Mohammad Ali SALMANI-NODOUSHAN
New trends in language teaching have resulted in a move towards research in the language classroom. A brief overview of classroom research reveals three distinct but inter-related research paradigms: classroom-centered research, classroom process research, and qualitative research, respectively.
Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali
New trends in language teaching have resulted in a move towards research in the language classroom. A brief overview of classroom research reveals three distinct but inter-related research paradigms: classroom-centered research, classroom process research, and qualitative research, respectively.
Full Text Available The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field. The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field.
Miranda J. Walker
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to construct a new scale for measuring foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA. It begun with the creation of an extended item pool generated by qualitative methods. Subsequent Rasch and semantic analyses led to the final 18-item Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Inventory (FLCAI. In comparison with the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS, the FLCAI demonstrated more convincing evidence of unidimensionality and the optimal 5-point Likert scale functioned better. The FLCAI, while 55% the length of the FLCAS, thus more practical for classroom practitioners to administer and analyse, maintains its psychometric properties and covers a wider range on the construct continuum thus improving the degree of validity of the instrument. Finally, test anxiety was shown to be a component of FLCA.
Racelis, Juval V.; Matsuda, Paul Kei
The field of second language (L2) writing has moved beyond the false dichotomies between process- and genre-based pedagogies perpetuated in the 1980s and 1990s, but there has still been little research on how the two are actually reconciled in the classroom. Consequently, L2 writing instructors are left with an incomplete picture, unsure how to…
Wright, Tony, Dr
A book that develops an understanding of practices at the very centre of language education - the classroom. It is written for postgraduate students in Applied Linguistics and Education, and practitioners, whether in TESOL or other language teaching, In Part 1 the author explores key concepts in unpacking the complexity of classroom life. In Part 2 existing research and practice are examined through a series of research case studies. Part 3 provides a template for research activity and suggestions for projects and methodologies, and Part 4 collects resources for readers keen to follow up the t
Due to the popularization of foreign language study, more and more people from education filed further enhance their exploration and researches in how to apply second acquisition theories into classroom teaching. This paper probes into the orientation, research objects, age, language environment and classroom activities of second language acquisition.
Full Text Available Due to the popularization of foreign language study, more and more people from education filed further enhance their exploration and researches in how to apply second acquisition theories into classroom teaching. This paper probes into the orientation, research objects, age, language environment and classroom activities of second language acquisition.
Vicars, Mark; McKenna, Tarquam; Cacciattolo, Marcelle
This edition of Critical New Literacies: The Praxis of English Language Teaching and Learning (PELT) begins with an examination of bricolage as a way to engage in critical research in TEFL/TESOL teaching and research. The volume considers the quality of 'encounter' needed in the global and intercultural classroom. The authors address validity, reliability and an authentic need for research which has at its heart ethical practice. Disenfranchisement of the co-participants in research, which is usually not considered, is reviewed in the volume. The manner in which quantitative methods can be u
Recent research in classroom discipline tends to show that discipline is a by-product of effective instruction and classroom management. The five publications reviewed in this annotated bibliography explore aspects of the complex classroom environment that relate to student discipline. Walter Doyle's chapter on "Classroom Organization and…
Baxter, Scott J.
In this article, the author describes some of the ways that journals can be used as teaching tools in the language classroom; in fact, the suggestions he makes could be applied to the use of journals in teaching just about any subject. He begins by describing the concept of writing to learn, which is the theoretical foundation that journals are…
Taha, T. A.
This paper examines the alternate use of Arabic and English in the context of a university classroom, where a policy to use the former language in place of the latter was being implemented. Analysis of a sample of recorded university lectures of English and Arabic medium classes in sciences and humanities reveals that teachers use code switching,…
Morgan, Mindy J.
Indigenous languages are powerful symbols of self-determination and sovereignty for tribal communities in the United States, and many community-based programs have been developed to support and maintain them. The successes of these programs, however, have been difficult to replicate at large research institutions. This article examines the issues…
Levine, Glenn S.
Code Choice in the Language Classroom argues that the foreign language classroom is and should be regarded as a multilingual community of practice rather than as a perpetually deficient imitator of an exclusive second-language environment. From a sociocultural and ecological perspective, Levine guides the reader through a theoretical, empirical,…
Chinese is an ancient language, but the present scope of its global study is unprecedented. Comprehending the impacts of worldwide linguistic realities on 'Chinese as a Foreign Language' (CFL) teachers and students will be critical to its long-term success. The most important phenomenon has been the establishment of English as a lingua franca, especially in the expanding marketplaces of Asia. This book examines the role of English as a medium of instruction in CFL classrooms. It begins by integrating existing studies on the global spread of English with research on English as a medium of secon
Howes, Carollee, Ed.; Downer, Jason T., Ed.; Pianta, Robert C., Ed.
The school readiness of young dual language learners depends on high-quality preschool programs that meet their needs--but how should schools promote and measure the progress of children learning two languages? Find out what the research says in this authoritative resource, which investigates the experiences of dual language learners in preschool…
Alvarez-Torres, Maria Jose
Discusses the use of synchronous computer-mediated communication (commonly known as "chatting") in the foreign language classroom. Examines both pedagogical and technological factors that can affect the language productivity of second-language learners who engage in chatting activities. (SR)
Whong, Melinda; Gil, Kook-Hee; Marsden, Heather
This article reviews studies in second language classroom research from a cross-theoretic perspective, arguing that the classroom holds the potential for bringing together researchers from opposing theoretical orientations. It shows how generative and general cognitive approaches share a view of language that implicates both implicit and explicit…
Lores González, Adriana
The complexities of the modern society and interconnected world in which we live requires students who are able to problem solve and think critically. The research on which is article is based aims to explore how classroom questioning can help students guide their learning and model the spirit of inquiry to become lifelong learners. The research took place in an International Bilingual School of Madrid during sixth grade English lessons. It shows how developing effective questioning skills re...
Downer, Jason T.; Lopez, Michael L.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Hamagami, Aki; Pianta, Robert C.; Howes, Carollee
Researchers investigated whether the Classroom Assessment Scoring System[TM] reliably characterized prekindergarten classrooms having varying ethnic and language compositions across the instrument's three domains (Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, and Instructional Support). They also examined whether the instrument predicted children's…
Rivera, Héctor; Waxman, Hersh C.; Powers, Robert
Resilience is an area of research that has important implications for the educational improvement of English Language Learners (ELLs) because it focuses on ELLs who are successful in school despite the presence of adverse conditions such as living in economically- and socially-disadvantaged circumstances. This study compared the classroom and…
Buck, Gayle; Mast, Colette; Ehlers, Nancy; Franklin, Elizabeth
A feminist action research team, which consisted of a science educator, an English-language learner (ELL) educator, a first-year science teacher, and a graduate assistant, set a goal to work together to explore the process a beginning teacher goes through to establish a classroom conducive to the needs of middle-level ELL learners. The guiding questions of the study were answered by gathering a wealth of data over the course of 5 months and taken from the classroom, planning sessions, and researchers and students. These data were collected by observations, semistructured interviews, and written document reviews. The progressive analysis ultimately revealed that: (a) successful strategies a beginning teacher must utilize for teaching middle-level ELL children in a mainstream classroom involve complex structural considerations that are not part of the teacher's preparation; (b) learning increases for all children, but there are differences in learning achievement between ELL and non-ELL children; and (c) student and peer feedback proved to be an effective means of enhancing the growth of a beginning teacher seeking to increase her skills in teaching ELL learners. The experiences and findings from this project have implications for teacher preparation programs committed to preparing educators to teach science to all children.
This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA) of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in two Norwegian elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed...
Developing Reflective and Investigative Skills in Teacher Preparation Programs: The design and implementation of the Classroom Research Component at the Foreign Language Program of Universidad del Valle
Rosalba, Cárdenas Ramos; Carmen Cecilia, Faustino.
Full Text Available En este articulo se describe el proceso y la experiencia de diseño, planificación e implementación del componente de investigación en el aula en los primeros cinco semestres de la Licenciatura en Lenguas Extranjeras de la Universidad del Valle. Queremos resaltar el papel de la investigación en el au [...] la en la formación inicial de nuestros estudiantes y en nuestro desarrollo profesional como docentes. Además queremos mostrar la importancia de preparar a los futuros profesores no solo en el desarrollo de competencia lingüística en las lenguas extranjeras sino también de competencias que les permitan reflexionar, analizar y encontrar maneras de mejorar su práctica profesional. La descripción de esta experiencia busca compartir nuestros logros, dificultades y planes de desarrollo futuro. Abstract in english In this article we want to describe our process and experience in studying, designing, planning and implementing the Classroom Research Component in the first five semesters of the Licenciatura program at the School of Language Science, Universidad del Valle. We want to stress the role of Classroom [...] Research in our students' initial training and in our own professional development. We also want to show the importance of preparing students and future teachers who possess not only linguistic competence in the foreign languages, but also competences that allow them to reflect, analyze and find ways of improving their professional practice. The description of this experience leads us to share our achievements, difficulties and plans for future development.
Cooter, Robert B., Jr.
Describes a four-step process by which teachers can select and present stories in the reading/language arts classroom. Discusses three storytelling-related strategies (Directed Listening-Thinking Activity, Storytelling Maps, and Folktale Updates) useful for developing reading/listening comprehension and vocabulary. Presents procedures for…
Justice, Laura M.; Mashburn, Andrew; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert
Policy-makers, administrators, researchers, and teachers are increasingly vested in ensuring the quality of preschool instruction, particularly in the areas of language and literacy. This research was conducted to characterize the quality of language and literacy instruction in 135 publicly-funded preschool classrooms serving at-risk pupils. As all teachers in these classrooms were implementing the same language and literacy curriculum, we also studied the interrelationships among procedural ...
Lai, Chun; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Jiawen
Task-based language teaching (TBLT) has been attracting the attention of researchers for more than 2 decades. Research on various aspects of TBLT has been accumulating, including the evaluation studies on the implementation of TBLT in classrooms. The evaluation studies on students' and teachers' reactions to TBLT in the online courses are starting…
Full Text Available This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in Norwegian two elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn & Dunn, 2007, at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that 1 early-start second-language (L2 programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, 2 a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only eight months, and 3 even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting.
Full Text Available This paper attempts to present a review of Facebook group pages as an educational tool for language learning. One of the primary needs of foreign language learners is to gain the opportunity to use the target language outside the classroom practice. Social media communication provides occasions for learners to receive input and produce output while engaging in negotiation of meaning. In line with this point, teachers can instigate class group pages in the social media in an attempt to provide a space for practice and communication free of the traditional pedagogic concerns of a typical classroom. The distinctive discursive behaviour of Facebook group pages helps one to achieve that attempt. In light of these views, the researcher, in this study, formed a group page to understand the dynamics of social media environment as a supporting tool for language classrooms. This paper addresses various features which make social media a unique place to contribute to the sense of class community and collaboration outside the classroom. The face-to face classroom is a controlled communication event, that is, teachers and students are required to be in the classroom at the same time but a teacher’s use of Facebook is an attempt to communicate with students outside of that controlled environment where teachers can meet students in their territory. When compared to its disadvantages, the advantages of setting a class group page on the social media outweigh. Students can feel motivated to contribute to an online community if they subsequently receive support or help. It also leads students to feel that they are being supported by a whole portion of their class community and promotes students’ desire to maintain a valued relationship with others. Students continue developing and strengthening relationships with others.
A considerable number of studies on focus-on-form instruction, corrective feedback and uptake have been carried out in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the last two decades. These studies have investigated the above-mentioned concepts from different perspectives, in a number of different contexts and in a number of…
Reports five studies that provide initial insight into the black box of classroom testing. The studies investigate various aspects of perceptions and practices of assessment in the language classroom. (Author/VWL)
Katri KARJALAINEN; Pörn, Michaela; Fredrik RUSK; Linda BJÖRKSKOG
The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the nat...
Light, Justine; Gnida, Sara
This article presents the development, rollout, and subsequent uptake of the Alberta Teachers of English as a Second Language (ATESL) document Best Practices for "Adult English as a Second Language (ESL)/Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) Programming" in the light of literature on teacher engagement with second-language…
Sara Jalali; Vahid Panahzade; Ali Firouzmand
Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is the realization of computers in schools and universities which has potentially enhanced the language learning experience inside the classrooms. The integration of the technologies into the classroom demands that the teachers adopt a number of classroom management procedures to maintain a more learner-centered and conducive language learning environment. The current study explored the relationship between computer attitudes and behavior and instruc...
This article builds on Norton and Toohey's (2001) critique of good language learner (GLL) research to illustrate how college students in an advanced Spanish conversation course drew on particular ideologies of language and foreign language learning to construct and negotiate their classroom identities. I argue that these ideologies were implicated…
Dahl, Anne; Vulchanova, Mila D
This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA) of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in two Norwegian elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn and Dunn, 2007a), at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that (1) early-start second-language (L2) programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, (2) a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only 8 months, and (3) even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting. PMID:24860518
Achu Charles Tante
Full Text Available Assessment has a huge impact on ESL primary pupils, in part, because on the curriculum English is both a subject and also a language of learning all the other subjects. For children still acquiring L1 it is daunting sometimes to be expected to understand concepts in L2. It may be difficult then to gather information to make an impartial judgement with regards to a pupil’s language level. This study is a preliminary inquiry that attempts to find out teachers’ approaches to classroom assessment in Cameroon primary schools. Using a qualitative open-ended question the researcher finds out three main categories of assessment approaches used by teachers. From the categories extrapolations on possible assumptions that guide teachers’ choices of assessment procedures are described and suggested for future study. Keywords Classroom assessment approach, Cameroon, scheme of work, ESL/EFL, Young Learners
Hill, Jane D.; Bjork, Cynthia Linnea
Everyone who participates in your workshop on "Classroom Instruction That Works with English Language Learners" needs this participant's workbook to gain expertise in strategies that are effective with ELL (English Language Learners) students.
Lai, Chun; Lin, Xiaolin
Recent literature that examines the implementation of task-based language teaching (TBLT) in classroom settings has reported various challenges related to educational cultures, classroom management, teacher cognition and learner perceptions. To facilitate the smooth transition of TBLT from laboratory settings to classroom contexts, measures need…
This article looks at one way for teachers to make classrooms emotionally, mentally, and physically healthy places to learn--places where tensions and stresses are lessened and where teachers and students are concentrating, yet relaxed. "Harmonious language learning classroom" is the term the author coined to describe this kind of language…
Chittra Muthusamy; Rasaya Marimuthu; Elangkeeran Sabapathy
Problem statement: The role of literature in enhancing readers cultural understanding in the language classroom was explored. It was a part of an extensive research which focused mainly on language learning and creativity. It is argued that the interface of language, literature and culture are at the forefront of present-day language and literature learning and this facilitates inter-racial, intra-racial and global understanding. Approach: As method, a quasi-experimental study was conducted o...
Thomas, Enlli Mon; Roberts, Dylan Bryn
This paper examines bilingual children's use of language inside and out of the minority language classroom. A total of 145 children between 8 and 11 years of age, attending 16 bilingual Welsh-English primary schools in North Wales, responded to questionnaires (supplemented by classroom observations) requesting information about their language…
This book offers a lively introduction to the research methods and techniques available to English language teachers who wish to investigate aspects of their own practice. It covers qualitative and quantitative methodology and includes sections on observation, introspection, diary studies, experiments, interviews, questionnaires, numerical techniques and case study research. Each method is illustrated with examples in language teaching contexts, and techniques of data collection and analysis are introduced. The authors focus particularly on research in the classroom, on tests, materials, the
Mora Pablo Irasema; Lengeling M. Martha; Rubio Zenil Buenaventura; Crawford Troy; Goodwin Douglas
The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and ...
Sun, Peijian; Yuan, Rui; Teng, Lin
This research explored the congruence and disparity between teachers' and students' attitudes towards French as a second language (L2) teaching strategies in a non-target language classroom context in the USA. The findings suggest students' and teachers' attitudes towards the direct and indirect teaching strategies were generally consistent, but…
Teaching poetry in second language (L2) classrooms raises theoretical and practical questions about how best to treat literature when target language and culture is also being negotiated. Current pedagogy derives from disparate sources, including the experientially-driven practices of individual teachers, the quantitative and qualitative research…
This paper attempts to present a review of Facebook group pages as an educational tool for language learning. One of the primary needs of foreign language learners is to gain the opportunity to use the target language outside the classroom practice. Social media communication provides occasions for learners to receive input and produce output…
Full Text Available Research on the teaching and learning process of the Malay language in the classroom usually focuses on the method, content, strategy and teaching aids. Moving away from this norm, this research article examines the process from the discourse analysis perspective called pedagogic discourse analysis, with an adaptation of Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis Framework (1992; 1995. The discussion is based on several hours of teaching-learning case study conducted in a secondary school classroom, which emphasizes integrated curriculum in an attempt to understand the unseen social processes, i.e. teacher dominance in discourse. The research findings indicate that teacher dominance is concealed in turn-taking system, types of questions posed by the teacher, discourse control and the overall structure of the discourse, which have their implications on the implementation of the National Education Philosophy. Contrary to the emphasis on student centredness and thinking skills as laid out by the Integrated Curriculum for Secondary School, it is found that the nature of the learning process in the classroom hardly focused on students’ thinking skills. This article argues that students should be given the opportunity to exercise their critical and creative potentials.
Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Gomez, Conrado Laborin
Science teachers need specific strategies to develop writing skills along with science content. Fortunately, research has demonstrated that science-teaching methodology can accomplish both the teaching of science content and various language skills, including writing. A technique suitable for and utilized by science teachers is the "mode…
This essay investigates the extent and significance of a gender decisive language in the foreign language classroom. Focus lies on teachers teaching English as a foreign language and their attitudes towards gender neutrality from a pure linguistic point of view. My starting point was previous research done concerning my topic and the survey was performed through questionnaires that were sent out with both qualitative and quantitative questions to thirty teachers. My findings indicate that t...
The assumption that foreign language learners experience a high level of anxiety mainly when faced with speaking activities implies that research should focus on those learners prone to anxiety over that skill. Despite not being widely investigated, foreign language writing anxiety also seems to be a concern for a large number of students. Drawing on questionnaire findings, the study reported in this article examined the nature of, and the connection between the English language classroom spe...
Dantas-Whitney, Maria, Ed.; Rilling, Sarah, Ed.
This volume in the TESOL Classroom Practice Series presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with children and adolescent language learners. These practices take into account the unique needs and characteristics of these age groups and reflect a wide range of educational contexts, goals, and challenges from classrooms in…
This book explores how using small groups in second language classrooms supports language learning. Chappell's experience as a language teacher equips him to present a clear, evidence-based argument for the powerful influence group work has upon the opportunities for learning, and how it should therefore be an integral part of language lessons.
Justice, Laura M.; Mashburn, Andrew; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert
Policy-makers, administrators, researchers, and teachers are increasingly vested in ensuring the quality of preschool instruction, particularly in the areas of language and literacy. This research was conducted to characterize the quality of language and literacy instruction in 135 publicly-funded preschool classrooms serving at-risk pupils. As all teachers in these classrooms were implementing the same language and literacy curriculum, we also studied the interrelationships among procedural fidelity to a prescribed curriculum and the quality of language and literacy instruction, determining whether procedural fidelity is associated or disassociated with quality instruction. Results showed that the quality of language and literacy instruction in classrooms was low, with few teachers delivering high quality instruction. Although teachers were able to implement a prescribed language and literacy curriculum with a high degree of procedural fidelity, this was not associated with quality instruction. Few structural characteristics of classrooms of teachers were systematically associated with quality of instruction. Findings have important implications for professional development of teachers by suggesting a need for a sustained and coherent focus on the process of instruction to elevate instructional quality in language and literacy. PMID:22773887
Olsen, Daniel J.
While speech analysis technology has become an integral part of phonetic research, and to some degree is used in language instruction at the most advanced levels, it appears to be mostly absent from the beginning levels of language instruction. In part, the lack of incorporation into the language classroom can be attributed to both the lack of…
This paper attempts to present a review of Facebook group pages as an educational tool for language learning. One of the primary needs of foreign language learners is to gain the opportunity to use the target language outside the classroom practice. Social media communication provides occasions for learners to receive input and produce output while engaging in negotiation of meaning. In line with this point, teachers can instigate class group pages in the social media in an attempt to provide...
Diamond, Joel S.
The goal of this qualitative study was to explore the nexus between second language acquisition, identity, and the beginning second language classroom. Using a social constructionist framework, the study utilizes ethnographic methodology incorporating both narrative and autoethnographic elements. Specifically the author acted as a participant…
Full Text Available Despite the fact that foreign language speaking anxiety is a common phenomenon in the teaching of English as a foreign language in Greece, teachers do not always identify anxious students, and often attribute their unwillingness to participate in speaking tasks to factors such as lack of motivation, or low performance. This article aims to contribute to the literature on language anxiety and to provide teachers with strategies for reducing foreign language speaking anxiety stemming from students’ fear of negative evaluation from their peers and perception of low ability. Using qualitative research, it presents a classroom-based case study which aims at examining the characteristics of anxious students with a view to implementing classroom interventions to reduce foreign language speaking anxiety. The effectiveness of these interventions is also presented and evaluated, and the pedagogical implications of the findings are discussed.
Semaan, Gaby; Yamazaki, Kasumi
This article examines the relationship between global competence and second language learning motivation in critical language classrooms. Data were collected from 137 participants who were studying critical languages (Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Persian) at two universities on the East and West Coasts of the United States, using a 30-item…
W. Jane Bancroft
Full Text Available Recently researchers and teachers have noticed that more and more students have trouble learning. The causes for poor student learning are many and varied. To remedy the situation, programmes have been implemented in many educational institutions to reduce stress and improve· concentration, and to accelerate learning. The author suggests accelerated learning techniques for the foreign language classroom. In die jongste tyd het navorsers en onderwysers opgemerk dat steeds meer studente probleme het met leer. Die oorsake hiervoor is menigvuldig en uiteenlopend van aard. In 'n poging om die situasie te verbeter, is daar met programme begin om spanning in die opvoedingsituasie te verminder, sowel as om konsentrasie te verbeter en die leerproses te versnel. Die skrywer bespreek enkele tegnieke vir versnelde leerprosesse in vreemdetaalonderrig.
Wen, Yun; Looi, Chee-Kit; Chen, Wenli
While the affordances of face-to-face and online environments have been studied somewhat extensively, there is relatively less research on how technology-mediated learning takes place across multiple media in the networked classroom environment where face-to-face and online interactions are intertwined, especially in the context of language…
Shenk, Elaine M.
