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1

Low dose irradiation and antioxidants protect against high dose radiation induced lymphoma in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation-induced tumor induction in thymus and its suppression by pre-exposure to low dose irradiation has been investigated in Swiss albino mice in our laboratory. These studies showed that a single dose of whole body gamma irradiation (3 Gy) induced thymic lymphoma (TL) after 3-4 months followed by shortening of the life span of tumor bearing animals. These findings have been extended to detailed investigations on the mechanisms of radiation-induced occurrence of tumor and its modification by antioxidants and low dose exposures prior to tumor causing radiation dose. The induced tumor has been found to exhibit sensitivity to therapeutic doses of gamma radiation and concentration dependent anti-tumor drug, doxorubicin. Moreover, transplanted tumor growth was found significantly reduced by exposure to fractionated doses of radiation. Studies have further confirmed that pre-exposure of animals to low doses of radiation significantly suppressed the growth of the transplanted tumor. In addition, tumor cells exposed to 1 cGy of radiation and transplanted to mice showed 30% reduction in the incidence of tumor. The development of TL was found associated with the enlargement of spleen and induction of anaemia. Recent results have shown that whole body exposure of animals to sub-lethal doses (1-5 Gy) resulted in dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in thymocytes from irradiated animals. In vitro studies on thymocytes of irradiated mice showed increased percent apoptosis, as measured by annexin V fluorescence method, which was inhibited by antioxidants such as vit E and curcumin. More recent results have shown that radiation induced tumor induction was dependent on the age of animal at the time of irradiation. The younger age irradiation showed greater sensitivity to tumor induction. In addition, radiation mediated tumor induction was found gender dependent. This brief review presents a highlight of involvement of ? radiation generated ROS in cell/membrane oxidative damage and the role of cellular apoptosis in the mechanism of radiation-induced lymphoma tumor in mice. (author)

2008-03-01

2

Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Protective Process and Implications for Risk Assessment, Cancer Prevention, and Cancer Therapy  

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A low-dose protective apoptosis-mediated (PAM) process is discussed that appears to be turned on by low-dose gamma and X rays but not by low-dose alpha radiation. PAM is a bystander effect that involves cross-talk between genomically compromised [e.g., mutants, neoplastically transformed, micronucleated] cells and nongenomically compromised cells. A novel neoplastic cell transformation model, NEOTRANS3, is discussed that includes PAM. With NEOTRANS3, PAM is activated by low doses and inhibite...

2007-01-01

3

Low-dose radiation-induced endothelial cell retraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data presented here are representative of a series of studies designed to characterize low-dose radiation effects on pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Data suggest that post-irradiation lung injuries (e.g. oedema) may be induced with only a single fraction of therapeutic radiation, and thus microscopic oedema may initiate prior to the lethal effects of radiation on the microvascular endothelium, and much earlier than would be suggested by the time course for clinically-detectable oedema. (author)

1993-09-01

4

Low-dose radiation-induced endothelial cell retraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The data presented here are representative of a series of studies designed to characterize low-dose radiation effects on pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Data suggest that post-irradiation lung injuries (e.g. oedema) may be induced with only a single fraction of therapeutic radiation, and thus microscopic oedema may initiate prior to the lethal effects of radiation on the microvascular endothelium, and much earlier than would be suggested by the time course for clinically-detectable oedema. (author).

Kantak, S.S.; Onoda, J.M. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). School of Medicine); Diglio, C.A. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). School of Medicine Harper Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States). Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center)

1993-09-01

5

Low-Dose Radiation Induces Genes Promoting Cell Survival  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Apoptosis is an important process controlling homeostasis of the body. It is influenced by stimuli constantly arising from the external and internal environment of the organism. It is well known that radiation could induce apoptosis of cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the dose-effect relationship of apoptosis extending to the low-dose range has scarcely been studied. Here, the molecular basis of the phenomenon is explored by examining the changes in expression of some of the proapoptotic and antiapoptotic genes

1999-06-06

6

Low-doses of radiation induced radioresistance in mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cells irradiated with low doses of ionizing radiation become less susceptible to the induction of harmful effects by subsequent irradiation with high doses. Similar responses have been observed in the ICR strain of mice preirradiated with 5 or 10 cGy of X-rays 2 months before the sublethal exposure. Significant and reproducible improvements in 30-day survival were observed when they were compared with those of the control mice not exposed to a low dose beforehand. When the ICR mice preirradiated with 5 cGy were sublethally exposed after various interval between 1 day and 5 months, the radioresistance appeared 2 months later and lasted for about 2 weeks. However, there might be a narrow `window` of response in the induction of radioresistance, since it did not appear within 1.5 months and disappeared 3 months after the preirradiation. Furthermore, we found that preirradiation with both 30 and 50 cGy resulted in the induction of radioresistance 2 weeks later, while no radioresistance could be induced 2-5 weeks after preirradiation with 20 cGy. Irradiation either with 2.5 cGy or with 15 cGy also failed to induce the radioresistance 2 months later. Therefore, so far as the induction of radioresistance is concerned, low dose radiation may be distinguished with the following four ranges in ICR mice: (1)below 2.5 cGy: no acquired radioresistance 2 months later, (2)5-10 cGy: significant radioresistance 2-2.5 months later, (3)15-20 cGy: no acquired radioresistance 2 weeks - 2 months later, and (4)30-50 cGy: significant radioresistance 2 weeks later. Three other strains of mice were examined to determine whether the induction of radioresistance. C57BL showed the radioresistance both 2 months after the exposure to 5 cGy and 2 weeks after the exposure to 50 cGy. On the contrary, neither preirradiation could induce radioresistance in BALB/c and BDF1. Therefore, it is likely that the induction of radioresistance might be regulated by certain genetical factors. (J.P.N.)

Misonoh, J. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.; Yonezawa, M.; Hosokawa, Y.

1996-10-01

7

DETECTION OF LOW DOSE RADIATION INDUCED DNA DAMAGE USING TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL FLUORESCENCE ASSAY  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for radiation-induced DNA damage is reported. Changes in temperature-induced strand separation in both calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA (puc 19 plasmid from Escherichia coli) were measured after exposure to low doses of radiation. Exposur...

8

DETECTION OF LOW DOSE RADIATION INDUCED DNA DAMAGE USING TEMPERATURE DIFFERENNTIAL FLUORESENCE ASSAY  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for radiation-induced DNA damage is reported. Changes in temperature-induced strand separation in both calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA (puc 19 plasmid from Escherichia coli) were measured after exposure to low doses of radiation. Exposures...

9

Low-dose radiation induces drosophila innate immunity through toll pathway activation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous studies report that exposing certain organisms to low-dose radiation induces beneficial effects on lifespan, tumorigenesis, and immunity. By analyzing survival after bacterial infection and antimicrobial peptide gene expression in irradiated flies, we demonstrate that low-dose irradiation of Drosophila enhances innate immunity. Low-dose irradiation of flies significantly increased resistance against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections, as well as expression of several antimicrobial peptide genes. Additionally, low-dose irradiation also resulted in a specific increase in expression of key proteins of the Toll signaling pathway and phosphorylated forms of p38 and N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results indicate that innate immunity is activated after low-dose irradiation through Toll signaling pathway in Drosophila. (author)

2012-03-01

10

The relevance of radiation induced bystander effects for low dose radiation carcinogenic risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Where epidemiology studies lack the ability to prescribe radiation doses, customise sample sizes and replicate findings, radiobiology experiments provide greater flexibility to control experimental conditions. This control simplifies the process of answering questions concerning carcinogenic risk after low dose radiation exposures. However, the flexibility requires critical evaluation of radiobiology findings to ensure that the right questions are being asked, the experimental conditions are relevant to human exposure scenarios and that the data are cautiously interpreted in the context of the experimental model. In particular, low dose radiobiology phenomena such as adaptive responses, genomic instability and bystander effects need to be investigated thoroughly, with continual reference to the way these phenomena might occur in the real world. Low dose radiation induced bystander effects are of interest since their occurrence in vivo could complicate the shape of the radiation dose-response curve in the low dose range for a number of biological endpoints with subsequent effects on radiation-induced cancer risk. Conversely, radiation-induced abscopal effects implicate biological consequences of radiation exposure outside irradiated volumes, and complicate the notion of effective dose calculations. Achieving a consensus on the boundaries that distinguish the radiobiology phenomena of bystander and abscopal effects will aid progress towards understanding their relevance to in vivo radiation exposures. A proposed framework for discussing bystander effects and abscopal effects in their appropriate context will be outlined, with a discussion on the future investigation of radiation-induced bystander effects. Such frameworks can assist the integration of results from experimental radiobiology to risk evaluation and management practice. This research was funded by the Low Dose Radiation Research Program, BioI. and Environ. Research, US Dept. of Energy, Grant DE-FG02-05ER64I 04.

2011-08-14

11

Radiation Induced Bystander Effects in Mice Given Low Doses of Radiation in Vivo  

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The ‘bystander effect’ phenomenon has challenged the traditional framework for assessing radiation damage by showing radiation induced changes in cells which have not been directly targeted, but are neighbors to or receive medium from directly hit cells. Our group performed a range of single and serial low dose irradiations on two genetically distinct strains of mice. Bladder explants established from these mice were incubated in culture medium, which was used to measure death responses i...

Singh, Harleen; Saroya, Rohin; Smith, Richard; Mantha, Rebecca; Guindon, Lynda; Mitchel, Ron E. J.; Seymour, Colin; Mothersill, Carmel

2011-01-01

12

Low dose radiation induced adaptive response in human T and B lymphocyte cell lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human peripheral blood lymphocytes can express a low dose radiation induced adaptive response to subsequent radiation or chemical challenge. We are screening human T and B cell lines for differential expression of this phenomenon. Such lines should facilitate the identification of the factors underlying this phenomenon, and the conditions required to observe it. Our initial studies have used the T cell lines Molt-3 and CEM-CM3 and the B cell lines WIL2-NS and TK6. Two exposure scenarios were used: (1) a single exposure to 0.05 GY of x-rays followed 6 hrs. later 1 Gy, or (2) three 0.05 Gy exposures with 24 hr. intervals followed by 1 Gy 4 hrs after the last low dose exposure. To date we have triplicate experiments for each line. Under these conditions, TK6 is the only line to show an effect near significance (1 Gy CE 0.19±0.04 vs 0.05±1 Gy CE 0.24±0.05, p=0.08, two tailed paired t-test) which was limited to scenario 1. Recently, Rigaud et al. reported on low dose radiation induced adaptive response to HGPRT mutation in the AHH-1 B cell line. We exposed cells of the WIL2-NS line to a single 0.05 Gy X-ray exposure followed by 6 hrs. later by 3 Gy. To date we have performed 3 experiments. As with the above studies, there was no adaptive response for survival, however, there was a significant decrease in HGPRT mutation (73.2±14.9 x 10-6for 3 Gy vs 45.8±6.6 x 10-6 for 0.05+3 Gy). These preliminary results suggest that the detection of low dose radiation induced adaptive responses will depend upon cell line, exposure conditions, and biological endpoint measured

1994-05-07

13

Low dose radiation induced adaptive response in human T and B lymphocyte cell lines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human peripheral blood lymphocytes can express a low dose radiation induced adaptive response to subsequent radiation or chemical challenge. We are screening human T and B cell lines for differential expression of this phenomenon. Such lines should facilitate the identification of the factors underlying this phenomenon, and the conditions required to observe it. Our initial studies have used the T cell lines Molt-3 and CEM-CM3 and the B cell lines WIL2-NS and TK6. Two exposure scenarios were used: (1) a single exposure to 0.05 GY of x-rays followed 6 hrs. later 1 Gy, or (2) three 0.05 Gy exposures with 24 hr. intervals followed by 1 Gy 4 hrs after the last low dose exposure. To date we have triplicate experiments for each line. Under these conditions, TK6 is the only line to show an effect near significance (1 Gy CE 0.19{+-}0.04 vs 0.05{+-}1 Gy CE 0.24{+-}0.05, p=0.08, two tailed paired t-test) which was limited to scenario 1. Recently, Rigaud et al. reported on low dose radiation induced adaptive response to HGPRT mutation in the AHH-1 B cell line. We exposed cells of the WIL2-NS line to a single 0.05 Gy X-ray exposure followed by 6 hrs. later by 3 Gy. To date we have performed 3 experiments. As with the above studies, there was no adaptive response for survival, however, there was a significant decrease in HGPRT mutation (73.2{+-}14.9 x 10{sup -6}for 3 Gy vs 45.8{+-}6.6 x 10{sup -6} for 0.05+3 Gy). These preliminary results suggest that the detection of low dose radiation induced adaptive responses will depend upon cell line, exposure conditions, and biological endpoint measured.

Shadley, J.D.; Pai, G. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1994-12-31

14

Low doses of gamma-radiation induce nonlinear dose responses in Mammalian and plant cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The percentage of cells with chromosome aberrations or micronuclei induced by low doses of acute (dose rate of 47 cGy/min) or chronic (dose rate of 0.01 cGy/min) gamma-irradiation was studied in vitro in Chinese hamster fibroblasts, human lymphocytes, and Vicia faba seeds and seedlings. The sensitivity of the indicated biological entities to low doses was greater than expected based on linear extrapolation from higher doses. The dose-response curves for cytogenetic damage that were obtained were nonlinear when evaluated over the full range of the doses used. At very low doses, the dose-response curves appeared linear, followed by a plateau region at intermediate doses. At high doses the dose response curves again appeared linear with a slope different from that for the low-dose region. There was no statistically significant difference between the yields of cells with micronuclei induced by low doses of acute versus chronic irradiation. Similar data were obtained both for human lymphocyte culture and for roots and seeds of Vicia faba. Our experiments revealed that the dose range over which the plateau occurs depends on the type of cells irradiated. We have also shown that the modifying effects of the repair inhibitor caffeine and the radioprotector mercaptoethylenamine (MEA) are absent at low doses of gamma irradiation and that caffeine increased the number of cells with cytogenetic damage when evaluated over the plateau region. In the presence of MEA, the upper end of the plateau region was extended from just above 1 Gy to about 2 Gy. We therefore provide direct evidence that a plateau exists in the dose-response curve for the indicated radiation-induced stochastic effects. Furthermore, our results suggest that, for low linear energy transfer radiation, the induction of DNA repair occurs only after a threshold level of cytogenetic damage and that the higher yield of cytogenetic damage per unit dose at low radiation doses is attributable to an insignificant contribution or the absence of DNA repair processes. PMID:19330144

Zaichkina, S I; Rozanova, O M; Aptikaeva, G F; Achmadieva, A Ch; Klokov, D Y

2004-07-01

15

Radiation-induced bystander effects induce radio-adaptive response by low-dose radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When normal human fibroblast cells (MRC-5) received a priming irradiation of 3-20 mGy 4 h prior to irradiation with 1000 mGy, the number of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) decreased significantly to 18.2-18.7 per cell compared with 21 per cell when there was no priming irradiation. This result indicates that a priming irradiation of 3-20 mGy induces a radio-adaptive response in MRC-5. The authors' previous study had indicated that DSBs induced by <20 mGy are due to a radiation-induced bystander effect. These findings suggest that radiation-induced bystander effects might contribute to induction of the radio-adaptive response. To test this hypothesis, MRC-5 were suspended in lindane, an inhibitor of radiation-induced bystander effects, which was added to the medium for the priming irradiation of 3-20 mGy. Lindane inhibited the protective effect of priming irradiation on DSBs caused by subsequent irradiation with 1000 mGy. Thus, radiation-induced bystander effects may play a role in radio-adaptive responses. (authors)

2010-05-24

16

Radiation Induced Bystander Effects in Mice Given Low Doses of Radiation in Vivo  

Science.gov (United States)

The ‘bystander effect’ phenomenon has challenged the traditional framework for assessing radiation damage by showing radiation induced changes in cells which have not been directly targeted, but are neighbors to or receive medium from directly hit cells. Our group performed a range of single and serial low dose irradiations on two genetically distinct strains of mice. Bladder explants established from these mice were incubated in culture medium, which was used to measure death responses in a keratinocyte reporter system. The study revealed that the medium harvested from bladder tissues’ (ITCM) from acutely irradiated C57BL6 but not Balb/c mice, was able to induce clonogenic death. Administration of a priming dose(s) before a challenge dose to both C57BL6 and Balb/c mice stimulated reporter cell survival irrespective of the time interval between dose(s) delivery. When ITCM corresponding to both strains of mice was measured for its calcium mobilization inducing ability, results showed an elevation in intracellular calcium levels that was strain dependent. This indicates that genotype determined the type of bystander signal/response that was produced after exposure to low and acute doses of radiation. However, serial exposure conditions modified bystander signal production to induce similar effects that were characterized by excessive growth.

Singh, Harleen; Saroya, Rohin; Smith, Richard; Mantha, Rebecca; Guindon, Lynda; Mitchel, Ron E.J.; Seymour, Colin; Mothersill, Carmel

2010-01-01

17

Low dose radiation induced protein and its experimental and ophthalmic clinical research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The protective effects of low dose radiation (LDR) induced protein on cellular impairments caused by some harmful chemical and physical factors were studied. Male Kunming mice were irradiated with LDR, then the spleen cells of the mice were broken with ultrasonic energy and then ultracentrifugalized. The supernatant solution contained with LDR induced protein. The newly emerging protein was detected by gel filtration and its molecular weight was determined by gel electrophoresis. The content of newly emerging protein (LDR induced protein) was determined by Lowry's method. The method of isotope incorporation was used to observe the biological activity and its influence factors, the protective effects of LDR induced protein on the cells impaired by irradiating with ultraviolet (UV), high doses of 60Co ?-rays and exposed to heat respectively, and the stimulative effects of LDR induced protein on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Newly emerging protein has been observed in the experiment. The molecular weight of the protein is in the region 76.9 KD+- - 110.0 KD+-, the yield of the protein was 613.33 +- 213.42 ?g per 3 x 107 spleen cells. DPM values (isotope were incorporated) of normal and injured mice spleen cells increased significantly after stimulating with the solution contained LDR induced protein. It is concluded that LDR induced protein could be obtained from mice spleen cells exposed to 5 - 15 cGy radiation for 2 - 16 h. The protein had biological activity and was able to stimulate the transformation of the spleen cells in vitro. It had obvious protective effects on some impaired cells caused by high dose radiation, UV radiation, heat and so on. It also had stimulative effects on the transformation of peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes of healthy individual and patients with eye diseases. It indicates that LDR induced protein increased immune function of human

2001-04-01

18

Low dose radiation-induced adaptive survival response in mouse spleen T-lymphocytes in vivo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Induction of an adaptive survival response in B6C3F1 mice exposed to whole-body irradiation by low doses of X-rays (priming exposure) then to high doses of X-rays (challenge exposure) was examined. The adaptive survival response was determined by comparing the cloning efficiency of low dose-irradiated spleen T-lymphocytes to that of unprimed controls. Maximal expression of the adaptive survival response induced by exposure to low doses of X-rays occurred 7 hours after the priming exposure. The optimal low dose range for the induction of the adaptive survival response was 0.05-0.1 Gy. Thus, low dose X-irradiation induces the adaptive response in spleen T-lymphocytes of B6C3F1 mice as assessed by survival. The duration of this response is short, and there is an optimal low dose range. The Dq value for the primed cells was somewhat larger than that for the unprimed ones. Low dose exposure may enhance the capacity of spleen cells for repair during priming. (author).

Yoshida, Naoki; Imada, Hajime; Kunugita, Naoki; Norimura, Toshiyuki (University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu. Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine)

1993-12-01

19

Low Doses of Gamma-Radiation Induce Nonlinear Dose Responses in Mammalian and Plant Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The percentage of cells with chromosome aberrations or micronuclei induced by low doses of acute (dose rate of 47 cGy/min) or chronic (dose rate of 0.01 cGy/min) gamma-irradiation was studied in vitro in Chinese hamster fibroblasts, human lymphocytes, and Vicia faba seeds and seedlings. The sensitivity of the indicated biological entities to low doses was greater than expected based on linear extrapolation from higher doses. The dose-response curves for cytogenetic damage that were obtained w...

2004-01-01

20

Cancer and low dose responses in vivo: implications for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radiation protection practices assume that cancer risk is linearly proportional to total dose, without a threshold, both for people with normal cancer risk and for people who may be genetically cancer prone. Mice heterozygous for the Tp53 gene are cancer prone, and their increased risk from high doses was not different from Tp53 normal mice. However, in either Tp53 normal or heterozygous mice, a single low dose of low LET radiation given at low dose rate protected against both spontaneous and radiation-induced cancer by increasing tumor latency. Increased tumor latency without a cancer frequency change implies that low doses in vivo primarily slow the process of genomic instability, consistent with the elevated capacity for correct DSB rejoining seen in low dose exposed cells. The in vivo animal data indicates that, for low doses and low dose rates in both normal and cancer prone adult mice, risk does not increase linearly with dose, and dose thresholds for increased risk exist. Below those dose thresholds (which are influenced by Tp53 function) overall risk is reduced below that of unexposed control mice, indicating that Dose Rate Effectiveness Factors (DREF) may approach infinity, rather than the current assumption of 2. However, as dose decreases, different tissues appear to have different thresholds at which detriment turns to protection, indicating that individual tissue weighting factors (Wt) are also not constant, but vary from positive values to zero with decreasing dose. Measurements of Relative Biological Effect between high and low LET radiations are used to establish radiation weighting factors (Wr) used in radiation protection, and these are also assumed to be constant with dose. However, since the risk from an exposure to low LET radiation is not constant with dose, it would seem unlikely that radiation-weighting factors for high LET radiation are actually constant at low dose and dose rate

2006-10-15

 
 
 
 
21

Radiation-induced apoptosis in SCID Mousespleen after a low-dose irration  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To estimate the effects of space radiation on health of space crews, we aimed to clarify whether pre-irradiation at a low-dose interferes in a p53-centered signal transduction pathway induced by radiation. By using a severe combined immunodeficiency (Scid) mouse defective DNA-PK activity, we examined the role of DNA-PK activity in radioadaptation induced by low-dose irradiation. Methodology: Specific pathogen free 5-week-old fe male mice of Scid and the parental mice (CB-17 Icr+/+) were irradiated with X-rays at 3.0 Gy 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after conditioning irradiation at 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 or 0.60 Gy. The mice spleens were fixed for immunohistochemistry 12 h after irradiation. Bax on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method using HISTOFINE SAB-PO(R) kit (Nichirei Co., Tokyo, Japan). Apoptosis incidence in the sections was measured by staining with HE staining. Results: The frequency of Bax- and apoptosis -positive cells increased up to 12 h after irradiation at 3.0 Gy in the spleen of CB-17 Icr+/+ and Scid mice. However, they were not observed by irradiation with low dose at 0.15-0.60 Gy. When pre-irradiation at 0.45 Gy 2 weeks before challenging acute irradiation at 3.0 Gy was performed, Bax accumulation and apoptosis induced by irradiation at 3.0 Gy was depressed in the spleen of CB-17 Icr+/+ mice, but not Scid mice. Conclusions: These data suggest that DNA-PKcs (expressed in CB-17 Icr+/+, not Scid mice) might play a major role on radioadaptation induced by pre-irradiation at low dose in mice spleen. We expect that the present findings will provide useful information for the care of space crews' health.

Ohnishi, T.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.

22

Radiation induced activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme at low doses of irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Behaviour of angiotensin-converting enzyme, horseradish peroxidase under in vitro low dose ?- and X-irradiation is studied. Existence takes place of the molecular mechanism of enzyme response to irradiation the key moment of which is in the periodicity of modifications causing the activation and (or) inactivation. Tryptophan and tyrasine residues is supposed to play the considerable role in the appearance of these conformational oscillations

1999-01-01

23

Possible expressions of radiation-induced genomic instability, bystander effects or low-dose hypersensitivity in cancer epidemiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent publications on the integration of radiobiological effects in the two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) model of carcinogenesis and applications to radioepidemiological data are reviewed and updated. First, a model version with radiation-induced genomic instability was shown to be a possible explanation for the age dependence of the radiation-induced cancer mortality in the Techa River Cohort. Second, it is demonstrated that inclusion of a bystander effect with a dose threshold allows an improved description of the lung cancer mortality risk for the Mayak workers cohort due to incorporation of plutonium. The threshold for the annual lung dose is estimated to 12 (90%CI: 4; 14) mGy/year. This threshold applies to the initiation of preneoplastic cells and to hyperplastic growth. There is, however, no evidence for a threshold for the effects of gamma radiation. Third, models with radiation-induced cell inactivation tend to predict lower cancer risks among the atomic bomb survivors with exposure at young age than conventionally used empirical models. Also, risks after exposures with doses in the order of 100 mGy are predicted to be higher in models with low-dose hypersensitivity than in models with conventional cell survival curves. In the reviewed literature, models of carcinogenesis tend to describe radioepidemiological data better than conventionally used empirical models.

2010-05-01

24

Radiation-induced apoptosis in SCID mice spleen after low dose irradiation  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the radioadaptive response of the whole body system in mice, we examined the temporal effect of low dose priming as an indicator of challenging irradiation-induced apoptosis through a p53 tumor suppressor protein- mediated signal transduction pathway. The p53 protein also plays an important role both in cell cycle control and DNA repair through cellular signal transduction. Using severe combined immunodeficiency mice defective in DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, we examined the role of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity in radioadaptation induced by low dose irradiation. Specific pathogen free 5-week-old female severe combined immunodeficiency mice and the parental mice (CB-17 Icr +/ + were irradiated with X-ray at 3.0 C3y at 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after the conditioning irradiation at 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 or 0.60 Gy. The mice spleens were fixed for immunohistochemistry 12 h after the challenging irradiation. The p53-dependent apoptosis related Bax proteins on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method The apoptosis incidence in the sections was measured by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The frequency of Bax- and apoptosis-positive cells increased up to 12 h after the challenging irradiation in the spleen of both mice. However, these cells were not observed after a low dose irradiation at 0.15-0.60 Gy When pre-irradiation at 0.45 Gy 2 weeks before the challenging irradiation at 3.0 Gy was performed, Bax accumulation and apoptosis induced by challenging irradiation were depressed in the spleens of CB-17 Icr +/ + mice, but not in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These data suggest that DNA-dependent protein kinase might play a major role in radioadaptation induced by pre-irradiation with a low dose in mice spleen. We expect that the present findings will provide useful information in the health care of space crews.

Takahashi, A.; Kondo, N.; Inaba, H.; Uotani, K.; Kiyohara, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Ohnishi, T.

25

Low-dose ?-ray radiation induced seeds ultra-weak luminescence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cucumber seeds were irradiated with 60Co-? rays of 20 Gy, 30 Gy, 40 Gy, and tomato seeds were irradiated with 60Co-? rays of 10 Gy, 20 Gy, 40 Gy. Then ultra-weak luminescence intensity of dry seeds and sprout seeds were measured in 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 hours after irradiation. The results showed that ultra-weak luminescence intensity increased with the irradiation dose in the range of low-dose. Luminescence intensity at germination stage was stronger than that of dry seeds. Luminescence intensity of treated tomato seeds was higher than other dose treatments and CK

2000-02-01

26

Chronic low dose {gamma}-radiation induced increased cytogenetic damage in human population  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to evaluate the biomedical effects of chronic low-dose {gamma}-radiation exposure in residents stayed in buildings with Co-60 contaminated steel rods in Taiwan, two assays of micronucleus formation have been employed in their T-lymphocytes. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and a cytosine arabinofuranoside (ARA-c) enhanced CBMN (CBMNA) were employed in 73 residents and 77 community controls. The exposed were shown with significantly increased CBMN (0.017 {+-} 0.011) and CBMNA frequencies (0.030 {+-} 0.019) than the controls (0.011 {+-} 0.008 and 0.019 {+-} 0.011, respectively; both by the Wilcoxon rank sum test, p values as 0.0001). To further evaluate the specificity of these increased micronuclei in the exposed than the controls by the CBMN assay, the all human {alpha}-satellite centromere-specific probe (Oncor) was employed in fluorescence-situ-hybridization (FISH) to differentiate acentric fragments or whole chromosome inclusion in the micronuclei. The results demonstrated that the micronuclei in 16 exposed contained apparently less centromere signals (ranged 32.61-51.35%; mean {+-} 1 S.D. = 41.4 {+-} 5.8%) than those of the controls (51.2 {+-} 2.7%; Wilcoxon rank sum test p < 0.018). This suggested that more than one half of the micronuclei in the exposed did not contain centromere signals in them, but instead acentric chromosomal fragments. This was on the opposite of those spontaneously derived micronuclei or those in the controls. It suggests that the increased micronuclei in the exposed residents were derived mostly from chronic low dose {gamma}-radiation. The centromere-containing FISH analysis seems to enhance the specificity of the micronucleus assay in our study (supported partly by the NSC85.2331.010.045Z, Taiwan). (author)

Chang, W.P.; Chen, Dingping; Hwang, Bing-fan [National Yang Ming Univ., Taipei, TW (China). School of Medicine

1996-12-31

27

High and Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Induce Different Secretome Profiles in a Human Skin Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is postulated that secreted soluble factors are important contributors of bystander effect and adaptive responses observed in low dose ionizing radiation. Using multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based proteomics, we quantified the changes of skin tissue secretome – the proteins secreted from a full thickness, reconstituted 3-dimensional skin tissue model 48 hr after exposure to 3, 10 and 200 cGy of X-rays. Overall, 135 proteins showed statistical significant difference between the sham (0 cGy) and any of the irradiated groups (3, 10 or 200 cGy) on the basis of Dunnett adjusted t-test; among these, 97 proteins showed a trend of downregulation and 9 proteins showed a trend of upregulation with increasing radiation dose. In addition, there were 21 and 8 proteins observed to have irregular trends with the 10 cGy irradiated group either having the highest or the lowest level among all three radiated doses. Moreover, two proteins, carboxypeptidase E and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 were sensitive to ionizing radiation, but relatively independent of radiation dose. Conversely, proteasome activator complex subunit 2 protein appeared to be sensitive to the dose of radiation, as rapid upregulation of this protein was observed when radiation doses were increased from 3, to 10 or 200 cGy. These results suggest that different mechanisms of action exist at the secretome level for low and high doses of ionizing radiation.

Zhang, Qibin; Matzke, Melissa M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Hu, Zeping; Monroe, Matthew E.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Morgan, William F.

2014-03-18

28

Low-dose radiation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition through NF-?B in cervical cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer among women. Radiotherapy for cervical cancer is an effective treatment method; however, the response to radiotherapy varies among patients. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a morphogenesis process involved in embryonic and organismal development. During tumour progression, EMT may enhance cancer cell invasion, promoting tumour metastasis. We hypothesised that EMT was involved in the enhanced invasiveness of cervical cancer cells after low-dose radiation and aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of this process in low-dose radiation of cervical cancer. The irradiated cells (FIR cells) were derived from the parental cells (N cells) with a cumulative dose of 75 Gy. After resting and reorganisation, the effect of low-dose radiation on the FIR cells was analysed. The expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and p65 was detected by real-time qPCR and western blotting in parental cancer cells and irradiated cancer cells. Motility was detected using the migration/invasion assay. After silencing of NF-?B p65 expression using siRNA against p65, the expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin was examined by real?time qPCR and western blotting. We found that low-dose radiation induced morphological changes of cells. The expression of epithelial markers was downregulated and mesenchymal markers were induced in irradiated cells, both of which are characteristics of EMT. Additionally, in irradiated cells, migration and invasion were enhanced and the expression of p65 was increased. To investigate whether p65 was involved in EMT, we silenced the expression of p65 in irradiated cells using siRNA and found that the features of EMT were suppressed. In summary, p65-regulated EMT induced by low-dose irradiation of cervical cancer cell lines promoted the invasiveness and metastasis of cervical cancer cells. The reversal of EMT may be a new therapeutic target for improving the effectiveness of radiotherapy for cervical cancer. PMID:23483258

Yan, Shi; Wang, Yu; Yang, Qifeng; Li, Xiaoyan; Kong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Ning; Yuan, Cunzhong; Yang, Ning; Kong, Beihua

2013-05-01

29

Do low doses of radiation induce a response modulating induction or repair of DNA single-strand breaks?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many recent reports have indicated interesting structure in the low-dose region of survival curves for mammalian cells (e.g., variations in the effects of oxygen, high-order modulation of the dose-response function, induction of repair, activation of protein-modifying enzymes, influences of cytokines, etc.). Since we have recently identified and corrected several problems causing variability in the results of the alkaline elution methodology, we felt that it was important to investigate the formation and repair of single-strand breaks (SSBs) in this low-dose region. To date we have asked three questions relevant to the structure features noted above: (1) Is the dose response linear at very low radiation doses? (2) Is repair of SSBs complete? (3) Do low {open_quotes}priming{close_quotes} doses of radiation induce subsequent variations in the sensitivity, or rate or extent of repair? To date, we have found no basis in SSB induction and repair for the interesting substructure noted in the survival responses above. At doses from 0.25 Gy to 4 Gy in air, no significant deviations from a linear dose response were observed, and a {open_quotes}priming{close_quotes} dose of 2 Gy has a minimal effect on subsequent sensitivity of SSB formation. Repair of SSBs appears complete at clinical doses of 2 Gy, but substantial unrepaired SSB damage remains 1 h after doses (11 Gy) corresponding to a surviving fraction of 0.01. No significant change in repair of SSBs at 4 h after a 2-Gy priming dose has yet been determined. 16 refs., 3 figs.

Koch, C.J.; Giandomenico, A.R. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1994-04-01

30

Do low doses of radiation induce a response modulating induction or repair of DNA single-strand breaks?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many recent reports have indicated interesting structure in the low-dose region of survival curves for mammalian cells (e.g., variations in the effects of oxygen, high-order modulation of the dose-response function, induction of repair, activation of protein-modifying enzymes, influences of cytokines, etc.). Since we have recently identified and corrected several problems causing variability in the results of the alkaline elution methodology, we felt that it was important to investigate the formation and repair of single-strand breaks (SSBs) in this low-dose region. To date we have asked three questions relevant to the structure features noted above: (1) Is the dose response linear at very low radiation doses? (2) Is repair of SSBs complete? (3) Do low open-quotes primingclose quotes doses of radiation induce subsequent variations in the sensitivity, or rate or extent of repair? To date, we have found no basis in SSB induction and repair for the interesting substructure noted in the survival responses above. At doses from 0.25 Gy to 4 Gy in air, no significant deviations from a linear dose response were observed, and a open-quotes primingclose quotes dose of 2 Gy has a minimal effect on subsequent sensitivity of SSB formation. Repair of SSBs appears complete at clinical doses of 2 Gy, but substantial unrepaired SSB damage remains 1 h after doses (11 Gy) corresponding to a surviving fraction of 0.01. No significant change in repair of SSBs at 4 h after a 2-Gy priming dose has yet been determined. 16 refs., 3 figs

1994-04-01

31

Radiobiological effects of low doses. Implications for radiological protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For most biological effects that are relevant to radiobiological protection under conditions of low-level irradiation--namely, the induction of mutations, chromosome aberrations, cell killing, teratogenic effects, and the induction of neoplasms--the effectiveness per rad of low-LET radiation is reduced at low doses and low dose rates, whereas that of high-LET radiation is relatively less dose and dose rate dependent. The variations with dose, dose rate, and LET differ, however, from one type of effect to another, and in few instances have they been defined well enough to enable confident extrapolations in the exposure levels associated with occupational or natural background irradiation. It is clear that risk estimates based on the linear hypothesis, involving single linear interpolation on dose from effects observed at higher doses and dose rates without allowance for the influence of the aforementioned variables, are more likely than not to err on the conservative side. For more precise estimates of the risks of low-level irradiation, better understanding of the radiobiological mechanisms and more comprehensive knowledge of the response relationships for various types of biological effects are called for. In the interim, to allow for the generally reduced effectiveness per rad of low-LET radiation at low doses and low dose rates, a linear-quadratic function is recommended, in preference to a simple linear function, as a basis for estimating the overall risks of late somatic effects and genetic effects, under conditions of whole-body, low-level, low-LET irradiation. It is not suggested, however, that this function be used with high-LET radiation, where a linear relationship may generally be more appropriate, or with low-LET radiation for those specific effects where some other function is more consistent with the available dose-incidence data

1977-07-01

32

Low doses of ionizing radiation induce nuclear activity in human tumour cell lines which catalyses homologous double-strand recombination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Activity catalysing double-strand DNA recombination has been investigated in human tumour cell lines using an in vitro assay in which nuclear extracts from tumour cells are used to catalyse homologous recombination between deletion plasmids. The cell lines investigated showed comparable constitutive levels of recombination activity. In several cell lines a two- to fourfold increase in the frequency of double-strand recombinational events catalysed by nuclear extracts was observed if the cells were exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. The response was greatest for cells harvested at 6 h after radiation exposure, and the dose to produce an optimal effect was 25 cGy. Cell lines showing this response included a relatively radioresistant human colon cancer line and two cis-DDP (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II) resistant ovarian tumour cell lines which are cross-resistant to radiation. Sub-lethal doses of cis-DDP were also effective in inducing up-regulation of recombinational activity in the cis-DDP resistant cell lines. No change in recombinational activity was seen for a radiation/drug-sensitive ovarian cell line following exposure to low drug or radiation doses. These findings are of particular interest since they involve a radiation-induced process with potential for direct involvement in DNA repair. Further studies will be aimed at determining if the extent of resistance to cytotoxic agents is causally related to the degree of inducible recombination activity. (orig.). With 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Lehnert, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, PQ (Canada)]|[Radiation Oncology, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Chow, T.Y.K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

1997-02-01

33

Commentary: Ethical Issues of Current Health-Protection Policies on Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of ionizing-radiation-induced cancer is based on the assumption that every radiation dose increment constitutes increased cancer risk for humans. The risk is hypothesized to increase linearly as the total dose increases. While this model is the basis for radiation safety regulations, its scientific validity has been questioned and debated for many decades. The recent memorandum of the International Commission on Radiological Protection admits that the LNT-model predictions at low doses are “speculative, unproven, undetectable and ‘phantom’.” Moreover, numerous experimental, ecological, and epidemiological studies show that low doses of sparsely-ionizing or sparsely-ionizing plus highly-ionizing radiation may be beneficial to human health (hormesis/adaptive response). The present LNT-model-based regulations impose excessive costs on the society. For example, the median-cost medical program is 5000 times more cost-efficient in saving lives than controlling radiation emissions. There are also lives lost: e.g., following Fukushima accident, more than 1000 disaster-related yet non-radiogenic premature deaths were officially registered among the population evacuated due to radiation concerns. Additional negative impacts of LNT-model-inspired radiophobia include: refusal of some patients to undergo potentially life-saving medical imaging; discouragement of the study of low-dose radiation therapies; motivation for radiological terrorism and promotion of nuclear proliferation.

Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Doss, Mohan; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Janiak, Marek K.; Miller, Mark L.; Sanders, Charles L.; Scott, Bobby R.; Ulsh, Brant; Vaiserman, Alexander

2014-01-01

34

Low dose radiation adaptive protection to control neurodegenerative diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concerns have been expressed recently regarding the observed increased DNA damage from activities such as thinking and exercise. Such concerns have arisen from an incomplete accounting of the full effects of the increased oxidative damage. When the effects of the induced adaptive protective responses such as increased antioxidants and DNA repair enzymes are taken into consideration, there would be less endogenous DNA damage during the subsequent period of enhanced defenses, resulting in improved health from the thinking and exercise activities. Low dose radiation (LDR), which causes oxidative stress and increased DNA damage, upregulates adaptive protection systems that may decrease diseases in an analogous manner. Though there are ongoing debates regarding LDR's carcinogenicity, with two recent advisory committee reports coming to opposite conclusions, data published since the time of the reports have overwhelmingly ruled out its carcinogenicity, paving the way for consideration of its potential use for disease reduction. LDR adaptive protection is a promising approach to control neurodegenerative diseases, for which there are no methods of prevention or cure. Preparation of a compelling ethics case would pave the way for LDR clinical studies and progress in dealing with neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24910585

Doss, Mohan

2014-05-01

35

Low Doses of Radiation are Protective In Vitro and In Vivo: Evolutionary Origins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research reports using cells from bacteria, yeast, alga, nematodes, fish, plants, insects, amphibians, birds and mammals, including wild deer, rodents or humans show non-linear radio-adaptive processes in response to low doses of low LET radiation. Low doses increased cellular DNA double-strand break repair capacity, reduced the risk of cell death, reduced radiation or chemically-induced chromosomal aberrations and mutations, and reduced spontaneous or radiation-induced malignant transformati...

2006-01-01

36

Low-dose radiation exposure induces a HIF-1-mediated adaptive and protective metabolic response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of insufficient understanding of the molecular effects of low levels of radiation exposure, there is a great uncertainty regarding its health risks. We report here that treatment of normal human cells with low-dose radiation induces a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis resulting in increased radiation resistance. This metabolic change is highlighted by upregulation of genes encoding glucose transporters and enzymes of glycolysis and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, concomitant with downregulation of mitochondrial genes, with corresponding changes in metabolic flux through these pathways. Mechanistically, the metabolic reprogramming depends on HIF1?, which is induced specifically by low-dose irradiation linking the metabolic pathway with cellular radiation dose response. Increased glucose flux and radiation resistance from low-dose irradiation are also observed systemically in mice. This highly sensitive metabolic response to low-dose radiation has important implications in understanding and assessing the health risks of radiation exposure. PMID:24583639

Lall, R; Ganapathy, S; Yang, M; Xiao, S; Xu, T; Su, H; Shadfan, M; Asara, J M; Ha, C S; Ben-Sahra, I; Manning, B D; Little, J B; Yuan, Z-M

2014-05-01

37

Protection by WR-2721 against radiation-induced carcinogenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were performed to determine whether WR-2721 inhibits radiation-induced carcinogenesis. The right hind thighs of C3Hf/Kam mice, bearing fibrosarcoma transplants, were exposed to graded doses of gamma rays. Thirty min. before irradiation, approximately half of the mice were given WR-2721 (400 mg/kg) i.p. WR-2721 did not affect the radioresponse of tumor transplants, as assessed by the TCD/sub 50/ assay at 100 days after irradiation, but it did protect against radiation-induced leg contractures in mice cured of their tumors by the protection factor of 1.5. This protection factor remained more or less stable during the entire observation period from 100 to 340 days after leg irradiation. The mice cured of their tumors in the above study (two separate experiments) were also followed up to 786 days after leg irradiation with 3400 to 5700 rad for development of radiation-induced tumors within the irradiated tissue. The tumors began to appear 300 days after irradiation. The cumulative tumor incidence shows that at the end of the observation period new tumors developed in 28 of 30 (93%) mice that received irradiation alone compared to 11 of 37 (30%) mice that received WR-2721 prior to leg irradiation. Therefore, in addition to effective protection of legs against radiation-induced late damage (leg contractures), WR-2721 exhibited a potent inhibition of development of radiation-induced tumors in the same legs

1984-03-01

38

Spontaneous and radiation-induced micronucleus frequencies in low dose radiation exposed worker's peripheral blood lymphocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many studies have been performed to assess the development and application of potentially useful biodosimetry. At present, although chromosome dicentric assay is a sensitive method for dose estimation, it is laborious and requires enough experience for estimation, and without automation its scope for population screening is limited. Therefore, we need an alternative cytogenetic dosimetry to estimate the absorbed dose of victims after low dose exposure such as radiation accidents in hospital workers and workers of radiation related facilities. An alternative and simple cytogenetic technique is the measurement of the micronucleus frequency in cultured human lymphocytes. The reliability of conventional micronucleus (MN) assays is diminished owing to the inclusion of nondividing cells in the estimate, but this problem has been overcome by the development of the cytokinesisblocked (CB) MN assay. The reliable and ease assays of the cytokinesis blocked-approach are obvious advantages in biological monitoring, but there are no developed recognizable and reliable techniques for biological dosimetry of a low dose exposure until recently. Adaptive response is important in determining the biological responses at low doses of radiation and has the potential to impact the shape of the dose-response relationship. We analyzed the frequency of both spontaneous and in vitro {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays-induced MNs to estimate the low dose radiation-exposed workers as a screening test.

Kwon, Hee Kyung; Lee, Hye Jin; Park, Mi Young; Park, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hwan [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Young Hoon; Kim, Ki Sup; Lee, Su Jae; Lee, Yun Sil; Cho, Chul Koo; Choi, Soo Yong; Kang, Chang Mo [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-01

39

Radiation-induced reactions of the lungs: Hormesis, guideline on radiation protection in medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceedings contain almost all full papers presented at the 34th annual meeting of the Vereinigung Deutscher Strahlenschutzaerzte e.V., held in Dresden from May 3-5, 1993. There were three main topics selected for this meeting: radiation-induced reactions in the lungs, radiation hormesis, and the German regulatory guide for Radiation Protection in Medicine, as amended in mid-1993. The papers discuss the pathogenesis of radiation-induced lesions in the lungs, results of animal experiments applying partial and whole-lung irradiation, clinical experience and diagnostics, lung function impairment, and X-ray signs of the thorax after radiation exposure of the respiratory organ. The two papers discussing the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation, radiation hormesis and adaptive response in biological systems have been presented by experts in this matter which give a picture of the current scientific knowledge and of the items of controversy. (orig./MG)

1993-05-03

40

Adaptive Response to ionizing Radiation Induced by Low Doses of Gamma Rays in Human Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When cells are exposed to low doses of a mutagenic or clastogenic agents, they often become less sensitive to the effects of a higher does administered subsequently. Such adaptive responses were first described in Escherichia coli and mammalian cells to low doses of an alkylating agent. Since most of the studies have been carried out with human lymphocytes, it is urgently necessary to study this effect in different cellular systems. Its relation with inherent cellular radiosensitivity and underlying mechanism also remain to be answered. In this study, adaptive response by 1 cGy of gamma rays was investigated in three human lymphoblastoid cell lines which were derived from ataxia telangiectasia homozygote, ataxia telangiectasia heterozygote, and normal individual. Experiments were carried out by delivering 1 cGy followed by 50 cGy of gamma radiation and chromatid breaks were scored as an endpoint. The results indicate that prior exposure to 1 cGy of gamma rays reduces the number of chromatid breaks induced by subsequent higher does (50 cGy). The expression of this adaptive response was similar among three cell lines despite of their different radiosensitivity. When 3-aminobenzamide, an inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, was added after 50 cGy, adaptive responses were abolished in all the tested cell lines. Therefore it is suggested that the adaptive response can be observed in human lymphoblastoid cell lines. Which was first documented through this study. The expression of adaptive response was similar among the cell lines regardless of their radiosensitivity. The elimination of the adaptive response by 3-aminobenzamide is consistent with the proposal that this adaptive response is the result of the induction of a certain chromosomal repair mechanism

1994-02-01

 
 
 
 
41

Low dose/low fluence ionizing radiation-induced biological effects: The role of intercellular communication and oxidative metabolism  

Science.gov (United States)

Mechanistic investigations have been considered critical to understanding the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation. To gain greater insight in the biological effects of exposure to low dose/low fluence space radiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) properties, we examined short and long-term biological responses to energetic protons and high charge (Z) and high energy (E) ions (HZE particles) in human cells maintained in culture and in targeted and non-targeted tissues of irradiated rodents. Particular focus of the studies has been on mod-ulation of gene expression, proliferative capacity, induction of DNA damage and perturbations in oxidative metabolism. Exposure to mean doses of 1000 MeV/nucleon iron ions, by which a small to moderate proportion of cells in an exposed population is targeted through the nucleus by an HZE particle, induced stressful effects in the irradiated and non-irradiated cells in the population. Direct intercellular communication via gap-junctions was a primary mediator of the propagation of stressful effects from irradiated to non-irradiated cells. Compromised prolif-erative capacity, elevated level of DNA damage and oxidative stress evaluated by measurements of protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation and activity of metabolic enzymes persisted in the progeny of irradiated and non-irradiated cells. In contrast, progeny of cells exposed to high or low doses from 150-1000 MeV protons retained the ability to form colonies and harbored similar levels of micronuclei, a surrogate form of DNA damage, as control, which correlated with normal reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Importantly, a significant increase in the spontaneous neoplastic transformation frequency was observed in progeny of bystander mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) co-cultured with MEFs irradiated with energetic iron ions but not protons. Of particular significance, stressful effects were detected in non-targeted tissues of rats that received partial body irradiation, 20 months earlier, from low mean doses of HZE particles. These effects were associated with disruption of mitochondrial function in the non-irradiated tissues and in modulation of immune cell populations. Collectively, our data support the concept that the response of the organism to high LET radiations involves irradiated and non-irradiated cells/tissues and is associated with changes in several physiological functions. Supported by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Azzam, Edouard

42

Exposure to low-dose (56)fe-ion radiation induces long-term epigenetic alterations in mouse bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an increasing need to better understand the long-term health effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation due to exposure during space missions, as well as its increasing use in clinical treatments. Previous studies have indicated that exposure to (56)Fe heavy ions increases the incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in mice but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Epigenetic alterations play a role in radiation-induced genomic instability and the initiation and progression of AML. In this study, we assessed the effects of low-dose (56)Fe-ion irradiation on epigenetic alterations in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) and hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells (HPSCs). Exposure to (56)Fe ions (600 MeV, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 Gy) resulted in significant epigenetic alterations involving methylation of DNA, the DNA methylation machinery and expression of repetitive elements. Four weeks after irradiation, these changes were primarily confined to HPSCs and were exhibited as dose-dependent hypermethylation of LINE1 and SINE B1 repetitive elements [4.2-fold increase in LINE1 (P radiation. These findings suggest that epigenetic reprogramming is possibly involved in the development of radiation-induced genomic instability and thus, may have a causative role in the development of AML. PMID:24960414

Miousse, Isabelle R; Shao, Lijian; Chang, Jianhui; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Allen, Antiño R; Turner, Jennifer; Stewart, Blair; Raber, Jacob; Zhou, Daohong; Koturbash, Igor

2014-07-01

43

Radiation-induced developmental anomalies in mammalian embryos by low doses and interaction with drugs, stress and genetic factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of low doses of radiation with different LET (140kV X-rays, negative pions and 15MeV electrons), as well as the interaction with drugs, genetic and stress factors, has been studied in rat and mouse embryos. Pregnant mice of two different strains (F/A and NMRI) and rats (Sprague-Dawley) were irradiated at day 8 or 9 of gestation. Four to five days after irradiation (with and without additional treatment) the foetuses were observed macro- and microscopically for developmental anomalies such as post-implantation loss, growth retardation, eye defects, exencephaly, cleft palate, and limb defects. In both mice strains it was found that a radiation dose as low as 1rad results in a significant increase in the rates of abnormal foetuses. Irradiation with peak pions (high LET) was more effective than 140kV X-rays or 15MeV electrons (RBE 1.4). Application of iodoacetamide and tetracyclines (Reverin, Ledermycin) before irradiation with X-rays led to a significant sensitization of radiation effects. The most impressive synergistic effect was shown with lucanthone (Miracil D) where the radiation damage after 50rads was multiplied almost fourfold. With smaller radiation doses the injection of lucanthone led to various degrees of sensitization depending on both the mouse strain (genetic factors) and dosage used. Besides chemical substances, a short time restraint of pregnant females represents a stress situation which was teratogenic in mice, and may enhance radiation and chemically induced developmental anomalies. Combinations of modifying factors with different radiation might deserve further attention. (author)

1978-03-17

44

How low-dose research initiative will have 'major implications' for radiological protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An initiative to bring together all the scientific research on exposure to low and very low doses of ionising radiation will improve the global radiological protection system and could have major implications for dealing with the rehabilitation of areas affected by the March 2011 Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident, the head of the initiative has said. Jacques Repussard, director-general of the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Suerete Nucleaire (IRSN) and president of Melodi (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative), told NucNet that science has not yet provided all the answers that governments need to respond to concerns about low doses of radiation. (orig.)

