solution followed immediately with exposure to 0, 100, 200, or 400 rad of gamma radiation, respectively. Four days later all groups were given daily two-bottle preference tests (saccharin vs. water) on 4 consecutive days. The sham-lesioned groups exposed to the radiation (100, 200, or 400 rad) developed profound aversions to the saccharin on all test days (p less than 0.001). In contrast, all of the AP-lesioned groups as well as the sham-irradiated (0 rad) sham-lesioned group exhibited strong, comparable (p greater than 0.30) preferences for saccharin. Thus, lesion of AP abolished the radiation-induced CTA at all dose levels of radiation. These results raise the possibility of pharmacological intervention at the level of AP to prevent radiation-induced CTA in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy.

Ossenkopp KP; Giugno L

1989-10-01

244

Gamma radiation-induced conditioned taste aversions in rats: A comparison of the protective effects of area postrema lesions with differing doses of radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lesions which destroy the area postrema (AP) and damage the adjacent nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) attenuate or abolish conditioned taste aversions (CTA) induced by a variety of pharmacological agents as well as exposure to radiation. In the present experiment, 4 groups of male rats received lesions of AP and 4 groups were given sham lesions. One sham-lesioned and one AP-lesioned group were given a single pairing of 1-hr access to a novel 0.10% sodium saccharin solution followed immediately with exposure to 0, 100, 200, or 400 rad of gamma radiation, respectively. Four days later all groups were given daily two-bottle preference tests (saccharin vs. water) on 4 consecutive days. The sham-lesioned groups exposed to the radiation (100, 200, or 400 rad) developed profound aversions to the saccharin on all test days (p less than 0.001). In contrast, all of the AP-lesioned groups as well as the sham-irradiated (0 rad) sham-lesioned group exhibited strong, comparable (p greater than 0.30) preferences for saccharin. Thus, lesion of AP abolished the radiation-induced CTA at all dose levels of radiation. These results raise the possibility of pharmacological intervention at the level of AP to prevent radiation-induced CTA in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy

1989-01-01

245

[Radiation induced carcinogenesis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intense research after Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) tragedy and Chernobyl nuclear plant accident revealed that ionizing radiation (IR) more than 100 mSv induces cancers that are indistinguishable from sporadic tumors. It remains controversial whether low dose IR (less than 100 mSv) is oncogenic or not. Among IR-induced malignancies, leukemia (A-bomb) and thyroid cancers (Chernobyl), in which chimeric(fusion) oncogenes formed by chromosome translocations play a critical role, develop with relatively short latency. All other cancers develop after long latency. Age-related epigenetic changes, as well as additional genetic alterations, would contribute to IR-induced carcinogenesis.

Inaba T

2012-03-01

246

Variability: The common factor linking low dose-induced genomic instability, adaptation and bystander effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The characteristics of low dose radiation-induced genomic instability, adaptive responses, and bystander effects were compared in order to probe possible underlying mechanisms, and develop models for predicting response to in vivo low dose radiation exposures. While there are some features that are common to all three (e.g., absence of a true dose-response, the multiple endpoints affected by each), other characteristics appear to distinguish one from the other (e.g., TP53 involvement, LET response, influence of DNA repair). Each of the responses is also highly variable; not all cell and tissue models show the same response and there is much interindividual variation in response. Most of these studies have employed in vitro cell culture or tissue explant models, and understanding underlying mechanisms and the biological significance of these low dose-responses will require study of tissue-specific in vivo endpoints. The in vitro studies strongly suggest that modeling low dose radiation effects will be a complex process, and will likely require separate study of each of these low dose phenomena. Knowledge of instability responses, for example, may not aid in predicting other low dose effects in the same tissue

2007-03-01

247

Shape of dose curve of cytogenetic damage in the low-dose range  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modification of cytogenetic damages yield in hamsters under low dose gamma radiation using caffeine and SH-protector is studied. It is shown that in the low dose range the same repair system functions which is triggered only after sufficient reorganization of chromatin caused by radiation-induced membrane permeability increase. In the low dose effect range it takes place in the range of dose rate ? 1 - (25-3) sGy/min, while in the plateau of dose curve it does not depen on the dose rate. When assessing carcinogenic risk the linear non-threshold concept may be used for extrapolation concerning only dose curve plotted under conditions of repair inhibition or absence

1999-01-01

248

Low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells may rather control than cause DNA damage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced metabolic changes that induce mechanisms of DNA damage mitigation, which do not operate at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. This paper aims at demonstrating tissue effects as an expression of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive, in relation to the energy deposited in cell mass, by use of microdosimetric concepts.

Feinendegen, L.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.; Bond, V.P. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Sondhaus, C.A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Control Office; Altman, K.I. [Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics

1998-12-31

249

Low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells may rather control than cause DNA damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced metabolic changes that induce mechanisms of DNA damage mitigation, which do not operate at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. This paper aims at demonstrating tissue effects as an expression of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive, in relation to the energy deposited in cell mass, by use of microdosimetric concepts

1998-01-01

250

Automated studies of radiation-induced changes in 3T3 cell motility and morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most common endpoint in radiobiological studies is cell survival, as measured by colony forming ability. There is substantial experimental evidence that cell survival is related to the amount of radiation damage to the DNA. Radiation induces other changes in cell behaviour and morphology that may not be due to DNA damage alone. For example, low doses of radiation (

1985-01-01

251

Importance and present state of the research in radiation-induced bystander responses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radiation-induced bystander responses (RIBR) are defined as cellular responses which have not been directly induced by radiation but are induced in the neighborhood cells of the directly irradiated. Here it is shown that the importance and current issues of RIBR in the low dose radiation risk assessment. (author)

2009-01-01

252

Protection by L-carnitine against radiation-induced ileal mucosal injury in the rat: Pattern of oxidative stress, apoptosis and cytokines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Purpose: In this study, we tested the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on radiation-induced ileal mucosal damage. Materials and methods: Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups. The control group received physiological saline intraperitoneally (i.p.). Radiation-1 and radiation-2 groups received whole-body X-irradiation of 8.3 Gy as a single dose. These groups were sacrificed at the 6th hour and 4th day after irradiation, respectively. The Radiation-1 + LC and the radiation-2 + LC groups received the same dose irradiation plus a daily dose of 200 mg/kg LC. LC was applied one day before and for four days after irradiation. Results: The levels of serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interferon gamma (IFN-?) were significantly higher in the radiation groups when compared with the control. Treatment with LC decreased the serum MCP-1 and IFN-? levels considerably. In the radiations groups, the Chiu score was significantly elevated compared with that of the control group. However, LC administered prior to the irradiation reduced the severity of mucosal damage. The number of apoptotic cells of the ileal crypt in the irradiated rats increased from the 6th hour after irradiation and then decreased at 4th day. Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that LC may be beneficial to radiation enteritis. PMID:23510242

Akpolat, Meryem; Gulle, Kanat; Topcu-Tarladacalisir, Yeter; Safi Oz, Zehra; Bakkal, Bekir Hakan; Arasli, Mehmet; Ozel Turkcu, Ummuhani

2013-04-16

253

LOW DOSE MAGNESIUM SULPHATE REGIME FOR ECLAMPSIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pre- eclampsia is one of the commonest medical complications seen during pregnancy. It contributes significantly to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Dr.J.A.Pritchard in 1955, introduced magnesium sulphate for control of convulsions in eclampsia and is used worldwide. Considering the low body mass index of indian women, a low dose magnesium sulphate regime has been introduced by some authors. Present study was carried out at tertiary care centre in rural area. Fifty cases of eclampsia were randomly selected to find out the efficacy of low dose magnesium sulphate regime to control eclamptic convulsions. Maternal and perinatal outcome and magnesium toxicity were analyzed. It was observed that 86% cases responded to initial intravenous dose of 4 grams of 20% magnesium sulphate . Eight percent cases, who got recurrence of convulsion, were controlled by additional 2 grams of 20% magnesium sulphate. Six percent cases required shifting to standard Pritchard regime, as they did not respond to low dose magnesium sulphate regime. The average total dose of magnesium sulphate required for control of convulsions was 20 grams ie. 54.4% less than that of standard Pritchard regime. The maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in the present study werecomparable to those of standard Pritchard regime. The study did not find a single case of magnesium related toxicity with low dose magnesium sulphate regime. Low dose magnesium sulphate regime was found to be safe and effective in eclampsia.

Bangal V; Kwatra A; Raghav S; Jadhav S

2009-01-01

254

Low dose rapamycin exacerbates autoimmune experimental uveitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Rapamycin, a potent immune modulator, is used to treat transplant rejection and some autoimmune diseases. Uveitis is a potentially severe inflammatory eye disease, and 2 clinical trials of treating uveitis with rapamycin are under way. Unexpectedly, recent research has demonstrated that low dose rapamycin enhances the memory T cell population and function. However, it is unclear how low dose rapamycin influences the immune response in the setting of uveitis. DESIGN AND METHODS: B10.RIII mice were immunized to induce experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Ocular inflammation of control and rapamycin-treated mice was compared based on histological change. ELISPOT and T cell proliferation assays were performed to assess splenocyte response to ocular antigen. In addition, we examined the effect of rapamycin on activation-induced cell death (AICD) using the MitoCapture assay and Annexin V staining. RESULTS: Administration of low dose rapamycin exacerbated EAU, whereas treating mice with high dose rapamycin attenuated ocular inflammation. The progression of EAU by low dose rapamycin coincided with the increased frequency of antigen-reactive lymphocytes. Lastly, fewer rapamycin-treated T cells underwent AICD, which might contribute to exaggerated ocular inflammation and the uveitogenic immune response. CONCLUSION: These data reveal a paradoxical role for rapamycin in uveitis in a dose-dependent manner. This study has a potentially important clinical implication as rapamycin might cause unwanted consequences dependent on dosing and pharmacokinetics. Thus, more research is needed to further define the mechanism by which low dose rapamycin augments the immune response.

Zhang Z; Wu X; Duan J; Hinrichs D; Wegmann K; Zhang GL; Hall M; Rosenbaum JT

2012-01-01

255

Evaluation of the detriment associated with exposure at low doses and low dose rates in the radiation protection system; Evaluation du detriment associe a l'exposition aux faibles doses et faibles debits de dose dans le systeme de radioprotection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Questions about quantifying the radiological risk associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been debated repeatedly for a variety of exposure situations, including, among others, medical irradiation, discharges from nuclear facilities, transportation of radioactive waste, and potential nuclear accidents. This paper aims to shed light on the link between exposure and risk, focusing on the items that constitute the detriment associated with this exposure. The management of the risk associated with it relies on a cautious hypothesis of a linear no-threshold relation between exposure and risk of death or detriment. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) published General Recommendations in 1966 that recognised this relation, but did not publish a quantification of the risk until 1977. The Commission introduced the concept of effective dose as a risk indicator that makes it possible to determine dose limits according to the risk associated with them. In 1990, the Commission proposed a revision of the quantification and construction of detriment. New limits, based on risk quantification and, for the first time, risk tolerability, were proposed. The optimisation of radiation protection - keeping radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable in light of the economic and social context - became the key principle of the radiation protection system. The use of detriment makes it possible to use economic tools to guide the decision process for this optimisation - by assessing the monetary value of human life. This concept, widely used in health economics during the 1980's, has been criticised by many and must be used cautiously. ICRP published the latest quantifications of detriment in 2007. Detriment is thus an indicator that assesses the risk of death associated with exposure to ionising radiation for an average individual. Its construction relies on simplifying assumptions that are needed to implement a robust and effective radiation protection system. (authors)

Vaillant, Ludovic; Schneider, Thierry [CEPN, 28, rue de la Redoute, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

2012-03-15

256

Effects of emitter junction and passive base region on low dose rate effect in bipolar devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Low dose rate effect in bipolar devices consists in the increase of peripheral surface recombination current with dose rate decrease. This is due to the more rapid positive oxide charge and interface trap density build-up as the dose rate becomes lower. High dose rate elevated temperature irradiation is proposed for simulation if the low dose rate effect. In the present we tried to separate the effect of radiation-induced charge in the thick passivation oxide over the emitter junction and passive base regions of npn bipolar transistor. Its goal is to improve bipolar device design for use in space environments and nuclear installations. Three experiments were made during this work. 1. Experiment on radiation-induced charge neutralization (RICN) effect under elevated temperature was performed to show transistor degradation dependence on emitter-base bias. 2. High dose rate elevated and room temperature irradiation of bipolar transistors were performed to separate effects of emitter-junction and passive base regions. 3. Pre- and post- irradiation hydrogen ambient storage was used to investigate its effect on radiation-induced charge build-up over the passive base region. All experiments were performed with npn and pnp transistors. (authors)

1999-01-01

257

Accidental chronic exposure to low dose radiation in Taiwan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For more than 10 years, about 10,000 people in Taiwan have been chronically exposed to ionizing radiation at low dose rates. Materials used for the construction of their apartments were contaminated by cobalt -60. The incident, discovered in 1992, led to the mapping of contaminated areas and the dosimetry and health consequences since 1993. Measurements were carried out in different places in the apartments and residents wore thermo - luminescent detectors. Annual dose levels about 1 to 140 mSv have been evaluated. Retrospective biological dosimetry studies were realized both by means of analysis of the micronuclei and by the analysis of radiation-induced stable chromosomes translocations. Moreover other studies focused on research on functional or anatomic modifications, complete or not by individual biological dosimetry, were carried out and have shown the particular interest in undertaking the biological and medical surveillance of this population. Beyond the analyses and results published, these prolonged exposures at low dose rates and variable cumulated doses, since they cannot exceed the Gy, have raised the question on radio-adaptation and/or hormesis. One of the underlying questions is whether this population, chronically and heterogeneously exposed to an anthropogenic source, can help characterize the harmful effects or beneficial health effects at these dose levels. Different points of view were expressed in 2003, and a review of scientific publications since 1997 on this subject is presented. In view of the incomplete results, both in physical and biological dosimetry, a study on the people exposed during their childhood would seem to be more useful for re-usable results, to investigate the existence of adaptation to anthropogenic chronic irradiation. (authors)

Lebaron-Jacobs, L. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Nenot, J.C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Flury-Herard, A. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, 92 (France)

2006-07-01

258

Accidental chronic exposure to low dose radiation in Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] For more than 10 years, about 10,000 people in Taiwan have been chronically exposed to ionizing radiation at low dose rates. Materials used for the construction of their apartments were contaminated by cobalt -60. The incident, discovered in 1992, led to the mapping of contaminated areas and the dosimetry and health consequences since 1993. Measurements were carried out in different places in the apartments and residents wore thermo - luminescent detectors. Annual dose levels about 1 to 140 mSv have been evaluated. Retrospective biological dosimetry studies were realized both by means of analysis of the micronuclei and by the analysis of radiation-induced stable chromosomes translocations. Moreover other studies focused on research on functional or anatomic modifications, complete or not by individual biological dosimetry, were carried out and have shown the particular interest in undertaking the biological and medical surveillance of this population. Beyond the analyses and results published, these prolonged exposures at low dose rates and variable cumulated doses, since they cannot exceed the Gy, have raised the question on radio-adaptation and/or hormesis. One of the underlying questions is whether this population, chronically and heterogeneously exposed to an anthropogenic source, can help characterize the harmful effects or beneficial health effects at these dose levels. Different points of view were expressed in 2003, and a review of scientific publications since 1997 on this subject is presented. In view of the incomplete results, both in physical and biological dosimetry, a study on the people exposed during their childhood would seem to be more useful for re-usable results, to investigate the existence of adaptation to anthropogenic chronic irradiation. (authors)