The acquisition of sociolinguistic variation by second language learners has gained increased attention. Some research highlights the value of naturalistic exposure through study abroad while other studies point out that classroom input can facilitate the acquisition of particular features of variation. Nevertheless, said attention to the…
Stevenson, Alma D.
This qualitative sociolinguistic research study examines Latino/a students' use of language in a science classroom and laboratory. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States that serves an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a 5th-grade bilingual (Spanish/English) class.…
Full Text Available For a long time, whether learners' first language (L1 should be used in the foreign language classroom has been a controversial issue in the foreign language education field. The focus has been mostly on the use of L1 in the English language classroom (e.g.,Atkinson, 1987; Brooks-Lewis, 2009; Kieu, 2010; Krashen, 1981; Miles, 2004; Nazary, 2008; Prodromou, 2002; Schweers, 1999; Tang,2002. The debate centers on two diverse pedagogical approaches: the monolingual approach and the bilingual approach. The supporters of the monolingual approach contend that only the target language that learners are acquiring (i.e. English in most of the study should be allowed in the classroom, and Krashen (1981, 1985 was a pivotal supporter of this approach. However, other researchers and language teachers argue that the monolingual approach is not practical, particularly in lower-level classes (e.g., Atkinson, 1987; BrooksLewis, 2009; Schweers, 1999; Tang, 2002. They believe that using L1 in the classroom can be very effective when explaining difficult grammar points and linguistic elements that are language specific. The supporters of the bilingual approach do not deny the advantages of maximizing target language exposure and practice. However, they suggest that when learners' L1 is applied strategically, it can actually be a very important learning tool (e.g., Atkinson, 1987; Brooks-Lewis,2009; Schweers, 1999. Furthermore, both Schweers (1999 and Miles (2004 point out that the use of L1 provides students a more relaxed atmosphere and makes them less anxious and more confident in the classroom.
Full Text Available Teachers play different roles in multidimensional process of language teaching and their beliefs about language teaching might influence their practices. Donaghue (2003 stated that beliefs guide teachers in their practice. However, Argyris and Schon (1978 claimed that there is almost a discrepancy between teachers’ beliefs about language teaching and their practices in the classrooms. Therefore, the present study investigated the relationship between Iranian ELT instructors’ beliefs about language teaching and their real practices in classrooms. To achieve this goal, the researchers accidentally selected 369 Iranian ELT instructors and 512 Iranian students. To collect the required data, the researchers employed Teacher’s Beliefs Questionnaire (TBQ to elicit instructors’ beliefs about language teaching and Students’ Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ to elicit to what extent Iranian instructors applied their beliefs in their practices. Besides, to verify the results of questionnaires, the researchers interviewed nine instructors. The results revealed a positive significant relationship (p?0.05 between instructors’ beliefs about language teaching and their real practices in classrooms. The findings proposed some applicable implications that can be applied by policy makers and curriculum designers to provide facilities to support reflective teaching and to improve teacher education programs.
A considerable number of studies on formative teacher assessment and feedback, learner self- and peer-assessment have been carried out in the field of Language Testing and Assessment (LTA) research over the last two decades. These studies investigated the above mentioned concepts from different perspectives (impact of assessment on learning,…
Yakup Doganay; Madina Ashirimbetova; Brent Davis
The issue of introducing the target culture into language classroom practice has long been an object of debates as well as the opinions of the learners towards it. Eventually, modern practitioners found a way of having the language learners acquainted with the target culture and introducing culture through culture-based textbook activities. However, the issue of additional culturally-oriented activities in improving students learning habits is questionable today. The purpose of this paper is ...
Douglas Altamiro Consolo
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This paper reports on a process to validate a revised version of a system for coding classroom discourse in foreign language lessons, a context in which the dual role of language (as content and means of communication and the speakers' specific pedagogical aims lead to a certain degree of ambiguity in language analysis. The language used by teachers and students has been extensively studied, and a framework of concepts concerning classroom discourse well-established. Models for coding classroom language need, however, to be revised when they are applied to specific research contexts. The application and revision of an initial framework can lead to the development of earlier models, and to the re-definition of previously established categories of analysis that have to be validated. The procedures followed to validate a coding system are related here as guidelines for conducting research under similar circumstances. The advantages of using instruments that incorporate two types of data, that is, quantitative measures and qualitative information from raters' metadiscourse, are discussed, and it is suggested that such procedure can contribute to the process of validation itself, towards attaining reliability of research results, as well as indicate some constraints of the adopted research methodology.
The present study explores how classroom participants invoke a monolingual target-language policy in an English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom, specifically focusing on one method of doing language policy through self-initiated language policing sequences, which I have called self-policing. Language policing refers to the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or the pupils to (re-)establish the normatively prescribed medium of classroom interaction (Amir & Musk, 2013; cf. Bonacina & Ga...
This dissertation consists of two manuscripts to examine student motivation and engagement in the foreign language classroom. The purpose of the first paper is to propose a model that distinguishes between motivation and engagement. The paper highlights the connections and differences between motivation and engagement in order to point out issues…
Japanese language learners' proclivity for silence has been alluded to by various writers (e.g. Anderson 1993; Korst 1997; Greer 2000) and is supported by plenty of anecdotal evidence, but large-scale, empirical studies aimed at measuring the extent of macro-level silence within Japanese university L2 classrooms are notably lacking. This article…
In this paper, I examine the teaching of language and culture and in particular the use of songs as curriculum in two London Turkish complementary schools. Drawing on a series of interconnected classroom vignettes, I look at how children weave together their semiotic resources to negotiate and transform two songs and the talk and action around…
Lenski, Susan Davis; Ehlers-Zavala, Fabiola; Daniel, Mayra C.; Sun-Irminger, Xiaoqin
Increasingly, mainstream U.S. classrooms include children who are English-language learners (ELLs). As a result, teachers need to become more aware of ways to assess the literacy progress of their ELL students. The first type of assessment that teachers need to make is to determine ELLs' literacy backgrounds. Teachers can use predictability logs…
Núbio Delanne Ferraz, Mafra; Carla Viana, Coscarelli.
Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se uma análise de aspectos de linguagem e novas tecnologias de informação e comunicação (NTIC) nas teses e dissertações de caráter interventivo em sala de aula de Língua Portuguesa, produzidas entre 2000 e 2010 nos programas de pós-graduação nacionais de Letras e Linguística. Para este a [...] rtigo, foram abordadas as concepções de linguagem e de aprendizagem, os blogs de turma e o destaque dado a eles nos estudos, além do perfil e lugar dessas pesquisas de intervenção no âmbito da Linguística Aplicada. Ao final, com base nesses aspectos, procurou-se apresentar não só um balanço da produção no referido período, como também sinalizar desafios para as futuras ações e pesquisas em Linguística Aplicada nesse campo. Abstract in english We developed an analysis of linguistic aspects and of how information and communication technology (ICT) was treated in theses and dissertations that deal with interventional research in Portuguese language classes, produced between 2000 and 2012 in national post-graduation programs of Language and [...] Linguistics. We discuss here conceptions of language and learning adopted by the researches, the emphasis they give to class blogs and the features and place of these interventional researches in the scope of Applied Linguistics. Finally, based on these aspects, we tried to present not only a balance of the production in that period, but signaling as well challenges for future actions and research in Applied Linguistics in this field.
Friedman, Debra A.
This study uses a language socialization approach to explore the role of Ukrainian language instruction in the revitalization of Ukrainian as the national language. Based on 10 months ethnographic observation and videotaping of classroom interaction in two fifth-grade Ukrainian language and literature classrooms, it focuses on corrective feedback…
Although many studies have been conducted on second language acquisition and bilingual education, little is known about the role of language in the formation of identity by adolescent immigrants in the language classroom. More specifically, this study aims to investigate the use of code-switching by immigrant and refugee students learning Swedish and English in a high school preparatory program. Furthermore, this study investigates the relationship between students’ and teachers’ attitudes to...
Chua, Siew Lian; Wong, Angela F. L.; Chen, Der-Thanq V.
This article reports findings from a classroom environment study which was designed to investigate the nature of Chinese Language classroom environments in Singapore secondary schools. We used a perceptual instrument, the Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory, to investigate teachers' and students' perceptions towards their Chinese…
Prelingually deafened children are nowadays likely to receive a cochlear implant (ci). As these children do their language acquisition with a cochlear implant they require a constant rehabilitation and support. Educational staff is instructed on how to work with children with ci in form of guidelines and workshops. This paper discusses language practices used in the setting of a school for cochlear-implanted children. These children encounter language and pronunciation problems that accompany prelingual deafness and hearing with a cochlear implant. I examine two practices, which are used during the storytelling activity: repeat requests and questions. Whereas repeat requests are used in ci-therapy, questions have been shown to be instrumentalized for educational purposes in the setting of a school. I will reveal the educational/rehabilitational issues that are linked to these practices.
This paper examines the tensions created in a Greek Cypriot primary classroom between the legitimate variety of the school, Standard Modern Greek, and the home variety of the students, the Greek Cypriot Dialect. Ethnographic data are presented to indicate that language use in the classroom, contrary to what language policy-makers argue, is…
Stories and storytelling have been used for millennia to entertain, challenge and educate. As a shared form of language interaction, storytelling has engaged communities in developing and perpetuating common understandings of both language and culture, as critical foundations to harmonious societies. Stories and storytelling provide a rich source…
Nicholson, Simon James
Motivation is one of the main determining factors of success in developing a second or foreign language. However, motivation is a complex phenomenon and the more its constructs are understood the better we are able to understand the extent to which we can influence it. Teachers can cultivate student motivation to varying degrees and play a central…
Full Text Available El artículo presenta algunas reflexiones teóricas y de aplicación pedagógica sobre el concepto de cultura y su trascendental importancia en las clases de lengua extranjera como base para examinar la idea de currículo como indagación, una herramienta facilitadora para incorporar cultura en cursos del [...] Bachillerato en Enseñanza del Inglés de la Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica (UNA). El artículo también analiza posibles soluciones a problemas comunes que los profesores enfrentan al tratar de incorporar cultura en sus clases. Abstract in english This article presents some theoretical reflections about the concept of culture and its paramount importance in foreign language classrooms, as a basis for examining curriculum as inquiry, a facilitative tool to incorporate culture in courses in the Bachelor's degree in the Teaching of English as a [...] Foreign Language at the National University of Costa Rica (UNA). Feasible solutions to common problems that teachers face when trying to incorporate culture in their classrooms, are also discussed.
Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.
The Language Teacher Research Series aims to connect research and practice by highlighting the insights that teachers themselves describe after examining their own practices. This first volume of the five-volume series presents research conducted by language teachers at all levels, from high school English teachers to English language teacher…
Gantt, Barbara N.; Rivera-Mills, Susana V.
Proposes a translation framework to be used in the Spanish foreign-language classroom as a supplementary teaching technique. The use of translation techniques in the classroom can bridge the gap between language and culture by helping students develop metalinguistic skills that bring them to a higher level of awareness about the target language…
Karjalainen, Katri; Pörn, Michaela; Rusk, Fredrik; Björkskog, Linda
The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues…
Lochland, Paul W.
This article questions the appropriateness of communicative language teaching (CLT) in classrooms teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) to Japanese students. The four main criticisms of CLT are the ambiguity of its description, the benefits of CLT for language learning, the amalgamation of CLT methods with local classroom practices, and the…
Post-Primary Schools in Ireland are inclusive with a mix of students with diverse abilities in the classroom, including students with learning and literacy difficulties, such as dyslexia. This poses a strong challenge: how to create inclusive curricula and materials that cater to the needs of diverse students? The objective of this research is to investigate whether integrating Computer Assisted (Language) Learning (CA(L)L) into the curriculum can produce inclusive curricula that cater to ...
Mora Pablo Irasema
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The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and learning process. A small number of students do not like the use of the first language in the classroom and prefer that their teachers use the target language only.
La presente investigación explora el uso de la lengua materna en un contexto de enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Esta investigación cualitativa presenta la práctica docente y los puntos de vista de maestros y alumnos de francés e inglés en el contexto de una universidad pública del centro de México, mediante el uso de las técnicas del cuestionario y la entrevista semiestructurada. Los resultados muestran que tanto los maestros como la mayoría de los alumnos perciben el uso de la lengua materna como algo positivo en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Un número reducido de estudiantes rechaza el uso de la lengua materna y prefiere que su clase de lengua extranjera sea dirigida exclusivamente en la lengua meta. Palabras clave: investigación cualitativa, puntos de vista de alumnos y maestros, uso de la lengua materna.
Mason, David G.
This article promotes the utilization of Sign Language of the Deaf as a primary and secondary research language. The article discusses English as the traditional research language, the role of sign language in bilingualism, possible uses for American Sign Language (ASL) as a research language, and the availability of ASL-based literature for…
Majlesi, Ali Reza
This doctoral dissertation is an empirical qualitative research study on the emergence of learnables in classrooms of Swedish as a second language. It adopts a dialogical and praxeological approach, and analysis is based on video recorded teacher-student interactivities in classrooms. Learnables are taken to be linguistic items or constructs that are displayed as unknown by students, or problematized by students or teachers, and therefore oriented to as explainable, remediable, or improvable....
Escobar Urmeneta, Cristina; Sánchez Sola, Antonio
This paper presents the results of a pre-experimental study into language learning in inclusive Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) classrooms at secondary school, in which Science content was taught in English. The pedagogical experience lasted four weeks. The main pedagogical approach followed was the use of learning tasks carried out by students working in dyads. Through the use different indicators extensively employed in the field, the study attempts to meas...
Full Text Available English language teaching curriculum developers now turn to the heavy use of technology in classrooms. Computer technology, specifically, has brought about many changes in the strategies of language leaning. One of the new computer programs which has recently attracted the attention of language teachers is called Moodle. It is an open-source Course Management System (CMS which delivers online courses as well as supplement traditional face-to-face language courses. Since there is little information about the feasibility of such a program, this study is an effort to examine it through its adaptability to Language Learning Strategies (LLSs. The data is gathered from 60 Moodle-based EAP users as a purposeful sample of the EAP population through a questionnaire. The participants were also observed and interviewed (6 participants. It was found out that there were no relationships between LLSs and language achievement at Moodle-based distance language learning contexts. The findings imply that learning language through Moodle-based teaching materials impede the process of being autonomous language learners, which is a prerequisite for language learning at distance contexts.Keywords: distance learning, language learning strategies, learner autonomy, Computer-Assisted Language Learning, English for Academic Purposes (EAP
In this article, I examine some of the ideas about task-based language teaching (TBLT) which have emerged over the 17 years of the current editorship of ELTJ, focusing in particular on grammar and vocabulary, and enquiring to what degree these ideas take adequate account of classroom context. Over this period, TBLT scholars have built up a…
Behavioral research presents an analysis of the classroom in which sources of academic success or failure are sought in contingencies of reinforcement functioning in the child's learning environment. Motivation is analyzed in behavioral terms, and behavior principles are proposed as a powerful tool for teachers for the amelioration of behavior…
Jeanpierre, Bobby Jo
This research study reports the results of school-based staff development models used at three urban elementary schools that had liaison teachers assisting classroom teachers in implementing instructional strategies in science teaching from "Language of Poverty," a curriculum framework designed to address the academic needs of disadvantaged students. The case study of two urban elementary schools and six classroom teachers, and survey and interview data results of a third school, uncovered insights into several areas of science teaching in urban settings. One conclusion is that in spite of substantial allocation of resources and assistance, teachers did not translate instructional strategies from "Language of Poverty" curriculum into their classroom practices in a way that would foster urban disadvantaged students' understanding of "big science concepts." A second conclusion is that the school-based staff development models were limited in their ability to address the diverse professional needs of all of its staff. Third, as it relates to students, discipline issues occurred in these urban classrooms across ethnicity and gender. And in addition to teachers being knowledgeable of relevant social and cultural group norms' application of this knowledge in an appropriate and consistent manner is needed to effectively address discipline concerns.
Full Text Available Problem statement: The role of literature in enhancing readers cultural understanding in the language classroom was explored. It was a part of an extensive research which focused mainly on language learning and creativity. It is argued that the interface of language, literature and culture are at the forefront of present-day language and literature learning and this facilitates inter-racial, intra-racial and global understanding. Approach: As method, a quasi-experimental study was conducted on two intact groups; the control (n = 30 and experimental (n = 30 groups. Both groups underwent an eight week experiment whereby one short story, The Burden of Sin by S. Karthigesu was taught to both groups. The control group was taught using the routine and traditional reading and comprehension teaching approach while the experimental group was taught using the reader response approach adapting Ibsens the I Model text exploration and literary devices. Results: Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted on the data collected using two non-parametric tests: The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test to determine the significant difference between the experimental groups pretest and posttest scores and the Mann-Whitney U test to determine the significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control groups. Conclusion: The results proved to be substantially significant. The findings revealed that cultural understanding can be taught through literature in a language classroom and it is a valuable instructional medium in the learning of culture.
An international school (BES) in Greece, overwhelmingly attended by Greek origin children, has adopted, as its language policy, English as the ‘official’ medium of interaction, including in the Reception classroom, the target of this research. That is, through its language policy, the school aims to promote the learning and use of English throughout school. At the same time, the school has adopted ‘free interaction’ in designated play areas as its pedagogical approach. The aim ...
Motivated by predictions of the theory of Input Processing, this study adds to previous research on second language (L2) Spanish pronunciation learning by investigating the impact of two distinct types of pronunciation assignments on first language (L1) English L2 Spanish students' improvement in pronunciation of the vowels /e, o/. Two sections of…
This article seeks to explore how a sociocultural approach to learning can change pedagogy in the teaching of second language literacy. As a first step, the changing notions of first language literacy are acknowledged. Vygotsky's notion of everyday and schooled concepts is then used to understand research data gathered in a Year 9 Japanese…
This article draws on qualitative interview data from a case study of an English teacher in Turkey. It explores the implementation of learner autonomy in English as a foreign language classroom and identifies the challenges, such as students' negative attitudes towards classroom practices, dissatisfaction with the language learning activities and…
The role of power in an English-as-a-second-language classroom has yet to be fully explored by an action research practitioner, especially in a Malaysian higher education setting. This study aims to contribute to this gap by working within an academic literacies perspective to teaching academic writing, which propagates the understanding of…
Gest, Scott D.; Holland-Coviello, Rebecca; Welsh, Janet A.; Eicher-Catt, Deborah L.; Gill, Sukhdeep
Research findings: Language development subcontexts within 20 Head Start classrooms were studied by observing teachers' child-directed talk during free play, mealtime, and book reading. In each context, observers coded all child-directed statements, directives, and questions, noted instances of pretend talk and decontextualized talk, and rated the…
Soler, Eva Alcon
A lot of research addressing learners' development of pragmatics has recently been conducted (Kasper and Schmidt 1996; Bardovi-Harlig, 2002; Kasper and Rose 2002). From this same approach, a review of theoretical perspectives on pragmatic learning and how they have been operationalised in interlanguage pragmatic research is presented. Second, by…
Morata, Marisa; Coyle, Yvette
The present study examines the language used by a Spanish secondary school teacher of English. Taking as a basic premise that exposure to the foreign language is conducive to language learning, transcripts of classroom discourse were analysed to identify the pedagogical functions present in the teacher’s speech and the language used to express them. The results show an overwhelming reliance by the teacher on the students’ first language for all of the most frequently occurring functions. Inst...
Seyed Ali Rezvani Kalajahi
Full Text Available This study attempts to examine Iranian English language teachers’ perception towards the use of discourse markers (DMs in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL classroom. It is the contention of this study that past research studies have not paid sufficient attention to how teachers perceive the use of discourse markers in the English language classroom. This research extends on Fung’s (2011 study and further includes the listening and speaking skills together with the role of DMs in teaching the reading and writing skills. Three research questions are posed in this study. They are 1 What is the perception of Iranian English teachers toward the use of discourse markers? 2 How do Iranian English teachers perceive DMs? 3 Do Iranian English teachers exhibit high, moderate, or low attitudes toward the use of discourse markers? The descriptive method to the data analysis in this study provides better understanding of teacher’s perception towards the use of DMs. Forty five Iranian English teachers participated in the study via a questionnaire survey. Results from the analysis of data showed that Iranian English teachers seem to have a moderate attitude toward DMs. Findings also suggest that teachers tend to believe in the pragmatic and practical value of DMs.
Higareda Sandra; López Georgina; Mugford Gerrard
Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students’ first language (l1) in English Language Teaching (elt ), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of l1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations o...
This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed how one teacher and I, the researcher, collaboratively reflected on classroom language practices during the video analysis meetings and focus groups. Further, I analyzed twelve videos that we coded together to see the changes in the teacher's language practices over time. My unit of analysis was the discourse practice mediated by additive language ideologies. Throughout the collaborative action research process, we both critically reflected on the classroom language use. We also developed a critical consciousness about the participatory shifts and learning of focal English Learner (EL) students. Finally, the teacher made changes to her classroom language practices. The results of this study will contribute to the literacy education research field for theoretical, methodological, and practical insights. The integration of language ideologies, CHAT, and action research can help educational practitioners, researchers, and policy makers understand the importance of transforming teachers' language ideologies in designing additive learning contexts for ELs. From a methodological perspective, the transformative language ideologies through researcher and teacher collaborated video analysis process provide a unique contribution to the language ideologies in education literature, with analytic triangulation. As a practical implication, this study suggests action research can be one of the teacher education tools to help the teachers transform language ideologies for EL education.
Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.
Following on from my state-of-the-art article on "Language Awareness and language learning" (Svalberg 2007), in this paper I will discuss specific research tasks which are centrally concerned with different aspects of language awareness (LA): "explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning,…
Andréa Machado de Almeida Mattos
Full Text Available Many researchers, nowadays, have been enthusiastic in promoting the advantages of introducing technology in the language classroom, but few have been worried with the problems and anxieties that result from changes in a long-lasting culture such as the culture of language learning. This paper aims at discussing the problems faced by teachers who have been working with technology in their language classrooms. The research design was based on theoretical and empirical studies both in the areas of Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teacher Development. The main objective of this paper is, thus, to achieve a global understanding of the teachers' anxieties in relation to the virtual environment of language learning. Data was gathered through interviews with the teachers, leading to a qualitative analysis of the findings.Atualmente, muitos pesquisadores têm promovido entusiasticamente as vantagens de se introduzir tecnologia na sala de aula de língua estrangeira (LE, mas poucos têm-se preocupado com os problemas e as ansiedades que resultam de mudanças numa cultura tão antiga quanto a da sala de aula de LE. Este trabalho visa a discutir os problemas enfrentados por professores que trabalham com tecnologia em suas salas de aula de língua. A pesquisa foi baseada em estudos teóricos e empíricos tanto na área de ensino mediado por computador quanto no campo de desenvolvimento de professores. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é, assim, obter um entendimento global das ansiedades do professor em relação ao ambiente virtual de aprendizagem de língua. Os dados foram coletados mediante entrevistas com os professores informantes, levando a uma análise qualitativa dos resultados.
