Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali
New trends in language teaching have resulted in a move towards research in the language classroom. A brief overview of classroom research reveals three distinct but inter-related research paradigms: classroom-centered research, classroom process research, and qualitative research, respectively.
Reviews topical and methodological trends in the past 85 years of research on language classrooms in "The Modern Language Journal." Focus is on empirical investigations into oral classroom instruction in post-secondary classes, which include comparisons of language teaching methodology, observational procedures in classrooms, examinations of…
While research into classroom language assessment has expanded in recent years, the nature of thought processes used by teachers when conducting such assessment has received less attention. This article reports on research that explored these cognitions through case studies of two instructors teaching an EAP (English for Academic Purposes) course…
Miranda J. Walker
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to construct a new scale for measuring foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA. It begun with the creation of an extended item pool generated by qualitative methods. Subsequent Rasch and semantic analyses led to the final 18-item Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Inventory (FLCAI. In comparison with the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS, the FLCAI demonstrated more convincing evidence of unidimensionality and the optimal 5-point Likert scale functioned better. The FLCAI, while 55% the length of the FLCAS, thus more practical for classroom practitioners to administer and analyse, maintains its psychometric properties and covers a wider range on the construct continuum thus improving the degree of validity of the instrument. Finally, test anxiety was shown to be a component of FLCA.
Full Text Available This study shows the transformative potential of action research and information and communications technology (ICT in the second language (L2 classroom. Two enquiries from teacher-researchers are detailed in the article. Their engagement in a collaborative professional development Masters programme was pivotal in designing and implementing ICT creatively in their classroom. Gee (2008 advocates the use of the preferred media of our classroom students in order to address their learning. Prensky (2001 urges us to feel the fear and do it anyway with our digital native classes. A post-primary teacher and a primary teacher show us how they felt the fear, did it and transformed aspects of their own teaching in the process. The Masters programme required the teachers to engage with innovative practices, informed by their own values, and integrate technologies that were new to them into their repertoire of classroom strategies. Peer validation meetings with colleagues enabled meaningful insights to emerge from the research. The teachers improve and transform their second language (L2 practice in collaboration and validation with others.
@@ Classroom language is an extremely important form of talk.In a foreign language classroom,the teacher has to organize language teaching by using the target language.Therefore,classroom language in foreign language teaching seems more important.
Escalante, Lora Beth
The study investigates how language is used among 17 children in a dual language classroom as they create academic-based one-act plays in conjunction with social studies instruction. Examining over 20 hours of video, the teacher researcher analyzes students' use of translanguaging during cooperative groupings in order to co-accomplish an…
This study is concerned with the concepts of learner motivation, autonomy and identity in adolescent language learning. It investigates whether the use of intervention strategies influences adolescent learners’ autonomy and motivation in a language classroom setting. The intervention strategies in question are delegation of material and task selection to the student and promotion of self-evaluation. This study also reflects on the relationship between autonomy and motivation and the notion of...
While others have focused on gender-based language and the workplace, this research study explores gender-based language, in this case women's language, and the classroom. The study specifically examines examples of women's language and how this language affects student response in the classroom. Five variables have been identified as…
Ahmadian, Mohammad Javad; Tavakoli, Mansoor
Action research is geared to changes for the better and has the potential to assist teachers to extend their teaching skills and develop a deeper understanding of themselves, their classroom and their learners. However, in the area of applied linguistics, the viability of action research has been seriously questioned. In this article, we argue…
Dajani, Majida "Mohammed Yousef "
This study aimed to describe the implementation of individual action research projects among some forty English language teachers distributed in thirty Palestinian schools in Ramallah and Qabatya districts-Palestine. It aimed to analyze the outcomes of the teachers' action research as part of a broader participatory action research project that is…
Goshi, Masahiko||郷司, 正彦||ゴウシ, マサヒコ
Foreign language anxiety has long been recognized by both classroom teachers and researchers in second/foreign language education, but it is far from completely understood.It has been reported that some types of anxiety debilitate learners' language learning. By examining the research results in foreign/second language anxiety, some implications for classroom teachers and learners can be drawn. Also a small-scale study was carried out to find the relationship between students' language anxiet...
While approaching second language acquisition from a complex dynamic systems perspective makes a lot of intuitive sense, it is difficult for a number of reasons to operationalise such a dynamic approach in research terms. For example, the most common research paradigms in the social sciences tend to examine variables in relative isolation rather…
Belpoliti, Flavia; Fairclough, Marta
This study presents the development and implementation of inquiry-based cultural projects in a Spanish Heritage Language (SHL) Program. Four different inquiry-based curricula are described to illustrate how university students in an SHL program advance their knowledge of Spanish while carrying out research to understand Hispanic cultures. First-,…
Morgan, Mindy J.
Indigenous languages are powerful symbols of self-determination and sovereignty for tribal communities in the United States, and many community-based programs have been developed to support and maintain them. The successes of these programs, however, have been difficult to replicate at large research institutions. This article examines the issues…
Due to the popularization of foreign language study, more and more people from education field further enhance their exploration and researches in how to apply second acquisition theories into classroom teaching. This paper probes into the orientation, research objects, age, language environment and classroom activities of second language…
This book discusses how second language acquisition (SLA) research can illuminate language pedagogy, and suggests four main roles for the SLA researcher: developing relevant theories; conducting classroom research; making research accessible to teachers; and facilitating action research. The first chapter outlines a number of different…
This paper is based on my personal observation and context, as well as some implications inspired trom theones, First, I shall give an evaluation of traditional language classroom practice I am familiar to. Second, relating to some implications in the theories of socialcultural psychology, I shall discuss some principled ways in which the classroom practices I have described and evaluated might be modified in order that we could enhance the effective opportunities for social and individual learning processes. I shall also provide my suggested structure of a lesson, in which some practices are implemented in this language classroom. Last but not the least, I shall give my reflection on how my own psychology of learning has been developed since I arrived at the university to begin my English teaching.
Collins, Laura; Muñoz, Carmen
"The Modern Language Journal" has long been an important venue for the publication of research and reflection on the teaching and learning of foreign languages (FL) in classroom contexts. In this article, we offer a perspective on the contemporary FL classroom, informed by a descriptive survey of all studies that took place in FL classes…
The author spent four years embedded in a multilingual kindergarten classroom in which children spoke six different languages and several more years observing multilingual Head Start classrooms. She shares numerous examples of young dual language learners actively figuring out the way written language works in their first and second languages.…
Hazelrigg, Amy C.
Second language research and classroom practice have tended to sideline reading in favor of an emphasis on the oral language development of the English Language Learner (ELL). First-language (L1) reading research is well developed but has limited usefulness to the teacher or researcher interested in second-language (L2) reading. Developing L2…
<正>Throughout decades of foreign language(L2) teaching,a recurring issue has been the role of the first language(L1) in the classroom.A long-term and wide-ranging debate persists regarding practical and theoretical questions about the significance of the L1’ s obvious influence on the L2 being learned.Although many feel that the L1 should not be used in the classroom,other researchers, teachers,and learners do see a role for the L1 and support its use as a communication strategy and instructional tool.This article will look at the historical background of this topic,and describe how the L1 is currently being used in the L2 classroom,including in written translation activities.A specific explanation will also be given about the benefits of using translation for assessing reading comprehension.
This paper explains how any teacher can do their own classroom research as a part of their normal teaching. In order to research the classroom,it reviews some teacher’s questions in the classroom.After introducing two ways of researching :research by thinking and research by experimenting ,the paper analyses the reasons and shows some methods to solve the problems. This will determine the shape of what is done in the classroom exactly.It’s helpful for the teachers to have lessons every day.
Fraga Viñas, Lucía; Bobadilla Pérez, María
The Council of Europe, through the Common European Framework of Reference for Language, Teaching and Assessment (CEFRL), has been promoting communicative competence since 2001. This boost has introduced some changes in the teaching-learning process of English as a Foreign Language is Spain: the methodological use of the communicative approach in the classrooms, the practice of the four skills in the class, and the theoretical implications that Gardner’s Multiple ...
Levey, Sandra; Polirstok, Susan
Language Development: Understanding Language Diversity in the Classroom offers comprehensive coverage of the language development process for pre- and in-service teachers while emphasizing the factors that further academic success in the classroom, including literacy skills, phonological awareness, and narrative. With chapters written by respected…
Chinese is an ancient language, but the present scope of its global study is unprecedented. Comprehending the impacts of worldwide linguistic realities on 'Chinese as a Foreign Language' (CFL) teachers and students will be critical to its long-term success. The most important phenomenon has been the establishment of English as a lingua franca, especially in the expanding marketplaces of Asia. This book examines the role of English as a medium of instruction in CFL classrooms. It begins by integrating existing studies on the global spread of English with research on English as a medium of secon
Full Text Available Alongside the rise of educational technology, many teachers have been taking gradual but innovative steps to redesign their teaching methods. For example, in flipped learning or a flipped classroom, students watch instructional videos outside the classroom and do assignments or engage in activities inside the classroom. Language teachers are one group of educators exploring the flipped classroom. In foreign language classes, such an approach may offer great benefits for both the teachers and students since classroom time can be applied to more interactive tasks. By extending classroom hours in this way, language teachers can focus on successfully addressing all subjects in the curriculum. The aim of this study is (a to gain insights into the perceptions of prospective English language teachers at a state university in Turkey on flipped classrooms and (b to introduce the implementation of a flipped classroom into an English language class. A total of 47 prospective English teachers participated in the study. Qualitative research design was used and data were collected via an open-ended question. Findings of the study indicated that pre-service English teachers had positive perceptions towards the use of the flipped classroom as an integral part of face-to-face courses. It can be concluded that flipped classroom was beneficial in terms of 4 categories based on the content analysis of the responses: learning at one’s own pace, advance student preparation, overcoming the limitations of class time, increasing the participation in the classroom. The study also provides recommendations towards LMS integration into courses in other English language teaching departments and for implementing flipped classrooms in language teaching.
Visuals are advantageous to language teaching and learning.Effective use of pictures in the lan-guage classroom contributes to stimulate the students’ imagination and creativity,enhance their basic lan-guage skills and heighten their communicative competence.This Paper will present some techniques andactivities with pictures for use in the language class.
This article is the second part of a report on research that examined immersion language teachers' strategies to modify their speech in order to maintain use of the target language. As described in the first part in "Babel," Volume 40, Number 2 (Veque, 2005), this classroom-based research, undertaken at Methodist Ladies College (MLC) in Melbourne,…
The flipped classroom can support the implementation of a communicative, student-centered learning environment in the English as a foreign language classroom. Unfortunately, there is little research which supports the incorporation of flipped learning in the English as a foreign language classroom. Numerous studies have focused on flipped learning…
Anxiety is considered to be one of the key psychological variables as well as one of the important emotional factors that affect language learning. Taken into account that classroom is the main place in which Chinese college students learn English, it is of great significance to study students’language anxiety in the classroom environment. Based on the previous researches, this paper reviews the relevant studies in this area conducted at home and abroad.
Onovughe, Ofodu Graceful
Sociolinguistic inputs in language acquisition and use of English as Second Language in classrooms is the main focus of this study. A survey research design was adopted. The population consisted of all secondary school students in Akure Local Government of Ondo State, Nigeria. Two hundred and forty (240) students in senior secondary school classes…
Luque Agulló, Gloria; Martos Vallejo, Natividad
This paper deals with Mobile learning (m-learning) and how it can be used to teach a second or foreign language in the classroom. First, a review of the use of technology in the classroom is considered. Second, m-learning is defined in connection with diverse educational theories such as behaviourism and constructivism. Third, an exhaustive listing of those features, functionalities and affordances intended specifically to teach a foreign language is provided. Fo...
The results of a great deal of research have suggested that language learning strategies can be taught and that instructing learning strategies and integrating them into regular instruction can greatly facilitate the learning of a second/foreign language. The aim of this article is to draw the readers’attention to strategic teaching that should be introduced in the foreign language classroom in order to meet the demands of contemporary language education. In particular, it points to the necessity that teachers should change their attitudes towards the roles they play in the classroom to become truly responsible for their learning.
Tran, Thu H.