2006-01-01

259

Radiation induced emulsion polymerization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High energy radiation is particularly favored for the initiation of emulsion polymerization. The yield of free radicals, for example, from the radiolysis of the aqueous phase, is high; G(radical) values of 5-7. In addition, the rather special kinetics associated with emulsion polymerization lead, in general, to very large kinetic chain lengths, even with 'non-ideal' monomers such as vinyl acetate. Together, high polymerization rates at low doses become possible. There are some important advantages of radiation polymerization compared with chemical initiators, such as potassium persulfate. Perhaps the most important among them is the temperature independence of the initiation step. This makes low temperature polymerization very accessible. With monomers such as vinyl acetate, where chain termination to monomer is predominant, low temperatures lead to often highly desirable higher molecular weights. With styrene, the classical ideally behaved monomer, there are the advantages such as, for example, the feasibility of using cationic monomers. These and some attendant disadvantages are discussed in detail, including pilot plant studies

1990-01-01

260

Apoptosis and survival parameters during protection from radiation-induced thymocyte death by a candidate radioprotector, GC-2112, from Allium sativum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biomedical studies on nuclear fallout effects show that whole-body exposure to relatively low doses of ionizing radiation (2-10 Gy) induces the hematopoietic syndrome (HS) characterized by severe anemia and immunodeficiency and death within 10-30 days. The thymocyte model applies in many cell death researches and is found to undergo a morphologically and molecularly distinct p53-based apoptosis with DNA-damaging insults, such as radiation exposure. We have shown that exogenously applied radioprotector from allium sativum (garlic), GC-2112, improves total cellular survival for various observation periods concomitantly shifting the LD50/24 from 7 Gy (control) to 21 Gy (GC-2112). This increased survival characteristic of the radioprotected macrophage-free thymocytes, however, fails to correlate with the prevention of apoptosis-associated DNA scissions. Mechanisms to the observed radiomodification may possibly involve cysteine compounds found rich in garlic. These preliminary findings show promise in the applications of selected herbal drugs as dietary prophylaxis against clinical morbidities arising from either medical, occupational or environmental exposures to ionizing radiation. (author)

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Exposure to low doses of ionizing radiations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The author discusses the knowledge about the effects of ionizing radiations on mankind. Some of them have been well documented (skin cancer and leukaemia for the pioneer scientists who worked on radiations, some other types of cancer for workers who handled luminescent paints, rock miners, nuclear explosion survivors, patients submitted to radiological treatments). He also evokes the issue of hereditary cancers, and discusses the issue of low dose irradiation where some surveys can now be performed on workers. He discusses the biological effects of these low doses. He outlines that many questions remain about these effects, notably the influence of dose level and of dose rate level on the biological reaction

2008-01-01

262

Tardive dyskinesia with low dose amisulpride.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to use amisulpride in the treatment of dysthymia and also as an adjunct treatment in patients with major depression. At low doses (50 mg), amisulpride preferentially blocks presynaptic auto receptors, enhances dopamine release, and therefore acts as a dopaminergic compound able to resolve the dopaminergic hypo activity that characterizes depression. Based on experimental data, amisulpride is the drug of choice for dopaminergic transmission disorders, both in depression and in schizophrenia. This case highlights the development of dyskinesia in a depressed patient treated with low dose amisulpride and fluvoxamine. PMID:23440033

Tharoor, Hema; Padmavati, R

2013-01-01

263

Tardive dyskinesia with low dose amisulpride.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to use amisulpride in the treatment of dysthymia and also as an adjunct treatment in patients with major depression. At low doses (50 mg), amisulpride preferentially blocks presynaptic auto receptors, enhances dopamine release, and therefore acts as a dopaminergic compound able to resolve the dopaminergic hypo activity that characterizes depression. Based on experimental data, amisulpride is the drug of choice for dopaminergic transmission disorders, both in depression and in schizophrenia. This case highlights the development of dyskinesia in a depressed patient treated with low dose amisulpride and fluvoxamine.

Tharoor H; Padmavati R

2013-01-01

264

Low dose radiation effects: a holistic model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mathematical model of low dose irradiation effects based on molecular and physiological parameters of cell response was presented. Data mainly on three aspects of the problem were used: - fact of presence of nonmonotonous discontinuous dose-effect dependences with respect to low doses was taken into consideration. Selection of such curves was based on empirical approach and needed analytical assessment; - effects of adaptive response of animal cells and induced repair systems were taken into consideration; - occurrence of optimal bioeconomical process was supposed to be a basis of effect of various background radiation on the organism. 29 refs.; 6 figs

1990-01-01

265

Some remarks on the significance of low doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The criteria of the present system of individual dose limitation are considered as well as the evolution of the limiting values. The assumption of the linearity of the dose-effect relationship without any threshold is probably the best approach to adopt for recommendations in radiation protection and for accounting the doses acquired by exposure to ionizing radiation. On the other hand the present evaluation of the natural background could imply a different dose-effect relationship in the low doses region and perhaps the existence of a threshold. Therefore the extrapolations which are usually made after exposures of different groups of people to low doses cannot be considered as scientifically sound. (author)

1989-01-01

266

Low dose radiation--a curse or a boon?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The increased use of nuclear technology has created fear in the minds of people regarding its possible adverse effects on living systems. This fear is heightened by press reports of nuclear fallouts and of high levels of natural background radiation in geographical areas in a number of countries. The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation estimate the risk of cancer from high dose exposure to be 4.5% to 7.1% per sievert depending on the projection model used. However, when the exposure is to low dose background radiation, the available data does not show an increased risk. This is possibly due to the effectiveness of the inherent repair capacity of the living cell. These observations have given rise to the 'hormesis' hypothesis. Low dose radiation has in fact been found to be immunostimulatory and this is now being exploited as a possible treatment modality in cancer patients.

Balaram P; Mani KS

1994-07-01

267

Caffeine Markedly Enhanced Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper it is shown that incubation with 2 mM caffeine enhanced significantly the MN (micronucleus) formation in both the 1 cGy ?-particle irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Moreover, caffeine treatment made the non-irradiated bystander cells more sensitive to damage signals. Treated by c-PTIO(2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide), a nitric oxide (NO) scavenger, the MN frequencies were effectively inhibited, showing that nitric oxide might be very important in mediating the enhanced damage. These results indicated that caffeine enhanced the low dose ?-particle radiation-induced damage in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions, and therefore it is important to investigate the relationship between the radiosensitizer and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE).

Jiang, Erkang; Wu, Lijun

2009-04-01

268

Caffeine Markedly Enhanced Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper it is shown that incubation with 2 mM caffeine enhanced significantly the MN (micronucleus) formation in both the 1 cGy ?-particle irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Moreover, caffeine treatment made the non-irradiated bystander cells more sensitive to damage signals. Treated by c-PTIO(2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)- 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide), a nitric oxide (NO) scavenger, the MN frequencies were effectively inhibited, showing that nitric oxide might be very important in mediating the enhanced damage. These results indicated that caffeine enhanced the low dose ?-particle radiation-induced damage in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions, and therefore it is important to investigate the relationship between the radiosensitizer and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). (ion beam bioengineering)

2009-04-01

269

Protection against radiation-induced mutations at the hprt locus by spermine and N,N{double_prime}-(dithiodi-2,1-ethanediyl)bis-1,3-propanediamine (WR-33278)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The polyamine spermine and the disulfide NN{double_prime}-(dithiodi-2,1-ethanediyl)bis-1,3-propanediamine (WR-33278) are structurally similar agents capable of binding to DNA. WR-33278 is the disulfide moiety of the clinically studied radioprotective agent (WR-2721). Because of their structural similarities, it was of interest to characterize and compare their radioprotective properties using the endpoints of cell survival and mutation induction at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in Chinese hamster AA8 cells. In order to facilitate both the uptake of VM-33278 into cells and the direct comparison between the protective properties of WR-33278 and spermine, these agents were electroporated into cells. Electroporation alone reduced cell survival to 75% but had no effect on hprt mutation frequency. The electroporation of either spermine or WR-33278 at concentrations greater than 0.01 mM was extremely toxic. The exposure of cells to both electroporation and irradiation gave rise to enhanced cell killing and mutation induction. Cell survival values at a radiation dose of 750 cGy were enhanced by factors of 1.3 and 1.8 following electroporation of 0.01 mM of spermine and WR-33278, respectively, 30 min prior to irradiation. Neither agent was protective at a concentration of 0.001 mM. Protection against radiation-induced hprt mutations was observed for both spermine and WR-33278 under all experimental conditions tested.

Grdina, D.J.; Schwartz, J.L. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation and Cellular Oncology]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Shigematsu, N. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-06-01

270

Stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The first section of the bibliography lists materials on the stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation, with particular reference to stimulation of germination and yield. The second section contains a small number of selected references on seed irradiation facilities. (author)

1976-01-01

271

Tardive dyskinesia with low dose amisulpride  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to use amisulpride in the treatment of dysthymia and also as an adjunct treatment in patients with major depression. At low doses (50 mg), amisulpride preferentially blocks presynaptic auto receptors, enhances dopamine release, and therefore acts a...

Tharoor, Hema; Padmavati, R.

272

Radiation-induced detriment in the population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of quantities can be introduced to describe 'Detriment' induced by ionizing radiation, which are related to the estimate of the probability rate of occurrence of subsequent undesirable health effects. The estimate is evaluated from mathematical models which describe the probability of events (risk model) and the characteristics of subject population. Exposures are usually categorized into 1) exposure in the population, 2) occupational exposure and 3) medical exposure in the frame of radiation protection. It should be noted, however, that there is no essential difference in radiation-induced detriment itself among the three categories, except differences in the mode of exposure, the quality of radiation and the age structure of subjects. So far, the excess cancer death (probability) has been one of main detriment indicators in the exposed population. This reflects that risk model of ionizing radiation has been derived mainly from the data-base on the surveys of cancer mortality such as life span study (LSS) in Hiroshima-Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. In this paper are briefly discussed some radiation-induced detriment indicators in the population, including unconditional quantities 1) excess cancer death probability and 2) loss of life expectancy, together with 3) excess cancer incidence probability based on risk models newly reported for radiation-induced cancer incidence. As an example of conditional probability, is also discussed the simulation on the probability of causation (PC) of leukemias. (author).

1995-01-01

273

Low dose irradiation reduces cancer mortality rates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low doses of ionizing radiation stimulate development, growth, memory, sensual acuity, fecundity, and immunity (Luckey, T.D., ''Radiation Hormesis'', CRC Press, 1991). Increased immune competence reduces cancer mortality rates and provides increased average lifespan in animals. Decreased cancer mortality rates in atom bomb victims who received low dose irradiation makes it desirable to examine populations exposed to low dose irradiation. Studies with over 300,000 workers and 7 million person-years provide a valid comparison of radiation exposed and control unclear workers (Luckey, T.D., Nurture with Ionizing Radiation, Nutrition and Cancer, 34:1-11, 1999). Careful selection of controls eliminated any ''healthy worker effect''. The person-year corrected average indicated the cancer mortality rate of exposed workers was only 51% that of control workers. Lung cancer mortality rates showed a highly significant negative correlation with radon concentrations in 272,000 U.S. homes (Cohen, B.L., Health Physics 68:157-174, 1995). In contrast, radon concentrations showed no effect on hlumg cancer rates in miners from different countries (Lubin, J.H. Am. J. Epidemiology 140:323-332, 1994). This provides evidence that excessive lung cancer in miners is caused by particulates (the major factor) or toxic gases. The relative risk for cancer mortality was 3.7% in 10,000 Taiwanese exposed to low level of radiation from {sup 60}Co in their steel supported homes (Luan, Y.C. et al., Am. Nuclear Soc. Trans. Boston, 1999). This remarkable finding needs further study. A major mechanism for reduced cancer mortality rates is increased immune competence; this includes both cell and humoral components. Low dose irradiation increases circulating lymphocytes. Macrophage and ''natural killer'' cells can destroy altered (cancer) cells before the mass becomes too large. Low dose irradiation also kills suppressor T-cells; this allows helper T-cells to activate killer cells and antibody producing cells. Increased production of many molecules (interleukins, interferons, leukotrienes, chemotactic agents, and mitogens) related to immunity are found in mice exposed to low dose irradiation (Lim, S.-Z., Biologic Effects of Low Level Exposures to Radiation and Related Agents, pp.15-16, 1993). Those plus many enzymes and cofactors are inter- and intra-cellular agents involved in gene expression, T-cell maturation, phagocytosis, signal transduction, antigen reception and antibody production. This basic science information has been utilized for cancer therapy in Japanese and United States clinics. With the usual radio-, chemo- and surgical therapy, the 10 year survival of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was 59%; when this was augmented by low dose irradiation, survival was 80% (Sakamoto, K., ICONE-7 Abstracts, p 50-51, 1999). Low dose irradiation of the mid-section of the body was effective. This area includes many elements of the immune system: the spleen with its germinal centers and lymphoid follicles, the liver with its phagocytosing Kupffer cells, kidney phagocytes, and the lamina propria and Peyer's patches of the intestinal wall. Irradiation of either the head and chest or the groin-legs area was unresponsive. Chronic low dose irradiation redness premature cancer mortality 51%. Standards should be revised with health, not risks, as the goal. Safe supplementation with ionizing radiation would provide a new plateau of health for people and wealth for nations. (author)

Luckey, T.D.

2000-05-01

274

Low dose irradiation reduces cancer mortality rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low doses of ionizing radiation stimulate development, growth, memory, sensual acuity, fecundity, and immunity (Luckey, T.D., ''Radiation Hormesis'', CRC Press, 1991). Increased immune competence reduces cancer mortality rates and provides increased average lifespan in animals. Decreased cancer mortality rates in atom bomb victims who received low dose irradiation makes it desirable to examine populations exposed to low dose irradiation. Studies with over 300,000 workers and 7 million person-years provide a valid comparison of radiation exposed and control unclear workers (Luckey, T.D., Nurture with Ionizing Radiation, Nutrition and Cancer, 34:1-11, 1999). Careful selection of controls eliminated any ''healthy worker effect''. The person-year corrected average indicated the cancer mortality rate of exposed workers was only 51% that of control workers. Lung cancer mortality rates showed a highly significant negative correlation with radon concentrations in 272,000 U.S. homes (Cohen, B.L., Health Physics 68:157-174, 1995). In contrast, radon concentrations showed no effect on lung cancer rates in miners from different countries (Lubin, J.H. Am. J. Epidemiology 140:323-332, 1994). This provides evidence that excessive lung cancer in miners is caused by particulates (the major factor) or toxic gases. The relative risk for cancer mortality was 3.7% in 10,000 Taiwanese exposed to low level of radiation from 60Co in their steel supported homes (Luan, Y.C. et al., Am. Nuclear Soc. Trans. Boston, 1999). This remarkable finding needs further study. A major mechanism for reduced cancer mortality rates is increased immune competence; this includes both cell and humoral components. Low dose irradiation increases circulating lymphocytes. Macrophage and ''natural killer'' cells can destroy altered (cancer) cells before the mass becomes too large. Low dose irradiation also kills suppressor T-cells; this allows helper T-cells to activate killer cells and antibody producing cells. Increased production of many molecules (interleukins, interferons, leukotrienes, chemotactic agents, and mitogens) related to immunity are found in mice exposed to low dose irradiation (Lim, S.-Z., Biologic Effects of Low Level Exposures to Radiation and Related Agents, pp.15-16, 1993). Those plus many enzymes and cofactors are inter- and intra-cellular agents involved in gene expression, T-cell maturation, phagocytosis, signal transduction, antigen reception and antibody production. This basic science information has been utilized for cancer therapy in Japanese and United States clinics. With the usual radio-, chemo- and surgical therapy, the 10 year survival of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was 59%; when this was augmented by low dose irradiation, survival was 80% (Sakamoto, K., ICONE-7 Abstracts, p 50-51, 1999). Low dose irradiation of the mid-section of the body was effective. This area includes many elements of the immune system: the spleen with its germinal centers and lymphoid follicles, the liver with its phagocytosing Kupffer cells, kidney phagocytes, and the lamina propria and Peyer's patches of the intestinal wall. Irradiation of either the head and chest or the groin-legs area was unresponsive. Chronic low dose irradiation redness premature cancer mortality 51%. Standards should be revised with health, not risks, as the goal. Safe supplementation with ionizing radiation would provide a new plateau of health for people and wealth for nations. (author)

2000-01-01

275

N-acetyl cysteine protects against ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage but not against cell killing in yeast and mammals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Ionizing radiation (IR) induces DNA strand breaks leading to cell death or deleterious genome rearrangements. In the present study, we examined the role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a clinically proven safe agent, for it's ability to protect against ?-ray-induced DNA strand breaks and/or DNA deletions in yeast and mammals. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA deletions were scored by reversion to histidine prototrophy. Human lymphoblastoid cells were examined for the frequency of ?-H2AX foci formation, indicative of DNA double strand break formation. DNA strand breaks were also measured in mouse peripheral blood by the alkaline comet assay. In yeast, NAC reduced the frequency of IR-induced DNA deletions. However, NAC did not protect against cell death. NAC also reduced ?-H2AX foci formation in human lymphoblastoid cells but had no protective effect in the colony survival assay. NAC administration via drinking water fully protected against DNA strand breaks in mice whole-body irradiated with 1 Gy but not with 4 Gy. NAC treatment in the absence of irradiation was not genotoxic. These data suggest that, given the safety and efficacy of NAC in humans, NAC may be useful in radiation therapy to prevent radiation-mediated genotoxicity, but does not interfere with efficient cancer cell killing.