Andréa Machado de Almeida, Mattos.
Full Text Available Atualmente, muitos pesquisadores têm promovido entusiasticamente as vantagens de se introduzir tecnologia na sala de aula de língua estrangeira (LE), mas poucos têm-se preocupado com os problemas e as ansiedades que resultam de mudanças numa cultura tão antiga quanto a da sala de aula de LE. Este tr [...] abalho visa a discutir os problemas enfrentados por professores que trabalham com tecnologia em suas salas de aula de língua. A pesquisa foi baseada em estudos teóricos e empíricos tanto na área de ensino mediado por computador quanto no campo de desenvolvimento de professores. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é, assim, obter um entendimento global das ansiedades do professor em relação ao ambiente virtual de aprendizagem de língua. Os dados foram coletados mediante entrevistas com os professores informantes, levando a uma análise qualitativa dos resultados. Abstract in english Many researchers, nowadays, have been enthusiastic in promoting the advantages of introducing technology in the language classroom, but few have been worried with the problems and anxieties that result from changes in a long-lasting culture such as the culture of language learning. This paper aims a [...] t discussing the problems faced by teachers who have been working with technology in their language classrooms. The research design was based on theoretical and empirical studies both in the areas of Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teacher Development. The main objective of this paper is, thus, to achieve a global understanding of the teachers' anxieties in relation to the virtual environment of language learning. Data was gathered through interviews with the teachers, leading to a qualitative analysis of the findings.
Postholm, May Britt
The article reviews studies that focus on classroom management. The aim of classroom management is twofold. The first is to establish a quiet and calm environment in the classroom so that the pupils can take part in meaningful learning in a subject. The second aim is that classroom management contributes to the pupils' social and moral…
Bambang Yudi Cahyono
This article reports a nine-month study of literacy development of Aida, a young English language learner from Indonesia, who was mainstreamed in a Grade 2 classroom in a primary school in the south-eastern part of Australia. This article initially reviews the literature concerning features of the mainstream classroom conducive for second language learning and for literacy development. Following the presentation of methodological issues, it examines English learning activities in Aida's class...
This paper tries to probe the influence of the organizational culture on language classroom at a newly-established local college. It firstly reviews the knowledge of the organizational culture and finds out its features, and then discusses how the organizational culture was greatly influenced by the host educational environment. On the basis of this, the paper interprets how organizational culture in turn influences the classroom culture in terms of English language teaching and learning in C...
Slater, Sarah C.; Baum, Herbert M.
Discusses several designs used in research, specifically in language treatment research. Randomized clinical trials are highlighted because of their designation as the gold standard for determining treatment efficacy in the medical community. A brief discussion of the Communication Sciences and Disorders Clinical Trials Research Group is…
This research study investigated how the teachers and students at a Persian heritage language class acknowledged and modified their affective behavior based on the affective feedback they received from one another. The notion that interactants can modify their affective output in such fashion is referred in the literature as affective alignment…
Gosse, Carolyn S.; McGinty, Anita S.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Hoffman, LaVae M.; Pianta, Robert C.
The present study examined the extent to which preschool classroom supports--relational support (RS) and instructional support (IS)--are associated with children's language development and whether these associations vary as a function of children's language ability. The language skills of 360 children within 95 classrooms were assessed…
Pinnow, Rachel J.
This paper addresses the role of multimodal fluency in establishing agency in the second language classroom. The focus of the paper is on the semiotic resourcefulness of an English Language Learner in an English as a Second Language classroom in the United States. Framed from a social semiotic perspective, fine grained multimodal analysis of…
This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that in-volved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxie-ty only yielded a positive correlation with performan...
Bambang Yudi Cahyono
Full Text Available This article reports a nine-month study of literacy development of Aida, a young English language learner from Indonesia, who was mainstreamed in a Grade 2 classroom in a primary school in the south-eastern part of Australia. This article initially reviews the literature concerning features of the mainstream classroom conducive for second language learning and for literacy development. Following the presentation of methodological issues, it examines English learning activities in Aida's classroom and highlights her literacy development with examples of her work. The results from this study show that Aida developed literacy skills considered important for her second language and learning development. The variety of English learning activities and the encouraging environment in her classroom contributed much to her literacy development.
Kowalski, Susan Marie
Women and minorities do not enter science professions at rates consistent with their populations (Rosser, 2000). A variety of theoretical frameworks and associated interventions have been cited in the literature; yet, the gender and racial gaps remain. Theoretical frameworks and the associated interventions to promote the success of women and minorities in the sciences have primarily been one dimensional: they address issues of Self (associated with experiential and psychoanalytical framings) or Language (categorical and deconstructive framings) (Grumet & Stone, 2000). Furthermore, research in science education with few exceptions (Hanson, 2004), has failed to address race and gender through an intersectional analysis. This study investigates the inclusion and exclusion of girls and minorities in the sciences by examining the connections between Self and Language in physics group work conversations. Critical Discourse Analysis was used to explore the connections between Self and Language. Eight students in two groups were the focus of the study. Transcription of conversations and coding of transcripts with students' subject positions, genres, and registers provided evidence of the reflexivity of Self and Language. Furthermore, the study demonstrated how group discourse and power imbalances within groups serve to simultaneously facilitate and constrain learning opportunities and learning itself.
Ideal as a supplementary text for a variety of courses and as a guide for in-service teachers and for professional development settings, "Teaching English Language Learners: 43 Strategies for Successful K-8 Classrooms" provides teachers of all content areas with a broad, practical approach to teaching English language learners in the regular…
Guided by positioning theory and poststructural views of second language learning, the two descriptive case studies presented in this article explored the links between social positioning and the language learning experiences of two talkative students in an academic ESL classroom. Focusing on the macro- and micro-level contexts of communication,…
With the implementation of the natural approach, the dinosaur study and facilitated block play gave dual language learners many opportunities to acquire a new language, develop social skills, and improve communication abilities. Once teachers identified the barriers to children playing and talking together, they created a classroom environment…
Whyte, Shona; Alexander, Julie
Classroom foreign language teachers using technology in task-based language teaching (TBLT) may experience pedagogical regression during technological development (Fullan, 2001), and fail to transform pedagogy because tools like interactive whiteboards (IWBs) support traditional as well as newer approaches (Avvisati et al., 2013). IWB-supported…
This workbook and videotape kit invites teachers to explore the fundamental concepts of language and culture in universal terms and in relation to their teaching of languages and cultures in their classrooms. Comparing and contrasting cultural phenomena and their associated linguistic meanings across cultures offers teachers the opportunity to…
Salinas-Gonzalez, Irasema; Arreguin-Anderson, Maria G.; Alanís, Iliana
This article focuses on biliteracy development of English and Spanish through the practical strategy of systematically labeling the classroom within the context of daily classroom activities and providing children with various opportunities to use the words throughout the day. Using the foundational work related to classroom labels from Pinnell…
Playa, E.; Travé, A.
A new method in the course "Carbonate rocks diagenesis" has been tested. This is an optional course in the year 4 of a four year degree in Geology (University of Barcelona, Spain). The number of students in the course is generally reduced (less than ten), and duration of the course is 3 one-hour lecture and 1 three-hour practical per week during 5 weeks. This course has been selected to test a new learning method because is given in the last year of the undergraduate degree and also because the number of students is low, thus achieving a great degree of motivation of the students and favouring the communication in the classroom. The new model implies a general change in the development of the course: students will be trained in scientific research, working in group and using available analytical techniques. Nevertheless, this method does not invalidate the pre-existing educational resources; both new and classic teaching materials coexist in the course. Traditionally, the course was divided in lectures and practical work. The practical work is done on rock specimens and on thin sections using the petrological microscope, which is essentially invariable every course, and which is related with the theoretical concepts explained in the corresponding lecture. The students describe and interpret the material in a "passive" way, only with minor student-teacher feed-back when specific questions are asked by the student. The real learning in Sciences is not learning of isolate subjects, but to understand the relationships between all these subjects. Therefore, the student must learn science and how to do science. In the new tested method, the students carry out by themselves a scientific research project from a basic material provided by the teacher. This research work, which is done along the 5 weeks course, consists on a single project developed from all the students as a single group, thus observing the evolution in the student's knowledge and opening a continuous feed-back in the student-student and student-teacher relationships. This proposal implies that the lectures and practicals of the course must be reorganized and adapted. The research work is presented during the first day of the course, including a general presentation of the geological setting and the main problem to solve. The research work is developed during the entire course in the classroom, and concluded at the end of the course. In the first part of the research (2-3 weeks), the students will describe a set of samples (hand rocks and thin sections) in order to define the petrographic characteristic (mainly focused in diagenetic processes affecting carbonate rocks and the stages of cementation and its relationships with the fracturation events). The samples are distributed among the students and the description of the samples is individual; students must reach and agreement about the common petrographic features of the rocks and establish a global diagenetic sequence for the studied material. The second part of the research consists on the application of advanced instrumentation and analytical techniques, available in the University of Barcelona, such as cathodoluminescence microscope, microprobe and carbona and oxygen isotope analyses. The obtained results must be processed and comparison with published data by means of bibliographic research should be done by the students out of the classroom. The last part of the research project includes a complete and collective analysis of the results, elaboration of an individual final report (which should take into account the conclusions arrived by the entire group) and an oral presentation of the main results in the classroom. During the development of the work, the teacher acts as a tutor and mediator in the discussions, not only as a transmissor of knowledge. The new proposal differs from the classical undergraduate research projects developed in other courses, which are carried out outside the classroom, and therefore, without the continuous support of the teacher. The degree of satisfaction o
Engku Haliza Engku Ibrahim; Mohamed Ismail Ahamad Shah; Najwa Tgk. Armia
Code-switching has always been an intriguing phenomenon to sociolinguists. While the general attitude to it seems negative, people seem to code-switch quite frequently. Teachers of English as a foreign language too frequently claim that they do not like to code-switch in the language classroom for various reasons – many are of the opinion that only the target language should be used in the classroom. This study looks at the teachers’ attitudes towards code-switching in teaching English as a f...
Hauer, Elin Lævnæseth
The main aim of this paper is to communicate to those concerned with language teaching and to share some ideas on different reading approaches, especially with focus on extensive reading and the use of graded readers in the second language classroom. Furthermore I will make suggestions of how an extensive reading program might benefit language learning in general.Different approaches to reading and vocabulary learning will be presented and evaluated throughout this paper in an attempt to “pro...
Non-native or indigenous English teachers have provided the largest teaching and professional support in Asian countries where English is taught and learnt in school as an additional or international language. As the language environment outside classroom in these countries is generally poor, teachers become a major source of language input for learners. This article explores the Lexical Variation (LV) ratio of non-native teacher talk and the percentage of words teachers used at different voc...
Gey, Fredric C.; Kando, Noriko; Peters, Carol
Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) has been a research sub-field for more than a decade now. The field has sparked three major evaluation efforts: the TREC Cross Language Track which currently focuses on the Arabic language, the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF) - a spinoff from TREC - covering many European languages, and the NTCIR Asian Language Evaluation (covering Chinese, Japanese and Korean). During this one-day workshop we reviewed and assessed the progress that has been ...
Full Text Available The paper deals with classroom communication. More specifically, it focuses on issues connected with the usage of English as the target language and Czech as the mother tongue in lessons of English as a foreign language in primary and lowersecondary schools in the Czech Republic. 89 English lessons were analysed and the proportion between English and Czech used in the sample lessons was established in order to show how the two languages are mixed in the lessons. The analysis of the number of words uttered in the lessons showed that teachers used Czech more than English but students said more English words than Czech words. When operationalized in terms of time, the use of language was equally balanced between the target language and the mother tongue. Another perspective described in the paper is one of opportunities that the teacher creates for the students to practice different language skills. Great differences in using the mother tongue and the target language were found between individual teachers, which is in line with the findings of a number of similar research studies. Towards the end of the paper, five typical situations of mixing languages are briefly presented.
Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation…
Clegg, John; Afitska, Oksana
In sub-Saharan Africa, education conducted through a European language is associated with low school achievement. Both teachers and learners may often not be fluent enough to use the language as a medium of instruction. In these circumstances, both also make use of a common African language. They switch between two languages in the plenary…
Full Text Available The onset of the present paper throws light on materials selection and traditional outlook. Then the paper discusses four types of materials, more specifically, instructional, experiential, exploratory and elicitative materials and their use in language classroom. It discusses the role relationship between teachers, learners and materials in the present scenario at Aligarh Muslim University, keeping in consideration the requirements of the changing times. The paper aims to highlight the positive effects of learner’s involvement in Materials Selection process. The researcher has tried to analyze the findings on the basis of a questionnaire distributed among teachers and students at Undergraduate level. Some suggestions are recommended, on the basis of the findings from the data collected.
Taking into account severa1 limitations of communicative language teaching (CLT), this paper calls for the need to consider research on language use and learning through communication as a basis for language teaching. It will be argued that a reflective approach towards language teaching and learning might be generated, which is explained in terms of the need to develop a context-sensitive pedagogy and in terms of teachers' and learners' development.
Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation where the real world becomes a part of the educational experience and necessitates the use of an authentic language by the learners. This article descr...
Classroom second language instruction can be characterized as one of the following: focus-on-formS, focus-on-meaning, or focus-on-form. The book titled "Focus on Form in Classroom Second Language Acquisition" (Doughty & Williams, 1998) argues for the desirability of focus-on-form over focus-on-formS and focus-on-meaning, discussing the efficacy…
Creating Equitable Classrooms through Action Research is compelling reading for a wide-ranging audience including professional development participants, preservice and inservice teachers, students of educational administration, and teacher educators.
Hermann-Wilmarth, Jill; Ryan, Caitlin L.
Two literacy leaders acknowledge the challenges of teaching LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) issues in the classroom. While children come from a variety of family structures, it is necessary to acknowledge that a gay individual was once a child sitting in a classroom. An argument against marginalization and an advocacy for inclusion of…
Full Text Available This article applies attribution theory to identify the factors that influence nursing students’ perceptions of success and failure in learning English writing skills. The study took place in a language classroom in southern Taiwan involving fifty-one female nursing students, a writing teacher, and the researcher. Teaching activities included five writing cycles based on an online writing platform, process approach, and multiple revisions. Evidence data has been collected from learners’ questionnaires and interviews, teacher’s interviews, classroom observations, teaching materials, and researcher’s diaries. The data has been analysed quantitatively using SPSS and qualitatively with the aid of QSR NVivo software. Results reveal the major factors given by learners involve the amount writing practice given and their perceptions of their competence in vocabulary and with grammar. The work is supported by observations made by the language teacher and the researcher on issues which have emerged on the students’ writing skills, psychology, language competence, and learning context. This article concludeswith the implications for teaching.
Full Text Available This paper attempts to present differences between language and linguistic. Language and linguistic are two different words but there is relationship between them. ‘Language’ is a sign system of humankind in order to communicate one’s thoughts, Feelings, and opinions to someone else but linguistic is scientific study of language. In fact the goal of linguistic is to describe languages and to explain the unaware knowledge all speakers have about their language. Therefore, linguistics is a subject of study that is built on languages. Noam Chomsky (1957 argues that “Language is a set (finite or infinite of sentences, each finite in length, and constructed out of a finite set of elements” (p.13. According to Aronoff (2007 it is impossible to separate language from literature, or politics, or most of our everyday human interactions. "[Linguistics] has a twofold aim: to uncover general principles underlying human language, and to provide reliable descriptions of individual languages" (Aitchison, 1992. Also linguists, study individual human languages and linguistic behavior in order to discover the fundamental properties of this general human language.
van der Veen, Wil E.; Roelofsen Moody, T. E.
It is often assumed that true inquiry for students involves some sort of research project. While the process of `scientific inquiry’ is very similar to `classroom inquiry', there are some crucial differences. Scientific Inquiry is the process through which scientists learn about the world, whereas Classroom Inquiry (as advocated by the National Science Education Standards) is the process through which students construct their own understandings of the world. These differences are important to keep in mind when developing education programs, curriculum materials, or providing teacher professional development. Classroom inquiry does not require students to do research in the classroom, which is often impractical because of lack of time and/or relevant skills and content knowledge. We will explore what is meant by `classroom inquiry', how it differs from scientific inquiry, and especially what it may look like in a K-12 or college astronomy class. We will discuss the five essential features of classroom inquiry, their meaning, and their importance in the process of teaching for understanding. Inquiry-based instructions can take many forms, from teacher directed to student centered. We will discuss these variations and when it would be appropriate to use them. Inquiry lessons can be very short, discrete experiences; we will provide an example of an inquiry lesson that could be done with students in as little as 10-15 minutes.
Abolaji S. Mustapha
Full Text Available Gender and language education studies have multiplied in the past one decade. However, it does not appear that any state-of-the-art article has reviewed the various undertakings. This paper attempts to fill this gap by focusing on gender representation in learning materials and classroom interaction studies globally within gender and education literature. Selected studies from the 70s to date are reviewed under three phases and suggestions for further investigation are made with the anticipation that learning materials and classroom interaction studies would help facilitate the achievement of the goal of gender equality in and through education.
Employability is increasingly becoming a central aspect of higher education in the United Kingdom and it is becoming imperative that modern foreign languages teachers engage directly and sincerely with the employability agenda. This article proposes the use of feature films as a successful method for developing and promoting employability skills in the language classroom, an approach which has not thus far been adopted. I begin by discussing different models for the delivery of employability ...
Full Text Available Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation where the real world becomes a part of the educational experience and necessitates the use of an authentic language by the learners. This article describes a video project carried out by Russian language learners at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS. It examines how the work on the project created and supported authenticity of the learning experience. Though the article focuses on the video project done in the context of language learning and teaching this activity could be successfully implemented in teaching various subjects at both secondary and tertiary levels.
Full Text Available The present study explores how classroom participants invoke a monolingual target-language policy in an English as a foreign language (EFL classroom, specifically focusing on one method of doing language policy through self-initiated language policing sequences, which I have called self-policing. Language policing refers to the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or the pupils to (re-establish the normatively prescribed medium of classroom interaction (Amir & Musk, 2013; cf. Bonacina & Gafaranga, 2011. The data comes from sequential analyses of 20 hours of video recordings in grades 8 & 9 of an international compulsory school in Sweden between the years 2007-2010. Drawing on Auer (1984 and Gafaranga’s (1999 organisational code-switching framework, this study sheds light on how teachers and pupils self-initiate a switch to English in their interactions. As will be demonstrated, both teachers and pupils, while orienting to the English-only norm, use a three-step sequence for language policing.
Full Text Available Combining multilevel (ML analysis and multidimensional item response theory (MIRT provides a valuable method for analyzing data of educational assessments, where clustered data (e.g., students in classes and multidimensional constructs frequently occur. It allows to model multiple ability dimensions while simultaneously taking the hierarchical structure into account. The dimensional structure of students’ foreign language competence within and between classrooms was investigated by applying a ML-MIRT measurement model to data of N = 9,410 students in 427 classes who had answered three different subtests of English as a foreign language. Results were compared to a MIRT model not taking into account the multilevel structure. A markedly more differentiated correlation structure is found within classrooms compared with the between-classroom level and compared with the model without multilevel structure. Results show that by modeling the latent multilevel structure, estimation and interpretation of ability profiles can be possible even with highly correlated ability dimensions.
This article maps critical literacies conceptually and empirically in the context of adult immigrant language classrooms. It begins by describing Deleuze and Guattari's cartographic approach. Then it traces critical literacies situated conceptually within a Freirean paradigm before mapping them differently through the Deleuzian-informed Multiple…
This paper presents one example of moments of tension from a yearlong ethnographic study conducted in a college intermediate Japanese-as-a-foreign-language classroom (Kumagai, 2004). I define moments of tension as those moments when conflicts arise between an instructor's teaching agenda and students' learning agenda. Conducting critical discourse…
Studies investigating repetition in SL/FL learners' private speech have focused mainly on its cognitive and metacognitive functions. In the present study, the classroom observations, video-recordings of lessons, audio-recordings of six learners and two teachers and simulated recall interviews were conducted in Japanese language classes over two…
This study examined Japanese language teachers' and learners' perceptions of corrective feedback (CF), focusing on the cases in which the learners responded to the teachers' CF. Data were collected from the second-year course of an Australian university for 1 semester by classroom observation and audio recording and stimulated recall interviews.…
Dewey, Dan P.
This study investigates connections between teacher and student attitudes related to the delayed (or immediate) introduction of Japanese script in the Japanese language classroom. Two groups of students completed questionnaires concerning their attitudes toward the immediate or delayed introduction of Japanese script and the use of romaji…
Marschark, Marc; Leigh, Greg; Sapere, Patricia; Burnham, Denis; Convertino, Carol; Stinson, Michael; Knoors, Harry; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Noble, William
Four experiments examined the utility of real-time text in supporting deaf students' learning from lectures in postsecondary (Experiments 1 and 2) and secondary classrooms (Experiments 3 and 4). Experiment 1 compared the effects on learning of sign language interpreting, real-time text (C-Print), and both. Real-time text alone led to significantly…
The present paper attempts to examine the possibilities of the Classroom Language Assessment Benchmark (CLAB) as a professional development tool for EFL teachers in Japan. Two questionnaire surveys were carried out several months after the last day of the graduate course (both in 2006 and 2007) where CLAB was used as a self- and peer-assessment…
In recent years, a great tendency towards the use of technology and its integration into the curriculum has gained a great importance. Particularly, the use of video as an audio-visual material in foreign language teaching classrooms has grown rapidly because of the increasing emphasis on communicative techniques, and it is obvious that the use of…
This paper tries to probe the influence of the organizational culture on language classroom at a newly-established local college. It firstly reviews the knowledge of the organizational culture and finds out its features, and then discusses how the organizational culture was greatly influenced by the host educational environment. On the basis of…
Batchelor, Katherine E.; Bintz, William P.
Middle level educators around the country aim to create a classroom environment and a way of teaching that is developmentally responsive, challenging, empowering, and equitable for every student. One way to ensure this is to include instruction that promotes creativity. This article offers guiding principles and shares instructional lessons that…
Pellet, Stephanie H.