2014-02-01

45

Radiation induced cancer risk, detriment and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recommendations on radiation protection limits for workers and for the public depend mainly on the total health detriment estimated to be the result of low dose ionizing radiation exposure. This detriment includes the probability of a fatal cancer, an allowance for the morbidity due to non-fatal cancer and the probability of severe hereditary effects in succeeding generations. In a population of all ages, special effects on the fetus particularly the risk of mental retardation at defined gestational ages, should also be included. Among these components of detriment after low doses, the risk of fatal cancer is the largest and most important. The estimates of fatal cancer risk used by ICRP in the 1990 recommendations were derived almost exclusively from the study of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs of 1945. How good are these estimates? Uncertainties associated with them, apart from those due to limitations in epidemiological observation and dosimetry, are principally those due to projection forward in time and extrapolation from high dose and dose rate to low dose and dose rate, each of which could after the estimate by a factor of 2 or so. Recent estimates of risk of cancer derived directly from low dose studies are specific only within very broad ranges of risk. Nevertheless, such studies are important as confirmation or otherwise of the estimates derived from the atomic bomb survivors. Recent U.S. British and Russian studies are examined in this light. (author)

1992-03-18

46

Immunological Mechanism of the Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Suppression of Cancer Metastases in a Mouse Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to the doctrine underlying the current radiation protection regulations each, no matter how small, exposure to ionizing radiation may be carcinogenic. However, numerous epidemiological observations demonstrate that cancer incidence and/or mortality are not elevated among inhabitants of the high- versus low-natural-background radiation areas and homes. Results of our own and other authors’ studies described in this paper bear testimony to the possibility that stimulation of the ant...

2010-01-01

47

Characterization of the adaptive response to ionizing radiation induced by low doses of X-rays to Vibrio cholerae cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pretreatment with sublethal doses of X-rays induced an adaptive response in Vibrio cholerae cells as indicated by their greater resistance to the subsequent challenging doses of X-irradiation. The adaptive response was maximum following a pre-exposure dose of 1.7 Gy X-rays and an optimum incubation period of 40 min at 37C. Pre-exposure to a sublethal dose of 1.7 Gy X-rays made the Vibrio cholerae cells 3.38-fold more resistant to the subsequent challenge by X-rays. Pretreatment with a sublethal dose of hydrogen peroxide offered a similar degree of protection to the bacterial cells against subsequent treatment with challenging doses of X-ray radiation. However, exposure of Vibrio cholerae cells to mild heat (42C for 10 min) before X-ray irradiation decreased their survival following X-irradiation

1996-11-11

48

Characterization of the adaptive response to ionizing radiation induced by low doses of X-rays to Vibrio cholerae cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pretreatment with sublethal doses of X-rays induced an adaptive response in Vibrio cholerae cells as indicated by their greater resistance to the subsequent challenging doses of X-irradiation. The adaptive response was maximum following a pre-exposure dose of 1.7 Gy X-rays and an optimum incubation period of 40 min at 37C. Pre-exposure to a sublethal dose of 1.7 Gy X-rays made the Vibrio cholerae cells 3.38-fold more resistant to the subsequent challenge by X-rays. Pretreatment with a sublethal dose of hydrogen peroxide offered a similar degree of protection to the bacterial cells against subsequent treatment with challenging doses of X-ray radiation. However, exposure of Vibrio cholerae cells to mild heat (42C for 10 min) before X-ray irradiation decreased their survival following X-irradiation.

Basak, Jayasri [Biophysics Laboratory, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)

1996-11-11

49

Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Lee, Su-Jae; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

50

Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo

2006-05-25

51

Radiation protection and environment day the low doses in everyday life  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of low doses exposures are difficult to explore and the studies give often place to controversies. According to the are, differences exist in the methodological approaches. It results from it a confusion on the acceptable levels of exposure, even on the definition of low dose. This day organised by the sections 'non ionizing and research and health of the French society of radiation protection (S.F.R.P.), will be a meeting between professionals of different disciplines, to compare the approaches used for the ionizing and non ionizing radiations as well as the chemical and microbiological agents. It will allow to share the knowledge and the abilities and to progress on methodologies adapted to the evaluation and the management of risks in relation with low doses. (N.C.)

2007-01-25

52

Protective effects of Paeonia japonica against radiation-induced damage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigated the effect of Paeonia Japonica (PJ) on radiation-induced oxidative damage to macromolecules in vitro and in vivo. The PJ reduced the Tail Moment (TM), which was a marker of DNA strand break in Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay) in the human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Lipid peroxidation in the liver of the ICR mouse, measured as MalonDiAldehyde (MDA), was also reduced by PJ administration. Ethanol fraction of PJ was more effective than polysaccharide fraction of that on reduction of TM in SCGE and lipid peroxidation. Also, their activities to scavenge DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radicals were observed in vitro, and the activities were due to its ethanol fraction. It is plausible that scavenging of free radicals by PJ extract may have played an important role in providing the protection against the radiation-induced damage. These results indicated that Paeonia Japonica might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product.

Oh, Heon; Park, Hae Ran; Jeong, Ill Yun; Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2002-09-15

53

Protective effects of Paeonia japonica against radiation-induced damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigated the effect of Paeonia Japonica (PJ) on radiation-induced oxidative damage to macromolecules in vitro and in vivo. The PJ reduced the Tail Moment (TM), which was a marker of DNA strand break in Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay) in the human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Lipid peroxidation in the liver of the ICR mouse, measured as MalonDiAldehyde (MDA), was also reduced by PJ administration. Ethanol fraction of PJ was more effective than polysaccharide fraction of that on reduction of TM in SCGE and lipid peroxidation. Also, their activities to scavenge DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radicals were observed in vitro, and the activities were due to its ethanol fraction. It is plausible that scavenging of free radicals by PJ extract may have played an important role in providing the protection against the radiation-induced damage. These results indicated that Paeonia Japonica might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product

2002-09-01

54

Protection from ionizing radiation induced damages by phytoceuticals and nutraceuticals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure of living systems to ionizing radiation cause a variety of damages to DNA and membranes due to generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. The radiation induced lesions in the cellular DNA are mainly strand breaks, damage to sugar moiety, alterations and elimination of bases, cross links of the intra and inter strand type and cross links to proteins while peroxidation of the lipids and oxidation of proteins constitute the major lesions in the membranes. The radioprotectors elicit their action by various mechanisms such as i) by suppressing the formation of reactive species, ii) detoxification of radiation induced species, iii) target stabilization and iv) enhancing the repair and recovery processes. The radioprotective compounds are of importance in medical, industrial, environmental, military and space science applications. Radiation protection might offer a tactical advantage on the battlefield in the event of a nuclear warfare. Radioprotectors might reduce the cancer risk to populations exposed to radiations directly or indirectly through industrial and military applications. The antioxidant and radioprotective properties a few of these agents under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animal models will be discussed

2012-01-01

55

Radiation induced diffusion as a method to protect surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation induced diffusion forms a coating adeherent and without interface on the surface of metalic substrates. This coating improves the behaviour of metal to corrosion and abrasion. The effect of radiation induced diffusion of tin and calcium on pure iron surface is described and analyzed in this work. (author)

1980-12-01

56

Protecting effects specifically from low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells challenge the concept of linearity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced changes in intracellular signaling that induce mechanisms of DNA damage control different from those operating at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that by use of microdosimetric concepts, the energy deposited in cell mass can be related to the occurrence of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive

1998-06-08

57

Protecting effects specifically from low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells challenge the concept of linearity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced changes in intracellular signaling that induce mechanisms of DNA damage control different from those operating at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that by use of microdosimetric concepts, the energy deposited in cell mass can be related to the occurrence of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive.

Feinendegen, L.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.; Bond, V.P. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Sondhaus, C.A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Control Office; Altman, K.I. [Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics

1998-12-31

58

Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after ?-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor ?1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy. PMID:24333162

Tong, Liping; Yu, K N; Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi; Han, Wei

2014-01-01

59

Cancer and low dose responses In Vivo: implications for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, risk prediction and radiation protection. The summary implications for the radiation protection system are that at low doses the conceptual basis of the present system appears to be incorrect. The belief that the current system embodies the precautionary principle and that the LNT assumption is cautious appears incorrect. The concept of dose additivity appears incorrect. Effective dose (Sievert) and the weighting factors on which it is based appear to be invalid. There may be no constant and appropriate value of DDREF for radiological protection dosimetry. The use of dose as a predictor of risk needs to be re-examined. The use of dose limits as a means of limiting risk need to be re-evaluated

2006-12-01

60

Low doses of ionizing radiation incurred at low dose rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is a draft report by a Task Group of the International Nuclear Societies Council. It addresses the scientific information available on the biological effects of low radiation doses and dose rates, defined for the purpose of the report as total doses less than 10 mSv, received at high rates in single events, or dose rates less than 20 mSv per year, received continuously. It is concluded that there is no scientific evidence which supports the hypothesis that radiation causes an increase in the incidences of cancers or hereditary effects in humans at low doses. For radiation protection purposes, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends the assumption that the risk of radiation induced cancer is proportional to the dose without a threshold. However, at low doses and low dose rates, the available evidence indicates either that there is no significant risk or that there may be benefits from exposure. For all purposes other than scientific research, the Task Group therefore recommends the assumption (on the current basis of information) that there is no significant biological effect from low doses of radiation. There is a range of views amongst members of the Task Group on several matters, particularly the bio-positive effects of low radiation doses. However, there is complete agreement that the possibility and significance of bio-positive effects from radiation exposure of humans need to be accepted and investigated without prejudice

1999-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

Low Dose Radiation-Induced Genome and Epigenome Instability Symposium and Epigenetic Mechanisms, DNA Repair, and Chromatin Symposium at the EMS 2008 Annual Meeting - October 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Low Dose Radiation Symposium thoughtfully addressed ionizing radiation non-mutational but transmissable alterations in surviving cells. Deregulation of epigenetic processes has been strongly implicated in carcinogenesis, and there is increasing realization that a significant fraction of non-targeted and adaptive mechanisms in response to ionizing radiation are likely to be epigenetic in nature. Much remains to be learned about how chromatin and epigenetic regulators affect responses to low doses of radiation, and how low dose radiation impacts other epigenetic processes. The Epigenetic Mechanisms Symposium focused on on epigenetic mechanisms and their interplay with DNA repair and chromatin changes. Addressing the fact that the most well understood mediators of epigenetic regulation are histone modifications and DNA methylation. Low levels of radiation can lead to changes in the methylation status of certain gene promoters and the expression of DNA methyltransferases, However, epigenetic regulation can also involve changes in higher order chromosome structure.

Morgan, William F; Kovalchuk, Olga; Dolinoy, Dana C; Dubrova, Yuri E; Coleman, Matthew A; Schär, Primo; Pogribny, Igor; Hendzel, Michael

2010-02-19

62

How low-dose research initiative will have 'major implications' for radiological protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An initiative to bring together all the scientific research on exposure to low and very low doses of ionising radiation will improve the global radiological protection system and could have major implications for dealing with the rehabilitation of areas affected by the March 2011 Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident, the head of the initiative has said. Jacques Repussard, director-general of the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Suerete Nucleaire (IRSN) and president of Melodi (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative), told NucNet that science has not yet provided all the answers that governments need to respond to concerns about low doses of radiation. (orig.)

NONE

2014-02-15

63

Low dose radiation induced adaptive response upon salt stress and vacuum stress: a possible mechanism for the effect of saddle-like dose response curve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To explore mechanism for the effect of saddle-like dose-response curve, the relationship of irradiation-vacuum stress, and irradiation-salt stress, was investigated with rice seeds irradiated to 60-560 Gy by 60Co ?-rays. The dose-response curve was simulated based on seedling height data, which showed obedient to linear-quadratic model. During germination,the irradiated rice seeds were stressed by 10-3 Pa vacuum, or by NaCl in different concentrations. After that, the dose-response curve manifested a saddle-like shape. The results indicate that while low dose irradiation could retard seedling growth synergistically with vacuum stress and salt stress, it could also induce adaptive response upon vacuum stress and salt stress. Low dose irradiation induced adaptive response upon environmental adverse factors could contribute to the mechanism for the effect of saddle-like dose-response curve. (authors)

2011-10-01

64

Recent international regulations: low dose-low rate radiation protection and the demise of reason.  

Science.gov (United States)

The radiation protection measures suggested by the International Committee for Radiation Protection (ICRP), national regulating bodies and experts, have been becoming ever more strict despite the decrease of any information supporting the existence of the Linear no Threshold model (LNT) and of any adverse effects of Low Dose Low Rate (LDLR) irradiation. This tendency arises from the disproportionate response of human society to hazards that are currently in fashion and is unreasonable. The 1 mSv/year dose limit for the public suggested by the ICRP corresponds to a 1/18,181 detriment-adjusted cancer risk and is much lower than other hazards that are faced by modern societies such as e.g. driving and smoking which carry corresponding rate risks of 1/2,100 and 1/2,000. Even worldwide deadly work accidents rate is higher at 1/ 8,065. Such excessive safety measures against minimal risks from man made radiation sources divert resources from very real and much greater hazards. In addition they undermine research and development of radiation technology and tend to subjugate science and the quest for understanding nature to phobic practices. PMID:18815661

Okkalides, Demetrios

2008-01-01

65

Radiation-induced precipitation in V-(Cr,Fe)-Ti alloys irradiated at low temperature with low dose during neutron or ion irradiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of neutron irradiation damage on mechanical properties and microstructure were studied for V-4Cr-4Ti-0.1Si, V-3Fe-4Ti-0.1Si and vanadium binary alloys with three fluences between 0.01 and 0.1 dpa for 220°C and 340°C. Irradiation hardening appeared in V-(Cr,Fe)-Ti alloys at an early stage of irradiation. Microstructural analysis showed that the irradiation hardening in V-(Cr,Fe)-Ti alloys is caused by radiation-induced precipitates (RIPs). In order to investigate the behavior of RIPs, ion irradiations of highly purified vanadium alloys were performed. It is likely that the nucleation and growth processes in vanadium alloys containing titanium are independent of the impurity concentration during ion irradiation.

Fukumoto, Ken-ichi; Matsui, H.; Candra, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Sasanuma, H.; Nagata, S.; Takahiro, K.

2000-12-01

66

Protective and Therapeutic Role of Low Dose Gamma Radiation on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diabetes mellitus is a multi-factorial disease which is characterized by vascular and renal complication. This study was initiated to investigate the protective and the therapeutic effect of low dose of gamma radiation (LDR) on diabetic complications. A total of 30 adult male rats were divided into 5 groups: Group I: served as control and injected intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml of 0.1 mol/l citrate buffer (ph 4.5), group II: rats became diabetic via intraperitoneal injection with 60 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) dissolved in 0.2 ml of 0.1 mol/l citrate buffer (ph 4.5), group III irradiated rats (IRR): submitted to fractionated dose of whole body gamma rays; 0.25 Gy for 2 consecutive days (whole dose 0.5 Gy), group IV diabetic irradiated rats (STZ + IRR): rats became diabetic as group II then four weeks after diabetes induction (day 28), rats were submitted to 2 fractions of whole body gamma rays as in group III, and group V irradiated diabetic rats (IRR + STZ): rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml of 0.1 mol/l citrate buffer then submitted to whole body gamma rays; 0.25 Gy for 2 consecutive days then one hour after the last IRR dose, rats were made diabetic as group II. In pre and post-irradiation of STZ rats, significant changes were observed in serum lipid profiles, hepatic and cardiac serum enzymes. Significant decrease in hepatic and cardiac malondialdehyde (MDA) and total nitrate/nitrite (NO(x)) levels, and significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels were observed as compared to diabetic group. The study suggests that LDR may provide useful protective and therapeutic option in the reversal of oxidative stress induced in diabetic rats

2011-01-01

67

Low-dose radiation-induced enhancement of thymic lymphomagenesis in Lck-Bax mice is dependent on LET and gender.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction and increased superoxide levels in thymocytes over expressing Bax (Lck-Bax1 and Lck-Bax38&1) contributes to lymphomagenesis after low-dose radiation was tested. Lck-Bax1 single-transgenic and Lck-Bax38&1 double-transgenic mice were exposed to single whole-body doses of 10 or 100 cGy of (137)Cs or iron ions (1,000 MeV/n, 150 keV/?m) or silicon ions (300 MeV/n, 67 keV/?m). A 10 cGy dose of (137)Cs significantly increased the incidence and onset of thymic lymphomas in female Lck-Bax1 mice. In Lck-Bax38&1 mice, a 100 cGy dose of high-LET iron ions caused a significant dose dependent acceleration of lymphomagenesis in both males and females that was not seen with silicon ions. To determine the contribution of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, Lck-Bax38&1 over expressing mice were crossed with knockouts of the mitochondrial protein deacetylase, Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), which regulates superoxide metabolism. Sirt3(-/-)/Lck-Bax38&1 mice demonstrated significant increases in thymocyte superoxide levels and acceleration of lymphomagenesis (P Lck-Bax transgenic mice. PMID:23819597

Jacobus, James A; Duda, Chester G; Coleman, Mitchell C; Martin, Sean M; Mapuskar, Kranti; Mao, Gaowei; Smith, Brian J; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet; Guida, Peter; Gius, David; Domann, Frederick E; Knudson, C Michael; Spitz, Douglas R

2013-08-01

68

Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15 Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5 Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues

2007-04-06

69

Low-dose radiation induces adaptive response in normal cells, but not in tumor cells. In vitro and in vivo studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biological effects of low-dose radiation (LDR) are distinguishable from those of high-dose radiation. Hormetic and adaptive responses are such two examples. However, whether adaptive response could be induced in tumor cells by LDR, especially under in vivo condition, remains elusive, and was systemically investigated in the present study. Four tumor cell lines: two human leukemia cell lines (erythroleukemia cell line K562, and acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL60), and two human solid tumor cell lines (lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H446 and glioma cell line U251), along with one normal cell line (human fibroblast cells, MRC-5), were irradiated with LDR at 75 mGy of X-rays as D1 and then 4 Gy of X-rays as D2 (i.e.: D1+D2) or only 4 Gy of X-rays (D2 alone). Three tumor-bearing animal models were also used to further define whether LDR induces adaptive response in tumor cells in vivo. Adaptive response was observed only in normal cell line, but not in four tumor cell lines, in response to LDR, showing a resistance to subsequent D2-induced cell growth inhibition. Three tumor-bearing mouse models with U251, NCI-H446 or S180 tumor cells were used to confirm that pre-exposure of tumor-bearing mice to D1 did not induce the resistance of tumor cells in vivo to D2-induced tumor growth inhibition. Furthermore, a higher apoptotic effect, along with higher expression of apoptosis-related genes P53 and Bax and lower expression of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2, was found in tumor cells of the tumor-bearing mice exposed to D1+D2 than those in the tumor cells of the tumor-bearing mice exposed to D2 alone. These results suggest that LDR does not induce adaptive response in the tumor cells under both in vitro and in vivo conditions, which is a very important, clinic-relevant phenomenon. (author)

2008-05-01

70

Protective Effect of Low Dose Gamma Irradiation against Oxidative Damage in Rats Administrated with Ferric- Nitrilotriacetate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many studies have demonstrated the beneficial adaptive response of low dose gamma-irradiation. Low dose gamma-irradiation (LDR) might be effective for the prevention of various reactive oxygen species-related diseases. Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a strong oxidant, which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radical and causes injuries of various organs including the kidney and liver. This study was designed to investigate the ability of low dose gamma-irradiation to restrain Fe-NT A induced oxidative stress. Sprague Dawley male albino rats were subjected to low dose gamma-irradiation (50 cGy). Animals were challenged with Fe-NT A (9 mg Fe/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). Results showed that Fe-NTA enhances lipid peroxidation (LPx) accompanied with reduction in glutathione (GSH) content, antioxidant enzymes, viz., glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and phase-U metabolizing enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Fe-NTA also enhances the concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities. Exposure to low dose gamma- irradiation (3 h after Fe-NTA administration) resulted in a significant decrease in LPx, BUN, serum creatinine contents as well as ALT, AST and GGT enzyme activities. GSH content; GST and antioxidant enzymes were also recovered to significant level. Thus, our data suggest that exposure to LDR might be a useful antioxidant mediator to suppress the Fe-NTA induced-oxidative damage in rats

2008-01-01

71

Glycogen synthase kinase 3? inhibitors protect hippocampal neurons from radiation-induced apoptosis by regulating MDM2-p53 pathway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exposure of the brain to ionizing radiation can cause neurocognitive deficiencies. The pathophysiology of these neurological changes is complex and includes radiation-induced apoptosis in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. We have recently found that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) resulted in significant protection from radiation-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons. The molecular mechanisms of this cytoprotection include abrogation of radiation-induced accumul...

Thotala, D. K.; Hallahan, D. E.; Yazlovitskaya, E. M.

2012-01-01

72

Pharmacologic approaches to protection against radiation-induced lethality and other damage.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies on mechanisms of radioprotection are leading to a more rational use of protectors for different applications. In considering the feasibility of radioprotectors that act through various mechanisms, it is necessary to distinguish the application needed, e.g., protection against accidental external or internal exposures, acute high-dose radiation injury or low doses over a long period, high-LET radiation exposures during space flight, and protection of normal tissues of cancer patients w...

Weiss, J. F.

1997-01-01

73

The protective effect of low-dose methotrexate on ischemia-reperfusion injury of the rabbit spinal cord.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methotrexate was developed as a cytostatic agent, but at low doses, it has shown potent anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effects of methotrexate are primarily mediated by the release of adenosine. In this study, we hypothesized that low-dose methotrexate has protective effects in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rabbits were randomized into the following four groups of eight animals each: group 1 (control), group 2 (ischemia), group 3 (methylprednisolone) and group 4 (methotrexate). In the control group only a laparotomy was performed. In all the other groups, the spinal cord ischemia model was created by the occlusion of the aorta just caudal to the renal artery. Neurological evaluation was performed with the Tarlov scoring system. Levels of myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde and catalase were analyzed, as were the activities of xanthine oxidase and caspase-3. Histopathological and ultrastructural evaluations were also performed. After ischemia-reperfusion injury, increases were found in the serum and tissue myeloperoxidase levels, tissue malondialdehyde levels, xanthine oxidase activity and caspase-3 activity. In contrast, both serum and tissue catalase levels were decreased. After the administration of a low-dose of methotrexate, decreases were observed in the serum and tissue myeloperoxidase levels, tissue malondialdehyde levels, xanthine oxidase activity and caspase-3 activity. In contrast, both the serum and tissue catalase levels were increased. Furthermore, low-dose methotrexate treatment showed improved results concerning the histopathological scores, the ultrastructural score and the Tarlov scores. Our results revealed that low-dose methotrexate exhibits meaningful neuroprotective activity following ischemia-reperfusion injury of the spinal cord. PMID:23806252

Kertmen, Hayri; Gürer, Bora; Y?lmaz, Erdal Re?it; Sanl?, Ahmet Metin; Sorar, Mehmet; Ar?kök, Ata Türker; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Kanat, Mehmet Ali; Ergüder, Berrin Imge; Sekerci, Zeki

2013-08-15

74

WR1065 protection against radiation-induced mutations at the HGPRT locus in V79 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

WR1065 protects against radiation-induced cell killing and mutagenesis at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus in V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells. At a concentration of 4 mM, WR1065 effectively protected against cell death only if present during irradiation, e.g., a dose modification factor (DMF) of 1.9. No protective effect was observed if WR1065 was added within 5 min after irradiation or 3 h later, e.g., DMFs of 1.0 and 1.1, respectively. In contrast, WR1065 effectively reduced radiation-induced mutations regardless of when it was administered. Following a dose of 1000 rad of /sup 60/Co ? rays, the mutation frequencies observed per 10/sup 6/ survivors were 77+-8, 27+-6, 42+-7, and 42+-7 for radiation only, and WR1065 present during, immediately after, or 3 h after irradiation. These data suggest that although a segment of radiation induced damage leading to reproductive death cannot be modulated through the postirradiation action of WR1065, processes leading to the fixation of gross genetic damage and mutation induction in surviving cells can be effectively altered and interfered with leading to a marked reduction in mutation frequency

1985-01-01

75

Polymorphisms of uridine glucuronosyltransferase gene and irinotecan toxicity: low dose does not protect from toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uridine glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) gene polymorphisms have been linked to irinotecan toxicity. Our purpose was to study the association between UGT1A1*28, UGT1A7*2, and UGT1A7*3 polymorphisms and irinotecan toxicity in Greek patients receiving low-dose weekly irinotecan. Blood samples were collected for 46 patients. DNA was extracted and UGT1A1 promoter and UGT1A7 exon 1 genotyping was carried out. Laboratory tests and physical examination were performed on regular basis for the assessment of toxicity. UGT1A1*28 was significantly correlated with both haematologic and non-haematologic toxicity. Moreover, patients carrying UGT1A7 polymorphisms had significant incidence of toxicity. To conclude, UGT polymorphisms play a role in the toxicity of irinotecan, even if the drug is administered in low doses. The genotyping test may be a useful tool for the management of patients who are going to receive irinotecan. PMID:24834123

Tziotou, Marianna; Kalotychou, Vassiliki; Ntokou, Anna; Tzanetea, Revekka; Armenis, Iakovos; Varsou, Marianna; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Tsavaris, Nicolas; Rombos, Yannis

2014-01-01

76

A model for low dose effects of low-LET radiation delivered at high dose rates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In vitro studies show that protective tumour-reducing effects occur for low dose rates (mGy per minute). To account for these phenomena, we have previously developed stochastic and deterministic multi-stage cancer models that include radiation-induced adaptations in DNA repair processes and radical scavenging. Here, these models are extended to account for the induction of radioprotective mechanisms for low doses of low LET radiation delivered at high dose rates. Cellular adaptations in DNA r...

2006-01-01

77

Protection against radiation induced oxidative stress by Syzygium cumini seed extract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living beings against the deleterious effects of radiation. Earlier, the synthetic chemical substances, which could minimize the pathological changes in the living systems after exposure to ionizing radiation, were looked into. However, the practical applicability of these compounds remained limited owing to high toxicity at their optimum protective dose. Jambul (Syzygium cumini) is an evergreen tropical tree in the flowering plant family Myrtaceae, native to Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Indonesia. This tree species has been of interest to researchers because the chemical constituents such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin and related ellagitannins, 3,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-glucose and its isomer, 4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucose, 1-galloyl glucose, 3-galloyl glucose and quercetin is reported in the alcoholic extract of Jambul seeds. In the present study, the radioprotective effect of Syzygium cumini seed extract (SCE) was studied on radiation-induced deleterious alterations. Oral administration of such extract (25 mg/kg b. wt./day/animal) for 5 consecutive days, half an hr. before whole-body exposure to 6 Gy gamma radiation, enhanced the 30 days survival and also inhibited the radiogenic sickness, weight loss and life shortening. SCE ameliorated radiation induced depletion in glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GST) as well as elevation of lipid peroxidation (LPO) level in blood and liver of mice. The significant reduction in the yield of LPO demonstrates that Syzygium cumini seed protects the membranes against radiation-induced oxidative damage. These findings conclude that such seed extract provides significant radioprotection, and it may be potentially valuable in the prevention of injuries caused during planned and unplanned radiation exposure. (author)

2012-01-01

78

p21 Protects “Super p53” Mice from the Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exposure of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to high doses of radiation can lead to lethality from the GI syndrome. Although the molecular mechanism regulating the GI syndrome remains to be fully defined, we have recently demonstrated that p53 within the GI epithelial cells controls the radiation-induced GI syndrome. Mice lacking p53 in the GI epithelium were sensitized to the GI syndrome, while transgenic mice with one additional copy of p53 called “Super p53” mice were protected from the...

Sullivan, Julie M.; Jeffords, Laura B.; Lee, Chang-lung; Rodrigues, Rafaela; Ma, Yan; Kirsch, David G.

2012-01-01

79

Protection of pig epidermis against radiation-induced damage by the infusion of BW12C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The drug BW12C (Wellcome Research Laboratories), developed as an anti-sickling agent, has been proposed as a potentially effective compound for protecting normal tissues against radiation-induced damage (Adams et al. 1986). BW12C increases the binding of oxygen to haemoglobin (Hb), thereby shifting the oxygen dissociation curve to the left (Beddel et al. 1984) so that less oxygen is available to tissues. In preliminary studies the protective effects of BW12C were examined in the epidermis of the pig (van den Aardweg et al. 1989) and in malignant tissues (Adams et al. 1986, 1989). This paper is the final and full report of the authors' work on the effects of various doses of BW12C on the protection of the epidermis of the pig against radiation-induced damage. The effects of varying the concentration of oxygen in the anaesthetic gas mixture, which is also known to influence the radiation response of the epidermis of the pig (van den Aardweg and Hopewell 1989), have also been investigated, since when combined with BW12C this may even more dramatically change the oxygen tension in tissues. (author)

1991-01-01

80

Protection of pig epidermis against radiation-induced damage by the infusion of BW12C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The drug BW12C (Wellcome Research Laboratories), developed as an anti-sickling agent, has been proposed as a potentially effective compound for protecting normal tissues against radiation-induced damage (Adams et al. 1986). BW12C increases the binding of oxygen to haemoglobin (Hb), thereby shifting the oxygen dissociation curve to the left (Beddel et al. 1984) so that less oxygen is available to tissues. In preliminary studies the protective effects of BW12C were examined in the epidermis of the pig (van den Aardweg et al. 1989) and in malignant tissues (Adams et al. 1986, 1989). This paper is the final and full report of the authors' work on the effects of various doses of BW12C on the protection of the epidermis of the pig against radiation-induced damage. The effects of varying the concentration of oxygen in the anaesthetic gas mixture, which is also known to influence the radiation response of the epidermis of the pig (van den Aardweg and Hopewell 1989), have also been investigated, since when combined with BW12C this may even more dramatically change the oxygen tension in tissues. (author).

Aardweg, G.J.M.J. van den; Hopewell, J.E. (Churchill Hospital, Oxford (UK)); Adams, G.E.; Barnes, D.W.H.; Sansom, J.M.; Stratford, I.J. (Medical Research Council, Harwell (UK). Radiobiological Research Unit); Nethersell, A.B.W. (Wellcome Research Lab., Beckenham (UK))

1991-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

Chromosomal damage by low doses of radiation: protection by combination of dietary antioxidants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mice which were fed antioxidants, consisting of a combination of ?-carotene, ?tocopherol and ascorbic acid, or curcumin, ascorbic acid and chlorogenic acid are substantially protected against ?-ray induced micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes obtained from bone-marrow. In this context, the relevance of a more balanced intake of food material especially those with anti carcinogens/anti mutagenic principles for human health care needs no over-emphasis. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

1994-06-10

82

PHD Inhibition Mitigates and Protects Against Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Toxicity via HIF2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity can be a major source of morbidity and mortality after radiation exposure. There is an unmet need for effective preventative or mitigative treatments against the potentially fatal diarrhea and water loss induced by radiation damage to the GI tract. We report that prolyl hydroxylase inhibition by genetic knockout or pharmacologic inhibition of all PHD (prolyl hydroxylase domain) isoforms by the small-molecule dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) increases hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) expression, improves epithelial integrity, reduces apoptosis, and increases intestinal angiogenesis, all of which are essential for radioprotection. HIF2, but not HIF1, is both necessary and sufficient to prevent radiation-induced GI toxicity and death. Increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression contributes to the protective effects of HIF2, because inhibition of VEGF function reversed the radioprotection and radiomitigation afforded by DMOG. Additionally, mortality from abdominal or total body irradiation was reduced even when DMOG was given 24 hours after exposure. Thus, prolyl hydroxylase inhibition represents a treatment strategy to protect against and mitigate GI toxicity from both therapeutic radiation and potentially lethal radiation exposures. PMID:24828078

Taniguchi, Cullen M; Miao, Yu Rebecca; Diep, Anh N; Wu, Colleen; Rankin, Erinn B; Atwood, Todd F; Xing, Lei; Giaccia, Amato J

2014-05-14

83

Mitochondrial protection by low doses of insulin-like growth factor-Iin experimental cirrhosis  

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Full Text Available AIM: To characterize the mitochondrial dysfunction in experimental cirrhosis and to study whether insulin-like growth factor-I(IGF-I therapy (4 wk is able to induce beneficial effects on damaged mitochondria leading to cellular protection.METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control group, untreated cirrhotic rats and cirrhotic rats treated with IGF-Itreatment (2 ?g/100 g bw/d. Mitochondrial function was analyzed by flow cytometry in isolated hepatic mitochondria, caspase 3 activation was assessed by Western blot and apoptosis by TUNEL in the three experimental groups.RESULTS: Untreated cirrhotic rats showed a mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by a significant reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (in status 4 and 3; an increase of intramitochondrial reactive oxigen species (ROS generation and a significant reduction of ATPase activity. IGF-Itherapy normalized mitochondrial function by increasing the membrane potential and ATPase activity and reducing the intramitochondrial free radical production. Activity of the electron transport complexes Iand III was increased in both cirrhotic groups. In addition, untreated cirrhotic rats showed an increase of caspase 3 activation and apoptosis. IGF-Itherapy reduced the expression of the active peptide of caspase 3 and resulted in reduced apoptosis.CONCLUSION: These results show that IGF-Iexerts a mitochondrial protection in experimental cirrhosis leading to reduced apoptosis and increased ATP production.

Raquel Pérez, María García-Fernández, Matías Díaz-Sánchez, Juan E Puche, Gloria Delgado, Marian Conchillo, Jordi Muntané, Inma Castilla-Cortázar

2008-05-01

84

A low dose of recombinant interleukin 1 protects granulocytopenic mice from lethal gram-negative infection.  

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Natural and synthetic immunomodulators that increase nonspecific resistance to infection induce interleukin 1 (IL-1) production. Therefore, we investigated the effect of the administration of IL-1 on the survival of lethally infected granulocytopenic mice. Mice with cyclophosphamide-induced granulocytopenia were injected with approximately 10(7) Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the thigh muscle at time 0; gentamicin was administered 6 hr and 23 hr later. When recombinant human IL-1 beta (one of the two forms of IL-1) was given as a single i.p. injection 24 hr before the infection, survival was increased. Using 80 ng of IL-1 beta per mouse, survival compared to control animals was 98% vs. 71% at 24 hr, 98% vs. 60% at 30 hr, 86% vs. 36% at 36 hr, and 61% vs. 11% at 48 hr (P less than 0.001) after the infection. No effect of IL-1 was observed when it was given 0.5 hr before or 6 hr after the infection. Animals not treated with gentamicin also benefited from the IL-1. Administration of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ibuprofen did not affect the activity of IL-1. Numbers of bacteria cultured from the blood, thigh muscle, liver, spleen, and kidney were similar in IL-1-treated and control animals. Superoxide production by peritoneal macrophages was also similar in the two groups. These studies demonstrate that IL-1 pretreatment protects granulocytopenic mice against lethal pseudomonas infection and suggest that this protection occurs through a noncellular mechanism. PMID:3125553

van der Meer, J W; Barza, M; Wolff, S M; Dinarello, C A

1988-03-01

85

Zinc and low-dose of cadmium protect sertoli cells against toxic-dose of cadmium: The role of metallothionein  

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Full Text Available Background: The impact of cadmium (Cd on male infertility may be related to the interaction with metal-binding proteins known as metallothioneins (Mts. Trace elements like zinc (Zn have protective effects on testicular damage induced by Cd. Objective: We determined the effect of Zn and low-dose Cd pre-treatment on the expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes on testicular Sertoli cells. Materials and Methods: The cultured TM4 mouse sertoli cells were treated with 50 ?M ZnSO4 (Zn pre-treated group; ZnPG, 2 ?M CdCl2 (Cd pre-treated group; CdPG, or distilled water (DW pre-treated group; DWPG. After 18 hour, all of these groups were exposed to 100 ?M CdCl2 for different periods of time (1, 2, 3, and 6 hours. There was also a control group for all three groups, which was treated only with distilled water (without Cd or Zn pre-treatment. Cellular viability, Zn and Cd concentrations and gene expression were assessed by MTT, atomic absorption spectrometry and real time PCR methods, respectively. Results: The expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes in ZnPG, CdPG, and DWPG was greater than the control group (p=0.02 and p=0.01, respectively. Cd concentrations in CdPG and DWPG were greater than the control group (p=0.00. Expression of both genes in ZnPG and CdPG increased after 3 hours of treatment and Cd concentration decreased simultaneously, which was more obvious in ZnPG. Conclusion: Zn and short term low-dose Cd pre-treatment might reduce the adverse effects of Cd by increasing expression of Mts genes in Sertoli cells. The protective effect of Zn was stronger than Cd.

Fatemeh Kheradmand

2013-06-01

86

Radiation-induced bystander effects: Relevance for radiation protection of human and non-human biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper our current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the induction of bystander effects by low dose low LET ionizing radiation is reviewed in the context of relevance to radiation protection issues. The question of how bystander effects may be related to observed adaptive responses, systemic genomic instability or other effects of low doses exposures is also considered. Bystander effects appear to be the result of a generalized stress response in tissues or cells. The signals may be produced by all exposed cells, but the response may require additional system parameters to exist in order to be expressed. The major response involving low LET radiation exposure discussed in the existing literature is a death response. This can manifest as apoptotic cell death, terminal differentiation, reproductive cell death or necrosis. While a death response might appear to be adverse, the position is argued in this paper, that it can in fact be protective and remove damaged cells from the reproducing population. Since many cell populations carry damaged cells without being exposed to radiation (so-called 'background damage'), it is possible that low dose radiation exposures cause removal of cells damaged by agents other than the test dose of radiation. This mechanism would lead to the production of 'u- or n-shaped' dose response curves. In this scenario, the level of harmful or beneficial response will be related to the background damage carried by the cell population and the genetic program determining response to damage. This model--may be particularly important when attempting to predict the consequences of mixed exposures involving radiation and other environmental stressors on biota. (author)

2005-01-01

87

Protective effects of Korean red ginseng against radiation-induced apoptosis in human HaCaT keratinocytes  

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Radiation-induced oral mucositis is a dose-limiting toxic side effect for patients with head and neck cancer. Numerous attempts at improving radiation-induced oral mucositis have not produced a qualified treatment. Ginseng polysaccharide has multiple immunoprotective effects. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on radiation-induced damage in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and in an in vivo zebrafish model. Radiation inhibited HaCaT cell proliferation and migration in a cell viability assay and wound healing assay, respectively. KRG protected against these effects. KRG attenuated the radiation-induced embryotoxicity in the zebrafish model. Irradiation of HaCaT cells caused apoptosis and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). KRG inhibited the radiation-induced apoptosis and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and stabilized the radiation-induced loss of MMP. Western blots revealed KRG-mediated reduced expression of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM), p53, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and cleaved caspase-3, compared with their significant increase after radiation treatment. The collective results suggest that KRG protects HaCaT cells by blocking ROS generation, inhibiting changes in MMP, and inhibiting the caspase, ATM, p38 and JNK pathways.

Chang, Jae Won; Park, Keun Hyung; HWANG, Hye Sook; Shin, Yoo Seob; Oh, Young-Taek; Kim, Chul-Ho

2014-01-01

88

Lipotropes Protect against Pathogen-Aggravated Stress and Mortality in Low Dose Pesticide-Exposed Fish  

Science.gov (United States)

The decline of freshwater fish biodiversity corroborates the trends of unsustainable pesticide usage and increase of disease incidence in the last few decades. Little is known about the role of nonlethal exposure to pesticide, which is not uncommon, and concurrent infection of opportunistic pathogens in species decline. Moreover, preventative measures based on current knowledge of stress biology and an emerging role for epigenetic (especially methylation) dysregulation in toxicity in fish are lacking. We herein report the protective role of lipotropes/methyl donors (like choline, betaine and lecithin) in eliciting primary (endocrine), secondary (cellular and hemato-immunological and histoarchitectural changes) and tertiary (whole animal) stress responses including mortality (50%) in pesticide-exposed (nonlethal dose) and pathogen-challenged fish. The relative survival with betaine and lecithin was 10 and 20 percent higher. This proof of cause-and-effect relation and physiological basis under simulated controlled conditions indicate that sustained stress even due to nonlethal exposure to single pollutant enhances pathogenic infectivity in already nutritionally-stressed fish, which may be a driver for freshwater aquatic species decline in nature. Dietary lipotropes can be used as one of the tools in resurrecting the aquatic species decline.

Kumar, Neeraj; Gupta, Subodh; Chandan, Nitish Kumar; Aklakur, Md.; Pal, Asim Kumar; Jadhao, Sanjay Balkrishna

2014-01-01

89

Protective role of garlic against gamma radiation induced histological and histochemical changes in rat liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work was planned to evaluate the radioprotective effect of garlic (Allium sativum) against the hazardous action of gamma radiation on liver of rat one and ten days post-exposure. Garlic was orally administered (100 mg/ kg body wt) to rats daily for two weeks before exposure to single dose whole body gamma-irradiation (5Gy). The results showed that exposure of rats to gamma- irradiation caused massive portal infiltration with inflammatory cells, dilatation of blood sinusoids, an increase in the number of Kupffer cells, vacuolation of some hepatocytes as well as pyknosis and karyolysis of hepatic nuclei in the liver tissue. Histochemical examination of liver one day post- irradiation illustrated weak to moderate glycogen particles. While, on ten days post-irradiation, a strong activity for glycogen was detected. The disturbance in carbohydrate metabolism is closely related to the radiation induced histological damage in the liver tissue. Administration of garlic for 2 weeks pre-irradiation reduced the radiation induced histopathological changes and showed marked protection against the tissue damaging effect of radiation. It could be concluded that treatment of rats with garlic before exposure to gamma-irradiation offered a noticeable radioprotective effect of the studied organ

2007-01-01

90

Protective effect of triphala on radiation induced acute intestinal mucosal damage in Sprague Dawley rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim of the study was to determine protective effect of triphala on radiation-induced rectal mucosal damage. Male Sprague Dawley rats (30) were divided into 5 groups. Rats in group A were sham irradiated and rats in group B underwent only irradiation. Rats in group C were administered triphala 1g/kg/day orally for 5 consecutive days before irradiation. Rats in group D and E were administered triphala 1 and 1.5 g/kg/day orally for 10 consecutive days, respectively. Rectal mucosal damage was induced by a single fraction of 12.5Gy gamma irradiation (192Ir) on 5th day. All the rats were autopsied on 11th day and histological changes in surface epithelium, glands, and lamina propria were assessed. Proctitis showed significant improvement in surface epithelium (P<0.024), glands (P<0.000) and lamina propria (P<0.002) in group E compared to group B. Rats in group E showed significantly less change in glands (P<0.000) compared to rats in group D. All histological variables (surface epithelium, P<0.001; glands, P<0.000; lamina propria, P<0.003) compared to rats in group C. In a Tukey-b test, group E had a significantly recovered grade for glands (P<0.000) compared to groups B, C and D. Results of the present study showed that high-dose triphala improved radiation-induced damage of glands. (author)

2012-03-01

91

Punica granatum peel extract protects against ionizing radiation-induced enteritis and leukocyte apoptosis in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced enteritis is a well-recognized sequel of therapeutic irradiation. Therefore we examined the radioprotective properties of Punica granatum peel extract (PPE) on the oxidative damage in the ileum. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body X-ray irradiation of 800 cGy. Irradiated rats were pretreated orally with saline or PPE (50 mg/kg/day) for 10 days before irradiation and the following 10 days, while control rats received saline or PPE but no irradiation. Then plasma and ileum samples were obtained. Irradiation caused a decrease in glutathione and total antioxidant capacity, which was accompanied by increases in malondialdehyde levels, myeloperoxidase activity, collagen content of the tissue with a concomitant increase 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (an index of oxidative DNA damage). Similarly, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6) and lactate dehydrogenase were elevated in irradiated groups as compared to control. PPE treatment reversed all these biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations induced by irradiation. Furthermore, flow cytometric measurements revealed that leukocyte apoptosis and cell death were increased in irradiated animals, while PPE reversed these effects. PPE supplementation reduced oxidative damage in the ileal tissues, probably by a mechanism that is associated with the decreased production of reactive oxygen metabolites and enhancement of antioxidant mechanisms. Adjuvant therapy of PPE may have a potential to support a successful radiotherapy by protecting against radiation-induced enteritis. (author)

2009-07-01

92

Low-dose recombinant properdin provides substantial protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern medicine has established three central antimicrobial therapeutic concepts: vaccination, antibiotics, and, recently, the use of active immunotherapy to enhance the immune response toward specific pathogens. The efficacy of vaccination and antibiotics is limited by the emergence of new pathogen strains and the increased incidence of antibiotic resistance. To date, immunotherapy development has focused mainly on cytokines. Here we report the successful therapeutic application of a complement component, a recombinant form of properdin (Pn), with significantly higher activity than native properdin, which promotes complement activation via the alternative pathway, affording protection against N. menigitidis and S. pneumoniae. In a mouse model of infection, we challenged C57BL/6 WT mice with N. menigitidis B-MC58 6 h after i.p. administration of Pn (100 µg/mouse) or buffer alone. Twelve hours later, all control mice showed clear symptoms of infectious disease while the Pn treated group looked healthy. After 16 hours, all control mice developed sepsis and had to be culled, while only 10% of Pn treated mice presented with sepsis and recoverable levels of live Meningococci. In a parallel experiment, mice were challenged intranasally with a lethal dose of S. pneumoniae D39. Mice that received a single i.p. dose of Pn at the time of infection showed no signs of bacteremia at 12 h postinfection and had prolonged survival times compared with the saline-treated control group (P < 0.0001). Our findings show a significant therapeutic benefit of Pn administration and suggest that its antimicrobial activity could open new avenues for fighting infections caused by multidrug-resistant neisserial or streptococcal strains. PMID:24706855

Ali, Youssif Mohammed; Hayat, Azam; Saeed, Bayad Mawlood; Haleem, Kashif S; Alshamrani, Saleh; Kenawy, Hany I; Ferreira, Viviana P; Saggu, Gurpanna; Buchberger, Anna; Lachmann, Peter J; Sim, Robert B; Goundis, Dimitrios; Andrew, Peter W; Lynch, Nicholas J; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J

2014-04-01

93

Low-dose recombinant properdin provides substantial protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis infection  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern medicine has established three central antimicrobial therapeutic concepts: vaccination, antibiotics, and, recently, the use of active immunotherapy to enhance the immune response toward specific pathogens. The efficacy of vaccination and antibiotics is limited by the emergence of new pathogen strains and the increased incidence of antibiotic resistance. To date, immunotherapy development has focused mainly on cytokines. Here we report the successful therapeutic application of a complement component, a recombinant form of properdin (Pn), with significantly higher activity than native properdin, which promotes complement activation via the alternative pathway, affording protection against N. menigitidis and S. pneumoniae. In a mouse model of infection, we challenged C57BL/6 WT mice with N. menigitidis B-MC58 6 h after i.p. administration of Pn (100 µg/mouse) or buffer alone. Twelve hours later, all control mice showed clear symptoms of infectious disease while the Pn treated group looked healthy. After 16 hours, all control mice developed sepsis and had to be culled, while only 10% of Pn treated mice presented with sepsis and recoverable levels of live Meningococci. In a parallel experiment, mice were challenged intranasally with a lethal dose of S. pneumoniae D39. Mice that received a single i.p. dose of Pn at the time of infection showed no signs of bacteremia at 12 h postinfection and had prolonged survival times compared with the saline-treated control group (P < 0.0001). Our findings show a significant therapeutic benefit of Pn administration and suggest that its antimicrobial activity could open new avenues for fighting infections caused by multidrug-resistant neisserial or streptococcal strains.

Ali, Youssif Mohammed; Hayat, Azam; Saeed, Bayad Mawlood; Haleem, Kashif S.; Alshamrani, Saleh; Kenawy, Hany I.; Ferreira, Viviana P.; Saggu, Gurpanna; Buchberger, Anna; Lachmann, Peter J.; Sim, Robert B.; Goundis, Dimitrios; Andrew, Peter W.; Lynch, Nicholas J.; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J.