The vast majority of second language teachers feels confident about their instructional performance and does not usually have much difficulty with their teaching thanks to their professional training and accumulated classroom experience. Nonetheless, many second language teachers may not have received sufficient training in test development to…
Goldberg, Jennifer; Enyedy, Noel; Welsh, Kate Muir; Galiani, Kathryn
In this study, we explore language--specifically the use of Spanish, in a sixth-grade science classroom, where the district recognises English as the official language of instruction. The question guiding our analysis is: How is Spanish positioned in Ms. Cook's science class? Transcribed interaction from twelve weeks of videotaping is coded and…
Ⅰ. Introduction Foreign language teachers in China nowadays are well aware that language learning cannot be separated from cultural learning. They start to deal with intercultural communication in the classroom and have undergone significant progress in the past two decades. A lot of excellent work has been done (see Hu Wenzhong 1990, 1997) on raising cultural awareness and pragmatic insights.
The use of English by foreign language teacher is a matter of much controversy. Whereas language switching by English-speaking foreign language teachers has been the focus of previous research, relatively little is known about the amount of teachers' language used in the classroom when comparing native speakers of the foreign language with…
Salmona Madriñan, Mara
This action research project was carried out in order to identify the role of first language in the second-language classroom. This study was conducted in a Colombian international school with an English immersion program for kindergarten students attending their first year of school. The purpose of this study was to identify if the use of the…
In contrast with debates over language pedagogy or aptitude, this paper examines seven societal obstacles which impact the success of classroom language learning and the development of intercultural competence in American language classrooms. These include expectations for teacher preparation, language proficiency and target language use;…
@@ Introduction Literature in language teaching has a long pedigree.It was a fundamental part of foreign language teaching in the 'classical humanist'paradigm,where an understanding of the high culture and thought expressed through Literature took precedence over mere competence in using the language.
Whole language, a relatively new approach emerged in theNorth America about more than thirty years ago, has becomeone of the two major philosophies (Phonics and WholeLanguage) in teaching and learning language. "The future ofwhole language is the future of education." (Goodman, 1992).Whole language is gaining its popularity all over the world andhas found its way into various language settings. It has also beenushered into the field of second language education. Whole lan-guage entails whole learners, whole teachers, whole texts, wholemethods, whole skills and whole environments. This paper at-tempts to introduce its definitions and explore its implications inteaching and learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Italso analyzes its limitations so that instructors, when imple-menting this approach in EFL classrooms, could make necessaryadaptations by taking into consideration the characteristics ofEFL learners, including their linguistic proficiency, sociocultur-al variables, and career orientations, and at the same time makesure that EFL classroom activities reflect wholeness of the majorcomponents underlying this approach.
A considerable number of studies on focus-on-form instruction, corrective feedback and uptake have been carried out in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the last two decades. These studies have investigated the above-mentioned concepts from different perspectives, in a number of different contexts and in a number of…
Mohamad Azrien Mohamed Adnan; Shukeri Mohamad; Mohd Alwee Yusoff; Zamri Ghazali
The use of the target language has long been considered an important principle of second language (L2) instruction. Previous research has attempted to quantify the amount of the first language (L1) used in the classroom and has explored the purposes or functions of teachers' ‘lapses’ into their students' L1. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the teachers’ attitudes towards the use of Bahasa Indonesia in Arabic language classroom. Data was collected based on th...
Pinnell, Gay Su; Green, Judith L.
Points out the many people who influence what goes on in classrooms, and relying on insights gained from research on language interaction, offers guidelines for communicating with these complex audiences--parents, administrators, policymakers, politicians, and the general public. (HTH)
Halai, Anjum; Karuku, Simon
In this paper, we examine selected literature on classroom-based research to understand how students and teachers (re)negotiate the language of interaction in a mathematics classroom when the official medium of instruction is different from the students' dominant language. We identify the tensions and dilemmas associated with the implementation of…
Although research in the field of language teaching and learning has appeared to enhance classroom pedagogy, I argue here that these advances have had a relatively small impact on actual foreign language learning. Unlike in most school subjects, the recipients of language pedagogy, i.e. the students, arrive in the classroom with several…
Justice, Laura M.; Mashburn, Andrew; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert
Policy-makers, administrators, researchers, and teachers are increasingly vested in ensuring the quality of preschool instruction, particularly in the areas of language and literacy. This research was conducted to characterize the quality of language and literacy instruction in 135 publicly-funded preschool classrooms serving at-risk pupils. As all teachers in these classrooms were implementing the same language and literacy curriculum, we also studied the interrelationships among procedural ...
Christensen, Mette Vedsgaard; Daugaard, Line Møller; Cox, Robyn
Globalisation processes have resulted in a complex diversification in the group of young language learners in classrooms throughout the world. From Denmark to Australia, learners from multilingual and multiliterate backgrounds are part of everyday life in the classroom, and these global childhoods...... childhoods of young multilingual and multiliterate learners, but explore globalised classrooms from various perspectives: the perspectives of learners, teachers and policymakers. In combination, the papers in the symposium offer a nuanced description of the tensions and dilemmas in contemporary multilingual...... classrooms across the globe and a multifaceted analysis of the multilingual nature of global childhoods. The first paper reports on research study conducted in primary schools in Sydney, Australia which investigated how multilingual children understand their own linguistic practices and how they report...
Full Text Available This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in Norwegian two elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn & Dunn, 2007, at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that 1 early-start second-language (L2 programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, 2 a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only eight months, and 3 even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting.
Mohebbi, Hassan; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad
Recently the issue of having recourse to second language (L2) learners’ first language (L1) in second language acquisition (SLA) is receiving a great amount of attention in SLA research. There has been a great deal of claims and counter-claims with respect to L1 use in L2 learning. The findings of L2 research to date cast doubt on the rationales of proponents of exclusive use of L2. Researchers and practitioners who have observed L2 classrooms have identified different functions of L1 in L2 l...
The purpose of this study is to investigate what five primary teachers in five different schools with many second language students have for an idea about inclusion, language development, practices and environment of the multilingual classrooms. In my study I discusses teachers 'views on the multilingual classroom, inclusion, development of language in a language developing classroom environment and the importance of language skills has for multilingual pupils' language development and learni...
Jalali, Sara; Panahzade, Vahid; Firouzmand, Ali
Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is the realization of computers in schools and universities which has potentially enhanced the language learning experience inside the classrooms. The integration of the technologies into the classroom demands that the teachers adopt a number of classroom management procedures to maintain a more…
The aim of this review is to provide a critical analysis of language teacher research engagement. The term "research engagement" here covers both engagement IN teacher research (i.e. by doing it) as well as engagement "with" research (i.e. by reading and using it). Research engagement is commonly recommended to language teachers as a potentially…
This study focuses on the use of group work in the ESL classroom through the observation of four classes in the language centre of a British university. It is believed that most ESL classroom activities ask for the use of group work. Compared with lockstep teaching, pair or group work show more benefits in a language class. While some researchers argue that group work has a useful but somewhat restricted role in classroom second language acquisition The present study aims to illustrated both the positive impact and the shortage of group work through the analyses and discussion of the data collected.
Full Text Available This paper attempts to present a review of Facebook group pages as an educational tool for language learning. One of the primary needs of foreign language learners is to gain the opportunity to use the target language outside the classroom practice. Social media communication provides occasions for learners to receive input and produce output while engaging in negotiation of meaning. In line with this point, teachers can instigate class group pages in the social media in an attempt to provide a space for practice and communication free of the traditional pedagogic concerns of a typical classroom. The distinctive discursive behaviour of Facebook group pages helps one to achieve that attempt. In light of these views, the researcher, in this study, formed a group page to understand the dynamics of social media environment as a supporting tool for language classrooms. This paper addresses various features which make social media a unique place to contribute to the sense of class community and collaboration outside the classroom. The face-to face classroom is a controlled communication event, that is, teachers and students are required to be in the classroom at the same time but a teacher’s use of Facebook is an attempt to communicate with students outside of that controlled environment where teachers can meet students in their territory. When compared to its disadvantages, the advantages of setting a class group page on the social media outweigh. Students can feel motivated to contribute to an online community if they subsequently receive support or help. It also leads students to feel that they are being supported by a whole portion of their class community and promotes students’ desire to maintain a valued relationship with others. Students continue developing and strengthening relationships with others.
Light, Justine; Gnida, Sara
This article presents the development, rollout, and subsequent uptake of the Alberta Teachers of English as a Second Language (ATESL) document Best Practices for "Adult English as a Second Language (ESL)/Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) Programming" in the light of literature on teacher engagement with second-language…
Alongside the rise of educational technology, many teachers have been taking gradual but innovative steps to redesign their teaching methods. For example, in flipped learning or a flipped classroom, students watch instructional videos outside the classroom and do assignments or engage in activities inside the classroom. Language teachers are one group of educators exploring the flipped classroom. In foreign language classes, such an approach may offer great benefits for both the teachers and ...
This book offers a lively introduction to the research methods and techniques available to English language teachers who wish to investigate aspects of their own practice. It covers qualitative and quantitative methodology and includes sections on observation, introspection, diary studies, experiments, interviews, questionnaires, numerical techniques and case study research. Each method is illustrated with examples in language teaching contexts, and techniques of data collection and analysis are introduced. The authors focus particularly on research in the classroom, on tests, materials, the
For heritage speakers, the Spanish classroom is not the first point of contact with their native language. Though such learners would benefit from an educational philosophy that affirms the heritage language as a springboard for learning and increased self-awareness, there has been little support for non-dominant language research in the USA. This…
Dahl, Anne; Vulchanova, Mila D
This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA) of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in two Norwegian elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn and Dunn, 2007a), at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that (1) early-start second-language (L2) programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, (2) a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only 8 months, and (3) even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting. PMID:24860518
Paugh, Patricia; Moran, Mary
For four years, Pat Paugh, a university teacher educator, and Mary Moran, a teacher researcher, collaborated on action research by systematically studying literacy development connected to the latter's third-grade community gardening and urban farming curriculum. Their goal was to support an existing classroom culture that valued…
Full Text Available Foreign language anxiety is widely used to describe the feeling of tension and apprehension, which is specifically associated with foreign language learning contexts, including listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA is related to foreign language anxiety and language-skill-specific anxiety, and fairly recently identified as distinguished from other forms of anxiety. FLCA is a more general type of anxiety in learning a foreign language with a strong speaking anxiety element; and low self-confidence is identified as an important component of its construct. Research shows that FLCA is a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon; it has many potential sources; and it interferes with the acquisition, retention, and production of a foreign language. It seems that in most of English classes in Iran little attention has been paid to the role of the gender on EFL learners' Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA. Hence, this study attempted to investigate the relationship between EFL learners’ Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA with regard to gender. The data were gathered through questionnaire: the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986.The participants were 52 students studying English at Salmas University. The findings revealed a significant relationship between FLCA and females. It was recommended that foreign language teachers should be aware of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA level, its causes and results. The study also offers some context-specific pedagogical implications for Iranian EFL teachers and practitioners.
Achu Charles Tante
Full Text Available Assessment has a huge impact on ESL primary pupils, in part, because on the curriculum English is both a subject and also a language of learning all the other subjects. For children still acquiring L1 it is daunting sometimes to be expected to understand concepts in L2. It may be difficult then to gather information to make an impartial judgement with regards to a pupil’s language level. This study is a preliminary inquiry that attempts to find out teachers’ approaches to classroom assessment in Cameroon primary schools. Using a qualitative open-ended question the researcher finds out three main categories of assessment approaches used by teachers. From the categories extrapolations on possible assumptions that guide teachers’ choices of assessment procedures are described and suggested for future study. Keywords Classroom assessment approach, Cameroon, scheme of work, ESL/EFL, Young Learners
Hill, Jane D.; Bjork, Cynthia Linnea
Everyone who participates in your workshop on "Classroom Instruction That Works with English Language Learners" needs this participant's workbook to gain expertise in strategies that are effective with ELL (English Language Learners) students.
This essay tends to demonstrate the practical application of discourse analysis in language teaching. By exploring the rationale and evaluated the classroom activities, it is easy to see how discourse analysis works in language teaching.