Most pedagogical applications of wikis in foreign language education draw on this collaborative tool to improve (formal) writing skills or to develop target language cultural sensitivity, missing largely on the opportunity to support student-developed L2 content knowledge. Seeking an alternative to traditional teacher-centered approaches, this…
Communicative competence has at least three components: grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence, and strategic competence. Strategic competence is the knowledge of how to use one's language to communicate intended meaning. Foreign language students may develop competence in each of these three areas at different rates, but all are…
Abolaji S. Mustapha
Gender and language education studies have multiplied in the past one decade. However, it does not appear that any state-of-the-art article has reviewed the various undertakings. This paper attempts to fill this gap by focusing on gender representation in learning materials and classroom interaction studies globally within gender and education literature. Selected studies from the 70s to date are reviewed under three phases and suggestions for further investigation are made with the anticipat...
Hazel, Spencer; Wagner, Johannes
This study offers an empirical account of the use of English in Danish-as-a-foreign-language classroom settings. We will refer to English as the lingua franca - which in itself is a second language for the majority of the participants in the data - and to Danish as the target language. We consider implications of lingua franca interaction in target language classroom interactions, and show how in sequences where participants orient to linguistic issues in the target language, for example grammatical forms or lexical items, they often do this with reference to the lingua franca.
This paper investigates the process of assessment for learning (AfL) in the primary school Irish language classroom. Electronic portfolios (e-portfolios) are used as a tool in assessment for learning with eight of my second class pupils in an urban primary school in North Dublin. This research was carried out as part of the Master of Science in Education and Training Management (e-learning strand) at Dublin City University and was supervised by Dr. Margaret Farren. Some strategies from the li...
Full Text Available As learning is seen to be a social process as well as an intellectual activity in which teachers work in active partnership with students, “Teaching by Joint Presentation” (TJP project sought to investigate what a humanistic concept of teacher-student joint presentation and critical inquiry can evoke in the language classroom within Chinese context. 289 college English literature learning students and 87 in-service secondary school teachers have participated in this study. The findings articulated a series of multifaceted differences concerning with students’ learning aspiration and competence, together with the complexities of teaching methods in a humanistic language classroom. The results indicate that humanistic ideal does increase students’ learning competence of critical insight, independent thought and reflective analysis. The study provides insights into humanistic competence growth of Chinese college language students based on empirical evidence.
Aruna, Ankiah-Gangadeen; Michael Anthony, Samuel.
Full Text Available Language policies in education in multilingual postcolonial contexts are often driven by ideological considerations more veered towards socio-economic and political viability for the country than towards the practicality at implementation level. Centuries after the advent of colonisation, when cultu [...] rally and linguistically homogenous countries helped to maintain the dominion of colonisers, the English language still has a stronghold in numerous countries due to the material rewards it offers. How then are the diversity of languages - often with different statuses and functions in society - reconciled in the teaching and learning process? How do teachers deal with the intricacies that are generated within a situation where children are taught in a language that is foreign to them? This paper is based on a study involving pre-primary teachers in Mauritius, a developing multilingual African country. The aim was to understand how their approach to the teaching of English was shaped by their biographical experiences of learning the language. The narrative inquiry methodology offered rich possibilities to foray into these experiences, including the manifestations of negotiating their classroom pedagogy in relation to their own personal historical biographies of language teaching and learning, the policy environment, and the pragmatic classroom specificities of diverse, multilingual learners. These insights become resources for early childhood education and teacher development in multilingual contexts caught within the tensions between language policy and pedagogy.
Piker, Ruth A.
With dual language learners falling behind their same-age peers at the beginning of kindergarten, understanding how school experiences can enhance language learning is critical. This study demonstrates how play among preschool-aged children can foster English language learning. Using an ethnographic approach, one classroom composed of two teachers…
Strohm, Barbara A.
Describes the use of post-NAFTA bilingual or trilingual labels in content-enriched instruction in Spanish classes. Such labels provide informal exposure to the second language as well as comprehensive linguistic and cultural input.(Author/VWL)
Ahmad Dzo'ul Milal
This paper attempts to reveal some strategies performed by teacher which indicate that s/he is exercising power in managing and con-ducting language teaching and learning process. Such power may be manifested in terms of the frequency of directives or of the holding of control over the interaction Process. Despite the fact that exercising power seems to impair justice, democracy, and humanity because it implies inequality, in a pedagogical context, especially in a language teaching and learn...
French language policy has historically centred on ways French can be considered a dominant and influential language. It has done this since the Middle Ages, by allowing the French language to serve as a political tool. On an international level, language was a way of subjugating conquered peoples (former colonies). It promoted France’s international status (by the 18th century French was the diplomatic language of Europe). On a national level, the French language was one of the ways governme...
Grounded in positioning theory, this study examined regular classroom teachers' views of their roles with regard to English language learners (ELLs) and the relationship between their teaching approaches and the students' reactions and positioning of themselves in the classroom. Findings suggest that the teachers' views of their roles varied based…
Ahmad Dzo'ul Milal
Full Text Available This paper attempts to reveal some strategies performed by teacher which indicate that s/he is exercising power in managing and con-ducting language teaching and learning process. Such power may be manifested in terms of the frequency of directives or of the holding of control over the interaction Process. Despite the fact that exercising power seems to impair justice, democracy, and humanity because it implies inequality, in a pedagogical context, especially in a language teaching and learning process, such a practice may still be beneficial and justifiable. Among the benefits of the exercise of power are enumerated by the end of the paper.
Phillippe, Denise E.
At Concordia Language Villages, language and culture are inextricably intertwined, as they are in life. Participants "live" and "do" language and culture 16 hours per day. The experiential, residential setting immerses the participants in the culture of the country or countries where the target language is spoken through food, music, sports,…
This article examines the importance of raising non-native English language teachers' awareness of different dimensions of culture in the teaching of English as an international language. The author believes that the more critical English language teachers become about the involvement of culture in their English language teaching, the more they…
Hsuan-Yau Tony Lai
Culture is an important element in the foreign language classroom. Some scholars believe that culture is the fifth language skill along with the four traditional skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking) of English. Traditionally, learning English required learners to acquire some target language cultural knowledge (e.g. British culture and/or American culture) especially in the context of English as a foreign language. However, with the increasingly important status of English as an ...
Meyer, Richard J.
A study examined and analyzed the functions of written language for one writer during her first-grade year. Data included 516 pieces of writing done by the subject, transcriptions of interviews with the subject, and field notes. Results indicated that: (1) sources of the subject's writing ranged from extremely structured situations to "creative…
This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.
Straehler-Pohl, Hauke; Gellert, Uwe
This article aims at developing an external language of description to investigate the problem of why particular groups of students are systematically not provided access to school mathematical knowledge. Based on Basil Bernstein's conceptualisation of power in classification, we develop a three-dimensional model that operationalises the…
Fraga-Canadas, Cynthia P.
The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education and the ACTFL suggest that a high proficiency in the Spanish language is essential for all Spanish teachers. With the growth of the Spanish-speaking population in the United States and the diversity of Hispanic culture, teacher education programs need to ensure that teacher candidates are…
Eldin, Ahmad Abdel Tawwab Sharaf
Arabic language learning comprises of certain elements, including syntactic ability, oral capability, dialect proficiency, and a change in state of mind towards different culture or society. For teachers and laymen alike, cultural competence, i.e., the knowledge of the customs, beliefs, and systems of another country, is indisputably an integral…
Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.
There is nothing more motivating than to feel you have something to contribute to a group situation. The Nilsens have used that basic premise to devise activities that teach all students about the connections between languages while highlighting the special expertise that bilingual students can add to such a conversation. Activities and word lists…
A weblog (blog or Web log) has recently become one of the most widely used Internet applications. The current study concerns developing a blog specifically designed for learners learning English as a foreign language. The study investigated the effects of extensive writing by comparing the writing performance in the first three and the last three…
Hsuan-Yau Tony Lai
Full Text Available Culture is an important element in the foreign language classroom. Some scholars believe that culture is the fifth language skill along with the four traditional skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking of English. Traditionally, learning English required learners to acquire some target language cultural knowledge (e.g. British culture and/or American culture especially in the context of English as a foreign language. However, with the increasingly important status of English as an international language, the ownership of English has been extensively discussed. Scholars have argued that English is no longer in the custody of any particular country or community. Therefore, whether we should address target language culture in the English classroom or not has become a matter of debate. The study aims to explore EFL learners’ perceptions of the ownership of English and acquiring cultural knowledge in the classroom through in-depth interviews. In total, twenty undergraduates, including both English-major and non-English-major students, from three different universities in Central Taiwan participated in the study. The results show that the majority of the participants reject the notion that English belongs to particular countries in today’s world. In terms of acquiring cultural knowledge, they believe that it is necessary to have some target language cultural knowledge (e.g. British culture and/or American culture in the English classroom. However, apart from the target language cultural knowledge, they would also like to explore various cultures worldwide, using English as a communication tool to become global citizens. Therefore, rather than debate whether to teach a specific culture or language model in the English classroom, it is perhaps more meaningful and important to develop a language learner’s intercultural communicative competence. These findings provide some insightful implications for English language teaching professionals and educators in terms of teaching culture in the English classroom.
This article describes Project ORACLE which was research carried out at the University of Leicester begun in 1975 concerning (1) a longitudinal process-product study of teaching and learning in elementary schools; and (2) a study which concentrated on collaborative group work in the same classrooms. Results and implications are discussed.…
Recent years have witnessed a revival of interest in form-focused instruction in foreign language pedagogy and there is a growing realization that a certain degree of emphasis on formal aspects of the target language is necessary if learners are to achieve high levels of accuracy (e.g. Doughty and Williams 1998; Ellis 2001). In the view of second language theorists and researchers, one of the ways in which this kind of emphasis can most profitably be accomplished is by drawing students' at...
Wacewicz, S?awomir, D.; ?ywiczy?ski, Przemys?aw
The heterogeneous category of phenomena covered by the term body language (roughly equivalent to nonverbal communication, NVC), although essential to human day-to-day communication, is also largely dissociable from human verbal behaviour. As such, it has received little attention in the area of evolution of language research. In this paper we point to an important factor – signal reliability (honesty) as an elementary constraint on communication as an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) – wh...
The present paper concerns itself with a study of the cultural-based language teaching issue, particularly with the issue of some practical techniques for teaching culture in the EFL classroom. We want to emphasize the importance of cultural acquisition in the study of language courses, and to present a range of practical techniques that have been found to be effective and successful in cultural-based courses and a few tips that can help to make the teaching of culture a better experience for...
Full Text Available This contribution describes an experimentation involving two classes of basic Italian as L2 during the A. Y. 2014-15 I term at the University Complutense of Madrid. Within a general MALL and BYOD approach, Twitter was adopted as in-classroom tool for language learning Dynamic and Authentic Assessment, aiming at boosting the learning success and overall language proficiency. Students’ satisfaction, engagement factors and levels have been measured via a post-intervention questionnaire, showing general positive outcomes. Final formal summative assessment also showed very positive general results and opened the way for further investigations.
Task-based approach is a new approach in education practice. In task-based classroom, the chief focus is the performance of tasks. The task, rather than being a unit of grammar to be digested or a collection of lexical items to be remembered, is a means of learning the language by doing tasks. It requires exposure to comprehensive input and opportunities to interact in the language. The task has to be negotiated by the learners with the help of the teacher, whose job is to facilitate learning...
Uys, Catharina Jacoba Elizabeth; Harty, Michal
This article presents a description of a training programme designed to increase teachers’ knowledge and skill regarding the use of aided language stimulation (ALS) in the inclusive classroom. The development of the two-phase training programme is discussed in terms of the content and presentation method utilised. Phase 1 focused on increasing knowledge related to inclusive teaching practices and Phase 2 focused on increasing skills in using ALS as an adapted teaching strategy. Phase 2 emp...
Marschark, Marc; Leigh, Greg; Sapere, Patricia; Burnham, Denis; Convertino, Carol; Stinson, Michael; Knoors, Harry; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Noble, William,
Four experiments examined the utility of real-time text in supporting deaf students' learning from lectures in postsecondary (Experiments 1 and 2) and secondary classrooms (Experiments 3 and 4). Experiment 1 compared the effects on learning of sign language interpreting, real-time text (C-Print), and both. Real-time text alone led to significantly higher performance by deaf students than the other two conditions, but performance by deaf students in all conditions was significantly below that ...
Devimeenakshi. K.; C. N. Baby Maheswari
The article gives information on English language teaching schemes in Indian classrooms for foreign students. The teacher monitors as facilitator and instructor. The trainees were trained in the four macro skills, LSRW. I taught some topics in three skills, namely, writing, listening and reading (just three, not speaking skills) to Chinese students in VIT University. The other skill speaking was trained by other teachers among the four. Students were trained to listen to English words and pa...
Hubert, Michael D.
An important task for foreign language (FL) instructors and researchers is to understand how the development of each language skill affects other aspects of language acquisition. This case study seeks to determine if speaking and writing proficiencies develop at similar rates among FL learners. Seventeen students enrolled in beginning,…
Liu Peng; Lingling Cai; Xianjun Tan
Politeness is a common phenomenon in any society. Thus conventions of politeness vary from culture to culture. How people value politeness or show politeness is influenced by many factors such as age, gender, knowledge level, or social status or power. In this research, we deal with politeness in China EFL classrooms. Based on Brown and Levinson’s Face Theory and applying a series of research methods like class observation, survey questionnaires and semi-structured interviews in a case ...
In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the study, the researcher illustrates that the application of the proposed framework resulted in an improved version of the framework. The improved version of the proposed framework is more connected to the topic of science learning, and is able to measure the change of discourse in higher resolution.
Full Text Available Abstract Global research has shown the persistence of inequality with regard to accessing curriculum with a view to obtaining suitable work and making useful contributions to society. The intersection of race, gender, language and low socio-economic levels creates situations which often marginalize ethnic minorities in school settings (Freire, 1968; Nieto & Turner, 2012. The graduation rates in the United States for Native American, African American and Hispanic students are lower than the graduation rates of Whites and Asian Americans. In addition, Bangladeshis and African Caribbeans currently living in the UK are under-represented in higher education, particularly young men in those communities. The research questions that guide this inquiry are: (1 According to databases, how does the academic performance of language minority groups compare to the academic performance of non-linguistic minority groups at the elementary and secondary levels of education? (2 According to language support teachers and university students, what are the strengths and weaknesses of the instructional practices for language minorities who are learning English in the United Kingdom (UK (Bristol and the United States (US (Henrico? Participants were: five UK teachers, four UK university students, five US teachers, four US university students. Data collection supervised by lead researchers included interviews, focus groups, classroom observation, and performance documents. Data analysis utilized a mixed-methods approach. Overall, linguistic minority groups performed lower than their English proficient peers. Culturally, UK teachers provided a greater emphasis on religious instruction, whereas US teachers addressed patriotic topics more frequently. Teachers in the United States and the United Kingdom were culturally supportive with slight variation in the encouraged use of the students’ heritage languages.
While current conceptualisations of the inextricable connection between language and culture in English language education are largely informed by complex sociocultural theories that view culture as constructed in and through social practices among people, classroom practices continue to be influenced by mainstream discourses of culture that…
The dominant approach to research in learning disabilities utilizes experimental and quasi-experimental designs to identify the most effective instructional strategies for students with learning disabilities. Research is always undertaken from a point of view, yet the discourse on "what works?" is generally silent on how theoretical frameworks…
Full Text Available Task-based approach is a new approach in education practice. In task-based classroom, the chief focus is the performance of tasks. The task, rather than being a unit of grammar to be digested or a collection of lexical items to be remembered, is a means of learning the language by doing tasks. It requires exposure to comprehensive input and opportunities to interact in the language. The task has to be negotiated by the learners with the help of the teacher, whose job is to facilitate learning opportunities in class. The task probably needs the cooperation of learners. This paper is intended to explore TBLT in teaching reading on the basis of the notion of task-based language teaching (TBLT.
Introduces brain-based teaching and learning. Reviews basic biological facts about the human brain and discusses seven principles based on recent research that have practical benefits for English-as-a-Foreign-Language teachers. (Author/VWL)
Cadavid Múnera Isabel Cristina; McNulty María; Quinchía Ortiz Diana Isabel
An in-progress ethnographic research project about teachers who are facing the complex task of teaching English to children in 7 public elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Medellin is presented in this article. First, the need for this research is outlined by researchers; second, the methodology of the project is described; third, up-to-date findings which include a profile of the 12 teachers who are participating in this study, and an analysis of their class methodology in te...
Downer, Jason T.; Lopez, Michael L.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Hamagami, Aki; Pianta, Robert C.; Howes, Carollee
With the rising number of Latino and dual language learner (DLL) children attending pre-k and the importance of assessing the quality of their experiences in those settings, this study examined the extent to which a commonly used assessment of teacher-child interactions, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), demonstrated similar…
Turner, A.; Turner, M.; Edwards, K. J.; Scientific Team Of Iodp Expedition 327
The scientific activities carried out on board the JOIDES Resolution during IODP Expedition 327: Juan de Fuca Hydrogeology (summer 2010) are exciting to elementary-level students and provide an excellent opportunity to use that enthusiasm to teach concepts outlined in state-mandated curricula. This is especially important for special education classrooms where individualized education plans are implemented to bring students up to these standards when regular classrooms have failed to do so. Using concepts from drilling and coring to geobiology and sedimentology, we have developed cross-curricular lesson plans for elementary special education students with learning and cognitive disabilities. All lesson plans include hands-on, visual and auditory activities and are aimed at using students' natural interest in real research to drive home simple concepts like integers, geography, pressure and descriptive writing. Because special education classrooms more often than not include children with variable abilities in all subjects, the lesson plans developed in this project can be adapted for several levels so that every child in the classroom can participate.
Sanders, Kay; Downer, Jason T.
Given the increasing ethnic and language diversity within the United States, this study examined practices that acknowledge and promote diversity in pre-Kindergarten classrooms. Findings indicate that acceptance of diversity is a component of positive environments for young children, particularly in classrooms with high poverty levels where there…
Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language Within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México
Irasema Mora Pablo; M. Martha Lengeling; Buenaventura Rubio Zenil; Troy Crawford; Douglas Goodwin
The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and learning ...
Although there is a considerable body of research into various aspects of the teaching and learning of English as a foreign language, there appear to be few studies into the teaching of modern foreign languages (ML) to adolescents in the context of a secondary school setting. This thesis reports the findings of research aimed at identifying the strategies that ML teachers, considered examples of good practice, used to engage secondary school learners in interaction in the targe...
May Britt Postholm
The teacher’s role in the university classroom has traditionally been to present the syllabus to listening students. In Norway new rules have been introduced for the activity in this classroom. The overarching goal for the teaching is to organize a learning situation that makes the students active learners. The article deals with the teacher as a researcher, and focuses on how innovative actions can be implemented by the teacher and studied from a researcher point of view. The text pres...
Full Text Available Cette contribution, qui relève de la didactique des langues, s’appuie sur l’analyse des interactions verbales et de la communication en classe de langue. Elle repose sur la capacité de l’image à susciter des productions verbales. La photographie d’auteur est ici considérée comme un déclencheur d’interactions orales permettant de communiquer. Nous avons mis en œuvre une tâche dans des cours de français langue étrangère en contexte pluriculturel à Paris avec des apprenants de niveaux A1 à B2. Le projet mené en groupe consiste à commenter des photographies d’auteur sans objectifs langagiers prédéterminés. L’analyse d’une séquence recueillie devant la photographie Rue Mouffetard d’H. Cartier-Bresson révèle l’importance de la communication entre les apprenants. La photographie suscite des enjeux communicatifs qui favorisent l’implication des étudiants. Ces derniers prennent position sur l’image et sont amenés à confronter leurs points de vue avec leurs pairs. Les apprenants peuvent également avoir recours à l’humour et modifier leur rôle conversationnel habituel.The article, in the field of foreign language classroom research, deals with verbal interaction analysis. It is based on the capacity of images to trigger verbal expression. Photography is here considered as a means to induce oral interaction, thus enabling students to communicate. We have implemented a task in a “French as a foreign language” classroom in a multicultural context in Paris, learners’ levels ranging from A1 to B2. In this group project, students were invited to comment on artistic and documentary photographs. We had no predetermined language objectives. The analysis of interactions triggered by the photograph Rue Mouffetard by H. Cartier-Bresson highlights learners’ interactions. The photograph creates communicative needs and induces students to get involved in the activity. They express their views on the image and confront their opinions with their peers. They also use humour, thus modifying their usual interactional role.
Azlin Norhaini Mansor
Full Text Available This paper attempts to explore and identify the characteristics of an effective teacher who teaches English as a second language to 10 year old students from different ethnics, various social economic background and multi-level language ability, at a private primary school in Malaysia. The study focused on classroom management using a case study methodology where data was collected using both interviews and classroom observations. The findings concur with previous literature reviews on effective teacher models whilst providing in-depth details on what transpires during classroom activities, thus clarifying further the meaning of effective classroom management. The implications of this study suggest the need to include six new classroom management behaviours of an effective teacher. Further research is warranted to help policy makers and school administrators in identifying the significance of these behaviours for the selection and training of future teachers.
This article focuses on the use of conversation analysis (CA) to help teaching interactional competence in English to adult second language learners from lower to intermediate levels. To set the context, this article gives a brief overview on the use of CA in second language research as well as considering the construct of interactional competence…
De Costa, Peter I.
The last three decades have witnessed a notable growth in research on affect. Among the various affective variables, foreign language anxiety has been heavily studied. This interest in foreign language anxiety is consistent with increased attention to emotions in the neurosciences, cognitive psychology, and the social sciences. Instead of…
Julie A. Belz
Full Text Available Although corpora have been used in language teaching for some time, few empirical studies explore their impact on learning outcomes. We provide a microgenetic account of learners’ responses to corpus-driven instructional units for German modal particles and pronominal da-compounds. The units are based on developmental corpus data produced by native speakers during interactions with the very learners for whom the units are designed. Thus, we address the issue of authentication in corpus-driven language pedagogy. Finally, we illustrate how an ethnographically supplemented developmental learner corpus may contribute to second language acquisition research via dense documentation of micro-changes in learners’ language use over time.
The Articulation of Formative Research and Classrooms Projects in the Language and Culture Class in an Undergraduate English Teaching Program (Articulación de Prácticas de Investigación Formativa con los Proyectos de Aula de las Clases de Lengua y Cultura Anglófona en un Programa de Licenciatura en Lengua Extranjera)
Marroquín, Paula Ramírez
This article shows the results of a research project which searched to answer how to articulate formative research with classroom projects in an undergraduate English teaching program. To accomplish the purpose of this paper, the document will focus on the two specific objectives of this qualitative research: document revision, and knowing about…
O desenvolvimento de uma metaconsciência, no professor, acerca da importância de vivenciar a linguagem como prática social na sala de aula de língua inglesa por meio da pesquisa colaborativa / The development of a teacher's meta-awareness on the importance of experiencing language as social practice in an EFL classroom through collaborative research
Luciane Kirchhof, Ticks.