2014-01-01

94

Grape Seed Oil Extract Protects Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats Eyes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was carried out to investigate the beneficial effects of grape seed oil on radiation-induced oxidative stress in the irradiated rat eyes. The rats were divided into three groups; control group that received distilled water, irradiated group (R) that exposed to gamma radiation as a single dose of 6.4 Gy and irradiated + grape seed oil group (R+GSO) that administered grape seed oil for seven consecutive days then exposed to the same single gamma radiation dose followed by grape seed oil for seven additional days. Histopathological results revealed protective effect of grape seed oil on the eye tissues of rat. The results lead to the conclusion that administration of GSO prior to radiation exposure may be a promising attempt in attenuating the extent of oxidative damage accompanying radiotherapy

2011-01-01

95

Advanced Computational Approaches for Characterizing Stochastic Cellular Responses to Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Exposures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OAK - B135 This project final report summarizes modeling research conducted in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Low Dose Radiation Research Program at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute from October 1998 through June 2003. The modeling research described involves critically evaluating the validity of the linear nonthreshold (LNT) risk model as it relates to stochastic effects induced in cells by low doses of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals. The LNT model plays a central role in low-dose risk assessment for humans. With the LNT model, any radiation (or genotoxic chemical) exposure is assumed to increase one¡¯s risk of cancer. Based on the LNT model, others have predicted tens of thousands of cancer deaths related to environmental exposure to radioactive material from nuclear accidents (e.g., Chernobyl) and fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Our research has focused on developing biologically based models that explain the shape of dose-response curves for low-dose radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells. Understanding the shape of the dose-response curve for radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells helps to better understand the shape of the dose-response curve for cancer induction in humans. We have used a modeling approach that facilitated model revisions over time, allowing for timely incorporation of new knowledge gained related to the biological basis for low-dose-induced stochastic effects in cells. Both deleterious (e.g., genomic instability, mutations, and neoplastic transformation) and protective (e.g., DNA repair and apoptosis) effects have been included in our modeling. Our most advanced model, NEOTRANS2, involves differing levels of genomic instability. Persistent genomic instability is presumed to be associated with nonspecific, nonlethal mutations and to increase both the risk for neoplastic transformation and for cancer occurrence. Our research results, based on applications of NEOTRANS2, indicate that nonlinear threshold-type, dose-response relationships for excess stochastic effects (problematic nonlethal mutations, neoplastic transformation) should be expected after exposure to low linear energy transfer (LET) gamma rays or gamma rays in combination with high-LET alpha radiation. Similar thresholds are expected for low-dose-rate low-LET beta irradiation. We attribute the thresholds to low-dose, low-LET radiation induced protection against spontaneous mutations and neoplastic transformations. The protection is presumed mainly to involve selective elimination of problematic cells via apoptosis. Low-dose, low-LET radiation is presumed to trigger wide-area cell signaling, which in turn leads to problematic bystander cells (e.g., mutants, neoplastically transformed cells) selectively undergoing apoptosis. Thus, this protective bystander effect leads to selective elimination of problematic cells (a tissue cleansing process in vivo). However, this protective bystander effects is a different process from low-dose stimulation of the immune system. Low-dose, low-LET radiation stimulation of the immune system may explain why thresholds for inducing excess cancer appear much larger (possibly more than 100-fold larger) than thresholds for inducing excess mutations and neoplastic transformations, when the dose rate is low. For ionizing radiation, the current risk assessment paradigm is such that the relative risk (RR) is always ¡Ý 1, no matter how small the dose. Our research results indicate that for low-dose or low-dose-rate, low-LET irradiation, RR < 1 may be more the rule than the exception. Directly tied to the current RR paradigm are the billion-dollar cleanup costs for radionuclide-contaminated DOE sites. Our research results suggest that continued use of the current RR paradigm for which RR ¡Ý 1 could cause more harm than benefit to society (e.g., by spreading unwarranted fear about phantom excess risks associated with low-dose low-LET radiation). Such phantom risks also may arise from risk assessments conducted for com

Scott, Bobby, R., Ph.D.

2003-06-27

96

REDD1 protects osteoblast cells from gamma radiation-induced premature senescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiotherapy is commonly used for cancer treatment. However, it often results in side effects due to radiation damage in normal tissue, such as bone marrow (BM) failure. Adult hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) reside in BM next to the endosteal bone surface, which is lined primarily by hematopoietic niche osteoblastic cells. Osteoblasts are relatively more radiation-resistant than HSPCs, but the mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the stress response gene REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1) was highly expressed in human osteoblast cell line (hFOB) cells after ? irradiation. Knockdown of REDD1 with siRNA resulted in a decrease in hFOB cell numbers, whereas transfection of PCMV6-AC-GFP-REDD1 plasmid DNA into hFOB cells inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p21 expression and protected these cells from radiation-induced premature senescence (PS). The PS in irradiated hFOB cells were characterized by significant inhibition of clonogenicity, activation of senescence biomarker SA-?-gal, and the senescence-associated cytokine secretory phenotype (SASP) after 4 or 8 Gy irradiation. Immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the stress response proteins p53 and nuclear factor ? B (NFkB) interacted with REDD1 in hFOB cells. Knockdown of NFkB or p53 gene dramatically suppressed REDD1 protein expression in these cells, indicating that REDD1 was regulated by both factors. Our data demonstrated that REDD1 is a protective factor in radiation-induced osteoblast cell premature senescence. PMID:22629318

Li, Xiang Hong; Ha, Cam T; Fu, Dadin; Xiao, Mang

2012-01-01

97

Possible Radio-Protective Efficiency of Bee-Pollen against Radiation Induced Cardiotoxicity in Male Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Present study was designed to evaluate the possible radio-protective effect of Bee-Pollen (B.P.) against radiation-induced cardiotoxicity. B.P. was orally administrated to rats in a concentration of 2 mg/ kg body wt/ day for 7 days before as well as during exposure to fractionated doses of gamma-radiation (1 Gy 3 times week for a period of 2 weeks to attain a cumulative dose of 6 Gy). The protective effect of B.P. was monitored by assessment of activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and creatin phosphatase (CPK) in serum and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GSHPX) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and concentrations of malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined in heart tissues.In addition, certain metals (Fe, Cu, Zn and Ca) were also measured in serum, selenium (Se) was detected in heart tissues.Results revealed that when B.P. was given before as well as during irradiation, it ameliorated the increases in serum enzyme activities (LDH, AST and CPK), decreases in the cardiac antioxidants, an increase in MDA and NO concentrations and metals disturbances in irradiated rats. The present results demonstrated that B.P. has antioxidant properties and could exert radio-protective effect. These, might be related to its balanced nutritional antioxidant components

2008-01-01

98

An extract of Phyllanthus amarus protects mouse chromosomes and intestine from radiation induced damages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reported earlier on our preliminary study of the radioprotective effect of Phyllanthus amarus (P.amarus) in mice. P.amarus was found to inhibit the myelosuppression and elevated the levels of anti-oxidant enzymes in the blood and liver. In the present study we have evaluated the protective effect of P.amarus against radiation-induced changes in the intestine and mouse chromosomal damage. P.amarus at concentrations of 250 and 750 mg/Kg. b. wt were found to elevate the antioxidant enzymes in the intestine and decrease the lipid peroxidation levels. Histopathological evaluations of the intestine revealed decreased damage to intestinal cells, demonstrating that P.amarus protected the intestine. The genotoxic effects of radiation on mouse chromosomes were evaluated by assaying the micronuclei formation and chromosomal aberrations. P.amarus was found to protect the clastogenic effects of radiation as seen from decreased number of micronuclei. The administration of P.amarus was also found to decrease the percentage of chromosomal aberrations. Based on our present and previous reports it could be concluded that P.amarus extract has significant radioprotective activity. (author)

2007-11-01

99

Topical Application of the Synthetic Triterpenoid RTA 408 Protects Mice from Radiation-Induced Dermatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free radicals produced during cancer radiotherapy often leads to dermatitis, with the insult ranging from mild erythema to moist desquamation and ulceration. This toxicity can be dose limiting and promote chronic complications, such as fibrosis and wound recurrence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if RTA 408, a synthetic triterpenoid that potently activates the antioxidative transcription factor Nrf2 and inhibits the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa b (NF-?B), could protect skin from radiation-induced dermatitis. Mice were irradiated (10 Gy/day) on days 0-2 and 5-7, and RTA 408 (0.01%, 0.1% and 1.0%) was topically applied once daily starting on day 5 or up to day 40. Dermatitis severity was evaluated using a scale ranging from 0 (normal) to 5 (frank ulceration), as well as histologically. The mRNA expression of Nrf2 and NF-?B target genes in skin was also evaluated. RTA 408 (0.01%, 0.1% and 1.0%) reduced the percentage of animal-days with scores ?2 by 11%, 31% and 55% and scores ?3 by 16%, 60% and 80%, respectively. Dose-dependent improvements in the appearance of skin were also manifestly visible, with RTA 408 at 1.0% eliciting a normal macroscopic appearance by the end of the treatment period on day 40, including substantial hair regrowth. Moreover, 1.0% RTA 408 markedly reduced epidermal and collagen thickening, prevented dermal necrosis and completely alleviated skin ulcers. These improvements were associated with significant increases in Nrf2 target genes and significant decreases in NF-?B target genes. Together, these data indicate that RTA 408 represents a potentially promising new therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced dermatitis. PMID:24720753

Reisman, Scott A; Lee, Chun-Yue I; Meyer, Colin J; Proksch, Joel W; Sonis, Stephen T; Ward, Keith W

2014-05-01

100

Possible Protective Role of Carnosine against gamma-Radiation-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction in Mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oxidative Stress with subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been postulated as one of the mechanisms of cardiac toxicity. Carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) a biological antioxidant, is a relatively non-toxic dipeptide which possesses many functions (antiglycator, scavenger of ions of zinc and copper, toxic aldehydes and protein carbonyls) that are likely to suppress oxidative stress. The aim of the present work is to investigate the possible protective effects of carnosine on gamma-radiation-induced cardiac damage in mice. Carnosine was supplemented daily to mice (50 mg/ Kg body wt), by gavage, 10 days before whole body gamma-irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy (applied as a shot dose). The results obtained showed that whole body gamma-irradiation of mice produced biochemical alteration in levels of serum glucose and lipid profile fractions. Furthermore, some markers of cardiac injury enzymes as serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatin phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities showed significant increases associated with alteration in the antioxidant status of cardiac tissues. Significant increases of lipid peroxidation end product malonaldehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl levels, xanthine oxidase (XO) activity along with reduction in the activity of cardiac antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were observed. Carnosine-treatment prior irradiation has attenuated the cardiotoxic effects of radiation obvious by reduction in the levels of MDA and protein carbonyl and XO activity, rescued the depletion of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and diminished the increases of cardiac injury markers. It could be postulated that carnosine as a multi-functional dietary supplement could exert a modulator role in the radiation-induced cardiac damage and serum biochemical changes through its antioxidant properties

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Protective Role of Clove Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antioxidants in food play an important role in preventing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Clove is widely used in Egypt as a spice which is a potent scavenger of a variety of free radicals. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum, Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata) is the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of cloves against oxidative stress and tissue injury, in animals, induced by gamma irradiation. Rats were subjected to two doses of gamma radiation (2 and 4 Gy). Four weeks before irradiation animals received cloves in basal diets. In liver and serum of irradiated animals, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) showed a significant increase associated to a marked decrease in glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT). The level of total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed significant increase in the serum of irradiated rats. On the other hand, the level of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), total protein, albumin and total globulins showed significant decrease. Rats fed on a basal diet containing cloves during a period of 4 weeks before irradiation showed significant improvement in the oxidant/antioxidant status denoted by a significant reduction in TBARS level associated with significant increase in GSH and CAT. Moreover, the radiation-induced changes in lipids, proteins and enzyme activities were significantly ameliorated. It could be concluded that cloves possibly protect against radiation-induced oxidative stress and tissue damage

2011-01-01

102

Protection against radiation induced cytogenetic damage in mouse bone marrow by vitamin E  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It appears that pre-treatment of vitamin E could significantly prevent clastogenic alterations in the form of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei formation against radiation induced cytogenetic damage

2000-11-09

103

Propionyl-L-carnitine as a potential protective agent against radiation-induced cardiotoxicity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, propiony-L-carnitine (PLC); a natural short-chain derivative of L-carnitine, has been tested as a potential protective agent against radiation-induced cardio-toxicity. Cardiotoxicity was assessed in the homo-genate of the heart by measuring the plasma levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), as well as malon-dialdehyde (MDA), glutathione content (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nitric oxide (NO) production, whole body gamma-irradiation (2 and 6Gy ) of rats significantly increased CPK, LDH, AST,MDA, and NO and significantly decreased GSH,GSH-PX, SOD and ATP. Daily administration (one week) of PLC before whole body irradiation caused significant recovery for the serum enzyme CPK, LDH, AST and MDA, GSH, GSH-PX, SOD, ATP and NO levels in cardiac tissue. The protective effect PLC was attributed to it's antioxidant properties. Radiation therapy, likewise, is a valuable method of treatment for a variety of intrathoracic neoplasms. During radiotherapy of thoracic tumorus, the heart is often included in the primary treatment volume and chronic impairment of myocadial function occurs (cilliers and lochner, 1993; benderitter et al., 1995). Irradiation causes numerous changes in different metabolic reactions within the cardiac cells with major adverse undersirable effects that involve cardiotoxicity

2003-01-01

104

Protection from radiation induced changes in liver and serum transaminase of whole body gamma irradiated rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whole body gamma irradiation of rats with a dose of 5.5 Gy induced significant changes in the activity of liver and serum transaminase. The results indicated that this radiation dose caused a significant increase in the activity of serum Got and GPT on the third and seventh days after irradiation. This was followed by significant decreases on the fourteenth post-irradiation day. The activity of Got returned to is control activity, while the activity of GPT was significantly above the control on the twenty ones post-irradiation day. The activity of Got, in the liver of irradiated rats was elevated during the post-irradiation days, but on the twenty one day activity was about the normal value. The activity of liver GPT firstly decreased and then increased very much but attained the control level on the fourteenth after irradiation. The intraperitoneal injection of testosterone-vitamin E mixture 10 days before whole body gamma irradiation caused complete recovery for the activity of liver and serum Got. No indication of remarkable recovery in the case of GPT activity was recorded either in liver or in serum of irradiated rats. The applied mixture could protect against radiation induced changes in Got activity of liver and serum but could not protect or ameliorate the changes which occurred in the activity of GPT of the two tissues. 2 tab

1986-01-01

105

Extract of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects against gamma-radiation induced testicular damage in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionizing radiation is an important environmental risk factor and, a major therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of extract of Xylopia aethiopica (XA) on gamma-radiation-induced testicular damage in rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as the reference antioxidant during the study. The study consists of 4 groups of 11 rats each. Group I received corn oil (vehicle), groups II and IV were pretreated with XA (250 mg/kg) and VC (250mg/kg) for 6 weeks before and 8 weeks after exposure to gamma-radiation; group III was exposed to a single dose of gamma-radiation (5 Gy). Biochemical analysis revealed that gamma-irradiation caused a significant increase (p < .05) in serum and testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels by 217% and 221%, respectively. Irradiated rats had markedly decreased testicular catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Irradiation resulted in 59% and 40% decreases in spermatozoa motility and live/dead sperm count, respectively, and a 161% increase in total sperm abnormalities. Histologically, testes of the irradiated rats showed extensive degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and defoliation of spermatocytes. Supplementation of XA and VC reversed the adverse effects of gamma-radiation on biochemical and histological indices of the rats. These findings demonstrated that Xylopia aethiopica has a protective effect by inhibiting oxidative damage in testes of irradiated rats. PMID:21305847

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Adedara, Isaac Adegboyega; Popoola, Bosede; Farombi, Ebenezer Olatunde

2010-01-01

106

Radiation protection and environment day the low doses in everyday life; Radioprotection et environnement les faibles doses dans la vie quotidienne  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The consequences of low doses exposures are difficult to explore and the studies give often place to controversies. According to the are, differences exist in the methodological approaches. It results from it a confusion on the acceptable levels of exposure, even on the definition of low dose. This day organised by the sections 'non ionizing and research and health of the French society of radiation protection (S.F.R.P.), will be a meeting between professionals of different disciplines, to compare the approaches used for the ionizing and non ionizing radiations as well as the chemical and microbiological agents. It will allow to share the knowledge and the abilities and to progress on methodologies adapted to the evaluation and the management of risks in relation with low doses. (N.C.)

NONE

2007-07-01

107

Protective effects of Korean red ginseng on radiation-induced oral mucositis in a preclinical rat model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous studies' attempts to improve radiation-induced oral mucositis have not produced a qualified treatment yet. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on radiation-induced damage in an in vivo rat model. After 20 Gy of irradiation, rats were divided randomly into the following 4 groups: control, KRG only, radiotherapy (RT) only, and RT + KRG group. The rats were monitored in terms of survival rate, activity, mucositis grade, oral intake, and body weight. The tongue, buccal mucosa, and submandibular gland (SMG) were harvested, and the weight of the SMG was analyzed. The samples then underwent hematoxylin and eosin, TUNEL, and immunohistochemical staining. Radiation-induced severe oral mucositis and SMG injury led to poor oral intake and delayed healing, resulting in the death of some rats. We found that survival rate, oral intake, and body weight increased. Moreover, rats treated with KRG showed less severe mucositis and decreased histologic changes of the oral mucosa and SMG. Furthermore, we showed that the protective effects of KRG were caused by inhibition of the apoptotic signal transduction pathway linked to caspase-3. In conclusion, KRG protects the oral mucosa and SMG from radiation-induced damage by inhibiting caspase-mediated apoptosis in rats. PMID:24617451

Chang, Jae Won; Choi, Jae Won; Lee, Bum Hei; Park, Ju Kyeong; Shin, Yoo Seob; Oh, Young-Taek; Noh, O Kyu; Kim, Chul-Ho

2014-01-01

108

Protective effect of an antithyroid compound against ?-radiation-induced damage in human colon cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously reported the radioprotective effect of propylthiouracil (PTU) on thyroid cells. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether tumor cells and normal cells demonstrate the same response to PTU. Human colon carcinoma cells were irradiated with ?-irradiation with or without PTU. We evaluated the clonogenic survival, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and apoptosis by nuclear cell morphology and caspase-3 activity assays. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. PTU treatment increased surviving cell fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) from 56.9 ± 3.6 in controls to 75.0 ± 3.5 (p Forskolin (p < 0.01) and dibutyryl cAMP (p < 0.05) mimicked the effect of PTU on SF2. Co-treatment with H89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A, abolished the radioprotective effect of PTU. PTU reduces the toxicity of ionizing radiation by increasing cAMP levels and also possibly through a reduction in apoptosis levels and in radiation-induced oxidative stress damage. We therefore conclude that PTU protects both normal and cancer cells during exposure to radiation in conditions mimicking the radiotherapy. PMID:24811726

Perona, Marina; Dagrosa, Maria A; Pagotto, Romina; Casal, Mariana; Pignataro, Omar; Pisarev, Mario A; Juvenal, Guillermo J

2014-08-01

109

Protection against radiation induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by mentha piperita (Linn)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mentha piperita linn or peppermint (Family - Labiatae) is aromatic and has stimulant and carminative properties. The protective effects of mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g kg-1 day-1) for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days of post-irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. There was significantly less degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and Leydig cells. Significant decreases in the LPO and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The methanolic extract of M. piperita showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonol. Leaf extract of M. piperita has significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and flavonol content of extract of M. piperita may be held responsible for its radioprotective effect. (author)

2008-10-19

110

Protective effect of an extract of Phyllanthus amarus against radiation-induced damage in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioprotective effect of an extract of the plant Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) was investigated in adult BALB/c mice. P. amarus extract (750 mg/kg b.wt and 250 mg/kg b.wt) was administered orally to mice for five days prior to whole body radiation (6 Gy) and for one month after radiation. The animals were sacrificed on days 3, 9, 12, and 30 after radiation. P. amarus significantly increased the total white blood cell (W.B.C) count, bone marrow cellularity, and ?-esterase activity as compared to untreated radiation-exposed animals. P. amarus treatment also increased the activity of various antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR), both in blood and tissue, which were reduced by radiation treatment. There was also a significant increase in the glutathione (GSH) levels of blood and tissue. Lipid peroxidation levels, which were increased after radiation, were significantly reduced by P. amarus treatment, both in serum and liver. The results collectively indicate that P. amarus extract could increase the antioxidant defense mechanism in mice and there by protect the animals from radiation-induced cellular damage. (author)

2004-03-01

111

Protective effect of SH compounds on the radiation-induced mitotic delay, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of MEA on radiation-induced mitotic delay in cultured L-5 cells was studied by examination of changes in mitotic index after treatment with MEA (5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mM) alone. With 5 mM MEA, no effect was found in the mitotic index but, with 20 mM MEA, mitotic index decreased 8 to 12 hr after the treatment, and with 30 or 40 mM MEA, strong inhibition on mitosis was observed. The cells treated with the agent (5, 10, 20 mM) during irradiation of 200 rads showed a faster recovery of the mitotic index than the control irradiated without the chemical treatment, and increase of their mitotic index began 2 hr after irradiation (shortening of mitotic delay time, viz., G2-block protection), but treatment with 40 mM of MEA showed no effect. MEA (5 mM) treatment was made 6 hr, 3 hr, and 30 min before and 30 min after irradiation with 200 rads. Post-treatment with the agent had no effect but pretreatment with MEA reulted in an enhancement of recovery rate of mitotic index, though there was no effect on the mitotic delay time induced by x-irradiation. On the basis of these data, the mechanisms of the radioprotective action of MEA were discussed. (author)

1974-01-01

112

Low-dose rapamycin unmasks the protective potential of targeting intragraft NF-?B for islet transplants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Islet grafts can contribute to their own destruction via the elaboration of proinflammatory genes, many of which are transcriptionally regulated by nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-?B). Thus, NF-?B constitutes an enticing gene therapy candidate to improve the success of islet transplantation. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we blocked NF-?B in BALB/c (H2(d)) to C57/BL6 (H2(b)) mouse islet allografts by genetically engineering islets to express the NF-?B superrepressor, I?B?. Here we show by microarray and RTqPCR that islets exhibit an intrinsic early immediate proinflammatory response, with the most highly upregulated proinflammatory genes comprising the chemokines Cxcl1, Cxcl2, Cxcl10, and Ccl2; the cytokines Tnf-? and Il-6; and the adhesion molecule Icam1. Overexpression of I?B? inhibited the expression of these genes by 50-95% in islets and MIN6 ?-cells in vitro, by inhibiting NF-?B-dependent gene transcription. Histological and RTqPCR analysis at postoperative day (POD) 10 revealed that I?B?-transduced islet allografts exhibited improved islet architecture and strong insulin-labeling with decreased Ccl2 and Il-6 mRNA levels compared to the GFP-transduced control grafts. Despite these protective effects, NF-?B-blocked islet allografts were promptly rejected in our MHC-mismatched mouse model. However, I?B?-expressing grafts did harbor localized "pockets" of Foxp3(+) mononuclear cells not evident in the control grafts. This result suggested that the effect of the NF-?B blockade might synergize with regulatory T-cell-sparing rapamycin. Indeed, combining intragraft I?B? expression with low-dose rapamycin increased the mean survival time of islet allografts from 20 to 81 days, with 20% of the grafts surviving for greater than 100 days. In conclusion, rapamycin unmasks the protective potential of intragraft NF-?B blockade, which can, in some cases, permit permanent allograft survival without continuous systemic immunosuppression. PMID:23127588

Zammit, Nathan W; Tan, Bernice M; Walters, Stacey N; Liuwantara, David; Villanueva, Jeanette E; Malle, Elisabeth K; Grey, Shane T

2013-01-01

113

Radiation-induced late brain injury and the protective effect of traditional Chinese medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate whether radiation-induced late injury of the brain can be ameliorated by traditional Chinese Medicine through blocking the primary events. Methods: This trial included five animal groups: sham irradiation, irradiation only, and three treatment groups. The whole brain of BALB/C mouse was irradiated with 22 Gy by using a 6 MV linear accelerator. Step down method was used to evaluate the study and memory abilities. Mouse weight was also recorded every week before and after irradiation. On D90, all mice alive were euthanized and Glee's silver dye method and Bielschousky silver dye method were used to detect the senile plaque and the neurofibrillary tangle. One-Way ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences among the groups in the various aspects of study and memory abilities as well as quality of life. Kaplan-Meier was used to evaluate the survival. Log-rank was used to detect the differences among the survival groups. Results: 1. There was no significant difference in survival among the treatment groups, even though Salvia Miltiorrhiza (SM) was able to improve the quality of life. As to the cognition function, it was shown that whole brain radiation would make a severe cognition damage with the learning and memorizing ability of the irradiated mice being worse than those of the sham irradiation group. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Salvia Miltiorrhiza possesses the role of a protective agent against cognition function damage induced by irradiation. 2. Glee's silver dye and Bielschousky silver dye show much more senile plaque and the neurofibrillary tangle in brain tissue of R group and R + 654-2 group than those in the R + SM group. Conclusions: Salvia Miltiorrhiza is able to protect the mouse from cognition function damage induced by irradiation and improve the quality of life by ameliorating the primary events, though it does not improve the survival

2004-06-01

114

In vitro and in vivo protective effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor against radiation-induced intestinal injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal injury is a major cause of death after high-dose radiation exposure. The use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to treat radiation injury has focused on enhancing recovery from hematopoietic radiation syndrome. We evaluated G-CSF for its ability to protect against radiation-induced intestinal injury in rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) and BALB/c mouse models. For in vitro tests, pre-radiation addition of G-CSF to IEC-6 prevented cytotoxicity and the loss of cell viability. Pre-radiation G-CSF treatment also reduced radiation-induced cleavage of caspase-3 and p53 in IEC-6. For in vivo tests, examination 12 h after abdominal irradiation showed that G-CSF-treated mice were protected against apoptosis of the jejunal crypts. G-CSF-treated mice also showed attenuated intestinal morphological changes 3.5 days after abdominal radiation (10 Gy). G-CSF also reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? after radiation. This study showed that G-CSF may protect against radiation-induced intestinal damage through its anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects. These results suggest that G-CSF is promising candidate for protection against intestinal mucosal injury following irradiation. PMID:23728838

Kim, Joong-Sun; Yang, Miyoung; Lee, Chang-Geun; Kim, Sung-Dae; Kim, Jung-Ki; Yang, Kwangmo

2013-10-01

115

SOD2-mediated Adaptive Responses Induced by Low Dose Ionizing Radiation via TNF Signaling and Amifostine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2)-mediated adaptive processes that protect against radiation-induced micronuclei formation can be induced in cells following a 2 Gy exposure by previously exposing them to either low dose ionizing radiation (10 cGy) or WR1065 (40 µM), the active thiol form of amifostine. While both adaptive processes culminate with elevated levels of SOD2 enzymatic activities, the underlying pathways differ in complexity, with the tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) signaling...

Murley, J. S.; Baker, K. L.; Miller, R. C.; Darga, T. E.; Weichselbaum, R. R.; Grdina, D. J.

2011-01-01

116

Studies on protective effects of superoxide dismutase on radiation induced-chromosomal aberrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study demonstrates that radiation induced-chromosomal aberrations are not only due to the direct effect of radiation hit, but the indirect effect of free radical as well. Therefore, chromosome damage induced by radiation may be reduced by adding exogenous SOD into the radiation exposed lymphocyte culture to eliminate the superoxide free radical which damages DNA. On the other hand, however, the radiosensitivity of lymphocytes can be raised by adding SOD inhibitor (DDC) into the lymphocyte culture, which makes radiation induced-chromosomal damages more severely

1987-01-01

117

Low doses of radiation reduce risks in vivo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 'Linear No Threshold' hypothesis, used in all radiation protection practices, assumes that all doses, no matter how low, increase risk. The protective effects of adaptive responses to radiation, shown to exist in lower organisms and in human and other mammalian cells, are inconsistent with this hypothesis. An in vivo test of the hypothesis in mice showed that a 100-mGy dose of {gamma}-radiation protected the mice by increasing latency for acute myeloid leukemia initiated by a subsequent large dose. A similar result was observed in cancer prone mice, where a 10-mGy adapting exposure prior to a large acute dose increased latency for lymphomas without altering frequency. Increasing the adapting dose to 100-mGy eliminated the protective effect. In the cancer prone mice, a 10-mGy dose alone, without a subsequent high dose, increased latency for spontaneous osteosarcomas and lymphomas without altering frequency. Increasing the dose to 100-mGy decreased latency for spontaneous osteosarcomas but still increased latency for lymphomas, indicating that this higher dose was in a transition zone between reduced and increased risk, and that the transition dose from protective to detrimental effects is tumor type specific. In genetically normal fetal mice, prior low doses also protected against radiation induced teratogenic effects. In genetically normal adult male mice, high doses induce mutations in sperm stem cells, detectable as heritable mutations in the offspring of these mice. A prior 100 mGy dose protected the male mice from induction of these heritable mutations by the large dose. We conclude that adaptive responses are induced by low doses in normal or cancer prone mice, and that these responses can reduce the risk of cancer, teratogenesis and heritable mutations. At low doses in vivo, the relationship between dose and risk is not linear, and low doses can reduce risk. (author)

Mitchel, R.E.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

2004-05-01

118

Low doses of radiation reduce risks in vivo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 'Linear No Threshold' hypothesis, used in all radiation protection practices, assumes that all doses, no matter how low, increase risk. The protective effects of adaptive responses to radiation, shown to exist in lower organisms and in human and other mammalian cells, are inconsistent with this hypothesis. An in vivo test of the hypothesis in mice showed that a 100-mGy dose of ?-radiation protected the mice by increasing latency for acute myeloid leukemia initiated by a subsequent large dose. A similar result was observed in cancer prone mice, where a 10-mGy adapting exposure prior to a large acute dose increased latency for lymphomas without altering frequency. Increasing the adapting dose to 100-mGy eliminated the protective effect. In the cancer prone mice, a 10-mGy dose alone, without a subsequent high dose, increased latency for spontaneous osteosarcomas and lymphomas without altering frequency. Increasing the dose to 100-mGy decreased latency for spontaneous osteosarcomas but still increased latency for lymphomas, indicating that this higher dose was in a transition zone between reduced and increased risk, and that the transition dose from protective to detrimental effects is tumor type specific. In genetically normal fetal mice, prior low doses also protected against radiation induced teratogenic effects. In genetically normal adult male mice, high doses induce mutations in sperm stem cells, detectable as heritable mutations in the offspring of these mice. A prior 100 mGy dose protected the male mice from induction of these heritable mutations by the large dose. We conclude that adaptive responses are induced by low doses in normal or cancer prone mice, and that these responses can reduce the risk of cancer, teratogenesis and heritable mutations. At low doses in vivo, the relationship between dose and risk is not linear, and low doses can reduce risk. (author)

2004-05-01

119

Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol, isolated from the brown algae Ishige okamurae, protects against radiation-induced cell damage in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effects of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), isolated from the brown algae Ishige okamurae, in mice subjected to gamma irradiation. DPHC significantly decreased the level of radiation-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species in cultured Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells (p DHPC plays a role in protecting cells from irradiation-induced apoptosis, through the scavenging of reactive oxygen species in vitro, and that DPHC significantly protected intestinal progenitor cells and bone marrows cells that were decreased by gamma irradiation in vivo. PMID:21163321

Ahn, Meejung; Moon, Changjong; Yang, Wonjun; Ko, Eun-Ju; Hyun, Jin Won; Joo, Hong Gu; Jee, Youngheun; Lee, Nam Ho; Park, Jae Woo; Ko, Ryeo Kyeong; Kim, Gi Ok; Shin, Taekyun

2011-04-01

120

Low Dose Rate Proton Irradiation of Quartz Crystal Resonators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quartz crystal resonators were systematically irradiated with 65 MeV protons to characterize low dose rate radiation-induced degradation. Results indicate: (1) test samples that exhibit large frequency shifts during testing tend to show large frequency sh...

R. Koga M. D. Looper S. D. Pinkerton W. J. Stapor

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

A novel topical protectant for the prevention of ?-radiation induced moist desquamation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Effective therapies for the prevention of radiation-induced skin burns that could be readily deployed under a nuclear accident or nuclear terrorism scenario are urgently needed. In this report we describe the efficacy of a novel radioprotectant (DMZ911) in a model of b-radiation induced moist desquamation (MD) in pig skin. DMZ911 is a nitroxide-based topical cream that effectively delivers the nitroxide into viable skin cells. Stable nitroxide compounds have been shown to be effective against both X-ray and ?-ray-induced damage in vivo and in vitro. A pig skin model of ?-radiation-induced MD was employed in this study. Exposure to 30 Gy was used to induce skin lesions involving >80% moist desquamation in prescribed test sites on flank skin of female Large White pigs. DMZ911 or placebo was applied to various test sites 2 hours prior to radiation exposure. Lesions were scored based on the area of the test site containing 50% MD (severe) as determined by clinical assessment using blinded observers. Treatment with DMZ911 resulted in a 31% net reduction in MD when compared to placebo treated sites following an 8-week study period. This reduction was observed whether all sites or only those with severe MD were considered. Skin damage (as indicated by MD) from radiation exposure was significantly reduced by 31% (p = 0.05) following pretreatment with the novel topical radioprotectant DMZ911. This observation suggests that skin lesion development from radiation-induced oxidative damage cascades may be successfully inhibited by treatment with DMZ911. This topical therapeutic agent represents a novel treatment for nuclear radiation induced skin injury. DMZ911 may have unique applications in radiation oncology, cosmetic and therapeutic UV, laser, glycolic and dermabrasion procedures

2003-08-17

122

Protection from radiation induced damages to biological system in mice exposed to whole body ?-radiation by phytophenol gallic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation can induce various deleterious effects on mammalian system. Radiation induced suppression of hematopoiesis and immune function has been considered to be one of the most life-threatening consequences of radiation exposure, and radiation-induced damages in vital cellular targets such as genomic DNA and membranes preventing the normal growth and proliferation of the cells are responsible for other deleterious consequences. The present study is aimed to evaluate radioprotecting ability of the natural polyphenol, gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) in Swiss albino mice exposed to , whole body gamma radiation. Radiation induced damages in cellular DNA of different tissues were analyzed by alkaline comet assay; genotoxicity was assessed by micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberrations analysis. The bone marrow cellularity, WBC counts and spleen colony formation were also monitored in mice orally administered with GA prior to whole body ?-radiation exposure. Exposure of mice to whole body gamma-radiation resulted in the formation of micronuclei in blood reticulocytes and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. The oral administration of GA resulted in the inhibition of micronucleus formation, chromosomal aberrations, and also showed an enhancement in the rate of cellular DNA repair process in irradiated animals. There was a significant increase in bone marrow cellularity, WBC counts and endogenous spleen colony formation following GA administration, in animals administered with GA and exposed to whole body gamma-radiation. The results from the study reveal the significant protection offered by phytopolyphenol gallic acid to mammalian system on radiation exposure. (author)

2013-01-01

123

Protection against radiation induced biochemical changes in cerebrum of Swiss albino mice by Grewia asiatica fruit extract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of Grewia asiatica fruit pulp extract (GAE) on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. In the present study radioprotective efficacy of Grewia asiatica (rich in anthocyanin, carotenes, Vit.C, etc.) was studied against radiation induced biochemical alterations in mice cerebrum. For experimental study, healthy Swiss Albino mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. Group I (normal) did not receive any treatment. Group II was orally supplemented (GAE) once daily at the dose of 700 mg/Kg.b.wt/day for fifteen consecutive days. Group III (control) received distilled water orally equivalent to GAE for fifteen days than exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation. Group IV (IR+Drug) was administered orally (GAE) for 15 consecutive days once daily after exposed to single dose of 5Gy of gamma radiation respectively. Mice were sacrificed at different autopsy intervals viz. 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days and cerebrum were removed for various biochemical estimations viz. glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein. GAE post treatment renders protection against various biochemical changes in mice cerebrum. Radiation induced augmentation in the levels of LPO was significantly ameliorated by GAE post-treatment. Radiation-induced depletion in the level of GSH, protein was checked significantly by GAE administration

2007-01-01

124

The polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C60(OH)24 protects mice from ionizing-radiation-induced immune and mitochondrial dysfunction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the protective effect of the polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C60(OH)n against ionizing radiation is an area of much interest, the mechanisms relating to how polyhydroxylated fullerene derivatives improve mitochondrial dysfunction remain unknown. In order to find new and effective radioprotective agents, we synthesized a new polyhydroxylated fullerene molecule with 24 hydroxyl groups of known positions on C60 and studied its protective effects in mice subjected to irradiation. Mice were pretreated with C60(OH)24 for 2 weeks (daily, 40 mg/kg i. p.), then subjected to a lethal dose of whole body ?-irradiation (from a 60Co source). Survival was observed for 30 days after irradiation. Immune and mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage were analyzed in mice with the same C60(OH)24 pretreatment and irradiation except that the animals were euthanized at day 5 after the irradiation. It was found that 2-week C60(OH)24 pretreatment effectively reduced whole body irradiation-induced mortality without apparent toxicity. C60(OH)24 pretreatment also showed significant protective effects against ionizing-radiation-induced decreases in immune and mitochondrial function and antioxidant defense in the liver and spleen. These results suggest that the polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C60(OH)24 protects against ionizing-radiation-induced mortality, possibly by enhancing immune function, decreasing oxidative damage and improving mitochondrial function.

2010-02-15

125

Low dose gamma irradiation enhances defined signaling components of intercellular reactive oxygen-mediated apoptosis induction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transformed cells are selectively removed by intercellular ROS-mediated induction of apoptosis. Signaling is based on the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite pathway (major pathways) and the nitryl chloride and the metal-catalyzed Haber-Weiss pathway (minor pathways). During tumor progression, resistance against intercellular induction of apoptosis is acquired through expression of membrane-associated catalase. Low dose radiation of nontransformed cells has been shown to enhance intercellular induction of apoptosis. The present study was performed to define the signaling components which are modulated by low dose gamma irradiation. Low dose radiation induced the release of peroxidase from nontransformed, transformed and tumor cells. Extracellular superoxide anion generation was strongly enhanced in the case of transformed cells and tumor cells, but not in nontransformed cells. Enhancement of peroxidase release and superoxide anion generation either increased intercellular induction of apoptosis of transformed cells, or caused a partial protection under specific signaling conditions. In tumor cells, low dose radiation enhanced the production of major signaling components, but this had no effect on apoptosis induction, due to the strong resistance mechanism of tumor cells. Our data specify the nature of low dose radiation-induced effects on specific signaling components of intercellular induction of apoptosis at defined stages of multistep carcinogenesis.

2011-01-01

126

Radiation induced deactivation, post deactivation of horse radish peroxidase, glucose oxidase and the protective effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to check the fact if the radiation induced post deactivation are possessed by all the enzymes, the radiation effects of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOD) were investigated. It was found that in dilute aqueous solution the irradiated HRP has the post deactivation also. The effects of absorbed dose, initial HRP concentration in solution, atmosphere, temperature and additives (three kinds of complex agents: EDTA, CDTA and D) on the post deactivation of HRP were investigated. The regularity of post deactivation of HRP is similar with the catalase. Oxygen in enzyme samples is necessary for the post deactivation. 5 x 10-3 mol/l of the three additives could control the phenomenon efficiently. Of course, the radiation deactivation of HRP was given as well. In the case of GOD the post deactivation was not found, although it's radiation deactivation is serious. It means that the radiation induced post deactivation is not a common phenomenon for all enzymes

1993-11-01

127

Hydrogen-rich PBS protects cultured human cells from ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage  

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Hydroxyl radicals play an important role in ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage, while hydrogen can selectively reduce hydroxyl radicals in vitro. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that hydrogen-rich PBS may be an effective radioprotective agent in vitro. Compared to cells pretreated without hydrogen, we demonstrated that treating cells with hydrogen-rich PBS before irradiation could significantly inhibit IR-induced apoptosis, increase viability of human intestinal crypt c...

Qian Liren; Li Bailong; Cao Fei; Huang Yuecheng; Liu Shulin; Cai Jianming; Gao Fu

2010-01-01

128

Protective Effects and Its Relative Mechanisms of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation on pancreatic cells of Male Diabetic Rat’s  

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Full Text Available Back ground & Aim of the work: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder brings great danger to human health. Low-dose-rate radiation modulates various biological responses including carcinogenesis, immunological responses and diabetes. This study examined the effect of low doses of irradiation on the pathological and ultrastructural progression of type I diabetes in rats inducted by Streptozotocin.Material and Methods: The present study was done on 80 healthy adult albino male rats 9 weeks age, in the weight range from (150–200 gm. Rats were grouped to 4 groups they were cared according to the Guiding Principle in the Care and Use of Animals. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared Streptozotocin (STZ- 45 mg/kg b.w.. Whole body gamma irradiation was performed using Caesium -137. Animals were exposed to fractionated dose levels of 0.5 Gy/week of ?-radiation for 3 and 6 weeks. The body weight, blood glucose and insulin levels were measured after 3 and 6 weeks. Small blocks of pancreatic tissues of different groups were removed and prepared for pathological and ultrastructure examination. Results: An elevated level of glucose and decreased level of insulin in blood were first detected at 3 and 6 weeks of age in the STZ treated rats. There was significant and remarkable tendency of gaining normal levels of both blood glucose and blood insulin by irradiation exposure especially after 6 weeks of irradiation. Both suppression of cell death and cellular injury induced by STZ were also observed by EM examination in 3 week and 6 weeks. Conclusion: The present results indicated that treatment with 0.5 Gy ? rays suppresses progression of type I diabetes in STZ rats

Hanaa F. Waer, **Seham A. Helmy

2012-10-01

129

Hydrogen-rich PBS protects cultured human cells from ionizing radiation/induced cellular damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydroxyl radicals play an important role in ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage, while hydrogen can selectively reduce hydroxyl radicals in vitro. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that hydrogen-rich PBS may be an effective radioprotective agent in vitro. Compared to cells pretreated without hydrogen, we demonstrated that treating cells with hydrogen-rich PBS before irradiation could significantly inhibit IR-induced apoptosis, increase viability of human intestinal crypt cells, significantly increase endogenous antioxidant, and decrease malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine concentrations of human lymphocyte AHH-1 cells. It is concluded that hydrogen has a potential as an effective and safe radioprotective agent. (author)

2010-01-01

130

Protective effects of L-selenomethionine on space radiation induced changes in gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionizing radiation can produce adverse biological effects in astronauts during space travel. Of particular concern are the types of radiation from highly energetic, heavy, charged particles known as HZE particles. The aims of our studies are to characterize HZE particle radiation induced biological effects and evaluate the effects of L-selenomethionine (SeM) on these adverse biological effects. In this study, microarray technology was used to measure HZE radiation induced changes in gene expression, as well as to evaluate modulation of these changes by SeM. Human thyroid epithelial cells (HTori-3) were irradiated (1 GeV/n iron ions) in the presence or in the absence of 5 microM SeM. At 6 h post-irradiation, all cells were harvested for RNA isolation. Gene Chip U133Av2 from Affymetrix was used for the analysis of gene expression, and ANOVA and EASE were used for a determination of the genes and biological processes whose differential expression is statistically significant. Results of this microarray study indicate that exposure to small doses of radiation from HZE particles, 10 and 20 cGy from iron ions, induces statistically significant differential expression of 196 and 610 genes, respectively. In the presence of SeM, differential expression of 77 out of 196 genes (exposure to 10 cGy) and 336 out of 610 genes (exposure to 20 cGy) is abolished. In the presence or in the absence of SeM, radiation from HZE particles induces differential expression of genes whose products have roles in the induction of G1/S arrest during the mitotic cell cycle, as well as heat shock proteins. Some of the genes, whose expressions were affected by radiation from HZE particles and were unchanged in irradiated cells treated with SeM, have been shown to have altered expression levels in cancer cells. The conclusions of this report are that radiation from HZE particles can induce differential expression of many genes, some of which are known to play roles in the same processes that have been shown to be activated in cells exposed to radiation from photons (like cell cycle arrest in G1/S), and that supplementation with SeM abolishes HZE particle-induced differential expression of many genes. Understanding the roles that these genes play in the radiation-induced transformation of cells may help to decipher the origins of radiation-induced cancer. PMID:17265150

Stewart, J; Ko, Y-H; Kennedy, A R

2007-06-01

131

Low-Dose Levodopa Protects Nerve Cells from Oxidative Stress and Up-Regulates Expression of pCREB and CD39  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective This study aimed to investigate the influence of low-dose levodopa (L-DOPA) on neuronal cell death under oxidative stress. Methods PC12 cells were treated with L-DOPA at different concentrations. We detected the L-DOPA induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Meanwhile, MTT and LDH assay were performed to determine the proliferation and growth of PC12 cells with or without ROS scavenger. In addition, after pretreatment with L-DOPA at different concentrations alone or in combination with CD39 inhibitor, PC12 cells were incubated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the cell viability was evaluated by MTT and LDH assay. In addition, the expression of pCREB and CD39 was detected by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot assay in both cells and rat’s brain after L-DOPA treatment. Results After treatment with L-DOPA for 3 days, the cell proliferation and growth were promoted when the L-DOPA concentration was DOPA concentration was >30 µM. Low dose L-DOPA could protect the PC12 cells from H2O2 induced oxidative stress, which was compromised by CD39 inhibitor. In addition, the expression of CD39 and pCREB increased in both PC12 cells and rats’ brain after L-DOPA treatment. Conclusions L-DOPA at different concentrations has distinct influence on proliferation and growth of PC12 cells, and low dose (DOPA protects PC12 cells against oxidative stress which might be related to the up-regulation of CD39 and pCREB expression.

Fang, Min; Zhu, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Yan-Xin; Liu, Xue-Yuan

2014-01-01

132

Risperidone in ultra low dose protects against stress in the rodent cold restraint model by modulating stress pathways.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present investigation evaluates the anti-stress activity of risperidone (RIS) in the cold restraint stress (CRS) model and related stress pathways. Rats were pretreated with RIS (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg) for 21 days before subjecting to CRS. Ultra low dose of RIS (ULD; 0.1 mg/kg) in contrast to higher dose (1.0 mg/kg) significantly reduced stress in terms of ulcer index. ULD also reversed stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone and norepinephrine levels used as markers for the function of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) respectively. ULD caused dose and brain region (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum) specific changes to stress-induced perturbations of serotonin, dopamine and its metabolites indicating modulation of brain monoaminergic system (BMS). ULD did not show any extrapyramidal side effects. Thus, the anti-stress effect ULD is probably mediated through the HPA axis, SNS and BMS. The study indicates a potential use of ULD in stress disorders. PMID:21660590

Krishnamurthy, Sairam; Garabadu, Debapriya; Reddy, Nagannathahalli Ranga; Joy, Keerikkattil P

2011-10-01

133

Blockade of TLR3 protects mice from lethal radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome  

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High-dose ionizing radiation induces severe DNA damage in the epithelial stem cells in small intestinal crypts and causes gastrointestinal syndrome (GIS). Although the tumour suppressor p53 is a primary factor inducing death of crypt cells with DNA damage, its essential role in maintaining genome stability means inhibiting p53 to prevent GIS is not a viable strategy. Here we show that the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is critical for the pathogenesis of GIS. Tlr3?/? mice show substantial resistance to GIS owing to significantly reduced radiation-induced crypt cell death. Despite showing reduced crypt cell death, p53-dependent crypt cell death is not impaired in Tlr3?/? mice. p53-dependent crypt cell death causes leakage of cellular RNA, which induces extensive cell death via TLR3. An inhibitor of TLR3–RNA binding ameliorates GIS by reducing crypt cell death. Thus, we propose blocking TLR3 activation as a novel approach to treat GIS.

Takemura, Naoki; Kawasaki, Takumi; Kunisawa, Jun; Sato, Shintaro; Lamichhane, Aayam; Kobiyama, Kouji; Aoshi, Taiki; Ito, Junichi; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Karuppuchamy, Thangaraj; Matsunaga, Kouta; Miyatake, Shoichiro; Mori, Nobuko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Satoh, Takashi; Kumagai, Yutaro; Kawai, Taro; Standley, Daron M.; Ishii, Ken J.; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Akira, Shizuo; Uematsu, Satoshi

2014-01-01

134

Synergistic protective effects of escin and low?dose glucocorticoids on blood?retinal barrier breakdown in a rat model of retinal ischemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Escin, a natural mixture of triterpenoid saponins isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), has been demonstrated to possess glucocorticoid (GC)?like anti?edematous and anti?in?ammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether escin exhibits synergistic protective effects on blood?retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown when combined with GCs in a rat model of retinal ischemia. Low concentrations of escin and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) alone did not affect BRB permeability. However, when administered together, low?dose escin and TA significantly reduced BRB permeability following ischemia. Furthermore, low?dose escin and TA alone did not affect the expression of occludin in the ischemic retina; however, when administered together, they significantly increased occludin expression in the ganglion cell layer of the ischemic retina. This indicates that escin and GCs have synergistic protective effects on BRB breakdown and the molecular mechanisms may be correlated with the upregulation of occludin. Therefore, the administration of escin may allow a reduction in the dose of GCs for the treatment of macular edema. The combination of escin with GCs is potentially a beneficial treatment method for BRB breakdown and warrants further investigation. PMID:23525122

Zhang, Fenglan; Li, Yuanbin; Zhang, Leiming; Mu, Guoying

2013-05-01

135

Bystander effects and biota: implications of radiation-induced bystander effects for protection of the environment from ionising radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bystander effects are now known to be induced by both high and low LET in a variety of cells in culture. They have been proven to occur in vivo in mice following 0.5Gy total body irradiation and in blood from humans being treated for cancer by radiotherapy. Effects have also been detected in fish, crustacea and molluscs. The important questions now are not whether bystander effects occur but why and what implications they have, if any, for radiation protection. Different species and different genetic backgrounds within a species produce different types of bystander effect, different organs also produce different effects. This paper will review the data in this field and will discuss likely implications for protection of man and non-human biota. In particular it will look at the potential long-term outcomes for different organisational levels, from cell to ecosystem, of bystander mechanisms. In view of new concerns about the effects of low level radiation on non-human biota, emphasis will be placed on considering how bystander effects might operate at chronic low doses versus acute accidental low doses. Problems of radiation interaction with chemicals, whether chemicals can also induce 'bystander effects' , and how regulators might handle these situations which occur all the time in real environments, will be presented for discussion. Finally the paper will discuss likely implications of these mechanisms for evolutionary biology

2003-08-17

136

Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline against radiation-induced immune dysfunction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies showed that hydrogen can be used as an effective radioprotective agent through scavenging free radicals. This study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective effects of hydrogen on immune system in mice. H2 was dissolved in physiological saline using an apparatus produced by our department. Spleen index and histological analysis were used to evaluate the splenic structural damage. Spleen superoxide dismutase, GSH, MDA were measured to appraise the antioxidant capacity and a DCF assay for the measurement of radical oxygen species. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by an Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining method as well as the apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and c-caspase-3. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells subtypes were detected by flow cytometry with FITC-labelled antimouse CD4 and PE antimouse CD8 staining. Real-time PCR was utilized to determine the CD4+ T cell subtypes and related cytokines. Our study demonstrated that pre-treatment with H2 could increase the spleen index and attenuate the radiation damage on splenic structure. Radical oxygen species level was also reduced by H2 treatment. H2 also inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis in splenocytes and down-regulated pro-apoptotic proteins in living mice. Radiation-induced imbalance of T cells was attenuated by H2 . Finally, we found that H2 could regulate the polarization of CD4+ T cells and the level of related cytokines. This study suggests H2 as an effective radioprotective agent on immune system by scavenging reactive oxygen species. PMID:24618260

Zhao, Sanhu; Yang, Yanyong; Liu, Wen; Xuan, Zhiqiang; Wu, Shouming; Yu, Shunfei; Mei, Ke; Huang, Yijuan; Zhang, Pei; Cai, Jianming; Ni, Jin; Zhao, Yaoxian

2014-05-01

137

Protective role of 3-nitrotyrosine against gamma radiation-induced DNA strand breaks: A comparison study with tyrosine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

3-Nitrotyrosine(3-NY) has been reported as a potential source of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). In this work, plasmid pBR322 DNA was irradiated by gamma rays in aqueous solution in presence and absence of 3-NY, DNA strand breaks were analyzed by neutral electrophoresis followed by quantification with image analysis software. It was found that the presence of 3-NY could effectively reduce radiation-induced DNA strand breaks. A side-by-side comparison was performed between 3-NY and tyrosine, the results showed that the protective role 3-NY was comparable with tyrosine, which might imply that protein tyrosine nitration might not significantly decrease its ability as a free radical scavenger

2007-11-06

138

Protective role of 3-nitrotyrosine against gamma radiation-induced DNA strand breaks: A comparison study with tyrosine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

3-Nitrotyrosine(3-NY) has been reported as a potential source of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). In this work, plasmid pBR322 DNA was irradiated by gamma rays in aqueous solution in presence and absence of 3-NY, DNA strand breaks were analyzed by neutral electrophoresis followed by quantification with image analysis software. It was found that the presence of 3-NY could effectively reduce radiation-induced DNA strand breaks. A side-by-side comparison was performed between 3-NY and tyrosine, the results showed that the protective role 3-NY was comparable with tyrosine, which might imply that protein tyrosine nitration might not significantly decrease its ability as a free radical scavenger.