Weaver, Kimberly A.; Starner, Thad
The majority of deaf children in the United States are born to hearing parents with limited prior exposure to American Sign Language (ASL). Our research involves creating and validating a mobile language tool called SMARTSign. The goal is to help hearing parents learn ASL in a way that fits seamlessly into their daily routine. (Contains 3 figures.)
Alongside the rise of educational technology, many teachers have been taking gradual but innovative steps to redesign their teaching methods. For example, in flipped learning or a flipped classroom, students watch instructional videos outside the classroom and do assignments or engage in activities inside the classroom. Language teachers are one…
Cincotta, Madeline Strong
Outlines the preferred learning styles of students studying second languages, offering suggestions for their application in second-language classrooms. The paper describes the right-brain/left-brain theory and how the two brain hemispheres are involved in learning; presents four classroom strategies (diversification, contextualization,…
The technology of the Information Age depends on programming languages for functionality. Because programming languages ultimately affect the production of language digitally, programming languages will inevitably demonstrate a lasting effect on the process of writing. Hence it is important to recognize the impact of programming languages on the production of language. It may well be the necessary first step in understanding technology’s reverberating presence in the classroom.
The Singapore Ministry of Education conducted a smallscale pilot study in Y2003 to find out how engaged learning was interpreted and translated into practice by teachers and the role of ICT in facilitating engaged learning. For this study, 6 teachers were involved, of which 2 were English language teachers. A case study methodology incorporating an intervention element was adopted. The analysis of the collected data, in the form of pre-lesson interview, lesson observations/videotaping and post-lesson interviews, surfaced teachers'understanding and implementation of engaged learning in the classroom context. This paper focuses on the 2 case studies in which one primary and secondary English language teachers were observed for the way they designed and implemented ICT-based English lessons to promote engaged learning. Although the insights generated by the 2 case studies are legitimate in their own instances, they may be used to sensitize those involved in professional development to five interdependent factors that influence the way ICT may be used to promote engaged learning in the EL classroom.
Mohamad Azrien Mohamed Adnan
Full Text Available The use of the target language has long been considered an important principle of second language (L2 instruction. Previous research has attempted to quantify the amount of the first language (L1 used in the classroom and has explored the purposes or functions of teachers' ‘lapses’ into their students' L1. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the teachers’ attitudes towards the use of Bahasa Indonesia in Arabic language classroom. Data was collected based on the interviews of the teachers. The respondents of this study were two experienced teachers who have more than 15 years of teaching experience. The findings indicated that teachers prefer using Arabic language itself in Arabic language classroom. The Direct Method was applied as teaching strategies. As a result, students are able to speak Arabic without any sense of shame and fear.
Mora Pablo Irasema; Lengeling M. Martha; Rubio Zenil Buenaventura; Crawford Troy; Goodwin Douglas
The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and ...
This paper attempts to present a review of Facebook group pages as an educational tool for language learning. One of the primary needs of foreign language learners is to gain the opportunity to use the target language outside the classroom practice. Social media communication provides occasions for learners to receive input and produce output…
In the past few decades, approaches to language assessment and perspectives on learning have changed. This article highlights those developments with the greatest significance for teachers and classroom-based language assessment, including the emergence of new perspectives on the nature of language ability and learning, use of an expanded array of…
Sun, Peijian; Yuan, Rui; Teng, Lin
This research explored the congruence and disparity between teachers' and students' attitudes towards French as a second language (L2) teaching strategies in a non-target language classroom context in the USA. The findings suggest students' and teachers' attitudes towards the direct and indirect teaching strategies were generally consistent, but…
This article reports on strategies used by immersion teachers to modify their speech in order to maintain the use of the target language while sustaining interactive communication and the concomitant teaching of the content and the second language. This classroom-based research, undertaken at Methodist Ladies College (MLC) in Melbourne, sources…
Adams, Helga; Nicolson, Margaret
In this article, the authors examine the fourth stage of their research into diversity in the languages classroom, focusing specifically on the teacher perspective in planning for and managing diversity in adult student groups. The article discusses findings from a day with experienced Open University language teachers working together on lesson…
Although the role of songs in the primary EFL classroom has attracted the interest of a number of researchers (Newham 1995; McMullen and Saffran 2004; Millington 2011), given the frequency with which songs are being used in English language teaching classrooms, it might have been expected that Cyprus would wish to play a role in extending research findings and applying them to its own educational setting. Yet the lack of research with young learners is particularly acute in the Cypriot Primar...
高校外语教学是跨文化教育的重要领域;翻转课堂的新型教学模式改变了传统的教学流程和思维方式,符合外语的人文及工具特性、契合大学生探索与自主的学习特点,有助于实现跨文化外语的有效教学. 新媒体技术、高校环境为翻转课堂的开展创造了有利条件. 综合课程的教学实验和调查研究结果表明:本土化的跨文化外语翻转课堂流程图、教学结构图及总体教学设计优化了高校跨文化外语教学,但仍须改进臻于完善,以助于加强高等教育生产力.%College foreign language teaching is an effective channel for intercultural education.Flipped classroom teaching model, which has inverted the traditional teaching arrangement and thinking mode, coincides with the humanistic and instrumental nature of foreign language, also with college students' exploring and autonomous learning.Thanks to the new media technology and educational condi-tions in universities, the flipped classroom model can be applied to foreign language education and has achieved the effectiveness of classroom teaching by intercultural approach.The findings of research in integrated college English course indicate that intercultural col-lege foreign language education has been optimized by the indigenized flipped classroom model and the adaptive instructional design. The newly introduced teaching mode needs to be perfected, making it be of significance for further improvement of productive forces in higher education.
Daugaard, Line Møller; Laursen, Helle Pia
Chapter 4, by Daugaard and Laursen, examines a multilingual classroom in Denmark as a site of negotiations of language and literacy. Classrooms have never been homogeneous, in many senses, but in the present era of global fl ows and new forms of mobility the heterogeneous nature of classrooms...... processes take place when people move across spaces and how the sociolinguistic reality of the classroom clashes with the educational conceptualization of ‘the bilingual student’. The analysis also shows how multilingual children actively claim – and transform – linguistic space in the classroom....
Laursen, Helle Pia; Daugaard, Line Møller
Chapter 4, by Daugaard and Laursen, examines a multilingual classroom in Denmark as a site of negotiations of language and literacy. Classrooms have never been homogeneous, in many senses, but in the present era of global fl ows and new forms of mobility the heterogeneous nature of classrooms...... processes take place when people move across spaces and how the sociolinguistic reality of the classroom clashes with the educational conceptualization of ‘the bilingual student’. The analysis also shows how multilingual children actively claim – and transform – linguistic space in the classroom....
Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning
Full Text Available Este trabalho compara as experiências de sala de aula (ESA de duas universitárias na aprendizagem de língua inglesa. As ESA emergiram de entrevistas individuais, onde vídeos das aulas promoveram a reflexão. A análise revelou que experiências de natureza cognitiva, social ou afetiva influem diretamente no processo de aprendizagem e as que se referem ao contexto, à história, crenças e metas dos alunos influem indiretamente no mesmo. A singularidade de algumas experiências levou à sua categorização como ESA individuais (ESAI. Ao comparar as ESAI de duas informantes, a importância da análise sociocultural do processo de aprendizagem de sala de aula fica evidente. Concluiremos com uma defesa do valor da teoria sociocultural no estudo da aprendizagem de língua estrangeira em sala de aula e com a apresentação das implicações deste estudo para pesquisadores e professores. This paper compares the classroom experiences (CEs of two university students in their process of learning English as a foreign language (EFL. The CEs emerged from individual interviews, where classroom videos promoted reflection. The analysis revealed that cognitive, social and affective experiences directly influence the learning process and that those which refer to setting, learner’s personal background, beliefs and goal influence the learning process indirectly. The analysis also revealed the singularity of some of these CEs that led to their categorization as individual CEs (ICEs. When comparing the ICEs of the two participants, the importance of a sociocultural analysis of the classroom learning process becomes evident. We conclude with an analysis of the value of sociocultural theory in the study of classroom EFL learning and with the implications of this study for teachers and researchers.
Paquet-Gauthier, Myriam; Beaulieu, Suzie
For the past three decades, momentum has gathered in favour of a multilingual turn in second language acquisition research and teaching. "Multicompetence" has been proposed to replace "nativeness" and "monolingualism" to measure L2 learners' success. This proposed shift has not made its way into L2 teaching settings.…
Stephen D. Luft
Full Text Available While several studies have investigated the role of risk-taking in language learning, the findings of these studies may not be generalizable to language learning where the performed culture approach (PCA is used. This study describes the relationship between language learning and risk-taking in PCA, and the relationship between risk-taking and personal study habits, teaching style, daily grading, and classroom dynamics. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire. This study finds that risk-taking behavior has a moderate positive relationship with student performance in PCA. While questionnaire items related to teaching style and classroom dynamics are not found to significantly correlate with students’ risk-taking behavior, some items related to daily grading and personal study habits are found to have a moderate positive relationship with risk-taking behavior. Based on these findings, it is recommended that further research investigate the relationship between assessment and risktaking in language learning. As second language acquisition researchers have investigated the role of affective variables in language learning, risk-taking has frequently been identified as a variable linked with success (Beebe, 1983; Ely, 1986; Naiman, Frolich, Stern, & Todesco, 1978; Rubin, 1975; Samimy & Pardin, 1994; Samimy & Tabuse, 1992. However, it is difficult to apply these findings to language classrooms that use the performed culture approach (PCA, an approach to the teaching of East Asian languages, for two reasons: (a PCA’s focus on the learning of a foreign culture could mean that greater risk is involved in 106 Luft language learning than in a typical language classroom; (b PCA creates a language learning experience for which the risks involved are different than those in language classrooms where other approaches are used.
This book explores how using small groups in second language classrooms supports language learning. Chappell's experience as a language teacher equips him to present a clear, evidence-based argument for the powerful influence group work has upon the opportunities for learning, and how it should therefore be an integral part of language lessons.
Explores the benefits in using textbook dialogue as script to be performed in the second language classroom. Teachers, in the role of director, can use theatrical techniques and suggest appropriate pantomime, gestures, and voice inflections to enhance the script. (CB)
This portfolio is a collection of the author’s teaching beliefs and approaches regarding Chinese as foreign language teaching, which she developed during her time in the Master of Second Language Teaching program. The centerpiece of the portfolio is the author’s personal teaching philosophy. It is followed by three artifacts. The language artifact analyzes one of the complexities encountered by learners in the Chinese as a foreign language classroom: the three particles 的 (de), 地 (de), 得 (de)...
Thomas, Enlli Mon; Roberts, Dylan Bryn
This paper examines bilingual children's use of language inside and out of the minority language classroom. A total of 145 children between 8 and 11 years of age, attending 16 bilingual Welsh-English primary schools in North Wales, responded to questionnaires (supplemented by classroom observations) requesting information about their language…
Group activities are commonly used in second language classroom in recent years mostly because they encourage stu⁃dents to work together, helping each other. However, it is of great importance for teachers to notice the group structures so that this class activity could play its important role in the classroom.
Roth, Wolff-Michael; Duit, Reinders
Learning physics is a complex phenomenon. In this article, we use concepts from the theory of nonlinear systems to study the development of language in classroom science in an experimental unit on chaos theory in a German 10th-grade physics classroom. In ongoing activity, the explanations students developed for phenomena emerged through…
This essay investigates the extent and significance of a gender decisive language in the foreign language classroom. Focus lies on teachers teaching English as a foreign language and their attitudes towards gender neutrality from a pure linguistic point of view. My starting point was previous research done concerning my topic and the survey was performed through questionnaires that were sent out with both qualitative and quantitative questions to thirty teachers. My findings indicate that t...
Focusing on the process of learner socialization among Second Language (L2) students, this dissertation investigates one key aspect of this socialization process--the role of student identities in a school-based online language learning activity. Although the integration of online technology is gaining popularity in L2 classrooms for developing L2 students' electronic literacy while cultivating their language skills, research in this area has seldom considered the issue of identity in relatio...