Full Text Available Neste artigo, discutimos o processo reflexivo vivenciado por duas professoras de inglês ao problematizarem suas ações em sala de aula. Destacamos particularmente o processo de reconfiguração de suas atividades pedagógicas que inicialmente focalizam estruturas lexicogramaticais isoladas e, no decorre [...] r do processo reflexivo, são reconfiguradas em direção ao uso de gêneros textuais e à (des)construção dos contextos de situação e cultura nos quais esses textos são socialmente produzidos e vivenciados (MOTTA-ROTH, 2006). Essas reflexões foram desenvolvidas por meio de um processo de pesquisa colaborativo (MAGALHÃES, 2004). A análise do discurso dessas professoras indica que o processo reflexivo lhes permitiu desenvolver uma metaconsciência acerca de como a linguagem se organiza e se constitui ao mediar a atividade social. Abstract in english In this paper is discussed the thoughtful process experienced by two English teachers, as they problematize their procedures in the classroom. In the foreground is the process of reconfiguration of their pedagogical activities, which initially would focus on the isolated lexical-grammatical structur [...] es and which, along the reflective process, were reconfigured to focus more on textual genres and on the (de)construction of the situational and cultural contexts in which such texts are socially produced and experienced (MOTTA-ROTH, 2006). Such thoughts were developed by means of a collaborative research process (MAGALHÃES, 2004). The discourse analysis of those teachers indicate that the reflective process allowed them to develop a metaawareness about how language organizes itself and constitutes itself when it mediates the social activity.
Plo Alastrué, Ramón
This volume examines the role of English in academic and research settings in Europe and provides recommendations on the challenges posed by the dominance of English over national languages as languages of science and research dissemination; the need for language support for academics that need to disseminate their research in English; and the effect of past and present language policies.
Udell, Risa; Meyer, Richard
In an effort to create a polyphonic critical response to the roles of the researcher and the researched in classroom-based literacy research, this paper is formatted as a play--indented parts are direct quotes from others spoken by the speakers. It articulates questions of classroom literacy research as it considers the methods, goals, and…
It was in 1970s that American linguist S.D. Krashen created the theory of “language acquisition”. And the theories on second language acquisition were proposed based on the study on the second language acquisition process and its rules. Here, the second language acquisition process refers to the process in which a learner with the mastery of his mother language learns another language without its social environment. Due to the close relationship between second language acquisition research an...
Kalt, Susan E.
Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Quechua is the largest indigenous language family to constitute the first language (L1) of second language (L2) Spanish speakers. Despite sheer number of speakers and typologically interesting contrasts, Quechua-Spanish second language acquisition is a nearly untapped research area,…
Full Text Available Second language acquisition (SLA has been a concern of many teachers and researchers since the early 1960s.One of the issues related to SLA has been finding the techniques which effectively focus the learners’ attention on the target form.A number of theories and methods have been advocated for this purpose, ranging from implicit options to more explicit ones. Although each of the suggested methods has its own advantages,they have, so far, proved insufficient to get learners to be able to notice the gap between their own interlanguage forms and the target language forms. Swain (1995, 1998 has argued that apart from providing the learners with comprehensible input, comprehensible output also plays a beneficial role in L2 acquisition. By encouraging the learners to speak or write in the L2 and providing them with the opportunities to do so, the learners can notice that they are not able to say what they want to say in the target language. On the basis of Swain’s output hypothesis, we assumed that encouraging adult learners (university students to produce target-like output would promote their achievement of the grammatical competence necessary for producing academic tests. The purpose of this article is to present the evidence from a classroom-based, small-scale study of the effect of output on learner acquisition of L2 modal verbs, adjectives and adverbs conveying the meanings of uncertainty, all of which are parts of speech that are important metadiscourse items. The results of the present study suggest that an approach in which students are encouraged to produce comprehensible output, combined with their being provided with learning reinforcement ensured by appropriate feedback, can be an effective source of establishing long-lasting grammatical accuracy in the students’ target language.
Borden, K. A.; Whyte, L. F.; Smith, A.; Tarnoff, A.; Schmitt, H.
Increasingly scientists and researchers from a multitude of disciplines are finding themselves inundated with more data than they could possibly interpret in a lifetime. Computers can be used entirely or partially for some data analysis; but there are some tasks that are currently best suited to human eyes, ears and brains. Zooniverse (www.zooniverse.org) invites members of the public to help researchers analyze and interpret data. To date, hundreds of thousands of volunteers have been involved in classifying images, interpreting sounds and transcribing texts. Zooniverse citizen scientists are providing valuable analyses across a variety of fields, from the hunt for exoplanets in Planet Hunters (planethunters.org) to the transcription of Greek papyri in Ancient Lives (ancientlives.org). Multiple academic publications have resulted from the combined efforts of the Zooniverse community and science teams demonstrating that citizen science is more than ever becoming a well-established method of doing research. Unlike most research projects the data, analysis and interactions with the science teams have an established and visible online presence through the project website and related discussion sites and blogs. These in themselves provide a valuable classroom resource, an opportunity for free and easy access to cutting edge scientific research. Anecdotal evidence exists that teacher can and already do use Zooniverse projects. By providing a rich and varied scaffolding to accompany the Zooniverse projects the opportunity exists for bringing citizen scientists to a wider classroom audience. An audience that may include non-specialist teachers, who require additional support to deliver challenging content, or time strapped educators who haven't the time to develop their own accompanying resources to weave Zooniverse projects into their lessons. During the session we will discuss the recent Zooniverse projects specifically designed to support and promote classroom adoption locally, within the Chicago Public School (CPS) system and nationally within the United States. Introducing ZooTeach, a website where educators may share and search for lesson plans, activities, and resources. Beyond a simple lesson plan repository, ZooTeach is a community where educators are encouraged to modify, comment on, and otherwise actively participate in the educational efforts of Zooniverse. Teacher workshops run at Adler have and will continue to have the dual effect of promoting the Zooniverse and it's educational effort while increasing the pool of resources available nationally via ZooTeach. In house developed teacher guides and interactive tools allowing for the collection and manipulation of data will further enhance the classroom education experience and further lower the bar for entry into the world of citizen science.
Abstract: This paper proposes the implementation of reading-based classroom activitiesÂ for teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia. Compared to other language skills, reading is viewed to provide a relatively stable foundation for Indonesian students to develop their communicative competenceÂ in English. It is argued that reading-focused activities stimulate confidence for Indonesian learners to get involved in listening, speaking, and writing related-activities in ways that are ...
Alkhateeb, Haitham M
The present study assessed the relations between reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, and readers' self-perception for a sample of Arab-American students in Arabic classes. The effects of sex, grade, and years studying Arabic on academic achievement were examined as well. Measures were administered to 118 middle school students (56 boys, 62 girls; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.8), and teachers reported academic grades in Arabic. Reading anxiety was significantly correlated with classroom anxiety and reader self-perception. Classroom anxiety scores were significantly correlated with motivation and reader self-perception. Significant positive correlations were found between language motivation and reader self-perception scores, and between years studying Arabic and reader self-perception scores. Boys in the second year of Arabic had significantly lower classroom anxiety than girls, and students in Grade 7 had higher reader self-perception than those in Grade 8. Classroom anxiety, language motivation, and reader self-perception significantly predicted Arabic achievement. Pedagogical implications are discussed. PMID:25457094
Full Text Available Politeness is a common phenomenon in any society. Thus conventions of politeness vary from culture to culture. How people value politeness or show politeness is influenced by many factors such as age, gender, knowledge level, or social status or power. In this research, we deal with politeness in China EFL classrooms. Based on Brown and Levinson’s Face Theory and applying a series of research methods like class observation, survey questionnaires and semi-structured interviews in a case study, the researcher tries to find out: how students’ gender and level of English proficiency influence their understanding of teachers’ politeness strategies, what attitudes they have towards the application of teachers’ PS, and how students value politeness strategies in EFL classrooms. In conclusion, on one hand, teachers should increase their own politeness awareness as well as students’; on the other hand, it is very important to improve students’ English proficiency, which can help them understand situational contexts in English and interpret teachers’ well meaning in the term of politeness.
Lo, Yuen Yi
In Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) classrooms where students' L2 proficiency has not reached the threshold level, teachers have been observed to use L1 to assist students in grasping specific technical terms and abstract concepts. It is argued to be a 'realistic' approach to the learning problems caused by students' limited L2…
Gilma, Zúñiga Camacho.
Full Text Available Este artículo propone un marco de referencia para crear lectoescritores en el aula donde se enseña una segunda lengua. Los componentes son el currículo, la enseñanza y la evaluación. El currículo establece los objetivos, y la filosofía del programa de lectura y también pretende el desarrollo de un l [...] ector crítico, que encuentra en la lectura en segunda lengua una fuente de información y entretenimiento. El currículo también tiene en cuenta el efecto de la lectura en primera lengua sobre la segunda, y el uso de materiales adecuados para el logro de los objetivos. La enseñanza está enmarcada en principios tales como la lectura y la escritura se enseñan simultáneamente, y la tecnología influye en el desarrollo de la lectoescritura. La evaluación de la lectura es el siguiente componente, y propone el uso de instrumentos auténticos tales como el portafolio y la observación. Se menciona, además, el uso de instrumentos tradicionales tales como los exámenes. Abstract in english This article proposes a framework to create readers and writers in the second language classroom. The components of the framework are curriculum, instruction and assessment. The curriculum states the goals and philosophy of the program that intends to create lifelong readers that find reading as a s [...] ource of entertainment and information. It will also include the kind of literacy that the curriculum wants to support, the effect of reading in the first language, and the use of appropriate materials to achieve the goals. Instruction is framed under principles like reading is thinking and learning, reading and writing are taught together, and technology influences reading and writing development. Assessing reading in the second language classroom is the next component of the framework discussed in the article and it proposes the use of authentic tools like portfolios and observations. Traditional tools like tests are also mentioned.
The research described in this thesis reports on a 10-month quantitative/qualitative classroom-based study, carried out at a Japanese university, investigating the potential of authentic materials to develop learners’ communicative competence. It was hypothesised that the ‘richer’ input provided by authentic materials, combined with appropriate awareness-raising activities, would be better able to develop a range of communicative competencies in learners (linguistic, pragmalinguistic, sociopr...
This study validated the College and University Classroom Environment Inventory (CUCEI) in the context of Chinese tertiary education, which has not been investigated before. The research sample included 4617 first-year undergraduate students (116 classes) in two Chinese universities. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were conducted. Data analysis shows that the CUCEI has robust validity and reliability after six items being deleted. The final solution of...
Mokkonen, Alicia Copp
This article investigates how two young newcomers navigate an institutional policy of "English only" in a Finnish primary school and how this policy impacts opportunities for voice. From a discourse analytic and sociolinguistic perspective, the analysis takes an ethnographic path to a focal event of language conflict in the classroom. The analysis…
Adult education ESOL teachers usually know a lot about learners' lives inside the classroom, but they are less aware of learners' lives outside that space. This article focuses on learner talk about "Ingles Sin Barreras," a heavily advertised English-language program for Spanish-speakers who want to learn English. I analyzed learner talk along…
Acosta, Sandra; Garza, Tiberio
Podagogy, a fusion of podcasting and pedagogy, is evidence-based educational podcasting for teaching and learning. The purpose of our article was to compile a playbook of evidence-based strategies, the plays, for integrating podcasting into PreK-12 classrooms with English language learners (ELLs). Data for developing the playbook were drawn from…
Thayer, Kelly Keener
This study explored secondary English Language Arts teachers' experiences using digital technologies in their classrooms, as presented in two key journals in the English Education field: the "Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy" ("JAAL"), sponsored by the International Reading Association, and "English…
Lopez, Omar S.
This study presents the findings from the first-year evaluation of the Round Rock Independent School District's (ISD) Digital Learning Classroom project, an initiative focused on the improvement of English Language Learners' (ELL) learning using interactive whiteboard (IWB) technology. An objective of the evaluation was to determine the extent IWB…
The dissertation investigates learner beliefs, language ideologies, self-positioning, and language use among a group of Swiss university students of Danish as a foreign language. The theoretical framework of the study draws on socially informed second language acquisition (SLA) research and on late modern sociolinguistics. The main research questions are: What do Swiss university students of Danish as a foreign language believe about language and language learning, why do they hold these beliefs, and how do the beliefs relate to language ideologies? How do the participants present themselves in terms of beliefs, ideologies, and selfpositioning? In what ways do the participants use linguistic features generally thought to belong to different languages, to what degree can their language use be compared with polylingual behaviour, and how does their language use relate to the beliefs and ideologies expressed by the participants?
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper proposes the implementation of reading-based classroom activitiesÂ for teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia. Compared to other language skills, reading is viewed to provide a relatively stable foundation for Indonesian students to develop their communicative competenceÂ in English. It is argued that reading-focused activities stimulate confidence for Indonesian learners to get involved in listening, speaking, and writing related-activities in ways that are similar to normal daily lifeÂ communication. The reasons for the proposed implementation of reading-based classroom activitiesÂ in TEFLINÂ and the role of reading and its relation with other language skills are presented.
Mohammad Adnan Latief
Hypothesis is very often inevitable in research activities. Hypothesis is of at least three kinds, each of which should not be confused. A study trying to measure the relationship between variables can predict the finding based on theory or logical common sense. This prediction is called theoretical hypothesis. In testing hypothesis quantitatively, the theoretical hypothesis should be transformed into statistical hypothesis, which takes the form of Null hypothesis and its alternatives. It is ...
Elaine Teixeira da Silva
Full Text Available This article aims to describe the possibilities provided by the use of new digital Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, aided by Web 2.0, on Spanish teaching both inside and outside classroom. We analyzed the social network Facebook because it has a large number of users who spend a significant amount of time on the site chatting with friends, posting comments, liking photos and profiles and participating in groups. This social network also provides teaching tools that will help students to develop their autonomy to (re learn how to think. It is shown that Facebook presents EaD characteristics and therefore can be considered an additional tool on language teaching and education.
Mohammad Adnan Latief
Full Text Available Hypothesis is very often inevitable in research activities. Hypothesis is of at least three kinds, each of which should not be confused. A study trying to measure the relationship between variables can predict the finding based on theory or logical common sense. This prediction is called theoretical hypothesis. In testing hypothesis quantitatively, the theoretical hypothesis should be transformed into statistical hypothesis, which takes the form of Null hypothesis and its alternatives. It is the Null hypothesis that is to be tested to justify its rejection or otherwise its acceptance. In qualitative study, the result of first data analysis is called temporal empirical hypothesis that should be validated with more data. This cycle of rechecking the result with more data is done again and again until the hypothesis becomes the final conclusion.
Henderson, S.; Walker, C. E.; Geary, E.; Pompea, S. M.
Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the traditional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. GLOBE at Night is a new event within The GLOBE Program that provides a mechanism for a nontraditional learning activity involving teachers, students, and their families taking observations of the night sky around the world and reporting their observations via a central data base for analysis. To support activities centered on authentic research experiences such as GLOBE at Night, The GLOBE Program has changed its approach to professional development (PD). The new focus of GLOBE PD efforts is centered on teachers being able to facilitate student research in and out of the classroom reflective of authentic scientific research experiences. It has been recognized that there is a critical need for effective teacher professional development programs that support teacher involvement in meaningful scientific research that encourages partnerships between scientists, teachers, and students. Partnerships promoting scientific research for K-12 audiences provides the foundation for The GLOBE Program, an international inquiry-based program designed to engage teachers with their students in partnership with research scientists to better understand the environment at local, regional, and global scales. GLOBE is an ongoing international science and education program that unites students, teachers, and scientists in the study of the Earth System. Students participating in GLOBE engage in hands-on activities, including the collection, analysis, and sharing of research quality scientific data with their peers around the world. Students interact with members of the science community who use the data collected from locations around the world in their research - data that would often not be available otherwise. As of September 2005, over 30,000 teachers representing over 16,000 schools worldwide have participated in GLOBE workshops resulting in over 13 million environmental measurements reported by students to the GLOBE Web site. GLOBE at Night will utilize the GLOBE infrastructure and network to promote a week of night observations (February 2006) by teachers and students. The quality of the night sky for stellar observations is impacted by several factors, including human influences. GLOBE at Night will help scientists assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. The data that is collected will be accessible via the GLOBE Web site by scientists studying light pollution and will be available for use by teachers and students worldwide. GLOBE at Night is a collaborative effort of the NASA-sponsored GLOBE Program and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO).
Full Text Available Corpus-based language research has been long prospered since the middle of last century. Corpus is therefore frequently used in foreign language (mostly English teaching and research due to the fundamental principles of modern Corpus Linguistics along with the colorful resources of word-banks and the corresponding tools, especially in western countries. In China, the related literature found its way from introducing the foreign researches to our own practice into this field. As a conclusion, corpus and Corpus Linguistics can be closely connected with and widely applied in foreign language teaching and research with a predictable bright future.
Keywords: corpus, Corpus Linguistics, foreign language teaching and research
Résumé Le moyen de recherches sur le corpus a connu un développement rapide depuis le milieu du siècle précédent et a atteint la maturité aujourd’hui. En raison de l’importance de la linguistique de corpus et de la méthode de recherches sur le corppus, et étant donné ses ressources riches ainsi que les facilités apportées par les outils de recherche, le corpus est appliquée amplement dans les recherches linguistiques notamment dans celles de l’anglais. A l’étranger, l’étude de la linguistique de corpus a débuté tôt et a donné beaucoup de fruits ; le travail du milieu des langues étrangères chinois dans ce domaine a commencé par la présentation du corpus étranger et sa situation d’étude, et puis procède à des applications pratiques. En somme, il existe des relations étroites et diverses entre le corpus et les recherches de l’enseignement-apprentissage des langues étrangères, et les recherches de l’enseignement-apprentissage des langues étrangères basant sur le corpus présente une bonne perspective.
Mots-clés: corpus, linguistique de corpus, recherches de l’enseignement-apprentissage des langues étrangères
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Full Text Available Indonesia Open University (UT: Universitas Terbuka is a large, open university delivering distance education to students throughout Indonesia. An important aspect of its mission is to provide opportunities for Indonesian teachers to improve their education in-service. This includes two courses on classroom action research. In order to assess the effectiveness of these courses and, if necessary, improve them, a team of lecturers from UT conducted an investigation of the challenges teachers were facing in learning to conduct classroom action research through the UT modules. The team found that the modules did not adequately reflect an understanding of the actual characteristics of the teachers they were serving and were thus less effective than they might be in teaching teachers to conduct classroom action research. Changes in both the content and scheduling of the modules are recommended in order to more effectively promote classroom action research in Indonesian schools. Key Words: Classroom Action Research, Distance Education, Indonesia, Teacher Development
Bernard, Jean S
In the flipped classroom (FC) students view pre-recorded lectures or complete pre-class assignments to learn foundational concepts. Class time involves problem-solving and application activities that cultivate higher-level cognitive skills. A systematic, analytical literature review was conducted to explore the FC's current state of the science within higher education. Examination of this model's definition and measures of student performance, student and faculty perceptions revealed an ill-defined educational approach. Few studies confirmed FC effectiveness; many lacked rigorous design, randomized samples, or control of extraneous variables. Few researchers conducted longitudinal studies to determine sufficiently trends related to FC practice. This study proves relevant to nurse educators transitioning from traditional teaching paradigms to learner-centered models, and provides insight from faculty teaching across disciplines around the world. It reveals pertinent findings and identifies current knowledge gaps that call for further inquiry. PMID:26167983
Yore, Larry D.; Bisanz, Gay L.; Hand, Brian M.
This review, written to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the International Journal of Science Education, revealed a period of changes in the theoretical views of the language arts, the perceived roles of language in science education, and the research approaches used to investigate oral and written language in science, science teaching, and learning. The early years were dominated by behavioralist and logico-mathematical interpretations of human learning and by reductionist research approaches, while the later years reflected an applied cognitive science and constructivist interpretations of learning and a wider array of research approaches that recognizes the holistic nature of teaching and learning. The early years focus on coding oral language into categories reflecting source of speech, functional purpose, level of question and response, reading research focused on the readability of textbooks using formulae and the reader's decoding skills, and writing research was not well documented since the advocates for writing in service of learning were grass roots practitioners and many science teachers were using writing as an evaluation technique. The advent of applied cognitive science and the constructivist perspectives ushered in interactive-constructive models of discourse, reading and writing that more clearly revealed the role of language in science and in science teaching and learning. A review of recent research revealed that the quantity and quality of oral interactions were low and unfocused in science classrooms; reading has expanded to consider comprehension strategies, metacognition, sources other than textbooks, and the design of inquiry environments for classrooms; and writing-to-learn science has focused on sequential writing tasks requiring transformation of ideas to enhance science learning. Several promising trends and future research directions flow from the synthesis of this 25-year period of examining the literacy component of science literacy - among them are critical listening and reading of various sources, multi-media presentations and representations, effective debate and argument, quality explanation and the role of information and communication technologies/environments.
Full Text Available It was in 1970s that American linguist S.D. Krashen created the theory of “language acquisition”. And the theories on second language acquisition were proposed based on the study on the second language acquisition process and its rules. Here, the second language acquisition process refers to the process in which a learner with the mastery of his mother language learns another language without its social environment. Due to the close relationship between second language acquisition research and language teaching, the relevant acquisition theories are of great importance for college English teaching, during which teachers are expected to base their teaching on second language acquisition theories to study the rules of college English teaching, to reform the current teaching patterns and methods and to improve teaching quality. This is a significant project to study carefully for college English teachers as well as second language acquisition researchers.
McTigue, Erin; Liew, Jeffrey
Academic self-efficacy contributes to students' motivation and persistence for learning. However, motivation for reading and learning, and students' self-efficacy in school often declines in adolescence. This manuscript presents research-based strategies for facilitating students' motivations within the context of language arts classes.
Agazade, Ali Sidki; Vefali, Gulsen Musayeva
In recent decades, there has been a plethora of studies on language learning strategies (LLS hereafter). However, the research to date has mostly examined students' views on LLS, and there are few studies reflecting teachers' views. In contrast, this study surveyed 257 EFL students and 12 teachers to explore their views on the frequency…
Passow, M. J.; Weissel, J. K.; Cormier, M.; Newman, K. R.