Shi Weiqun [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: shiwq@mail.ihep.ac.cn; Ni Meinan; Kong Fuquan; Sui Li [Department of Nuclear Physics, China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Hu Jia [Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorous Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Diandou [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yanmei [Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorous Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: liym@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

2008-10-15

139

Protective role of 3-nitrotyrosine against gamma radiation-induced DNA strand breaks: A comparison study with tyrosine  

Science.gov (United States)

3-Nitrotyrosine(3-NY) has been reported as a potential source of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). In this work, plasmid pBR322 DNA was irradiated by gamma rays in aqueous solution in presence and absence of 3-NY, DNA strand breaks were analyzed by neutral electrophoresis followed by quantification with image analysis software. It was found that the presence of 3-NY could effectively reduce radiation-induced DNA strand breaks. A side-by-side comparison was performed between 3-NY and tyrosine, the results showed that the protective role 3-NY was comparable with tyrosine, which might imply that protein tyrosine nitration might not significantly decrease its ability as a free radical scavenger.

Shi, Wei-Qun; Ni, Mei-Nan; Kong, Fu-Quan; Sui, Li; Hu, Jia; Xu, Dian-Dou; Li, Yan-Mei

2008-10-01

140

Pretreatment by low-dose fibrates protects against acute free fatty acid-induced renal tubule toxicity by counteracting PPAR? deterioration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of a preventive strategy against tubular damage associated with proteinuria is of great importance. Recently, free fatty acid (FFA) toxicities accompanying proteinuria were found to be a main cause of tubular damage, which was aggravated by insufficiency of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?), suggesting the benefit of PPAR? activation. However, an earlier study using a murine acute tubular injury model, FFA-overload nephropathy, demonstrated that high-dose treatment of PPAR? agonist (0.5% clofibrate diet) aggravated the tubular damage as a consequence of excess serum accumulation of clofibrate metabolites due to decreased kidney elimination. To induce the renoprotective effects of PPAR? agonists without drug accumulation, we tried a pretreatment study using low-dose clofibrate (0.1% clofibrate diet) using the same murine model. Low-dose clofibrate pretreatment prevented acute tubular injuries without accumulation of its metabolites. The tubular protective effects appeared to be associated with the counteraction of PPAR? deterioration, resulting in the decrease of FFAs influx to the kidney, maintenance of fatty acid oxidation, diminution of intracellular accumulation of undigested FFAs, and attenuation of disease developmental factors including oxidative stress, apoptosis, and NF?B activation. These effects are common to other fibrates and dependent on PPAR? function. Interestingly, however, clofibrate pretreatment also exerted PPAR?-independent tubular toxicities in PPAR?-null mice with FFA-overload nephropathy. The favorable properties of fibrates are evident when PPAR?-dependent tubular protective effects outweigh their PPAR?-independent tubular toxicities. This delicate balance seems to be easily affected by the drug dose. It will be important to establish the appropriate dosage of fibrates for treatment against kidney disease and to develop a novel PPAR? activator that has a steady serum concentration regardless of kidney dysfunction. - Graphical Abstract: Massive proteinuria introduces free fatty acid toxicity to proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). PPAR? activationvia clofibrate pretreatment maintains fatty acid catabolism and attenuates oxidative stress, apoptosis, and NF?B activation, resulting in protection of PTECs. The favorable properties of fibrates are evident when PPAR?-dependent tubular protective effects outweigh their PPAR?-independent tubular toxicities. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Clofibrate pretreatment protects against acute FFA-induced tubular toxicity. ? PPAR? activation decreases FFA influx and maintains fatty acid catabolism. ? PPAR? activation attenuates oxidative stress, apoptosis, and NF?B activation. ? Protective effects must outweigh PPAR?-independent tubular toxicities of fibrates.

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

Variable protection by OH scavengers against radiation-induced inactivation of isolated transcriptionally active chromatin: the influence of secondary radicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Isolated r-chromatin, the chromatin form of the extrachromosomal gene coding for the rRNA precursor in Tetrahymena, has been used to study radiation-induced inactivation in vitro in the presence of the OH radical scavengers, t-butanol, formate ions, and methanol. Induction of biologically important DNA lesions was detected by the effect on transcription by endogenous RNA polymerases associated with the isolated r-chromatin. The OH scavengers were found to give strong protection in the presence of oxygen as anticipated from previous results obtained with this system. By contrast, only a modest protection was observed under 100% N/sub 2/ or 100% N/sub 2/O, and the level of protection was different for each scavenger. The data suggest that secondary radicals may inactivate r-chromatin under anoxia. In the presence of oxygen, the secondary radicals react with O/sub 2/ to form organic peroxy radicals (or O/sub 2/-) which seem to be less reactive. Since the protective effect of the OH scavengers varies with the gassing conditions, the dose modifying effects of O/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/O relative to N/sub 2/ depend on the identity and concentration of OH scavenger. The implications for radiation-chemical studies on DNA and living cells are discussed.

Herskind, C.; Westergaard, O.

1988-04-01

142

Variable protection by OH scavengers against radiation-induced inactivation of isolated transcriptionally active chromatin: the influence of secondary radicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isolated r-chromatin, the chromatin form of the extrachromosomal gene coding for the rRNA precursor in Tetrahymena, has been used to study radiation-induced inactivation in vitro in the presence of the OH radical scavengers, t-butanol, formate ions, and methanol. Induction of biologically important DNA lesions was detected by the effect on transcription by endogenous RNA polymerases associated with the isolated r-chromatin. The OH scavengers were found to give strong protection in the presence of oxygen as anticipated from previous results obtained with this system. By contrast, only a modest protection was observed under 100% N2 or 100% N2O, and the level of protection was different for each scavenger. The data suggest that secondary radicals may inactivate r-chromatin under anoxia. In the presence of oxygen, the secondary radicals react with O2 to form organic peroxy radicals (or O2-) which seem to be less reactive. Since the protective effect of the OH scavengers varies with the gassing conditions, the dose modifying effects of O2 and N2O relative to N2 depend on the identity and concentration of OH scavenger. The implications for radiation-chemical studies on DNA and living cells are discussed

1988-01-01

143

Protection against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The protective effects of Mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Mice were given either double distilled water or leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g/kg b.wt./day) once a day for three consecutive days, and after 30 min of treatments on the third day were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation. Mice were autopsied at 12, 24, 48 hrs and 5, 10 and 20 days post-irradiation to evaluate the percentage of bone marrow cells, frequency of micronuclei and erythropoietin level in serum. An exposure to gamma radiation resulted in a significant decline in the number of bone marrow cells such as leucoblasts, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band/stab forms, polymorphs, pronormoblasts and normoblasts, lymphocytes, and megakaryocytes. Pretreatment with leaf extract of M. piperita followed by radiation exposure resulted in significant increases in the numbers of leucoblasts, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band/stab forms, polymorphs, pronormoblasts and normoblasts, lymphocytes, and megakaryocytes in bone marrow as compared to the control group. Pretreatment with leaf extract of M. piperita followed by radiation exposure also resulted in significant decreases in micronucleus frequencies in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice. A significant increase in erythropoietin level was observed at all the studied intervals in leaf extract of M. piperita pretreated irradiated animals as compared to control animals (radiation alone). The results of the present investigation suggest the protective effects of leaf extract of M. piperita against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow may be attributed to the maintenance of erythropoietin (EPO) level in Swiss albino mice. (author)

2007-11-01

144

Radiation-induced adaptive response for protection against micronucleus formation and neoplastic transformation in C3H 10T1/2 mouse embryo cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have monitored the end points of cellular survival, micronucleus formation and neoplastic transformation frequency to assess adaptation to ionizing radiation in the C3H 10T1/2 mouse embryo cell system. Plateau-phase cells were pre-exposed to an adapting dose of 0.1 to 1.5 Gy low-dose-rate ? radiation 3.5 h prior to an acute challenge dose of 4 Gy. No adapting dose improved clonogenic survival detectably, whether the cells were plated immediately after the acute exposure or held in plateau phase for 3.5 h before plating. However, all chronic adapting doses resulted in both a reduction of micronucleus frequency in binucleate cells and about a twofold reduction in neoplastic transformation frequency per viable cell when cells were subsequently exposed to the 4-Gy challenge dose. Our data suggest that a low-dose-rate pre-exposure to ionizing radiation induces an adaptive response in C3H 10T1/2 cells, and that this response enhances DNA double-strand break repair when cells are subsequently exposed to a second radiation dose. This enhanced repair appears to be error-free since these adapted cells are also less susceptible to radiation-induced neoplastic transformation. 10 refs., 2 tabs

1994-04-01

145

Protective effect of apigenin on radiation-induced chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential use of flavonoids as a radioprotector is of increasing interest because of their high antioxidant activity and abundance in the diet. The aim of this study is to examine genotoxic and radioprotective effects of one of the most common flavonoids, apigenin, on radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay was used to evaluate such effects of apigenin. Blood samples were collected from two non-smoking healthy male volunteers who had no history of previous exposure to other clastogenic agents. Isolated lymphocytes were cultured. There were two tubes per concentration for all treatments. To evaluate the genotoxicity of apigenin, cells were first treated with different concentrations of apigenin (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 25 microg/mL) at 24 h after culture initiation, followed by cytochalasin-B (Cyt-B) treatment (3 microg/mL) and cell harvest at 44 and 72 h, respectively. Secondly, to investigate the radioprotective effect, cell cultures were exposed to different concentrations of apigenin as described above for 30 min before being irradiated to 2 Gy of 137Cs gamma rays (at a dose rate of 0.75 Gy/min). In all instances, the frequency of MN was scored in binucleated (BN) cells. The nuclear proliferation index also was calculated. We did not detect an increase in the frequency of MN in non-irradiated human lymphocyte cultures treated with 2.5, 5.0 or 10 microg/mL apigenin; although, we did observe an increase in cultures treated with 25 microg/mL apigenin (the highest concentration of apigenin used in our study). We also observed a significant increase in the frequency of MN in irradiated cells overall; however, the frequency was decreased as the concentration of apigenin increased, suggesting a radioprotective effect. These findings provide a basis for additional studies to help clarify the potential use and benefit of apigenin as a radioprotector.

Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Tungjai, Montree; Whorton, Elbert B.

2005-01-01

146

The protective effect of recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor on radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Radiation-induced lung toxicity is a significant dose-limiting side effect of radiotherapy for thoracic tumors. Recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rHuKGF) has been shown to be a mitogen for type II pneumocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether rHuKGF prevents or ameliorates the severity of late lung damage from fractionated irradiation in a rat model. Methods and materials: Female Fisher 344 rats were irradiated to the right hemithorax with a dose of 40 Gy/5 fractions/5 days. rHuKGF at dose of 5 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg was given via a single intravenous injection 10 min after the last fraction of irradiation. Animals were followed for 6 months after irradiation. Results: The breathing rate increased beginning at 6 weeks and reached a peak at 14 weeks after irradiation. The average breathing frequencies in the irradiated groups with rHuKGF (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg) treatment were significantly lower than that in the group receiving radiation without rHuKGF (116.5 ± 1.0 and 115.2 ± 0.8 vs 123.5 ± 1.2 breaths/min, p < 0.01). The severity of lung fibrosis and the level of immunoreactivity of integrin ?v?6, TGF?1, type II TGF? receptor, Smad3, and phosphorylated Smad2/3 were significantly decreased only in the group receiving irradiation plus high-dose rHuKGF treatment compared with irradiation plus vehicle group, suggesting a dose response for the effect of rHuKGF. Conclusions: This study is the first to demonstrate that rHuKGF treatment immediately after irradiation protects against late radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity. These results suggest that restoration of the integrity of the pulmonary epithelium via rHuKGF stimulation may downregulate the TGF-?-mediated fibrosis pathway. These data also support the use of rHuKGF in a clinical trial designed to prevent radiation-induced lung injury

2004-12-01

147

Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report on the meeting of the Strahlenschutzkommission 2007 concerning biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure includes the following contributions: Adaptive response. The importance of DNA damage mechanisms for the biological efficiency of low-energy photons. Radiation effects in mammography: the relative biological radiation effects of low-energy photons. Radiation-induced cataracts. Carcinomas following prenatal radiation exposure. Intercellular apoptosis induction and low-dose irradiation: possible consequences for the oncogenesis control. Mechanistic models for the carcinogenesis with radiation-induced cell inactivation: application to all solid tumors in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Microarrays at low radiation doses. Mouse models for the analysis of biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. The bystander effect: observations, mechanisms and implications. Lung carcinoma risk of Majak workers - modeling of carcinogenesis and the bystander effect. Microbeam studies in radiation biology - an overview. Carcinogenesis models with radiation-induced genomic instability. Application to two epidemiological cohorts.

2007-11-08

148

Radiation induced bystander effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In recent years, radiation induced bystander effects have been reported in cells which were not themselves irradiated but were either in the vicinity of irradiated cells or exposed to medium from irradiated cells. The effects have been clearly shown to occur both in vivo and in vitro. This work has led to a paradigm shift in radiobiology over the last 5-10 years. The target theory of radiation induced effects is now being challenged because of an increasing number of studies which demonstrate non (DNA)-targeted effects. These effects appear to be particularly important at low doses. Considerable evidence now exists relating to radiation induced bystander effects but the mechanisms involved in the transduction of the signal are still unclear. Cell-cell communication through gap junctions and/or secretion of a cytotoxic factor into the medium are thought to be important in both mechanisms. Signalling pathways leading to apoptosis, such as calcium, MAP kinase, mitochondrial and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling are shown. The importance of oxidative metabolism and calcium signaling in bystander responses are demonstrated. Further investigations of these signalling pathways may aid in the identification of novel therapeutic targets

2006-10-19

149

The Possible Protective Role of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Against Radiation-Induced Certain Biochemical Changes in Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil (FEO) against gamma irradiation-induced biochemical changes in male rats. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was orally administrated at dose level of 250 mg/kg body wt/day for 21 days before irradiation and 7 days post exposure (6.5 Gy single dose). Rats exposed to ionizing radiation exhibited a potential elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels, lipid abnormalities, and an increase in tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metallothioneins (MTs). On the other hand, noticeable drop in liver and kidney glutathione content and serum total protein, albumin and testosterone levels were recorded. Tissue organs displayed some changes in trace element concentrations, which may be due to the radiation ability to induce oxidative stress. The data obtained from rats treated with fennel oil before and after whole body gamma irradiation revealed significant modulation in the biochemical tested parameters and profound improvement in the activity of antioxidant status, glutathione and metallothioneins. The treatment of irradiated rats with fennel oil also appeared to be effective in minimizing the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation as well as changes in essential trace elements in some tissue organs. In addition to its containing many chemical antioxidant constituents such as polyphenols, fennel was found to contain detectable concentrations of essential trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Mn and Ca) which may be involved in multiple biological processes as constituents of enzymes system including superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn, Mn, SODs), oxide reductase, glutathione (GSP, GSH, GST), metallothionein MTs, etc. Overall, it could be concluded that Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil exerts beneficial protective role against radiation-induced deleterious biochemical effects related to many organ functions and deteriorated antioxidant defense system.

2010-01-01

150

Growth factors protect intestinal stem cells from radiation-induced apoptosis by suppressing PUMA through the PI3K/AKT/p53 axis  

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Gastrointestinal toxicity is the primary limiting factor in abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy, but has no effective treatment currently. We recently showed a critical role of the BH3-only protein PUMA in acute radiation-induced GI damage and GI syndrome in mice. Growth factors such as IGF-1 and bFGF have been shown to protect against radiation-induced intestinal injury, although the underlying mechanisms remain to be identified. We report here the suppression of PUMA through the PI3K/AKT/p53 ...

Qiu, Wei; Leibowitz, Brian; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

2010-01-01

151

Protection from radiation-induced damage to spermatogenesis by hormone treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Infertility caused by killing of the spermatogonial stem cells occurs frequently in men treated for cancer with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We investigated whether pretreatment of rats with testosterone plus estradiol, which reversibly inhibits the completion of spermatogenesis and protects spermatogonial stem cells from procarbazine-induced damage, would also protect these cells from radiation. Adult male LBNF rats were implanted for 6 weeks with capsules containing testosterone and estradiol and then irradiated with doses from 2.5-7.0 Gy. Controls were irradiated with 1.8-3.5 Gy. Implants were removed 1 day after irradiation, and all animals were killed 10 weeks later for assessment of stem cell survival by counting repopulating tubules in histological sections and by sperm head counts. At doses of 2.5 and 3.5 Gy the repopulation indices and sperm head counts were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the rats treated with testosterone and estradiol than in the controls. Protection factors calculated from the dose-response curves were in the range of 1.5-2.2. Elucidation of the mechanism of protection is essential to apply it to clinical situations. The fact that the spermatogonia are protected against radiation as well as procarbazine indicates that the mechanism does not involve drug delivery or metabolism. 32 refs., 3 figs

1994-07-01

152

Chemical protection afforded by some agents against radiation-induced chromosome changes in human peripheral blood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioprotective effectiveness of Cytriphos (cysteamine adenosine triphosphate) with regard to chromosome aberration induction was compared with that of: (a) either of its constituents (cysteamine and ATP); (b) a mechanical mixture of cysteamine and ATP. The cysteamine-to-ATP ratios thereby used remained the same as in the case of Cytriphos. The results obtained indicated that: (1) cysteamine protection was close to that of the mechanical mixture; (2) ATP, either singly or in combination with cysteamine, revealed no protective properties; (3) Cytriphos was superior to any of the other cases investigated, exceeding, for various chromosome anomaly types, the effectiveness of the above protectors by a factor of 1,1 - 1,7; (4) Cytriphos protection was to be accounted for by the molecular linking of cysteamine to ATP. (author)

1976-10-02

153

Studies of ionising radiation induced bystander effects in 3D artificial tissue system and applications for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. The bystander effect cannot be comprehensively explained on the basis of a single cell reaction. It is well known that an organism is composed of different cell types that interact as functional units in a way to maintain normal tissue function. Therefore the radiation response is not simply the sum of cellular responses as assumed in classical radiobiology, predominantly from studies using cell cultures. Experimental models, which maintain tissue-like intercellular cell signalling and 3D structure, are essential for proper understanding of the bystander effect. Our work relates to experimentation with novel 3D artificial human tissue systems available from MatTek Corporation (Boston, USA). Air-liquid interface culture technique is used to grow artificial tissues, which allow to model conditions present in vivo. The Gray Cancer Institute (Northwood, UK) charged particle microbeam was used to irradiate tissue samples in a known pattern with a known number of 3He2+ particles or protons. After irradiation, the tissues models were incubated for 3 days, fixed in 10 % NBF, paraffin embedded and then sliced into 5 ?m histological sections located at varying distances from the plane of the irradiated cells. We studied in situ apoptosis and markers of differentiation. Significantly elevated bystander induced apoptosis was observed with 3'-OH DNA end-labelling based technique in 3D artificial tissue systems. Our results also suggested an importance of proliferation and differentiation status for bystander effect induction. A single 2 ?m location on tissue section was pre-irradiated with 1-10 3He2+ particles (5 MeV; LET 75 keV/?m) using microbeam system. Even although only a single region of the tissue section was targeted, thousands of additional cells were found to undergo bystander induced differentiation. This resulted in an overall increase in the fraction of differentiated cells for approximately 10-15 %, which are much greater than that observed for the induction of damage (not more than 1-2 % of apoptotic cells). Our theory is that the main functions of bystander effect are to decrease the risk of transformation in a multi cultural organism exposed to radiation by removing a group of potentially damaged cells via apoptosis and increased differentiation. (author)

2008-10-19

154

Protective role of grape seed extract against radiation induced oxidative stress in rats: Role of endogenous antioxidants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of grape seed extract against ?-irradiation induced oxidative stress in hepatic tissue. Animals were divided into four groups; Control group, Grape seed extract (GSE) group: animals were administered GSE for 14 consecutive days (100 mg/kg). Irradiated (IRR) group: rats were received dist. water for 7 days and then rats were irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy and dist. water was maintained for 7 additional days. GSE-IRR group: rats were treated with GSE for 7 consecutive days, one hour later after the last dose of GSE, rats were irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy and GSE was maintained for 7 additional days. Administration of GSE for 14 consecutive days resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), in hepatic tissues which were reduced by radiation treatment. Also, GSE resulted in a significant decrease in total nitrate/nitrite (NO(x)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in hepatic tissues and a significant decrease in Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities and NO(x) level compared to irradiated group. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicate that GSE could increase the endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism in rat and thereby protect the animals from radiation-induced hepatotoxicity

2011-01-01

155

Reduction in radiation-induced brain injury by use of pentobarbital or lidocaine protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine if barbiturates would protect brain at high doses of radiation, survival rates in rats that received whole-brain x-irradiation during pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia were compared with those of control animals that received no medication and of animals anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were shielded so that respiratory and digestive tissues would not be damaged by the radiation. Survival rates in rats that received whole-brain irradiation as a single 7500-rad dose under pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia was increased from between from 0% and 20% to between 45% and 69% over the 40 days of observation compared with the other two groups (p less than 0.007). Ketamine anesthesia provided no protection. There were no notable differential effects upon non-neural tissues, suggesting that pentobarbital afforded protection through modulation of ambient neural activity during radiation exposure. Neural suppression during high-dose cranial irradiation protects brain from acute and early delayed radiation injury. Further development and application of this knowledge may reduce the incidence of radiation toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and may permit the safe use of otherwise unsafe doses of radiation in patients with CNS neoplasms

1990-01-01

156

Subthreshold UV radiation-induced peroxide formation in cultured corneal epithelial cells: the protective effects of lactoferrin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acute exposure to suprathreshold ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) is known to cause photokeratitis resulting from the necrosis and shedding of corneal epithelial cells. However, the corneal effects of low dose UV-B in the environmental range is less clear. In this study, subthreshold UV-B was demonstrated to cause non-necrotic peroxide formation in cultured corneal epithelial cells, which was attenuated by the major tear protein lactoferrin. Intracellular oxidative insults and cell viability of rabbit corneal epithelial cells (RCEC) were assessed by dual-color digital microfluorography using carboxydichlorofluorescin (CDCFH) diacetate bis (acetoxymethyl) ester, a hydroperoxide-sensitive fluoroprobe, and propidium iodode (PI) respectively. The magnitude of UV-induced oxidative insults was calibrated by concentrations of exogenously applied H2O2 which evoke compatible levels of CDCFH oxidation. Exposure of RCEC to low-dose UV-B (2.0 mJ cm-2 at 313 nm, 10.0 mJ cm-2 total UV-B) caused intracellular oxidative changes which were equivalent to those elicited by 240 ?M hydrogen peroxide under the conditions of the study. The changes were dose dependent, non-necrotic, and were partially inhibited by lactoferrin ( 1 mg ml-1) but not by iron-saturated lactoferrin. Pretreatment with deferoxamine (2 m?) or catalase (100 U ml-1) also attenuated the UV-induced oxidative stress. The results indicate that UV-B comparable to solar irradiation levels causes significant intracellular peroxide formation in corneal epithelial cells, and that lactoferrin in tears may have a physiological role in protecting the corneal epithelium from solar UV irradiation. (Author)

1996-11-01

157

Subthreshold UV radiation-induced peroxide formation in cultured corneal epithelial cells: the protective effects of lactoferrin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acute exposure to suprathreshold ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) is known to cause photokeratitis resulting from the necrosis and shedding of corneal epithelial cells. However, the corneal effects of low dose UV-B in the environmental range is less clear. In this study, subthreshold UV-B was demonstrated to cause non-necrotic peroxide formation in cultured corneal epithelial cells, which was attenuated by the major tear protein lactoferrin. Intracellular oxidative insults and cell viability of rabbit corneal epithelial cells (RCEC) were assessed by dual-color digital microfluorography using carboxydichlorofluorescin (CDCFH) diacetate bis (acetoxymethyl) ester, a hydroperoxide-sensitive fluoroprobe, and propidium iodode (PI) respectively. The magnitude of UV-induced oxidative insults was calibrated by concentrations of exogenously applied H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which evoke compatible levels of CDCFH oxidation. Exposure of RCEC to low-dose UV-B (2.0 mJ cm{sup -2} at 313 nm, 10.0 mJ cm{sup -2} total UV-B) caused intracellular oxidative changes which were equivalent to those elicited by 240 {mu}M hydrogen peroxide under the conditions of the study. The changes were dose dependent, non-necrotic, and were partially inhibited by lactoferrin ( 1 mg ml{sup -1}) but not by iron-saturated lactoferrin. Pretreatment with deferoxamine (2 m{Mu}) or catalase (100 U ml{sup -1}) also attenuated the UV-induced oxidative stress. The results indicate that UV-B comparable to solar irradiation levels causes significant intracellular peroxide formation in corneal epithelial cells, and that lactoferrin in tears may have a physiological role in protecting the corneal epithelium from solar UV irradiation. (Author).

Shimmura, Shigeto; Suematsu, Makoto; Shimoyama, Masaru; Oguchi, Yoshihisa; Ishimura, Yuzuru [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Tsubota, Kazuo [Tokyo Dental Coll. (Japan)

1996-11-01

158

Protective Effect of Anthocyanins from Lingonberry on Radiation-induced Damages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants has gradually expanded from the previous chemicals to the use of natural anti-radiation drugs and functional foods. Some reports have confirmed that anthocyanins are good antioxidants, which can effectively e...

Zi-Luan Fan; Zhen-Yu Wang; Li-Li Zuo; Shuang-Qi Tian

2012-01-01

159

Protective effect of atorvastatin on radiation-induced vascular endothelial cell injury in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vascular endothelial cells are very sensitive to ionizing radiation, and it is important to develop effective prevent agents and measures in radiation exposure protection. In the present study, the protective effects of atorvastatin on irradiated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the possible mechanisms were explored. Cultured HUVEC were treated by atorvastatin at a final concentration of 10 ?mol/ml for 10 minutes, and then irradiated at a dose of 2 Gy or 25 Gy. Twenty-four hours after irradiation, apoptosis of HUVEC was monitored by flow cytometry, and the expression of thrombomodulin (TM) and protein C activation in HUVEC was respectively assessed by flow cytometry and spectrophotometry. After treatment with atorvastatin for 24 h, the rate of cell apoptosis decreased by 6% and 16% in cells irradiated with 2 Gy and 25 Gy, respectively. TM expression increased by 77%, 59%, and 61% in untreated cells, 2 Gy irradiation-treated cells, and 25 Gy irradiation-treated cells, respectively. The protein C levels in 2 Gy and 25 Gy irradiation-treated cells were reduced by 23% and 34% when compared with untreated cells, but up-regulated by 79% and 76% when compared with cells which were irradiated and treated with atorvastatin. In conclusion, these data indicate that atorvastatin exerts protective effects on irradiated HUVEC by reducing apoptosis by up-regulating TM expression and enhancing protein C activation in irradiated HUVEC. (author)

2010-09-01

160

Protective effect of bone marrow and spleen suspensions on radiation-induced leukemogenesis in C57BL/6 mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present experiments are an attempt to precise the type and localization of the cells involved in the protective effect of hemopoietic suspensions against the radiation-induced thymic lymphosarcoma (TLS) of C57BL/6 mice. Inocula containing variable numbers of BM or spleen CFUs from 60-day-old and 360-day-old donors were tested. According to their origin, the suspensions differed with respect to the CFU replication rate, the CFU ability to differentiate towards the T lineage and the content of the suspensions in thymic precursors. Two levels of inhibition were observed: BM suspensions from 60-day-old donors containing 1,500 CFUs had the best protective effect: 14.5% of TLS; 1,500 CFUs from 360-day-old donors were slightly but not significantly less efficient (28.5%). The second level of inhibition (36-46% of TLS) was obtained with all the following inocula: a) 1,200 and 300 spleen CFUs or 300 and 95 BM CFUs from 60-day-old donors, b) 1,500 spleen CFUs from aged donors. Seventy-six spleen CFUs from 60-day-old donors, 120 BM or 175 spleen CFUs from aged donors had no effect. These results suggest that in addition to the high replication rate of the BM CFUs as compared with spleen CFUs, cells endowed with an optimal protective effect are present in BM suspensions and are either absent or present in very small amount in spleen suspensions. These cells which induce an early repopulation of the thymus might correspond to thymic precursors. (orig.)

1984-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Reciprocal Paracrine Interactions Between Normal Human Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cells Protect Cellular DNA from Radiation-Induced Damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To explore whether interactions between normal epithelial and mesenchymal cells can modulate the extent of radiation-induced DNA damage in one or both types of cells. Methods and Materials: Human primary thyrocytes (PT), diploid fibroblasts BJ, MRC-5, and WI-38, normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), and endothelial human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUV-EC-C), cultured either individually or in co-cultures or after conditioned medium transfer, were irradiated with 0.25 to 5 Gy of ?-rays and assayed for the extent of DNA damage. Results: The number of ?-H2AX foci in co-cultures of PT and BJ fibroblasts was approximately 25% lower than in individual cultures at 1 Gy in both types of cells. Reciprocal conditioned medium transfer to individual cultures before irradiation resulted in approximately a 35% reduction of the number ?-H2AX foci at 1 Gy in both types of cells, demonstrating the role of paracrine soluble factors. The DNA-protected state of cells was achieved within 15 min after conditioned medium transfer; it was reproducible and reciprocal in several lines of epithelial cells and fibroblasts, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells but not in epithelial and endothelial cells. Unlike normal cells, human epithelial cancer cells failed to establish DNA-protected states in fibroblasts and vice versa. Conclusions: The results imply the existence of a network of reciprocal interactions between normal epithelial and some types of mesenchymal cells mediated by soluble factors that act in a paracrine manner to protect DNA from genotoxic stress

2008-06-01

162

Radiation-induced inhibition of splenocyte locomotion and its protection by C. parvum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Normal C57/BL mice were stimulated by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Corynebacterium parvum (CP) prior to sublethal whole-body or local (leg) irradiation. At different times after irradiation, spleens were removed and the direct leukocyte migration assay carried out in comparison with unirradiated controls. CP causes enlarged spleens with white pulp depleted of germinal centers, and red pulp increased due to nucleated cell proliferation. X irradiation causes depletion both in white and red pulp, and a reduction in splenocyte locomotion ability. Reduction in splenocyte locomotion due to whole-body irradiation was significantly less in CP-treated than in control mice. A factor of 1.5 to 3.3 for protection of migration by CP was obtained, depending upon timing between CP stimulation, whole-body irradiation, and migration assay. The largest protection factor 1 day postirradiation was observed when migration was 7 to 14 days post-CP treatment. It is postulated that nonspecific immune adjuvant stimulation of the reticuloendothelial system by CP induces greater repopulation of the radiation-depleted spleen by leukocytes having migration capability. These findings may have relevance to the clinical use of local radiation therapy combined with CP stimulation of host immune response

1978-01-01

163

Involvement of peroxiredoxin I in protecting cells from radiation-induced death  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peroxiredoxin I (Prx-I), a key member of the peroxiredoxin family, reduces peroxides and equivalents through the thioredoxin system. Our previous work has shown that expression of Prx-I in mammalian cells increases following ionizing radiation (IR), indicating, that Prx-I actively responds to IR-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suggesting that Prx-I plays an important role in protecting cells from IR-induced death. To test this hypothesis, we suppressed the expression of Prx-I in SW480 cells by RNA interference. Our results show that IR induces the expression of Prx-I in SW480 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The recombinant siRNA vector targeting Prx-I dramatically reduced the expression of Prx-I in SW480 cells. When Prx-I was knocked down in SW480 cells, the cells exhibited a decreased growth rate, a reduced antioxidant capability following IR and became more sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis. Together, our results demonstrate that Prx-I plays an important role in protecting cells from IR-induced cell death, which might be through scavenging IR-induced ROS in the cells. (author)

2005-09-01

164

Protective effect of atorvastatin on radiation-induced endothelial cell injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To explore the protective effect of atorvastatin on irradiated endothelium and the thrombomodulin (TM) expression. Methods: Cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated by atorvastatin at the final concentration of 10 ?mol/ml for 10 min, and then irradiated with 2 and 25 Gy. Cell cycles status and TM expression were quantitatively measured by flow cytometry 24 hours after irradiation. Protein C activation in endothelial cells was also assessod. Results: After administration with atorvastatin for 24 h, the TM expression increased by 77%, 59% and 61% in normal control group, 2 Gy group and 25 Gy group, respectively (t=27.395, 26.420, 58.065; P=0.000). The protein C levels decreased by 23% and 34% compared with the normal group post-irradiation to 2 and 25 Gy, but increased by 79% and 76% compared with the irradiated control group after administration with atorvastatin. The rates of cell apoptosis decreased by 6% and 16% in 2 Gy and 25 Gy groups, respectively after administration with atorvastatin for 24 h (t=4.178, 17.863; P=0.000). Conclusions: Atorva statin can protect endothelia cell from irradiation-induced apeptosis by increasing TM expression and protein C activation. (authors)

2009-04-01

165

Sunscreen protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced pyrimidine dimers in mouse epidermal DNA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces a number of pathologic conditions of mammalian skin including erythema, oedema, hyperplasia, sunburn cell formation and skin cancer. Consequently, UVR-induced DNA damage has been implicated as one of the photochemical events that results in the formation of these pathological changes. The ability of sunscreens to protect against UVR-induced DNA damage has not been well characterized especially with UVA (320-400 nm) wavelengths and UVA absorbers. In this paper we present results of a study aimed at determining the efficacy of two sunscreens at preventing the induction of pyrmidine dimers in basal cell DNA of mice exposed to solar-simulated UVR (SSUV) wavelengths (290-400 nm) or to UVA (320-400 nm). (author)

1997-06-01

166

Sunscreen protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced pyrimidine dimers in mouse epidermal DNA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces a number of pathologic conditions of mammalian skin including erythema, oedema, hyperplasia, sunburn cell formation and skin cancer. Consequently, UVR-induced DNA damage has been implicated as one of the photochemical events that results in the formation of these pathological changes. The ability of sunscreens to protect against UVR-induced DNA damage has not been well characterized especially with UVA (320-400 nm) wavelengths and UVA absorbers. In this paper we present results of a study aimed at determining the efficacy of two sunscreens at preventing the induction of pyrmidine dimers in basal cell DNA of mice exposed to solar-simulated UVR (SSUV) wavelengths (290-400 nm) or to UVA (320-400 nm). (author).

Ley, R.D. [The Lovelace Institutes, Albuqeurque, NM (United States). Photomdecine Program; Fourtanier, A. [L`Oreal, Advanced Research, Clichy (France)

1997-06-01

167

The protective effect of fermented milk kefir on radiation-induced apoptosis in colonic crypt cells of rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the effect of fermented milk kefir on X-ray-induced apoptosis in the colon of rats, we examined the apoptotic index, the mean number of apoptotic cells detected by H and E staining per crypt in the colon, in control rats and kefir-pretreated rats drinking kefir for 12 days before irradiation. Apoptotic cells were confirmed by TUNEL staining, and active caspase-3 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry. The cell position of apoptotic cells and active caspase-3 positive cells were examined. The apoptotic index of kefir-treated rats was significantly (p<0.05) decreased 2 h after 1 Gy irradiation in comparison with control rats at crypt cell positions 1-3, 5-7, 13, and 15. Active caspase-3 expression in the kefir-treated rats was also significantly (p<0.05) reduced in comparison with control rats 2 h after 1 Gy irradiation at crypt cell positions 1-4, 13, and 15. This study indicated that kefir protects colonic crypt cells against radiation-induced apoptosis, which was most pronounced in the stem cell region of the crypt. The antiapoptotic effect of fermented milk kefir was due to the inhibition of caspase-3 activation. (author)

2003-06-01

168

Protective effects of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Hibiscus sabdariffa and vitamin C against radiation-induced liver damage in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The radioprotective efficacy of methanolic extracts of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS), and vitamin C (VIT C) against gamma radiation (4 Gy) induced liver damage was studied in male Wistar albino rats. VIT C was administered at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, while VA and HS were administered at doses; 200, 400 and 800-mg/kg body weight, orally for 4 weeks prior to radiation and 5 weeks after irradiation. The rats were sacrificed at 24 hours and 5 weeks after irradiation. Treatment with VIT C and VA (800 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the gamma radiation-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities at 24 hours after irradiation, whereas, HS (400 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the serum ALT activity only. Similarly, treatment with VIT C and VA (800 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the serum conjugated bilirubin levels by 56% and 29%, respectively at 24 hours. Furthermore, VIT C, VA and HS significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the levels of serum lipid peroxidation (LPO) and increased the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities at 24 hours. Treatment for 5 weeks after irradiation with VITC, VA and HS significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the levels of unconjugated bilirubin, while VIT C and VA alone decreased the levels of conjugated bilirubin. Furthermore, treatment with VA (400 and 800 mg/kg) decreased the serum ALT activities by 25% and 34%, respectively, at 5 weeks after irradiation. Similarly, alkaline phosphatase and LPO levels were significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated following treatment with VIT C and VA (400 and 800 mg/kg) at 5 weeks after irradiation. In addition, treatment with VIT C, VA (800 mg/kg) and HS (400 and 800 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) elevated the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) by 61%, 56%, 41% and 44%, respectively, at 5 weeks. Similar elevation of antioxidant enzymes; SOD, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase were obtained in animals treated with VIT C and extracts at 5 weeks. Taken together, the results suggest that the extracts of VA and HS, and VIT C could increase the antioxidant defense systems and may probably protect animals from radiation-induced liver damage. PMID:18250564

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin; Ogungbenro, Bayo; Anyaegbu, Oluchi; Fafunso, Michael

2008-03-01

169

Protection by rosemary leaves extract against radiation-induced hepatic injuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of effective non-toxic radioprotective agents is of considerable interest in the improvement of radio therapy of cancer and protection against unplanned exposures. The synthetic drugs developed in post-world war II have had serious constrains in clinical application due to their toxicity at the optimal protective dose level. Search for non toxic protectors from natural sources have indicated that some of the commonly used medicinal plants and the polyherbal formulation could prove to be valuable sources of the clinically used radioprotector as their ratio of effective dose to toxic dose is very high. A worldwide hunt is on for the development of non-toxic/less toxic radioprotectors. Keeping this view, the present study has been undertaken to find out the possible radioprotective potential of the Rosemarinus officinalis extract (ROE) in the liver of Swiss albino mice as its leaves have various medicinal properties like analgesic, anti-epileptic, antioxidant, hepatoprotactive and anti-cancer etc. Adult male Swiss albino mice, 6-8 weeks old with an average weight of 23±3 gms, were selected from an inbred colony and divided into two groups carrying equal number of animals in each. First group was orally administered DDW with the dose of 1000 mg/kg.b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days, while the second group received ROE with the dose of 1000 mg/kg.b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days. On 5th day, after half an hr. of the last administration of DDW or ROE, both the groups were exposed to single dose of 9 Gy of gamma radiation. All the animals were monitored regularly from the day of treatment till their autopsy time or survival with respect to food and water intake, body weight change, sickness, general activity, mobility, fur and skin lesions and other visible abnormalities, if any. These animals from both the groups were autopsied at 12 hrs., 24 hrs., 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days post-irradiation and their liver were removed, weighed, and after routine processing, slides were prepared for the evaluation of quantitative variations in normal, abnormal and binucleated hepatocytes. Some part of liver was used for the study of biochemical parameters viz, lipid peroxidation (LPx) and glutathione (GSH)

2012-01-01

170

Protection and repair of ?-radiation-induced lesions in mice with DNA or deoxyribonucleoside treatments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mice can survive lethal doses of ionizing radiation if deoxyribonucleosides or 'highly polymerized' salmon sperm DNA (Sigma) are administered 30 min to 24 h post-irradiation. DNA is more effective than deoxyribonucleosides in increasing the survival frequency. At supralethal exposures of ?-irradiation, deoxyribonucleosides and DNA are equally effective in reversing radiation damage which otherwise leads to chromosome breakage. The micronucleus frequencies in the polychromatic erythrocytes of bone marrow cells from DNA- or deoxyribonucleoside-treated mice were near the unirradiated control values. This reduction in chromosome breakage was = 4-fold when compared with the irradiated, saline-treated control. 'Highly polymerized' DNA protects against mortality if administered 48 and 24 h prior to irradiation. This is somewhat comparable to the effectiveness of the growth factors Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) or tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) administered prior to irradiation. With survival as criterion, the sensitivity of 4 lines of mice to ?-irradiation is BALB/c>C3H/OuJ?C3H/HeJ>C57B1/6

1996-01-19

171

Tualang honey protects keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation-induced inflammation and DNA damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaysian tualang honey possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we evaluated the effect of tualang honey on early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis employing PAM212 mouse keratinocyte cell line. Keratinocytes were treated with tualang honey (1.0%, v/v) before a single UVB (150 mJ cm(-2) ) irradiation. We found that the treatment of tualang honey inhibited UVB-induced DNA damage, and enhanced repair of UVB-mediated formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine. Treatment of tualang honey inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-?B and degradation of I?B? in murine keratinocyte cell line. The treatment of tualang honey also inhibited UVB-induced inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression. Furthermore, the treatment of tualang honey inhibited UVB-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Taken together, we provide evidence that the treatment of tualang honey to keratinocytes affords substantial protection from the adverse effects of UVB radiation via modulation in early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis and provide suggestion for its photochemopreventive potential. PMID:22276569

Ahmad, Israr; Jimenez, Hugo; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Yusuf, Nabiha

2012-01-01

172

Tualang Honey protects keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation induced inflammation and DNA damage†  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaysian tualang honey possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we evaluated the effect of tualang honey on early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis employing PAM212 mouse keratinocyte cell line. Keratinocytes were treated with tualang honey (1.0%, v/v) before a single UVB (150 mJ/cm2) irradiation. We found that treatment of tualang honey inhibited UVB-induced DNA damage, and enhanced repair of UVB-mediated formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). Treatment of tualang honey inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-?B, and degradation of I?B? in murine keratinocyte cell line. Treatment of tualang honey also inhibited UVB-induced inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression. Furthermore, treatment of tualang honey inhibited UVB-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Taken together, we provide evidence that treatment of tualang honey to keratinocytes affords substantial protection from the adverse effects of UVB radiation via modulation in early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis and provide suggestion for its photochemopreventive potential.

Ahmad, Israr; Jimenez, Hugo; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Yusuf, Nabiha

2012-01-01

173

Tryptophan Cluster Protects Human ?D-Crystallin from Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Photoaggregation In Vitro  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a significant risk factor for age-related cataract, a disease of the human lens and the most prevalent cause of blindness in the world. Cataract pathology involves protein misfolding and aggregation of the primary proteins of the lens, the crystallins. Human ?D-crystallin (H?D-Crys) is a major ?-crystallin in the nucleus of the human lens. We report here analysis of UVR-induced damage to H?D-Crys in vitro. Irradiation of solutions of recombinant H?D-Crys with UVA/UVB light produced a rise in solution turbidity due to polymerization of the monomeric crystallins into higher molecular weight aggregates. A significant fraction of this polymerized protein was covalently linked. Photoaggregation of H?D-Crys required oxygen and its rate was protein concentration and UVR dose dependent. To investigate the potential roles of individual tryptophan residues in photoaggregation, triple W:F mutants of H?D-Crys were irradiated. Surprisingly, despite reducing UVR absorbing capacity, multiple W:F H?D-Crys mutant proteins photoaggregated more quickly and extensively than wild type. The results reported here are consistent with previous studies that postulated that an energy transfer mechanism between the highly conserved pairs of tryptophan residues in H?D-Crys could be protective against UVR-induced photodamage.

Schafheimer, Nathaniel; King, Jonathan

2013-01-01

174

Protective effect of treatment with low-dose gliclazide in a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to explore the expression of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1), the regulatory subunit of the NCCa-ATP channel, and to investigate the protective effects of gliclazide following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/reperfusion in male Wistar rats. Adult rats underwent 2h of the left MCAO using the intraluminal thread technique before reperfusion. The core areas of the infarct at different reperfusion time points were examined for the mRNA level and protein expression of SUR1 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting respectively. Gliclazide was administered intravenously into the right jugular vein for 12h simultaneously with the reperfusion. The number of apoptotic cells was determined using the TUNEL assay. The neurological functional deficits were evaluated using Bederson?s test, and the cerebral infarction volume was visualized with TTC staining. We found up-regulation of SUR1 mRNA and protein levels in ischemic infarct tissues after reperfusion following MCAO, and SUR1 mRNA and protein were maximally upregulated 8-12h after a 2-hour ischemia. The treatment with low-dose of gliclazide reduced the total number of TUNEL-positive cells, the neurological functional deficits and the brain infarct volume. These results suggest that the SUR1-regulated NCCa-ATP channel may be associated with MCAO/reperfusion injury and the infarct-reducing effects of intravenous treatment with gliclazide may be due, in part, to the blocked upregulation of SUR1 expression, the decreased infarct size and the reduced apoptosis in the ischemia-reperfusion brain. PMID:24602692

Tan, Fang; Li, Hua; Ma, Mingyi; Yu, Yerong

2014-04-29

175

Radiation-induced disruption of hippocampal redox homeostasis, neurogenesis and cognitive function: protective role of melatonin and its metabolites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitivity of neuronal tissues to ionizing radiation depends on the rate of differentiation and accompanying factors of the tissues as well as on the efficiency of the intrinsic antioxidative defense systems. Neurogenic area in the adult brain are reported be highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. While the pathogenesis of radiation induced cognitive impairment is not well understood, recent studies indicated that neuronal precursor cells in the hippocampus may be involved. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is unique in that it is one of two regions in the mammalian brain that continues to produce new neurons in adulthood. Moreover, brain is considered abnormally sensitive to oxidative damage and in fact early studies demonstrating the ease of peroxidation of brain membranes supported this notion. Brain is enriched in the more easily peroxidizable fatty acids, consumes an inordinate fraction (20%) of the total oxygen consumption for its relatively small weight (2%), and is not particularly enriched in antioxidant defenses. Our recent findings showed an inverse relationship between mice cognitive performance and cellular indicators of oxidative stress or redox status which was reported in the term glutathione homeostasis (GSH/GSSG), DNA damage, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Radiation exposure severely impaired the hipocampal neurogenesis as measure in the terms of immunoreactivity of immature and proliferating neurons in dentate gyrus, the doublecortin (Dcx) and Ki-67 positive cells respectively. Our results showed a significant implication of hippocampus neurogenesis in cognitive functions and pre-treatment of melatonin and its metabolites significantly protected the neurogenic potential of brain and thereby the cognitive functions. (author)

2012-01-01

176

Radiation-induced acute brain injury and the protective effect of traditional Chinese medicine-salvia miltiorrhiza  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To understand the expression of acute brain injury induced by radiation and the protective effect of traditional Chinese Medicine in BALB/C mouse. Methods: The whole brain of BALB/C mouse was irradiated to a dose of 25 Gy using a 6 MV X linear accelerator. Ten hours later, the brain tissue and blood sample were taken. Thiobarbituric acid reaction was used to detect the malonaldehyde substitute for the lipid peroxide. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of ICAM-1 on D1, 2, 3, and 10 after having received radiation. One-Way ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences in the values of LPO in the brain tissue and plasma between the groups. The difference of expression of ICAM-1 between the groups was compared by ?2 method. Results: Two hundred and twelve female BALB/C mice were divided into five groups: Control group, Radiation alone group (R), R + dexamethasone group, R + 654-2 group and R + Salvia Miltiorrhiza group. The contents of LPO in the mouse brain tissue 10 hours after 25 Gy of whole brain irradiation were as follows (mean ± standard error): Control group (1975.5±94.2) nmol/g, Radiation alone group (R) (3417.3±109.7) nmol/g, R + dexamethasone group (3113.6±178.1) nmol/g, R + 654-2 group (3406.4±159.1) nmol/g, R + Salvia Miltiorrhiza group (2981.5±140.1) nmol/g. Salvia Miltiorrhiza significantly reduced the LPO increase induced by irradiation (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the other groups in the change of LPO in the plasma 10 hours after whole brain irradiation. The expression of ICAM-1 after whole brain irradiation was time-dependent . There was an increase of expression of ICAM-1 24 hours after irradiation, reaching the peak at 48 hours. Salvia Miltiorrhiza and dexamethasone strongly inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 when compared with radiation only, with the difference significant (P<0.01). Conclusions: The change of LPO content in the BALB/C mouse brain tissue and the increase in expression of ICAM-1 on the brain vascular endothelial cell can act as indexes of acute brain injury induced by radiation. Traditional Chinese medicine Salvia Miltiorrhiza has a protective effect on radiation-induced acute brain injury

2003-06-01

177

Protective Effects of Polysaccharides from Soybean Meal Against X-ray Radiation Induced Damage in Mouse Spleen Lymphocytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate radioprotective effect of the polysaccharides from soybean meal (SMP against X-ray radiation-induced damage in mouse spleen lymphocytes. MTT and comet assay were performed to evaluate SMP’s ability to prevent cell death and DNA damage induced by radiation. The results show that, X-ray radiation (30 KV, 10 mA, 8 min (4 Gy can significantly increase cell death and DNA fragmentation of mouse spleen lymphocytes. Pretreatment with SMP for 2 h before radiation could increase cell viability, moreover, the SMP can reduce X-ray radiation-induced DNA damage. The percentage of tail DNA and the tail moment of the SMP groups were significantly lower than those of the radiation alone group (p < 0.05. These results suggest SMP may be a good candidate as a radioprotective agent.