Many researches show that the relationship between teachers and students cell be improved if teachers make effective age of body language to communicate.Besides,students'cognitive ability and efficiency in learning will be promoted.Studies on body language are beneficial not only to our linguistic theory hut also to our classroom teaching and learning.And the Successful teaching is such teaching which not only pays attention to verbal communication but also not overlooks communicative function of body language.
The assumption that foreign language learners experience a high level of anxiety mainly when faced with speaking activities implies that research should focus on those learners prone to anxiety over that skill. Despite not being widely investigated, foreign language writing anxiety also seems to be a concern for a large number of students. Drawing on questionnaire findings, the study reported in this article examined the nature of, and the connection between the English language classroom spe...
Creating a timeline for formulaic language is far from simple, because several partially independent lines of research have contributed to the emerging picture. Each exhibits cycles of innovation and consolidation over time: domains take a leading role in developing new knowledge and then fall back, while another area comes to the fore. Thus, some…
Dewaele, Jean-Marc; Ip, Tsui Shan
Previous research has suggested that high levels of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) have a negative effect on foreign language learning (Horwitz, 2001; Lu & Liu, 2011) while moderate levels of Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity (SLTA) are believed to boost foreign language learning (Ely, 1995). There is prima facie evidence that both dimensions are inversely related as Foreign Language Learning contexts are full of ambiguities which may contribute to anxiety. Howe...
Ghorbandordinejad, Farhad; Ahmadabad, Roghayyeh Moradian
This study investigated the relationship between autonomy and English language achievement among third-grade high school students as mediated by foreign language classroom anxiety in a city in the north-west of Iran. A sample of 400 students (187 males, and 213 females) was assessed for their levels of autonomy and foreign language anxiety using the Autonomy Questionnaire and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), respectively. Participants' scores on their final English exam were also used as the measurement of their English achievement. The results of Pearson correlation revealed a strong correlation between learners' autonomy and their English achievement (r [Formula: see text] .406, n [Formula: see text] 400, [Formula: see text]). Also, foreign language classroom anxiety was found to be significantly and negatively correlated with English achievement (r [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text].472, n [Formula: see text] 400, [Formula: see text]). Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess the ability of autonomy to predict language learning achievement, after controlling for the influence of anxiety. In sum, the results of hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that foreign language classroom anxiety significantly mediates the relationship between autonomy and English language achievement. Implications for both teachers and learners, and suggestions for further research are provided. PMID:25941040
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper critically describes the main challenges English language teachers face in teaching in Indonesia. The subjects of the research were students and English teachers in twelve randomly selected junior high schools in government and private schools in five districts in Yogyakarta Province. A survey schedule, interviews with English language teachers, focus group discussions with students and class observation were used to gather the data. The results show that students’ motivation is more of an instrumental motivation, due to the requirements of the mandated national examination though English now is a global language and the 2006 curriculum targets communicative competence. On the other hand, the data indicated that teachers found English difficult to use in class. The classroom instruction was conducted mostly in the low variety of Bahasa Indonesia and in Javanese. The teachers claimed that it was due to students’ low motivation; in fact, the students’ eagerness to listen to the teachers as the models of English language expressions was good. Teachers need to motivate students to learn English by improving their teaching techniques as well as their speaking competence in class to achieve student integrative motivation as English is valuable for them.
Hanselman, Cheryl A.
Discusses the language used in mathematics classrooms and states that appropriate language is based not only on the words we say but also on how those words are being perceived. Indicates that teachers should give students time to develop the meaning of numbers, operations, or problems. (ASK)
Nguyen, Hanhthi; Yang, Lajlim
This case study examines the classroom participation of a Korean queer (transgender) learner of English as a second language at a language institute for international adult students in the United States. To understand the dynamics of this learner's participation, we focus on how she constructed gender identity and learner identity in interaction.…
Yakup, Doganay; Ashirimbetova, Madina; Davis, Brent
The issue of introducing the target culture into language classroom practice has long been an object of debates as well as the opinions of the learners towards it. Eventually, modern practitioners found a way of having the language learners acquainted with the target culture and introducing culture through culture-based textbook activities.…
In the traditional intensive English classroom, the teacher plays the dominant role; he is the lecturer who is interested in presenting language items, the organizer of teaching and learning activities, and the assessor of learners' performance.Students are usually bench-bound listeners. They watch the teacher explaining language points and giving samples, take
Dantas-Whitney, Maria, Ed.; Rilling, Sarah, Ed.
This volume in the TESOL Classroom Practice Series presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with children and adolescent language learners. These practices take into account the unique needs and characteristics of these age groups and reflect a wide range of educational contexts, goals, and challenges from classrooms in…
Al-Saraj, Taghreed M.
With the increase in globalization, the study of English has become common in Saudi Arabia, but students’ experiences of foreign language anxiety (FLA) have been underexamined. Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries are culturally distinct from the Western world, where the most popular assessments of FLA were developed. Through a qualitative and then quantitative study, the current research examined the suitability of the most popular existing FLA questionnaire, the Foreign Language Classroom ...
Olsen, Daniel J.
While speech analysis technology has become an integral part of phonetic research, and to some degree is used in language instruction at the most advanced levels, it appears to be mostly absent from the beginning levels of language instruction. In part, the lack of incorporation into the language classroom can be attributed to both the lack of…
Edwards, Emily; Burns, Anne
Language teachers constantly create, adapt and evaluate classroom materials to develop new curricula and meet their learners' needs. It has long been argued (e.g. by Stenhouse, L. . "An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development." London: Heinemann) that teachers themselves, as opposed to managers or course book writers,…
Evseeva, Arina Mikhailovna; Solozhenko, Anton
The flipped classroom as a key component of blended learning arouses great interest among researchers and educators nowadays. The technology of flipped classroom implies such organization of the educational process in which classroom activities and homework assignments are reversed. The present paper gives the overview of the flipped classroom technology and explores its potential for both teachers and students. The authors present the results obtained from the experience of the flipped class...
This paper attempts to present a review of Facebook group pages as an educational tool for language learning. One of the primary needs of foreign language learners is to gain the opportunity to use the target language outside the classroom practice. Social media communication provides occasions for learners to receive input and produce output while engaging in negotiation of meaning. In line with this point, teachers can instigate class group pages in the social media in an attempt to provide...
There is debate on the use of authenticity in language classrooms in terms of language, task, and situation. “Authenticity of language” spans a continuum that begins with inauthentic materials - wholly created by a teacher or materials developer - to constructed materials, modified from real-world materials, to those materials created for non-pedagogical L1 purposes. “Authenticity of task” questions whether students are engaging with language materials in a way that would appear natu...
Semaan, Gaby; Yamazaki, Kasumi
This article examines the relationship between global competence and second language learning motivation in critical language classrooms. Data were collected from 137 participants who were studying critical languages (Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Persian) at two universities on the East and West Coasts of the United States, using a 30-item…
White, A H; Tripoli, L J
Many deaf children have great difficulty learning how to use irregular English verbs. This research study seeks to exemplify how a single-case, ABA design can be used by classroom teachers in making a determination about the usefulness of classroom teaching strategies, and in the case of this study, to explore the use of compact language drills (CLDs) as a technique for helping a deaf child improve his ability to use 4 irregular verbs. The CLDs were conducted 5-10 minutes each day for five weeks at the close of school. The drills engaged the child in immediate recall of simple sentences loaded with semantic/syntactic clues which signalled the need for a past, present or future irregular verb within the target sentence. The results suggest that CLDs, when used systematically, can significantly improve a child's ability to use irregular verbs correctly, both immediately following treatment, and across time. PMID:9002319
A considerable number of studies on formative teacher assessment and feedback, learner self- and peer-assessment have been carried out in the field of Language Testing and Assessment (LTA) research over the last two decades. These studies investigated the above mentioned concepts from different perspectives (impact of assessment on learning,…
Nonverbal communication refers to a form of communication without using the words to repress oneself. Nonverbal communication is so basic that the teachers tend to take it for granted and always ignore it in the English classroom teaching. For attaining the goal of teaching, and improving teaching quality and efficiency in the foreign language classroom, the improvement of teaching method is a very important factor. Briefly introducing the definition and types of nonverbal communication, this...
Majid Khabbaz; Rasool Najjar
English language teaching curriculum developers now turn to the heavy use of technology in classrooms. Computer technology, specifically, has brought about many changes in the strategies of language leaning. One of the new computer programs which has recently attracted the attention of language teachers is called Moodle. It is an open-source Course Management System (CMS) which delivers online courses as well as supplement traditional face-to-face language courses. Since there is little infor...
Barnes, Erica M.; Grifenhagen, Jill F.; Dickinson, David K.
This article defines academic language by examining the central features of vocabulary, syntax, and discourse function. Examples of each feature are provided, as well as methods of identifying them in oral language and printed text. We describe a yearlong study that found teachers used different types of academic language based on instructional…
This paper chiefly examines the attitudes of second language learners, specifically, Chinese postgraduate students study⁃ing in the UK, towards code-switching between English and Mandarin in group discussion in L2 classroom. Questionnaire is im⁃plemented as the data collection method and yields some corresponding findings based on research questions. Meanwhile, recent research on code-switching in classroom is introduced briefly. Moreover, limitations and pedagogical implication of the original research mentioned above are elaborated, as well as the implied future research is presented in this area.
A considerable number of studies on formative teacher assessment and feedback, learner self- and peer-assessment have been carried out in the field of Language Testing and Assessment (LTA) research over the last two decades. These studies investigated the above mentioned concepts from different perspectives (impact of assessment on learning, attitudes towards assessment, comparison between teacher and learner assessment practices, types and quality of formative teacher feedback), in a number ...
In this article, I discuss theoretical possibilities for the inclusion of therapy dogs in the elementary language arts classroom, particularly which may inspire students otherwise reluctant to engage in literacy activities. I incorporate Guthrie and colleagues’ work in engagement into research in Animal Assisted Therapy with children to posit a revised theory of engagement.
Moore, Tara Sheehan
Although researchers have investigated teachers' perceptions of their preparedness to instruct English language learners (ELLs) and value student culture in the classroom, there has been a lack of studies at an elementary school level. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the perceptions of elementary teachers about their use…
Shenk, Elaine M.
The acquisition of sociolinguistic variation by second language learners has gained increased attention. Some research highlights the value of naturalistic exposure through study abroad while other studies point out that classroom input can facilitate the acquisition of particular features of variation. Nevertheless, said attention to the…
This article reviews research on English language arts teachers' use of digital tools in the classroom to remediate print literacies. Specifically, this review focuses on the affordances of digital tools to foster uses of digital literacies of informational/accessibility, collaboration knowledge construction, multimodal communication, gaming…
Full Text Available For a long time, whether learners' first language (L1 should be used in the foreign language classroom has been a controversial issue in the foreign language education field. The focus has been mostly on the use of L1 in the English language classroom (e.g.,Atkinson, 1987; Brooks-Lewis, 2009; Kieu, 2010; Krashen, 1981; Miles, 2004; Nazary, 2008; Prodromou, 2002; Schweers, 1999; Tang,2002. The debate centers on two diverse pedagogical approaches: the monolingual approach and the bilingual approach. The supporters of the monolingual approach contend that only the target language that learners are acquiring (i.e. English in most of the study should be allowed in the classroom, and Krashen (1981, 1985 was a pivotal supporter of this approach. However, other researchers and language teachers argue that the monolingual approach is not practical, particularly in lower-level classes (e.g., Atkinson, 1987; BrooksLewis, 2009; Schweers, 1999; Tang, 2002. They believe that using L1 in the classroom can be very effective when explaining difficult grammar points and linguistic elements that are language specific. The supporters of the bilingual approach do not deny the advantages of maximizing target language exposure and practice. However, they suggest that when learners' L1 is applied strategically, it can actually be a very important learning tool (e.g., Atkinson, 1987; Brooks-Lewis,2009; Schweers, 1999. Furthermore, both Schweers (1999 and Miles (2004 point out that the use of L1 provides students a more relaxed atmosphere and makes them less anxious and more confident in the classroom.