Scientists are passionate about the research problems they investigate, and wish to share their discoveries as widely as possible. Similarly, classroom teachers who are passionate about their subject can better foster student learning. One way to enhance such passions involves bringing teachers and scientists together to discuss cutting-edge discoveries and develop curricular materials based on the respective strengths of educators and investigators. Our presentation describes one example of this approach based on research about gas blowout structures offshore Virginia and North Carolina. Methane venting processes along continental margins may have important climatic, geotechnical, hazard, and resource implications. In 2000, shipboard surveys documented that large structures offshore VA-NC resulted from massive gas expulsion. Gas appears to be trapped in shelf edge deltas and stresses resulting from downslope creep is favoring its release. Scientists undertook a new expedition in 2004 to determine if there is present-day discharge of methane-rich fluids through the floors or walls of the blowouts or whether these seepage sites are relict features, and to gain insight into the origin of the vented methane. In July 2005, 12 teachers from New York and New Jersey met with the co-PIs (Weissel and Cormier), graduate student (Newman), and educational specialist (Passow) over a 2-day workshop to learn about how scientific problems are identified, how a research cruise is organized, what was learned through the measurements and analysis, and what might be possible significant impacts from such understandings. Based on what they learned, participants began development of classroom activities, Internet-based investigations, and constructed-response assessment items utilizing data and concepts from the project and other sources. The resulting curriculum units are designed for use in middle and high school chemistry, physics, earth science, and technology courses. Curricular units include "Using Real-Life Problems to Learn Scientific Principles," "Mapping the Unseen Floors," "Landslide or Not," and a board game based on conducting a scientific research cruise. Materials are available through www.earth2class.org. Over the following academic year, participants will continue to develop instructional materials, field-test them, and provide peer training through in-district and regional professional development opportunities. The scientists and educational specialist will provide support to ensure scientific accuracy and pedagogical soundness. The project will utilize DLESE as an additional effective dissemination and evaluation mechanism. In these ways, the scientists and core of educators may be able to share these discoveries with hundreds of teachers and thousands of students.
Macías, Diego Fernando; Sánchez, Jesús Ariel
This qualitative descriptive study aimed to ascertain the extent to which classroom management constituted a problem among pre-service foreign language teachers in a teacher education program at a public university in Colombia. The study also sought to identify classroom management challenges, the approaches to confronting them, and the…
Iakovos Tsiplakides; Areti Keramida
A growing body of empirical research shows a relationship between student motivation and learning outcomes in the teaching of English in ESL and EFL contexts. Despite a sound theoretical framework, however, there are few studies which implement strategies intended to increase motivation and report findings. Using qualitative research, this article attempts to link theory with practice and shed light into the factors which demotivate students and act as barriers to effective foreign language l...
Stevenson, Alma R.
This qualitative research study examines how Latino/a bilingual students use their linguistic resources in their homeroom classroom and in the science laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school district located in the southwestern part of the United States. The school was chosen based on the criterion that the school is located in an area considered economically depressed, with a predominantly Latino student, school, and neighborhood population. The object of study was a fifth grade bilingual (Spanish/English) classroom where English was the means of instruction. Classroom interaction was examined from a sociolinguistics perspective. The study was descriptive in nature with the objective of analyzing the students' use of their linguistic resources while participating in science learning. The results of this study suggest that the students used their linguistic resources purposefully in order to facilitate their participation in science leaning. In the same manner, it was observed the students' reliance on Spanish as a foundation to enhance their comprehension of the scientific concepts and the dynamics involved in the science lessons, with the purpose of making sense, and thus, to express their understanding (orally and in writing) using their linguistic resources, especially their English language, as it was expected from them. Further, the findings disclose the students' awareness of their own bilingualism, preference for speaking Spanish, and their conceptualization of English as the language to achieve academic success. It has also been observed how the pressure put upon the teacher and the students by the accountability system brings about an implicit bias against Spanish, causing the teacher to assume a paradoxical stance regarding the students' use of Spanish, and thereby, placing the students in an ambivalent position, that might affect, to a certain extent, how students use their Spanish language as a resource to participate in science learning.
María Consuelo Sáiz
Full Text Available An example of research and training of kindergarten’s teachers in the classroom is introduced. Recent research in developmental psychology relate to early childhood skills acquisition proto-mentalist to the development of skills for interacting with objects and people. The results of this study, conducted with 13 children from 15 to 38 months indicated a significant association of social reference (expression skills, identification and recognition of emotions with the pathology (developmental delay, West syndrome, psychomotor impairment, PDD, language delay. Likewise, the data indicate significant correlations between cognitive development and symbolic play, as well as between different areas of development (psychomotor, cognitive, language and socialization.
Lena, Green; Janet, Condy; Agnes, Chigona.
Full Text Available We argue that the "community of inquiry" approach, using reading materials modelled on Lipman's Philosophy for Children programme, is a theoretically justified and teacher-friendly means of promoting effective thinking skills. The stimulus materials, used by the pre-service teachers, consist ofshort [...] stories ofclassroom life designed to elicit children's ideas for further discussion as a community of inquiry. Research has shown that the community of inquiry approach to classroom discussion is perceived positively by educators and teachers and makes a difference to learners. This study explored how the Intermediate and Senior Phase pre-service teachers experienced a classroom community of inquiry by using a qualitative research design with 47 final year pre-service teachers. Data consisted of written reflections from the whole class and recordings of two focus group interviews with selected individuals from the group. From the analysis of the data, the following themes became evident: personal and professional development, changes in learners, contextual concerns, and curriculum links. We conclude that this approach is a valuable addition to the pedagogical strategies of pre-service teachers.
Full Text Available We argue that the "community of inquiry" approach, using reading materials modelled on Lipman's Philosophy for Children programme, is a theoretically justified and teacher-friendly means of promoting effective thinking skills. The stimulus materials, used by the pre-service teachers, consist ofshort stories ofclassroom life designed to elicit children's ideas for further discussion as a community of inquiry. Research has shown that the community of inquiry approach to classroom discussion is perceived positively by educators and teachers and makes a difference to learners. This study explored how the Intermediate and Senior Phase pre-service teachers experienced a classroom community of inquiry by using a qualitative research design with 47 final year pre-service teachers. Data consisted of written reflections from the whole class and recordings of two focus group interviews with selected individuals from the group. From the analysis of the data, the following themes became evident: personal and professional development, changes in learners, contextual concerns, and curriculum links. We conclude that this approach is a valuable addition to the pedagogical strategies of pre-service teachers.
Although the concepts of critical thinking and self-voice have been extensively discussed in a second language writing, little attention has been given, on the pedagogical level, to critical thinking and self-voice in college EFL writing instruction. To fill such a void, this paper attempts to propose some pedagogical tasks namely: persuasive writing tasks, draft workshops one-on-one mentoring approaches for finding a place for critical thinking and self-voice in EFL classrooms. In doing so,...
Corneau, M. J.
Since 2007 I have been a Team Leader for the Tzec Maun Foundation, a non-profit foundation dedicated to providing free, research grade, Internet telescopes to students, teachers and researchers around the world. The name Tzec Maun (pronounced “Teh-Zeck-Moan”) comes from Mayan culture. Tzec Maun was the jovial messenger, laughed at adversity. Based on the challenges students, researchers and professional astronomers face with finances, equipment, and telescope access, the jovial mascot seems to fit. Hundreds of hours performing astronomical outreach as a NASA/JPL Solar System Ambassador and Astronomical League Master of outreach taught me that the best way to inspirationally teach astronomy and space science (and most subjects) is actually being at the eyepiece. I’m NOT a fan of the traditional planetarium experience as a teaching tool because it inhibits inspiration and the learning experience to a 2-D mat on a faux horizon with artificial representations. Once, a student at my dark sky observatory excitedly commented that the night sky was like a 3-D planetarium. I have hosted several classes at my own personal dark sky observatory, but this resource is impractical for all but a few lucky students. Experience has taught me that the next best thing to being at the eyepiece is to control a remote telescope via the Internet. Tzec Maun’s arsenal of telescopes is all research capable, linked to the Internet and positioned for round-the-clock dark skies. The final conditions described above, mean that I can enter an 8:30am science class, log onto the Tzec Maun telescope Portal and turn over control of an Australian system (where it is night) to a student or teacher. Working as a group, the class can either begin their investigations. My Tzec Maun science team (TARP) is engaged in searching for potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs). PHA work excites student and teacher alike. Teaching from telescopes can unleash powerful attention-getting tools that enable teachers to convey moderately complex computer science, optical, geographic, mathematical, informational and physical principles through hands-on telescope operations. In addition to the general studies aspects of classroom internet-based astronomy, Tzec Maun supports real science by enabling operators precisely point telescopes and acquire extremely faint, magnitude 19+ CCD images. Thanks to the creative Team of Photometrica (photometrica.org), my teams now have the ability to process and analyze images online and produce results in short order. Normally, astronomical data analysis packages cost greater than thousands of dollars for single license operations. Free to my team members, Photometrica allows students to upload their data to a cloud computing server and read precise photometric and/or astrometric results. I’m indebted to Michael and Geir for their support. The efficacy of student-based research is well documented. The Council on Undergraduate Research defines student research as, "an inquiry or investigation conducted by an undergraduate that makes an original intellectual or creative contribution to the discipline." (http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/studentresearch/What. Teaching from Tzec Maun in the classroom is the most original teaching research I can imagine. I very much look forward to presenting this program to the convened body.
[None] Sandra S.A.
Full Text Available This action research project aims to understand whether teachers are mastering the knowledge and skills necessary to conduct classroom action research through two courses, Classroom Action Research (CAR and Enhancing Teaching Professional Skills (PKP: Pemantapan Kemampuan Profesional, offered via distance education to Indonesian teachers and to identify areas for possible improvement of both courses. The research was conducted in two urban study centers located in the cities of Bogor and Tangerang in the Indonesian provinces of West Java and Banten. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, questionnaires, and focus group discussions. All data were analyzed for patterns that might offer insight into the problems tutors and teacher-learners were facing as they worked through the Classroom Action Research (PTK: Penelitian Tindakan Kelas module and tutorial. The research team from Indonesia Open University (UT: Universitas Terbuka identified several problematic aspects of each course, including excessive lag time between the first and second courses, insufficient examples of model classroom action research projects, a lack of supervised practice of action research techniques, variability of tutorial quality, and a mismatch between course assessments and the content and purpose of the courses. While the findings of this study focus primarily on two distance courses offered by UT, they offer insight into the challenges of providing in-service teacher development via distance education in the Indonesian context. Key Words: Distance Learning, Classroom Action Research, Teacher Professional Skill
Durán Fernández, Antonio
This research proposes a new model of a Task-Based Didactic Unit while at the same time attempting to demonstrate its effectiveness in the Primary Classroom. The main objective is to find out whether more effective English Language Learning is brought about when we apply Task-Based Didactic Units than when we apply Didactic Units based on the Traditional Approach: Presentation, Practice and Production. In the Post-test, significant differences between the Control Group and the ...
This survey study, which involved 134 language learners enrolled in first-year Chinese as a foreign language classrooms in the US universities, intended to address the research question, "Do learners' strategy use differ based on the following learner differences: (1) gender; (2) home language/culture; and (3) number of other foreign languages…
Coto Keith Rossina
Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo presenta las ventajas de la integración de tres áreas comúnmente estudiadas en la enseñanza de idiomas: Estilos de Aprendizaje, Inteligencias Múltiples y Estrategias para el Aprendizaje de Idiomas. Cada una de estas áreas tiene un papel fundamental en la enseñanza de idiomas y el aprendizaje, pero por lo general se utilizan por separado, o en el mejor de los casos, los y las docentes integran ya sea estilos e inteligencias o estrategias, pero no las tres al mismo tiempo. De hecho, la mayoría de la literatura presenta cada una por separado, dando la idea de que sólo una o dos se pueden utilizar en la clase de idiomas, por lo que en muchas oportunidades se ignoran aspectos fundamentales. La tesis principal del artículo es que, para ser más eficaz, Estilos de Aprendizaje, Inteligencias Múltiples y Estrategias de Aprendizaje deben entrelazarse a fin de crear un pilar sólido para el aprendizaje de idiomas. Primeramente, la autora ofrece una visión general de cada una de estas áreas. Luego en el referente teórico explica cómo estas deben usarse como una unidad, y posteriormente da un ejemplo de esto a través de un plan de clase sobre el tema de la conservación del medio ambiente para un curso de Comunicación Oral I de la carrera de inglés de la Escuela de Lenguas Modernas de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Por último, se ofrecen algunas recomendaciones a los y las instructores sobre la integración de estos pilares en el aula.Abstract: This article presents the advantages of integrating three areas commonly addressed in the teaching of languages: Learning Styles, Multiple Intelligences and Language Learning Strategies. Each of these areas plays a fundamental role when teaching and learning languages, but usually they are used separately or in the best of cases, instructors integrate either styles and intelligences or strategies, but not the three of them at the same time. Indeed, most of the literature presents each separately, giving the idea that only one or two can be used in the language classroom, thus missing some important matters. The point of this article is that in order to be more effective, Learning Styles, Multiple Intelligences and Language Learning Strategies must intertwine, so as to create a solid building block. The author first gives an overview of each of these areas. She then explains in the review of the literature how they should be used as a closely-knit unit. Next, she provides an example of this integration through a lesson plan on the topic of environmental conservation for an Oral Communication course for English majors at School of Modern Languages, University of Costa Rica. Finally, some advice is given to instructors on the incorporation of each of these building blocks.
Cates, Jean T.; Gang, Mark J.
Reports the methods and results of two studies on the successful application of reality therapy (RT) to classroom discipline problems. Results indicate RT is an effective humanizing approach for solving problems. (Author)
Matsuda, Paul Kei; Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Harklau, Linda; Hyland, Ken; Warschauer, Mark
This article is based on an invited colloqium on second language (L) writing presented at the 200 meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics. The colloquium featured five second language writing researchers two discussed some of the important currents that have shaped the field of second language writing. (Author/VWL)
Cullinan, Bernice E.
Reflects on the role of literature in reading instruction. Reviews briefly research on whole language. Discusses the problems and promises of the whole-language approach and the use of children's literature in the classroom. (RS)
Full Text Available Language and education are interrelated because all teaching is given through the medium of language. Language is considered to be both a precondition for thought and a bearer of thought and therefore influences the extent to which a child's intelligence is actualised. In the South African context linguistic diversity is a complex issue. It has increasingly become the task and responsibility of educators to develop strategies in an attempt to facilitate quality education for their learners. In this study, the researchers developed an 'aid' that would assist learners to relate mathematics terms and concepts in English with terms in their own languages. The study determined whether a visual multilingual learner companion brought change in learners' performance in mathematics. Also what the educators' views were about this. A combination of a quasiexperimental study and an interview schedule was conducted. The quasiexperimental study was conducted among learners while the interview schedule was with their educators. The sample comprised 2,348 learners in Grade 4, Grade 5 and Grade 6 from 20 schools as well as 20 educators from the treatment schools. The results indicated that the mathematics marks of the treatment group improved. Also, the educators were complimentary about the learner companion and indicated that they would utilise this going forward in their teaching. It is recommended that the multilingual visual explanatory mathematics learner companion be used and investigated on a larger scale to corroborate the efficacy reported here.
Hendrik, Botes; Andile, Mji.
Full Text Available Language and education are interrelated because all teaching is given through the medium of language. Language is considered to be both a precondition for thought and a bearer of thought and therefore influences the extent to which a child's intelligence is actualised. In the South African context l [...] inguistic diversity is a complex issue. It has increasingly become the task and responsibility of educators to develop strategies in an attempt to facilitate quality education for their learners. In this study, the researchers developed an 'aid' that would assist learners to relate mathematics terms and concepts in English with terms in their own languages. The study determined whether a visual multilingual learner companion brought change in learners' performance in mathematics. Also what the educators' views were about this. A combination of a quasiexperimental study and an interview schedule was conducted. The quasiexperimental study was conducted among learners while the interview schedule was with their educators. The sample comprised 2,348 learners in Grade 4, Grade 5 and Grade 6 from 20 schools as well as 20 educators from the treatment schools. The results indicated that the mathematics marks of the treatment group improved. Also, the educators were complimentary about the learner companion and indicated that they would utilise this going forward in their teaching. It is recommended that the multilingual visual explanatory mathematics learner companion be used and investigated on a larger scale to corroborate the efficacy reported here.
Bridge the gap between content and language and put research into practice to instruct English language learners with strategies that meet their needs in language development and literacy. This must-have book reviews the author's experiences as a teacher in a diverse instructional setting and discusses the challenges and successes teachers experience in the ELL classroom. 200pp.
Full Text Available The article gives information on English language teaching schemes in Indian classrooms for foreign students. The teacher monitors as facilitator and instructor. The trainees were trained in the four macro skills, LSRW. I taught some topics in three skills, namely, writing, listening and reading (just three, not speaking skills to Chinese students in VIT University. The other skill speaking was trained by other teachers among the four. Students were trained to listen to English words and passages, to read the comprehension passages and answer the questions, and to coach basic grammar and revising it. More over, beginners were also guided to learn technical words related to their respective disciplines (major subjects other than English words. For example, Chinese students posed a query to the faculty to explain on technical words and terms of their main subjects in English, for instance, B.Sc Computer Science (under graduate programme students wished to learn about the word data. Since, the English Oxford Dictionary meaning is ‘facts or statistics used for reference or analysis’, but in the field of Computer Science, the word means “information processed by a computer”. So, there arouse a need to help them in distinguishing the different meanings of the word. In addition to, many students were not familiar with English. Thus through the above said way of facilitating, they acquired a good knowledge by varied types of expressions to master their particular subjects. It was a moment to state that they had come from China to India to obtain the nuances of English language. They undertook and were gradually expertised at specific courses in English medium of instruction, perhaps to get degree. Teacher’s a few lesson plans (how the practices are conducted in listening, reading and writing skills as well as some parts in allotted syllabus (listening to songs, passages, writing a paragraph and essay, picture-story writing and write about yourself, reading the passage and writing were discussed in the current paper. Role of the teacher and student were explained in detail. Therefore, the abstract would portray how the beginners were trained, taught, convinced, persuaded and managed by a tutor to reach the goal of English language teaching to Chinese students.
Fiona Elizabeth Oliver
Swearing is a phenomenon that has been overlooked in EFL/ESL classrooms in Iceland and little has been published on the subject. EFL teachers should help pupils learn the use of appropriate language in the appropriate context. This study aimed to investigate teachers’ attitudes and approaches to teaching about swearing and appropriate language use in EFL classrooms in Iceland. In this research paper I examined the sociolinguistics of swearing by discussing taboo language, recalling taboo l...
Doerr, Neriko M.; Sato, Shinji
This article discusses the validity of the incorporation of online communication in language education classes as a practice free of power politics. By examining blog activities in an advanced-level Japanese-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom at a university in the USA, we show that the blog's postings and readers' comments evoke certain modes of…
Yi-chun, Pan; Yi-ching, Pan.
Full Text Available El uso de la lengua materna es una ocurrencia común en los contextos de la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, a pesar de que a veces reciba críticas por su interferencia en la adquisición de la Lengua meta. Mientras que los docentes deben maximizar el uso de la Lengua meta, sin duda, hay espacios pa [...] ra que el profesor utilice la lengua materna de los estudiantes en su pedagogía. En este trabajo se presenta un argumento basado en las perspectivas teóricas y la investigación empírica dentro de la literatura existente, apoyando el uso apropiado de la Lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera. El argumento se centra en tres cuestiones fundamentales-racionales para el uso de la lengua materna: Los efectos positivos que la lengua materna tiene tanto en el aprendizaje y la instrucción de una lengua extranjera, como en las formas en las que la lengua materna ayuda a los docentes de idiomas extranjeros. Abstract in english L1 use is a common occurrence in foreign language teaching contexts despite the fact that it often receives criticism for its interference with target language (TL) acquisition. While foreign language teachers should maximize their use of the TL, there is indeed a place for the teacher to use the st [...] udents' L1 in their pedagogy. In this paper, an argument derived from theoretical perspectives and empirical research within existing literature supporting the appropriate use of L1 in foreign language classrooms is presented. The argument addresses three key issues-rationales for L1 use, positive effects L1 has on both foreign language learning and instruction, and ways that L1 assists instructors on foreign languages.
Nickels, Stefanie; Opitz, Bertram; Steinhauer, Karsten
The loss of brain plasticity after a 'critical period' in childhood has often been argued to prevent late language learners from using the same neurocognitive mechanisms as native speakers and, therefore, from attaining a high level of second language (L2) proficiency [7,11]. However, more recent behavioral and electrophysiological research has challenged this 'Critical Period Hypothesis', demonstrating that even late L2 learners can display native-like performance and brain activation patterns , especially after longer periods of immersion in an L2 environment. Here we use event-related potentials (ERPs) to show that native-like processing can also be observed in the largely under-researched domain of speech prosody - even when L2 learners are exposed to their second language almost exclusively in a classroom setting. Participants listened to spoken sentences whose prosodic boundaries would either cooperate or conflict with the syntactic structure. Previous work had shown that this paradigm is difficult for elderly native speakers, however, German L2 learners of English showed very similar ERP components for on-line prosodic phrasing as well as for prosody-syntax mismatches (garden path effects) as the control group of native speakers. These data suggest that L2 immersion is not always necessary to master complex L2 speech processing in a native-like way. PMID:24141083
Carlous Muluh Nkwetisama
This paper contends that English as a foreign language teaching in the classrooms at all the levels of education is not adapted to the everyday communication needs of the Cameroonian learners and that an English language pedagogy of integration; otherwise known as the outcomes approach or the competency based approach can solve the problem. This approach seeks for linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in the language. In fact, walls seem to exist between the knowledge these learners get i...
The idea for the diploma thesis arouse from the fact that technology and the Internet are still not widely used in the English classroom. When thinking about how to integrate technology in the classroom I was inspired by different web sites which offer a vast variety of authentic as well as ELT-specific materials that can be used in the English classroom. I decided to focus on developing intercultural competence with information and communication technology by extending the intercultural topi...
Language is a primary barrier for international students in library instruction classes. This article reviews the literature on classroom communication from both the second language acquisition and library fields, and suggests ways in which second language acquisition research can be applied to communication with international students in library…
In this article, a survey of current psycholinguistic techniques relevant to second language acquisition (SLA) research is presented. I summarize many of the available methods and discuss their use with particular reference to two critical questions in current SLA research: (1) What does a learner's current knowledge of the second language (L2)…
Podoll, Andrew; Olson, Barry; Montplaisir, Lisa; Schwert, Donald; McVicar, Kim; Comez, Dogan; Martin, William
In 2006, a unique scenario transported eighth-grade Earth science students from the classroom into the cold, dry, pristine surroundings of Antarctica. The mission was to expose the students to hands-on science using satellite telephones, Contact 3.0 software, and some very creative improvisation. In addition, a detailed, well-illustrated blog…
Guo, Ying; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.