2009-06-01

276

Converting low dose radiation to redox signaling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In contrast to the damaging effects of high doses, low dose radiation (UV, gamma) has been reported to provoke constructive changes in plants. However, the mechanisms by which plants recognize and respond to low dose radiation are not understood. We have shown recently that polygalacturonic acid, cell wall polysaccharide, converts the highly reactive product of radiation - hydroxyl radical into superoxide which may be further dismutated to hydrogen peroxide. Superoxide has been proposed to act as a signaling molecule, while hydrogen peroxide is known to be the key species in redox signaling cascades which are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes. Hence we propose that polygalacturonic acid may operate as radiation-signaling convertor. The outlined principles of radiation-sensing could also be valid for mammalian cells, with some other molecules mediating the conversion.

Pristov JB; Spasi? M; Spasojevi? I

2013-01-01

277

Biological effects of very low dose irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All living organisms are exposed to background radiation, i.e. to natural ionizing radiations (radioactivity of soil and air and cosmic rays) and to artificial radiations, due particularly to the progress of medicine and nuclear energy. Background can have deleterious effects, but can also induce stimulatory effects, i.e. effects which can be considered as benefit. Results of investigations carried out on single-cell organisms exposed to very low doses of radiation are presented.

Planel, H.

1986-05-01

278

From Chernobyl to Fukushima: the effect of low doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Power Point presentation describes the Fukushima's reactors, recalls some data about the earthquake and tsunami, and indicates their consequences for the operation of the power station (notably the loss of cooling means). It identifies some design errors for the Chernobyl's and Fukushima's power stations, outlines differences between these two cases. It gives assessment of doses receives by external irradiation around Fukushima, of the dose rate evolution, of the sea contamination. It gives some data about the Chernobyl accident (radioactivity evolution). After some data about health consequences of Chernobyl, health risks and more particularly biological risks associated to low doses are described. Protection measures are evoked, as well as psycho-social impacts

2011-01-01

279

Estimation of radiation risks at low dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents a review of the effects caused by radiation in low doses, or at low dose rates. For the inheritable (or ''genetic''), as well as for the cancer producing effects of radiation, present evidence is consistent with: (a) a non-linear relationship between the frequency of at least some forms of these effects, with comparing frequencies caused by doses many times those received annually from natural sources, with those caused by lower doses; (b) a probably linear relationship, however, between dose and frequency of effects for dose rates in the region of that received from natural sources, or at several times this rate; (c) no evidence to indicate the existence of a threshold dose below which such effects are not produced, and a strong inference from the mode of action of radiation on cells at low dose rates that no such thresholds are likely to apply to the detrimental, cancer-producing or inheritable, effects resulting from unrepaired damage to single cells. 19 refs.

1990-01-01

280

Genomic Instability Induced by Low Dose Irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this project was to determine if genomic instability could be initiated by poorly repaired DNA damage induced by low doses of ionizing radiation leading to a mutator phenotype. Human cells were irradiated, then transfected with an unirradiated reporter gene at various times AFTER exposure. The vector carried an inactive GFP gene that fluoresced when the gene was activated by a delayed mutation. Fluorescent cells were measured in the interval of 50 hours to four days after transfection. The results showed that delayed mutations occurred in these cells after exposure to relatively low doses (0.3-1.0 Gy) of low or high ionizing radiation, as well as after treatment with hyrodgen peroxide (30-100 micromolar). The occurrence was both dose and time dependent, often decreasing at higher doses and later times. No marked difference was observed between the response of mis-match repair-proficient and -deficient cell lines. Although the results were quite reproducible within single experiments, difficulties were observed from experiment to experiment. Different reagents and assays were tested, but no improvement resulted. We concluded that this method is not sufficiently robust or consisent to be useful in the assay of the induction of genomic instability by low doses of radiation, at least in these cell lines under our conditions.

Evans, Helen H.

2006-07-15

 
 
 
 
281

Low dose monitors - the movements and causes  

Science.gov (United States)

A previous paper [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B55 (1991) 178] has demonstrated that the correct equipment specification and process procedures enable the reliable direct probing of low dose sheet resistance monitors. Utilizing this, we are able to characterize the instability of low dose monitors to process and ambient conditions. Several experiments are conducted to determine the origin of the movements. These movements were found to be either ``short term'', or ``long term''. The former is a result of the interaction of the wafer and its processing prior to measurement. While the latter is a slow change after processing. The correct specification of the wafers, wafer processing, and the condition of the four point probe tips enable the low dose measurement to be performed. The value of the initial result, ``short term movement'', is shown to be directly the consequence of wet chemistry and the ambient anneal condition. While the stability of the wafer after measurement, ``long term movement'', is found to be the electrical degradation of the surface of the silicon. A key factor in this stability problem is the exposure of the wafer to air, especially to moisture in the atmosphere. X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS), and time of flight secondary ion mass Spectrometry (TOP SIMS) results give an insight to the complexity of the surface condition. These range from oxide growth, surface chemistry, and hydrogen injection.

Cherekdjian, S.

1993-04-01

282

Bystander responses in low dose irradiated cells treated with plasma from gamma irradiated blood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are two specific low-dose radiation-induced responses that have been the focus of radiobiologists' interest in recent years. These are the bystander effect in non-irradiated cells and the adaptive response to a challenge dose after prior low dose irradiation. In the present study we have investigated if plasma from irradiated blood can act as a 'challenge dose' on low dose irradiated reporter epithelial cells (HaCaT cell line). The main aim was to evaluate the overall effect of low dose irradiation (0.05 Gy) of reporter cells and the influence of bystander factors in plasma from 0.5 Gy gamma irradiated blood on these cells. The effects were estimated by clonogenic survival of the reporter cells. We also investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as potential factors involved in the bystander signaling. Calcium fluxes and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization were also examined as a marker for initiation of apoptosis in the reporter cells. The results show that there are large individual differences in the production of bystander effects and adaptive responses between different donors. These may be due to the specific composition of the donor plasma. The observed effects generally could be divided into two groups: adaptive responses and additive effects. ROS appeared to be involved in the responses of the low dose pretreated reporter cells. In all cases there was a significant decrease in MMP which may be an early event in the apoptotic process. Calcium signaling also appeared to be involved in triggering apoptosis in the low dose pretreated reporter cells. The heterogeneity of the bystander responses makes them difficult to be modulated for medical uses. Specific plasma characteristics that cause these large differences in the responses would need to be identified to make them useful for radiotherapy.

Acheva, A; Georgieva, R; Rupova, I; Boteva, R [Laboratory Molecular Radiobiology and Epidemiology, National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, 132 Kliment Ohridski blvd, Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Lyng, F [Radiation and Environmental Science Center, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin st, Dublin 8 (Ireland)], E-mail: anjin_a@mail.bg

2008-02-01

283

Bystander responses in low dose irradiated cells treated with plasma from gamma irradiated blood  

Science.gov (United States)

There are two specific low-dose radiation-induced responses that have been the focus of radiobiologists' interest in recent years. These are the bystander effect in non-irradiated cells and the adaptive response to a challenge dose after prior low dose irradiation. In the present study we have investigated if plasma from irradiated blood can act as a 'challenge dose' on low dose irradiated reporter epithelial cells (HaCaT cell line). The main aim was to evaluate the overall effect of low dose irradiation (0.05 Gy) of reporter cells and the influence of bystander factors in plasma from 0.5 Gy gamma irradiated blood on these cells. The effects were estimated by clonogenic survival of the reporter cells. We also investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as potential factors involved in the bystander signaling. Calcium fluxes and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization were also examined as a marker for initiation of apoptosis in the reporter cells. The results show that there are large individual differences in the production of bystander effects and adaptive responses between different donors. These may be due to the specific composition of the donor plasma. The observed effects generally could be divided into two groups: adaptive responses and additive effects. ROS appeared to be involved in the responses of the low dose pretreated reporter cells. In all cases there was a significant decrease in MMP which may be an early event in the apoptotic process. Calcium signaling also appeared to be involved in triggering apoptosis in the low dose pretreated reporter cells. The heterogeneity of the bystander responses makes them difficult to be modulated for medical uses. Specific plasma characteristics that cause these large differences in the responses would need to be identified to make them useful for radiotherapy.

Acheva, A.; Georgieva, R.; Rupova, I.; Boteva, R.; Lyng, F.

2008-02-01

284

Bystander responses in low dose irradiated cells treated with plasma from gamma irradiated blood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] There are two specific low-dose radiation-induced responses that have been the focus of radiobiologists' interest in recent years. These are the bystander effect in non-irradiated cells and the adaptive response to a challenge dose after prior low dose irradiation. In the present study we have investigated if plasma from irradiated blood can act as a 'challenge dose' on low dose irradiated reporter epithelial cells (HaCaT cell line). The main aim was to evaluate the overall effect of low dose irradiation (0.05 Gy) of reporter cells and the influence of bystander factors in plasma from 0.5 Gy gamma irradiated blood on these cells. The effects were estimated by clonogenic survival of the reporter cells. We also investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as potential factors involved in the bystander signaling. Calcium fluxes and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization were also examined as a marker for initiation of apoptosis in the reporter cells. The results show that there are large individual differences in the production of bystander effects and adaptive responses between different donors. These may be due to the specific composition of the donor plasma. The observed effects generally could be divided into two groups: adaptive responses and additive effects. ROS appeared to be involved in the responses of the low dose pretreated reporter cells. In all cases there was a significant decrease in MMP which may be an early event in the apoptotic process. Calcium signaling also appeared to be involved in triggering apoptosis in the low dose pretreated reporter cells. The heterogeneity of the bystander responses makes them difficult to be modulated for medical uses. Specific plasma characteristics that cause these large differences in the responses would need to be identified to make them useful for radiotherapy

2008-02-01

285

Micro RNA responses to chronic or acute exposures to low dose ionizing radiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human health risks of exposure to low dose ionizing radiation remain ambiguous and are the subject of intense debate. A wide variety of biological effects are induced after cellular exposure to ionizing radiation, but the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remain to be completely understood. We hypothesized that low dose ?-radiation-induced effects are controlled by the modulation of micro RNA (miRNA) that participate in the control of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and are involved in many cellular processes. We monitored the expression of several miRNA in human cells exposed to acute or chronic low doses of 10 cGy or a moderate dose of 400 cGy of (137)Cs ?-rays. Dose, dose rate and time dependent differences in the relative expression of several miRNA were investigated. The expression patterns of many miRNA differed after exposure to either chronic or acute 10 cGy. The expression of miRNA let-7e, a negative regulator of RAS oncogene, and the c-MYC miRNA cluster were upregulated after 10 cGy chronic dose but were downregulated after 3 h of acute 10 cGy. The miR-21 was upregulated in chronic or acute low dose and moderate dose treated cells and its target genes hPDCD4, hPTEN, hSPRY2, and hTPM1 were found to be downregulated. These findings provide evidence that low dose and dose rate ?-irradiation dictate the modulation of miRNA, which can result in a differential cellular response than occurs at high doses. This information will contribute to understanding the risks to human health after exposure to low dose radiation.

Chaudhry MA; Omaruddin RA; Kreger B; de Toledo SM; Azzam EI

2012-07-01

286

Protection of nucleated bone marrow cells of mice against effect of radiation-induced micronucleus formation by using polysaccharides extracted from 'Zi Zhi' (a ganoderma)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the influence of polysaccharides extracted from 'Zi Zhi' (Ganoderma Sinese Zhao, Xu et Zhang) on the frequency of micronucleated cells induced by 60Co gamma irradiation at different doses in bone marrow of mice. These polysaccharides of 'Zi Zhi' were shown to be of ability to protect nucleated bone marrow cells from micronucleus formation in irradiated mice. For Swiss mice, a dose reduction factor (DRF) was found to be 1.72 in the range of 0 to 4.728 Gy and for LACA mice, to be 1.73 in the range of 0 to 3.152 Gy. Such findings indicate that these polysaccharides are comparable to L-cysteine in their effeciency of protection

1988-01-01

287

Chondracanthus tenellus (Harvey) hommersand extract protects the human keratinocyte cell line by blocking free radicals and UVB radiation-induced cell damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of the ethanol extract of the red algae Chondracanthus tenellus (Harvey) Hommersand (CTE) on cultured human keratinocyte cell line. The cellular protection conferred by CTE was evidenced by the ability of the extract to absorb ultraviolet B (UVB; 280-320 nm) and to scavenge the radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, as well as intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), induced by either hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or UVB radiation. In addition, both superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system and hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO(4)?+?H(2)O(2)) were scavenged by CTE, as confirmed using electron spin resonance spectrometry. In the human keratinocyte cell line, CTE decreased the degree of injury resulting from UVB-induced oxidative stress to lipids, proteins, and DNA. CTE-treated cells also showed a reduction in UVB-induced apoptosis, as exemplified by fewer apoptotic bodies and less DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest that CTE confers protection on the human keratinocyte cell line against UVB-induced oxidative stress by absorbing UVB ray and scavenging ROS, thereby reducing injury to cellular constituents. PMID:23093465

Piao, Mei Jing; Hyun, Yu Jae; Oh, Tae-Heon; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Yoo, Eun Sook; Koh, Young Sang; Lee, Nam Ho; Suh, In Soo; Hyun, Jin Won

2012-10-24

288

The principal phenolic and alcoholic components of wine protect human lymphocytes against hydrogen peroxide- and ionising radiation-induced DNA damage in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have tested the hypothesis that the alcoholic and phenolic components of wine are protective against the DNA damaging and cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and gamma radiation in vitro. The components of wine tested were ethanol, glycerol, a mixture of the phenolic compounds catechin and caffeic acid, and tartaric acid, all at concentrations that were 2.5% or 10.0% of the concentration in a typical Australian white wine Riesling. These components were tested individually or combined as a mixture and compared to a white wine stripped of polyphenols as well as a Hanks balanced salt solution control which was the diluent for the wine components. The effect of the components was tested in lymphocytes, using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay, after 30 minutes incubation in plasma or whole blood for the hydrogen peroxide or gamma-radiation challenge respectively. The results obtained showed that ethanol, glycerol, the catechin-caffeic acid mixture, the mixture of all components, and the stripped white wine significantly reduced the DNA damaging effects of hydrogen peroxide and gamma radiation (ANOVA P = 0.043 - 0.001). The strongest protective effect against DNA damage by gamma irradiation was observed for the catechin-caffeic acid mixture and mixture of all components (30% and 32% reduction respectively). These two treatments as well as ethanol produced the strongest protective effects against DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide (24%, 25% and 18% respectively) . The protection provided by the mixture did not account for the expected additive protective effects of the individual components suggesting that the components may be exerting their effects through similar mechanisms which are saturated at the concentrations tested. Ethanol was the only component that significantly increased base-line DNA damage rate, however, this effect was negated in the mixture. In conclusion our results suggest that the main phenolic and alcoholic components of wine can reduce the DNA damaging effects of two important oxidants ie hydrogen peroxide and ionising radiation, in this physiologically relevant in vitro system