Leonardo Véliz C
Full Text Available In this paper I attempt to analyse and survey the role of corrective feedback -more specifically recasts- in the interaction between teachers and L2 students in a classroom. Thus, I explore the effects of recasts on students' self-correction in order to finally come to the conclusión whether or not students are able to no tice this type of underlying correction and, therefore, reformulate their ill-formed utterances. Besides, I also undertake a comprehensive survey of the literature on the topic. Two different groups of students from the English Teaching Trainig Programme at Universidad Católica Raúl Silva Henrríquez are studied. Five students taking English courses at an intermedíate level and five taking advanced English courses. Intermedíate and advanced students have been categorised on the basis of their number of English language courses they have taken. Intermedíate students have taken four, whereas advanced have taken seven. In this paper the point at issue is whether harmful and ineffective or essential and rather effective, and whether recasts are noticeable for students to 'read between lines' and figure out the underlying correction. I take the stand that recasts are only effective when using them with advanced students as they are more cognitively advanced and, therefore, able to make inferences and interpret the implicit message to reformulate their mistakes.The results as well as the tests on the whole, clearly demónstrate that recasts as a corrective technique happen to be a bit more effective with advanced students than with intermedíate students, though the difference is not striking.En el presente trabajo procuro analizar el rol de la asesoría remedial o retroalimentación correctiva, precisamente Recasts (corrección implícita, en la interacción entre profesores y alumnos de una segunda lengua. De esta manera, analizo los efectos de la corrección implícita en la auto-corrección de los alumnos para finalmente
Huerta-Macias, Ana; Kephart, Kerrie
This paper explores the issue of native language (L1) use in adult English-as-a-second-language (ESL) classes, re-examining the belief that use of the students' L1 is detrimental to target language learning. We discuss research that (a) documents language use in several adult ESL classes in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands, and (b) presents survey…
Chua, Siew Lian; Wong, Angela F. L.; Chen, Der-Thanq
Associations between the nature of Chinese Language Classroom Environments and Singapore secondary school students' motivation to learn the Chinese Language were investigated. A sample of 1,460 secondary three (grade 9) students from 50 express stream (above average academic ability) classes in Singapore government secondary schools was involved…
Tuncer, Murat; Dogan, Yunus
This study was carried out in order to identify to what extent the Turkish students' English classroom anxiety affects their academic achievement in English language. In this quantitative descriptive study, a correlational survey model was employed, and the convenience sampling was done. In order to collect data, the Foreign Language Classroom…
Planas, Núria; Civil, Marta
In this article we reflect on the learning of mathematics in bilingual settings from a social and a political perspective. In particular we highlight two concepts that are key to our work: language-as-resource and language-as-political. To do so, we draw on classroom data from students of Mexican origin in Tucson, USA, and students from Latin…
Eaton, Sarah Elaine
This presentation introduced Skype and how it can be used to: (1) connect teachers with other professionals - and save on long distance charges - even internationally (2) empower language teachers and tutors (3) give presentations and workshops (4) be a stepping stone to using more sophisticated technology in the classroom. It was noted that for…
Helot, Christine; Laoire, Muiris O.
With contributions from leading scholars all around the world, this volume underlines the ever-pressing need for new language in education policies to include all learners' voices in the multilingual classroom and to empower teachers to develop responsive and transformative pedagogies. Using testimonies, narratives and examples from different…
This dissertation consists of two manuscripts to examine student motivation and engagement in the foreign language classroom. The purpose of the first paper is to propose a model that distinguishes between motivation and engagement. The paper highlights the connections and differences between motivation and engagement in order to point out issues…
Formulaic speech, expressions learned as unanalyzed wholes and used on particular occasions by native speakers, is contrasted to "grammatical" sentences using novel combinations of words in the second language classroom. The speech produced by three limited English-speaking children in an English program suggests that formulaic speech enables…
Burke, Brigid Moira
"Experiential" professional development (EPD), influenced by Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound design, was integrated in the classrooms of secondary Spanish teachers to create opportunities for them to learn to use communicative language teaching (CLT) through experience. Teachers collaborated with colleagues, students, and a…
Japanese language learners' proclivity for silence has been alluded to by various writers (e.g. Anderson 1993; Korst 1997; Greer 2000) and is supported by plenty of anecdotal evidence, but large-scale, empirical studies aimed at measuring the extent of macro-level silence within Japanese university L2 classrooms are notably lacking. This article…
Houston, Richard; Grubaugh, Steven
Describes the types of violence found in school and classroom contexts and recommends guidelines to form proactive and reactive strategies for teachers and administrators. Demonstrates the language for rules to establish order and deter violence and to use with students exhibiting violent behavior. (FMW)
Hanauer, David I.
This paper develops the concept of meaningful literacy and offers a classroom methodology--poetry writing--that manifests this approach to ESL/EFL literacy instruction. The paper is divided into three sections. The first deals with the concept of meaningful literacy learning in second and foreign language pedagogy; the second summarizes empirical…
Teranishi, Masayuki; Wales, Katie
This book examines how literary texts can be incorporated into teaching practices in an EFL classroom. It takes a multi-faceted approach to how English language teaching and learning can best be developed through presentation and exploration of literary texts.
Teaching culture along with language in the foreign language classroom is not an easy job. The definition of culture varies from different context, and non-native speakers do not share the same background with native speakers, thus it brings many difficulties to those who want to learn or teach culture along with a foreign language. Challenges in teaching culture along with English will be discussed as an exemplar in this essay. Meanwhile, suggestion on how to teach culture in the English class-room will be proposed at the end of this work.
English language education takes place as a general school subject in colleges in China. There are many approaches to language teaching. Generally, literature course in foreign country has two equal tasks- literature appreciation and language learning. In literature instruction, it has to cove r these two aspects and fulfills these two tasks. This paper aims to help students in EFL classroom students find out how messages in texts convey ideas of ideologies by designing a literature course- analyze the same story in different genres.
McMillan, Nancy; Madaras, Susan W.
Two marketing games are described, "Le Marche Francais" and "El Mercado: The Mexican Market Comes to Life in the Spanish Classroom." Both are patterned after a published game entitled "Market: A Simulation Game." The adaptation in each instance relied on simplifying the original game and presenting it in a form understandable to middle school…
Full Text Available French language policy has historically centred on ways French can be considered a dominant and influential language. It has done this since the Middle Ages, by allowing the French language to serve as a political tool. On an international level, language was a way of subjugating conquered peoples (former colonies. It promoted France’s international status (by the 18th century French was the diplomatic language of Europe. On a national level, the French language was one of the ways governments were able to centralise political power (suppression of regional languages. One of the ways French language authorities have promoted the use of language has been through education policies and the way language is taught in schools. For example, the French language was imposed on the colonised territories of France through teaching in missionary schools. Within France, stringent laws were adopted, in particular during the nineteenth century, allowing the French language to replace local languages in schools. In France today, language policies continue to exist and to have an influence on the way we view language and society. One of the main priorities of French language policy is to protect the status of the national language in particular with respect to the increasing use of English as a global dominant language in areas such as science, technology, tourism, entertainment and the media (Nunan: 2007, 178. Consequently, France has adopted policies to respond to this linguistic climate. This has implications on the way the French language is taught both within France as well as outside of France. This paper will examine some of the policies and agencies created over recent years that affect the French language. It will also identify some of the consequences these policies have on the teaching of language. Finally it will argue that a space has been created within the language classroom that attempts to find a compromise between the language policies of
Friedman, Debra A.
This study uses a language socialization approach to explore the role of Ukrainian language instruction in the revitalization of Ukrainian as the national language. Based on 10 months ethnographic observation and videotaping of classroom interaction in two fifth-grade Ukrainian language and literature classrooms, it focuses on corrective feedback…
This study explored how Thai learners of English as a foreign language, engaged in English activities outside of classrooms to learn and practice the English language. Three research questions of this study include: (a) How do the participants perceive access and availability of out of class English activities in local environments?, (b) How do…
Hossein Bozorgian; Sediqe Fallahpour
A surge of interest in using First Language (L1) in English as Second/Foreign Language (L2/EFL) learning has recently been developed. Despite this upsurge, the concern about using L1 by teachers and students in L2/EFL classrooms is still important for researchers to consider in the field. The focus of this study is to investigate the amount and purposes of L1 use in EFL classrooms by teachers and students in two English language institutes in Iran. Responding to the research questions on the ...
Stories and storytelling have been used for millennia to entertain, challenge and educate. As a shared form of language interaction, storytelling has engaged communities in developing and perpetuating common understandings of both language and culture, as critical foundations to harmonious societies. Stories and storytelling provide a rich source…
P.L.N. Randima Rajapaksha
Full Text Available Children best learn language through playful learning experiences in the preschool classroom. The present study focused on developing oral language skills in preschool children through a sociodramatic play intervention. The study employed a case study design under qualitative approach. The researcher conducted a sociodramatic play intervention collaboratively with the class teacher for a group of 10 children selected utilizing purposive sampling method in a preschool classroom. The intervention was conducted in a preschool located in Colombo, Sri Lanka for 3 weeks. The observation, interview and reflective journal were the instrument used to collect data. The observation carried under two criteria namely, ability to initiate a conversation and ability to respond in a conversation revealed that the sociodramatic play intervention created many opportunities to develop oral language skills in the children than the regular classroom activities. The sociodramatic play activities enhanced children's oral language skills while creating a language rich playful learning experiences.Keywords: Language development, Early childhood education, Sociodramatic play
ELT Journal, 1993
Rod Ellis discusses contribution, past, present, and future, of second-language acquisition (SLA) studies to English language teaching. Considers two primary issues: conditions that facilitate and promote SLA in classroom; and how teachers can create those conditions. Role of grammar in English classroom is discussed, recent research is described,…
Graham Crookes; Craig Chaudron
continued from Issue 10 4.FacilitationA major role of the instructor is to arrange matters so the material presented gets used and thereby learned.This may be far more critical in the learning of a cognitive skill,in which practice assumes major dimensions,than in the learning of most school subjects,in which declarative knowledge(Anderson 1982;O'Malley,Chamot,and Walker 1987)is being presented and clear presentation may be sufficient in itself to ensure learning(of.West 1960).We need,therefore,to give some consideration to such matters as the overall organization of the classroom.
Elting, Stephen; Firkins, Arthur
Poetry performance is an approach to learning where students can use theatrical techniques to develop a response to the poem. This paper argues that ELL students can explore the aesthetic function of language and, more widely, develop confidence in using English as a communicative tool through the dramatization of poetry. We describe the process…
Prelingually deafened children are nowadays likely to receive a cochlear implant (ci). As these children do their language acquisition with a cochlear implant they require a constant rehabilitation and support. Educational staff is instructed on how to work with children with ci in form of...
Nicholson, Simon James
Motivation is one of the main determining factors of success in developing a second or foreign language. However, motivation is a complex phenomenon and the more its constructs are understood the better we are able to understand the extent to which we can influence it. Teachers can cultivate student motivation to varying degrees and play a central…
Full Text Available Music holds a very important place in human life. People spend their days and free time listening to music. Music calms and relaxes the soul. Music is the best way to express one's feelings. Music is an important medium for teaching and educating as well. Music attracts the attention of students with its rhythm, singing style, emphasis on the target language and culture and provokes their desire to listen to it all the time. In the last few years music is basically a tool that many foreign language teachers have started to use. Music is used as a game to motivate students. This enables the class to remain energetic and lively. The song enables students to use the target language and learn about a new culture. Teachers must choose a song according to the objective of the class. These songs contribute to the student's oral and writing skills. Music also serves a special function of teaching student's the four basic language skills. Songs creates the opportunity to do many different types of activities in the class according to interest and age.
Gámez, Perla B.; Lesaux, Nonie K.
This study examined teachers' language use across the school year in 6th grade urban middle-school classrooms (n = 24) and investigated the influence of this classroom-based linguistic input on the reading comprehension skills of the students (n = 851; 599 language minority learners and 252 English-only) in the participating classrooms. Analysis…
Chua, Siew Lian; Wong, Angela F. L.; Chen, Der-Thanq V.
This article reports findings from a classroom environment study which was designed to investigate the nature of Chinese Language classroom environments in Singapore secondary schools. We used a perceptual instrument, the Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory, to investigate teachers' and students' perceptions towards their Chinese…
Achu Charles Tante
Assessment has a huge impact on ESL primary pupils, in part, because on the curriculum English is both a subject and also a language of learning all the other subjects. For children still acquiring L1 it is daunting sometimes to be expected to understand concepts in L2. It may be difficult then to gather information to make an impartial judgement with regards to a pupil’s language level. This study is a preliminary inquiry that attempts to find out teachers’ approaches to classroom assessment...