This study examined the relations among preschool teachers' self-efficacy (n = 67), classroom quality (instructional and emotional support), and children's (n = 328) gains in print awareness and vocabulary knowledge over an academic year in the US. Results indicated that teachers' self-efficacy and classroom quality served as significant and…
With classroom observation and stimulated recall interviews as research instruments, the present study investigated some of the factors that affected learners' attention to teacher talk in nine English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms. The results revealed five such factors, namely, learners' self evaluation of their language knowledge, the…
Karatsolis, Andreas; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.
Understanding and describing professional practice, especially in Engineering and the Sciences, has always been at the heart of research in Professional Communication. Several significant field research projects have showed us that content knowledge alone is not sufficient to claim disciplinary expertise; a rhetorical understanding of the discipline and its ways of thinking is essential in achieving full participation in the field. Most professionals would expect that such a sophisticated approach can only be learned through on-the-job training or opportunities to interact with practitioners within authentic disciplinary contexts. Although this can certainly be the case in many instances, we argue that a rhetorical understanding can be enacted even within a freshman writing classroom. The results of our content and rhetorical analyses of student work from the beginning and the end of a course on academic writing with the theme of sustainability show that students were able in one semester to write in discipline-appropriate ways and understand the rhetorical strategies necessary to become part of a disciplinary conversation. The implications of our findings can extend into the way we design courses in basic writing or professional communication and the ways we can use pre-assessment data to drive our course design decisions.
Johnson, Joseph A.
This study involved an intervention in which I explored how the multimodal, inquiry-based teaching strategies from a professional development model could be used to meet the educational needs of a group of middle school students, who were refugees, newly arrived in the United States, now residing in a large urban school district in the northeastern United States, and learning English as a second language. This group remains unmentioned throughout the research literature despite the fact that English Language Learners (ELLs) represent the fastest growing group of K-12 students in the United States. The specific needs of this particular group were explored as I attempted daily to confront a variety of obstacles to their science achievement and help to facilitate the development of a scientific discourse. This research was done in an effort to better address the needs of ELLs in general and to inform best practices for teachers to apply across a variety of different cultural and linguistic subgroups. This study is an autoethnographic case study analysis of the practices of the researcher, working in a science classroom, teaching the described group of students.
The study explores the complexities associated with graduate language instructors' NS/NNS identities and teaching of culture. Researchers, who work mainly in the English as a Second/Foreign Language field, have been discussing this divide and have examined the advantages and disadvantages each group brings to the profession, but not the…
van Nes, Fenna; Abma, Tineke; Jonsson, Hans; Deeg, Dorly
This article discusses challenges of language differences in qualitative research, when participants and the main researcher have the same non-English native language and the non-English data lead to an English publication. Challenges of translation are discussed from the perspective that interpretation of meaning is the core of qualitative research. As translation is also an interpretive act, meaning may get lost in the translation process. Recommendations are suggested, aiming to contribute...
Balfour, Robert J.
What emerges repeatedly in research regarding language choice in South Africa is that people negotiate culture, face and identity through more than one language, and balance the need for modernity and the value of tradition, together with awareness that multiculturalism is normative in South Africa. South African scholarship focusing on…
Full Text Available Although the concepts of critical thinking and self-voice have been extensively discussed in a second language writing, little attention has been given, on the pedagogical level, to critical thinking and self-voice in college EFL writing instruction. To fill such a void, this paper attempts to propose some pedagogical tasks namely: persuasive writing tasks, draft workshops one-on-one mentoring approaches for finding a place for critical thinking and self-voice in EFL classrooms. In doing so, this paper provides the operational definitions of critical thinking and self-voice concepts. It then discusses how these two concepts are closely related to complement EFL writing learning. In what follows, it presents the rationale for finding a place for critical thinking and self-voice in EFL writing. It then touches on some pedagogical practices for developing critical thinking and self-voice in classrooms. Lastly, it addresses some challenges related to implementing critical thinking and self-voice tasks in EFL classrooms.
Gengarelly, Lara M.; Abrams, Eleanor D.
Teaching students how to conduct authentic scientific inquiry is an essential aspect of recent science education reform efforts. Our National Science Foundation-funded GK-12 program paired science graduate students—fellows—with secondary science teachers in order to enhance inquiry-based instruction. This research examined the roles of the fellows, teachers, and school culture in the implementation of inquiry and the fellows' conceptions of classroom inquiry versus that in their own research. Qualitative data were collected for two academic years. Overall, the classrooms shifted toward a more inquiry-oriented approach over the academic year. Several aspects of school culture influenced inquiry implementation. Fellows described their research as similar in overall structure but less constrained by known concepts, less guided by mentors, and more in-depth than that of secondary school students. The teacher-fellow scientist partnership is a potentially effective professional development model to create positive and lasting change within the science classroom.
Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie
Using sign language research as an example, we argue that both the cross-linguistic descriptive approach to data, advocated by Evans and Levinson (2009), as well as abstract (‘formal’) analyses are necessary steps towards the development of “neurolinguistic primitives” for investigating how human languages are instantiated in the brain. PMID:20953339
This paper deals with the role of researchers in the development of language policies for European minority languages. This question is placed in the context of a long-standing debate in sociology to which several authors have contributed; among them are Max Weber, Howard Becker and Alvin Gouldner. This article also briefly refers to the European…
The teachers' use of motivational strategies is generally believed to enhance student motivation, yet there is scant empirical evidence to support this claim. This classroom-oriented investigation focused on how the motivational practices of EFL teachers in South Korea related to students' L2 motivation and motivated classroom behavior. In a first phase, the motivation of over 1,300 students was measured by a self-report questionnaire, and the use of motivational strategies by 27 teachers in ...
Full Text Available This study investigated the role of EFL teachers’ classroom discipline strategies in their teaching effectiveness and their students’ motivation and achievement in learning English as a foreign language. 1408 junior high-school students expressed their perceptions of the strategies their English teachers used (punishment, recognition/reward, discussion, involvement, and aggression to discipline the classroom. The students evaluated their teachers’ teaching effectiveness by completing effective Iranian EFL teacher questionnaire (Moafian, & Pishghadam, 2009. They also filled in Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (GhorbanDordinejad & ImamJomeh, 2011 that assessed their motivation towards learning English as a foreign language. Achievement in English was established based on formal grades students received at the end of the academic year. The results showed that EFL teachers reward and praise students for good behavior and they are not very authoritarian. Further, teaching effectiveness, motivation and achievement in learning English were all found to be related to discipline strategies. The results of path analysis showed that those teachers who used involvement and recognition strategies more frequently were perceived to be more effective teachers; however, students perceived teachers who used punitive strategies as being less effective in their teaching. It was also revealed that in classes where teachers managed disruptive behaviors by using punitive strategies, students had problems in learning as punitive strategies lowered students’ motivation. Teaching effectiveness was found to mediate the effect of punishment on motivation while motivation mediated the effect of punitive strategies on achievement. Motivation was found to have the strongest effect on achievement.
Heinz, Solveig M.
Content-based instruction (CBI) has been part of the foreign language curriculum for many years at US colleges, leading to courses that combine language instruction with specific content domains, such as film, literature, politics, sports and many others. This article presents a rather unusual choice of content domain for a second-year language…
Bennett, T. John A.
This article will provide an overview of computers; an overview of the history of CALL, its pros and cons, the internet, World Wide Web, Multimedia, and research related to the uses of computers in the language classroom. Also, it also aims to provide some background for the beginners on using the Internet in language classes today. It discusses some of the common types of Internet activities that are being used today, what the minimum requirements are for using the Internet for language lear...
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Abstract: This article is an assessment of the work the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI has done towards developing the indigenous languages of Zimbabwe. It looks at what the research team at ALRI has achieved, first in initiating serious research on the Zimbabwean languages and the progress it has made towards achieving its goal, developing and raising the status of these languages. It also considers what ALRI has planned for the future of the different categories or levels into which the various Zimbabwean languages have been classified. Part of the assessment focuses on measures ALRI has put in place to ensure the initiated research programme is sustainable and will continue in future. The article furthermore discusses the importance of the research work being done at ALRI, especially with regard to language development as a means towards self-realisation and actualisation, national advancement and the sustenance of the languages involved. ALRI's agenda is also analysed to see how well it agrees with popular thinking in Zimbabwe concerning the development and promotion of all of the indigenous languages.
Keywords: ALRI, CAPACITY BUILDING, INSTITUTIONALISATION, LANGUAGE HAR-MONISATION, LANGUAGE STANDARDISATION, MONOLINGUAL LEXICOGRAPHY, ZIM-BABWEAN LANGUAGES
Opsomming: Die African Languages Research Institute: 'n Mylpaal in die ont-wikkeling van die Zimbabwiese tale. Hierdie artikel is 'n evaluering van die werk wat die African Languages Research Institute (ALRI gedoen het in die ontwikkeling van die inheemse tale van Zimbabwe. Dit kyk na wat die navorsingspan bereik het, eerstens deur ernstige navorsing oor die Zimbabwiese tale te onderneem en die vordering wat gemaak is met die bereiking van sy doel, die ontwikkeling en die statusverhoging van hierdie tale. Dit beskou ook wat ALRI beplan het vir die toekoms van die verskillende kategorieë of vlakke waarin die onderskeie Zimbabwiese tale geklassifiseer is. 'n Deel van die evaluering fokus op maatreëls wat ALRI in plek gestel het om te verseker dat die onderneemde navorsingsprogram volhoubaar is en in die toekoms sal voortgaan. Verder bespreek die artikel die belangrikheid van die navorsingswerk wat by ALRI gedoen word, veral met betrekking tot taalontwikkeling as 'n manier tot selfverwesenliking en -aktualisering, nasionale vooruitgang en die onderhoubaarheid van die betrokke tale. ALRI se agenda word ook ontleed om te sien hoe goed dit ooreenstem met die algemene denke in Zimbabwe betreffende die ontwikkeling en bevordering van al die inheemse tale.
Sleutelwoorde: ALRI, VERMOËNSBOU, INSTITUSIONALISERING, TAALHARMONI-ERING, TAALSTANDAARDISERING, EENTALIGE LEKSIKOGRAFIE, ZIMBABWIESE TALE
Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.
This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…
Pelegrin Garcia, David; Brunskog, Jonas
Teachers adjust their voice levels under different classroom acoustics conditions, even in the absence of background noise. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in order to understand further this relationship and to determine optimum room acoustic conditions for speaking. Under simulated acoustic environments, talkers do modify their voice levels linearly with the measure voice support, and the slope of this relationship is referred to as room effect. The magnitude of the room effect depends highly on the instruction used and on the individuals. Group-wise, the average room effect ranges from 0.93 dB/dB, with free speech, to 0.1 dB/dB with other less demanding communication tasks as reading and talking at short distances. The room effect for some individuals can be as strong as 1.7 dB/dB. A questionnaire investigation showed that the acoustic comfort for talking in classrooms, in the absence of background noise, is correlated to the decay times derived from an impulse response measured from the mouth to the ears of a talker, and that there is a maximum of preference for decay times between 0.4 and 0.5 s. Teachers with self-reported voice problems prefer higher decay times to speak in than their healthy colleagues.
While you don't need to be a scientist to understand brain-compatible teaching, you'll be far more effective when you base your teaching practices on the very best scientific information. This expanded and updated ASCD best-seller delivers that essential information in clear, everyday language that any teacher can immediately incorporate into…
Carlous Muluh Nkwetisama
Full Text Available This paper contends that English as a foreign language teaching in the classrooms at all the levels of education is not adapted to the everyday communication needs of the Cameroonian learners and that an English language pedagogy of integration; otherwise known as the outcomes approach or the competency based approach can solve the problem. This approach seeks for linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in the language. In fact, walls seem to exist between the knowledge these learners get in the classrooms and the implementation of the knowledge in the real world society for which that knowledge is destined. Literature in the domain of attitudes and motivation shows that they are affectively predisposed to learn the language. A critical examination of the syllabus revealed that it spells out laudable learning outcomes or expectations and that it has adequate communicative approach recommendations for a post-methods era English language teacher. But recent literature on classroom teaching holds that English language teaching in Cameroon is a matter of teacher talk and chalk and course books; some of which are not adapted to the learners’ needs and interests
¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera
Sandra Higareda; Georgina López; Gerrard Mugford
Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1) in English Language Teaching (ELT), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of ...
Fostering Intercultural Communicative Competence through Reading Authentic Literary Texts in an Advanced Colombian EFL Classroom: A Constructivist Perspective (Desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa intercultural mediante la lectura de textos literarios auténticos: una perspectiva constructivista)
Gómez, Luis Fernando R.
This article describes an action research experience carried out in an advanced English as a foreign language classroom of the language program at a university in Bogotá, Colombia, in 2010. The study proposes the inclusion of authentic literary texts in the English as a foreign language classroom through the implementation of four constructivist…
Vorobel, Oksana; Kim, Deoksoon
In this paper, we review empirical research on language teaching at a distance, published between 2005 and 2010. After compiling a list of journals, we went through a multi-stage process of analyzing relevant studies. This overview of research is based on twenty-four articles. The content analysis of research studies led our inquiry on topics…
Martin, Peter W.; Espiritu, Clemencia C
Examines how the teacher incorporates elements of both "Bahasa Melayu" and Brunei Malay into content lessons and views code switching in the primary classroom within the wider framework of community language norms and the linguistic pressures on students and teachers. Espiritu shares Martin's concern regarding the quantity and quality of verbal…
Focusing on the topic of the development of the plurilingual and intercultural competence through the integration of electronic communicative practices both in foreign language classrooms and non-formal contexts, this work aims at defining and characterizing, in view of a co-actional perspective, a "pedagogical blog", by considering it…
Full Text Available The purpose of this empirical research is to investigate the relationship between web-based learning time and academic achievement in German. 36 learners of L3 German with L1 Turkish and L2 English from Vocational High School of Kahta at Adiyaman University were the participants of this study. The empirical process of the study continued 6 weeks in 2011-2012 fall semesters. During this time, the German, as tertiary language, course was lectured by traditional face-to-face method in the classroom. But the students studied outside the course the same subjects in interactive form via web page, specifically designed for this study. At the end of the empirical process, the data about the study were obtained. The Pearson product-moment correlation was used to find out the relationship between web-based learning time and academic achievements in German. As a result of this study it is found out that there is a significant relationship between web-based learning time and academic achievement in German as a tertiary language.
Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language Within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English in Central Mexico Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés en el centro de México
Irasema Mora Pablo
Full Text Available The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and learning process. A small number of students do not like the use of the first language in the classroom and prefer that their teachers use the target language only.La presente investigación explora el uso de la lengua materna en un contexto de enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Esta investigación cualitativa presenta la práctica docente y los puntos de vista de maestros y alumnos de francés e inglés en el contexto de una universidad pública del centro de México, mediante el uso de las técnicas del cuestionario y la entrevista semiestructurada. Los resultados muestran que tanto los maestros como la mayoría de los alumnos perciben el uso de la lengua materna como algo positivo en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Un número reducido de estudiantes rechaza el uso de la lengua materna y prefiere que su clase de lengua extranjera sea dirigida exclusivamente en la lengua meta.
Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language Within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico / Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México
Irasema, Mora Pablo; M. Martha, Lengeling; Buenaventura, Rubio Zenil; Troy, Crawford; Douglas, Goodwin.
Full Text Available La presente investigación explora el uso de la lengua materna en un contexto de enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Esta investigación cualitativa presenta la práctica docente y los puntos de vista de maestros y alumnos de francés e inglés en el contexto de una universidad pública del centro de México [...] , mediante el uso de las técnicas del cuestionario y la entrevista semiestructurada. Los resultados muestran que tanto los maestros como la mayoría de los alumnos perciben el uso de la lengua materna como algo positivo en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Un número reducido de estudiantes rechaza el uso de la lengua materna y prefiere que su clase de lengua extranjera sea dirigida exclusivamente en la lengua meta. Abstract in english The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of [...] questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and learning process. A small number of students do not like the use of the first language in the classroom and prefer that their teachers use the target language only.
The author of this book combs through brain research and pulls out the information that is most valid and relevant to classroom teaching. It describes how to enhance students' memory and test-taking abilities and presents ways to captivate and hold students' attention and encourage their participation and progress. This is the first book ever…
Betteley, Pat; Harr, Natalie; Lee, Richard E., Jr.
For six seasons, Richard Lee has included a K-12 teacher on his Antarctic research team to coordinate outreach to U.S. classrooms. These teachers have communicated with thousands of students and their teachers and planned authentic outreach activities to improve student performance. Program success depends on funding by the National Science…
Biel, Carmen; Wake, Jo Dugstad
This Deliverable is the final report on pilot studies within the NEXT-TELL project (D6.7) and furthermore comprises the Deliverable on Classroom Research with STEM and TESL Assessment (D2.9) in order to avoid redundancies between those two Deliverables.
Discusses how the conceptual apparatus and modus operandi of games theory provides a research heuristic for understanding the strategic possibilities inherent in typical classroom situations in which the interests of students and teachers are partially concurrent and partly in conflict. Also discusses the preconditions for contracts between…
Karabenick, Stuart A.
Contributions to this special section represent advances in understanding help seeking as a self-regulated learning strategy that occurs in classrooms, during computer-mediated communications, and when using intelligent systems that provide help to improve learners' help-seeking skills and knowledge acquisition. Collectively, the research and…
Many scientists who research biological control also teach at universities or more informally through cooperative outreach. The purpose of this paper is to review biological control activities for the classroom in four refereed journals, The American Biology Teacher, Journal of Biological Education...
Bates, Rebecca C.
This article describes a three-part classroom guidance lesson that teaches middle school students the definition of sexual harassment, the difference between flirting and sexual harassment, and the harmful effects of sexual harassment. An action research study evaluated the effectiveness of the lessons in decreasing referrals for sexual harassment…
Makarevitch, Irina; Frechette, Cameo; Wiatros, Natalia
Integration of inquiry-based approaches into curriculum is transforming the way science is taught and studied in undergraduate classrooms. Incorporating quantitative reasoning and mathematical skills into authentic biology undergraduate research projects has been shown to benefit students in developing various skills necessary for future…
Burchinal, Margaret; Field, Samuel; Lopez, Michael L.; Howes, Carollee; Pianta, Robert
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships among proportion of instruction in Spanish, observed classroom quality, and preschool-aged children's academic skills. Study participants included 357 Spanish-speaking 4-year-old children who attended state-funded pre-kindergarten programs in 11 states that participated in one of…
Children working alone is a common instructional strategy in some early childhood classrooms. According to foundational work by Johnson and Johnson (1986), however, cooperative teams employ higher levels of thought and retain information longer than children who work individually. Children engage in discussion, take responsibility for their…
Jett-Simpson, Mary; Masland, Susan
Examines what children's own stories reveal about the attributes they assign to females. Discusses the different ways elementary school boys and girls orally completed an unfinished story about a girl wanting to play baseball. Proposes how teachers can help move their students toward a more gender-fair classroom environment by using instructional…
In recent years there has been a growing recognition of the importance of learner autonomy and the role of individual learners in directing their own learning process, both inside and outside the classroom (Alford & Pachler, 2007; Benson, 2000; Breen, 2001; Conacher & Kelly-Holmes, 2007). However, in practice it is not always clear how to support…
Hellermann, John; Cole, Elizabeth
Using conversation analysis and situated learning theory, in this paper we analyze the peer dyadic interactions of one adult learner of English in class periods 16 months apart. The analyses in the paper present microgenetic and longitudinal perspectives on the learner's increasing participation in his classroom communities of practice. The focus…
Full Text Available First language (L1 transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA, and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1 transfer in second language (L2 writing. The paper begins by discussing the different views of L1 transfer and how they have changed over time and then reviews some of the major studies that have examined the role of L1 transfer both as a learning tool and as a communicative strategy in L2 writing. The paper concludes with a number of suggestions for L2 writing instruction and future research.
Incorporating research into a high school classroom is an excellent way to teach students fundamental concepts in science. One program that incorporates this approach is the Waksman Student Scholar Program (WSSP), which allows high school students, teachers and Rutgers professors to work side by side on an ongoing molecular biology research program. Students in the program first isolated plasmid clones from bacteria that contain cDNA fragments of genes from the Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana. They then determined the size of the DNA by performing molecular biology experiments. Students then analyzed the DNA sequence and after review from WSSP staff and high school teachers, the student's sequences were published in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. This was often the last step in the project the students performed. However, if the project were being conducted in a research lab instead of a high school, the cDNA clone would often be further analyzed. In the past, safety, convenience, and affordability have limited the availability of these experiments in a high school setting. Although additional bioinformatic experiments could easily be performed in the high school, there is a strong need for additional "wet lab" experiments to keep the students engaged and motivated to work on the project. I have worked on developing three experimental modules that can be performed in a high school setting. These experiments were tested with the students and teachers of the WSSP. This work will expand the scope of experiments that can be performed in a high school environment.