Xin Yang

2011-11-01

178

Yeast DEL Assay Detects Protection against Radiation-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity: Adaptation of a Microtiter Plate Version  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The DEL assay in yeast detects DNA deletions that are inducible by many carcinogens. Here we use the colorimetric agent MTS to adapt the yeast DEL assay for microwell plate measurement of ionizing radiation-induced cell killing and DNA deletions. Using the microwell-based DEL assay, cell killing and genotoxic DNA deletions both increased with radiation dose between 0 and 2000 Gy. We used the microwell-based DEL assay to assess the effectiveness of varying concentrations of five different radi...

Hafer, Kurt; Rivina, Yelena; Schiestl, Robert H.

2010-01-01

179

Second International MELODI Workshop on Low Dose Risk Research - Slides of the presentations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MELODI (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative) mission is to impulse low dose risk research in Europe through a strategic research agenda (SRA) and road-map of priorities. The last presentation is dedicated to the SRA and its preference research programs. The other presentations deal principally with the low-dose exposure in medical uses of ionizing radiations, radiosensitivity, radiation-induced cataracts, or epidemiology and radiobiology of cardiovascular disease. This document is composed of the slides of the presentations

Repussard, J.; Weiss, W.; Quintana Trias, O.; Rosario Perez, M. del; Andersen, M.; Rudiger Trott, K.; Ottolenghi, A.; Smyth, V.; Graw, J.; Little, M.P.; Yonai, S.; Barcellos-Hoff, M.H.; Bouffler, S.; Chevillard, S.; Jeggo, P.; Sabatier, L.; Baatout, S.; Niwa, O.; Oesch, F.; Atkinson, M.; Averbeck, D.; Lloyd, D.; O' Neill, P.

2011-07-01

180

Second International MELODI Workshop on Low Dose Risk Research - Slides of the presentations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MELODI (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative) mission is to impulse low dose risk research in Europe through a strategic research agenda (SRA) and road-map of priorities. The last presentation is dedicated to the SRA and its preference research programs. The other presentations deal principally with the low-dose exposure in medical uses of ionizing radiations, radiosensitivity, radiation-induced cataracts, or epidemiology and radiobiology of cardiovascular disease. This document is composed of the slides of the presentations

2010-10-18

 
 
 
 
181

Mammography-oncogenecity at low doses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Controversy exists regarding the biological effectiveness of low energy x-rays used for mammography breast screening. Recent radiobiology studies have provided compelling evidence that these low energy x-rays may be 4.42 {+-} 2.02 times more effective in causing mutational damage than higher energy x-rays. These data include a study involving in vitro irradiation of a human cell line using a mammography x-ray source and a high energy source which matches the spectrum of radiation observed in survivors from the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Current radiation risk estimates rely heavily on data from the atomic bomb survivors, and a direct comparison between the diagnostic energies used in the UK breast screening programme and those used for risk estimates can now be made. Evidence highlighting the increase in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of mammography x-rays to a range of x-ray energies implies that the risks of radiation-induced breast cancers for mammography x-rays are potentially underestimated by a factor of four. A pooled analysis of three measurements gives a maximal RBE (for malignant transformation of human cells in vitro) of 4.02 {+-} 0.72 for 29 kVp (peak accelerating voltage) x-rays compared to high energy electrons and higher energy x-rays. For the majority of women in the UK NHS breast screening programme, it is shown that the benefit safely exceeds the risk of possible cancer induction even when this higher biological effectiveness factor is applied. The risk/benefit analysis, however, implies the need for caution for women screened under the age of 50, and particularly for those with a family history (and therefore a likely genetic susceptibility) of breast cancer. In vitro radiobiological data are generally acquired at high doses, and there are different extrapolation mechanisms to the low doses seen clinically. Recent low dose in vitro data have indicated a potential suppressive effect at very low dose rates and doses. Whilst mammography is a low dose exposure, it is not a low dose rate examination, and protraction of dose should not be confused with fractionation. Although there is potential for a suppressive effect at low doses, recent epidemiological data, and several international radiation risk assessments, continue to promote the linear no-threshold (LNT) model. Finally, recent studies have shown that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is more sensitive than mammography in detecting invasive breast cancer in women with a genetic sensitivity. Since an increase in the risk associated with mammographic screening would blur the justification of exposure for this high risk subgroup, the use of other (non-ionising) screening modalities is preferable.

Heyes, G J [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom); Mill, A J; Charles, M W [Radiation Biophysics Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

2009-06-01

182

Low doses effects and gamma radiations low dose rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This expose wishes for bringing some definitions and base facts relative to the problematics of low doses effects and low dose rates effects. It shows some already used methods and some actual experimental approaches by focusing on the effects of ionizing radiations with a low linear energy transfer. (N.C.)

1999-06-02

183

Low doses effects of ionizing radiation on Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exposure of living cells to low doses of ionizing radiation induce in response the activation of cellular protection mechanisms against subsequent larger doses of radiation. This cellular adaptive response may vary depending on radiation intensity and time of exposure, and also on the testing probes used whether they were mammalian cells, yeast, bacteria and other organisms or cell types. The mechanisms involved are the genome activation, followed by DNA repair enzymes synthesis. Due to the prompt cell response, the cell cycle can be delayed, and the secondary detoxification of free radicals and/or activation of membrane bound receptors may proceed. All these phenomena are submitted to intense scientific research nowadays, and their elucidation will depend on the complexity of the organism under study. In the present work, the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation (gamma rays) over a suspension of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) was studied, mainly in respect to survival rate and radio-adaptive response. At first, the yeast surviving curve was assessed towards increasing doses, and an estimation of Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) was made. The irradiation tests were performed at LINAC (electrons Linear Accelerator) where electron energy reached approximately 2.65 MeV, and gamma-radiation was produced for bremsstrahlung process over an aluminium screen target. A series of experiments of conditioning doses was performed and an increment surviving fraction was observed when the dose was 2.3 Gy and a interval time between this and a higher dose (challenging dose) of 27 Gy was 90 minutes. A value of 58 ± 4 Gy was estimated for LD50, at a dose rate of 0.44 ± 0.03 Gy/min These quantities must be optimized. Besides data obtained over yeast survival, an unusual increasing amount of tiny yeast colonies appeared on the agar plates after incubation, and this number increased as increasing the time exposure. Preliminary results indicate these colonies as 'petite' (mutants with mt DNA damage). (author)

2000-06-05

184

MELODI. The multidisciplinary European low dose initiative  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mission of MELODI is to coordinate and promote European research on the risks associated with low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation. There are a number of important scientific questions which require resolution in order to consolidate the European radiation protection knowledge in relation to low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation. Research on low-dose risk requires multidisciplinary approaches and long-term commitment. Several scientific and regulatory bodies set up MELODI in 2010 to address research requirements and joint approaches to the development of a coordinated research programme, including societal and public concerns related to radiation exposure. The research platform is open to any organization that shares the mission of developing and updating a joint research agenda. (orig.)

2012-01-01

185

1,4 Naphthoquinone protects radiation induced cell death and DNA damage in lymphocytes by activation Nrf2/are pathway and enhancing DNA repair  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1,4-Naphthoquinone (NQ) is the parent molecule of many clinically approved anticancer, anti-infective, and antiparasitic drugs such as anthracycline, mitomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, diospyrin, and malarone. Presence of NQ during a-irradiation (4Gy) significantly reduced the death of irradiated murine splenic lymphocytes in a dose dependent manner (0.05-liM), with complete protection at liM as assessed by PI staining. Radioprotection by NQ was further confirmed by inhibition of caspase activation, decrease in cell size, DNA-fragmentation, nuclear-blebbing and clonogenic assay. All trans retinoic acid which is inhibitor of Nrf-2 pathway, completely abrogated the radioprotective effect of NQ, suggesting that radioprotective activity of NQ may be due to activation of Nrf-2 signaling pathways. Further, addition of NQ to lymphocytes activated Nrf-2 in time dependent manner as shown by confocal microscopy, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and quantitative real time PCR. It also increased the expression of Nrf-2 dependent cytoprotective genes like hemeoxygenase-1, MnSOD, catalse as demonstrated by real time PCR and flowcytometry. NQ protected lymphocytes significantly against radiation-induced cell death even when added after irradiation. Complete protection was observed by addition of NQ up to 2 h after irradiation. However, percentage protection decreased with increasing time interval. These results suggested that NQ may offer protection to lymphocytes activating repair pathways. Repair of radiation induced DNA strand breaks was studied by comet assay. Pretreatment of lymphocytes with NQ induced single strand breaks up to 6h but not double strand breaks in DNA. However, NQ mediated single strand breaks were repaired completely at longer time intervals. Addition of NQ to lymphocytes prior to 4 Gy a-radiation exposure showed decrease in the yield of DNA double strand breaks. The observed time-dependent decrease in the DNA strand breaks could be attributed to enhanced DNA repair in NQ treated lymphocytes. Furthermore, microarray analysis indicated that treatment of lymphocytes with NQ induces upregulation of several DNA repair genes including mismatch repair (Msh6, Pms2, and Rfc1), nucleotide and base excision repair pathways like pole4, parp1, parp4. Induction of these genes in NQ treated lymphocytes were confirmed by quantitative real time PCR. Further, treatment of lymphocytes with NQ resulted in increased expression of proteins as revealed by 2D protein blot analysis. Proteomic analysis of these spots corresponds to RIKEN protein which is known to exhibits as radio-resistance in the cells. Thus in addition to anti-cancer and anti-parasitic activity, NQ offered protection against a-radiation-induced cell death in lymphocytes via activation of Nrf-2/ARE and DNA repair pathways. (author)

2012-01-01

186

Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the [...] aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

B.H., Bakkal; F.A., Gultekin; B., Guven; U.O., Turkcu; S., Bektas; M., Can.

2013-09-27

187

Importance and present state of the research in radiation-induced bystander response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, accumulating evidences have reported non-targeted effects, which are not a direct effect of the initial damage produced in cellular DNA. Radiation-induced bystander responses (RIBR) are the most important non-targeted effect, which are defined as cellular responses which have not been directly induced by radiation but are induced in the neighborhood cells of the directly irradiated. Here the importance and current issues of RIBR in the low dose radiation risk assessment were reported through the summary of present topics of RIBR and microbeam probes of radiation responses. Non-targeted effects include adaptive responses, low dose hypersensitivity, genomic instability, gene expression, inverse dose rate effect and bystander responses, which have common features that saturate with increasing dose. The accumulating evidence of the results obtained using alpha-particles suggests that a linear extrapolation of risks from high to low doses would underestimate the risks at low doses. However, in the 2007 recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP), it has been concluded that knowledge of the roles of bystander cell signaling in the genesis of radiation-induced health effects is insufficiently well developed for radiological protection purposes. Now the study of RIBR is considered that one of the most important study to clear the mechanisms of the effect of low dose radiation. RIBR is mainly mediated by cell-to-cell communication via gap-junction and/or secreted factors, i.e., Reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokines and growth factors and NO radicals, and is transferred at least up to 7.5 mm away from targeted cells. RIBR contributes to the induction of radiation adaptive responses. To elucidate the mechanisms of RIBR many microbeam irradiation devices are in operation or underdeveloped. Our experimental, plans and the problems of the study of RIBR are also shown in this report. (author)

2008-06-01

188

Protective role of Tinospora cordifolia extract against radiation-induced qualitative, quantitative and biochemical alterations in testes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In today's changing global scenario, ionizing radiation is considered as most potent cause of oxidative stress mediated by free radical flux which induces severe damage at various hierarchical levels in the organization in the living organisms. Testis is a highly prolific tissue with fast cellular renewal and poor antioxidant defense; therefore it becomes an easy target for the radiation-induced free radicals that have long been suggested as major cause of male infertility. Chemical radioprotection is an important strategy to countermeasure the deleterious effects of radiation. Several Indian medicinal plants are rich source of antioxidants and these have been used for the treatment of ailments. Tinospora cordifolia, commonly known as amrita, is one of the plants that have several pharmacological and therapeutic properties. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate the deleterious effects of semi lethal dose of gamma radiation on testicular tissue and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia root extract (TCE). For this purpose, healthy Swiss albino male mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. Group I (normal) was administered double distilled water (DDW) volume equal to TCE (75 mg/kg.b.wt/animal) by oral gavage. Group II was orally supplemented TCE as 75 mg/kg. b.wt once daily for 5 consecutive days. Group III (irradiated control) received DDW orally equivalent to TCE for 5 days then exposed to 5 Gy gamma radiation. Group IV (experimental) was administered TCE as in Group II and exposed to radiation (as in Group III). Irradiation resulted into significant decrease in the frequency of different spermatogenic cell counts along with severe histo-pathological lesions up to 7th day of irradiation in testes of irradiated control animals, thereafter, recovery followed towards the normal architecture. TCE pretreatment effectively prevented radiation induced such alterations in cellular counts and testicular injuries by restoring almost normal structure at the end of experimentation. Furthermore, TCE administration inhibited radiation-induced elevation of lipid per-oxidation (LPO) and reduction of glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) levels in testes. These observations signify that the Tinospora cordifolia root extract can be used as an efficient radio- protector against radiation mediated qualitative, quantitative and biochemical alterations in testes. (author)

2012-01-01

189

Isofraxidin, a potent reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, protects human leukemia cells from radiation-induced apoptosis via ROS/mitochondria pathway in p53-independent manner.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionizing radiation (IR) leads to oxidizing events such as excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the exposed cells, resulting in further oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. To screen the potential radio-protective drug, the intracellular ROS was measured in irradiated U937 cells pretreated with 80 candidate traditional herbal medicine, respectively. Isofraxidin (IF) was one possible radio-protector in these 80 drugs. This study investigated the radio-protective role of IF, a Coumarin compound, in human leukemia cell lines, for the first time. Results indicate that IF protects against IR-induced apoptosis in U937 cells in the time- and concentration- dependent manner. IF decreases IR-induced intracellular ROS generation, especially hydroxyl radicals formation, inhibits IR-induced mitochondrial membrane potential loss and reduces IR-induced high intracellular Ca(2+) levels regardless of ER stress. IF down-regulates the expression of caspase-3, phospho-JNK, phospho-p38 and activates Bax in mitochondria. IF inhibits cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol. IF also moderates IR-induced Fas externalization and caspase-8 activation. IF also exhibits significant protection against IR-induced cell death in other leukemia cell lines such as Molt-4 cells and HL60 cells regardless of p53. Taken together, the data demonstrate that IF protects leukemia cells from radiation-induced apoptosis via ROS/mitochondria pathway in a p53-independent manner. PMID:24692054

Li, Peng; Zhao, Qing-Li; Wu, Li-Hua; Jawaid, Paras; Jiao, Yu-Fei; Kadowaki, Makoto; Kondo, Takashi

2014-06-01

190

Influence of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG) on radiation-induced changes in the acid phosphatase activity of mouse intestine and its role in tissue protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adult male Swiss albino mice were exposed to a 60Cobalt gamma whole-body radiation of 2.5, 5 and 10 Gy with or without a prior intraperitoneal injection of MPG of 20 mg/kg body weight. The acid phosphatase activity was estimated in the ileum and pycnotic nuclei and necrotic cells were counted in the crypts at various post irradiation intervals from 3 h to 14 days. A close correlation was observed between acid phosphatase activity and cell death. It is concluded that the enzyme may have an important role in the development of cell injury. Observation on the MPG-pretreated animals suggests protection of the lysosomal membrane by a radial scavenging action of the drug on the radiation-induced lipid peroxide. (author)

1986-01-01

191

Protective effect of peach kernel extracts on radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood lymphocytes in the comet assay  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, the comet assay, has been applied to the detection of DNA damage from a number of chemical and biological factors in vivo and in vitro. The comet assay is a novel method to assess DNA single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites in individual cells. We evaluated the effect of peach kernel extracts on radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood lymphocytes using the comet assay. The lymphocytes, with or without pretreatment of the extracts, were exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy of {sup 60}Co gamma ray. Significantly increased tail moment, which was a marker of DNA strand breaks in the comet assay, showed an excellent dose-response relationship. The treatment of the peach kernel extracts prominently reduced the DNA damage in irradiated groups compared to that in non-treated control groups. The result indicated that the extracts showed radioprotective effect on lymphocyte DNA when assessed by the comet assay.

Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Chang Joo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Won; Chai, Young Gyu [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1999-05-01

192

Radiation induced oral mucositis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

Satheesh Kumar P

2009-01-01

193

Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure; Biologische Wirkungen niedriger Dosen ionisierender Strahlung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report on the meeting of the Strahlenschutzkommission 2007 concerning biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure includes the following contributions: Adaptive response. The importance of DNA damage mechanisms for the biological efficiency of low-energy photons. Radiation effects in mammography: the relative biological radiation effects of low-energy photons. Radiation-induced cataracts. Carcinomas following prenatal radiation exposure. Intercellular apoptosis induction and low-dose irradiation: possible consequences for the oncogenesis control. Mechanistic models for the carcinogenesis with radiation-induced cell inactivation: application to all solid tumors in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Microarrays at low radiation doses. Mouse models for the analysis of biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. The bystander effect: observations, mechanisms and implications. Lung carcinoma risk of Majak workers - modeling of carcinogenesis and the bystander effect. Microbeam studies in radiation biology - an overview. Carcinogenesis models with radiation-induced genomic instability. Application to two epidemiological cohorts.

Reinoehl-Kompa, Sabine; Baldauf, Daniela; Heller, Horst (comps.)

2009-07-01

194

Ultra-low dose naltrexone potentiates the anticonvulsant effect of low dose morphine on clonic seizures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Significant potentiation of analgesic effects of opioids can be achieved through selective blockade of their stimulatory effects on intracellular signaling pathways by ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonists. However, the generality and specificity of this interaction is not well understood. The bimodal modulation of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold by opioids provide a model to assess the potential usefulness of this approach in seizure disorders and to examine the differential mechanisms involved in opioid anti- (morphine at 0.5-3 mg/kg) versus pro-convulsant (20-100 mg/kg) effects. Systemic administration of ultra-low doses of naltrexone (100 fg/kg-10 ng/kg) significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant effect of morphine at 0.5 mg/kg while higher degrees of opioid receptor antagonism blocked this effect. Moreover, inhibition of opioid-induced excitatory signaling by naltrexone (1 ng/kg) unmasked a strong anticonvulsant effect for very low doses of morphine (1 ng/kg-100 microg/kg), suggesting that a presumed inhibitory component of opioid receptor signaling can exert strong seizure-protective effects even at very low levels of opioid receptor activation. However, ultra-low dose naltrexone could not increase the maximal anticonvulsant effect of morphine (1-3 mg/kg), possibly due to a ceiling effect. The proconvulsant effects of morphine on seizure threshold were minimally altered by ultra-low doses of naltrexone while being completely blocked by a higher dose (1 mg/kg) of the antagonist. The present data suggest that ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonists may provide a potent strategy to modulate seizure susceptibility, especially in conjunction with very low doses of opioids. PMID:15541894

Honar, H; Riazi, K; Homayoun, H; Sadeghipour, H; Rashidi, N; Ebrahimkhani, M R; Mirazi, N; Dehpour, A R

2004-01-01

195

Mechanism of protection of bystander cells by exogenous carbon monoxide: Impaired response to damage signal of radiation-induced bystander effect  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A protective effect of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated by CO releasing molecule ticarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2), on the bystander cells from the toxicity of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) was revealed in our previous study. In the present work, a possible mechanism of this CO effect was investigated. The results from medium transfer experiments showed that {alpha}-particle irradiated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells would release nitric oxide (NO), which was detected with specific NO fluorescence probe, to induce p53 binding protein 1 (BP1) formation in the cell population receiving the medium, and the release peak was found to be at 1 h post irradiation. Treating the irradiated or bystander cells separately with CO (CORM-2) demonstrated that CO was effective in the bystander cells but not the irradiated cells. Measurements of NO production and release with a specific NO fluorescence probe also showed that CO treatment did not affect the production and release of NO by irradiated cells. Protection of CO on cells to peroxynitrite, an oxidizing free radical from NO, suggested that CO might protect bystander cells via impaired response of bystander cells to NO, a RIBE signal in our research system.

Han, W. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wu, L.J. [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Y.C. [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Wang, H.Z. [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

2011-05-10

196

Mechanism of protection of bystander cells by exogenous carbon monoxide: Impaired response to damage signal of radiation-induced bystander effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A protective effect of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated by CO releasing molecule ticarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2), on the bystander cells from the toxicity of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) was revealed in our previous study. In the present work, a possible mechanism of this CO effect was investigated. The results from medium transfer experiments showed that ?-particle irradiated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells would release nitric oxide (NO), which was detected with specific NO fluorescence probe, to induce p53 binding protein 1 (BP1) formation in the cell population receiving the medium, and the release peak was found to be at 1 h post irradiation. Treating the irradiated or bystander cells separately with CO (CORM-2) demonstrated that CO was effective in the bystander cells but not the irradiated cells. Measurements of NO production and release with a specific NO fluorescence probe also showed that CO treatment did not affect the production and release of NO by irradiated cells. Protection of CO on cells to peroxynitrite, an oxidizing free radical from NO, suggested that CO might protect bystander cells via impaired response of bystander cells to NO, a RIBE signal in our research system.

2011-05-10

197

Modification of radiation-induced apoptosis in radiation- or hyperthermia-adapted human lymphocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the influence of the cellular adaptive response to ionizing radiation on radiation-induced apoptosis in human cells. The adaptive response is believed to be a protective mechanism that confers resistance to the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation and that can be induced by different agents, including hyperthermia and radiation. We have used fluorescence analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU) to assay the induction of apoptosis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by ionizing radiation. Using the FADU assay, we have observed the initial radiation-induced DNA damage, its subsequent disappearance due to enzymatic repair, and its time- and dose-dependent reappearance. We believe this reappearance of DNA damage to be indicative of the DNA fragmentation event associated with apoptosis. This interpretation has been supported at the individual cell level using an in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TDT) assay (Apoptag, Oncor Inc.), which detects the 3'-hydroxyl ends of fragmented DNA, and by fluorescence analysis of nuclear morphology in Hoechst 33258 stained cells. Pretreatment of cells with low-dose ?-radiation (0.1 Gy) or mild hyperthermia (40oC for 30 min) altered the extent of radiation-induced (3 Gy) apoptosis. Both pretreatments sensitized lymphocytes to become apoptotic after the 3-Gy radiation exposure. This sensitization may represent an adaptive response mechanism that reduces the risk that genetically damaged cells will proliferate. The ability to modify the probability of radiation-induced apoptosis may lower the cancer risk from a radiation exposure. (author)

1994-01-01

198

Modification of radiation-induced apoptosis in radiation- or hyperthermia-adapted human lymphocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have investigated the influence of the cellular adaptive response to ionizing radiation on radiation-induced apoptosis in human cells. The adaptive response is believed to be a protective mechanism that confers resistance to the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation and that can be induced by different agents, including hyperthermia and radiation. We have used fluorescence analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU) to assay the induction of apoptosis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by ionizing radiation. Using the FADU assay, we have observed the initial radiation-induced DNA damage, its subsequent disappearance due to enzymatic repair, and its time- and dose-dependent reappearance. We believe this reappearance of DNA damage to be indicative of the DNA fragmentation event associated with apoptosis. This interpretation has been supported at the individual cell level using an in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TDT) assay (Apoptag, Oncor Inc.), which detects the 3'-hydroxyl ends of fragmented DNA, and by fluorescence analysis of nuclear morphology in Hoechst 33258 stained cells. Pretreatment of cells with low-dose {gamma}-radiation (0.1 Gy) or mild hyperthermia (40{sup o}C for 30 min) altered the extent of radiation-induced (3 Gy) apoptosis. Both pretreatments sensitized lymphocytes to become apoptotic after the 3-Gy radiation exposure. This sensitization may represent an adaptive response mechanism that reduces the risk that genetically damaged cells will proliferate. The ability to modify the probability of radiation-induced apoptosis may lower the cancer risk from a radiation exposure. (author)

Cregan, S.P. [Atomic Energy Commission Research, Radiation Biology, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Univ. of Ottawa, Dept. of Biology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Boreham, D. [Atomic Energy Commission Research, Radiation Biology, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Walker, P.R. [National Research Council, Inst. of Biological Sciences, Ottawa, Ontario, (Canada); Brown, D.L. [Univ. of Ottawa, Dept. of Biology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mitchel, R.E.J

1994-07-01

199

Hormesis effect of low dose radiation on cellular DNA repair  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study radio-adaptive response of mutagenesis and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in mammalian cells induced by low dose ?-rays, and to detect low dose radiation-induced proteins. Methods: Mouse SR-1 cells were irradiated with 60Co ?-rays. Mutations at hprt locus were assayed by 6-thioguanine selective culture method. DNA DSBs were measured by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Southwestern blot hybridization was employed to detect radiation-induced proteins. Results: Preexposure of SR-1 cells to 1 cGy at 18 h and 24 h before challenging dose significantly decreased the frequency of hprt gene mutations induced by following 3 Gy challenge. Preexposure of SR-1 cells to single 1 cGy as well as to 1 cGy per day for 10 successive days significantly increased the cellular capacity of rejoining 3 Gy-induced DNA DSBs. A newly synthesized protein bound to damaged DNA was detected at 16 h after 1 cGy exposure. Conclusion: Proteins possibly involved in the process of DNA repair were induced by low dose radiation-up regulating the expression of some specific genes. Such induced proteins lead to increase of cellular DNA repair capacity as well as radio-adaptive response of cells to gene mutations

1997-06-01

200

Doe Program—Developing a Scientific Basis for Responses to Low-Dose Exposures: Impact on Dose-Response Relationships  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program focuses on biological mechanisms involved in response to low doses of both low and high-LET radiation (<0.1Gy). This research program represents a merging of new technologies with cutting edge biological techniques associated with genomics. This merger enables observation of radiation-induced cellular and molecular changes previously undetectable. These low-dose responses define mechanisms of interaction of radiation with living systems, and charact...

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Radiation-induced adaptive response in fish cell lines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is considerable interest at present in low-dose radiation effects in non-human species. In this study gamma radiation-induced adaptive response, a low-dose radiation effect, was examined in three fish cell lines, (CHSE-214 (Chinook salmon), RTG-2 (rainbow trout) and ZEB-2J (zebrafish)). Cell survival after exposure to direct radiation with or without a 0.1 Gy priming dose, was determined using the colony forming assay for each cell line. Additionally, the occurrence of a bystander effect was examined by measuring the effect of irradiated cell culture medium from the fish cell lines on unexposed reporter cells. A non-linear dose response was observed for all cell lines. ZEB-2J cells were very sensitive to low doses and a hyper-radiosensitive (HRS) response was observed for doses <0.5 Gy. A typical protective adaptive response was not detected in any of the three fish cell lines tested. Rather, it was found that pre-exposure of these cells to 0.1 Gy radiation sensitized the cells to subsequent high doses. In CHSE-214 cells, increased sensitivity to subsequent high doses of radiation was observed when the priming and challenge doses were separated by 4 h; however, this sensitizing effect was no longer present when the interval between doses was greater than 8 h. Additionally, a 'protective' bystander response was observed in these cell lines; exposure to irradiated medium from fish cells caused increased cloning efficiency in unirradiated reporter cells. The data confirm previous conclusions for mammalian cells that the adaptive response and bystander effect are inversely correlated and contrary to expectations probably have different underlying mechanisms.

Ryan, Lorna A.; Seymour, Colin B. [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences Department, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Juravinski Cancer Centre, 699 Concession Street, Hamilton, Ontario, L8V 5C2 (Canada); O' Neill-Mehlenbacher, Alicia [Juravinski Cancer Centre, 699 Concession Street, Hamilton, Ontario, L8V 5C2 (Canada); Mothersill, Carmel E. [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences Department, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Juravinski Cancer Centre, 699 Concession Street, Hamilton, Ontario, L8V 5C2 (Canada)], E-mail: mothers@mcmaster.ca

2008-04-15

202

Radiation-induced adaptive response in fish cell lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is considerable interest at present in low-dose radiation effects in non-human species. In this study gamma radiation-induced adaptive response, a low-dose radiation effect, was examined in three fish cell lines, (CHSE-214 (Chinook salmon), RTG-2 (rainbow trout) and ZEB-2J (zebrafish)). Cell survival after exposure to direct radiation with or without a 0.1 Gy priming dose, was determined using the colony forming assay for each cell line. Additionally, the occurrence of a bystander effect was examined by measuring the effect of irradiated cell culture medium from the fish cell lines on unexposed reporter cells. A non-linear dose response was observed for all cell lines. ZEB-2J cells were very sensitive to low doses and a hyper-radiosensitive (HRS) response was observed for doses <0.5 Gy. A typical protective adaptive response was not detected in any of the three fish cell lines tested. Rather, it was found that pre-exposure of these cells to 0.1 Gy radiation sensitized the cells to subsequent high doses. In CHSE-214 cells, increased sensitivity to subsequent high doses of radiation was observed when the priming and challenge doses were separated by 4 h; however, this sensitizing effect was no longer present when the interval between doses was greater than 8 h. Additionally, a 'protective' bystander response was observed in these cell lines; exposure to irradiated medium from fish cells caused increased cloning efficiency in unirradiated reporter cells. The data confirm previous conclusions for mammalian cells that the adaptive response and bystander effect are inversely correlated and contrary to expectations probably have different underlying mechanisms

2008-04-01

203

Low Dose Vaccination with Attenuated Francisella tularensis Strain SchuS4 Mutants Protects against Tularemia Independent of the Route of Vaccination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tularemia, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Interest in tularemia has increased over the last decade due to its history as a biological weapon. In particular, development of novel vaccines directed at protecting against pneumonic tularemia has been an important goal. Previous work has demonstrated that, when delivered at very high inoculums, administration of live, highly attenuated strains of virulent F. tularensis can protec...

Rockx-brouwer, Dedeke; Chong, Audrey; Wehrly, Tara D.; Child, Robert; Crane, Deborah D.; Celli, Jean; Bosio, Catharine M.

2012-01-01

204

Neomercazole protection against radiation-induced changes in bioamines and testicular metabolism of rats during starvation stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of X rays was studied on normally fed and starved rats vis-a-vis neomercazole, a sulfur containing carbimazone as a chemical radioprotector. Levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and vinylmandelic acid which were found rising following exposure to X-rays, were significantly curtailed by the treatment with radioprotector in the protected-cum-irradiated rats. Administration of neomercazole offered protection to the testes against radiation injury by increasing alkaline phophatase and cholesterol contents in the testes of drug-treated-cum-irradiated animals. Pretreatment of neomercazole reduced the rate of mortality in the starvation-cum-irradiated animals as compared to the nontreated starvation-cum-irradiated animals. (author)

1987-01-01

205

Ferulic acid protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells from radiation induced oxidative stress by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ferulic acid (FA) has been demonstrated to have a remarkable antioxidant activity, the mechanism of FA of protecting human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from radiation induced oxidative stress was investigated in the present study. The oxidative protection of FA was assessed by cellular glutathione (GSH) content, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) levels, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation was detected using Western blotting. The upstream signaling pathway involved in FA mediated Nrf2 activation was determined by signaling inhibitors. FA significantly increased the transcription of antioxidant related genes such as GCLC (glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit), GCLM (glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit), NQO1 (NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA in radiated cells, and these changes involved in a significant increase of the intracellular GSH content and the expression of NAPDH. FA evidently promoted NrfT2 translocation into nuclei and increased the intracellular GSH and NADPH levels in radiated cells. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathways were associated with FA-induced Nrf2 activation. The results suggested that FA-induced Nrf2 activation play key role in cytoprotective effect of FA against oxidative stress via PI3K and ERK signaling pathways. (author)

2010-01-01

206

Moderate acute intake of de-alcoholised red wine, but not alcohol, is protective against radiation-induced DNA damage ex vivo-Results of a comparative in vivo intervention study in younger men  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Moderate intake of wine is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and possibly cancer however it remains unclear whether the potential health benefits of wine intake are due to alcohol or the non-alcoholic fraction of wine. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the non-alcoholic fraction of wine protects against genome damage induced by oxidative stress in a crossover intervention study involving six young adult males aged 21-26 years. The participants adhered to a low plant phenolic compound diet for 48 h prior to consuming 300 mL of complete red wine, dealcoholised red wine or ethanol on separate occasions 1 week apart. Blood samples were collected 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 h after beverage consumption. Baseline and radiation-induced genome damage was measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and total plasma catechin concentration was measured. Consumption of dealcoholised red wine significantly decreased the gamma radiation-induced DNA damage at 1 and 2 h post-consumption by 20%. In contrast alcohol tended to increase radiation-induced genome damage and complete wine protected against radiation-induced genome damage relative to alcohol. The observed effects were only weakly correlated with the concentration of total plasma catechin (R = -0.23). These preliminary data suggest that only the non-alcoholic fraction of red wine protects DNA from oxidative damage but this effect cannot be explained solely by plasma catechin.

Greenrod, W. [CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Genome Health and Nutrigenomics Laboratory, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia); Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Stockley, C.S. [Australian Wine Research Institute, South Australia (Australia); Burcham, P. [Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Abbey, M. [CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Genome Health and Nutrigenomics Laboratory, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia); Fenech, M. [CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Genome Health and Nutrigenomics Laboratory, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia)]. E-mail: michael.fenech@hsn.csiro.au

2005-12-11

207

Moderate acute intake of de-alcoholised red wine, but not alcohol, is protective against radiation-induced DNA damage ex vivo-Results of a comparative in vivo intervention study in younger men  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Moderate intake of wine is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and possibly cancer however it remains unclear whether the potential health benefits of wine intake are due to alcohol or the non-alcoholic fraction of wine. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the non-alcoholic fraction of wine protects against genome damage induced by oxidative stress in a crossover intervention study involving six young adult males aged 21-26 years. The participants adhered to a low plant phenolic compound diet for 48 h prior to consuming 300 mL of complete red wine, dealcoholised red wine or ethanol on separate occasions 1 week apart. Blood samples were collected 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 h after beverage consumption. Baseline and radiation-induced genome damage was measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and total plasma catechin concentration was measured. Consumption of dealcoholised red wine significantly decreased the gamma radiation-induced DNA damage at 1 and 2 h post-consumption by 20%. In contrast alcohol tended to increase radiation-induced genome damage and complete wine protected against radiation-induced genome damage relative to alcohol. The observed effects were only weakly correlated with the concentration of total plasma catechin (R = -0.23). These preliminary data suggest that only the non-alcoholic fraction of red wine protects DNA from oxidative damage but this effect cannot be explained solely by plasma catechin

2005-12-11

208

On the risk to low doses (  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science committee of International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) developed a policy statement on the predictions of radiation-induced cancers and cancer deaths in patients exposed to low doses (<100 mSv) of ionizing radiation during medical imaging; this statement has been approved by the IOMP council. In order to attract the attention of medical physicists, an editorial (1) titled 'Risk of Medical Imaging' that includes the said statement has recently been published in Medical Physics journal of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). As stated, IOMP represents 80 national and 6 regional medical physics organizations and 18,000 medical physicists worldwide. The IOMP affiliated bodies/organizations in different countries (such as Association of Medical Physicists of India, AMPI) have been encouraged to reproduce the IOMP statement in their journals/newsletters for the benefit of larger community of medical physicists. The IOMP statement is reproduced below (readers may also go through the supportive literature listed in references). It is hoped that this policy statement will have some deterrent influence on the continued propagation of unproven risk related to medical imaging procedures conducted with small doses.

2013-01-01

209

Protective effect of vitamins C and E on Gamma radiation induced Genetic injuries in male mice germ cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of vitamins C and E on meiotic chromosomal metaphase-8 at diakinesis of the mouse to 3 Gy of whole body gamma- irradiation were studied. These vitamins were injected intraperitoneally as acute doses 2 hr before irradiation. Both vitamins significantly reduced the frequencies of chromosomal aberration in spermatic germ cells. The protective effect of vitamin E was greater than that afforded by vitamin C. A combined treatment of both vitamins resulted in additional protection over that offered by each vitamine alone. In all animal groups the most frequent aberration found was translocation in the from of either ring four (R IV) or chain four (C IV). The percentage of each or them was significantly increased in male mice sacrificed after 15 days post-irradiation. Other types of aberrations as autosomal univalent, X-Gamma univalent and polyploidy were rarely present

1999-01-01

210

Low-dose radiation: a cause of breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is likely that the breast is the organ most sensitive to radiation carcinogenesis in postpubertal women. Studies of different exposed populations have yielded remarkably consistent results, in spite of wide differences in underlying breast cancer rates and conditions of exposure. Excess risk is approximately proportional to dose, and is relatively independent of ionization density and fractionization of dose. This implies that the risk associated with low-dose exposures to ionizing radiation can be estimated with some confidence from higher-dose data. Excess risk is heavily dependent on age at exposure but relatively independent of population differences in normal risk. The temporal patterns after exposure of both radiation-induced and naturally occurring breast cancer are similar, suggesting a strong influence of factors other than radiation on radiation-induced breast cancer. Uncertainties remain about risks from exposures before puberty and after menopause

1980-08-15

211

Low doses of the selective adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 are protective in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence indicate that adenosine A2A receptor subtype is of critical importance in stroke. An overexpression of A2A adenosine receptors occurs at central level on neurons and microglia of ischemic striatum and cortex after focal ischemia. Adenosine A2A receptor subtype is localized not only at central level but also peripherally on blood cells, where it is known to exert antiinflammatory effect. Purpose of the present work was to investigate the putative neuroprotective effect of the adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 in a rat model of transient medial cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Transient cerebral ischemia was induced by 1h occlusion of MCA. CGS21680 (0.01 and 0.1mg/kg, i.p.) was administered starting 4h after ischemia according to a chronic protocol (twice/day for 7 days). CGS21680, at the dose of 0.1mg/kg transiently increased heart frequency but did not modify blood pressure. At the dose of 0.01mg/kg the drug did not modify either heart frequency or blood pressure. Following transient MCAo, CGS21680 at both doses protected from neurological deficit from the first day up to 7 days thereafter. At this time, it has reduced microgliosis, astrogliosis and improved myelin organization in the striatum and cytoarchitecture of the ischemic cortex and striatum. Two days after transient MCAo, CGS21680 has reduced the number of infiltrated granulocytes into the ischemic tissue. Data indicate that CGS21680 systemically administered is protective by immunosuppressive effects. PMID:24457041

Melani, Alessia; Corti, Francesca; Cellai, Lucrezia; Giuliana Vannucchi, Maria; Pedata, Felicita

2014-03-10

212

Protective effects of analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone against x-radiation-induced testicular damage in rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Possible protective effects of the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH and antagonist N-Ac(D-Phe(pCl)/sup 1,2/,D-Trp/sup 3/,D-Arg/sup 6/,D-Ala/sup 10/)LH-RH against testicular damage caused by x-radiation were investigated in rats. Three months after being subjected to x-irradiation of the testes with 415 or 622 rads, control rats showed marked reduction in the weights of the testes and elevated levels of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), indicating tubular damage. Histological studies demonstrated that, in testes of rats given 415 rads, most seminiferous tubules had only Sertoli cells and no germinal cells, and, in the group give 622 rads, the depression of spermatogenesis was even more marked. Rats pretreated for 50 days with LH-RH antagonist showed a complete recovery of testicular weights and spermatogenesis 3 months after 415 rads and showed partial recovery after 622 rads, and LH and FSH levels returned to normal in both of these groups. Three experiments were also carried out in which the rats were pretreated for 1-2 months with long-acting microcapsules of the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH. Some rats were then subjected to gonadal irradiation with 415 or 622 rads and allowed a recovery period of 2-4 months. On the basis of testicular weights, histology, and gonadotropin levels, it could be concluded that the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH did not protect the rat testes exposed to 622 rads and, at most, only partially protected against 415 rads. These results suggest that pretreatment with LH-RH antagonists and possibly agonists, might decrease the testicular damage caused by radiation and accelerate the recovery of reproductive functions.

Schally, A.V.; Paz-Bouza, J.I.; Schlosser, J.V.; Karashima, T.; Debeljuk, L.; Gandle, B.; Sampson, M.

1987-02-01

213

Review of European research trends of low dose radiation risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large research projects on low dose radiation effects in Europe and US over the past decade have provided limited scientific knowledge which could underpin the validation of radiation protection systems. Recently in Europe, there have been repeated discussions and dialogues to improve the situation, and as the consequence, the circumstances surrounding low dose radiation risks are changing. In 2009, Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) was established as a trans-national organization capable of ensuring appropriate governance of research in the pursuit of a long term shared vision, and Low Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration (DoReMi) network was launched in 2010 to achieve fairly short term results in order to prove the validity of the MELODI approach. It is expected to be very effective and powerful activities to facilitate the reduction of uncertainties in the understanding of low dose risks, but the regulatory requests rushing the reinforcement of radiological protection regulations based on the precautional principles are more increasing. To develop reasonable radiological protection systems based on scientific evidences, we need to accelerate to collect scientific evidences which could directly underpin more appropriate radiation protection systems even in Japan. For the purpose, we Japan need to develop from an independent standpoint and share as a multidisciplinary vision a long term and holistic research strategy which enables to enhance Japanese advantages such as low dose rate facilities and animal facilities, as soon as possible. (author)

2010-06-01

214

Comparison of the protective action of MPG and WR-2721 on the radiation induced chromosomal aberrations in mouse bone marrow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Swiss albino mice were exposed to 6 Gy total body radiation and frequency of chromosomal injuries, induced by radiation in the bone marrow, was determined. The effects of preradiation administration of MPG and WR-2721 on the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities were studied. There was a considerable reduction in the frequency of chromosome aberrations with these substances in the marrow cells irradiated in vivo. It may be inferred that the protective effect of MPG and WR-2721, which reduce mortality rate after radiation, is exerted through chromosome mechanism. It is also observed that WR-2721 is a better protector than MPG. (author)

1984-12-01

215

Functional analysis of molecular mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis, that are not mediated by DNA damages; Funktionelle Analyse molekularer Mechanismen der strahleninduzierten Apoptose, die nicht ueber direkte DNA-Schaeden vermittelt werden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of low-dose irradiation pose new challenges on the radiation protection efforts. Enhanced cellular radiation sensitivity is displayed by disturbed cellular reactions and resulting damage like cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. Apoptosis serves as genetically determinate parameter for the individual radiation sensitivity. In the frame of the project the radiation-induced apoptosis was mechanistically investigated. Since ionizing radiation induced direct DNA damage and generates a reactive oxygen species, the main focus of the research was the differentiation and weighting of DNA damage mediated apoptosis and apoptosis caused by the reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Angermeier, Marita; Moertl, Simone [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie

2012-09-15

216

Low Dose IR Creates an Oncogenic Microenvironment by Inducing Premature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Introduction Much of the work addressing ionizing radiation-induced cellular response has been carried out mainly with the traditional cell culture technique involving only one cell type, how cellular response to IR is influenced by the tissue microenvironment remains elusive. By use of a three-dimensional (3D) co-culture system to model critical interactions of different cell types with their neighbors and with their environment, we recently showed that low-dose IR-induced extracellular signaling via the tissue environment affects profoundly cellular responses. This proposal aims at determining the response of mammary epithelial cells in a tissue-like setting.