2003-01-01

289

Radiation-inducible gene therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation-inducible chimeric genetic construct Egr-TNF? introduced into human xenografts produces cytotoxicity of infected tumor cells resulting in tumor growth inhibition. The interaction between Egr-TNF and radiation is selectively cytotoxic for the tumor microvasculature resulting in vascular thrombosis and tumor necrosis. Gene therapy combined with radiation therapy offers great potential for the treatment of localized human cancers. (author)

1999-01-01

290

Low-dose ionizing radiation decreases the frequency of neoplastic transformation to a level below the spontaneous rate in C3H 10T 1/2 cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have previously shown that chronic exposure of plateau-phase C3H 10T 1/2 cells to {sup 60}Co {gamma} radiation at doses as low as 10 cGy protected the cells against neoplastic transformation by a subsequent large acute radiation exposure. We have also shown that this induced resistance to neoplastic transformation correlated with an increased ability to repair radiation-induced chromosome breaks. We now show that a single exposure of quiescent cells to doses as low as 0.1 cGy also reduces the risk of neoplastic transformation, from the spontaneous level to a rate three- to fourfold below that level. Higher doses, up to 10 cGy at the same dose rate (0.24 cGy/min), did not reduce the neoplastic transformation frequency further. This protective effect was seen only in irradiated cells that were allowed to incubate at 37{degree}C before release from contact inhibition. Cells released into low-density subcultures immediately after irradiation had unchanged neoplastic transformation frequencies. These results demonstrate that low or chronic exposure to radiation can induce processes which protect the cell against naturally occurring as well as radiation-induced alterations that lead to cell transformation. If similar processes are induced in human cells, the results also suggest that a single low dose, at background or occupational exposure levels, may in some circumstances reduce rather than increase cancer risk, a conclusion inconsistent with the linear no-threshold model of cancer risk from radiation. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

Azzam, E.I.; Toledo, S.M. de; Mitchel, R.E.J. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada); Raaphorst, G.P. [Ottawa Regional Cancer Center, Ontario (Canada)

1996-10-01

291

Food preservation by irradiation at low doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work describes the use of food irradiation process at low doses, evidencing its potential and several applications and effects, among other issues. An special emphasis has been given to sensorial changes in several kinds of food, irradiated with doses between 0.75 kGy and 3.0 kGy. Sensorial effects originated from the irradiated frozen or refrigerated, and concentrated or diluted juices were investigated. The possible mechanisms that could account for the observed sensorial effects were also discussed. The present work has the objective of filling some still existing gaps in the national literature related to food irradiation process, such as, sensorial and physiological changes. (author)

2007-10-05

292

Mobile phone radiation induces mode-dependent DNA damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line: a protective role of melatonin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate whether exposure to mobile phone radiation (MPR) can induce DNA damage in male germ cells. Materials and methods: A mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line was exposed to a commercial mobile phone handset once every 20 minutes in standby, listen, dialed or dialing modes for 24 h. DNA damage was determined using an alkaline comet assay. Results: The levels of DNA damage were significantly increased following exposure to MPR in the listen, dialed and dialing modes. Moreover, there were significantly higher increases in the dialed and dialing modes than in the listen mode. Interestingly, these results were consistent with the radiation intensities of these modes. However, the DNA damage effects of MPR in the dialing mode were efficiently attenuated by melatonin pretreatment. Conclusions: These results regarding mode-dependent DNA damage have important implications for the safety of inappropriate mobile phone use by males of reproductive age and also suggest a simple preventive measure, keeping our body from mobile phones as far away as possible, not only during conversations but during "dialed" and "dialing" operation modes as well. Since the "dialed" mode is actually part of the standby mode, mobile phones should be kept at a safe distance from our body even during standby operation. Furthermore, the protective role of melatonin suggests that it may be a promising pharmacological candidate for preventing mobile phone use-related reproductive impairments.

Liu C; Gao P; Xu SC; Wang Y; Chen CH; He MD; Yu ZP; Zhang L; Zhou Z

2013-08-01

293

Protective Effect of Phoenix dactylifera-L Extracts against Radiation-Induced Cardio-Toxicity and Some Biochemical Changes in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Antioxidant properties of the date palm fruit; Phoenix dactylifera-L in mitigation of cellular injury following free radicals release by ionizing radiation has been investigated. Forty-eight male albino rats divided equally into 6 groups were used in this study. Group 1 (G.1) acted as control, G.2 received date extract orally (4 ml/ kg/ day) for 21 days, G.3 was exposed to a single dose of gamma irradiation (6 Gy), G.4 received date extract orally at an identical dose and duration to G.2 and irradiation to G.3, G.5 received the daily date extract for 7 days post irradiation and G.6 received the daily date extract for 21 days before and for 7 days after irradiation. Heart tissue was examined histologically and biochemical testing for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was performed for each rat group. Data from the investigation showed that gamma irradiation caused histopathological damage to the heart tissue and disturbances in most parameters related to cardiac function. Administration of date extracts pre-irradiation provided evidence of a potential protective effect against irradiation hazard

2011-01-01

294

Melatonin ameliorates radiation induced mutilation of learning in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brain is highly susceptible to oxidative damage due to its high utilization of oxygen and rather poorly developed anti oxidative defense mechanism. Present study is aimed at investigating the protective effect of melatonin against radiation-induced impairment in the learning ability of mice

2002-01-01

295

Genes activated by low dose radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Gene expression profiles were examined in the mouse kidney and testis in order to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the life span-shortening effect of low dose-rate radiation. C57BL/6J male mice (7-8 wks old) were irradiated by cesium-137 gamma-rays for 485 days at rates of 0, 32, 650 and 13,000 nGy/min and organs were excised out. Gene expression was analyzed with cDNA microarray Illumina Sentrix Mouse-6. In the kidney, 4 genes concerning mitochondrial respiration (oxidative phosphorylation) were found to be up-regulated at the middle and high dose rates (expression level changed in >1.6 folds by irradiation). Significantly modulated genes were in 16 clusters, which exerted elevated expression level dose rate-dependently and found to be categorized in cytoplasm/mitochondria/energy pathways by the database ''Gene Ontology''. In the testis, gene expression pattern was different from that in kidney. Clustering analysis and database revealed that up-regulated genes belonged to ''DNA repair'', ''response to DNA damage'', DNA replication'' and ''Mitotic cell cycles''. Thus low dose radiation can cause the cellular oxidative stress by elevated respiratory activity in the kidney, and a type of emergent biological response in the testis. (R.T.)

2008-01-01

296

Risk of low-doses in radiodiagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of low doses of X-rays is inferred from the indubitable effects of high doses in human carcinogenesis, Genetic and teratogenic effects are mainly inferred from animal experimentation because clinical surveys of irradiated pregnant women have failed to demonstrate such consequences in the children, except for mental retardation after Japanese atomic bombing. Since no evidence of carcinogenic effect has been produced by epidemiological studies for doses lower than 500 mSv. the estimation of the risk due to low doses has been extrapolated from the linear relation between dose and cancers at high doses. Such an extrapolation gives a maximal risk which is falsely used as a probability of cancer. The actual risk lies between zero and this maximal number, and many epidemiologic surveys in people receiving doses much higher than the mean level of background irradiation failed to demonstrate higher rate of cancer. The explanation of this fact, which is supported by the most recent biological data, is the efficacy of the DNA repair system at low level of exposure to ionizing radiations. We expose the principles of regulation of radioprotection for workers, and give estimations of the doses delivered to the patients and the personnel by diagnostic investigations, by comparing these doses with those of natural irradiation. Practical aspect for conventional and computed radiology are exposed for patients and workers. (authors)

1997-01-01

297

Hirsutism--a low dose spironolactone therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, prolactin and estradiol were assayed in 78 women, clinically divided into idiopathic hirsutism (I. H.)-17 women and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO) - 61 women, with the latter group having menstrual irregularity dating almost back to the menarche. The serum testosterone measurement was found to be not sensitive in detecting abnormalities in testosterone production. Only 24 (39%) of the women with polycystic ovary syndrome and 5 (29%) of the women with idiopathic hirsutism had elevated serum testosterone. In statistical analysis the serum testosterone was greater (P less than 0.05) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome without hirsutism than in idiopathic hirsutism and PCO with hirsutism. There were not significant differences between the mean levels of prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and estradiol. Twelve women, with hirsutism, were treated with low dose spironolactone (75 mg daily) for six months. There was an excellent clinical response in 7 (58%), incomplete response in one, no response in 4 women. Two patients dropped out of the trial because of ineffectiveness of the therapy after three months. Side effects were not major problem. Spironolactone caused statistically significant reduction in testosterone values after 6 months of treatment. Our results demonstrate that low-dose spironolactone is effective in the treatment of hirsutism.

V?tr M

1989-01-01

298

Cytokines and radiation-induced pulmonary injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a biologic modulator of molecular biology, the cytokines in the lung play a important role in radiation induced injury of the normal lung and it would contribute to the predicting, preventing and treating of radiation induced pulmonary injury

2001-01-01

299

Proceedings of the 8. LOWRAD: International conference on the effects of low doses and very low doses of ionizing radiation on human health and biotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theoretical and experimental papers are presented in these proceedings covering the following subjects: radiation protection, dosimetry, radiation dosimetry, cells, technetium, plutonium, uranium, thorium, low dose irradiation, radiation doses, cesium, radiation chemistry, nuclear medicine, safety and occupational exposure, neoplasm, cytology and radioisotopes

2009-01-01

300

Dose-effect relationships, epidemiological analysis and the derivation of low dose risk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper expands on our recent comments in a letter to this journal about the analysis of epidemiological studies and the determination of low dose RBE of low LET radiation (Chadwick and Leenhouts 2009 J. Radiol. Prot. 29 445-7). Using the assumption that radiation induced cancer arises from a somatic mutation (Chadwick and Leenhouts 2011 J. Radiol. Prot. 31 41-8) a model equation is derived to describe cancer induction as a function of dose. The model is described briefly, evidence is provided in support of it, and it is applied to a set of experimental animal data. The results are compared with a linear fit to the data as has often been done in epidemiological studies. The article presents arguments to support several related messages which are relevant to epidemiological analysis, the derivation of low dose risk and the weighting factor of sparsely ionising radiations. The messages are: (a) cancer incidence following acute exposure should, in principle, be fitted to a linear-quadratic curve with cell killing using all the data available; (b) the acute data are dominated by the quadratic component of dose; (c) the linear fit of any acute data will essentially be dependent on the quadratic component and will be unrelated to the effectiveness of the radiation at low doses; consequently, (d) the method used by ICRP to derive low dose risk from the atomic bomb survivor data means that it is unrelated to the effectiveness of the hard gamma radiation at low radiation doses; (e) the low dose risk value should, therefore, not be used as if it were representative for hard gamma rays to argue for an increased weighting factor for tritium and soft x-rays even though there are mechanistic reasons to expect this; (f) epidemiological studies of chronically exposed populations supported by appropriate cellular radiobiological studies have the best chance of revealing different RBE values for different sparsely ionising radiations.

Leenhouts HP; Chadwick KH

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Radiation induced crosslinking of polytetrafluoroethylene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Irradiation temperature effect on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) from room temperature to 380degC was investigated by tensile test and thermal analysis. The behavior of tensile properties and changes of crystallinity on irradiation indicated the formation of a network structure in PTFE by radiation induced crosslinking in inert gas in the molten state just above the melting temperature of PTFE (327degC). The crosslinked PTFE showed a much improved radiation resistance in an atmospheric radiation field. (author).

1995-01-01

302

Health effects of low dose radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies of 30,000 children born to atomic bomb survivors exposed to an average of 400 mSv revealed no statistically significant increase in the genetic indicators when compared with 40,000 control children. Nevertheless, UNSCEAR reports in 2001 gave estimates of hereditary effects of radiation using experimental data on mice. Four cases (people living at a high background radiation area in China, British radiologists, European airline pilots and children in Belarus exposed to high level of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident) of epidemiologic data are presented to show that cancer incidences after chronic exposure to radiation at the level of a few mSv to 100 mSv are not higher than those after exposure to the normal level of natural radiation. Radiation, when given at a low dose, is safe. (author)

2005-01-01

303

Culmination of low-dose pesticide effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides applied in agriculture can affect the structure and function of nontarget populations at lower doses and for longer timespans than predicted by the current risk assessment frameworks. We identified a mechanism for this observation. The populations of an aquatic invertebrate (Culex pipiens) exposed over several generations to repeated pulses of low concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticide (thiacloprid) continuously declined and did not recover in the presence of a less sensitive competing species (Daphnia magna). By contrast, in the absence of a competitor, insecticide effects on the more sensitive species were only observed at concentrations 1 order of magnitude higher, and the species recovered more rapidly after a contamination event. The underlying processes are experimentally identified and reconstructed using a simulation model. We conclude that repeated toxicant pulse of populations that are challenged with interspecific competition may result in a multigenerational culmination of low-dose effects. PMID:23859631

Liess, Matthias; Foit, Kaarina; Becker, Anne; Hassold, Enken; Dolciotti, Ida; Kattwinkel, Mira; Duquesne, Sabine

2013-07-26

304

Radiation-induced genomic instability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantitative assessment of the heritable somatic effects of ionizing radiation exposures has relied upon the assumption that radiation-induced lesions were 'fixed' in the DNA prior to the first postirradiation mitosis. Lesion conversion was thought to occur during the initial round of DNA replication or as a consequence of error-prone enzymatic processing of lesions. The standard experimental protocols for the assessment of a variety of radiation-induced endpoints (cell death, specific locus mutations, neoplastic transformation and chromosome aberrations) evaluate these various endpoints at a single snapshot in time. In contrast with the aforementioned approaches, some studies have specifically assessed radiation effects as a function of time following exposure. Evidence has accumulated in support of the hypothesis that radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of the genome. This instability has been observed as a delayed expression of lethal mutations, as an enhanced rate of accumulation of non-lethal heritable alterations, and as a progressive intraclonal chromosomal heterogeneity. The genetic controls and biochemical mechanisms underlying radiation-induced genomic instability have not yet been delineated. The aim is to integrate the accumulated evidence that suggests that radiation exposure has a persistent effect on the stability of the mammalian genome. (author).