This assignment seeks to explore and reflect on the process of educational action research, and will critically evaluate current theory and practice into the use of the target language in the classroom. I aim to develop effective strategies to encourage the use of spontaneous speech in the classroom and engage with arguments for and against the use of the foreign language by teachers and pupils. I aim to carry out a systematic enquiry into how pupils feel about the use of target language and ...
This article takes a close look at Towards Reflective Teach-ing, by Jack C. Richards. His article first explains what reflec-tive teaching is, and then presents the various reflective ap-proaches such as peer observation, self-reports, auto-biographies, journals and collaborative diary keeping. This arti-cle then goes on and draws from actual teaching experience toconclude that these approaches are extremely useful for the im-provement of foreign language teaching.
This ethnographic study investigates identity and participation in a workplace English language training classroom in Thailand. As a practitioner’s enquiry, the research methods of participation observation, interviews and questionnaires were employed in exploring a 40-hour training classroom which acts as a workplace community of practice for both the teacher and the student participants. Through the lens of communities of practice (Lave and Wenger, 1991), the research shows the significance...
Planas, Núria; Civil, Marta
In this article we reflect on the learning of mathematics in bilingual settings from a social and a political perspective. In particular we highlight two concepts that are key to our work: language-as-resource and language-as-political. To do so, we draw on classroom data from students of Mexican origin in Tucson, USA, and students from Latin America in Barcelona, Spain. The language policies in our contexts share a message of privileging the language of instruction (English or Catalan) over other languages. Our analysis of the two sets of data points to differences in the mathematical participation of students on the basis of which language they use. We develop the argument that, even if languages other than Catalan and English are accepted and certain pedagogies may be close to a language-as-resource approach, the use of the students' languages is politically mediated in such a way that its pedagogical value (as a medium of communication and learning) is not always taken into account in the bilingual mathematics classroom.
Foreign language anxiety is one of the factors of affecting foreign language achievement. It is negatively associated with language skill learning. This article will show some researches on foreign language anxiety from certain aspects.
Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.
Following on from my state-of-the-art article on "Language Awareness and language learning" (Svalberg 2007), in this paper I will discuss specific research tasks which are centrally concerned with different aspects of language awareness (LA): "explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning,…
Matos, Ana Gonçalves
In the history of language teaching, literary texts have gradually been reduced to a source for linguistic learning, as an informative representation of cultural traits or even dismissed from the foreign language classroom. This paper aims to add reasons that justify considering literary texts a vital presence in the foreign language classroom.…
Lochland, Paul W.
This article questions the appropriateness of communicative language teaching (CLT) in classrooms teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) to Japanese students. The four main criticisms of CLT are the ambiguity of its description, the benefits of CLT for language learning, the amalgamation of CLT methods with local classroom practices, and the…
Examines whether communication occurring in a second-language classroom setting sufficiently ensures development of full target language competence. The ability of 2 English-as-a-Second-Language students to "request" in English was followed over 15-21 months. Results indicated that the classroom did not provide the conditions necessary for…
Explores two video instructional strategies for the foreign language classroom: advance organizers and captions in the target language. A set of classroom procedures are proposed that combine advance organizers and captions to teach English as a foreign language. (9 references) (Author/CK)
Full Text Available English language teaching curriculum developers now turn to the heavy use of technology in classrooms. Computer technology, specifically, has brought about many changes in the strategies of language leaning. One of the new computer programs which has recently attracted the attention of language teachers is called Moodle. It is an open-source Course Management System (CMS which delivers online courses as well as supplement traditional face-to-face language courses. Since there is little information about the feasibility of such a program, this study is an effort to examine it through its adaptability to Language Learning Strategies (LLSs. The data is gathered from 60 Moodle-based EAP users as a purposeful sample of the EAP population through a questionnaire. The participants were also observed and interviewed (6 participants. It was found out that there were no relationships between LLSs and language achievement at Moodle-based distance language learning contexts. The findings imply that learning language through Moodle-based teaching materials impede the process of being autonomous language learners, which is a prerequisite for language learning at distance contexts.Keywords: distance learning, language learning strategies, learner autonomy, Computer-Assisted Language Learning, English for Academic Purposes (EAP
Karjalainen, Katri; Pörn, Michaela; Fredrik RUSK; Linda BJÖRKSKOG
The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the nat...
This paper presents the teaching methods employed by different schools of language teaching respectively and the historical trend of the roles of language teacher in SL/FL classroom. The purpose of this paper is to survey the dif-ferent roles language teachers play with the advent of a new teaching method so as to supply a better interpretation of the language teachers' behaviors in the SL/FL classroom and to indicate the likely developments in language pedagogy in the future.
This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…
Thompson, David R.
In recent years numerous studies on language learning strategies have signaled the importance of developing students' metacognitive skills. This article communicates findings from a classroom research project that sought to stimulate metacognitive self-monitoring practices among college students in an intermediate-level Spanish language course.…
Horwitz, Elaine K
By employing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Park has provided an important contribution to understanding the underlying constructs of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale. To Park's concerns about previous research on the components of the measure, this article adds the necessity of considering the specific learner populations and learning contexts where foreign language anxiety (FLA) is being examined since the components of FLA likely vary in different learner populations, especially with respect to cultural and proficiency differences. It is particularly important to consider that FLA has different triggers and manifestations in different cultures. PMID:27287268
Behrens, Susan J
It is clear that a proper understanding of what academic English is and how to use it is crucial for success in college, and yet students face multiple obstacles in acquiring this new 'code', not least that their professors often cannot agree amongst themselves on a definition and a set of rules. Understanding Language Use in the Classroom aims to bring the latest findings in linguistics research on academic English to educators from other disciplines, and to help them help their students learn and achieve. Behrens combines a powerful argument for the importance of explicit teaching of languag
Research shows the strong correlation between expectations and student achievement across different disciplines. However, little research has been conducted regarding the role of discipline specific classroom expectations in student academic achievement. This multiple instrumental case study discusses expectations in two rural Spanish high school…
This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed how one teacher and I, the researcher, collaboratively reflected on classroom language practices during the video analysis meetings and focus groups. Further, I analyzed twelve videos that we coded together to see the changes in the teacher's language practices over time. My unit of analysis was the discourse practice mediated by additive language ideologies. Throughout the collaborative action research process, we both critically reflected on the classroom language use. We also developed a critical consciousness about the participatory shifts and learning of focal English Learner (EL) students. Finally, the teacher made changes to her classroom language practices. The results of this study will contribute to the literacy education research field for theoretical, methodological, and practical insights. The integration of language ideologies, CHAT, and action research can help educational practitioners, researchers, and policy makers understand the importance of transforming teachers' language ideologies in designing additive learning contexts for ELs. From a methodological perspective, the transformative language ideologies through researcher and teacher collaborated video analysis process provide a unique contribution to the language ideologies in education literature, with analytic triangulation. As a practical implication, this study suggests action research can be one of the teacher education tools to help the teachers transform language ideologies for EL education.
This portfolio is a compilation of the author’s research-supported ideas on what good language teaching looks like. The central component is the teaching philosophy, in which the author explains that respect for individuality, use of technology, and use of culture as context for learning are the three elements seen as most important for successful language learning.The teaching philosophy is supported by artifacts about peer feedback in language learning, literacy in adult English as a Second...
Full Text Available A surge of interest in using First Language (L1 in English as Second/Foreign Language (L2/EFL learning has recently been developed. Despite this upsurge, the concern about using L1 by teachers and students in L2/EFL classrooms is still important for researchers to consider in the field. The focus of this study is to investigate the amount and purposes of L1 use in EFL classrooms by teachers and students in two English language institutes in Iran. Responding to the research questions on the amount and purpose of L1 use, the researchers collected the data for 12 sessions (a 90-minute class from six male and female EFL teachers aged from 25 to 30 and 155 students 19 to 25 years of age whose pre-intermediate classes were video recorded for two sessions. The findings revealed that the EFL teachers used a limited amount of L1 in the EFL classrooms though they still used it as an aid for a variety of purposes in order to improve their teaching purposes and the students’ learning. The findings also indicated that using L1 facilitates students’ learning in EFL classrooms, and it should not be excluded from the classroom syllabi or considered an evil in EFL classrooms.
For a long time, whether learners' first language (L1) should be used in the foreign language classroom has been a controversial issue in the foreign language education field. The focus has been mostly on the use of L1 in the English language classroom (e.g.,Atkinson, 1987; Brooks-Lewis, 2009; Kieu, 2010; Krashen, 1981; Miles, 2004; Nazary, 2008; Prodromou, 2002; Schweers, 1999; Tang,2002). The debate centers on two diverse pedagogical approaches: the monolingual approach and the bilingual...
An international school (BES) in Greece, overwhelmingly attended by Greek origin children, has adopted, as its language policy, English as the ‘official’ medium of interaction, including in the Reception classroom, the target of this research. That is, through its language policy, the school aims to promote the learning and use of English throughout school. At the same time, the school has adopted ‘free interaction’ in designated play areas as its pedagogical approach. The aim ...
Full Text Available Problem statement: The role of literature in enhancing readers cultural understanding in the language classroom was explored. It was a part of an extensive research which focused mainly on language learning and creativity. It is argued that the interface of language, literature and culture are at the forefront of present-day language and literature learning and this facilitates inter-racial, intra-racial and global understanding. Approach: As method, a quasi-experimental study was conducted on two intact groups; the control (n = 30 and experimental (n = 30 groups. Both groups underwent an eight week experiment whereby one short story, The Burden of Sin by S. Karthigesu was taught to both groups. The control group was taught using the routine and traditional reading and comprehension teaching approach while the experimental group was taught using the reader response approach adapting Ibsens the I Model text exploration and literary devices. Results: Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted on the data collected using two non-parametric tests: The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test to determine the significant difference between the experimental groups pretest and posttest scores and the Mann-Whitney U test to determine the significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control groups. Conclusion: The results proved to be substantially significant. The findings revealed that cultural understanding can be taught through literature in a language classroom and it is a valuable instructional medium in the learning of culture.
Jeanpierre, Bobby Jo
This research study reports the results of school-based staff development models used at three urban elementary schools that had liaison teachers assisting classroom teachers in implementing instructional strategies in science teaching from "Language of Poverty," a curriculum framework designed to address the academic needs of disadvantaged students. The case study of two urban elementary schools and six classroom teachers, and survey and interview data results of a third school, uncovered insights into several areas of science teaching in urban settings. One conclusion is that in spite of substantial allocation of resources and assistance, teachers did not translate instructional strategies from "Language of Poverty" curriculum into their classroom practices in a way that would foster urban disadvantaged students' understanding of "big science concepts." A second conclusion is that the school-based staff development models were limited in their ability to address the diverse professional needs of all of its staff. Third, as it relates to students, discipline issues occurred in these urban classrooms across ethnicity and gender. And in addition to teachers being knowledgeable of relevant social and cultural group norms' application of this knowledge in an appropriate and consistent manner is needed to effectively address discipline concerns.
Sthephanny Moncada Linares
Full Text Available Due to the need of decentering language learners’ conceptions and practices of “othering” against the target culture, it has become necessary to help them grow in critical cultural understanding and positive appreciation towards the richness of difference and plurality, as a transversal dimension of their intercultural competence. Thus, this paper seeks to summarize the literature on the notion of othering and its pedagogical possibilities to promote critical cultural awareness raising in the language classroom. It initially presents some theoretical contributions on the concepts of the “Other” and the “Self” and its dialectical relation, and later, it proposes four pedagogical tools that could enable learners to achieve the already mentioned objective.
Levine, Glenn S.