Yuan, Zhi-Min [Harvard School of Public Health

2013-04-28

217

Protective Role of Hsp27 Protein Against Gamma Radiation-Induced Apoptosis and Radiosensitization Effects of Hsp27 Gene Silencing in Different Human Tumor Cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The ability of heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) to protect cells from stressful stimuli and its increased levels in tumors resistant to anticancer therapeutics suggest that it may represent a target for sensitization to radiotherapy. In this study, we investigate the protective role of Hsp27 against radiation-induced apoptosis and the effect of its attenuation in highly expressing radioresistant cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: We examined clonogenic death and the kinetics of apoptotic events in different tumor cell lines overexpressing or underexpressing Hsp27 protein irradiated with photons. The radiosensitive Jurkat cell line, which does not express Hsp27 constitutively or in response to ?-rays, was stably transfected with Hsp27 complementary DNA. Attenuation of Hsp27 expression was accomplished by antisense or RNAi (interfering RNA) strategies in SQ20B head-and-neck squamous carcinoma, PC3 prostate cancer, and U87 glioblastoma radioresistant cells. Results: We measured concentration-dependent protection against the cytotoxic effects of radiation in Jurkat-Hsp27 cells, which led to a 50% decrease in apoptotic cells at 48 hours in the highest expressing cells. Underlying mechanisms leading to radiation resistance involved a significant increase in glutathione levels associated with detoxification of reactive oxygen species, a delay in mitochondrial collapse, and caspase activation. Conversely, attenuation of Hsp27 in SQ20B cells, characterized by their resistance to apoptosis, sensitizes cells to irradiation. This was emphasized by increased apoptosis, decreased glutathione basal level, and clonogenic cell death. Sensitization to irradiation was confirmed in PC3 and U87 radioresistant cells. Conclusion: Hsp27 gene therapy offers a potential adjuvant to radiation-based therapy of resistant tumors

2008-02-01

218

Radiation-induced bystander effects and the DNA paradigm: An 'out of field' perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past 20 years there has been increasing evidence that cells and the progeny of cells surviving a very low dose of ionizing radiation [?-mGy] can exhibit a wide range of non-monotonic effects such as adaptive responses, low dose hypersensitivity and other delayed effects. These effects are inconsistent with the expected dose-response, when based on extrapolation of high dose data and cast doubt on the reliability of extrapolating from high dose data to predict low dose effects. Recently the cause of many of these effects has been tentatively ascribed to so-called 'bystander effects'. These are effects that occur in cells not directly hit by an ionizing track but which are influenced by signals from irradiated cells and are thus highly relevant in situations where the dose is very low. Not all bystander effects may be deleterious although most endpoints measured involve cell damage or death. In this commentary, we consider how these effects impact the historical central dogma of radiobiology and radiation protection, which is that DNA double strand breaks are the primary radiation-induced lesion which can be quantifiably related to received dose and which determine the probability that a cancer will result from a radiation exposure. We explore the low dose issues and the evidence and conclude that in the very low dose region, the primary determinant of radiation exposure outcome is the genetic and epigenetic background of the individual and not solely the dose. What this does is to dissociate dose from effect as a quantitative relationship, but it does not necessarily mean that the effect is ultimately unrelated to DNA damage. The fundamental thesis we present is that at low doses fundamentally different mechanisms underlie radiation action and that at these doses, effect is not quantitatively related to dose

2006-05-11

219

Protective effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The protective properties of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) against intestinal damage were examined by evaluating its effects on jejunal crypt survival, morphological changes, and apoptosis in gamma-irradiated mice. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 12 Gy for the examination of jejunal crypt survival and any morphological changes and with 2 Gy for the detection of apoptosis and Ki-67 labeling. Irradiation was conducted using (60)Co gamma-rays. HemoHIM treatment was administered intraperitonially at a dosage of 50 mg/kg of body weight at 36 and 12 hours pre-irradiation and 30 minutes post-irradiation or orally at a dosage of 250 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 or 11 days before necropsy. The HemoHIM-treated group displayed a significant increase in survival of jejunal crypts, when compared to the irradiation controls. HemoHIM treatment decreased intestinal morphological changes such as crypt depth, villus height, mucosal length, and basal lamina length of 10 enterocytes after irradiation. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM protected intestinal cells from irradiation-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that HemoHIM may be therapeutically useful to reduce intestinal injury following irradiation. PMID:20041793

Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jang, Jong Sik; Jo, Sung Kee

2009-12-01

220

A comparative study on the protection effect in the radiation-induced oxidation of liquid paraffins and polypropylene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Comparison of protection effect of additives in liquid paraffins and polypropylene (PP) irradiation under pure oxygen atmosphere has been carried out. Gas product analysis and mechanical properties measurement of PP films indicate that the presence of additives reduces O2 uptake, gas evolution and molecular degradation. These facts are attributed to energy and charge transfer, and radical scavenging action of the additive molecules regardless the physical state difference of the substrates. Oxidation pathway in liquid paraffin is shorter than that in solid PP, and the main part of the consumed O2 are converted into carboxylic acids. The excess of H2 evolution observed in PP oxidation is produced during the oxidation step, and transformation of the additives in their function as protector. (author)

1995-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Protective effect of sodium meclofenamate (SM) for radiation induced mucositis of the esophagus, large bowel and urinary bladder: A preliminary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium meclofenamate (SM) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent which inhibits the synthesis of both prostaglandins and leukotrienes. In previous studies involving animal models, the authors found that oral SM may protect against radiation induced esophagitis, cystitis and proctitis. Lately, they investigated oral SM for radioprotection of patients irradiated to their esophagus, colon and urinary bladder in a double blind study. A dose of 100 mg tid PO or placebo is given to patients who are irradiated to their chest or their pelvis for different malignancies. Evaluation is based on clinical tolerance to irradiation and histological examination of the involved organs. Twenty-four patients were so far included in the study. Seventeen patients received SM and only 7 were given placebo. A trend was found, the initial toxicity being probably worsened by the meclomen treatment (e.g., diarrhea in 2/7 (28.6%) placebo patients and in 13/17 (76.5%) of SM treated). In contradistinction, during the 12 months followup, signs of late toxicity are significantly lower in the SM treated group (e.g. diarrhea, 4/5 (80%) in the placebo and 1/12 (8.3%) in the SM group). The initial toxicity seems to be troublesome, however, more followup of the accrued patients may be of value regarding prevention of later radiation toxicity

1987-01-01

222

Protective effect of propolis on radiation-induced chromosomal damage on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the last years, particular interest has been given to investigations concerning natural, effective and nontoxic compounds with radioprotective capacity in concert with increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them, propolis, a resinous mixture of substances collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera) has been considered promising since it presents several advantageous characteristics, i.e., antiinflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial and free radical scavenging action. It is, therefore, a direct antioxidant that protects cells and organisms from the adverse effects of ionizing radiation. These relevant biological activities are mainly mediated by the flavonoids, present at relatively high concentrations in the propolis. Considering that the chemical composition and, consequently, the biological activity of propolis is variable according to the environmental plant ecology, the present study was conducted in order to evaluate the radioprotective capacity of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, against genotoxic damages induced by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). for this purpose, micronucleus induction was analyzed concerning irreparable damage, specifically related to DNA double-strand breaks, that are potentially carcinogenic. CHO-K1 cells were submitted to different concentrations of propolis (3 - 33 {mu}g/ml), 1 h before irradiation, with 1 Gy of {gamma} radiation (0.722 Gy/min). The data obtained showed a decreasing tendency in the quantity of radioinduced damage on cells previously treated with propolis. The radioprotective effect was more prominent at higher propolis concentration. The treatment with propolis alone did not induce genotoxic effects on CHO-K1 cells. Beside that, the treatment with propolis, associated or not with radiation, did not influence the kinetics of cellular proliferation. (author)

Spigoti, Geyza; Bartolini, Paolo; Okazaki, Kayo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: kokazaki@ipen.br; Tsutsumi, Shiguetoshi [Amazon Food Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)], e-mail: fwip5138@mb.infoweb.ne.jp

2009-07-01

223

Protective effect of propolis on radiation-induced chromosomal damage on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last years, particular interest has been given to investigations concerning natural, effective and nontoxic compounds with radioprotective capacity in concert with increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them, propolis, a resinous mixture of substances collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera) has been considered promising since it presents several advantageous characteristics, i.e., antiinflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial and free radical scavenging action. It is, therefore, a direct antioxidant that protects cells and organisms from the adverse effects of ionizing radiation. These relevant biological activities are mainly mediated by the flavonoids, present at relatively high concentrations in the propolis. Considering that the chemical composition and, consequently, the biological activity of propolis is variable according to the environmental plant ecology, the present study was conducted in order to evaluate the radioprotective capacity of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, against genotoxic damages induced by 60Co ?-radiation in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). for this purpose, micronucleus induction was analyzed concerning irreparable damage, specifically related to DNA double-strand breaks, that are potentially carcinogenic. CHO-K1 cells were submitted to different concentrations of propolis (3 - 33 ?g/ml), 1 h before irradiation, with 1 Gy of ? radiation (0.722 Gy/min). The data obtained showed a decreasing tendency in the quantity of radioinduced damage on cells previously treated with propolis. The radioprotective effect was more prominent at higher propolis concentration. The treatment with propolis alone did not induce genotoxic effects on CHO-K1 cells. Beside that, the treatment with propolis, associated or not with radiation, did not influence the kinetics of cellular proliferation. (author)

2009-10-02

224

Radiation carcinogenesis following low dose or low dose rate exposures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of dose responses have been observed for cancer induction following low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. In general, however, the response is curvilinear, with a rapidly rising component in the intermediate dose range followed by a plateau or decline in incidence at high doses. The response is more linear at low doses, whereas the response at intermediate doses is approximated by a dose-squared relationship. Models for this response are based on the biophysical theory of cellular effects. However, many types of effects contribute to the tumorigenic processes, and host factors play a major role. At low dose rates the carcinogenic effect is generally reduced, which is caused by a dimunition of the dose-squared component and results in a linear response. Effects of fractionation can vary with total dose, fraction size, and fraction interval. High LET radiation is more tumorigenic. The dose-response relationships are more nearly linear and are less dose-rate dependent. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) varies with dose, dose rate, fractionation, and target tissue. 14 refs., 1 fig

1986-09-15

225

Roles of DNA repair genes in sustaining cell proliferation under low dose-rate irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced DNA double-strand break (DSB) initiates various kinds of biological effects. There is accumulating evidence indicating that the biological effects of low dose and low dose-rate radiation are different from those of high dose and high dose-rate radiation. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms, it is essential to clarify the role of DSB repair-related genes in the repair of low dose and low dose-rate radiation-induced DSBs. Here, we show that the cell growth rate of non-homologous end-joining-related Ku70 and DNA-PKcs knockout chicken DT40 cells irradiated with ?-rays at 1.0 mGy/hr were significantly lower than that of homologous recombination-related Rad54 and NBS1 knockout cells and Rad54/Ku70 double-knockout cells, as well as wild-type cells. On the other hand, the growth of Rad54-/- cells irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays at 0.9 Gy/min was arrested as well as Ku70-/- and DNA-PKcs-/-/- cells. In addition, Rad54-/- Ku70-/- cells showed the strongest growth delay in all of knockout cells. However, NBS1-/-/- cells did not show the significant growth delay. These findings provide that the role of DSB repair-related genes in the repair of low dose-rate radiation-induced DSBs is noticeably different from that of high dose-rate. The growth delay observed in the mutants Ku70-/- and DNA-PKcs-/-/- cells irradiated with low dose-rate radiation, suggesting that these non-homologous end-joining-related genes may be utilized for the molecular marker to predict the sensitivity to low dose and low dose-rate radiation. (author)

2006-07-01

226

Protein and miRNA profiling of radiation-induced skin injury in rats: the protective role of peroxiredoxin-6 against ionizing radiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation-induced skin injury is a serious concern during radiotherapy. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of radiation-induced skin injury has not been extensively reported. Most biological functions are performed and regulated by proteins and noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs). The interplay between mRNA and miRNA has been implicated in disease initiation and progression. Technical advances in genomics and proteomics have enabled the exploration of the etiology of diseases and have the potential to broaden our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of radiation-induced skin injury. In this study, we compared the protein and miRNA expression in rat skin irradiated with a 45-Gy electron beam with expression from adjacent normal tissues. We found 24 preferentially expressed proteins and 12 dysregulated miRNAs in irradiated skin. By analyzing the protein and miRNA profiles using bioinformatics tools, we identified a possible interaction between miR-214 and peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX-6). Next, we investigated the expression of PRDX-6 and the consequences of its dysregulation. PRDX-6 is suppressed by radiation-inducible miR-214 and is involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced skin injury. Overexpression of PRDX-6 conferred radioresistance on cells, decreased cell apoptosis, and preserved mitochondrial integrity after radiation exposure. In addition, in vivo transfection with PRDX-6 reduced radiation-induced reactive oxygen species and the malondialdehyde concentration and ameliorated radiation-induced skin damage in rats. Our present findings illustrate the molecular changes during radiation-induced skin injury and the important role of PRDX-6 in ameliorating this damage in rats. PMID:24447893

Zhang, Shuyu; Wang, Wenjie; Gu, Qing; Xue, Jiao; Cao, Han; Tang, Yiting; Xu, Xiaohui; Cao, Jianping; Zhou, Jundong; Wu, Jinchang; Ding, Wei-Qun

2014-04-01

227

Inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase by gene disruption or inhibition with 5-iodo-6-amino-1,2-benzopyrone protects mice from multiple-low-dose-streptozotocin-induced diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activation of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS, also termed polyADP-ribose polymerase or PARP) has been proposed as a major mechanism contributing to beta-cell destruction in type I diabetes. In the present study, we have investigated the role of PARS in mediating the induction of diabetes and beta-cell death in the multiple-low-dose-streptozotocin (MLDS) model of type I diabetes. Mice genetically deficient in PARS were found to be less sensitive to MLDS than wild type mice, with a lower incidence of diabetes and reduced hyperglycemia. A potent inhibitor of PARS, 5-iodo-6-amino-1,2-benzopyrone (INH(2)BP), was also found to protect mice from MLDS and prevent beta-cell loss, in a dose-dependent manner. Paradoxically, in the PARS deficient mice, the compound increased the onset of diabetes. In vitro the cytokine combination; interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated rat islets of Langerhans and decreased RIN-5F cell viability. The PARS inhibitor, INH(2)BP, protected both the rat islets and the beta-cell line, RIN-5F, from these cytokine-mediated effects. These protective effects were not mediated by inhibition of cytokine-induced nitric oxide formation. Inhibition of PARS by INH(2)BP was unable to protect rat islet cells from cytokine-mediated apoptosis. Cytokines, peroxynitrite and streptozotocin were all shown to induce PARS activation in RIN-5F cells, an effect suppressed by INH(2)BP. The present study provides evidence for in vivo PARS activation contributing to beta-cell damage and death in the MLDS model of diabetes, and indicates a role for PARS activation in cytokine-mediated depression of insulin secretion and cell viability in vitro. PMID:11454665

Mabley, J G; Suarez-Pinzon, W L; Haskó, G; Salzman, A L; Rabinovitch, A; Kun, E; Szabó, C

2001-07-01

228

Ionizing radiation induced cataract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Until recently it was believed that the cataract (opacity of the eye lens) is a deterministic effect with a dose threshold of several Gray in dependence on the exposure conditions. Studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in the vicinity of Chernobyl, of American radiologic technologists, astronauts, and patients after having received several computer tomographies of the head region, however, have shown that this assumption is not correct. It had been overlooked in the past that with decreasing dose the latency period is increasing. Therefore, the originally available studies were terminated too early. The more recent studies show that, in the case of a threshold existing at all, it is definitely below 0.8 Gy independently of an acute or a chronic exposure. All studies, however, include 0 Gy in the confidence interval, so that the absence of a dose threshold cannot be excluded. The German Commission on Radiological Protection (Strahlenschutzkommission, SSK) suggested therefore among others: targeted recording of the lens dose during activities which are known to be associated with possible significant lens exposure, examination of the lens should be included as appropriate in the medical monitoring of people occupationally exposed to radiation, if there is potentially high lens exposure, adoption of research strategies to develop a basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying radiation induced cataracts. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) actually assumes a threshold dose of 0.5 Gy and, based on this assumption, has recommended in 2011 to reduce the dose limit for the eye lens from 150 mSv in a year to 20 mSv in a year for people occupationally exposed to ionising radiation. (orig.)

2013-09-24

229

MELODI - Multidisciplinary European Low dose Initiative - First Draft of Strategic Research Agenda (SRA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SRA Working Group of MELODI (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative) was tasked to develop a long-term strategic research agenda (SRA) to guide the coherent integration of national low dose research programmes. Priorities that need to be addressed concern fundamental mechanistic research ranging from radiation track structure and the deposition of energy in biologically important molecules; the resultant homeostatic perturbations and the steps in the cellular and tissue metabolic pathways that eventually lead to disease pathologies. In fact, the main priorities are here the step-wise elucidation of the mechanisms of radiation-induced (oxidative) stress responses and their impact on radiation-induced cancers and non cancer diseases. To achieve this a holistic approach is proposed staring with radiation-specific effects, radiation-induced molecular, biological and pathological effects involving a systems biology approach as well as molecular epidemiology and mathematical modelling in order to come up with more solid low dose health risk assessments. The pathologies considered are outlined in the report where the need is stressed for the MELODI platform to involve a constellation of classical and emerging technologies in a highly multidisciplinary approach. Elucidating the shapes of low-dose response relationships and resolving the question of thresholds is paramount to resolving questions of risk for both populations and individuals. Much is known about radiation-induced cancer in humans and animal models but this needs to be pursued particularly at low doses. More recently, the scientific community has realised that low radiation-induced health effects range well beyond cancer. The priority non-cancer areas that need to be brought into focus are cardiovascular, neurological and ophthalmic. (A.C.)

2010-01-01

230

Interaction of low dose irradiation with subsequent mutagenic treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study of interaction of low dose irradiation with subsequent mutagenic treatment could be a way of evaluating effects of low dose irradiation. This type of research is linked to a biological phenomenon in which cells actually sense environmental adversity mostly through exposure to low doses and then respond to various types of stress by means of a change in gene expression. In this respect there is now a considerable body of evidence showing that exposure of cells to very low doses of ionizing radiation can 'adapt' them such that they show reduced response to a subsequent higher dose. The initial dose may protect by inducing or priming a repair mechanism. This 'adaptive response' is demonstrated by numerous authors using different material and different end points. This paper presents results of experiments carried out using cultures of blood from donors which in previous experiments displayed no adaptive response or synergistic response. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs

1992-07-12

231

Low dose of oleanolic acid protects against lithocholic acid-induced cholestasis in mice: potential involvement of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2-mediated upregulation of multidrug resistance-associated proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oleanolic acid (OA) is a natural triterpenoid and has been demonstrated to protect against varieties of hepatotoxicants. Recently, however, OA at high doses was reported to produce apparent cholestasis in mice. In this study, we characterized the protective effect of OA at low doses against lithocholic acid (LCA)-induced cholestasis in mice and explored further mechanisms. OA cotreatment (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly improved mouse survival rate, attenuated liver necrosis, and decreased serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase; more importantly, serum total bile acids and bilirubin, as well as hepatic total bile acids were also remarkably reduced. Gene and protein expression analysis showed that hepatic expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2), Mrp3, and Mrp4 was significantly increased by OA cotreatment, whereas other bile acid metabolism- and transport-related genes, including Na+/taurocholate cotransporter, organic anion transporter 1b2, bile salt export pump, multidrug resistance protein 3, Cyp3a11, Cyp2b10, Sulfotransferase 2a1 (Sult2a1), and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1a1 (Ugt1a1), were only slightly changed. OA also caused increased nuclear factor-E2-related factor (Nrf2) mRNA expression and nuclear protein accumulation, whereas nuclear receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and constitutive androstane receptor were not significantly influenced by OA. Luciferase (Luc) assays performed in HepG2 cells illustrated that OA was a strong Nrf2 agonist with moderate PXR and weak FXR agonism. Finally, in mouse primary cultured hepatocytes, OA dose- and time-dependently induced expression of Mrp2, Mrp3, and Mrp4; however, this upregulation was abrogated when Nrf2 was silenced. In conclusion, OA produces a protective effect against LCA-induced hepatotoxicity and cholestasis, possibly due to Nrf2-mediated upregulation of Mrp2, Mrp3, and Mrp4. PMID:24510383

Chen, Pan; Zeng, Hang; Wang, Yongtao; Fan, Xiaomei; Xu, Chenshu; Deng, Rongrong; Zhou, Xunian; Bi, Huichang; Huang, Min

2014-05-01

232

Ameliorative effects of low dose/low dose-rate irradiation on reactive oxygen species-related diseases model mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Living organisms have developed complex biological system which protects themselves against environmental radiation, and irradiation with proper dose, dose-rate and irradiation time can stimulate their biological responses against oxidative stress evoked by the irradiation. Because reactive oxygen species are involved in various human diseases, non-toxic low dose/low dose-rate radiation can be utilized for the amelioration of such diseases. In this study, we used mouse experimental models for fatty liver, nephritis, diabetes, and ageing to elucidate the ameliorative effect of low dose/low dose-rate radiation in relation to endogenous antioxidant activity. Single irradiation at 0.5 Gy ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced fatty liver. The irradiation increases hepatic anti-oxidative system involving glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, suggesting that endogenous radical scavenger is essential for the ameliorative effect of low dose radiation on carbon tetrachloride-induced fatty liver. Single irradiation at 0.5 Gy ameliorates ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced nephritis. The irradiation increases catalase and decreases superoxide dismutase in kidney. The result suggests that low dose radiation reduced generation of hydroxide radical generation by reducing cellular hydroperoxide level. Single irradiation at 0.5 Gy at 12 week of age ameliorates incidence of type I diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice through the suppression of inflammatory activity of splenocytes, and resultant apoptosis of ?-cells in pancreas. The irradiation activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, which coordinately diminish intracellular reactive oxygen species. Continuous irradiation at 0.70 mGy/hr from 10 week of age elongates life span, and suppresses alopecia in type II diabetesmice. The irradiation improved glucose clearance without affecting insulin-resistance, and increased pancreatic catalase activity. The results suggest that continuous low dose-rate irradiation protect ?-cells against superoxide generated by glycation reaction evoked by high glucose environment. Continuous irradiation at 0.63 mGy/hr from 28 days of age elongates life span, and recovers splenic inflammatory response in Klotho-mice bearing ageing syndrome. The radiation increases anti-oxidants in liver, implicating the prevention of ageing through the suppression of cellular oxidative damages. Our results suggest that low dose/low dose-rate radiation effectively ameliorates diseases related to reactive oxygen species, and elongates life span of animals, at least in part through the stimulation of protective responses against oxidative stress. These findings are important not only for clinical use of low dose/low dose-rate radiation for human diseases, but also for non-cancerous risk estimation at dose and dose rate range argued in legal restrictions. (author)

2008-02-01

233

Low dose radiation and health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the contributions under the first heading, 'Radiobiological questions and methods of measurement', the technique used in measurements of radon is dealt with in brief. Issues related to dose determinations on the basis of physical and biological methods and the influence of the dose rate are discussed in greater detail. Several contributions provide information on the biopositive effects of rays and stimulation of natural defence mechanisms through low dose radiation. A case is given as an object lesson to throw some light on the role of occupational radiation exposure in the development of cancer of the lungs. The second chapter is dedicated to epidemiological questions. Discussed are investigations into the increased incidence of infantile leukaemia in living areas adjacent to nuclear power plants. There are two reports on cases of leukaemia reported in the vicinity of Birkenfeld and infant mortality curves in the Federal Republic after the Chernobyl accident. They are followed by further contributions on the link between radon exposure and pulmonary cancer as well as the most recent statistical analyses of cases of cancer among Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors. In the third chapter, 'Laws on nuclear energy in juridiction, legislation and execution', the legal aspects of issues related to low dose radiation are discussed along with basic constitutional rights and admendments to acts on radioprotection after the Chernobyl catastrophe. In the introductory parts of the fourth chapter, 'Tailings', a survey is given of redemptive measures now taken in the United States. It also contains a report on the current situation of uranium mills in the former German Democratic Republic. The release of radon from waste dumps in Ellweiler is discussed in connection with planned clean-up activities. The last two contributions to this chapter focus on the special peripheral factors to be considered in the site clean-up at Ellweiler. (orig./MG) With 54 figs

1989-11-01

234

Biological effects of low-dose exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the two-protection reaction model an analysis of stochastic radiobiological effects of low-dose exposure of different biological objects has been carried out. The stochastic effects are the results published in the last decade: epidemiological studies of human cancer mortality, the yield of thymocyte apoptosis of mice and different types of chromosomal aberrations. The results of the analysis show that dependent upon the nature of biological object, spontaneous effect, exposure conditions and radiation type one or another form of a dose - effect relationship is realized: downward concave, near to linear and upward concave with the effect of hormesis included. This result testifies to the incomplete conformity of the studied effects of 1990 ICRP recommendations based on the linear no-threshold hypothesis about dose - effect relationship. Because of this the methodology of radiation risk estimation recommended by ICRP needs more precision and such quantity as collective dose ought to be classified into the category of nonsense. (author)

2000-01-01

235

Plants ecotoxicology. A case of low doses and multi pollutant exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report, results of long-term laboratory, 'green-house' and field experiments carried out on different species of wild and agricultural plants (spring barley, Scots pine, spider wort, bulb onion and others) to study toxic and genotoxic effects of low doses and concentrations of such common pollutants as acute and chronic {gamma}-radiation, heavy natural radionuclides, compounds of heavy and alkaline earth metals, pesticides are presented for the first time. Special attention is paid to eco-toxic effects of chronic low dose exposures, the dose-rate effect, synergistic and antagonistic effects of different factors' combined exposures and biological effects of incorporated radionuclides. The results of long-term field experiments in the 30-km Chernobyl NPP zone, in the vicinity of the facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (Leningrad region), in the vicinity of the radium production industry storage cell (Komi Republic), at the site of an underground nuclear explosion (Perm region) are discussed. These findings suggest that the further evolution of investigations in this field would issue in the development of a theoretical bases and practical procedures for environmental protection against radioactivity, taking into account the new experimentally confirmed facts about the presence of such essentially important singularities of the biological effect of low ionizing radiation doses as the nonlinearity of a dose-effect relationship, radiation-induced genomic instability, phenomenon of radio-adaptation, increased probability of synergetic and antagonistic effects of the combined action of different nature factors. A development of a new concept of radiation protection for a human and biota should be based on the clear understanding of these effects and their contribution to the response of biological objects. (author)

Geras' Kin, S.; Kim, J.; Evseeva, T.; Oudalova, A.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

2004-07-01

236

Radiation- induced aneuploidy in mammalian germ cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability of ionizing radiation to induce aneuploidy in mammalian germ cells has been investigated experimentally in the laboratory mouse using a variety of cytogenetic and genetic methods. These studies have provided unambiguous evidence of induced nondisjunction in both male and female germ cells when the effect of irradiation is screened in meiotic cells or preimplantation embryos. In contrast, however, cytogenetic analyses of post-implantation embryos and genetic assays for induced chromosome gains have not found a significant radiation effect. These apparently contradictory findings may be reconciled if (a) radiation induces tertiary rather than primary trisomy, or (b) induces embryo-lethal genetic damage, such as deletions, in addition to numerical anomalies. Either or both of these explanations may account for the apparent loss during gestation of radiation-induced trisomic embryos. Extrapolating from the information so far available, it seems unlikely that environmental exposure to low doses if low dose rate radiation will result in a detectable increase in the rate of aneuploidy in the human population. (author)

1989-01-01

237

Radiation-Induced Cancer. Proceedings of a Symposium on Radiation-Induced Cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The link between radiation and cancer was recognized soon after the discovery of X-rays and natural radioactivity. In the early years after the discovery of ionizing radiations some of the pioneering workers suffered severely from the damaging effects of radiation exposure. These incidents,- generally due to ignorance of the biological consequences of radiation exposure, were instrumental in starting investigations on the subject. Gradually precise information became available on the nature of radiation-induced damage and on the repair phenomena. This information has been advanced by recent progress in molecular biology, cellular biology, cytogenetics, biochemistry, virology, immunology and related disciplines. Contributions of these disciplines to radiation biology and cancer research has resulted in the use of radiation to solve various problems of human health including cancer. At the same time, with knowledge of the effects of radiations on cells and on various organisms including man, it has become possible to state the level of radiation dose that is not an apparent health hazard (i. e. the maximum permissible dose). This work has been vitally important in programs dealing with the occupational safety of personnel working with radiations. Although the present safety standards and devices are generally recognized as adequate, they must be re-evaluated from time to time in the light of the latest findings in radiobiology and other related disciplines. The Symposium on Radiation-Induced Cancer, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in collaboration with the World Health Organization, permitted discussion and evaluation of the present understanding of the nature of late biological effects of radiations including cancer, and development of protective as well as curative measures against cancer. Much attention was given to the comparative analysis of the effects of radiation, particularly at low dose levels, on man and experimental mammals. Emphasis was also directed to the dosimetric and radiobiological effects of radiations from internally incorporated nuclides as well as from external sources. The possible importance of such information for radiotherapeutic practices was examined. The Symposium took place in Athens from 28 April to 2 May 1969 at the invitation of the Greek Government. Eighty-four participants attended from 23 countries and a total of 36 papers from 14 countries were presented

1969-11-01

238

Radiation-induced pneumothorax  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of radiation therapy to the chest. The proposed pathogenesis is radiation-induced fibrosis promoting subpleural bleb formation that ruptures resulting in pneumothorax. We report on two young patients with primary sarcomas without pulmonary metastases who developed spontaneous pneumothorax after irradiation. Neither patient had antecedent radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis

1983-01-01

239

Radiobiological consequences of low dose radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiobiological effects are classified into stochastic and nonstochastic events. open-quotes Nonstochasticclose quotes is a term used to describe effects resulting from direct, often visible, damage to tissue. This term has been used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for some years, but these nonstochastic effects will be called open-quotes deterministicclose quotes effects in the future. These effects have thresholds often in the region of 50 to 200 rad, doses that are not of concern in normal radiation protection. These doses may occur in accidents involving powerful radiation sources and the effects become more severe the higher the dose above threshold. Some of the effects are well known, such as the induction of cataracts, sterility, tissue damage and even death. They can be avoided by keeping exposures below the threshold. Stochastic effects, on the other hand, have no threshold. The magnitude of the effect is the same at all doses, but the probability of the effect increases with the dose. Since there is no evidence of a threshold and no reason to expect one, we have to assume that even at the lowest doses, there is a probability, although perhaps very low, of that effect occurring. The principal stochastic effects are hereditary effects and cancer induction. Another problem in radiation protection at low doses is the exposure of the fetus and its sensitivity to mental retardation, particularly in the 8-to-15-week period

1989-09-21

240

Global DNA methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: High radiation doses cause breaks in the DNA which are considered the critical lesions in initiation of radiation-induced cancer. However, at very low radiation doses relevant for the general public, the induction of such breaks will be rare, and other changes to the DNA such as DNA methylation which affects gene expression may playa role in radiation responses. We are studying global DNA methylation after low dose radiation exposure to determine if low dose radiation has short- and/or long-term effects on chromatin structure. We developed a sensitive high resolution melt assay to measure the levels of DNA methylation across the mouse genome by analysing a stretch of DNA sequence within Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements-I (LINE I) that comprise a very large proportion of the mouse and human genomes. Our initial results suggest no significant short-term or longterm) changes in global NA methylation after low dose whole-body X-radiation of 10 J1Gyor 10 mGy, with a significant transient increase in NA methylation observed I day after a high dose of I Gy. If the low radiation doses tested are inducing changes in bal DNA methylation, these would appear to be smaller than the variation observed between the sexes and following the general stress of the sham-irradiation procedure itself. This research was funded by the Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Biological and Environmental Research, US DOE, Grant DE-FG02-05ER64104 and MN is the recipient of the FMCF/BHP Dose Radiation Research Scholarship.

2011-08-14

 
 
 
 
241

Effect of low dose-rate irradiation on survival and ultrastructure of lymphocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of ?-radiation at low doses and dose-rates on survival of dog's peripheral blood lymphocyte was studied. The radiation-induced cell loss and early pathogenesis in cell ultrastructure were observed. The results indicate that there is an inverse relation ship between lymphocyte survival and dose-rates, and that the death of lymphocytes is due to plasmalemma damage and plasmatosis of the cells. The phenomenon is especially pronounced at the lower range of dose-rates and is interpreted as a result of radiation-induced peroxidation of lipids in membranes

1986-01-01

242

Estimation of radiation risk at low dose levels: Is it science or trans-science  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimation of carcinogenic risk of radiation, particularly at low doses and low dose rates, is very difficult due to concurrent natural incidence of cancers which are clinically indistinguishable from radiation-induced ones. To estimate carcinogenic risk of radiation exposure of 1 rad annually, the size of population which must be surveyed has been calculated to be a quarter million for thyroid cancer and 32 million for lung cancer. These populations must be surveyed over a period of 20 to 30 years and further they have to be properly sampled taking into consideration biological and environmental factors which initiate and promote malignancies. (M.G.B.)

1980-02-27

243

Protection against radiation-induced mutations at the hprt locus by spermine and N,N double-prime-(dithiodi-2,1-ethanediyl)bis-1,3-propanediamine (WR-33278). WR-33278 and spermine protect against mutation induction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The polyamine spermine and the disulfide N,N double-prime-(dithiodi-2,1-ethanediyl)bis-1,3-propanediamine (WR-33278) are structurally similar agents capable of binding to DNA. WR-33278 is the disulfide moiety of the clinically studied radioprotective agent S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721). Because of their reported structural and functional similarities, it was of interest to characterize and compare their radioprotective properties using the endpoints of cell survival and mutation induction at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in Chinese hamster AA8 cells. In order to facilitate both the uptake of WR-33278 into cells and the direct comparison between the protective properties of WR-33278 and spermine, these agents (at concentrations of 0.01 mM and 0.001 mM) were electroporated into cells. The exposure of cells to both electroporation and irradiation gave rise to enhanced cell killing and mutation induction, with the sequence of irradiation followed 3 h later by electroporation being the more toxic protocol. Enhanced cell survival was observed following electroporation of 0.01 mM of spermine and WR-33278 30 min prior to irradiation; protection factors (PF) of 1.3 and 1.8, respectively. Neither agent was protective at a concentration of 0.001 mM. Protection against radiation-induced hprt mutations was observed for both spermine and WR-33278 under all experimental conditions tested. These data suggest that the properties of radioprotection and chemoprevention exhibited by the phosphorothioate (WR-2721) and associated aminothiol (WR-1065) and disulfide (WR-33278) metabolites may be mediated via endogenous spermine-like polyamine processes. Such a mechanism would have important implications with respect to the design and development of new generation drugs for use in radioprotection and chemoprevention

1994-01-01

244

Protective Effect of Adhatoda vascia Nees Against Radiation-Induced Damage at Cellular, Biochemical and Chromosomal Levels in Swiss Albino Mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extract of Adhatoda vasica (L) Nees leaves has been used for treatment of various diseases and disorders in Ayurved and Unani medicine. Modulatory effect of ethanolic extract of A. vasica (L) Nees against radiation-induced changes in terms of histological alterations in testis, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), acid and alkaline phosphatases levels, and chromosomal alterations in Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 1 and 30 days. Mice...

Kumar, Meenal; Samarth, Ravindra; Kumar, Madhu; Selvan, Senthamil R.; Saharan, Begraj; Kumar, Ashok

2007-01-01

245

Radiation induced surface activation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation induced boiling enhancement, which is improvement of boiling heat-transfer properties, is produced by RISA (Radiation Induced Surface Activation). The principle of RISA and application of RISA to reactor are explained. Metal oxide film increases heat-transfer properties (wetting properties and limiting heat flux) by activating the surface with 250 to 300 kGy integrated irradiation dose. Samples used for test of wetting properties were titanium, zircaloy No 4, SUS304 and cupper. These samples showed lower than 8deg contact angles after treatments. The contact angle was decreased by ?-ray radiation and increased to the original values by leaving them in the dark. RISA is used for corrosion control of structural materials of reactor and low and high level radiation measurements, which can measure more than some kGy/h, in the high temperature reactors and space environment. (S.Y.)

2003-02-01

246

Radiation induced oral mucositis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concer...

Satheesh Kumar P; Balan Anita; Sankar Arun; Bose Tinky

2009-01-01

247

Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concer...

Ps, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

2009-01-01

248

Radiation-induced myelopathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

12 cases of radiation-induced myelopathy after 60Co teletherapy are reported on. Among these were 10 thoracal lesions, one cerviothoracal lesion, and one lesion of the medulla oblongata. In 9 cases, Hodgkin's disease had been the primary disease, tow patients had been irradiated because of suspected vertebral metastases of cancer of the breast, and one patient had suffered from a glomus tumour of the petrous bone. The spinal doses had exceeded the tolerance doses recommended in the relevant literature. There was no close correlation between the radiation dose and the course of the disease. The latency periods between the end of the radiotherapy and the onset of the neurological symptons varied from 6-16 mouths and were very constant in 7 cases with 6-9 months. The segmental height of the lesion corresponded to the level of irradiation. The presenting symptons of radiation-induced myelopathy are buruing dysaesthesias and Brown-Sequard's paralysis which may develop into transverse lesion of the cord with paraplegia still accompanied by dissociated perception disorders. The disease develos intermittently. Disturbances of the bladder function are frequent. The fluid is normal in most cases. Myelographic examinations were made in 8 cases. 3 cases developed into stationary cases exhibiting. Brown-Sequard syndrome, while 9 patients developed transverse lesion of the cord with paraplegia. 3 patients have died; antopsy findings are given for two of these. In the pathogenesis of radiation-induced myelopathy, the vascular factor is assumed to be of decisive importance. (orig./AK)

1975-10-01

249

The researches on the effects of low doses irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All research conducted as part of 'Risc-Rad' and those conducted by actors in international programs on low doses allow progress in understanding mechanisms of carcinogenesis associated with irradiation. The data do not question the use in radiation protection, risk estimation models based on a linear increase of the risk with the dose of radiation. Nevertheless, they show that the nature of biological responses induced by low doses of radiation has differences with the responses induced by high doses of radiation. They also show the diversity of effects/dose relationships as the mechanism observed and the importance of genetic predisposition in the individual sensitivity to low doses of radiation. It is therefore essential to continue to bring new data to better understand the complex biological effects and their impact on the establishment of radiation protection standards. In addition, the results have often been at the cellular level. The diversity of responses induced by radiations is also a function of cell types observed, the aging of cells and tissue organization. It is essential to strengthen researches at the tissue and body level, involving in vitro and in vivo approaches while testing the hypothesis in epidemiology with a global approach to systems biology. Over the past four years, the collaboration between partners of 'Risc-Rad' using experimental biology approaches and those using mathematical modeling techniques aimed at developing a new model describing the carcinogenesis induced by low radiation doses. On an other hand, The High level expert group on European low dose risk research (H.L.E.G.) develop programmes in the area of low dose irradiation (Germany, Finland, France, Italy and United Kingdom). It proposed a structure of trans national government called M.E.L.O.D.I. ( multidisciplinary european low dose initiative). Its objective is to structure and integrate European research by gathering around a common programme of multidisciplinary activities the resources and research capacity in the specific area to reduce the fragmentation of European research. (N.C.)

2009-01-01

250

Low-dose radiation epidemiology studies: status and issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the Japanese atomic bomb study and radiotherapy studies have clearly documented cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposures, radiation risk assessment groups have long recognized that protracted or low exposures to low-linear energy transfer radiations are key radiation protection concerns because these are far more common than high-exposure scenarios. Epidemiologic studies of human populations with low-dose or low dose-rate exposures are one approach to addressing those concerns. A number of large studies of radiation workers (Chernobyl clean-up workers, U.S. and Chinese radiological technologists, and the 15-country worker study) or of persons exposed to environmental radiation at moderate to low levels (residents near Techa River, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl, or nuclear facilities) have been conducted. A variety of studies of medical radiation exposures (multiple-fluoroscopy, diagnostic (131)I, scatter radiation doses from radiotherapy, etc.) also are of interest. Key results from these studies are summarized and compared with risk estimates from the Japanese atomic bomb study. Ideally, one would like the low-dose and low dose-rate studies to guide radiation risk estimation regarding the shape of the dose-response curve, DDREF (dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor), and risk at low doses. However, the degree to which low-dose studies can do so is subject to various limitations, especially those pertaining to dosimetric uncertainties and limited statistical power. The identification of individuals who are particularly susceptible to radiation cancer induction also is of high interest in terms of occupational and medical radiation protection. Several examples of studies of radiation-related cancer susceptibility are discussed, but none thus far have clearly identified radiation-susceptible genotypes. PMID:19820457

Shore, Roy E

2009-11-01

251

Modelling radiation-induced bystander effect and cellular communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last 10 years evidence has accumulated on the so-called radiation-induced 'non-targeted effects' and in particular on bystander effects, consisting of damage induction in non-irradiated cells most likely following the release of soluble factors by the irradiated ones. These phenomena were observed for different biological endpoints, both lethal and non-lethal for the cell. Although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown, it is now widely recognised that two types of cellular communication (i.e. via gap junctions and/or release of molecular messengers into the extracellular environment) play a pivotal role. Furthermore, the effects can be significantly modulated by parameters such as cell type and cell-cycle stage, cell density, time after irradiation etc. Theoretical models and simulation codes can be of help to improve our knowledge of the mechanisms, as well as to investigate the possible role of these effects in determining deviations from the linear relationship between dose and risk which is generally applied in radiation protection. In this paper three models, including an approach under development at the University of Pavia, will be presented in detail. The focus will be on the various adopted assumptions, together with their implications in terms of non-targeted radiobiological damage and, more generally, low-dose radiation risk. Comparisons with experimental data will also be discussed. PMID:17142819

Ballarini, F; Alloni, D; Facoetti, A; Mairani, A; Nano, R; Ottolenghi, A

2006-01-01

252

Modelling radiation-induced bystander effect and cellular communication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last 10 years evidence has accumulated on the so-called radiation-induced 'non-targeted effects' and in particular on bystander effects, consisting of damage induction in non-irradiated cells most likely following the release of soluble factors by the irradiated ones. These phenomena were observed for different biological endpoints, both lethal and non-lethal for the cell. Although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown, it is now widely recognised that two types of cellular communication (i.e. via gap junctions and/or release of molecular messengers into the extracellular environment) play a pivotal role. Furthermore, the effects can be significantly modulated by parameters such as cell type and cell-cycle stage, cell density, time after irradiation etc. Theoretical models and simulation codes can be of help to improve our knowledge of the mechanisms, as well as to investigate the possible role of these effects in determining deviations from the linear relationship between dose and risk which is generally applied in radiation protection. In this paper three models, including an approach under development at the Univ. of Pavia, will be presented in detail. The focus will be on the various adopted assumptions, together with their implications in terms of non-targeted radiobiological damage and, more generally, low-dose radiation risk. Comparisons with experimental data will also be discussed. (authors)

2005-11-13

253

Low Dose Risk, Decisions, and Risk Communication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall research objective was to establish new levels of information about how people, groups, and communities respond to low dose radiation exposure. This is basic research into the social psychology of individual, group, and community responses to radiation exposures. The results of this research are directed to improving risk communication and public participation in management of environmental problems resulting from low dose radiation.

Flynn, James

2002-09-14

254

Arsenic, mode of action at biologically plausible low doses: What are the implications for low dose cancer risk?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arsenic is an established human carcinogen. However, there has been much controversy about the shape of the arsenic response curve, particularly at low doses. This controversy has been exacerbated by the fact that the mechanism(s) of arsenic carcinogenesis are still unclear and because there are few satisfactory animal models for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that the relative risk for cancer among populations exposed to ?60 ppb As in their drinking water is often lower than the risk for the unexposed control population. We have found that treatment of human keratinocyte and fibroblast cells with 0.1 to 1 ?M arsenite (AsIII) also produces a low dose protective effect against oxidative stress and DNA damage. This response includes increased transcription, protein levels and enzyme activity of several base excision repair genes, including DNA polymerase ? and DNA ligase I. At higher concentrations (> 10 ?M), As induces down-regulation of DNA repair, oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis. This low dose adaptive (protective) response by a toxic agent is known as hormesis and is characteristic of many agents that induce oxidative stress. A mechanistic model for arsenic carcinogenesis based on these data would predict that the low dose risk for carcinogenesis should be sub-linear. The threshold dose where toxicity outweighs protection is hard to predict based on in vitro dose response data, but might be estimated if one could determine the form (metabolite) and concentration of arsenic responsible for changes in gene regulation in the target tissues

2005-09-01

255

Radiation-induced nondisjunction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methodology and results of epidemiological studies of the effects of preconception diagnostic x-rays of the abdomen on chromosome segregation in humans are described. The vast majority of studies show the same positive, though not significant, trend to increased nondisjunction among the offspring of irradiated women. The results of the various studies, however, cannot be pooled because of differing methodologies used. Abnormal chromosome segregation during mitotic division has been inducted experimentally by the in vitro exposure of human lymphocytes to a low dose of 50 R gamma irradiation. First meiotic nondisjunction has been successfully induced by whole body exposure of female mice to a low dose of radiation. The question of time-related repair of the mechanism involved in chromosome segregation is raised

1979-01-01

256

Esophageal cancer treated by low dose irradiation, crescendo cisplatin and bleomycin polyacrylate pasta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eight patients with esophageal cancer were treated by a new treatment schedule consisting of low dose irradiation, crescendo cisplatin and bleomycin polyacrylate pasta. As monitored endoscopically, their therapeutic responses were satisfactory, and seven out of the eight survived for a range of 3 to 18 months and still active at work or ''cancer-free''. The seventh of the eight suffers from a second malignancy of adenocarcinoma of the cardia, different from the initial squamous cell carcinoma at the lower esophagus which had successfully been treated 3 months before. The present therapeutic design aims at treatment of lymphatic spreads in the adjacent structures as well as the original tumor in the esophagus and submucosal invasions. It is basically a consecutive, multimodal integration of selective concentration of therapeutic effects (extensive radiotherapy, topical application of bleomycin polyacrylate pasta, lymphatic chasing with colloidal bleomycin, and spatial concentration of cisplatin as the result of radiation-induced inflammations), perpetuation of the repairable DNA damage, and biological amplifications (protection against esophageal perforation with polyacrylate coating, and specific cancer cell recruitment). Application of the present therapeutic design is being expanded to treatment of cancer at other specific sites such as the head and neck tumors and rectal cancer with undeniable prospects. (author)

1982-01-01

257

Mechanisms of Adaptive Responses and Genomic Instability Induced by Low Dose/Low Dose Rate Radiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proposed study investigates the effect of low dose and low dose rate radiation exposure (X-rays) on induced genomic instability and the adaptive response, including the molecular mechanisms for these phenomena. The proposed studies will utilize human ...

W. F. Morgan

2006-01-01

258

Molecular targets for radioprotection by low dose radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adaptive response is a reduced effect from a higher challenging dose of a stressor after a smaller inducing dose had been applied a few hrs earlier. Radiation induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) cells did not show such an adaptive response, i.e. a reduced effect from a higher challenging dose (2 Gy) of a radiation after a priming dose (1 cGy) had been applied 4 or 7 hrs earlier, but its thermoresistant clone (TR) did. Since inducible HSP70 and HSP25 expressions were different between these two cell lines, the role of inducible HSP70 and HSP25 in adaptive response was examined. When inducible hsp70 or hsp25 genes were transfected to RIF cells, radioresistance in clonogenic survival and reduction of apoptosis was detected. The adaptive response was also acquired in these two cell lines, and inducible hsp70 transfectant showed more pronounced adaptive response than hsp25 transfectant. From these results, inducible HSP70 and HSP25 are at least partly responsible for the induction of adaptive response in these cells. Moreover, when inducible HSP70 or HSP25 genes were transfected to RIF cells, coregulation of each gene was detected and heat shock factor (HSF) was found to be responsible for these phenomena. In continuation of our earlier study on the involvement of heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and HSP70 in the induction of adaptive response, we have now examined the involvement of these proteins in the induction of the adaptive response, using an animal model system. C57BL6 mice were irradiated with 5 cGy of gamma radiation 3 times for a week (total of 15cGy) and a high challenge dose (6Gy) was given on the day following the last low dose irradiation. Survival rate of the low dose pre-irradiated mice was increased to 30%. Moreover, high dose-mediated induction of apoptosis was also reduced by low dose pre-irradiation. To elucidate any link existing between HSP and induction of the adaptive response, reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was performed using splenocytes. High dose radiation up-regulated the expression of HSP25 and especially HSP70; while expression of other HSPs such as HSC70, HSP90, and ?B-crystalline did not change. When splenocytes from HSP70 transgenic mice were pre-irradiated with a low dose of radiation, a reduction in cell death by high dose radiation was observed. These results, suggest that HSP70 is a key molecule in radioprotective effect by low dose radiation

2004-05-27

259

Molecular targets for radioprotection by low dose radiation exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Adaptive response is a reduced effect from a higher challenging dose of a stressor after a smaller inducing dose had been applied a few hrs earlier. Radiation induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) cells did not show such an adaptive response, i.e. a reduced effect from a higher challenging dose (2 Gy) of a radiation after a priming dose (1 cGy) had been applied 4 or 7 hrs earlier, but its thermoresistant clone (TR) did. Since inducible HSP70 and HSP25 expressions were different between these two cell lines, the role of inducible HSP70 and HSP25 in adaptive response was examined. When inducible hsp70 or hsp25 genes were transfected to RIF cells, radioresistance in clonogenic survival and reduction of apoptosis was detected. The adaptive response was also acquired in these two cell lines, and inducible hsp70 transfectant showed more pronounced adaptive response than hsp25 transfectant. From these results, inducible HSP70 and HSP25 are at least partly responsible for the induction of adaptive response in these cells. Moreover, when inducible HSP70 or HSP25 genes were transfected to RIF cells, coregulation of each gene was detected and heat shock factor (HSF) was found to be responsible for these phenomena. In continuation of our earlier study on the involvement of heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and HSP70 in the induction of adaptive response, we have now examined the involvement of these proteins in the induction of the adaptive response, using an animal model system. C57BL6 mice were irradiated with 5 cGy of gamma radiation 3 times for a week (total of 15cGy) and a high challenge dose (6Gy) was given on the day following the last low dose irradiation. Survival rate of the low dose pre-irradiated mice was increased to 30%. Moreover, high dose-mediated induction of apoptosis was also reduced by low dose pre-irradiation. To elucidate any link existing between HSP and induction of the adaptive response, reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was performed using splenocytes. High dose radiation up-regulated the expression of HSP25 and especially HSP70; while expression of other HSPs such as HSC70, HSP90, and {alpha}B-crystalline did not change. When splenocytes from HSP70 transgenic mice were pre-irradiated with a low dose of radiation, a reduction in cell death by high dose radiation was observed. These results, suggest that HSP70 is a key molecule in radioprotective effect by low dose radiation.

Seo, Hang Rhan; Lee, Yoon Jin; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Su Jae; Bae, Sang woo; Lee, Yun Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2004-07-01

260

Protective effect of Adhatoda vascia Nees against radiation-induced damage at cellular, biochemical and chromosomal levels in Swiss albino mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extract of Adhatoda vasica (L) Nees leaves has been used for treatment of various diseases and disorders in Ayurved and Unani medicine. Modulatory effect of ethanolic extract of A. vasica (L) Nees against radiation-induced changes in terms of histological alterations in testis, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), acid and alkaline phosphatases levels, and chromosomal alterations in Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 1 and 30 days. Mice exposed to 8 Gy radiation showed radiation-induced sickness including marked changes in histology of testis and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells with 100% mortality within 22 days. When ethanolic leaf extract of A. vasica was given orally at a dose of 800 mg kg(-1) body weight per mouse for 15 consecutive days and then exposed to radiation, death of Adhatoda-pretreated irradiated mice was reduced to 70% at 30 days. The radiation dose reduction factor was 1.43. There was significantly lesser degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and Leydig cells. Correspondingly, a significant decrease in the LPO and an increase in the GSH levels were observed in testis and liver of Adhatoda-pretreated irradiated mice. Similarly, a significant decrease in level of acid phosphatase and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed. Adhatoda pretreatment significantly prevented radiation-induced chromosomal damage in bone marrow cells. The study suggests that Adhatoda plant extract has significant radioprotective effects on testis that warrants further mechanistic studies aimed at identifying the role of major ingredients in the extract. PMID:17965765

Kumar, Meenal; Samarth, Ravindra; Kumar, Madhu; Selvan, Senthamil R; Saharan, Begraj; Kumar, Ashok

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Risk of radiation at low doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Risk and risk sources have been increasingly studied in recent years. The essentials of risk consist of a combination of the idea of loss with that of chance or probability. The idea of chance is crucial: the inevitable can be utterly unpleasant but, lacking the element of chance, is not a risk. Even without analyzing the different components of the concept of 'loss', it should be recognized that to be exposed to risk is not necessarily bad. The achievements of modern life imply the exposure to several sources of risk, and past evolution would have been impossible without the risk incurred by our ancestors. A special type of risk, pertinent to our discussion, is exemplified by the health threats due to low levels of natural or man-made chemicals and low radiation levels. It constitutes a risk very difficult to analyze, not because the effects are unknown but because they are already very familiar, and exposed groups only manifest a slightly increased frequency of such effects. The linear non-threshold relationship, is at present the best tool to predict the risk probability of radiation at low doses. It fulfills all the requirements to be considered 'realistically representative', using modeling terminology. Practical decisions can be made under this relationship, and the radiation protection system, recommended by the ICRP provides a method for such decisions. (author)

1996-01-01

262

Low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells may rather control than cause DNA damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced metabolic changes that induce mechanisms of DNA damage mitigation, which do not operate at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. This paper aims at demonstrating tissue effects as an expression of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive, in relation to the energy deposited in cell mass, by use of microdosimetric concepts

1998-04-07

263

Shape of dose curve of cytogenetic damage in the low-dose range  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modification of cytogenetic damages yield in hamsters under low dose gamma radiation using caffeine and SH-protector is studied. It is shown that in the low dose range the same repair system functions which is triggered only after sufficient reorganization of chromatin caused by radiation-induced membrane permeability increase. In the low dose effect range it takes place in the range of dose rate ? 1 - (25-3) sGy/min, while in the plateau of dose curve it does not depen on the dose rate. When assessing carcinogenic risk the linear non-threshold concept may be used for extrapolation concerning only dose curve plotted under conditions of repair inhibition or absence

1999-01-01

264

Low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells may rather control than cause DNA damage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced metabolic changes that induce mechanisms of DNA damage mitigation, which do not operate at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. This paper aims at demonstrating tissue effects as an expression of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive, in relation to the energy deposited in cell mass, by use of microdosimetric concepts.