Kronenberg, A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1994-11-01

305

Radiation-induced genomic instability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Quantitative assessment of the heritable somatic effects of ionizing radiation exposures has relied upon the assumption that radiation-induced lesions were 'fixed' in the DNA prior to the first postirradiation mitosis. Lesion conversion was thought to occur during the initial round of DNA replication or as a consequence of error-prone enzymatic processing of lesions. The standard experimental protocols for the assessment of a variety of radiation-induced endpoints (cell death, specific locus mutations, neoplastic transformation and chromosome aberrations) evaluate these various endpoints at a single snapshot in time. In contrast with the aforementioned approaches, some studies have specifically assessed radiation effects as a function of time following exposure. Evidence has accumulated in support of the hypothesis that radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of the genome. This instability has been observed as a delayed expression of lethal mutations, as an enhanced rate of accumulation of non-lethal heritable alterations, and as a progressive intraclonal chromosomal heterogeneity. The genetic controls and biochemical mechanisms underlying radiation-induced genomic instability have not yet been delineated. The aim is to integrate the accumulated evidence that suggests that radiation exposure has a persistent effect on the stability of the mammalian genome. (author)

1994-01-01

306

NIRS programme on low dose radiation as IAEA CC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The year 2006 was the first year for the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) as an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Collaborating Center on Biological Effects of Low Dose Radiation; NIRS was designated as one of the IAEA Collaborating Centers on January 18, 2006. The ceremony for the designation was held on February 8 with the presence of Professor Pedro Andreo, Director, Division of Human Health, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, IAEA. In April 2006, NIRS initiated the second 5-year plan. The aim of the plan is to pursue comprehensive research and development on radiation and human health. The missions include the research on the effects of radiation on human bodies, medical countermeasures against radiation, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using radiation and radioisotopes, dissemination of research, and promotion of their uses. Among the missions of Research Center for Radiation Protection, both an understanding of the biological effects of low dose radiation and training of the skills of researchers and radiation workers have been the most important aspects. (author)

2008-01-01

307

Low dose irradiation creep of pure nickel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed climb-controlled glide model of low dose irradiation creep has been developed to rationalize irradiation creep data of pure nickel irradiated in a light ion irradiation creep apparatus. Experimental irradiation creep data were obtained to study the effects of initial microstructure and stress on low dose irradiation creep in pure nickel. Pure nickel specimens (99.992% Ni), with three different microstructures, were irradiated with 17 or 15 MeV deuterons at 473 K and stresses ranging from 0.35 to 0.9 of the unirradiated yield stress. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the microstructure following irradiation to 0.05 dpa consisted of a high density of small dislocation loops, some small voids and network dislocations. The creep model predicted creep rates proportional to the mobile dislocation density and a comparison of experimental irradiation creep rates as a function of homologous stress revealed a dependence on initial microstructure of the magnitude predicted by the measured dislocation densities. The three microstructures that were irradiated consisted of 85% and 25% cold-worked Ni specimens and well-annealed Ni specimens. A weak stress dependence of irradiation creep was observed in 85% cold-worked Ni in agreement with experimental determinations of the stress dependence of irradiation creep by others. The weak stress dependence was shown to be a consequence of the stress independence of the dislocation climb velocity and the weak stress dependence of the barrier removal process. The irradiation creep rate was observed to be proportional to the applied stress. This linear stress dependence was suggested to be due to the stress dependence of the mobile dislocation density. 101 references, 27 figures, 11 tables

1984-01-01

308

Low-dose thalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone therapy in patients with refractory multiple myeloma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report the results of a non-randomized phase II study of low-dose thalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone therapy in 66 patients with refractory multiple myeloma. The overall response rate (near complete, partial and minimal response) was 63.6%, and progression-free and overall survival periods were 6.2 and 25.4 months. In adverse events, the incidence of peripheral neuropathy and deep vein thrombosis was lower than the data reported in USA and Europe. On the other hand, leukopenia was observed in 41% of patients, including 11% of those with Grade 3. Leukopenia was closely related to pretreatment pancytopenia, especially thrombocytopenia. The incidence of adverse events related to dexamethasone was low. In conclusion, low-dose thalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone therapy was as effective as high-dose thalidomide plus high-dose dexamethasone therapy in patients with refractory multiple myeloma. Leukopenia is one of the most serious adverse events in Japanese patients, especially in patients with pretreatment pancytopenia.

Murakami H; Handa H; Abe M; Iida S; Ishii A; Ishikawa T; Ishida T; Oota M; Ozaki S; Kosaka M; Sakai A; Sawamura M; Shimazaki C; Shimizu K; Takagi T; Hata H; Fukuhara T; Fujii H; Miyata A; Wakayama T; Takatsuki K

2007-09-01

309

Radiation-induced changes in rat endocrine system and their correction by means of adaptogens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endocrine status of experimental animals under chronic influence of both external and internal irradiation in low doses was researched in this work. The influence of adaptation medication preparation (biopolymer Spiruline - BS) on studied indexes is also evaluated. Application of preparation with adaptation-inducing properties - the biopolymer Spiruline for experimental animals at the early irradiation stage partially or completely prevents the development of radiation-induced damages

2003-01-01

310

Mitochondrial DNA deletion and aging induced by low dose rate of radiation in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a closed circular DNA molecule and more than 100 copies are present in a cell. Deletion mutation of mtDNA accumulates with aging and can be a suitable marker for estimating biological effects on radiation-induced mutation in mice. The mice life span study in the Institute for Environmental Sciences suggests that low dose rate of radiation might accelerate aging in mice prolongly irradiated by 137Cs ?-rays (20 mGy/day for 400 days). To know the relationships between low dose rate irradiation, aging and mutation, we observed deletion mutations of mtDNA from mice irradiated by 137Cs ?-rays (20 mGy/day) for different dates. The real-time fluorescence PCR method was sensitive enough to determine the relative amount of deletion in several tissues. Age-dependent accumulations of deletion mutations were observed in aged mice (250-700 days). However, a significant increase of deletion mutation related to accumulated dose was not detected in 137Cs ?-ray irradiated mice for 4-12 Gy. These data suggest that the effect of the low dose rate irradiation on mtDNA is within a background level. (author)

2003-01-01

311

Radiation-induced bystander effects. Mechanisms, biological implications, and current investigations at the Leipzig LIPSION facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Background: The bystander effect is a relatively new area of radiobiological research, which is aimed at studying post-radiation changes in neighboring non-hit cells or tissues. The bystander effect of ionizing irradiation is important after low-dose irradiation in the range of up to 0.2 Gy, where a higher incidence of stochastic damage was observed than was expected from a linear-quadratic model. It is also important when the irradiation of a cell population is highly non-uniform. Objective: This review summarizes most of the important results and proposed bystander effect mechanisms as well as their impact on theory and clinical practice. The literature, in parts contradictory, is collected, the main topics are outlined, and some basic papers are described in more detail. In order to illustrate the microbeam technique, which is considered relevant for the bystander effect research, the state of the Leipzig LIPSION nanoprobe facility is described. Results: The existence of a radiation-induced bystander effect is now generally accepted. The current state of knowledge on it is summarized here. Several groups worldwide are working on understanding its different aspects and its impact on radiobiology and radiation protection. Conclusion: The observation of a bystander effect has posed many questions, and answering them is a challenging topic for radiobiology in the future. (orig.)

2003-01-01

312

Mitochondrial-Derived Oxidants and Cellular Responses to Low Dose/Low LET Ionizing Radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure to ionizing radiation results in the immediate formation of free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been assumed that the subsequent injury processes leading to genomic instability and carcinogenesis following radiation, derive from the initial oxidative damage caused by these free radicals and ROS. It is now becoming increasingly obvious that metabolic oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions can be altered by irradiation leading to persistent increases in steady-state levels of intracellular free radicals and ROS that contribute to the long term biological effects of radiation exposure by causing chronic oxidative stress. The objective during the last period of support (DE-FG02-05ER64050; 5/15/05-12/31/09) was to determine the involvement of mitochondrial genetic defects in metabolic oxidative stress and the biological effects of low dose/low LET radiation. Aim 1 was to determine if cells with mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits C and D (SDHC and SDHD in mitochondrial complex II) demonstrated increases in steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS; O2•- and H2O2) as well as demonstrating increased sensitivity to low dose/low LET radiation (10 cGy) in cultured mammalian cells. Aim #2 was to determine if mitochondrially-derived ROS contributed to increased sensitivity to low dose/low LET radiation in mammalian cells containing mutations in SDH subunits. Aim #3 was to determine if a causal relationship existed between increases in mitochondrial ROS production, alterations in electron transport chain proteins, and genomic instability in the progeny of irradiated cells. Evidence gathered in the 2005-2009 period of support demonstrated that mutations in genes coding for mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins (ETC); either Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH) subunit C (SDHC) or subunit D (SDHD); caused increased ROS production, increased genomic instability, and increased sensitivity to low dose/low LET radiation that could be mitigated by over expression of the H2O2 metabolizing enzyme, catalase, and/or the mitochondrial form of superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Furthermore, using radiation-induced genomically unstable cells, it was shown that steady-state levels of H2O2 were significantly elevated for many cell generations following exposure, catalase suppressed the radiation-induced mutator phenotype when added long after radiation exposure, unstable clones showed evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction some of which was characterized by improper assembly of SDH subunits (particularly subunit B), and chemical inhibitors of SDH activity could decrease steady-state levels of H2O2 as well as mutation frequency. These results support the hypotheses that 1) SDH mutations could contribute to transformation by inducing genomic instability and a mutator phenotype via increasing steady-state levels of ROS; 2) metabolic sources of O2•- and H2O2 play a significant role in low dose radiation induced injury and genomic instability; and 3) increased mutation rates in irradiated mammal cells can be suppressed by scavengers of H2O2 (particularly catalase) long after radiation exposure. Overall the results obtained during this period of support provide clear evidence in support of the hypothesis that abnormal oxidative metabolism in mitochondria that result in increases in steady-sate levels of H2O2 and other ROS are capable of significantly contributing to radiation-induced mutator phenotypes in mammalian cells.

Spitz, Douglas R.

2009-11-09

313

Mitochondrial-Derived Oxidants and Cellular Responses to Low Dose/Low LET Ionizing Radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure to ionizing radiation results in the immediate formation of free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been assumed that the subsequent injury processes leading to genomic instability and carcinogenesis following radiation, derive from the initial oxidative damage caused by these free radicals and ROS. It is now becoming increasingly obvious that metabolic oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions can be altered by irradiation leading to persistent increases in steady-state levels of intracellular free radicals and ROS that contribute to the long term biological effects of radiation exposure by causing chronic oxidative stress. The objective during the last period of support (DE-FG02-05ER64050; 5/15/05-12/31/09) was to determine the involvement of mitochondrial genetic defects in metabolic oxidative stress and the biological effects of low dose/low LET radiation. Aim 1 was to determine if cells with mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits C and D (SDHC and SDHD in mitochondrial complex II) demonstrated increases in steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS; O2- and H2O2) as well as demonstrating increased sensitivity to low dose/low LET radiation (10 cGy) in cultured mammalian cells. Aim No.2 was to determine if mitochondrially-derived ROS contributed to increased sensitivity to low dose/low LET radiation in mammalian cells containing mutations in SDH subunits. Aim No.3 was to determine if a causal relationship existed between increases in mitochondrial ROS production, alterations in electron transport chain proteins, and genomic instability in the progeny of irradiated cells. Evidence gathered in the 2005-2009 period of support demonstrated that mutations in genes coding for mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins (ETC); either Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH) subunit C (SDHC) or subunit D (SDHD); caused increased ROS production, increased genomic instability, and increased sensitivity to low dose/low LET radiation that could be mitigated by over expression of the H2O2 metabolizing enzyme, catalase, and/or the mitochondrial form of superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Furthermore, using radiation-induced genomically unstable cells, it was shown that steady-state levels of H2O2 were significantly elevated for many cell generations following exposure, catalase suppressed the radiation-induced mutator phenotype when added long after radiation exposure, unstable clones showed evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction some of which was characterized by improper assembly of SDH subunits (particularly subunit B), and chemical inhibitors of SDH activity could decrease steady-state levels of H2O2 as well as mutation frequency. These results support the hypotheses that (1) SDH mutations could contribute to transformation by inducing genomic instability and a mutator phenotype via increasing steady-state levels of ROS; (2) metabolic sources of O2- and H2O2 play a significant role in low dose radiation induced injury and genomic instability; and (3) increased mutation rates in irradiated mammal cells can be suppressed by scavengers of H2O2 (particularly catalase) long after radiation exposure. Overall the results obtained during this period of support provide clear evidence in support of the hypothesis that abnormal oxidative metabolism in mitochondria that result in increases in steady-sate levels of H2O2 and other ROS are capable of significantly contributing to radiation-induced mutator phenotypes in mammalian cells.

2009-01-01

314

The health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been established by various researches, that high doses of ionizing radiation are harmful to health. There is substantial controversy regarding the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation despite the large amount of work carried out (both laboratory and epidemiological). Exposure to high levels of radiation can cause radiation injury, and these injuries can be relatively severe with sufficiently high radiation doses. Prolonged exposure to low levels of radiation may lead to cancer, although the nature of our response to very low radiation levels is not well known at this time. Many of our radiation safety regulations and procedures are designed to protect the health of those exposed to radiation occupationally or as members of the public. According to the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, any amount, however small, of radiation is potentially harmful, even down to zero levels. The threshold hypothesis, on the other hand, emphasizes that below a certain threshold level of radiation exposure, any deleterious effects are absent. At the same time, there are strong arguments, both experimental and epidemiological, which support the radiation hormesis (beneficial effects of low-level ionizing radiation). These effects cannot be anticipated by extrapolating from harmful effects noted at high doses. Evidence indicates an inverse relationship between chronic low-dose radiation levels and cancer incidence and/or mortality rates. Examples are drawn from: 1) state surveys for more than 200 million people in the United States; 2) state cancer hospitals for 200 million people in India; 3) 10,000 residents of Taipei who lived in cobalt-60 contaminated homes; 4) high-radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran; 5) 12 million person-years of exposed and carefully selected control nuclear workers; 6) almost 300,000 radon measurements of homes in the United States; and 7) non-smokers in high-radon areas of early Saxony, Germany. This evidence conforms to the hypothesis that adequate ionizing radiation protects against cancer and promotes health. In this paper we provide special focus on the health effects due to low-dose ionizing radiation. (author)

2012-01-01

315

A reasonable price to prevent death caused by radiation induced neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the risk based prioritization of radiation protection procedures versus the reduction of radiation induced neoplasms. An economic valuation of death reduction is necessary in many situations

1992-01-01

316

Radiation leukaemogenesis at low doses DE-FG02-05 ER 63947 Final Technical Report 15 May 2005 Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â? 14 May 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a complete summary of the work undertaken and results obtained under US Department of Energy grant DF-FG02-05 ER 63947, Radiation leukaemogenesis at low doses. There is ample epidemiological evidence indicating that ionizing radiation is carcinogenic in the higher dose range. This evidence, however, weakens and carries increasing uncertainties at doses below 100-200 mSv. At these low dose levels the form of the dose-response curve for radiation-induced cancer cannot be determined reliably or directly from studies of human populations. Therefore animal, cellular and other experimental systems must be employed to provide supporting evidence on which to base judgements of risk at low doses. Currently in radiological protection a linear non-threshold (LNT) extrapolation of risk estimates derived from human epidemiological studies is used to estimate risks in the dose range of interest for protection purposes. Myeloid leukaemias feature prominently among the cancers associated with human exposures to ionising radiation (eg UNSCEAR 2006; IARC 2000). Good animal models of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are available including strains such as CBA, RFM and SJL (eg Major and Mole 1978; Ullrich et al 1976; Resnitzky et al 1985). Early mechanistic studies using cytogenetic methods in these mouse models established that the majority of radiation-induced AMLs carried substantial interstitial deletions in one copy of chromosome (chr) 2 (eg Hayata et al 1983; Trakhtenbrot et al 1988; Breckon et al 1991; Rithidech et al 1993; Bouffler et al 1996). Chr2 aberrations are known to occur in bone marrow cells as early as 24 hours after in vivo irradiation (Bouffler et al 1997). Subsequent molecular mapping studies defined a distinct region of chr2 that is commonly lost in AMLs (Clark et al 1996; Silver et al 1999). Further, more detailed, analysis identified point mutations at a specific region of the Sfpi1/PU.1 haemopoietic transcription factor gene which lies in the commonly deleted region of chr2 (Cook et al 2004; Suraweera et al 2005). These lines of evidence strongly implicate the Sfpi1/PU.1 gene as a tumour suppressor gene, dysregulation of which leads to myeloid leukaemia. The main focus of this project was to utilize the CBA mouse model of radiation leukaemogenesis to explore mechanisms of low dose and low dose-rate leukaemogenesis. A series of mechanistic investigations were undertaken, the central aim of which was to identify the events that convert normal cells into myeloid leukaemia cells and explore the dose-response relationships for these. Much of the work centred on the Sfpi1/PU.1 gene and its role in leukaemogenesis. Specific studies considered the dose-response and time-course relationships for loss of the gene, the functional consequences of Sfpi1/PU.1 loss and mutation on transcriptional programmes and developing an in vivo reporter gene system for radiation-induced alterations to PU.1 expression. Additional work sought further genetic changes associated with radiation-induced AMLs and a better characterization of the cell of origin or 'target cell' for radiation-induced AML. All the information gathered is of potential use in developing biologically realistic mathematical models for low dose cancer risk projection.