The social and cultural "turn" in language education of recent years has helped move language teaching and curriculum design away from many of the more rigid dogmas of earlier generations, but the issue of the roles of the learners' first language (L1) in language pedagogy and classroom interaction is far from settled. Some follow a…
Dogan, Yunus; Tuncer, Murat
This correlational survey study aimed to investigate whether the Turkish prep-class students' foreign language classroom anxiety levels and foreign language achievement significantly differ in terms of such variables as their gender, their experience abroad, perceived level of income and any third language (other than Turkish and English) they…
This paper outlines five methods of research on sex bias in the classroom: one-time survey, one class/one treatment, two class/two treatment, one class/random assignment to treatment, and analysis of differentiated effect. It shows how each method could be used in attempting to measure the effect of a unit on Norma Klein's "Mom, the Wolfman and…
This article draws on qualitative interview data from a case study of an English teacher in Turkey. It explores the implementation of learner autonomy in English as a foreign language classroom and identifies the challenges, such as students' negative attitudes towards classroom practices, dissatisfaction with the language learning activities and…
Tam, Frank Wai-ming
This study looks at how family and classroom factors influence second-language learning at the junior secondary level in schools in Hong Kong. It employed an ecological perspective to look at how family-level factors and classroom-level factors uniquely combine to influence students' learning motivations in second-language learning. Nineteen…
This paper presents an argument that language-use in multilingual mathematics classrooms in South Africa is as much a function of politics as it is of cognition and communication. It draws from a wider study focusing on language practices in intermediate multilingual mathematics classrooms in South Africa. In the study the notion of cultural…
Foreign language anxiety is widely used to describe the feeling of tension and apprehension, which is specifically associated with foreign language learning contexts, including listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) is related to foreign language anxiety and language-skill-specific anxiety, and fairly recently identified as distinguished from other forms of anxiety. FLCA is a more general type of anxiety in learning a foreign language with a stron...
Stevenson, Alma D.
This qualitative sociolinguistic research study examines Latino/a students' use of language in a science classroom and laboratory. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States that serves an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a 5th-grade bilingual (Spanish/English) class.…
The role of power in an English-as-a-second-language classroom has yet to be fully explored by an action research practitioner, especially in a Malaysian higher education setting. This study aims to contribute to this gap by working within an academic literacies perspective to teaching academic writing, which propagates the understanding of…
This study aims at examining the concept of ‘international mindedness’ as it is evidenced in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) in a Chinese as a second language classroom in an international school. The research methodology includes in‐depth semi-structured interviews, classroom observation, classroom discourse analysis (Christie, 2008), and text analysis of students’ work by using Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) (Halliday, 1994), Appraisal Theory (Martin and Whit...
Roberto Birch Gonçalves
Full Text Available This study discusses the current trend of offering courses in the undergraduate programs, taught in foreign languages, as a fundamental aspect for the formation of new global professionals who require different skills to work in multicultural markets. To do so, the research highlights some concepts of internationalization, academic mobility and curricula internationalization. A longitudinal case study was conducted over a period of three years (2010-2013, describing the trajectory of the Intercultural Communication discipline, taught in English in a multicultural classroom, in a Higher Education Institution. For the analysis, it was used the data provided by online assessment system. The results show the degree of satisfaction by students who attended this course and emphasizes the strong responsibility of professionals who teach courses in foreign languages where language proficiency is essential, however the content domain and the use of proper methodologies are no less important.
Mora Pablo Irasema
Full Text Available
The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and learning process. A small number of students do not like the use of the first language in the classroom and prefer that their teachers use the target language only.
La presente investigación explora el uso de la lengua materna en un contexto de enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Esta investigación cualitativa presenta la práctica docente y los puntos de vista de maestros y alumnos de francés e inglés en el contexto de una universidad pública del centro de México, mediante el uso de las técnicas del cuestionario y la entrevista semiestructurada. Los resultados muestran que tanto los maestros como la mayoría de los alumnos perciben el uso de la lengua materna como algo positivo en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Un número reducido de estudiantes rechaza el uso de la lengua materna y prefiere que su clase de lengua extranjera sea dirigida exclusivamente en la lengua meta. Palabras clave: investigación cualitativa, puntos de vista de alumnos y maestros, uso de la lengua materna.
Cirocki, Andrzej; Tennekoon, Sujeewa; Calvo, Alicia Pena
Modern language education favours the model of a reflective teacher-researcher who is engaged in both individual and collaborative curriculum revision and teaching-learning environment improvement. The present paper addresses the issue of classroom research and reflective practice in current ESL pedagogy and teacher professional development. The…
Christina Nicole Giannikas
This study focuses on primary language education within a Greek region: specifically, on the positive effects of classroom management and organisation on a student-centred approach of teaching. In the case of the Greek education system, language teachers are encouraged to adopt student-centred approaches in their classroom but have not received any guidance on how to do so. Language educators are reluctant to abandon their teacher-centred ways, because they have not been trained to apply clas...
Arendt, Jermaine D., Ed.; Scanlan, William J., Ed.
Descriptions of such facilities for modern foreign language classes as the foreign language classroom, the language laboratory, and the electronic classroom are supplemented by illustrations and schematic plans of each type of installation. Specifications for equipment and furniture, room plans, and explanations of possible variations are offered.…
Spada, Nina; Lyster, Roy
Describes the development and organization of the Colt (Communicative Orientation of Language Teaching) observation scheme and Lyster and Ranta's (1997) error treatment model, instruments including predetermined categories to describe features of instructional input and interaction in second language classrooms. Concludes that the choice of…
Taking into account severa1 limitations of communicative language teaching (CLT), this paper calls for the need to consider research on language use and learning through communication as a basis for language teaching. It will be argued that a reflective approach towards language teaching and learning might be generated, which is explained in terms of the need to develop a context-sensitive pedagogy and in terms of teachers' and learners' development.
Full Text Available Taking into account severa1 limitations of communicative language teaching (CLT, this paper calls for the need to consider research on language use and learning through communication as a basis for language teaching. It will be argued that a reflective approach towards language teaching and learning might be generated, which is explained in terms of the need to develop a context-sensitive pedagogy and in terms of teachers' and learners' development.
Developing communicative competence through thinking tasks - Experimenting with Thinking Approach in Danish as Second Language ClassroomSession on Innovations in the classroom, a presentation. Abstract for the conference Creativity & Thinking Skills in Learning, teaching & Management. Riga 19...... of Danish as second and foreign language in transformative learning spaces”. Two teachers have developed and tried out some thinking tasks in their classrooms, with the aim to foster the development of students´ communicative competence. The learning processes from two classrooms will be analysed...... in the presentation. Extended summaryIn the Nordplus Nordic Language Project “Problem solving tasks for learning of Danish as second and foreign language in transformative learning spaces” (2012-2014) a group of teachers of Danish as a second and foreign language have had the possibility to develop and try out some...
Language arts educators who teach Latino English language learners know that part of their job is to help students learn to distinguish between the vernacular varieties of Spanish (or Mandarin, or Portuguese, or Swahili), English they use at home, and the school varieties of language expected in the classroom and in other professional and…
Andréa Machado de Almeida Mattos
Full Text Available Many researchers, nowadays, have been enthusiastic in promoting the advantages of introducing technology in the language classroom, but few have been worried with the problems and anxieties that result from changes in a long-lasting culture such as the culture of language learning. This paper aims at discussing the problems faced by teachers who have been working with technology in their language classrooms. The research design was based on theoretical and empirical studies both in the areas of Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teacher Development. The main objective of this paper is, thus, to achieve a global understanding of the teachers' anxieties in relation to the virtual environment of language learning. Data was gathered through interviews with the teachers, leading to a qualitative analysis of the findings.Atualmente, muitos pesquisadores têm promovido entusiasticamente as vantagens de se introduzir tecnologia na sala de aula de língua estrangeira (LE, mas poucos têm-se preocupado com os problemas e as ansiedades que resultam de mudanças numa cultura tão antiga quanto a da sala de aula de LE. Este trabalho visa a discutir os problemas enfrentados por professores que trabalham com tecnologia em suas salas de aula de língua. A pesquisa foi baseada em estudos teóricos e empíricos tanto na área de ensino mediado por computador quanto no campo de desenvolvimento de professores. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é, assim, obter um entendimento global das ansiedades do professor em relação ao ambiente virtual de aprendizagem de língua. Os dados foram coletados mediante entrevistas com os professores informantes, levando a uma análise qualitativa dos resultados.
Christina Nicole Giannikas
Full Text Available This study focuses on primary language education within a Greek region: specifically, on the positive effects of classroom management and organisation on a student-centred approach of teaching. In the case of the Greek education system, language teachers are encouraged to adopt student-centred approaches in their classroom but have not received any guidance on how to do so. Language educators are reluctant to abandon their teacher-centred ways, because they have not been trained to apply classroom management and organisation techniques that could support a student-centred environment.
Barnes, Sally; Sutherland, Rosamund
Teaching and learning in schools is a complex social process which involves both the teacher and students in distributed knowledge-building activities. Research into this process includes researchers exploring from the outside and teachers exploring from the inside (Bassey, 1995). Jaworski (2003) draws on the work of Wagner (1997) to elaborate a form of research which she calls co-learning, in which research on classroom learning is “conducted jointly by outsiders and insiders” (p 250). The w...
This study, one in a continuing series of concise reports each dealing with a problem in foreign language teaching and learning, discusses the teaching of songs in the foreign language classroom. Commentary on the cultural, esthetic, and academic value of singing introduces an enumerated series of general suggestions on teaching the song. Other…
Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare teacher and student perceptions concerning assessment in the English language classroom of Greek Junior High Schools. It focuses on exploring teacher assessment practices and students’ view of these. The degree of agreement between teacher and student views can affect the results of instruction and learning. The central finding of the study was that English language teachers follow an approach that keeps a balance between the requirements of the Cross-Thematic Curriculum (DEPPS for performance assessment and the official specifications which define final achievement tests. Students understand the purpose of assessment and the importance of attitudes towards learning and have a clear picture of methods and tasks used for their assessment. On the basis of these research findings, a series of suggestions about teachers and teacher trainers are put forward, focusing on teacher professional development, which, in turn, will promote student involvement and responsibility for learning.
Jalali, Sara; Panahzade, Vahid
The advent of modern technologies has had a remarkable role in revolutionizing the classroom setting. It is, therefore, incumbent on teachers to utilize strategies for effective managing of the change. The aim of the present study was to find out English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' beliefs regarding classroom management. In so doing, the…
As applied teaching, it refers to focus-on-form instruction and focus-on-meaning instruction which have been used in the second language classroom. By analyzing what the effectiveness of focus-on-form instruction is, what the disadvantages of focus-on-meaning instruction are? Therefore, it makes the conclusion: focus-on-form instruction is better than focus-on-meaning instruction within the second language classroom.
Bambang Yudi Cahyono
This article reports a nine-month study of literacy development of Aida, a young English language learner from Indonesia, who was mainstreamed in a Grade 2 classroom in a primary school in the south-eastern part of Australia. This article initially reviews the literature concerning features of the mainstream classroom conducive for second language learning and for literacy development. Following the presentation of methodological issues, it examines English learning activities in Aida's class...
Ms. Mayer, a recently retired English language arts teacher, frequently used strategies described in John Golden's book "Reading in the Dark: Using Film as a Tool in the English Classroom." In this book, Golden suggests that ELA teachers "reverse the order: use a film clip to practice the reading and analytical skills that we want our students to…
This paper argues for the need for authentic listening materials in the ELT classroom in China,discussing the selection of those materials,and their adaptation for classroom use,whilst outlinig theirconstraints.
Pinnow, Rachel J.
This paper addresses the role of multimodal fluency in establishing agency in the second language classroom. The focus of the paper is on the semiotic resourcefulness of an English Language Learner in an English as a Second Language classroom in the United States. Framed from a social semiotic perspective, fine grained multimodal analysis of…
Schoerning, Emily; Hand, Brian; Shelley, Mack; Therrien, William
The Next Generation Science Standards call for the adoption of many aspects of scientific inquiry in the classroom. The ways in which classroom talk and classroom environment change as students and teachers learn to utilize inquiry approaches are underexplored. This study examines the frequency with which linguistic markers related to access and…
This paper describes the origin of the Java language, then introduce the basic ideas and principles of Java programming language, and then briefly describes the implementation process and application development Java language are involved in the main technology applications, followed by more detailed the analysis of the characteristics of the Java language and its advantage compared with other programming languages, finally introduces its application in network security management and embedded systems, and future prospects of the Java language development direction and trends. Java language with its multi-threading, cross-platform, object-oriented features to obtain a wide range of applications and has been a computer programmer and industry recognition.I believe that with the development of computer technology, Java language will make a greater contribution to computer technology.