Feinendegen, L.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.; Bond, V.P. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Sondhaus, C.A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Control Office; Altman, K.I. [Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics

1998-12-31

265

The Contribution of Tissue Level Organization to Genomic Stability Following Low Dose/Low Dose Rate Gamma and Proton Irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The formation of functional tissue units is necessary in maintaining homeostasis within living systems, with individual cells contributing to these functional units through their three-dimensional organization with integrin and adhesion proteins to form a complex extra-cellular matrix (ECM). This is of particular importance in those tissues susceptible to radiation-induced tumor formation, such as epithelial glands. The assembly of epithelial cells of the thyroid is critical to their normal receipt of, and response to, incoming signals. Traditional tissue culture and live animals present significant challenges to radiation exposure and continuous sampling, however, the production of bioreactor-engineered tissues aims to bridge this gap by improve capabilities in continuous sampling from the same functional tissue, thereby increasing the ability to extrapolate changes induced by radiation to animals and humans in vivo. Our study proposes that the level of tissue organization will affect the induction and persistence of low dose radiation-induced genomic instability. Rat thyroid cells, grown in vitro as 3D tissue analogs in bioreactors and as 2D flask grown cultures were exposed to acute low dose (1, 5, 10 and 200 cGy) gamma rays. To assess immediate (6 hours) and delayed (up to 30 days) responses post-irradiation, various biological endpoints were studied including cytogenetic analyses, apoptosis analysis and cell viability/cytotoxicity analyses. Data assessing caspase 3/7 activity levels show that, this activity varies with time post radiation and that, overall, 3D cultures display more genomic instability (as shown by the lower levels of apoptosis over time) when compared to the 2D cultures. Variation in cell viability levels were only observed at the intermediate and late time points post radiation. Extensive analysis of chromosomal aberrations will give further insight on the whether the level of tissue organization influences genomic instability patterns after low dose radiation exposure. Cells viability/cytotoxicity analysis data are currently being analyzed to determine how these endpoints are affected under our experimental conditions. The results from this study will be translatable to risk assessment for assigning limits to radiation workers, pre-dosing for more effective radiotherapy and the consequences of long duration space flight. The data from this study has been presented a various scientific meetings/workshops and a manuscript, containing the findings, is currently being prepared for publication. Due to unforeseen challenges in collecting the data and standardizing experimental procedures, the second and third aims have not been completed. However, attempts will be made, based on the availability of funds, to continue this project so that these aims can be satisfied.

Cheryl G. Burrell, Ph.D.

2012-05-14

266

LOW DOSE LEVODOPA IN TARDIVE DYSKINESIA  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY Efficacy of low dose levodopa in treatment of TD has been studied on 30 male inpatients with predefined selection criteria. The preliminary results are encouraging but long term double blind studies in larger samples are needed.

Sethi, Sujata; Sharma, L.N.; Khanna, R.

1990-01-01

267

LOW DOSE LEVODOPA IN TARDIVE DYSKINESIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Efficacy of low dose levodopa in treatment of TD has been studied on 30 male inpatients with predefined selection criteria. The preliminary results are encouraging but long term double blind studies in larger samples are needed.

Sethi, Sujata; Sharma, L. N.; Khanna, R.

1990-01-01

268

Thrombolysis with low dose tissue plasminogen activator.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two cases of vena caval thrombosis in infants were successfully treated with low dose (0.01-0.05 mg/kg/hour) local infusions of tissue plasminogen activator after conventional anticoagulant treatment had been unsuccessful. This approach is useful for clots associated with indwelling intravascular catheters, and a low dose infusion of tissue plasminogen activator as a regional application is recommended to achieve clot lysis with minimal systemic effects.

Doyle, E.; Britto, J.; Freeman, J.; Munro, F.; Morton, N. S.

1992-01-01

269

TRANSGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC LOW-DOSE IRRADIATION IN A MEDAKA FISH MODEL SYSTEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are major gaps in our knowledge about the genetically-based mechanisms underlying the radiobiological response of tissues from intact organisms exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. However, it is known from many radiobiology studies that exposure regimes influence the biological responses observed from these exposures. For example, a dose received over a few seconds will have a different biological effect compared with the same dose received over an organism�������¢����������������s life time. Current knowledge of how responses vary from different radiological exposure regimes is inadequate to allow confident predictions about the effects that might result from low-level, chronic exposures. Most data on biological effects are derived from acute, high dose-rate experiments. Relatively few experiments have been conducted on the effects on organisms following long-term exposures to low levels of radiation. Even fewer studies have examined the effects of radiological exposures to multiple generations of organisms. A hypothesis that damage will accumulate and be greater with each passing generation is plausible. An alternative equally plausible hypothesis is that adaptive response and repair mechanisms will mitigate the harmful effects such that damage does not increase with each generation. Very few data sets exist to support one hypothesis over the other, particularly for chronic, low-level exposures to vertebrate organisms. Such knowledge is needed because chronic exposure to low levels of radiation is a more likely scenario for nuclear workers, and to wildlife exposed to routine releases from nuclear facilities. Regulation of the latter is becoming a necessity with recent changes in regulations (Euratom 2010) and as international committees place an emphasis on developing protection criteria specific to non-human biota (ICRP, 2009, Committee 5). The overall goal of this project was to provide information that will help to fill the gaps described above by increasing our understanding of how gene activity and mutations in microsatellite DNA in a promising model organism [Japanese Medaka fish (Oryzias latipes)] change in response to low doses of gamma rays (low-LET radiation) delivered continuously throughout a number of progeny generations. An additional goal was to examine how this genetic response relates mechanistically to certain biological processes such as DNA repair. Medaka specimens were irradiated at selected dose-rates and total doses in the Low-Dose Irradiation Facility (LoDIF) at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). Mutation studies were done at SREL and selected tissues from these specimens were shipped to Colorado State University (CSU) for genetic analysis including quantitation of DNA damage. The studies conducted during the project period yielded a number of significant results relevant to its stated goals. They demonstrated for the first time that it is feasible to irradiate medaka fish under realistic low-dose, low dose-rate conditions in one location (SREL) and to transport their tissues without degradation to collaborators in another location (Colorado State University [CSU]) for molecular analysis. The studies done on these fish tissues at SREL suggest that there are increased levels of mutations in the unirradiated offspring of irradiated parents and that these increased mutations persist for more than one generation. They also suggest that the relative sensitivity to radiation-induced mutations in offspring varies among families of medaka, an important finding that relates to individual variations in radiosensitivity and should be pursued in more detail. The studies done at CSU produced a number of significant findings. A general one is the demonstration that levels of DNA base damage, DNA strand breaks and gene response can indeed be measured in medaka tissues at very low total doses of radiation exposure, e.g., 3cGy. Additional more specific findings in medaka tissues by the CSU team include: a) oxidative

Zimbrick, John D; Hinton, Thomas G

2012-01-23

270

Radiation induced pesticidal microbes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

2001-01-01

271

Radiation induced pesticidal microbes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

2001-01-01

272

Evaluation of the detriment associated with exposure at low doses and low dose rates in the radiation protection system; Evaluation du detriment associe a l'exposition aux faibles doses et faibles debits de dose dans le systeme de radioprotection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Questions about quantifying the radiological risk associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been debated repeatedly for a variety of exposure situations, including, among others, medical irradiation, discharges from nuclear facilities, transportation of radioactive waste, and potential nuclear accidents. This paper aims to shed light on the link between exposure and risk, focusing on the items that constitute the detriment associated with this exposure. The management of the risk associated with it relies on a cautious hypothesis of a linear no-threshold relation between exposure and risk of death or detriment. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) published General Recommendations in 1966 that recognised this relation, but did not publish a quantification of the risk until 1977. The Commission introduced the concept of effective dose as a risk indicator that makes it possible to determine dose limits according to the risk associated with them. In 1990, the Commission proposed a revision of the quantification and construction of detriment. New limits, based on risk quantification and, for the first time, risk tolerability, were proposed. The optimisation of radiation protection - keeping radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable in light of the economic and social context - became the key principle of the radiation protection system. The use of detriment makes it possible to use economic tools to guide the decision process for this optimisation - by assessing the monetary value of human life. This concept, widely used in health economics during the 1980's, has been criticised by many and must be used cautiously. ICRP published the latest quantifications of detriment in 2007. Detriment is thus an indicator that assesses the risk of death associated with exposure to ionising radiation for an average individual. Its construction relies on simplifying assumptions that are needed to implement a robust and effective radiation protection system. (authors)

Vaillant, Ludovic; Schneider, Thierry [CEPN, 28, rue de la Redoute, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

2012-03-15

273

Induction of Genomic Instability In Vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs gamma rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall goal of this project is to determine if low doses (below or equal to the level traditionally requiring human radiation protection, i.e. less than or equal to 10 cGy) of low LET radiation can induce genomic instability. The magnitude of genomic instability was measured as delayed chromosome instability in bone marrow cells of exposed mice with different levels of endogenous DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) activity, i.e. high (C57BL/6J mice), intermediate (BALB/cJ mice), and extremely low (Scid mice). In addition, at early time points (1 and 4 hrs) following irradiation, levels of activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), a transcription factor known to be involved in regulating the expression of genes responsible for cell protection following stimuli, were measured in these cells. Bone marrow cells were collected at different times following irradiation, i.e. 1 hr, 4 hrs, 1 month, and 6 months. A total of five mice per dose per strain were sacrificed at each time point for sample collection. As a result, a total of 80 mice from each strain were used. The frequency and the type of metaphase chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells collected from exposed mice at different times following irradiation were used as markers for radiation-induced genomic instability. A three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol for mouse chromosomes 1, 2, and 3 was used for the analysis of delayed stable chromosomal aberrations in metaphase cells. All other visible chromatid-type aberrations and gross structural abnormalities involving non-painted chromosomes were also evaluated on the same metaphase cells used for scoring the stable chromosomal aberrations of painted chromosomes. Levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation were also determined in cells at 1 and 4 hrs following irradiation (indicative of early responses)

2006-01-01

274

LOW DOSE MAGNESIUM SULPHATE REGIME FOR ECLAMPSIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pre- eclampsia is one of the commonest medical complications seen during pregnancy. It contributes significantly to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Dr.J.A.Pritchard in 1955, introduced magnesium sulphate for control of convulsions in eclampsia and is used worldwide. Considering the low body mass index of indian women, a low dose magnesium sulphate regime has been introduced by some authors. Present study was carried out at tertiary care centre in rural area. Fifty cases of eclampsia were randomly selected to find out the efficacy of low dose magnesium sulphate regime to control eclamptic convulsions. Maternal and perinatal outcome and magnesium toxicity were analyzed. It was observed that 86% cases responded to initial intravenous dose of 4 grams of 20% magnesium sulphate . Eight percent cases, who got recurrence of convulsion, were controlled by additional 2 grams of 20% magnesium sulphate. Six percent cases required shifting to standard Pritchard regime, as they did not respond to low dose magnesium sulphate regime. The average total dose of magnesium sulphate required for control of convulsions was 20 grams ie. 54.4% less than that of standard Pritchard regime. The maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in the present study werecomparable to those of standard Pritchard regime. The study did not find a single case of magnesium related toxicity with low dose magnesium sulphate regime. Low dose magnesium sulphate regime was found to be safe and effective in eclampsia.

Bangal V

2009-09-01

275

Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1 or Rad9, influence cataract development and thus radiosensitivity. These observations have direct applicability to various human populations including accidentally exposed individuals, interventional medical workers, astronauts and nuclear plant workers.

Kleiman, Norman Jay [Columbia University

2013-11-30

276

Accidental chronic exposure to low dose radiation in Taiwan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For more than 10 years, about 10,000 people in Taiwan have been chronically exposed to ionizing radiation at low dose rates. Materials used for the construction of their apartments were contaminated by cobalt -60. The incident, discovered in 1992, led to the mapping of contaminated areas and the dosimetry and health consequences since 1993. Measurements were carried out in different places in the apartments and residents wore thermo - luminescent detectors. Annual dose levels about 1 to 140 mSv have been evaluated. Retrospective biological dosimetry studies were realized both by means of analysis of the micronuclei and by the analysis of radiation-induced stable chromosomes translocations. Moreover other studies focused on research on functional or anatomic modifications, complete or not by individual biological dosimetry, were carried out and have shown the particular interest in undertaking the biological and medical surveillance of this population. Beyond the analyses and results published, these prolonged exposures at low dose rates and variable cumulated doses, since they cannot exceed the Gy, have raised the question on radio-adaptation and/or hormesis. One of the underlying questions is whether this population, chronically and heterogeneously exposed to an anthropogenic source, can help characterize the harmful effects or beneficial health effects at these dose levels. Different points of view were expressed in 2003, and a review of scientific publications since 1997 on this subject is presented. In view of the incomplete results, both in physical and biological dosimetry, a study on the people exposed during their childhood would seem to be more useful for re-usable results, to investigate the existence of adaptation to anthropogenic chronic irradiation. (authors)

Lebaron-Jacobs, L. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Nenot, J.C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Flury-Herard, A. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, 92 (France)

2006-07-01

277

Low-dose isotretinoin in severe acne.  

Science.gov (United States)

A selected group of 60 patients who had been resistant to previous systemic antibiotic therapy was treated with low-dose isotretinoin (0.5 mg/kg/day in two doses) for 12 to 20 weeks. The results confirmed the efficacy of the drug on pustular, nodular and cystic acne even with low-dose treatment. In only one case was it necessary to suspend the treatment because of an increase in serum cholesterol and triglycerides. The authors therefore advise the use of low dosage and that treatment should be restricted to cases of severe acne. PMID:2959631

Bellosta, M; Vignini, M; Miori, L; Rabbiosi, G

1987-01-01

278

Tardive dyskinesia with low dose amisulpride.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to use amisulpride in the treatment of dysthymia and also as an adjunct treatment in patients with major depression. At low doses (50 mg), amisulpride preferentially blocks presynaptic auto receptors, enhances dopamine release, and therefore acts as a dopaminergic compound able to resolve the dopaminergic hypo activity that characterizes depression. Based on experimental data, amisulpride is the drug of choice for dopaminergic transmission disorders, both in depression and in schizophrenia. This case highlights the development of dyskinesia in a depressed patient treated with low dose amisulpride and fluvoxamine. PMID:23440033

Tharoor, Hema; Padmavati, R

2013-01-01

279

Radiation-induced cerebrovasculopathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reported a patient who suffered from cerebrovasculopathy after irradiation therapy for astrocytoma located at the left temporal lobe. An eleven year-old boy who presented with headache and vomiting received partial removal of a tumor. Histological diagnosis of the tumor was astrocytoma (grade II). His preoperative cerebral angiograms showed mass sign solely, without stenosis or occlusion of the cerebral vessel. Postoperatively, he was treated with irradiation therapy involving the whole brain with a total of 30 Gy, and gamma knife therapy. Six months after irradiation, he started suffering from frequent cerebral ischemic attacks, but there was no regrowth of the tumor visible on CT scans. Cerebral angiograms were made again, and revealed multifocal stenoses in the bilateral internal carotid arteries, middle cerebral arteries, and the anterior cerebral artery. His symptoms did not improve after conservative treatment with steroids, calcium antagonist, or low molecular weight dextran. Although he received a superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomoses bilaterally, multiple cerebral infarctions appeared. Although irradiation therapy is acceptable in patients with brain tumor, cerebrovasculopathy after irradiation should be considered as one of the most important complications, and the risk incurred by irradiation therapy should lead to more careful consideration and caution when treating intracranial brain tumors, especially in children. From our experience, the usefulness of bypass surgery for radiation-induced cerebrovasculopathy is still controversial. (author)

1993-08-01

280

Effects of emitter junction and passive base region on low dose rate effect in bipolar devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low dose rate effect in bipolar devices consists in the increase of peripheral surface recombination current with dose rate decrease. This is due to the more rapid positive oxide charge and interface trap density build-up as the dose rate becomes lower. High dose rate elevated temperature irradiation is proposed for simulation if the low dose rate effect. In the present we tried to separate the effect of radiation-induced charge in the thick passivation oxide over the emitter junction and passive base regions of npn bipolar transistor. Its goal is to improve bipolar device design for use in space environments and nuclear installations. Three experiments were made during this work. 1. Experiment on radiation-induced charge neutralization (RICN) effect under elevated temperature was performed to show transistor degradation dependence on emitter-base bias. 2. High dose rate elevated and room temperature irradiation of bipolar transistors were performed to separate effects of emitter-junction and passive base regions. 3. Pre- and post- irradiation hydrogen ambient storage was used to investigate its effect on radiation-induced charge build-up over the passive base region. All experiments were performed with npn and pnp transistors. (authors)

1999-09-13

 
 
 
 
281

Apoptosis and survival parameters during protection from radiation-induced thymocyte death by a candidate radioprotector, GC-2112, from Allium sativum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biomedical studies on nuclear fallout effects show that whole-body exposure to relatively low doses of ionizing radiation (2-10 Gy) induces the hematopoietic syndrome (HS) characterized by severe anemia and immunodeficiency and death within 10-30 days. The thymocyte model applies in many cell death researches and is found to undergo a morphologically and molecularly distinct p53-based apoptosis with DNA-damaging insults, such as radiation exposure. We have shown that exogenously applied radioprotector from allium sativum (garlic), GC-2112, improves total cellular survival for various observation periods concomitantly shifting the LD50/24 from 7 Gy (control) to 21 Gy (GC-2112). This increased survival characteristic of the radioprotected macrophage-free thymocytes, however, fails to correlate with the prevention of apoptosis-associated DNA scissions. Mechanisms to the observed radiomodification may possibly involve cysteine compounds found rich in garlic. These preliminary findings show promise in the applications of selected herbal drugs as dietary prophylaxis against clinical morbidities arising from either medical, occupational or environmental exposures to ionizing radiation. (author)

1996-12-10

282

What physicians think about the need for informed consent for communicating the risk of cancer from low-dose radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, a subsidiary of the Food and Drug Administration, has declared that X-ray radiation at low doses is a human carcinogen. The purpose of our study was to determine if informed consent should be obtained for communicating the risk of radiation-induced cancer from radiation-based imaging. Institutional review board approval was obtained for the prospective survey of 456 physicians affiliated with three tertiary hospitals by means of a written questionnaire. Physicians were asked to state their subspecialty, number of years in practice, frequency of referral for CT scanning, level of awareness about the risk of radiation-induced cancer associated with CT, knowledge of whether such information is provided to patients undergoing CT, and opinions about the need for obtaining informed consent as well as who should provide information about the radiation-induced cancer risk to patients. Physicians were also asked to specify their preference among different formats of informed consent for communicating the potential risk of radiation-induced cancer. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-squared test. Most physicians stated that informed consent should be obtained from patients undergoing radiation-based imaging (71.3%, 325/456) and the radiology department should provide information about the risk of radiation-induced cancer to these patients (54.6%, 249/456). The informed consent format that most physicians agreed with included modifications to the National Institute of Environmental Health Services report on cancer risk from low-dose radiation (20.2%, 92/456) or included information on the risk of cancer from background radiation compared to that from low-dose radiation (39.5%, 180/456). Most physicians do not know if patients are informed about cancer risk from radiation-based imaging in their institutions. However, they believe that informed consent for communicating the risk of radiation-induced cancer should be obtained from patients undergoing radiation-based imaging. (orig.)

2009-09-01

283

Does bystander effect by low dose X-ray contribute to breakage of DNA double strand?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of low dose radiation (100 mGy or less) in human normal fetal fibroblasts by dose-response curve of phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) foci. The MRC-5 cells were irradiated by X-ray generated in HF320 (Shimadzu Mectem) at 5.67-224 mGy/min (1-100 mGy in total). Phosphorylated ATM was stained by immunocytochemical fluorescence and their foci were counted by fluorescence microscopy using the CCD camera C5810-1 (Hamamatsu Photonics). For dose-response curve, confluent cell cultures on slide glasses were irradiated as above. It was found that with use of phosphorylated ATM as an indicator, the low dose radiation effect could be analyzable; in the low dose range, the relationship between dose and DNA double strand break was not linear; and the radiation-induced bystander effect could be significant even in the lower range than where radiation induced one break per cell in average. Further studies are required for precise evaluation of radiation effect in health risk and in LNT hypothesis. (R.T.)

2007-06-01

284

Protection against radiation-induced mutations at the hprt locus by spermine and N,N double-prime-(dithiodi-2,1-ethanediyl)bis-1,3-propanediamine (WR-33278)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The polyamine spermine and the disulfide NN double-prime-(dithiodi-2,1-ethanediyl)bis-1,3-propanediamine (WR-33278) are structurally similar agents capable of binding to DNA. WR-33278 is the disulfide moiety of the clinically studied radioprotective agent (WR-2721). Because of their structural similarities, it was of interest to characterize and compare their radioprotective properties using the endpoints of cell survival and mutation induction at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in Chinese hamster AA8 cells. In order to facilitate both the uptake of VM-33278 into cells and the direct comparison between the protective properties of WR-33278 and spermine, these agents were electroporated into cells. Electroporation alone reduced cell survival to 75% but had no effect on hprt mutation frequency. The electroporation of either spermine or WR-33278 at concentrations greater than 0.01 mM was extremely toxic. The exposure of cells to both electroporation and irradiation gave rise to enhanced cell killing and mutation induction. Cell survival values at a radiation dose of 750 cGy were enhanced by factors of 1.3 and 1.8 following electroporation of 0.01 mM of spermine and WR-33278, respectively, 30 min prior to irradiation. Neither agent was protective at a concentration of 0.001 mM. Protection against radiation-induced hprt mutations was observed for both spermine and WR-33278 under all experimental conditions tested

1993-01-01

285

Stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first section of the bibliography lists materials on the stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation, with particular reference to stimulation of germination and yield. The second section contains a small number of selected references on seed irradiation facilities. (author)

1976-01-01

286

The OER at low-dose rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is increasing interest in the treatment of human cancers with multifraction beam therapy at low dose-rates, on the assumption that the OER at low dose-rates is smaller than that at high dose-rates. A comparison has therefore been made of various published values of OER as a function of ? dose-rate for Vicia faba, HeLa cells, P388 cells, hamster cells and chromosome aberrations. The mean value of the OER at low dose-rate was about 20% lower than the mean OER obtained at high dose-rate, although two OER values at low dose-rates were significantly lower than the other reported values. There are technical difficulties associated with maintaining the test systems under hypoxic conditions for long periods of time and the observed decrease in cloning efficiency of hypoxic control cells indicates that cells can be damaged by this treatment alone. It is therefore possible that the high dose-rate OER values would have been reduced if the cells irradiated at high dose-rates under oxic and anoxic conditions had had a pre-treatment period of storage under anoxic conditions. (U.K.)

1976-01-01

287

MELODI: the 'Multidisciplinary European Low-Dose Initiative'.  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of research to reduce uncertainties in risk assessment of low and protracted exposures is now recognised globally. In Europe a new initiative, called 'Multidisciplinary European LOw Dose Initiative' (MELODI), has been proposed by a 'European High Level and Expert Group on low-dose risk research' (www.hleg.de), aimed at integrating national and EC (Euratom) efforts. Five national organisations: BfS (DE), CEA (FR), IRSN (FR), ISS (IT) and STUK (FI), with the support of the EC, have initiated the creation of MELODI by signing a letter of intent. In the forthcoming years, MELODI will integrate in a step-by-step approach EU institutions with significant programmes in the field and will be open to other scientific organisations and stakeholders. A key role of MELODI is to develop and maintain over time a strategic research agenda (SRA) and a road map of scientific priorities within a multidisciplinary approach, and to transfer the results for the radiation protection system. Under the coordination of STUK a network has been proposed in the 2009 Euratom Programme, called DoReMi (Low-Dose Research towards Mutidisciplinary Integration), which can help the integration process within the MELODI platform. DoReMi and the First MELODI Open Workshop, organised by BfS in September 2009, are now important inputs for the European SRA. PMID:21106638

Belli, M; Salomaa, S; Ottolenghi, A

2011-02-01

288

Low dose effects detected by micronucleus assay in lymphocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of low doses of X-rays between 0.01 and 1 Gy were studied on whole blood samples of various individuals using the cytokinesis-blocked lymphocyte micronucleus assay as an endpoint. The adaptive response could be induced in G_0 cells by 0.01 Gy followed by 1 Gy challenging dose within a time period of 8 hours, in vitro. The probability distribution of micronucleus increments in those samples which had received very low doses in the range 0.01-0.05 Gy proved to be of asymmetrical type (i.e. lognormal) -very likely to the same shape which has been verified for unirradiated (control) population - while the variable turned to be normally distributed at or above 1 Gy. Profound changes have been experienced in the main characteristics of the linear dose - response relationship and in regression parameters, as well, when successively lessened dose ranges were studied toward 0.01 Gy. In the range below ? 0.2 Gy the response were found to be unrelated to the absorbed dose. These findings suggest that in (very) low dose range a higher attention should be needed to biological parameters like repair, protective mechanisms and antioxidant capacities, rather than to the absorbed radiation energy only. (author)

1997-11-01

289

Health risks associated with low doses of radiation. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With its review of possible human health effects from exposure to low doses of ionization radiation, this report offers an important reference source for nuclear utility workers. An overview of general knowledge in this area defines how ionizing radiation can cause biological damage and the basic units in which radiation exposure is expressed. Included is a summary of radiation protection standards as well as estimates of annual and life-time exposures among the nuclear utility workforce. A key area of the report is its explanation of epidemiologic studies that form the basis for the current understanding of radiation health effects, following by a description of various risk models. In its discussion of the most important radiation health studies undertaken to date, the report includes those that form the foundation of current risk estimates as well as ones that have yielded inconclusive, sometimes controversial data. Finally, the report describes the basic scientific method for estimating health risks from low-dose, low-dose-rate exposures. Overall, this report will help utility personnel evaluate the potential health risks associated with exposure to low-level ionizing radiation and place these risks in perspective

1994-01-01

290

MELODI: The 'Multidisciplinary European Low-Dose Initiative'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of research to reduce uncertainties in risk assessment of low and protracted exposures is now recognised globally. In Europe a new initiative, called 'Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative' (MELODI), has been proposed by a 'European High Level and Expert Group on low-dose risk research' (www.hleg.de), aimed at integrating national and EC (Euratom) efforts. Five national organisations: BfS (DE), CEA (FR), IRSN (FR), ISS (IT) and STUK (FI), with the support of the EC, have initiated the creation of MELODI by signing a letter of intent. In the forthcoming years, MELODI will integrate in a step-by-step approach EU institutions with significant programmes in the field and will be open to other scientific organisations and stakeholders. A key role of MELODI is to develop and maintain over time a strategic research agenda (SRA) and a road map of scientific priorities within a multidisciplinary approach, and to transfer the results for the radiation protection system. Under the coordination of STUK a network has been proposed in the 2009 Euratom Programme, called DoReMi (Low-Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration), which can help the integration process within the MELODI platform. DoReMi and the First MELODI Open Workshop, organised by BfS in September 2009, are now important inputs for the European SRA. (authors)

2009-10-25

291

Low dose irradiation reduces cancer mortality rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low doses of ionizing radiation stimulate development, growth, memory, sensual acuity, fecundity, and immunity (Luckey, T.D., ''Radiation Hormesis'', CRC Press, 1991). Increased immune competence reduces cancer mortality rates and provides increased average lifespan in animals. Decreased cancer mortality rates in atom bomb victims who received low dose irradiation makes it desirable to examine populations exposed to low dose irradiation. Studies with over 300,000 workers and 7 million person-years provide a valid comparison of radiation exposed and control unclear workers (Luckey, T.D., Nurture with Ionizing Radiation, Nutrition and Cancer, 34:1-11, 1999). Careful selection of controls eliminated any ''healthy worker effect''. The person-year corrected average indicated the cancer mortality rate of exposed workers was only 51% that of control workers. Lung cancer mortality rates showed a highly significant negative correlation with radon concentrations in 272,000 U.S. homes (Cohen, B.L., Health Physics 68:157-174, 1995). In contrast, radon concentrations showed no effect on lung cancer rates in miners from different countries (Lubin, J.H. Am. J. Epidemiology 140:323-332, 1994). This provides evidence that excessive lung cancer in miners is caused by particulates (the major factor) or toxic gases. The relative risk for cancer mortality was 3.7% in 10,000 Taiwanese exposed to low level of radiation from 60Co in their steel supported homes (Luan, Y.C. et al., Am. Nuclear Soc. Trans. Boston, 1999). This remarkable finding needs further study. A major mechanism for reduced cancer mortality rates is increased immune competence; this includes both cell and humoral components. Low dose irradiation increases circulating lymphocytes. Macrophage and ''natural killer'' cells can destroy altered (cancer) cells before the mass becomes too large. Low dose irradiation also kills suppressor T-cells; this allows helper T-cells to activate killer cells and antibody producing cells. Increased production of many molecules (interleukins, interferons, leukotrienes, chemotactic agents, and mitogens) related to immunity are found in mice exposed to low dose irradiation (Lim, S.-Z., Biologic Effects of Low Level Exposures to Radiation and Related Agents, pp.15-16, 1993). Those plus many enzymes and cofactors are inter- and intra-cellular agents involved in gene expression, T-cell maturation, phagocytosis, signal transduction, antigen reception and antibody production. This basic science information has been utilized for cancer therapy in Japanese and United States clinics. With the usual radio-, chemo- and surgical therapy, the 10 year survival of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was 59%; when this was augmented by low dose irradiation, survival was 80% (Sakamoto, K., ICONE-7 Abstracts, p 50-51, 1999). Low dose irradiation of the mid-section of the body was effective. This area includes many elements of the immune system: the spleen with its germinal centers and lymphoid follicles, the liver with its phagocytosing Kupffer cells, kidney phagocytes, and the lamina propria and Peyer's patches of the intestinal wall. Irradiation of either the head and chest or the groin-legs area was unresponsive. Chronic low dose irradiation redness premature cancer mortality 51%. Standards should be revised with health, not risks, as the goal. Safe supplementation with ionizing radiation would provide a new plateau of health for people and wealth for nations. (author)

2000-05-01

292

Low dose irradiation reduces cancer mortality rates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low doses of ionizing radiation stimulate development, growth, memory, sensual acuity, fecundity, and immunity (Luckey, T.D., ''Radiation Hormesis'', CRC Press, 1991). Increased immune competence reduces cancer mortality rates and provides increased average lifespan in animals. Decreased cancer mortality rates in atom bomb victims who received low dose irradiation makes it desirable to examine populations exposed to low dose irradiation. Studies with over 300,000 workers and 7 million person-years provide a valid comparison of radiation exposed and control unclear workers (Luckey, T.D., Nurture with Ionizing Radiation, Nutrition and Cancer, 34:1-11, 1999). Careful selection of controls eliminated any ''healthy worker effect''. The person-year corrected average indicated the cancer mortality rate of exposed workers was only 51% that of control workers. Lung cancer mortality rates showed a highly significant negative correlation with radon concentrations in 272,000 U.S. homes (Cohen, B.L., Health Physics 68:157-174, 1995). In contrast, radon concentrations showed no effect on hlumg cancer rates in miners from different countries (Lubin, J.H. Am. J. Epidemiology 140:323-332, 1994). This provides evidence that excessive lung cancer in miners is caused by particulates (the major factor) or toxic gases. The relative risk for cancer mortality was 3.7% in 10,000 Taiwanese exposed to low level of radiation from {sup 60}Co in their steel supported homes (Luan, Y.C. et al., Am. Nuclear Soc. Trans. Boston, 1999). This remarkable finding needs further study. A major mechanism for reduced cancer mortality rates is increased immune competence; this includes both cell and humoral components. Low dose irradiation increases circulating lymphocytes. Macrophage and ''natural killer'' cells can destroy altered (cancer) cells before the mass becomes too large. Low dose irradiation also kills suppressor T-cells; this allows helper T-cells to activate killer cells and antibody producing cells. Increased production of many molecules (interleukins, interferons, leukotrienes, chemotactic agents, and mitogens) related to immunity are found in mice exposed to low dose irradiation (Lim, S.-Z., Biologic Effects of Low Level Exposures to Radiation and Related Agents, pp.15-16, 1993). Those plus many enzymes and cofactors are inter- and intra-cellular agents involved in gene expression, T-cell maturation, phagocytosis, signal transduction, antigen reception and antibody production. This basic science information has been utilized for cancer therapy in Japanese and United States clinics. With the usual radio-, chemo- and surgical therapy, the 10 year survival of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was 59%; when this was augmented by low dose irradiation, survival was 80% (Sakamoto, K., ICONE-7 Abstracts, p 50-51, 1999). Low dose irradiation of the mid-section of the body was effective. This area includes many elements of the immune system: the spleen with its germinal centers and lymphoid follicles, the liver with its phagocytosing Kupffer cells, kidney phagocytes, and the lamina propria and Peyer's patches of the intestinal wall. Irradiation of either the head and chest or the groin-legs area was unresponsive. Chronic low dose irradiation redness premature cancer mortality 51%. Standards should be revised with health, not risks, as the goal. Safe supplementation with ionizing radiation would provide a new plateau of health for people and wealth for nations. (author)

Luckey, T.D.

2000-05-01

293

Heavy ion radiation-induced mammary tumors and their prevention  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this research is to find useful protectors against the incidence of the mammary tumors caused by heavy ion radiation. This year, we have continued the experiments to examine the protecting effect of amifostine against heavy ion radiation-induced mammary tumors. We have also begun the experiments to examine the protecting effect of cysteamine. (author)

2011-11-01

294

Radiation-induced detriment in the population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of quantities can be introduced to describe 'Detriment' induced by ionizing radiation, which are related to the estimate of the probability rate of occurrence of subsequent undesirable health effects. The estimate is evaluated from mathematical models which describe the probability of events (risk model) and the characteristics of subject population. Exposures are usually categorized into 1) exposure in the population, 2) occupational exposure and 3) medical exposure in the frame of radiation protection. It should be noted, however, that there is no essential difference in radiation-induced detriment itself among the three categories, except differences in the mode of exposure, the quality of radiation and the age structure of subjects. So far, the excess cancer death (probability) has been one of main detriment indicators in the exposed population. This reflects that risk model of ionizing radiation has been derived mainly from the data-base on the surveys of cancer mortality such as life span study (LSS) in Hiroshima-Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. In this paper are briefly discussed some radiation-induced detriment indicators in the population, including unconditional quantities 1) excess cancer death probability and 2) loss of life expectancy, together with 3) excess cancer incidence probability based on risk models newly reported for radiation-induced cancer incidence. As an example of conditional probability, is also discussed the simulation on the probability of causation (PC) of leukemias. (author)

1995-10-01

295

Radiation-induced cancers in man  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced cancers in man were divided into three groups, a group in which cancers occurred after atomic bomb exposure, a group in which cancers occurred in radiologists and other medical specialists, and a group in which cancers occurred after exposure to diagnostic radiation, and they were summarized. In atomic bomb survivors leukemia, thyroid cancer, salivary gland cancer, lung cancer, and breast cancer occurred so frequently. In addition to them, mortality ratios by malignant lymphoma, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, and by cancer of urinary tract were increased. The incidence of leukemia was decreased in those who treated radiation owing to the development of the protection of occupational exposure, and the incidence of radiation-induced cancers was decreased in patients owing to the improvement of therapy. However, a new problem has arisen as to the occurrence of cancers after medical exposure, such as various histological types of cancers after the treatment of skin diseases on the head, and breast cancer after the treatment of pneumothorax. Dose-to-effect relation, hereditary factors, effect of age, immunological influences and endocrine actions were also studied in each radiation-induced cancer. (Ichikawa, K.)

1978-07-01

296

Simulating threshold voltage shift of MOS devices due to radiation in the low-dose range  

CERN Document Server

An analytical MOSFET threshold voltage shift model due to radiation in the low-dose range has been developed for circuit simulations. Experimental data in the literature shows that the model predictions are in good agreement. It is simple in functional form and hence computationally efficient. It can be used as a basic circuit simulation tool for analysing MOSFET exposed to a nuclear environment up to about 1 Mrad(Si). In accordance with common believe, radiation induced absolute change of threshold voltage was found to be larger in irradiated PMOS devices. However, if the radiation sensitivity is defined in the way authors did it, the results indicated NMOS rather than PMOS devices are more sensitive, specially at low doses. This is important from the standpoint of their possible application in dosimetry

Wan Xin Heng; Gao Wen Yu; Huang Ru; Wang Yang Yuan

2002-01-01

297

Long-term follow-up of low-dose external pituitary irradiation for Cushing's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-four patients (three male) with Cushing's disease, aged between 11 and 67 years, were treated with low-dose external pituitary irradiation (20 Gy in eight fractions over 10-12 days) and followed for between 13 and 171 months (median 93 months). Eleven patients (46%) went into remission 4-36 months after irradiation, but five subsequently relapsed. In this series, the low incidence of radiation-induced hypopituitarism and absence of other complications attributable to radiotherapy suggest that low-dose pituitary irradiation may be a useful treatment option in selected patients. However, long-term follow-up has demonstrated a high relapse rate and failure to prevent Nelson's syndrome in adrenalectomized patients, indicating that it should not be used as primary treatment in preference to selective adenomectomy. (author)

1990-01-01

298

N-acetyl cysteine protects against ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage but not against cell killing in yeast and mammals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation (IR) induces DNA strand breaks leading to cell death or deleterious genome rearrangements. In the present study, we examined the role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a clinically proven safe agent, for it's ability to protect against ?-ray-induced DNA strand breaks and/or DNA deletions in yeast and mammals. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA deletions were scored by reversion to histidine prototrophy. Human lymphoblastoid cells were examined for the frequency of ?-H2AX foci formation, indicative of DNA double strand break formation. DNA strand breaks were also measured in mouse peripheral blood by the alkaline comet assay. In yeast, NAC reduced the frequency of IR-induced DNA deletions. However, NAC did not protect against cell death. NAC also reduced ?-H2AX foci formation in human lymphoblastoid cells but had no protective effect in the colony survival assay. NAC administration via drinking water fully protected against DNA strand breaks in mice whole-body irradiated with 1 Gy but not with 4 Gy. NAC treatment in the absence of irradiation was not genotoxic. These data suggest that, given the safety and efficacy of NAC in humans, NAC may be useful in radiation therapy to prevent radiation-mediated genotoxicity, but does not interfere with efficient cancer cell killing.

2009-06-01

299

Ionizing radiation: effects of low doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article deals with the important and delicate subject posed by the study of the action on Man's health of low doses of ionizing radiation. A number of fundamental notions whose knowledge is indispensable in order to avoid doubtful meanings or misunderstandings are noted in this article. Following the reminder of these notions, the characteristics of the various types of pathological effects of radiation are indicated, as well as how it is possible for effects which are named ''aleatory'' to be evaluated with care so as to limit risks at low doses. The reader will easily understand that this article has to be somewhat didactic - it seemed best to proceed by well defined stages and to clearly specify numerous concepts whose meanings are not always clearly defined when such problems are treated

1982-01-01

300

Measurements of growth and decay of radiation induced attenuation during the irradiation and recovery of plastic optical fibres  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we present the experimental study of the radiation-induced attenuation in step-index polymethyl-methacrylate based plastic optical fibre by exposure to low dose rate ionizing radiation. The low dose exposure has been found to induce significant permanent attenuation in plastic optical fibres. Based on the experimental results, the formula between radiation-induced attenuation and radiation dose is obtained accordingly. The recovery properties of plastic optical fibre also were investigated. The fibre begins to recover immediately after irradiation, but it does not fully recover, i.e. the irradiation leads to permanent damage of polymer.

Kova?evi?, M. S.; Savovi?, S.; Djordjevich, A.; Baji?, J.; Stupar, D.; Kova?evi?, M.; Simi?, S.

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

Tardive dyskinesia with low dose amisulpride  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to use amisulpride in the treatment of dysthymia and also as an adjunct treatment in patients with major depression. At low doses (50 mg), amisulpride preferentially blocks presynaptic auto receptors, enhances dopamine release, and therefore acts as a dopaminergic compound able to resolve the dopaminergic hypo activity that characterizes depression. Based on experimental data, amisulpride is the drug of choice for dopaminergic transmission d...

2013-01-01

302

Genomic Instability Induced by Low Dose Irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this project was to determine if genomic instability could be initiated by poorly repaired DNA damage induced by low doses of ionizing radiation leading to a mutator phenotype. Human cells were irradiated, then transfected with an unirradiated reporter gene at various times AFTER exposure. The vector carried an inactive GFP gene that fluoresced when the gene was activated by a delayed mutation. Fluorescent cells were measured in the interval of 50 hours to four days after transfection. The results showed that delayed mutations occurred in these cells after exposure to relatively low doses (0.3-1.0 Gy) of low or high ionizing radiation, as well as after treatment with hyrodgen peroxide (30-100 micromolar). The occurrence was both dose and time dependent, often decreasing at higher doses and later times. No marked difference was observed between the response of mis-match repair-proficient and -deficient cell lines. Although the results were quite reproducible within single experiments, difficulties were observed from experiment to experiment. Different reagents and assays were tested, but no improvement resulted. We concluded that this method is not sufficiently robust or consisent to be useful in the assay of the induction of genomic instability by low doses of radiation, at least in these cell lines under our conditions.

Evans, Helen H.

2006-07-15

303

Low dose effects on cultured mammalian cells.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The low dose effects induced by carbon ions on Chinese hamster V79 cells and murine melanoma B16 cells were investigated. Both cell lines were divided into four groups for irradiation: (1) control, (2) 0.02 Gy or 0.05 Gy (D1), (3) 1 Gy (D2), (4) D1 + D2. The survivors and micronuclei were studied as biological endpoints. The results of group (1) and group (2) showed that there were no obvious differences on micronucleus frequency but there were significant increases when irradiation dose was 0.02 Gy on colony formation efficiency. Although low dose ion irradiation could not contribute to DNA damages, it could enhance the colony formation efficiency. In the study of group (3) and (4), when the ion dose was 0.02 Gy, there were evident increases on surviving fraction and decreases on micronucleus frequency, but there were no statistical changes on these endpoints when the ion dose was 0.05 Gy. This meant that high LET radiation could induce the adaptive response of cultured cells, furthermore, in the range of inducing ion dose, low dose irradiation was more profitable than high dose one

2000-11-01

304

Biological effects of low doses of radiation at low dose rate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report was to examine available scientific data and models relevant to the hypothesis that induction of genetic changes and cancers by low doses of ionizing radiation at low dose rate is a stochastic process with no threshold or apparent threshold. Assessment of the effects of higher doses of radiation is based on a wealth of data from both humans and other organisms. 234 refs., 26 figs., 14 tabs

1996-01-01

305

Protection of nucleated bone marrow cells of mice against effect of radiation-induced micronucleus formation by using polysaccharides extracted from 'Zi Zhi' (a ganoderma)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the influence of polysaccharides extracted from 'Zi Zhi' (Ganoderma Sinese Zhao, Xu et Zhang) on the frequency of micronucleated cells induced by 60Co gamma irradiation at different doses in bone marrow of mice. These polysaccharides of 'Zi Zhi' were shown to be of ability to protect nucleated bone marrow cells from micronucleus formation in irradiated mice. For Swiss mice, a dose reduction factor (DRF) was found to be 1.72 in the range of 0 to 4.728 Gy and for LACA mice, to be 1.73 in the range of 0 to 3.152 Gy. Such findings indicate that these polysaccharides are comparable to L-cysteine in their effeciency of protection

1988-01-01

306

Ex Vivo Analysis of Irradiated Finger Nails: Chemical Yields and Properties of Radiation-Induced and Mechanically-Induced Radicals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the radicals underlying the radiation induced signal (RIS) in finger nails was conducted in an attempt to identify properties of these radicals that could be used for biodosimetry purposes. A qualitative analysis of RIS showed the presence of at least three components, two of which were observed at low doses (500 gray). The low dose signal, obtained by reconstruction, consists of a 10 gauss singlet at g...

Black, Paul J.; Swarts, Steven G.

2010-01-01

307

The principal phenolic and alcoholic components of wine protect human lymphocytes against hydrogen peroxide- and ionising radiation-induced DNA damage in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have tested the hypothesis that the alcoholic and phenolic components of wine are protective against the DNA damaging and cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and gamma radiation in vitro. The components of wine tested were ethanol, glycerol, a mixture of the phenolic compounds catechin and caffeic acid, and tartaric acid, all at concentrations that were 2.5% or 10.0% of the concentration in a typical Australian white wine Riesling. These components were tested individually or combined as a mixture and compared to a white wine stripped of polyphenols as well as a Hanks balanced salt solution control which was the diluent for the wine components. The effect of the components was tested in lymphocytes, using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay, after 30 minutes incubation in plasma or whole blood for the hydrogen peroxide or gamma-radiation challenge respectively. The results obtained showed that ethanol, glycerol, the catechin-caffeic acid mixture, the mixture of all components, and the stripped white wine significantly reduced the DNA damaging effects of hydrogen peroxide and gamma radiation (ANOVA P = 0.043 - 0.001). The strongest protective effect against DNA damage by gamma irradiation was observed for the catechin-caffeic acid mixture and mixture of all components (30% and 32% reduction respectively). These two treatments as well as ethanol produced the strongest protective effects against DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide (24%, 25% and 18% respectively) . The protection provided by the mixture did not account for the expected additive protective effects of the individual components suggesting that the components may be exerting their effects through similar mechanisms which are saturated at the concentrations tested. Ethanol was the only component that significantly increased base-line DNA damage rate, however, this effect was negated in the mixture. In conclusion our results suggest that the main phenolic and alcoholic components of wine can reduce the DNA damaging effects of two important oxidants ie hydrogen peroxide and ionising radiation, in this physiologically relevant in vitro system

2003-08-17

308

Protective effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate plus testosterone against radiation-induced damage to the reproductive function of male rats and their offspring.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study attempted to protect spermatogenesis and the reproductive performance of rats against the effects of acute scrotal exposure to x-rays. Daily subcutaneous injections of medroxyprogesterone acetate (8 mg/kg) plus testosterone (1 mg/kg) (MT group) were administered for 55 days (experiment A) or 15 days (experiment B). The rats were irradiated (3 grays) on the last day of MT pretreatment (MTX group). In both experiments, on days 1 and 130 posttreatment, rats from each of the four group...

Je?gou, B.; Velez La Calle, J. F.; Bauche?, F.

1991-01-01

309

Repair processes in radiation-induced transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors used the cell system developed in the laboratory of Charles Heidelberger designated 10T1/2. These cells were derived from C3H mouse embryo tissue. Under normal circumstances, 10T1/2 cells form a confluent sheet of contact-inhibited cells. Focus formation, due to the sustained division of a transformant on top of a contact inhibited confluent layer of cells, is used as a quantitative measure of induced transformation. Some chemical carcinogens and near ultraviolet radiation induce transformation with little if any attendant cytotoxicity. In contrast, ionizing radiation is an inefficient inducer, which shows the dose dependencies of cell survival and transformation with "6"0Co ?-rays. To determine whether repair plays a role in transformation, both fractionation and low dose rate irradiation experiments were performed. In all instances, the effect of spreading the radiation treatment over time - while cells were maintained under conditions that support active growth and cultures were not confluent or crowded - was determined in terms of net survival as well as net transformation frequency. Comparisons were made with cells treated with single exposures delivered at a high dose rate

1984-01-01

310

Biological effect of low dose radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document describes the recent findings in studies of low dose radiation effect with those by authors' group. The low dose radiation must be considered in assessment of radiation effects because it induces the biological influence unexpected hitherto; i.e., the bystander effect and genetic instability. The former is a non-targeted effect that non-irradiated cells undergo the influence of directly irradiated cells nearby, which involves cell death, chromosome aberration, micronucleus formation, mutation and carcinogenesis through cellular gap junction and/or by signal factors released. Authors' group has found the radical(s) possessing as long life time as >20 hr released from the targeted cells, a possible mediator of the effect; the generation of aneuploid cells as an early carcinogenetic change; and at dose level <10 Gy, activation of MAPK signal pathway leading to relaxation of chromatin structure. The genetic instability means the loss of stability where replication and conservation of genome are normally maintained, and is also a cause of the late radiation effect. The group has revealed that active oxygen molecules can affect the late effect like delayed cell death, giant cell formation and chromosome aberration, all of which lead to the instability, and is investigating the hypothesis that the telomere instability resulted from the abnormal post-exposure interaction with its nuclear membrane or between chromatin and nuclear matrix, is enhanced by structural distortion of nuclear genes. As well, shown is the possible suppression of carcinogenesis by p53. The group, to elucidate the mechanism underlying the low dose radiation effect, is conducting their studies in consideration of the sequential bases of physical, chemical and biological processes. (R.T.)

2008-01-01

311

Study of radiobiological effects at low doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general aims of the work are the study of the biological effectiveness of low radiation doses in vitro and in vivo, also in terms of interaction mechanisms. The shape of the dose-effect relationship at low doses of different radiation qualities was studied for various modes of irradiation, and, in particular, the influence of dose rate and radiation quality as well as of important biological host factors was considered, using appropriate experimental model systems, including neoplastic transformation of immortalized cell lines, and life-shortening and tumor induction in experimental animals. (R.P.) 10 refs., 1 fig

1993-01-01

312

Low doses: myth or true danger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The question of low doses and the existence of a threshold dose is discussed here. The opinions are shared between scientists of nuclear energy and doctors who think there is a threshold, under it there is no detected effect for health, and the partisans of a zero risk who think that radiations are dangerous at any level. If elementary principles of precaution want that exposure standards continue to decrease, it can be appear for the public as a confirmation of soundness of zero dose thesis, and consequently generate a trust crisis between public and scientists. (N.C.)