Simon Bouffler

2010-07-28

317

Effects of low doses: Proof and inferences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is essential to discuss the plausibility of 'low-dose' effects from environmental exposures. The question, nonetheless, is wrongly labelled, for it is not the magnitude of the dose that matters, but rather the effect. The question thus concerns 'doses with low effects'. More precisely, because the low effects on large populations are not that small, even when epidemiological tools fail to detect them, it would be more accurate to talk about 'doses with undetectable or barely detectable effects'. Hereafter, we describe this 'low-effect dose' concept from the viewpoint of toxicology and epidemiology and discuss the fragile boundary line for these low-effect doses. Next, we review the different types of inference from observed situations (i.e., with high effects) to situations relevant to public health, to characterize the level of confidence to be accorded them. The first type is extrapolation - from higher to lower doses or from higher to lower dose rates. The second type is transposition - from humans to other humans or from animals to humans. The third type can be called 'analogy' as in 'read across' approaches, where QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) methodology can be used. These three types of inferences can be based on an estimate of the 'distance' between observed and predicted areas, but can also rely on knowledge and theories of the relevant mechanisms. The new tools of predictive toxicology are helpful both in deriving quantitative estimates and grounding inferences on sound bases. (author)

2010-01-01

318

Low-dose X-ray CT reconstruction via dictionary learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although diagnostic medical imaging provides enormous benefits in the early detection and accuracy diagnosis of various diseases, there are growing concerns on the potential side effect of radiation induced genetic, cancerous and other diseases. How to reduce radiation dose while maintaining the diagnostic performance is a major challenge in the computed tomography (CT) field. Inspired by the compressive sensing theory, the sparse constraint in terms of total variation (TV) minimization has already led to promising results for low-dose CT reconstruction. Compared to the discrete gradient transform used in the TV method, dictionary learning is proven to be an effective way for sparse representation. On the other hand, it is important to consider the statistical property of projection data in the low-dose CT case. Recently, we have developed a dictionary learning based approach for low-dose X-ray CT. In this paper, we present this method in detail and evaluate it in experiments. In our method, the sparse constraint in terms of a redundant dictionary is incorporated into an objective function in a statistical iterative reconstruction framework. The dictionary can be either predetermined before an image reconstruction task or adaptively defined during the reconstruction process. An alternating minimization scheme is developed to minimize the objective function. Our approach is evaluated with low-dose X-ray projections collected in animal and human CT studies, and the improvement associated with dictionary learning is quantified relative to filtered backprojection and TV-based reconstructions. The results show that the proposed approach might produce better images with lower noise and more detailed structural features in our selected cases. However, there is no proof that this is true for all kinds of structures.

Xu Q; Yu H; Mou X; Zhang L; Hsieh J; Wang G

2012-09-01

319

Low-dose X-ray CT reconstruction via dictionary learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although diagnostic medical imaging provides enormous benefits in the early detection and accuracy diagnosis of various diseases, there are growing concerns on the potential side effect of radiation induced genetic, cancerous and other diseases. How to reduce radiation dose while maintaining the diagnostic performance is a major challenge in the computed tomography (CT) field. Inspired by the compressive sensing theory, the sparse constraint in terms of total variation (TV) minimization has already led to promising results for low-dose CT reconstruction. Compared to the discrete gradient transform used in the TV method, dictionary learning is proven to be an effective way for sparse representation. On the other hand, it is important to consider the statistical property of projection data in the low-dose CT case. Recently, we have developed a dictionary learning based approach for low-dose X-ray CT. In this paper, we present this method in detail and evaluate it in experiments. In our method, the sparse constraint in terms of a redundant dictionary is incorporated into an objective function in a statistical iterative reconstruction framework. The dictionary can be either predetermined before an image reconstruction task or adaptively defined during the reconstruction process. An alternating minimization scheme is developed to minimize the objective function. Our approach is evaluated with low-dose X-ray projections collected in animal and human CT studies, and the improvement associated with dictionary learning is quantified relative to filtered backprojection and TV-based reconstructions. The results show that the proposed approach might produce better images with lower noise and more detailed structural features in our selected cases. However, there is no proof that this is true for all kinds of structures. PMID:22542666

Xu, Qiong; Yu, Hengyong; Mou, Xuanqin; Zhang, Lei; Hsieh, Jiang; Wang, Ge

2012-04-20

320

Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors)

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect: Early Process and Rapid Assessment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is a biological process that has received attention over the past two decades. RIBE refers toa plethora of biological effects in non-irradiated cells,including induction of genetic damages, gene expression, cell transformation, proliferation and cell death,which are initiated by receiving bystander signals released from irradiated cells. RIBE brings potential hazards to normal tissues in radiotherapy, and imparts a higher risk from low-dose radiation than we previously thought. Detection with proteins related to DNA damage and repair, cell cycle control and proliferation etc. have enabled rapid assessment of RIBE in a number of research systems such as cultured cells, three-dimensional tissue models and animal models. Accumulated experimental data have suggested that RIBE may be initiated rapidly within a time frame as short as several minutes after radiation. These have led to the requirement of techniques capable of rapidly assessing RIBE itself as well as assessing the early processes involved.

Wang H; Yu KN; Hou J; Liu Q; Han W

2013-10-01

322

Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors).

Fabrikant, J.I.

1988-11-01

323

Oral green tea catechin metabolites are incorporated into human skin and protect against UV radiation-induced cutaneous inflammation in association with reduced production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoid 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green tea catechins (GTC) reduce UV radiation (UVR)-induced inflammation in experimental models, but human studies are scarce and their cutaneous bioavailability and mechanism of photoprotection are unknown. We aimed to examine oral GTC cutaneous uptake, ability to protect human skin against erythema induced by a UVR dose range and impact on potent cyclo-oxygenase- and lipoxygenase-produced mediators of UVR inflammation, PGE2 and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), respectively. In an open oral intervention study, sixteen healthy human subjects (phototype I/II) were given low-dose GTC (540 mg) with vitamin C (50 mg) daily for 12 weeks. Pre- and post-supplementation, the buttock skin was exposed to UVR and the resultant erythema quantified. Skin blister fluid and biopsies were taken from the unexposed and the UVR-exposed skin 24 h after a pro-inflammatory UVR challenge (three minimal erythema doses). Urine, skin tissue and fluid were analysed for catechin content and skin fluid for PGE2 and 12-HETE by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem MS. A total of fourteen completing subjects were supplement compliant (twelve female, median 42.5 years, range 29-59 years). Benzoic acid levels were increased in skin fluid post-supplementation (P= 0.03), and methylated gallic acid and several intact catechins and hydroxyphenyl-valerolactones were detected in the skin tissue and fluid. AUC analysis for UVR erythema revealed reduced response post-GTC (P= 0.037). Pre-supplementation, PGE2 and 12-HETE were UVR induced (P= 0.003, 0.0001). After GTC, UVR-induced 12-HETE reduced from mean 64 (sd 42) to 41 (sd 32) pg/?l (P= 0.01), while PGE2 was unaltered. Thus, GTC intake results in the incorporation of catechin metabolites into human skin associated with abrogated UVR-induced 12-HETE; this may contribute to protection against sunburn inflammation and potentially longer-term UVR-mediated damage. PMID:23351338

Rhodes, Lesley E; Darby, Gemma; Massey, Karen A; Clarke, Kayleigh A; Dew, Tristan P; Farrar, Mark D; Bennett, Susan; Watson, Rachel E B; Williamson, Gary; Nicolaou, Anna

2013-01-28

324

Radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma of the oropharynx  

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Full Text Available Abstract Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor originating from smooth muscle cells, which most frequently develops in the myometrium and in the gastro-intestinal tract. Reviewing the international literature, radiation-induced sarcoma arise in 0.035 to 0.2 % of all irradiated patients. Especially in the head and neck region, radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma is an extremely rare lesion. The authors report a case of a radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma of the tonsillar region of the oropharynx in a 51-year-old male patient, who had undergone radiation therapy of this region 38 years before. The lesion was treated by radical surgery. Diagnostic steps, histological presentation and therapy are described in detail and the literature concerning radiation induced malignancies in general as well as radiation induced leiomyosarcoma in particular is reviewed. The highlights of this case are an extremely uncommon location and a rare pathological entity of radiation induced malignancies.

Pfeiffer Jens; Boedeker Carsten; Ridder Gerd; Maier Wolfgang; Kayser Gian

2006-01-01

325

[Radiation-induced cancers: state of the art in 1997  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Scientists now have available a large amount of data dealing with radiation-induced neoplasms. These data went back to anecdotal observations which were made in the very first years of utilization of X-rays and radioactive elements. In fact, it is essentially the strict follow-up of the Japanese populations irradiated by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing which allowed a more precise evaluation of the carcinogenicity of ionizing radiations. Further refinements came from therapeutical irradiations: it is now possible to study large cohorts of patients given well-known doses in well-defined volumes and followed for more than 20 years. Last but not least, a significant increase in the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer has been detected in children contaminated by iodine radioisotopes after the Tchernobyl accident. Recently, some data suggested the emergence of "clusters" of leukemias close to some nuclear facilities, but this question remains highly polemical, both in France and in the UK. Other questions are still waiting for a precise answer; of course, the extrapolation of our available data to very low doses delivered at very low dose rates, but also the carcinogenic risk at high doses. For these "high" doses (about 30 to 70 Gy), a competition between mutagenesis and cell killing was expected, so that these dose levels were expected to be less carcinogenic than lower (a few sieverts) doses. Actually, recent data suggest that the carcinogenic risk goes on increasing up to relatively important doses. In addition, carcinogenic factors, such as tabacco, anticancer chemotherapy and individual susceptibility, are found more and more to be closely intricated with ionizing radiation in the genesis of a given cancer. Even if a number of questions are still pending, the already available data allow specialists, both in medicine and radioprotection, to edict strict rules which can be reasonably expected to have significantly reduced the risk of radiation-induced neoplasms in most situations.

Cosset JM

1997-01-01

326

Effects of low doses of ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several groups of human have been irradiated by accidental or medical exposure, if no gene defect has been associated to these exposures, some radioinduced cancers interesting several organs are observed among persons exposed over 100 to 200 mSv delivered at high dose rate. Numerous steps are now identified between the initial energy deposit in tissue and the aberrations of cell that lead to tumors but the sequence of events and the specific character of some of them are the subject of controversy. The stake of this controversy is the risk assessment. From the hypothesis called linear relationship without threshold is developed an approach that leads to predict cancers at any tiny dose without real scientific foundation. The nature and the intensity of biological effects depend on the quantity of energy absorbed in tissue and the modality of its distribution in space and time. The probability to reach a target (a gene) associated to the cancerating of tissue is directly proportional to the dose without any other threshold than the quantity of energy necessary to the effect, its probability of effect can be a more complex function and depends on the quality of the damage produced as well as the ability of the cell to repair the damage. These two parameters are influenced by the concentration of initial injuries in the target so by the quality of radiation and by the dose rate. The mechanisms of defence explain the low efficiency of radiation as carcinogen and then the linearity of effects in the area of low doses is certainly the least defensible scientific hypothesis for the prediction of the risks. (N.C.)

2006-01-01

327

Low-Dose Radiotherapy in Indolent Lymphoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess the response rate, duration of response, and overall survival after low-dose involved-field radiotherapy in patients with recurrent low-grade lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Methods and Materials: Forty-three (24 women, 19 men) consecutive patients with indolent lymphoma or CLL were treated with a total dose of 4 Gy (2 x 2 Gy) using 6- 18-MV photons. The median age was 73 years (range, 39-88). Radiotherapy was given either after (n = 32; 75%) or before (n = 11; 25%) chemotherapy. The median time from diagnosis was 48 months (range, 1-249). The median follow-up period was 20 months (range, 1-56). Results: The overall response rate was 90%. Twelve patients (28%) had a complete response, 15 (35%) had a partial response, 11 (26%) had stable disease, and 5 (11%) had progressive disease. The median overall survival for patients with a positive response (complete response/partial response/stable disease) was 41 months; for patients with progressive disease it was 6 months (p = 0.001). The median time to in-field progression was 21 months (range, 0-24), and the median time to out-field progression was 8 months (range, 0-40). The 3-year in-field control was 92% in patients with complete response (median was not reached). The median time to in-field progression was 9 months (range, 0.5-24) in patients with partial response and 6 months (range, 0.6-6) in those with stable disease (p

2011-11-01

328

APPLICATION OF BAYESIAN INFERENCE TO CHARACTERIZE RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH LOW DOSES OF LOW-LET RADIATION  

Science.gov (United States)

Improved risk characterization for stochastic biological effects of low doses of low-LET radiation is important for protecting nuclear workers and the public from harm from radiation exposure. Here we present a Bayesian approach to characterize risks of stochastic effects from l...

329

Radiation-induced clastogenic plasma factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionizing irradiation induces chromosomal aberrations in directly exposed cells and is known to have mutagenic and carcinogenic potential for the exposed host. Under controlled conditions, we examined whether such clastogenic effects of irradiation might be due in part to radiation-induced plasma factors. Irradiated cells and sera from CF-Nelson rats were used at 15 min, and 1, 7, 14, and 56-70 days after total body irradiation (250 R, n = 67 or 400 R, n = 39). Control rats (n = 44) served as donors of nonirradiated sera and cells. In addition, sera from six rats were irradiated (250 R or 400 R) in vitro. On the average, 298 metaphases from six rats were studied at each time-point. Cytogenetic abnormalities observed included chromatid- and chromosome-type lesions and hyperdiploidy. The frequency of abnormalities was comparable at both radiation doses. Nonirradiated cells exposed in vitro to irradiated serum (15 min postirradiation) exhibited a 36- to 48-fold increment in hyperdiploidy (p = 0.0001) and a 2.- to 2.2-fold rise in chromatid gaps and breaks (p less than 0.01), but none of the chromosome-type aberrations seen in cells exposed to radiation. The clastogenic activity of irradiated plasma persisted in circulation for the 10-wk duration of the study and was not abrogated by dilution with nonirradiated serum. Serum irradiated in vitro was not clastogenic. This study shows that irradiation of rats results in the prompt appearance of clastogenic activity in their plasma. This activity is not due to radiation-induced depletion of protective factors nor to chemical-physical changes of normal plasma components, but results from circulating factors released by irradiated cells. PMID:6713361

Faguet, G B; Reichard, S M; Welter, D A

1984-05-01

330

Radiation-induced clastogenic plasma factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ionizing irradiation induces chromosomal aberrations in directly exposed cells and is known to have mutagenic and carcinogenic potential for the exposed host. Under controlled conditions, we examined whether such clastogenic effects of irradiation might be due in part to radiation-induced plasma factors. Irradiated cells and sera from CF-Nelson rats were used at 15 min, and 1, 7, 14, and 56-70 days after total body irradiation (250 R, n . 67 or 400 R, n . 39). Control rats (n . 44) served as donors of nonirradiated sera and cells. In addition, sera from six rats were irradiated (250 R or 400 R) in vitro. On the average, 298 metaphases from six rats were studied at each time-point. Cytogenetic abnormalities observed included chromatid- and chromosome-type lesions and hyperdiploidy. The frequency of abnormalities was comparable at both radiation doses. Nonirradiated cells exposed in vitro to irradiated serum (15 min postirradiation) exhibited a 36- to 48-fold increment in hyperdiploidy (p . 0.0001) and a 2.- to 2.2-fold rise in chromatid gaps and breaks (p less than 0.01), but none of the chromosome-type aberrations seen in cells exposed to radiation. The clastogenic activity of irradiated plasma persisted in circulation for the 10-wk duration of the study and was not abrogated by dilution with nonirradiated serum. Serum irradiated in vitro was not clastogenic. This study shows that irradiation of rats results in the prompt appearance of clastogenic activity in their plasma. This activity is not due to radiation-induced depletion of protective factors nor to chemical-physical changes of normal plasma components, but results from circulating factors released by irradiated cells.