Bambang Yudi Cahyono
Full Text Available This article reports a nine-month study of literacy development of Aida, a young English language learner from Indonesia, who was mainstreamed in a Grade 2 classroom in a primary school in the south-eastern part of Australia. This article initially reviews the literature concerning features of the mainstream classroom conducive for second language learning and for literacy development. Following the presentation of methodological issues, it examines English learning activities in Aida's classroom and highlights her literacy development with examples of her work. The results from this study show that Aida developed literacy skills considered important for her second language and learning development. The variety of English learning activities and the encouraging environment in her classroom contributed much to her literacy development.
Gursoy, Esim; Saglam, Gulderen T.
With the change of focus in language teaching from grammar-based approaches to more communicative approaches, contextual language learning gained importance and found body in the English Language classroom. Global issues constitute one of the most popular contexts for purposeful language learning and meaningful language use. Increasing number of…
This paper intends to explore how Taiwanese students perceive the relationship between their language learning strategy and anxiety in the foreign language classroom. Due to their previous learning experience, most of the participants hold an unfavorable attitude toward a grammar-translation teaching approach. Consequently, learner-centered…
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediational role of gesture and body movement/positioning between a teacher and an English language learner in a second-grade classroom. Responding to Thibault's (2011) call for understanding language through whole-body sense making, aspects of gesture and body positioning were analyzed…
Garrity, Sarah; Aquino-Sterling, Cristian R.; Day, Ashley
Numerous theories of development position infants as inherently driven to make sense of the world around them, and the acquisition of language is a fundamental developmental milestone of this period. The purpose of this study was to document the first year of implementation of a Spanish/English dual language program in an infant classroom, using a…
Provides a background to the development of the Internet; discusses Web sites as foreign-language-learning tools; and describes the Nicenet Internet Classroom Assistant that can be used as a software template for teachers to create their own Internet pages for foreign-language instruction. (Author/LRW)
Hillman, Sara Katherine
Drawing on Lave and Wenger's (1991) and Wenger's (1998) "communities of practice" (CoP) framework, this study explores the shared repertoire of humor practices in the creation of community within the context of a culturally diverse and multilevel adult Arabic language classroom consisting of two native speakers, five heritage language learners…
This article is the result of a year-long study into the effects of sign language use on participation in one mainstream preschool setting. Observations and interviews were the primary data-collection tools used during this investigation. This article focuses on how the use of sign language in the classroom affected the learning community's…
Evans, Elizabeth Julie
Each day, foreign language teachers are faced with issues that render the control of the K-12 classroom challenging, at best, and virtually impossible at worst. Even preservice foreign language teachers, those going through a teacher education program towards K-12 licensure, understand that no content can be taught or learned if there is mayhem in…
Bauer, Kellie L.; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Boon, Richard T.; Fore, Cecil, III
Students with disabilities are increasingly receiving services in the general education classroom, and as a result, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are using a variety of flexible models to meet the needs of these students. Although some schools continue to provide pullout service delivery models for speech-language therapy, many are…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the native language. We aim to give an overview description of the interaction in classroom tandem practice. The empirical data consists of longitudinal video recordings of meetings of one tandem dyad within a co-located Swedish-medium and Finnish-medium school. Focus in the analysis is on the language aspects the informants orient to and topicalize in their interaction. The language aspects vary depending on what classroom activities they are engaged in, text-based or oral activities.
Ideal as a supplementary text for a variety of courses and as a guide for in-service teachers and for professional development settings, "Teaching English Language Learners: 43 Strategies for Successful K-8 Classrooms" provides teachers of all content areas with a broad, practical approach to teaching English language learners in the regular…
The current study, as part of an ongoing investigation to examine teacher perceptions about the teaching of English as a global language at the tertiary level education, aims at examining learner perceptions about PowerPoint presentations used in English classroom instruction for enhancement and integration of four language skills and effective…
Teaching poetry in second language (L2) classrooms raises theoretical and practical questions about how best to treat literature when target language and culture is also being negotiated. Current pedagogy derives from disparate sources, including the experientially-driven practices of individual teachers, the quantitative and qualitative research…
Patchell, Frederick; Hand, Linda
This paper, written from an Australian perspective, examines the contribution of oral language disorders to the classroom performance of secondary students. Five brief case examples illustrate the effects of language disorders on social competence, ability to follow verbal instructions and routines, ability to cope with a bilingual background, and…
This workbook and videotape kit invites teachers to explore the fundamental concepts of language and culture in universal terms and in relation to their teaching of languages and cultures in their classrooms. Comparing and contrasting cultural phenomena and their associated linguistic meanings across cultures offers teachers the opportunity to…
Cárdenas-Claros, Mónica; Oyanedel, Marianna
This qualitative and exploratory case study sought to examine if and how implicit theories influence the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the language classroom in Chile. To achieve this goal, data was gathered from nine experienced university instructors in English as a Second Language. Based on…
Buysse, Virginia; Castro, Dina C.; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen
A randomized, controlled study was conducted to assess the effects of the Nuestros Ninos professional development program on classroom practices and child outcomes related to language development and early literacy skills in both English and Spanish. Fifty-five teachers and 193 Latino dual language learners (DLLs) enrolled in the North Carolina…
Ibrahim, Engku Haliza Engku; Shah, Mohamed Ismail Ahamad; Armia, Najwa Tgk.
Code-switching has always been an intriguing phenomenon to sociolinguists. While the general attitude to it seems negative, people seem to code-switch quite frequently. Teachers of English as a foreign language too frequently claim that they do not like to code-switch in the language classroom for various reasons--many are of the opinion that only…
Martínez Lirola, María
This article shows the importance of teaching with texts from Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in which women from other cultures are represented in order to bring global issues in a language classroom and to deepen in the visual representation of women from other cultures so that students develop their gender perspective. Our main objectives with the research presented in this paper are to introduce students to visual grammar and to work with texts that allow students at tertiary level ...
This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that in-volved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxie-ty only yielded a positive correlation with performan...
Cadavid Múnera Isabel Cristina
Full Text Available An in-progress ethnographic research project about teachers who are facing the complex task of teaching English to children in 7 public elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Medellin is presented in this article. First, the need for this research is outlined by researchers; second, the methodology of the project is described; third, up-to-date findings which include a profile of the 12 teachers who are participating in this study, and an analysis of their class methodology in terms of activities, materials, teacher and student roles are reported. Lastly, implications of this research project related to early foreign language instruction are highlighted. Key words: Public Elementary-English-Language Instruction, English-Foreign Language, Ethnography-Research-Method, Teaching-Methodology Este artículo presenta los resultados preliminares de una investigación etnográfica acerca de las estrategias metodológicas utilizadas por profesores de básica primaria que enseñan inglés como lengua extranjera en 7 escuelas públicas del área metropolitana del municipio de Medellín. En la primera parte se resalta la importancia de esta investigación en nuestro medio y en la segunda, de los 12 profesores participantes y un análisis de la metodología empleada por ellos con respecto a las actividades de clase, los materiales y el rol del estudiante y del profesor. Finalmente, se discuten algunas de las implicaciones de este proyecto de investigación en la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras a niños. Palabras claves: Inglés-Enseñanza-Básica Primaria, Lengua Extranjera-Inglés, Estudio Etnográfico-Investigación, Enseñanza-Metodología
The notion of the Utopian use of language in classrooms was developed and applied as a theoretical tool during the empirical study of language in classrooms. It is claimed that a notion like this may turn out to be particularly profitable when the purpose is to interpret and characterize the...... conclusion is ventured that it is necessary to anchor the sociolinguistic descriptions of actual language use in a sociological conception of the relevant social praxis - in our case taken from the sociology of education....
Niramitranon, Jitti; Sharples, Mike; Greenhalgh, Chris
In a one-to-one collaborative learning classroom supported by ubiquitous computing, teachers require tools that allow them to design of learning scenarios, and to manage and monitor the activities happening in the classroom. Our project proposes an architecture for a classroom management system and a scenarios designer tool, both based on a Classroom Orchestration Modelling Language (COML), to support these requirements. We are developing and testing this with the GroupScribbles software usin...
This paper intends to explore how Taiwanese students perceive the relationship between their language learning strategy and anxiety in the foreign language classroom. Due to their previous learning experience, most of the participants hold an unfavorable attitude toward a grammar-translation teaching approach. Consequently, learner-centered instruction has been widely accepted and acknowledged as a welcome concept and feasible teaching approach in the English Foreign Language (EFL) context. T...
Hassan, Ahmad Husam Ahmad Al, 1993-
Today, many teachers get newcomers in their classes, but many of them might not have the experience to teach newcomers. This paper examines some methods for teaching a second language to newcomers in a mainstream classroom. The paper is based on my experience of learning a second language and supported with views of a teacher of Icelandic as a second language. The teachers’ role is important in the lives of newcomers and consequently, teachers need special training in working with them. In ma...
Koopman, Gerrit Jan; Skeet, Jason; de Graaff, Rick
The relationship between language pedagogy and the content and language integrated learning (CLIL) classroom is a key issue for research into CLIL. In the Netherlands, as in other European contexts, non-native speakers of a target language with a non-language teaching background teach CLIL content lessons. Whilst CLIL teachers teaching their…
Andersen, Roger W., Ed.
The following papers are included: (1) "Some Common Goals for Second and First Language Acquisition Research" by Kenji Hakuta; (2) "Research on the Measurement of Affective Variables: Some Remaining Questions" by John W. Oller, Jr.; (3) "The Effects of Neurological Age on Nonprimary Language Acquisition" by Thomas Scovel; (4) "Exceptions to…
Harris, Raychelle; Holmes, Heidi M.; Mertens, Donna M.
Codes of ethics exist for most professional associations whose members do research on, for, or with sign language communities. However, these ethical codes are silent regarding the need to frame research ethics from a cultural standpoint, an issue of particular salience for sign language communities. Scholars who write from the perspective of…
Salinas-Gonzalez, Irasema; Arreguin-Anderson, Maria G.; Alanís, Iliana
This article focuses on biliteracy development of English and Spanish through the practical strategy of systematically labeling the classroom within the context of daily classroom activities and providing children with various opportunities to use the words throughout the day. Using the foundational work related to classroom labels from Pinnell…
Samira Pahlavanpoorfard; Afshin Soori
This study aimed at investigating the attitudes of Iranian EFL students towards teachers’ motivation and classroom strategy in English classroom. The subjects of the study included a sample of 235 students in their classes. The findings of this study revealed that teachers’ motivation and classroom strategy used by teachers have effects on the students’ motivation.
As one of the major factors affecting second language learners' success to their acquisition achievement, motivation has been examined in a wide variety of research papers. It is thus instructive to conduct a critical review of both theoretical and empirical developments in SLA research from over the last few decades. This approach will provide a broad, and integrated perspective onto the current understanding of the complex topic of motivation. Such an undertaking is valuable for teachers, and researchers alike, in developing useful teaching methods, and finding future avenues of SLA motivation research respectively.The following paper provides an overview of recent theoretical and empirical findings, examines some of the problems and contradictions found/11 current SLA research, and gives an initial departure point for future directions of research in the area of motivation. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the implications for teachers, and possible classroom strategies that axe drawn from the current body of motivation research.
Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation…
Experts throughout the United States tell us that teachers must support the home language development of all young children. Karen Nemeth emphasizes the important role early childhood educators play in ensuring that young dual language learners retain skills in their home language while building new English language skills. She invites educators…
Palmer, Deborah K.; Martínez, Ramón Antontio; Mateus, Suzanne G.; Henderson, Kathryn
The policy of strict separation of languages for academic instruction dominates dual language bilingual education programming. This article explores the dynamic bilingual practices of two experienced bilingual teachers in a two-way dual language public school in Texas and contributes to current research problematizing language separation. Data…
Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation where the real world becomes a part of the educational experience and necessitates the use of an authentic language by the learners. This article descr...