1996-01-01

313

A legacy of Hiroshima and Nagasaki : risk estimates for radiation induced cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki fifty years ago ended the war in the Pacific and set the world agog at the prospect of new and frightening weapons for the future. Many residents of these cities, exposed to lesser than lethal amounts of radiation, survived to constitute the most remarkable radioepidemiological study of late radiation effects any of us could have imagined. These survivors and those relatively few among them who died of cancers attributable to radiation, provide us with our primary source of risk estimates for radiation induced cancer. As cancer is the principal low dose radiation effect these estimates are today at the core of our radiation protection system for workers and the public. In 1977 it was the risk estimates mainly from the LSS (Lifespan Study of the A-bomb survivors) estimated at about 1%/Sv that enabled ICRP to confirm the existing worker limit of 50mSv/y. In 1987, NCRP introduced a new and more restrictive occupational guideline because risk estimates from the LSS were known to be 'going up'. Continued surveillance of radioepidemiological studies and especially the LSS is a vital part of the scientific background of radiation protection. (author)

1995-11-20

314

Protective Effect of Phoenix dactylifera-L Extracts against Radiation-Induced Cardio-Toxicity and Some Biochemical Changes in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Antioxidant properties of the date palm fruit; Phoenix dactylifera-L in mitigation of cellular injury following free radicals release by ionizing radiation has been investigated. Forty-eight male albino rats divided equally into 6 groups were used in this study. Group 1 (G.1) acted as control, G.2 received date extract orally (4 ml/ kg/ day) for 21 days, G.3 was exposed to a single dose of gamma irradiation (6 Gy), G.4 received date extract orally at an identical dose and duration to G.2 and irradiation to G.3, G.5 received the daily date extract for 7 days post irradiation and G.6 received the daily date extract for 21 days before and for 7 days after irradiation. Heart tissue was examined histologically and biochemical testing for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was performed for each rat group. Data from the investigation showed that gamma irradiation caused histopathological damage to the heart tissue and disturbances in most parameters related to cardiac function. Administration of date extracts pre-irradiation provided evidence of a potential protective effect against irradiation hazard

2011-01-01

315

Proceedings of the 8. LOWRAD: International conference on the effects of low doses and very low doses of ionizing radiation on human health and biotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theoretical and experimental papers are presented in these proceedings covering the following subjects: radiation protection, dosimetry, radiation dosimetry, cells, technetium, plutonium, uranium, thorium, low dose irradiation, radiation doses, cesium, radiation chemistry, nuclear medicine, safety and occupational exposure, neoplasm, cytology and radioisotopes

2009-09-28

316

Low dose irradiation creep of pure nickel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A climb-controlled glide model of low dose irradiation creep was developed to rationalize irradiation creep data of pure nickel irradiated in a light ion irradiation creep apparatus. Pure nickel specimens (99.992% Ni), with three different microstructures, were irradiated with 17 or 15 MeV deuterons at 473 K and stresses ranging from 0.35 to 0.9 of the unirradiated yield stress. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the microstructure following irradiation. The creep modeling demonstrated that low dose irradiation creep is controlled by the interaction between glide dislocations and the small, dispersed dislocation loops. The creep model predicted creep rates proportional to the mobile dislocation density and a comparison of experimental irradiation creep rates as a function of homologous stress revealed a dependence on initial microstructure of the magnitude predicted by the measured dislocation densities. The three microstructures that were irradiated consisted of 85% and 25% cold-worked Ni specimens and well-annealed Ni specimens. A weak stress dependence of irradiation creep was observed in 85% cold-worked Ni in agreement with experimental results by others. The weak stress dependence was shown to be a consequence of the stress independence of the dislocation climb velocity and the weak stress dependence of the barrier removal process. The irradiation creep rate was observed to be proportional to the applied stress. This linear stress dependence was suggested to be due to the stress dependence of the mobile dislocation density

1983-01-01

317

Risk of low-doses in radiodiagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of low doses of X-rays is inferred from the indubitable effects of high doses in human carcinogenesis, Genetic and teratogenic effects are mainly inferred from animal experimentation because clinical surveys of irradiated pregnant women have failed to demonstrate such consequences in the children, except for mental retardation after Japanese atomic bombing. Since no evidence of carcinogenic effect has been produced by epidemiological studies for doses lower than 500 mSv. the estimation of the risk due to low doses has been extrapolated from the linear relation between dose and cancers at high doses. Such an extrapolation gives a maximal risk which is falsely used as a probability of cancer. The actual risk lies between zero and this maximal number, and many epidemiologic surveys in people receiving doses much higher than the mean level of background irradiation failed to demonstrate higher rate of cancer. The explanation of this fact, which is supported by the most recent biological data, is the efficacy of the DNA repair system at low level of exposure to ionizing radiations. We expose the principles of regulation of radioprotection for workers, and give estimations of the doses delivered to the patients and the personnel by diagnostic investigations, by comparing these doses with those of natural irradiation. Practical aspect for conventional and computed radiology are exposed for patients and workers. (authors)

1997-01-01

318

Mutagenic effect of low dose ionizing radiation on mammalian cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was the aim of this study to investigate into the mutagenic effet of low dose ionizing radiation on mammalian cells, particularly as regards its relation to the dose rate. For this purpose, a procedure was developed for the continuous cultivation of mamalian cells that permitted expontential growth phases to be maintained over several weeks. The tests were carried out on V79 cells from Chinese hamsters as well as TK6 cells and SP3 cells from humans. The cells were challenged using a 60Co-gamma source, with dose rates varying between 2 and 200 mGy per hour. Acute dose-effect curves for 300 kV X-radiation were plotted as a reference standard. The key finding of the study was that frequencies of mutation determined in any of the cell systems following exposure to extremely small doses were no lower than those seen after acute irradation. The mutation rates were not significantly different in human cells and, surprisingly, even showed substantial increases for V79 cells. The generally expected decrease of mutation yields in proportion to the dose rate was confirmed by this study solely for the intermediate range (50-500 mGy/hour). This statement must be qualified by the fact that the systems investigated here were cell populations characterized by exponential growth. Circumstances may be different in tissues, where the growth fractions are only small. Nevertheless, the results still are of great relevance to the evaluation of risks from radiation-induced mutation, both at the genetic and somatic levels. (orig.)

1992-12-01

319

Inhibition of caspases protects mice from radiation-induced oral mucositis and abolishes the cleavage of RNA-binding protein HuR.  

Science.gov (United States)

The oral mucosal epithelium is typically insulted during chemotherapy and ionizing radiation (IR) therapy and disposed to mucositis, which creates painful inflammation and ulceration in the oral cavity. Oral mucositis alters gene expression patterns, inhibits cellular growth, and initiates cell death in the oral epithelial compartments. Such alterations are governed by several different factors, including transcription factors, RNA-binding proteins, and microRNAs. IR-induced post-transcriptional regulation of RNA-binding proteins exists but is poorly studied in clinically relevant settings. We herein report that the RNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR) undergoes cleavage modification by caspase-3 following IR-induced oral mucositis and subsequently promotes the expression of the pro-apoptotic factor BAX (Bcl-2-associated X protein), as well as cell death. Further analyses revealed that the HuR cleavage product-1 (HuR-CP1) directly associates and stabilizes the BAX mRNA and concurrently activates the apoptotic pathway. On the other hand, a noncleavable isoform of HuR promotes the clonogenic capacity of primary oral keratinocytes and decreases the effect of IR-induced cell death. Additionally, specific inhibition of caspase-3 by a compound, NSC321205, increases the clonogenic capacity of primary oral keratinocytes and causes increased basal layer cellularity, thickened mucosa, and elevated epithelial cell growth in the tongues of mice with oral mucositis. This protective effect of NSC321205 is mediated by a decrease in caspase-3 activity and the consequent inhibition of HuR cleavage, which reduces the expression of BAX in mice with IR-induced oral mucositis. Thus, we have identified a new molecular mechanism of HuR in the regulation of mRNA turnover and apoptosis in oral mucositis, and our data suggest that blocking the cleavage of HuR enhances cellular growth in the oral epithelial compartment. PMID:24362034

Talwar, Sudha; House, Reniqua; Sundaramurthy, Santhanalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Sundaravadivel; Yu, Hong; Palanisamy, Viswanathan

2014-02-01

320

Radiation-induced peritoneal mesothelioma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case report of a patient who developed peritoneal mesothelioma 7 years after internal and external irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix is reported. No previous reports of induction of this tumor by irradiation have been found. The subject of radiation-induced tumors and peritoneal mesothelioma is briefly discussed

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Dose-effect relationships, epidemiological analysis and the derivation of low dose risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper expands on our recent comments in a letter to this journal about the analysis of epidemiological studies and the determination of low dose RBE of low LET radiation (Chadwick and Leenhouts 2009 J. Radiol. Prot. 29 445-7). Using the assumption that radiation induced cancer arises from a somatic mutation (Chadwick and Leenhouts 2011 J. Radiol. Prot. 31 41-8) a model equation is derived to describe cancer induction as a function of dose. The model is described briefly, evidence is provided in support of it, and it is applied to a set of experimental animal data. The results are compared with a linear fit to the data as has often been done in epidemiological studies. The article presents arguments to support several related messages which are relevant to epidemiological analysis, the derivation of low dose risk and the weighting factor of sparsely ionising radiations. The messages are: (a) cancer incidence following acute exposure should, in principle, be fitted to a linear-quadratic curve with cell killing using all the data available; (b) the acute data are dominated by the quadratic component of dose; (c) the linear fit of any acute data will essentially be dependent on the quadratic component and will be unrelated to the effectiveness of the radiation at low doses; consequently, (d) the method used by ICRP to derive low dose risk from the atomic bomb survivor data means that it is unrelated to the effectiveness of the hard gamma radiation at low radiation doses; (e) the low dose risk value should, therefore, not be used as if it were representative for hard gamma rays to argue for an increased weighting factor for tritium and soft x-rays even though there are mechanistic reasons to expect this; (f) epidemiological studies of chronically exposed populations supported by appropriate cellular radiobiological studies have the best chance of revealing different RBE values for different sparsely ionising radiations.

2011-03-01

322

Implications of effects ''adaptive response'', ''low-dose hypersensitivity'' und ''bystander effect'' for cancer risk at low doses and low dose rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model for carcinogenesis (the TSCE model) was applied in order to examine the effects of ''Low-dose hypersensitivity (LDH)'' and the ''Bystander effect (BE)'' on the derivation of radiation related cancer mortality risks. LDH has been discovered to occur in the inactivation of cells after acute exposure to low LET radiation. A corresponding version of the TSCE model was applied to the mortality data on the Abomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The BE has been mainly observed in cells after exposure to high LET radiation. A Version of the TSCE model which included the BE was applied to the data on lung cancer mortality from the workers at the Mayak nuclear facilities who were exposed to Plutonium. In general an equally good description of the A-bomb survivor mortality data (for all solid, stomach and lung tumours) was found for the TSCE model and the (conventional) empirical models but fewer parameters were necessary for the TSCE model. The TSCE model which included the effects of radiation induced cell killing resulted in non-linear dose response curves with excess relative risks after exposure at young ages that were generally lower than in the models without cell killing. The main results from TSCE models which included cell killing described by either conventional survival curves or LDH were very similar. A sub multiplicative effect from the interaction of smoking and exposure to plutonium was found to result from the analysis of the Mayak lung cancer mortality data. All models examined resulted in the predominant number of Mayak lung cancer deaths being ascribed to smoking. The interaction between smoking and plutonium exposures was found to be the second largest effect. The TSCE model resulted in lower estimates for the lung cancer excess relative risk per unit plutonium dose than the empirical risk model, but this difference was not found to be statistically significant. The excess relative risk dose responses were linear in the empirical model and linear below 1Sv, but strongly non-linear above 1Sv, in the TSCE model. Excess relative risk effect modification by age attained was found to be clearly weaker in the TSCE models than in the empirical models, for lung doses smaller than 10Sv. A BE was not compatible with the data. (orig.)

2006-01-01

323

How relevant to radiation protection is the adaptive response mechanism?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is evidence that the phenomenon of adaptive response (AR) which results from a low dose exposure could modify the risk of a subsequent radiation exposure, and conceivably could even provide a net benefit rather than the putative radiation detriment at low doses. The AR has been widely observed in human and other mammalian cells exposed to low doses and low-dose rates. The phenomenon has been demonstrated at the level of one track per cell, the lowest insult a cell can receive. The AR to radiation has been shown to: (i) protect against the DNA damaging effects of radiation and many chemical carcinogens; (ii) increase the probability that improperly repaired cells will die by apoptosis, thereby reducing risk to the whole organism; (iii) suppress both spontaneous- and radiation-induced neoplastic transformation in vitro; and (iv) reduce life-shortening in mice that develop myeloid leukemia as a result of a radiation exposure. It remains unclear, however, if the AR will be relevant to either risk assessment or radiation protection. There is currently no evidence of AR's influence on the incidence of radiogenic cancer in vivo although recent data indicate that adapting doses could lead to reduced risk in animal or human populations. Currently the existing dose control and dose management programs attempt to limit or eliminate even very low exposures, without evidence that such an approach has economic and societal benefits. Indeed, if adaptation from exposure to low doses provides the same responses in vivo as have been shown in vitro, then the current approach to protection against low doses may be counterproductive However, the demonstrated principles of the adaptive response to radiation in vitro will not likely influence the long held current formulation of radiation protection practices until the biological action of accumulated low doses of radiation in vivo and its impact on the modulation of radiation carcinogenesis are better understood. (author)

1998-10-18

324

Genome instability induced by extreme low dose/low dose rate heavy ion radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We irradiated normal human fibroblasts (HFL III) with carbon ions (290 MeV/u, 70 keV/um) at very low dose (1 mGy total dose) and low dose rate (1 mGy/6 h) and observed the growth kinetics for several months by continuous culturing. The growth of carbon irradiated cells started to slow down much earlier than that of non-irradiated control cells before reaching senescence. On the other hand, HFL III cells irradiated at the same dose and the dose rate of gamma-rays were slightly accelerated their growth. Our measurements on DNA double strand break (DSB) such as gamma-H2AX foci revealed a higher number of foci in carbon irradiated cells than in gamma-irradiated cells at a cell passage near senescence. Taken together, our results suggest that high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation causes different effects than low LET radiation even at very low doses and that the effect of single low dose irradiation can affect the stability of genome many generations after irradiation. (author)

2006-05-01

325

Low dose irradiation creep of pure nickel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed climb-controlled glide model of low dose irradiation creep has been developed to rationalize irradiation creep data of pure nickel irradiated in a light ion irradiation creep apparatus. Experimental irradiation creep data were obtained to study the effects of initial microstructure and stress on low dose irradiation creep in pure nickel. Pure nickel specimens (99.992% Ni), with three different microstructures, were irradiated with 17 or 15 MeV deuterons at 473 K and stresses ranging from 0.35 to 0.9 of the unirradiated yield stress. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the microstructure following irradiation to 0.05 dpa consisted of a high density of small dislocation loops, some small voids and network dislocations. The creep model predicted creep rates proportional to the mobile dislocation density and a comparison of experimental irradiation creep rates as a function of homologous stress revealed a dependence on initial microstructure of the magnitude predicted by the measured dislocation densities. The three microstructures that were irradiated consisted of 85% and 25% cold-worked Ni specimens and well-annealed Ni specimens. A weak stress dependence of irradiation creep was observed in 85% cold-worked Ni in agreement with experimental determinations of the stress dependence of irradiation creep by others. The weak stress dependence was shown to be a consequence of the stress independence of the dislocation climb velocity and the weak stress dependence of the barrier removal process. The irradiation creep rate was observed to be proportional to the applied stress. This linear stress dependence was suggested to be due to the stress dependence of the mobile dislocation density. 101 references, 27 figures, 11 tables

1984-01-01

326

Mitochondrial DNA deletion and aging induced by low dose rate of radiation in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a closed circular DNA molecule and more than 100 copies are present in a cell. Deletion mutation of mtDNA accumulates with aging and can be a suitable marker for estimating biological effects on radiation-induced mutation in mice. The mice life span study in the Institute for Environmental Sciences suggests that low dose rate of radiation might accelerate aging in mice prolongly irradiated by "1"3"7Cs ?-rays (20 mGy/day for 400 days). To know the relationships between low dose rate irradiation, aging and mutation, we observed deletion mutations of mtDNA from mice irradiated by "1"3"7Cs ?-rays (20 mGy/day) for different dates. The real-time fluorescence PCR method was sensitive enough to determine the relative amount of deletion in several tissues. Age-dependent accumulations of deletion mutations were observed in aged mice (250-700 days). However, a significant increase of deletion mutation related to accumulated dose was not detected in "1"3"7Cs ?-ray irradiated mice for 4-12 Gy. These data suggest that the effect of the low dose rate irradiation on mtDNA is within a background level. (author)

2003-01-01

327

Pathology of radiation-induced bone tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of this review is to present data on the pathology of radiation-induced bone tumors, which include the following topics. Incidence and latent periods of bone tumors in humans after external and internal irradiation. Histologic features of radiation-induced bone tumors. Experimental induction of bone tumors in animals. Pathogenesis of radiation-induced bone tumors. (author)

1985-09-23

328

Heavy-ion radiation induced bystander effect in mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation-induced bystander effect is defined as the induction of damage in neighboring non-hit cells by signals released from directly-irradiated cells. Recently, Low dose of high LET radiation induced bystander effects in vivo have been reported more and more. It has been indicated that radiation induced bystander effect was localized not only in bystander tissues but also in distant organs. Genomic, epigenetic, metabolomics and proteomics play significant roles in regulating heavy-ion radiation stress responses in mice. To identify the molecular mechanism that underlies bystander effects of heavy-ion radiation, the male mice head were exposed to 2000mGy dose of 12C heavy-ion radiation and the distant organ liver was detected on 1h, 6h, 12h and 24h after radiation, respectively. MSAP was used to monitor the level of polymorphic DNA methylation changes. The results show that heavy-ion irradiate mouse head can induce liver DNA methylation changes significantly. The percent of DNA methylation changes are time-dependent and highest at 6h after radiation. We also prove that the hypo-methylation changes on 1h and 6h after irradiation. But the expression level of DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is not changed. UPLC/Synapt HDMS G2 was employed to detect the proteomics of bystander liver 1h after irradiation. 64 proteins are found significantly different between treatment and control group. GO process show that six of 64 which were unique in irradiation group are associated with apoptosis and DNA damage response. The results suggest that mice head exposed to heavy-ion radiation can induce damage and methylation pattern changed in distant organ liver. Moreover, our findings are important to understand the molecular mechanism of radiation induced bystander effects in vivo.

Liang, Shujian; Sun, Yeqing; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Changna

2012-07-01

329

Quantification of the radiation-induced genetic risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The estimation of the radiation-induced genetic risk of human populations is based on the extrapolation of results from animal experiments. Radiation-induced mutations are stochastic events. The probability of the event depends on the dose; the degree of the damage does not. The different methods to estimate the radiation-induced genetic risk will be discussed. The accuracy of the predicted results will be evaluated by comparison with the observed incidence of dominant mutations in offspring born to radiation exposed survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings. These methods will be used to predict the genetic damage from the fallout of the reactor accident at Chernobyl. For the exposure dose we used the upper limits of the mean effective life time equivalent does from the fallout values in the Munich region. According to the direct method for the risk estimation we will expect for each 100 to 500 spontaneous dominant mutations one radiation-induced mutation in the first generation. With the indirect method we estimate a ratio of 100 dominant spontaneous mutations to one radiation-induced dominant mutation. The possibilities and the limitations of the different methods to estimate the genetic risk will be discussed. The discrepancy between the high safety standards for radiation protection and the low level of knowledge for the toxicological evaluation of chemical mutagens will be emphasized. (orig./MG)

1987-01-01

330

Radiation-induced cancer risks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author comments on the controversy over radiation induced cancer risk rates and the arguments of Russell-Jones, Tucker and Mole concerning the risks derived from the new dosimetry when applied to A-bomb survivors in Japan and the reactions of the I.C.R.P. Particular reference is made to the mathematical models used to fit dose-response data and to extrapolate to lifetime risk. (U.K.)

1988-05-07

331

Radiation induced crosslinking of polytetrafluoroethylene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Irradiation temperature effect on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) from room temperature to 380degC was investigated by tensile test and thermal analysis. The behavior of tensile properties and changes of crystallinity on irradiation indicated the formation of a network structure in PTFE by radiation induced crosslinking in inert gas in the molten state just above the melting temperature of PTFE (327degC). The crosslinked PTFE showed a much improved radiation resistance in an atmospheric radiation field. (author)

1995-03-01

332

Radiological risk and low doses: between false debate and experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The information of the workers and the public on ionizing radiation and their potential effects is very superficial. The scientific community, as well as the experts in charge of establishing basic radiation protection standards, have never really succeeded to transmit a clear and constructive message on the fundamental principles underlying the assessment and management of radiological risk. The on-going debate on low doses is a good illustration of the deficit in knowledge in this field. An educational effort, with ''direct experience'' of radioactivity in all domains, should, in the future, facilitate the emergence of a true radiological risk culture. This should help both in reconciling the public with the techniques and the people involved and restoring the trust in the institutions in charge of the evaluation and the management of radiological risk. (author). 9 refs

1994-01-01

333

Radiation-induced chromosomal instability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent studies on radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the progeny of exposed mammalian cells were briefly described as well as other related studies. For the analysis of chromosomal damage in clones, cells were seeded directly after exposure in cell well-dish to form single cell clones and post-irradiation chromosome aberrations were scored. Both exposure to isoeffective doses of X-ray or 270 MeV/u C-ions (13 keV/{mu}m) increased the number of clones with abnormal karyotype and the increase was similar for X-ray and for C-ions. Meanwhile, in the progeny of cells for mass cultures, there was no indication of a delayed expression of chromosomal damage up to 40 population doublings after the exposure. A high number of aberrant cells were only observed directly after exposure to 10.7 MeV/u O-ions, i.e. in the first cycle cells and decreased with subsequent cell divisions. The reason for these differences in the radiation-induced chromosomal instability between clonal isolates and mass culture has not been clarified. Recent studies indicated that genomic instability occurs at a high frequency in the progeny of cells irradiated with both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. Such genomic instability is thought likely to increase the risk of carcinogenesis, but more data are required for a well understanding of the health risks resulting from radiation-induced delayed instability. (M.N.)

Ritter, S. [GSI, Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany)

1999-03-01

334

Radiation-induced bystander effects. Mechanisms, biological implications, and current investigations at the Leipzig LIPSION facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: The bystander effect is a relatively new area of radiobiological research, which is aimed at studying post-radiation changes in neighboring non-hit cells or tissues. The bystander effect of ionizing irradiation is important after low-dose irradiation in the range of up to 0.2 Gy, where a higher incidence of stochastic damage was observed than was expected from a linear-quadratic model. It is also important when the irradiation of a cell population is highly non-uniform. Objective: This review summarizes most of the important results and proposed bystander effect mechanisms as well as their impact on theory and clinical practice. The literature, in parts contradictory, is collected, the main topics are outlined, and some basic papers are described in more detail. In order to illustrate the microbeam technique, which is considered relevant for the bystander effect research, the state of the Leipzig LIPSION nanoprobe facility is described. Results: The existence of a radiation-induced bystander effect is now generally accepted. The current state of knowledge on it is summarized here. Several groups worldwide are working on understanding its different aspects and its impact on radiobiology and radiation protection. Conclusion: The observation of a bystander effect has posed many questions, and answering them is a challenging topic for radiobiology in the future. (orig.)

Oesterreicher, J. [Dept. of Nuclear Solid State Physics, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany); Dept. of Radiobiology and Immunology, Purkyne Military Medical Academy, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Prise, K.M.; Michael, B.D. [Gray Cancer Inst., Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Vogt, J.; Butz, T. [Dept. of Nuclear Solid State Physics, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany); Tanner, J.M. [Clinic and Polyclinic of Radiation Oncology, Martin Luther Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)

2003-02-01

335

Low doses ionizing radiation enhances the invasiveness of breast cancer cells by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Low doses ionizing irradiation would enhance the invasiveness of breast cancer cells by inducing EMT. ? Low doses ionizing radiation induced morphologic changes in breast cancer cells. ? Low doses ionizing radiation led to upregulation of mesenchymal markers and down-regulation of epithelial markers. ? Low doses ionizing radiation increased migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process cellular morphologic and molecular alterations facilitate cell invasion. We hypothesized that low dose ionizing irradiation (LDIR) enhances the invasiveness of breast cancer cells by inducing EMT. The effects of LDIR on cellular morphology and the EMT markers of MCF-7 breast cancer cells were analyzed by western blot/RT-PCR and migration/invasion was examined using the transwell assay. We found that LDIR led to the phenotypic changes of EMT in MCF-7 cells and down-regulation of epithelial differentiation markers and transcriptional induction of mesenchymal markers. Furthermore, the radiated cells demonstrated enhanced migration/invasion MCF-7 cells compared with non-radiated cells. In summary, LDIR promotes the invasiveness of breast cancer cells through epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These findings may ultimately provide a new targeted approach for improving the therapeutic effectiveness of radiation in breast cancer.

2011-08-19

336

Low doses ionizing radiation enhances the invasiveness of breast cancer cells by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Low doses ionizing irradiation would enhance the invasiveness of breast cancer cells by inducing EMT. {yields} Low doses ionizing radiation induced morphologic changes in breast cancer cells. {yields} Low doses ionizing radiation led to upregulation of mesenchymal markers and down-regulation of epithelial markers. {yields} Low doses ionizing radiation increased migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process cellular morphologic and molecular alterations facilitate cell invasion. We hypothesized that low dose ionizing irradiation (LDIR) enhances the invasiveness of breast cancer cells by inducing EMT. The effects of LDIR on cellular morphology and the EMT markers of MCF-7 breast cancer cells were analyzed by western blot/RT-PCR and migration/invasion was examined using the transwell assay. We found that LDIR led to the phenotypic changes of EMT in MCF-7 cells and down-regulation of epithelial differentiation markers and transcriptional induction of mesenchymal markers. Furthermore, the radiated cells demonstrated enhanced migration/invasion MCF-7 cells compared with non-radiated cells. In summary, LDIR promotes the invasiveness of breast cancer cells through epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These findings may ultimately provide a new targeted approach for improving the therapeutic effectiveness of radiation in breast cancer.

Zhang, Xin, E-mail: xinzhang@gmail.com [Department of Chemotherapy, Cancer Center, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, School of Medicine, West Wenhua Road No. 107, Ji' nan, Shandong 250012 (China); Li, Xiaoyan, E-mail: xiaoyanli1219@gmail.com [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, School of Medicine, West Wenhua Road No. 107, Ji' nan, Shandong 250012 (China); Zhang, Ning, E-mail: zhangning0816@gmail.com [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, School of Medicine, West Wenhua Road No. 107, Ji' nan, Shandong 250012 (China); Yang, Qifeng, E-mail: qifengy@gmail.com [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, School of Medicine, West Wenhua Road No. 107, Ji' nan, Shandong 250012 (China); Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

2011-08-19

337

Radiation induced cancer following radiation therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation induced cancer following radiation therapy for various organ sites as well as our recent data of radiation-induced cancer following radiation therapy for cervical cancer were summarized and analyzed. Radiation induced cancers were apparent in radiation therapy for various cancers. However, the benefit of radiation therapy is not weaken by the demerit of second cancer. The potential diagnostic impact of differentiation between late recurrence with same histology and radiation-induced cancer was discussed. From analysis, late recurrence of about 10 years following radiation therapy seems to be radiation induced cancer. (author)

Nakano, Takashi; Arai, Tatsuo; Hukuhisa, Kenjiro; Sato, Shinichiro [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

2001-01-01

338

Effects of low doses: Proof and inferences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is essential to discuss the plausibility of 'low-dose' effects from environmental exposures. The question, nonetheless, is wrongly labelled, for it is not the magnitude of the dose that matters, but rather the effect. The question thus concerns 'doses with low effects'. More precisely, because the low effects on large populations are not that small, even when epidemiological tools fail to detect them, it would be more accurate to talk about 'doses with undetectable or barely detectable effects'. Hereafter, we describe this 'low-effect dose' concept from the viewpoint of toxicology and epidemiology and discuss the fragile boundary line for these low-effect doses. Next, we review the different types of inference from observed situations (i.e., with high effects) to situations relevant to public health, to characterize the level of confidence to be accorded them. The first type is extrapolation - from higher to lower doses or from higher to lower dose rates. The second type is transposition - from humans to other humans or from animals to humans. The third type can be called 'analogy' as in 'read across' approaches, where QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) methodology can be used. These three types of inferences can be based on an estimate of the 'distance' between observed and predicted areas, but can also rely on knowledge and theories of the relevant mechanisms. The new tools of predictive toxicology are helpful both in deriving quantitative estimates and grounding inferences on sound bases. (author)

2010-01-01

339

low dose irradiation growth in zirconium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low dose neutron irradiation growth in textured and recrystallized zirconium, is studied, at the Candu Reactors Calandria temperature (340 K) and at 77 K. It was necessary to design and build 1: A facility to irradiate at high temperatures, which was installed in the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission's RA1 Reactor; 2: Devices to carry out thermal recoveries, and 3: Devices for 'in situ' measurements of dimensional changes. The first growth kinetics curves were obtained at 365 K and at 77 K in a cryostat under neutron fluxes of similar spectra. Irradiation growth experiments were made in zirconium doped with fissionable material (0,1 at %235U). In this way an equivalent dose two orders of magnitude greater than the reactor's fast neutrons dose was obtained, significantly reducing the irradiation time. The specimens used were bimetallic couples, thus obtaining a great accuracy in the measurements. The results allow to determine that the dislocation loops are the main cause of irradiation growth in recrystallized zirconium. Furthermore, it is shown the importance of 'in situ' measurements as a way to avoid the effect that temperature changes have in the final growth measurement; since they can modify the residual stresses and the overconcentrations of defects. (M.E.L.)

1987-01-01

340

Radiation leukaemogenesis at low doses DE-FG02-05 ER 63947 Final Technical Report 15 May 2005 Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â? 14 May 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a complete summary of the work undertaken and results obtained under US Department of Energy grant DF-FG02-05 ER 63947, Radiation leukaemogenesis at low doses. There is ample epidemiological evidence indicating that ionizing radiation is carcinogenic in the higher dose range. This evidence, however, weakens and carries increasing uncertainties at doses below 100-200 mSv. At these low dose levels the form of the dose-response curve for radiation-induced cancer cannot be determined reliably or directly from studies of human populations. Therefore animal, cellular and other experimental systems must be employed to provide supporting evidence on which to base judgements of risk at low doses. Currently in radiological protection a linear non-threshold (LNT) extrapolation of risk estimates derived from human epidemiological studies is used to estimate risks in the dose range of interest for protection purposes. Myeloid leukaemias feature prominently among the cancers associated with human exposures to ionising radiation (eg UNSCEAR 2006; IARC 2000). Good animal models of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are available including strains such as CBA, RFM and SJL (eg Major and Mole 1978; Ullrich et al 1976; Resnitzky et al 1985). Early mechanistic studies using cytogenetic methods in these mouse models established that the majority of radiation-induced AMLs carried substantial interstitial deletions in one copy of chromosome (chr) 2 (eg Hayata et al 1983; Trakhtenbrot et al 1988; Breckon et al 1991; Rithidech et al 1993; Bouffler et al 1996). Chr2 aberrations are known to occur in bone marrow cells as early as 24 hours after in vivo irradiation (Bouffler et al 1997). Subsequent molecular mapping studies defined a distinct region of chr2 that is commonly lost in AMLs (Clark et al 1996; Silver et al 1999). Further, more detailed, analysis identified point mutations at a specific region of the Sfpi1/PU.1 haemopoietic transcription factor gene which lies in the commonly deleted region of chr2 (Cook et al 2004; Suraweera et al 2005). These lines of evidence strongly implicate the Sfpi1/PU.1 gene as a tumour suppressor gene, dysregulation of which leads to myeloid leukaemia. The main focus of this project was to utilize the CBA mouse model of radiation leukaemogenesis to explore mechanisms of low dose and low dose-rate leukaemogenesis. A series of mechanistic investigations were undertaken, the central aim of which was to identify the events that convert normal cells into myeloid leukaemia cells and explore the dose-response relationships for these. Much of the work centred on the Sfpi1/PU.1 gene and its role in leukaemogenesis. Specific studies considered the dose-response and time-course relationships for loss of the gene, the functional consequences of Sfpi1/PU.1 loss and mutation on transcriptional programmes and developing an in vivo reporter gene system for radiation-induced alterations to PU.1 expression. Additional work sought further genetic changes associated with radiation-induced AMLs and a better characterization of the cell of origin or 'target cell' for radiation-induced AML. All the information gathered is of potential use in developing biologically realistic mathematical models for low dose cancer risk projection.

Simon Bouffler

2010-07-28

 
 
 
 
341

Oxidative stress, radiation-induced damage and  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many of the regulatory changes in cells after irradiation may be mediated through the production and interaction of classical signal transduction, free radicals, and DNA damage. The protection of normal tissues may provide an increase in tumor control by providing an increase in the radiation dose. N-acetylcysteine (NAC is a potent free radical scavenger and may be beneficial in conditions of glutathione (GSH depletion and free radical formation during oxidative stress. NAC has been shown to prevent radiation-induced DNA breaks and to have a place in cancer prevention. It may be suggested that NAC decreases irradiation-induced genocytotoxicity. NAC has not yet been widely used clinically for this purpose; further experimental studies are needed for determining its radioprotector effect. In the current review, we aimed to discuss the radioprotective potential of NAC.

Sevil KILÇIKSIZ

2008-01-01

342

Role of DNA double-strand break repair genes in cell proliferation under low dose-rate irradiation conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs) lead to numerous biological effects. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in cellular responses to low dose and low dose-rate radiation, it is informative to clarify the roles of DSB repair related genes. In higher vertebrate cells, there are at least two major DSB repair pathways, namely non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). Here, it is shown that in chicken DT40 cells irradiated with ?-rays at a low dose-rate (2.4 cGy/day), the growth delay in NHEJ-related KU70- and PRKDC (encoding DNA-PKcs)-defective cells were remarkably higher than in cells defective for the HR-related RAD51B and RAD54 genes. DNA-PKcs-defective human M059J cells also showed an obvious growth delay when compared to control M059K cells. RAD54-/-KU70-/- cells demonstrated their highest degree of growth delay after an X-irradiation with a high dose-rate of 0.9 Gy/min. However they showed a lower degree of growth delay than that seen in KU70-/- and PRKDC-/-/- cells exposed to low dose-rate irradiation. These findings indicate that cellular responses to low dose-rate radiation are remarkably different from those to high dose-rate radiation. The fact that both DT40 and mammalian NHEJ-defective cells were highly sensitive to low dose-rate radiation, provide a foundation for the concept that NHEJ-related factors may be useful as molecular markers to predict the sensitivity of humans to low dose-rate radiation. (author)

2008-09-01

343

Connexin-43 regulates p38-mediated cell migration and invasion induced selectively in tumour cells by low doses of ?-radiation in an ERK-1/2-independent manner.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiotherapy exposes certain regions of solid tumours to low sublethal doses of ?-radiation that may cause secondary malignancies. Therefore, evaluating low-dose-?-radiation-induced alterations in tumorigenic potential and understanding their mechanisms could help in improving radiotherapy outcome. Limited studies have indicated connexin (Cx) up-regulation by low doses, whereas Cxs are independently shown to alter cell migration in unirradiated cells. We investigated low-dose-?-radiation-induced alterations in Cx43 expression and cell proliferation/migration/invasion in various tumour cell lines, along with the putative molecular pathways such as p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2)-mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Interestingly, a narrow range of low doses (10-20 cGy) enhanced Cx43 expression and also selectively induced glioma cell migration without altering cell proliferation, accompanied by sustained activation of p38 and up-regulation of p21(waf1/cip1), whereas the lowest (5 cGy) dose induced cell proliferation coupled with enhanced p-ERK1/2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p-H3 levels without inducing cell migration. Most importantly, low-dose-?-radiation-induced cell migration and p38 activation was strongly inhibited by knocking down Cx43 expression, thereby demonstrating latter's upstream role, whereas the knock-down had no effect on ERK-1/2 or cell proliferation. Silencing Cx43 caused near-complete inhibition of radiation-induced cell migration/invasion in all tumour cell lines (U87, BMG-1, A549 and HeLa), whereas no cell migration/invasiveness was induced in the ?-irradiated primary VH10 or transformed AA8 fibroblasts. Our study demonstrates for the first time that low-dose ?-radiation induces p38-MAPK mediated cell migration selectively in tumour cells. Further, this effect is regulated by Cx43, which could thus be an important mediator in radiation-induced secondary malignancies and/or metastasis. PMID:24045413

Ghosh, Soma; Kumar, Ashish; Tripathi, Rajendra Prashad; Chandna, Sudhir

2014-02-01

344

Induction of nuclear factor kB after low-dose ionizing radiation involves a reactive oxygen intermediate signaling pathway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) have been found to be the messengers in the activation of the kB transcription regulator in mitogen- or cytokine-stimulated cells, operating in conjunction with or independently of various other mechanisms; these include Ca++-dependent and PKC-dependent cytoplasmic signaling pathways. We have recently reported that low-dose ionizing radiation induces NF-kB in human lymphoblastoid 244B cells. Since ionizing radiation generates free radicals in cells, we have investigated whether the ROIs generated by ionizing radiation induce NF-kB activity, and also whether they do so by a similar mechanism as in cells treated with PMA or H2O2. The results not only confirm a previous observation from our laboratory that low-dose ionizing radiation (0.1-2.0 Gy) activates kB transcription factor transiently with a maximal induction at 0.5 Gy exposure, but also demonstrate mechanistically that the activation of NF-kB by low-dose ionizing radiation can be inhibited considerably by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, indicating that at least the major part of the activation process is mediated by ROIs. These findings support the idea that ROIs can regulate the kB elements which in turn can serve as response elements for oxidant stress. 37 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

1994-10-01

345

Detection of the proteins with different arginine methylation status induced by low dose irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Objective: The objective of this study is to detect the noble proteins that were functionally regulated by change of arginine methylation through irradiation of the low dose. The increase of the arginine methylation which is induced by low dose gamma-ray will have meaningful Introduction: Exposure of cells to low doses of radiation has well documented biological effect, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are still poorly understood. Arginine methylation is a post translational modification that results in the formation of asymmetrical and symmetrical dimethylated arginines. Post-translational methylation of arginine residues of proteins involved in a growing number of cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, cell signaling, RNA processing and DNA repair, biological influence. Methods: Human normal cell line Chang-liver was irradiation by gamma-ray of 0.02Gy, 0.2Gy. After irradiation, cells were incubated for 4h, 8h, 24h, and then harvested to prepare protein extracts. ASYM24(anti-dimethyl-Arginine, asymmetric) antibody was used to Western blot and immunoprecipitation. Proteins that show different degrees of intensity between the two samples were analyzed by Mass spectrometry. Results: We detected increased asymmetric arginine methylation of two proteins at 24h after a dose of 0.2Gy irradiation. The mass spectrometry identified that it is 27kDa and 73kDa proteins. The 27kDa is hypothetical protein that function does not know. The 73kDa protein is Mortalin, a member of the Heat shock 70 protein family, which correlate with the radioresistance response, control of cell proliferation and act as a chaperone. Conclusion: Low dose radiation induces the change of asymmetric arginine methylation modification of arginine residues of hypothetical protein and mortalin. We expect that increase of arginine methylation in mortarin and hypothetical protein correlates with the radioresistance, the functional study for these proteins is necessary to clarify the biological effects in radioadaptive response.

2007-10-17

346

A reasonable price to prevent death caused by radiation induced neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the risk based prioritization of radiation protection procedures versus the reduction of radiation induced neoplasms. An economic valuation of death reduction is necessary in many situations

1992-01-01

347

Prevention of radiation induced taste aversion in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker, and a cardiovascular therapeutic agent offers significant protection to mice against lethal dose of ionizing radiation. Considering the potential efficacy of diltiazem as a radioprotector for human use, it was deemed necessary to investigate its influence on radiation-induced behavioural changes like nausea, vomiting, learning, memory and performance. In the present studies, conditioned taste aversion (CTA) test based on consumption of saccharin solution, was used as a marker of behavioural changes. Significant CTA (97±2%) was observed in rats irradiated with 60Co gamma rays (absorbed dose 1 Gy). Administration of diltiazem at doses greater than 10 mg/kg, body wt, evoked CTA in a dose-dependent manner and that was found to be further aggravated on irradiation. At a lower dose of 5 mg/kg, body wt, diltiazem did not evoke CTA and protected against radiation induced aversion significantly (62±3%). The results suggest that diltiazem at concentrations lower than 10 mg/kg, body wt, in rats may be useful in preventing radiation induced behavioural changes. This observation could be of particular significance in clinical radiotherapy where radiation induced nausea and vomiting are of great concern. (author)

1997-03-01

348

Biological effects of low-dose irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For a long time, radiation, biological research concentrated on the diagnosis and the effect chains to be taken into consideration in the case of acute and chronic radiation effects due to intensive irradiation. Approximately at the beginning of the Thirties, the research results of the geneticist Mueller and the radiation-biologists Oliver and Timofeef-Ressovsky brought a fundamental change in the way of looking at things in radiation biology. From the results then obtained it can be deduced that even the smallest quantities of radiation can cause effects. Basically, two processes leading to different radiation reactions have to be recognized: 1) A change in the genetical code, especially by direct irradiation of the nucleus. The effects thus arising are called stochastic effects. 2) A change of the cell in total by inactivation of the cell division or by cell death. These are called non-stochastic effects. Here, a threshold dose is existent. In these cases, the degree of the effects depends on the quantity of the dose. Therefore, the stochastic effects are paid special attention when determining radiation effects with low doses. Here, the emphasis of the research was moved from the genetic effects to the generation of somatic effects, especially the generation of malign neoformations and the shortening of the life connected with them. In the generation of malign neoformations by ionising radiation, probably only the transformation of a single cell is necessary, however only then when ionising radiation is absorbed in the nucleus several times (multi-hit theory). This leads to the assumption that the induction of malignant neoformations possesses a linear quadratic function, at least in the region of medium doses. (orig./MG)

1979-10-03

349

Effects of low doses of ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several groups of human have been irradiated by accidental or medical exposure, if no gene defect has been associated to these exposures, some radioinduced cancers interesting several organs are observed among persons exposed over 100 to 200 mSv delivered at high dose rate. Numerous steps are now identified between the initial energy deposit in tissue and the aberrations of cell that lead to tumors but the sequence of events and the specific character of some of them are the subject of controversy. The stake of this controversy is the risk assessment. From the hypothesis called linear relationship without threshold is developed an approach that leads to predict cancers at any tiny dose without real scientific foundation. The nature and the intensity of biological effects depend on the quantity of energy absorbed in tissue and the modality of its distribution in space and time. The probability to reach a target (a gene) associated to the cancerating of tissue is directly proportional to the dose without any other threshold than the quantity of energy necessary to the effect, its probability of effect can be a more complex function and depends on the quality of the damage produced as well as the ability of the cell to repair the damage. These two parameters are influenced by the concentration of initial injuries in the target so by the quality of radiation and by the dose rate. The mechanisms of defence explain the low efficiency of radiation as carcinogen and then the linearity of effects in the area of low doses is certainly the least defensible scientific hypothesis for the prediction of the risks. (N.C.)

2006-01-01

350

Radiation-induced bladder carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 69-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for the treatment of bladder carcinoma. The pathology of the tumor was mixed cancer of squamous cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma. She had been operated on and irradiated for uterine cervical carcinoma 16 years before. Cystoscopy revealed non-papillary tumors about the bladder neck. Transurethral ultrasonography showed a tumor which pierced the bladder muscle plate, but total cystectomy was refused. 14 cases of radiation-induced bladder tumors, including our case, are collected from the publications and discussed. (author)

1986-01-01

351

Exposure to low-dose radiation and the risk of breast cancer among women with a familial or genetic predisposition: a meta-analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Women with familial or genetic aggregation of breast cancer are offered screening outside the population screening programme. However, the possible benefit of mammography screening could be reduced due to the risk of radiation-induced tumours. A systematic search was conducted addressing the question of how low-dose radiation exposure affects breast cancer risk among high-risk women. A systematic search was conducted for articles addressing breast cancer, mammography screening, radiation and high-risk women. Effects of low-dose radiation on breast cancer risk were presented in terms of pooled odds ratios (OR). Of 127 articles found, 7 were selected for the meta-analysis. Pooled OR revealed an increased risk of breast cancer among high-risk women due to low-dose radiation exposure (OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9- 1.8). Exposure before age 20 (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1) or a mean of ?5 exposures (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0) was significantly associated with a higher radiation-induced breast cancer risk. Low-dose radiation increases breast cancer risk among high-risk women. When using low-dose radiation among high-risk women, a careful approach is needed, by means of reducing repeated exposure, avoidance of exposure at a younger age and using non-ionising screening techniques. (orig.)

2010-11-01

352

Exposure to low-dose radiation and the risk of breast cancer among women with a familial or genetic predisposition: a meta-analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Women with familial or genetic aggregation of breast cancer are offered screening outside the population screening programme. However, the possible benefit of mammography screening could be reduced due to the risk of radiation-induced tumours. A systematic search was conducted addressing the question of how low-dose radiation exposure affects breast cancer risk among high-risk women. A systematic search was conducted for articles addressing breast cancer, mammography screening, radiation and high-risk women. Effects of low-dose radiation on breast cancer risk were presented in terms of pooled odds ratios (OR). Of 127 articles found, 7 were selected for the meta-analysis. Pooled OR revealed an increased risk of breast cancer among high-risk women due to low-dose radiation exposure (OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9- 1.8). Exposure before age 20 (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1) or a mean of {>=}5 exposures (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0) was significantly associated with a higher radiation-induced breast cancer risk. Low-dose radiation increases breast cancer risk among high-risk women. When using low-dose radiation among high-risk women, a careful approach is needed, by means of reducing repeated exposure, avoidance of exposure at a younger age and using non-ionising screening techniques. (orig.)

Jansen-van der Weide, Marijke C. [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Hanzeplein 1, PO Box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Epidemiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Greuter, Marcel J.W.; Pijnappel, Ruud M. [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Hanzeplein 1, PO Box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); Jansen, Liesbeth [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Surgery, Groningen (Netherlands); Oosterwijk, Jan C. [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Clinical Genetics, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Epidemiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

2010-11-15

353

Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors)

1988-10-18

354

Increased interleukin-1? levels following low dose MDMA induces tolerance against the 5-HT neurotoxicity produced by challenge MDMA  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Preconditioning is a phenomenon by which tolerance develops to injury by previous exposure to a stressor of mild severity. Previous studies have shown that single or repeated low dose MDMA can attenuate 5-HT transporter loss produced by a subsequent neurotoxic dose of the drug. We have explored the mechanism of delayed preconditioning by low dose MDMA. Methods Male Dark Agouti rats were given low dose MDMA (3 mg/kg, i.p. 96 h before receiving neurotoxic MDMA (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.. IL-1? and IL1ra levels and 5-HT transporter density in frontal cortex were quantified at 1 h, 3 h or 7 days. IL-1?, IL-1ra and IL-1RI were determined between 3 h and 96 h after low dose MDMA. sIL-1RI combined with low dose MDMA or IL-1? were given 96 h before neurotoxic MDMA and toxicity assessed 7 days later. Results Pretreatment with low dose MDMA attenuated both the 5-HT transporter loss and elevated IL-1? levels induced by neurotoxic MDMA while producing an increase in IL-1ra levels. Low dose MDMA produced an increase in IL-1? at 3 h and in IL-1ra at 96 h. sIL-1RI expression was also increased after low dose MDMA. Coadministration of sIL-1RI (3 ?g, i.c.v. prevented the protection against neurotoxic MDMA provided by low dose MDMA. Furthermore, IL-1? (2.5 pg, intracortical given 96 h before neurotoxic MDMA protected against the 5-HT neurotoxicity produced by the drug, thus mimicking preconditioning. Conclusions These results suggest that IL-1? plays an important role in the development of delayed preconditioning by low dose MDMA.

Mayado Andrea

2011-11-01

355

Detectability of pulmonary abnormalities with ultra low-dose MDCT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We should make a great effort on reducing radiation exposure for CT lung screening as low as reasonable achievable. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the detectability of pulmonary abnormalities with multi detector-row CT (MDCT) under ultra low-dose conditions. We performed both phantom and clinical study to discuss its clinical application. Our result indicated that image quality is very sensitive to reconstruction kernels under ultra low-dose condition. All the pulmonary abnormalities were detected on ultra low-dose images using appropriate reconstruction kernels. We were persuaded the usefulness and the possibility of ultra low-dose MDCT for lung cancer screening. (author)

2004-01-01

356

Radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma of the oropharynx  

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Full Text Available Abstract Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor originating from smooth muscle cells, which most frequently develops in the myometrium and in the gastro-intestinal tract. Reviewing the international literature, radiation-induced sarcoma arise in 0.035 to 0.2 % of all irradiated patients. Especially in the head and neck region, radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma is an extremely rare lesion. The authors report a case of a radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma of the tonsillar region of the oropharynx in a 51-year-old male patient, who had undergone radiation therapy of this region 38 years before. The lesion was treated by radical surgery. Diagnostic steps, histological presentation and therapy are described in detail and the literature concerning radiation induced malignancies in general as well as radiation induced leiomyosarcoma in particular is reviewed. The highlights of this case are an extremely uncommon location and a rare pathological entity of radiation induced malignancies.

Maier Wolfgang

2006-08-01

357

Radioprotection of hematopoietic progenitors by low dose amifostine prophylaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Purpose: Amifostine is a highly efficacious cytoprotectant when administered in vivo at high doses. However, at elevated doses, drug toxicity manifests for general, non-clinical radioprotective purposes. Various strategies have been developed to avoid toxic side-effects: The simplest is reducing the dose. In terms of protecting hematopoietic tissues, where does this effective, non-toxic minimum dose lie? Material and methods: C3H/HEN mice were administered varying doses of amifostine (25-100 mg/kg) 30 min prior to cobalt-60 irradiation and euthanized between 4-14 days for blood and bone marrow collection and analyses. Results: Under steady-state, amifostine had little effect on bipotential and multi-potential marrow progenitors but marginally suppressed a more primitive, lineage negative progenitor subpopulation. In irradiated animals, prophylactic drug doses greater than 50 mg/kg resulted in significant regeneration of bipotential progenitors, moderate regeneration of multipotential progenitors, but no significant and consistent regeneration of more primitive progenitors. The low amifostine dose (25 mg/kg) failed to elicit consistent and positive, radioprotective actions on any of the progenitor subtypes. Conclusions: Radioprotective doses for amifostine appear to lie between 25 and 50 mg/kg. Mature, lineage-restricted progenitors appear to be more responsive to the