Faguet, G.B.; Reichard, S.M.; Welter, D.A.

1984-05-01

331

Radiation-induced clastogenic plasma factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing irradiation induces chromosomal aberrations in directly exposed cells and is known to have mutagenic and carcinogenic potential for the exposed host. Under controlled conditions, we examined whether such clastogenic effects of irradiation might be due in part to radiation-induced plasma factors. Irradiated cells and sera from CF-Nelson rats were used at 15 min, and 1, 7, 14, and 56-70 days after total body irradiation (250 R, n . 67 or 400 R, n . 39). Control rats (n . 44) served as donors of nonirradiated sera and cells. In addition, sera from six rats were irradiated (250 R or 400 R) in vitro. On the average, 298 metaphases from six rats were studied at each time-point. Cytogenetic abnormalities observed included chromatid- and chromosome-type lesions and hyperdiploidy. The frequency of abnormalities was comparable at both radiation doses. Nonirradiated cells exposed in vitro to irradiated serum (15 min postirradiation) exhibited a 36- to 48-fold increment in hyperdiploidy (p . 0.0001) and a 2.- to 2.2-fold rise in chromatid gaps and breaks (p less than 0.01), but none of the chromosome-type aberrations seen in cells exposed to radiation. The clastogenic activity of irradiated plasma persisted in circulation for the 10-wk duration of the study and was not abrogated by dilution with nonirradiated serum. Serum irradiated in vitro was not clastogenic. This study shows that irradiation of rats results in the prompt appearance of clastogenic activity in their plasma. This activity is not due to radiation-induced depletion of protective factors nor to chemical-physical changes of normal plasma components, but results from circulating factors released by irradiated cells

1984-01-01

332

Radiation-induced clastogenic plasma factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ionizing irradiation induces chromosomal aberrations in directly exposed cells and is known to have mutagenic and carcinogenic potential for the exposed host. Under controlled conditions, we examined whether such clastogenic effects of irradiation might be due in part to radiation-induced plasma factors. Irradiated cells and sera from CF-Nelson rats were used at 15 min, and 1, 7, 14, and 56-70 days after total body irradiation (250 R, n = 67 or 400 R, n = 39). Control rats (n = 44) served as donors of nonirradiated sera and cells. In addition, sera from six rats were irradiated (250 R or 400 R) in vitro. On the average, 298 metaphases from six rats were studied at each time-point. Cytogenetic abnormalities observed included chromatid- and chromosome-type lesions and hyperdiploidy. The frequency of abnormalities was comparable at both radiation doses. Nonirradiated cells exposed in vitro to irradiated serum (15 min postirradiation) exhibited a 36- to 48-fold increment in hyperdiploidy (p = 0.0001) and a 2.- to 2.2-fold rise in chromatid gaps and breaks (p less than 0.01), but none of the chromosome-type aberrations seen in cells exposed to radiation. The clastogenic activity of irradiated plasma persisted in circulation for the 10-wk duration of the study and was not abrogated by dilution with nonirradiated serum. Serum irradiated in vitro was not clastogenic. This study shows that irradiation of rats results in the prompt appearance of clastogenic activity in their plasma. This activity is not due to radiation-induced depletion of protective factors nor to chemical-physical changes of normal plasma components, but results from circulating factors released by irradiated cells.

Faguet GB; Reichard SM; Welter DA

1984-05-01

333

Cellular and molecular aspects of radiation-induced apoptosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thymocytes are highly radiosensitive and show 'interphase death' within a few hours after low doses of irradiation. Now it is proved to be a typical apoptosis. Separation of the dead thymocyte fraction from irradiated thymocyte suspensions by centrifugation on Percoll gradient provided homogeneous populations of dead cells suitable for detailed study. Using this method, radiation-induced apoptosis of thymocytes was found to involve a sharp but transient increase in buoyant density, concomitant with the appearance of distinctive morphologic changes which included disappearance of microvilli and blistering of the cell surface. The chromatin in the apoptotic cells fragmented into oligonucleosomomal units. Immediate population was not detected. Apoptosis thus proceed a discrete, abrupt transition from the normal state and is not merely the consequence of progressive and degenerative changes. Furthermore, morphological and biochemical chages of the cell death are inhibited by cycloheximide and actinomycin D, suggesting the need for RNA and protein synthesis on apoptotic transition. Thymocytes undergo necrosis after massive doses irradiation. Radiation-induced apoptosis of various cells, including proliferating cells is currently under active investigation. Today's great interest promises progress in the future. (J.P.N.)

1993-01-01

334

The redox homeostasis system in radiation-induced genome instability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The participation of the redox homeostasis system in the formation of the radiation-induced genome instability and new data of literature, that give a direct evidence the presence of this instability in vivo, is considered. The O2- radical, H2O2 and NO radical role as signal molecules, that trigger the cascade of active responses to change of redox status of the cells, are discussed. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) reorganize the membrane physico-chemical system of cell metabolism regulation. The data about changes in ROS generation system, including NO, that lead to genome instability after ionizing irradiation even in low doses, are analyzed. It is noted, that the radiation-induced genome instability and ROS production increase may be observed both in direct irradiated cells and their progeny and in the cells, that are not find oneself in ionization tracks, and their progeny. There evidences that the genome instability of irradiated cell progeny is maintained by the increases ROS production

2001-01-01

335

Effects of low doses of ionizing radiation upon the micromorphology and functional state of cell surface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cellular membrane as one of the targets of ionizing radiation might play an important role in the development and modification of radiation-induced alterations after low doses. The present paper reviews the micromorphological and functional changes of plasma membranes of irradiated blood and cultured cells with special emphasis on the surface conditions: lectin binding, negative surface charges. The review is completed by our own studies on distribution of positive surface charges and the bindings of two lectins, the Concanavalin A and the wheat germ agglutinin. It was found that the decrease of negative surface charges is unconcomitant with appearance of domains exposing positive ones, particularly on the surfaces of rufflings. The distribution of Concanavalin A binding sites turned from a uniform distribution to a polarized one, especially on apical regions where it appeared in large aggregates. The polarity in localization of wheat germ agglutinin on untreated fibroblasts observed in our experiments ceased shortly after irradiation. 72 references.

Somosy, Z.; Kubasova, T.; Koeteles, G.J.

1987-09-01

336

Effects of low doses of ionizing radiation upon the micromorphology and functional state of cell surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cellular membrane as one of the targets of ionizing radiation might play an important role in the development and modification of radiation-induced alterations after low doses. The present paper reviews the micromorphological and functional changes of plasma membranes of irradiated blood and cultured cells with special emphasis on the surface conditions: lectin binding, negative surface charges. The review is completed by our own studies on distribution of positive surface charges and the bindings of two lectins, the Concanavalin A and the wheat germ agglutinin. It was found that the decrease of negative surface charges is unconcomitant with appearance of domains exposing positive ones, particularly on the surfaces of rufflings. The distribution of Concanavalin A binding sites turned from a uniform distribution to a polarized one, especially on apical regions where it appeared in large aggregates. The polarity in localization of wheat germ agglutinin on untreated fibroblasts observed in our experiments ceased shortly after irradiation. 72 references.

1987-01-01

337

The elimination of low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity by transfer of irradiated-cell conditioned medium depends on dose rate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Irradiation of T-47D cells with 0.3 Gy delivered by a (60)Co source at a low dose rate of 0.3 Gy/h abolished low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) for at least 14 months (with continuous cell culturing), while the same dose administered acutely (40 Gy/h) eliminated HRS for less than 24 h. Medium transferred from the low-dose-rate primed cells (low-dose-rate ICCM) to unirradiated cells eliminated HRS in recipient cells even if the donor cells had been cultivated for 14 months after the priming dose. Thus low-dose-rate priming activates mechanisms that involve modification or induction of a factor in the medium. This factor affects unirradiated cells in such a way that HRS is eliminated in cells exposed to medium from the primed cells. However, only cells directly exposed to low-dose-rate radiation induce or modify the putative factor, since unirradiated cells that were exposed to low-dose-rate ICCM regained HRS within 2 weeks of cultivation in fresh medium. The ability of ICCM to eliminate HRS in recipient cells is dependent on dose rate. However, an increase in clonogenic survival was observed in cells receiving only medium transfer without subsequent irradiation that was independent of dose rate.

Edin NJ; Sandvik JA; Olsen DR; Pettersen EO

2009-01-01

338

Low dose mercury toxicity and human health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Post Minamata incident there has been awareness about mercury toxicity even among the general public. Previous researches contributed a vast amount of data regarding acute mercury exposure, but gradually information about the low dose [Ninomiya, T., Ohmori, H., Hashimoto, K., Tsuruta, K., Ekino, S., 1995. Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside minamata: an epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoninig outside of Minamata. Environ. Res. 70 (1) 47-50; Lebel, J., Mergler, D., Lucotte, M., Amorim, M., Dolbec, J., Miranda, D., Arantes, G., Rheault, I., Pichet, P., 1996. Evidence of early nervous system dysfunction in Amazonian populations exposed to low-levels of methylmercury. Neurotoxicology 17 (1) 157-167] of mercury toxicity has been trickling in. With mercury contaminating rain-, ground- and sea-water no one is safe. Polluted water leads to mercury laced fish, meat and vegetable. In aquatic environments, inorganic mercury is microbiologically transformed into lipophilic organic compound 'methylmercury'. This transformation makes mercury more prone to biomagnification in food chains. Consequently, populations with traditionally high dietary intake of food originating from fresh or marine environment have highest dietary exposure to mercury. Extensive research done on locals across the globe have already established this, persons who routinely consume fish or a particular species of fish are at an increased risk of methylmercury poisoning. The easy access of the toxicant to man through multiple pathways air, water, food, cosmetic products and even vaccines increase the exposure. Foetus and children are more susceptible towards mercury toxicity. Mothers consuming diet containing mercury pass the toxicant to foetus and to infants through breast milk. Decreased performance in areas of motor function and memory has been reported among children exposed to presumably safe mercury levels. Similarly, disruption of attention, fine motor function and verbal memory was also found in adults on exposure to low mercury levels. It is an occupational hazard for dental staff, chloralkali factory workers and goldminers, etc. Mercury has been found to be a causative agent of various sorts of disorders, including neurological, nephrological, immunological, cardiac, motor, reproductive and even genetic. Recently heavy metal mediated toxicity has been linked to diseases like Alzeihemer's, Parkinson's, Autism, Lupus, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, etc. Besides this, it poses danger to wildlife. Therefore, it becomes imperative to spread the information regarding the threat of mercury exposure amongst the scientists and masses.

Zahir F; Rizwi SJ; Haq SK; Khan RH

2005-09-01

339

Increased interleukin-1? levels following low dose MDMA induces tolerance against the 5-HT neurotoxicity produced by challenge MDMA  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Preconditioning is a phenomenon by which tolerance develops to injury by previous exposure to a stressor of mild severity. Previous studies have shown that single or repeated low dose MDMA can attenuate 5-HT transporter loss produced by a subsequent neurotoxic dose of the drug. We have explored the mechanism of delayed preconditioning by low dose MDMA. Methods Male Dark Agouti rats were given low dose MDMA (3 mg/kg, i.p.) 96 h before receiving neurotoxic MDMA (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.). IL-1? and IL1ra levels and 5-HT transporter density in frontal cortex were quantified at 1 h, 3 h or 7 days. IL-1?, IL-1ra and IL-1RI were determined between 3 h and 96 h after low dose MDMA. sIL-1RI combined with low dose MDMA or IL-1? were given 96 h before neurotoxic MDMA and toxicity assessed 7 days later. Results Pretreatment with low dose MDMA attenuated both the 5-HT transporter loss and elevated IL-1? levels induced by neurotoxic MDMA while producing an increase in IL-1ra levels. Low dose MDMA produced an increase in IL-1? at 3 h and in IL-1ra at 96 h. sIL-1RI expression was also increased after low dose MDMA. Coadministration of sIL-1RI (3 ?g, i.c.v.) prevented the protection against neurotoxic MDMA provided by low dose MDMA. Furthermore, IL-1? (2.5 pg, intracortical) given 96 h before neurotoxic MDMA protected against the 5-HT neurotoxicity produced by the drug, thus mimicking preconditioning. Conclusions These results suggest that IL-1? plays an important role in the development of delayed preconditioning by low dose MDMA.

2011-01-01

340

Increased interleukin-1? levels following low dose MDMA induces tolerance against the 5-HT neurotoxicity produced by challenge MDMA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Preconditioning is a phenomenon by which tolerance develops to injury by previous exposure to a stressor of mild severity. Previous studies have shown that single or repeated low dose MDMA can attenuate 5-HT transporter loss produced by a subsequent neurotoxic dose of the drug. We have explored the mechanism of delayed preconditioning by low dose MDMA. Methods Male Dark Agouti rats were given low dose MDMA (3 mg/kg, i.p.) 96 h before receiving neurotoxic MDMA (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.). IL-1? and IL1ra levels and 5-HT transporter density in frontal cortex were quantified at 1 h, 3 h or 7 days. IL-1?, IL-1ra and IL-1RI were determined between 3 h and 96 h after low dose MDMA. sIL-1RI combined with low dose MDMA or IL-1? were given 96 h before neurotoxic MDMA and toxicity assessed 7 days later. Results Pretreatment with low dose MDMA attenuated both the 5-HT transporter loss and elevated IL-1? levels induced by neurotoxic MDMA while producing an increase in IL-1ra levels. Low dose MDMA produced an increase in IL-1? at 3 h and in IL-1ra at 96 h. sIL-1RI expression was also increased after low dose MDMA. Coadministration of sIL-1RI (3 ?g, i.c.v.) prevented the protection against neurotoxic MDMA provided by low dose MDMA. Furthermore, IL-1? (2.5 pg, intracortical) given 96 h before neurotoxic MDMA protected against the 5-HT neurotoxicity produced by the drug, thus mimicking preconditioning. Conclusions These results suggest that IL-1? plays an important role in the development of delayed preconditioning by low dose MDMA.

Mayado Andrea; Torres Elisa; Gutierrez-Lopez Maria D; Colado Maria I; O'Shea Esther

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Radiation-induced DNA lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although it has been known for decades that ionizing radiation can cause mammalian cells to die, mutate or transform, relatively little is known about the exact mechanisms responsible for these biological phenomena. In this report, they describe: (1) the development of HPLC methodology with improved sensitivity for the detection of radiation-induced DNA damage products, (2) the use of this methodology to determine the influence of DNA sequence, conformation and oxygen status on the spectrum and quantity of specific lesions produced by ionizing radiation and (3) methodology for isolating and digesting cellular DNA to nucleosides suitable for DNA damage and repair studies. With this information, a number of important questions are now addressable.

1987-01-01

342

Significance of low dose hypersensitivity in fractionated radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective: To analyze the influences of the low radiation dose hypersensitivity (LDH) to the dose-effect relationship of fractionated radiotherapy. Methods: Collect data of LDH from literature and do curve fit for cell survival curve. Condition to join the data set: the lowest dose and dose increment in the experiment were less than 0.1 and 0.2 Gy, respectively. Based on parameters of the fit curve and fraction-effect relationship curve of fractionated irradiation were to be simulated. Result:(1) Four modes were classified according to cell's capacity of LDH and resistance to higher dose radiation. Mode A: LDH was not marked and radiation resistance could be seen in higher dose irradiation in these cells. Mode B: LDH was marked but radiation resistance could be seen in higher dose irradiation. Mode C: LDH was not marked but radiation sensitivity could be seen in higher dose irradiation. Mode D: LDH was marked and radiation sensitivity could be seen in higher dose irradiation. (2) The fraction-effect relationship curve was a multiphase curve: in very low fraction size (less than 0.3 Gy in V79), the curve came down rapidly with high dose efficiency. Subsequently, the speed of curve drop became so slow as to become negative in some cell lines with high LDH and the fraction dose efficiency declined comparing with low dose irradiation. After the above radiation resistant scope, which was about 0.5 to 1.0 Gy, the curve started to drop monotonically with the increment of dose according to the LQ Model. (3) According to the above fraction-effect curve, the sense of fraction modes that had been used in current radiotherapy should be reconsidered. Ultrafractionation: the dose efficiency of the radiation in low dose could be used adequately in this mode, so it may be a effective fractionation for cells with marked LDH such as in B or D cell. Hyperfractionation : this fractionation was designed to improve the total effect through increased total dose by upping of fraction number with downing of fraction size. As downing of fraction size would decrease the dose efficiency, whether the total effect being improved was not ensured. Routine mode with 1.5-2.5 Gy per fraction was a compromise between fraction efficiency and normal tissue protection. Hypofractionation with > 2.5 Gy per fraction was satisfactory in fraction efficiency, but special technology such as conformal radiation or heavy iron would have to be used to protect the normal tissue. Conclusions: The fraction-effect curve from 0.1 to several Gy of fraction size is a multiphase but not a monotonic fall curve that has been prefigured in LQ model. If the low dose hypersensitivity is considered, the small change of dose efficiency will lead to magnitude difference in total effect after multi-fractions radiotherapy for the role of exponentially enlarging fractionation. This multiphase fraction-effect curve is significant in the evaluation and determination of fractionation mode and protection of normal tissue in clinical practice of radiotherapy

2003-01-01

343

Measurement of 60CO gamma radiation induced attenuation in multimode step-index POF at 530 nm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As optical fibres are used ever more extensively in space applications, nuclear industry, medicine and high-energy physics experiments, it has become essential to investigate the influence of ionizing radiation on their characteristics. In this work, the radiation-induced attenuation at 530 nm is investigated experimentally in step-index multimode polymethyl-methacrylate plastic optical fibres exposed to low dose-rate gamma radiation. Cumulative doses ranged from 50 Gy to 500 Gy. The radiation induced attenuation has been empirically found to obey the power law RIA= aDb, where D is the total radiation dose and a and b are the constants determined by fitting.

Kova?evi? Milan S.; ?or?evi? Aleksandar; Savovi? Svetislav; Baji? Jovan S.; Stupar Dragan Z.; Slankamenac Miloš P.; Kova?evi? Milojko

2013-01-01

344

The induction of a tumor suppressor gene (p53) expression by low-dose radiation and its biological meaning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] I report the induced accumulation of wild-type p53 protein of a tumor suppressor gene within 12 h in various organs of rats exposed to X-ray irradiation at low doses (10-50 cGy). The levels of p53 in some organs of irradiated rats were increased about 2- to 3-fold in comparison with the basal p53 levels in non-irradiated rats. Differences in the levels of p53 induction after low-dose X-ray irradiation were observed among the small intestine, bone marrow, brain, liver, adrenal gland, spleen, hypophysis and skin. In contrast, there was no obvious accumulation of p53 protein in the testis and ovary. Thus, the induction of cellular p.53 accumulation by low-dose X-ray irradiation in rats seems to be organ-specific. I consider that cell type, and interactions with other signal transduction pathways of the hormone system, immune system and nervous system may contribute to the variable induction of p53 by low-dose X-ray irradiation. I discussed the induction of p53 by radiation and its biological meaning from an aspect of the defense system for radiation-induced cancer. (author)

1997-01-01

345

Study of genomic instability induced by low dose ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The crews of commercial flights and services staff of radiology and radiotherapy from hospitals are exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. Genomic instability includes those adverse effects observed in cells, several generations after the exposure occurred. The purpose of this study was to analyze the occurrence of genomic instability by very low doses of ionizing radiation

2006-01-01

346

Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals induction of premature senescence in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to chronic low-dose rate gamma radiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chronic low-dose ionizing radiation induces cardiovascular disease in human populations but the mechanism is largely unknown. We suggested that chronic radiation exposure may induce endothelial cell senescence that is associated with vascular damage in vivo. We investigated whether chronic radiation exposure is causing a change in the onset of senescence in endothelial cells in vitro. Indeed, when exposed to continuous low-dose rate gamma radiation (4.1 mGy/h), primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) initiated senescence much earlier than the nonirradiated control cells. We investigated the changes in the protein expression of HUVECs before and during the onset of radiation-induced senescence. Cellular proteins were quantified using isotope-coded protein label technology after 1, 3, and 6 weeks of radiation exposure. Several senescence-related biological pathways were influenced by radiation, including cytoskeletal organization, cell-cell communication and adhesion, and inflammation. Immunoblot analysis showed an activation of the p53/p21 pathway corresponding to the progressing senescence. Our data suggest that chronic radiation-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress result in induction of p53/p21 pathway that inhibits the replicative potential of HUVECs and leads to premature senescence. This study contributes to the understanding of the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases seen in populations exposed to chronic low-dose irradiation.

Yentrapalli R; Azimzadeh O; Barjaktarovic Z; Sarioglu H; Wojcik A; Harms-Ringdahl M; Atkinson MJ; Haghdoost S; Tapio S

2013-04-01

347

Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals induction of premature senescence in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to chronic low-dose rate gamma radiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic low-dose ionizing radiation induces cardiovascular disease in human populations but the mechanism is largely unknown. We suggested that chronic radiation exposure may induce endothelial cell senescence that is associated with vascular damage in vivo. We investigated whether chronic radiation exposure is causing a change in the onset of senescence in endothelial cells in vitro. Indeed, when exposed to continuous low-dose rate gamma radiation (4.1 mGy/h), primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) initiated senescence much earlier than the nonirradiated control cells. We investigated the changes in the protein expression of HUVECs before and during the onset of radiation-induced senescence. Cellular proteins were quantified using isotope-coded protein label technology after 1, 3, and 6 weeks of radiation exposure. Several senescence-related biological pathways were influenced by radiation, including cytoskeletal organization, cell-cell communication and adhesion, and inflammation. Immunoblot analysis showed an activation of the p53/p21 pathway corresponding to the progressing senescence. Our data suggest that chronic radiation-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress result in induction of p53/p21 pathway that inhibits the replicative potential of HUVECs and leads to premature senescence. This study contributes to the understanding of the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases seen in populations exposed to chronic low-dose irradiation. PMID:23349028

Yentrapalli, Ramesh; Azimzadeh, Omid; Barjaktarovic, Zarko; Sarioglu, Hakan; Wojcik, Andrzej; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats; Atkinson, Michael J; Haghdoost, Siamak; Tapio, Soile

2013-03-04

348

Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoietic tissue to low dose/low LET radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To accurately define the risks associated with human exposure to relevant environmental doses of low LET ionizing radiation, it is necessary to completely understand the biological effects at very low doses (i.e., less than 0.1 Gy), including the lowest possible dose, that of a single electron track traversal. At such low doses, a range of studies have shown responses in biological systems which are not related to the direct interaction of radiation tracks with DNA. The role of these “non-targeted” responses in critical tissues is poorly understood and little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. Although critical for dosimetry and risk assessment, the role of individual genetic susceptibility in radiation risk is not satisfactorily defined at present. The aim of the proposed grant is to critically evaluate radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander responses in key stem cell populations from haemopoietic tissue. Using stem cells from two mouse strains (CBA/H and C57BL/6J) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation effects, we plan to carefully dissect the role of genetic predisposition on two non-targeted radiation responses in these models; the bystander effect and genomic instability, which we believe are closely related. We will specifically focus on the effects of low doses of low LET radiation, down to doses approaching a single electron traversal. Using conventional X-ray and ?-ray sources, novel dish separation and targeted irradiation approaches, we will be able to assess the role of genetic variation under various bystander conditions at doses down to a few electron tracks. Irradiations will be carried out using facilities in routine operation for bystander targeted studies. Mechanistic studies of instability and the bystander response in different cell lineages will focus initially on the role of cytokines which have been shown to be involved in bystander signaling and the initiation of instability. These studies also aim to uncover protein mediators of the bystander responses using advanced proteomic screening of factors released from irradiated, bystander and unstable cells. Integral to these studies will be an assessment of the role of genetic susceptibility in these responses, using CBA/H and C57BL/6J mice. The relevance of in vivo interactions between stem cells and the stem cell niche will be explored in the future by re-implantation techniques of previously irradiated cells. The above studies will provide fundamental mechanistic information relating genetic predisposition to important low dose phenomena, and will aid in the development of Department of Energy policy, as well as radiation risk policy for the public and the workplace. We believe the proposed studies accurately reflect the goals of the DOE low dose program.

Munira A Kadhim

2010-03-05

349

Radiation-induced meningiomas: Experience at the Mount Sinai Hospital and review of the literature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the records of The Mount Sinai Hospital, seven cases which met established criteria for radiation-induced meningiomas were identified. This represents the largest series of radiogenic meningiomas documented in North America and includes both intracranial and intraspinal tumors. The records and pathological specimens were reviewed and these data analyzed with other cases retrieved from the world literature. This study reveals that radiation-induced meningiomas can be categorized into three groups based on the amount of radiation administered: (1) low dose; (2) moderate dose and miscellaneous; and (3) high dose. The overwhelming majority of cases had received low-dose irradiation (800 rad) to the scalp for tinea capitis and the second largest group resulted from high-dose irradiation for primary brain tumors (greater than 2000 rad). The unique features distinguishing radiation-induced meningiomas from other meningiomas are reviewed. Although histologically atypical tumors were common in this series, overt malignancy was not encountered. The preoperative management of these lesions should include angiography to evaluate for large-vessel occlusive vasculopathy, a known association of meningiomas induced by high-dose irradiation. Given the propensity these tumors possess for recurrence, a wide bony and dural margin is recommended at surgical resection. 102 references.

Harrison, M.J.; Wolfe, D.E.; Lau, T.S.; Mitnick, R.J.; Sachdev, V.P. (Department of Neurosurgery Mount Sinai Hospital New York, NY (United States))

1991-10-01

350

Radiation-induced meningiomas: Experience at the Mount Sinai Hospital and review of the literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the records of The Mount Sinai Hospital, seven cases which met established criteria for radiation-induced meningiomas were identified. This represents the largest series of radiogenic meningiomas documented in North America and includes both intracranial and intraspinal tumors. The records and pathological specimens were reviewed and these data analyzed with other cases retrieved from the world literature. This study reveals that radiation-induced meningiomas can be categorized into three groups based on the amount of radiation administered: (1) low dose; (2) moderate dose and miscellaneous; and (3) high dose. The overwhelming majority of cases had received low-dose irradiation (800 rad) to the scalp for tinea capitis and the second largest group resulted from high-dose irradiation for primary brain tumors (greater than 2000 rad). The unique features distinguishing radiation-induced meningiomas from other meningiomas are reviewed. Although histologically atypical tumors were common in this series, overt malignancy was not encountered. The preoperative management of these lesions should include angiography to evaluate for large-vessel occlusive vasculopathy, a known association of meningiomas induced by high-dose irradiation. Given the propensity these tumors possess for recurrence, a wide bony and dural margin is recommended at surgical resection. 102 references.

1991-01-01

351

Molecular dissection of the roles of the SOD genes in mammalian response to low dose irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been long recognized that a significant fraction of the radiation-induced genetic damage to cells are caused by secondary oxidative species. Internal cellular defense systems against oxidative stress play significant roles in countering genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. The role of the detoxifying enzymes may be even more prominent in the case of low-dose, low-LET irradiation, as the majority of genetic damage may be caused by secondary oxidative species. In this study we have attempted to decipher the roles of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes, which are responsible for detoxifying the superoxide anions. We used adenovirus vectors to deliver RNA interference (RNAi or siRNA) technology to down-regulate the expression levels of the SOD genes. We have also over-expressed the SOD genes by use of recombinant adenovirus vectors. Cells infected with the vectors were then subjected to low dose ?-irradiation. Total RNA were extracted from the exposed cells and the expression of 9000 genes were profiled by use of cDNA microarrays. The result showed that low dose radiation had clear effects on gene expression in HCT116 cells. Both over-expression and down-regulation of the SOD1 gene can change the expression profiles of sub-groups of genes. Close to 200 of the 9000 genes examined showed over two-fold difference in expression under various conditions. Genes with changed expression pattern belong to many categories that include: early growth response, DNA-repair, ion transport, apoptosis, and cytokine response.

Eric Y. Chuang

2006-08-31

352

Micronucleus frequencies in cytokinesis-blocked human B lymphocytes after low dose gamma-irradiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To investigate (1) the radiosensitivity of B versus T lymphocytes with respect to micronucleus (MN) induction and (2) the possible application of the B cell MN assay for biological dosimetry of individuals after acute exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MN analysis was performed in T and B lymphocytes of six healthy volunteers exposed in vitro to gamma-ray doses ranging from 0.05 Gy to 1 Gy. For the MN assay on B cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured and stimulated with pokeweed mitogen (PWM). Afterwards the B lymphocytes (characterized by the CD20+ phenotype) were separated with the FACSort flow cytometer and the number of MN in the sorted binucleate cells was scored. For T lymphocytes the standard MN protocol was applied. RESULTS: The number of spontaneous and radiation induced MN were significantly higher in B lymphocytes compared to T lymphocytes in the low dose range up to 1 Gy. An analysis of the present data showed that when the spontaneous MN frequencies are not known, doses from 0.08 Gy could be detected with the B cell MN assay while the conventional MN assay only allowed detection of doses > 0.25 Gy. However, in contradiction to the linear-quadratic dose-response for T cells, for B cells the initial steep increase of the MN yield with the very low dose was followed by a flattening of the curve towards higher doses. CONCLUSION: This study shows that B lymphocytes express a high number of MN for doses up to 1 Gy gamma-rays reflecting the highly radiosensitive behaviour of B cells. The results also point to the possible application of the B-cell MN assay for individual dose assessment. When blood samples can be taken within 24 h after acute accidental overexposure, the B-cell MN assay can be performed but only as a supplementary test to the conventional MN assay.

Vral A; Louagie H; Thierens H; Philippé J; Cornelissen M; de Ridder L

1998-05-01

353

Ionizing radiation affects 26s proteasome function and associated molecular responses, even at low doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: Ionizing radiation is known to activate certain signal transduction pathways, the regulation of which could involve post-transcriptional as well as transcriptional mechanisms. One of the most important post-transcriptional pathways in eukaryotic cells is the ATP- and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of proteins by the 26s proteasome. This process controls initiation of many cellular stress responses, as well as inflammatory responses under control of the transcription factor NF-?B. The literature on the relationship between radiation and inflammation seems somewhat paradoxical. At high doses, radiation is generally pro-inflammatory. On the other hand, low dose radiation has a long history of use in the treatment of inflammatory disease. This suggests the involvement of multiple mechanisms that may operate differentially at different dose levels. Materials and methods: In this paper, the ability of different doses of ionizing radiation to directly affect 26s proteasome activity was tested in ECV 304 cells. Proteasome activity, I?B? protein levels, and NF-?B activation were monitored. Results: Inhibition of chymotrypsin-like 20s and 26s proteasome activity was observed immediately after low- and high-dose irradiation either of cells or purified proteasomes. The inhibitory effect was independent of the availability of the known endogenous proteasome inhibitor heat shock protein 90 (hsp90). Levels of I?B?, a physiological 26s proteasome substrate, were increased only at low doses (0.25 Gy) and unaltered at higher doses whereas only