Mori, Junko; Hasegawa, Atsushi
Encountering trouble producing a word in the midst of a turn at talk is an everyday experience for foreign language learners. By employing conversation analysis (CA) as a central tool for analysis, the current study explores how students undertake a range of word searches while they organize a pair work session designed for the purpose of language…
Anderson, Jim; Chung, Yu-Chiao
There have been moves in a number of countries in recent years to develop appropriate pedagogies for the teaching of community/heritage languages, distinct from foreign language and mother tongue models. At the same time there has been a growing interest in ways of developing learners' creative abilities and there are grounds for believing that an…
Scott, Sally S.; Edwards, Wade
Foreign language learning can pose a barrier to some students with disabilities. This practice brief describes a collaborative process used on one campus to provide professional development for foreign language instructors. Training opportunities were intentionally focused on the needs of adjunct and temporary lecturers in providing inclusive…
Building on contemporary to approaches to narrative theory and analysis, this article examines how university students enrolled in an advanced Spanish-as-a-foreign-language course textually position themselves and are positioned by others as legitimate or illegitimate users of Spanish in the stories they tell about speaking the language outside…
Egorov, Victor V.; Jantassova, Damira D.; Churchill, Natalia
This article discusses the implementation of the "Information and Communication Technologies in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning" course conducted as a component of the pre-service English language teacher training program in the Buketov Karaganda State University, Kazakhstan. The course was introduced in 2003. The central objective of the…
Berg, Helen; Petron, Mary; Greybeck, Barbara
In many schools, an increasing number of students are learning English as their second language. Secondary teachers are faced with the challenge of teaching English Language Learners (ELLs) with little or no training. This article highlights ideas and strategies that teachers can incorporate to make their instruction more effective in meeting the…
Alberta Education, 2008
This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Japanese Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Japanese Language and Culture…
The purpose of this article is to evaluate the applicability of task-based language teaching (TBLT) to state secondary foreign language classes. After discussion of method in general, TBLT is defined and its particularities described. Tasks are assessed as the basis for syllabus and then as the basis for method. In both cases, the proposals are…
Lo, Yi-Hsuan Gloria
This study queried master's level teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (MA TESOL) from Taiwan and Thailand, all of whom received their degrees in the United States, returned home to teach English as a Foreign Language (EFL), then returned to the United States to pursue doctoral degrees. The study examined the extent to which MA TESOL…
Sokol, Alexander; Oget, David; Sonntag, Michel; Khomenko, Nikolai
The given paper presents the results of an empirical study into the efficacy of the Thinking Approach (TA) to language teaching and learning which is aimed at the development of students' inventive thinking skills in the context of foreign language education, namely learning of English. The study was conducted among upper secondary students of two…
Dincer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas; Goksu, Ali
Autonomy is basically described as an individual's taking responsibility for his/her own learning and seen as one of the most significant features of life-long learning process today. Therefore modern language teaching approaches and innovations in this area have made language practitioners focus largely on the concept "autonomy" in educational…
Sakai, Shien; Takagi, Akiko; Chu, Man-Ping
With the advent of communicative language teaching in East Asia, the idea of learner autonomy has become a topic of discussion and a goal among language teachers. The idea of autonomy raises important questions that need to be further explored, particularly in terms of students taking responsibility for learning. While examining the English…
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Abstract: The lexicographic work of the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI has played a significant role in attempting to avoid some of the dilemmas associated with using African languages as media of instruction in the Zimbabwean education system. Monolingual Shona and Ndebele dictionaries, biomedical reference works, dictionaries of musical, literary and linguistic terms as well as children's dictionaries constitute part of ALRI's contribution towards the goal of mainstreaming African languages in the education system. This article is an evaluation of the research activities taking place at ALRI. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that if they receive adequate attention through corpus planning, African languages possess the capacity to play an important role as media of instruction across the entire spectrum of the education curricula in Zimbabwe and elsewhere. The article concludes by observing that, if the efforts of ALRI are to succeed, there is need for the co-operation of all stakeholders in language practice.
Keywords: DICTIONARIES, LEXICOGRAPHY, LEXICOGRAPHER, LEXICOGRAPHIC RESEARCH, INDIGENOUS AFRICAN LANGUAGES, AFRICAN LANGUAGES RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ALRI, EDUCATION, CURRICULUM, MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION, SHONA, NDEBELE, ZIMBABWE
Opsomming: Die rol van die African Languages Research Institute by die hantering van onderrigtaaldilemmas in Zimbabwe. Die leksikografiese werk van die African Languages Research Institute (ALRI het 'n betekenisvolle rol gespeel om sommige van die dilemmas te probeer vermy wat gepaard gaan met die gebruik van Afrikatale as onderrigmedia in die Zimbabwiese opvoedingstelsel. Eentalige Sjona- en Ndebelewoordeboeke, biomediese naslaanwerke, woordeboeke van musiek-, letterkunde- en taalkundeterme sowel as woordeboeke vir kinders maak deel uit van ALRI se bydrae tot die doelwit om Afrikatale in die hoofstroom van die opvoedingstelsel te plaas. Hierdie artikel is 'n beoordeling van die navorsingsaktiwiteite wat by ALRI plaasvind. Die doel van die artikel is om te toon dat, indien hulle voldoende aandag deur korpusbeplanning ontvang, Afrikatale die vermoë besit om 'n belangrike rol as onderrigmedia oor die hele spektrum van die opvoedingsleerplanne in Zimbabwe en elders te speel. Die artikel sluit met die waarneming dat, indien die pogings van ALRI wil slaag, daar behoefte is aan die same-werking van alle belanghebbendes in die taalpraktyk.
Sleutelwoorde: WOORDEBOEKE, LEKSIKOGRAFIE, LEKSIKOGRAAF, LEKSIKO-GRAFIESE NAVORSING, INHEEMSE AFRIKATALE, AFRICAN LANGUAGES RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ALRI, OPVOEDING, LEERPLAN, ONDERRIGMEDIUM, SJONA, NDEBELE, ZIMBABWE
Johansen, Lene Østergaard
Learning mathematics can be seen as learning a foreign language or learning a particular mathematical discourse. Nolte (2004) calls mathematics the students' first second language. The use of language in mathematics teaching, hence the way we talk and the way we write, differ from the way the same words and concepts are used in everyday language or in teaching and learning other subjects. Looking through material for mathematics teaching shows that the students are expected to have a certain level of mathematical ability (ex. being able to count to ten) and a certain level of language ability (ex. understanding the meaning of the words "in front of") when they enter first grade in primary school (Nyborg and Nyborg, 1990). Students who lack these abilities either with regard to mathematics or language are from the beginning of schooling limited in their mathematical performance and in a "risk zone" of developing learning difficulties in mathematics. Teaching the teachers a consciousness for the use of language in mathematics teaching as well as educating them to have a special focus on developing the vocabulary of the students can render the mathematics teaching more inclusive. Furthermore, it may help students with different ethnical background to succeed in mathematics (Johansen; 2007).
Since its inception, the field of second language research has utilized methods from a number of areas, including general linguistics, psychology, education, sociology, anthropology and, recently, neuroscience and corpus linguistics. As the questions and objectives expand, researchers are increasingly pushing methodological boundaries to gain a…
Hancock, Gregory R.; Schoonen, Rob
Although classical statistical techniques have been a valuable tool in second language (L2) research, L2 research questions have started to grow beyond those techniques' capabilities, and indeed are often limited by them. Questions about how complex constructs relate to each other or to constituent subskills, about longitudinal development in…
This paper describes the theoretical framework and the main objectives of the European Comenius project MuViT ñ Multiliteracy Virtual. The project engages primary pupils across the world in multilingual and audiovisual reading and writing processes through the use of information technology resources to enhance multi-literacies, plurilingual awareness and transcultural understanding. The paper first sketches the necessity of a pedagogy of multi-literacies in our classrooms. In a second step it...
Schroeder, Carlotta Dorothy
Equal educational opportunity for English language learners (ELLs) has been a goal of the public educational system in the United States. Language policy reforms have increasedaccountability in order for schools to improve student achievement and measure the progress of ELLs. The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) requires assessment and accountability. In this study, the number of ELLs has increased significantly at the high school level and school district as a whole. Along with the changing demographics, the findings reveal a district-wide policy of equalizing educational opportunity through equal treatment. Language policies provide critical decisions about how to measure what students know in all subjects. The assimilation model limited access to mainstream course content, produced inaccurate assessment results and grades. The science curriculum was only accessible through English and the use of the students' native languages was discouraged. The voices of the students were silenced and their academic achievement continues to lag behind their English-speaking peers.
This study examines, through a qualitative case study approach, how non-native-speaking (NNS) Japanese language teachers in New South Wales (NSW) teach culture and why. The study seeks to understand the pedagogy used to teach culture, teachers’ attitudes and beliefs on teaching culture and how these attitudes and beliefs have been influenced by past experiences. This study also explores how the NSW K-10 Japanese syllabus and concepts of Intercultural Language Learning (IcLL) are being impleme...
The development of learners' communicative competence has been regarded as the major goal of foreign and second language teaching. Several authors have advanced various communicative models in order to better explain how language teaching and learning work (e.g. Canale & Swain, 1980; Canale, 1983; Bachman, 1990; Celce-Murcia et al. 1995; Usó-Juan & Martínez-Flor 2006). One of the elements of the communicative model is that of intercultural competence (Byram, 1997; Usó-Juan & Martínez-Flor, 20...
English language teaching textbooks (or coursebooks) play a central role in the life of a classroom. This edited volume contains research-informed chapters focusing on: analysis of textbook content; how textbooks are used in the classroom; and textbook writers' accounts of the materials writing, design, and publishing process.
A. M. Lucas
To aid in the task of demonstrating that a variety of research questions needs to be addressed, this paper gives a sketch of the functions of modem science education, then uses that sketch to identify topics about which we need research data, and suggests possible implications for practice.
Jost, Lea B; Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K; Pleisch, Georgette; Heusser, Veronica; Brandeis, Daniel; Zevin, Jason D; Maurer, Urs
Learning a foreign language in a natural immersion context with high exposure to the new language has been shown to change the way speech sounds of that language are processed at the neural level. It remains unclear, however, to what extent this is also the case for classroom-based foreign language learning, particularly in children. To this end, we presented a mismatch negativity (MMN) experiment during EEG recordings as part of a longitudinal developmental study: 38 monolingual (Swiss-) German speaking children (7.5 years) were tested shortly before they started to learn English at school and followed up one year later. Moreover, 22 (Swiss-) German adults were recorded. Instead of the originally found positive mismatch response in children, an MMN emerged when applying a high-pass filter of 3 Hz. The overlap of a slow-wave positivity with the MMN indicates that two concurrent mismatch processes were elicited in children. The children's MMN in response to the non-native speech contrast was smaller compared to the native speech contrast irrespective of foreign language learning, suggesting that no additional neural resources were committed to processing the foreign language speech sound after one year of classroom-based learning. PMID:25934634
I use the term the embodied turn to mean the point when interest in the body became established among researchers on language and social interaction, exploiting the greater ease of video-recording. This review paper tracks the growth of "embodiment" in over 400 papers published in Research on Language and Social Interaction from 1987-2013. I consider closely two areas where analysts have confronted challenges, and how they have responded: settling on precise and analytically helpful terminology for the body; and transcribing and representing the body, particularly its temporality and manner.
A study investigated: (1) the distribution of learning styles of students of Japanese as a second language, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, (2) students' preferences for error correction in speaking and writing, as measured by a researcher-developed questionnaire, and (3) relationships between students' learning styles and their…
McEachron, Gail; Bhatti, Ghazala
Global research has shown the persistence of inequality with regard to accessing curriculum with a view to obtaining suitable work and making useful contributions to society. The intersection of race, gender, language and low socio-economic levels creates situations which often marginalize ethnic minorities in school settings (Freire, 1968; Nieto…
Abbadi, Sawsan Omar
In this current era of postmodernity, globalization, and new technological and social conditions, new approaches to literacy teaching are being introduced and examined. Studies that explore complexities of language teaching and learning in discourses of postmodernity as they relate to college contexts are significant for educators, researchers,…
What types of instructional experiences help K-8 students learn science with understanding? What do science educators teachers, teacher leaders, science specialists, professional development staff, curriculum designers, school administrators need to know to create and support such experiences? Ready, Set, Science! guides the way with an account of the groundbreaking and comprehensive synthesis of research into teaching and learning science in kindergarten through eighth grade. Based on the recently released National Research Council report Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8, this book summarizes a rich body of findings from the learning sciences and builds detailed cases of science educators at work to make the implications of research clear, accessible, and stimulating for a broad range of science educators. Ready, Set, Science! is filled with classroom case studies that bring to life the research findings and help readers to replicate success. Most of these stories are based on real classroom experiences that illustrate the complexities that teachers grapple with every day. They show how teachers work to select and design rigorous and engaging instructional tasks, manage classrooms, orchestrate productive discussions with culturally and linguistically diverse groups of students, and help students make their thinking visible using a variety of representational tools. This book is the winner of the Association of Educational Publishers 2008 Distinguished Achievement Award and is an essential resource for science education practitioners and contains information that will be extremely useful to everyone including parents directly or indirectly involved in the teaching of science.
Warburton, J.; Timm, K.; Huffman, L. T.; Peart, L. W.; Hammond, J.; McMahon, E.
Imagine being on the stern of a ship in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of New England as the crew dumps thousands of scallops on the deck, searching the Greenland ice sheet for a remote weather station, or uncovering secrets to past climates as you join an ocean sediment drilling team in Antarctica. So you ask yourself, what would you be doing in all of these places? What you would be doing is what hundreds of educators from around the world have done for over 20 years, participating in field-based Teacher Research Experience (TRE) programs. Teacher Research Experiences involve educators from varying grade levels and backgrounds in hands-on research as a member of a scientific research team. The teacher works side by side with actual research scientists, often on tasks similar to a field assistant or graduate student. As an important member of the research team teachers learn more about science content and the process of science. Subsequently, the educators play a key role in digesting and communicating the science to their students and the general public. TRE programs vary in many ways. Programs take place in a variety of settings-from laboratories to field camps, and from university campuses to aircraft or ships. The primary commonality of the TRE programs in this presentation-PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating), ANDRILL (ANtarctic geological DRILLing) Research Immersion for Science Educators (ARISE); Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) School of Rock (SOR); and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Teacher at Sea (TAS) program-is that these programs provide an authentic field-based research experience for teachers outside of a laboratory setting, frequently in harsh, remote, or unusual settings. In addition, each of these programs is federally funded, possess dedicated program management staff, leverage existing scientific and programmatic resources, and are usually national, and sometimes international, in scope. Sharing their unique lessons learned and program results, authors will describe how TRE's improve and enrich interdisciplinary science education by connecting teachers, researchers, students, and the public around the globe for involvement in scientific research and global issues.
Zwiep, Susan Gomez; Straits, William J.; Stone, Kristin R.; Beltran, Dolores D.; Furtado, Leena
This paper explores one district's attempt to implement a blended science and English Language Development (ELD) elementary program, designed to provide English language learners opportunities to develop proficiency in English through participation in inquiry-based science. This process resulted in blended program that utilized a combined science/ELD lesson plan format to structure and guide teachers' efforts to use science as the context for language development. Data, collected throughout the first 2 years of the program, include teacher-generated lesson plans, observation notes, and interviews with teachers and principals. The process by which the blended program was developed, the initial implementation of the program, the resulting science/ELD lesson plan format, and teachers' perceptions about the program and its impact on their students are described.
Andersson, Ingrid; Rusanganwa, Joseph
This case study examines how a lecturer and a group of students adjust to a request for English-only medium of instruction in tertiary education. The study draws on sociocultural theories considering context and language use as tools for meaning making. Goffman's theories of stage setting and footing are used to analyse how the lecturer positions himself in relation to language use. The findings show that in the observed session the lecturer used code-switching as a tool to extend students’ a...
This research has investigated physical variables affecting indoor thermal comfort and subjective responses of thermal comfort of students in a university in Korea in which the weather is oceanic temperate climate, and has been performed to contribute to the research fields of Sustainable Thermal Standard and Adaptive Thermal Comfort (ATC). This research is based on the ISO 7730-2005 standard and the ATC theories and 4 main variables of PMV such as dry bulb temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH), black bulb temperature (Tg), and air velocity (Va) are measured once a week during two regular semesters. A clothing insulation, a thermal sensation vote (TSV), an acceptability of thermal environment, and a preference for cooling and heating are investigated at the same time using a questionnaire. This study was carried out for 26 weeks during the spring season, from March to June 2009, and the autumn season, from September to December 2009. The main achievements of this study are as follows. Monthly Mean Outdoor Temperature (MMOT) and Operative Temperature (OT) in the classroom during research periods are 7.4?23.3 .deg. C and 17.5?29.0 .deg. C, respectively. The acceptability ratio of thermal environment shows over 80% when the range of OT in the classroom is 17?25 .deg. C, and the range can be applicable to operative index of heating and cooling of classroom. The mean TSV of respondents is almost 'neutral (0)' when the PMV in the classroom moves to 'neutral (0)' and 'slightly cool (-1)', and the TSV is almost '+1.5' when the PMV moves to 'slightly warm (+1)'. The acceptability ratio of thermal environment is slightly different from ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. So it is necessary to more investigate standard range of acceptability of thermal environment in oceanic temperate climate region using much more databases
Sutton, Rosemary E.
Cognition, motivation, and emotions are recognized by psychologists as the three fundamental classes of mental operations, yet most research in educational psychology has focused on the first two classes. Educational psychology textbooks for preservice teachers contain chapters on learning, problem solving, assessment, and motivation, but not on…
Rosen, Jeffrey A.; Glennie, Elizabeth J.; Dalton, Ben W.; Lennon, Jean M.; Bozick, Robert N.
This book provides an overview of recent research on the relationship between noncognitive attributes (motivation, self efficacy, resilience) and academic outcomes (such as grades or test scores). The authors focus primarily on how these sets of attributes are measured and how they relate to important academic outcomes. Noncognitive attributes are…
Full Text Available Globalization has made cross-cultural communication a necessity. The mobility of people and the contact between countries have greatly increased cross-cultural communication. Intercultural awareness has become a prerequisite for successful cross-cultural communication. Intercultural awareness is required if a foreign language learner is to achieve the intercultural communication competence, which is now considered to be the major goal of foreign language learning. Intercultural communication competence is multi-dimensional in nature, implicating not only the linguistic competence, but also the power of perceiving and interpreting socio-cultural events, and the behavioral ability of coping independently with cross-cultural encounters. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of how language and culture are dealt with from a cross-cultural perspective, to discuss concerns with defining norms and standards for foreign language learning raised by this perspective, and to consider how to foster the intercultural communication competence by pedagogical approaches that integrate current understandings and researches of language, culture and learning into their curricular and instructional designs.Key words: Intercultural awareness; Intercultural communication competence; Language and culture; Socio-cultural perspective; Curriculum design
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and the National Standards for Foreign Language Education have several areas of commonality: (1) both standards have the goal that all students, by the end of 12th grade, will have the skills they need to be successful world citizens; (2) the literacy skills that are found in the Common Core are the same…
Andersson, Ingrid; Rusanganwa, Joseph
This case study examines how a lecturer and a group of students adjust to a request for English-only medium of instruction in tertiary education. The study draws on sociocultural theories considering context and language use as tools for meaning making. Goffman's theories of stage setting and footing are used to analyse how the lecturer positions…
Reach all of your English language learners with the effective and engaging approaches in this book. It's filled with practical tools, strategies, and real-world vignettes that will help you teach reading and writing to a diverse student population. The book features "Mental Energizers," aptitudes that will help sustain your commitment as you work…
Richmond, Edmun B.; Wallace-Childers, La Donna
An attempt was made to develop a visual display device which would produce a phonemic standard representation of foreign speech sounds to which language learners could match their productions. A system utilizing commercially-built amateur radio equipment was developed to produce such a standard. (Author)
Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie M.
This paper reports on a Talking Circle of six beginning Aboriginal teachers who discussed their roles as teachers. Participants criticized teacher education programs for not preparing them to teach in ways that are respectful of Aboriginal languages and culture. They discussed the importance of coming to know themselves and their culture. The…
Zeppieri, Rosanne; Russel, Priscilla
In elementary schools around the United States, children learn in text-rich environments with literacy a primary goal of instruction, whether the instruction is in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, or Spanish. Nonetheless, second language instruction is often overlooked as a vehicle for building students' reading, writing, speaking,…
Rivers, Damian J.
Within the Japanese English Language Teaching context and consistent with the dominant conversation role assigned to the native English speaker teacher, there exists a belief that the most effective manner in which to teach and promote multilingualism and intercultural understanding is through restricting students to monolingual practices and…
Chung, Kevin K. H.; Ho, Connie S. H.
Dyslexia appears to be the most prevalent disability of students with special educational needs in many mainstream classes, affecting around 9.7% of the school population in Hong Kong. The education of these students is therefore of great concern to the community. In the present paper research into dyslexia in the Chinese language is briefly…
Robinson, Peter, Ed.; Sawyer, Mark, Ed.; Ross, Steven, Ed.
This collection of papers includes the following: "Second Language Acquisition Research in Japan: Theoretical Issues" (Peter Robinson, Mark Sawyer, and Steven Ross); (2) "Focus on Form: Implicit and Explicit Form Focused Instruction Incorporated into a Communicative Task" (Hitoshi Muranoi); (3) "A Task that Works for Negotiation of Meaning"…
Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Cameron, Lynne
Changes to research methodology motivated by the adoption of a complexity theory perspective on language development are considered. The dynamic, nonlinear, and open nature of complex systems, together with their tendency toward self-organization and interaction across levels and timescales, requires changes in traditional views of the functions…
Jones, Gareth J. F.
Language and multimedia technology research often relies on large manually constructed datasets for training or evaluation of algorithms and systems. Constructing these datasets is often expensive with significant challenges in terms of recruitment of personnel to carry out the work. Crowdsourcing methods using scalable pools of workers available on-demand offers a flexible means of rapid low-cost construction of many of these datasets to support existing research requirements and potentia...
Full Text Available This article describes what happened when a bilingual kindergarten class in West Liberty, Iowa, investigated a combine. The dual-language program supports content area instruction in both Spanish and English. The first part of the article tells the story of the Combine Project, this class's first project work. The story begins with a typical kindergarten field trip to a farm and ends with a parent night to show a combine constructed by the kindergartners. The second part of the article discusses the teacher's reflections on learning how to guide projects. Reflections by the teacher include relating kindergarten goals to projects, supporting second-language learners, involving parents, and including children with special needs.
Clarissa Menezes Jordão; Francisco Carlos Fogaça
This paper reports the experience of developing teaching materials for public school teachers and students in southern Brazil in a project funded by the Education Department of Paraná State. The materials were intended as resources to be used by teachers according to their needs and those of their local communities, rather than as a textbook per se. The theory underlying this project is based on critical literacy and the idea that language is discourse, i.e. embedded in cultural and ideologic...
Manchón, Rosa María
This paper focuses on one criterial aspect of learner autonomy generally referred to as 'learner training'. More specifically, the aim of the paper is to review both the proposals suggesting a beneficial effect of training learners in the use of one specific group of language- use strategies known as Communication Strategies (CS), and the suggestions concerning how to implement such training. As a broader aim, the paper presents an assessment of the proposals previously reviewed in the light ...
Whittinghill, K. A.
Models allow scientists and others to represent features and behaviors of environmental systems in order to promote inquiry, develop insights, test hypotheses, and consider solutions to problems. Environmental modeling also offers a way to include independent research on environmental issues in undergraduate classes, especially during winter when outdoor labs are more difficult. I will present on an Environmental Studies Topics course on Environmental Modeling taught at St. Olaf College during interim, including student feedback. The class used primary literature and hands on experiences with computer models to introduce environmentally relevant modeling tools. Topics covered in readings, lectures, or student presentations included process based models of disease, climate, ice, ecosystems, ecosystem services, hydrology, predator-prey systems, and competition among species for resources. Students conducted student-designed original research projects either by developing their own environmental model or by using existing models. Students participating in the class were environmental studies, economics, biology, math, or physics majors, although the class was open to all students who were "comfortable thinking quantitatively". No prior programming experience was required as a prerequisite, although students who had previous experience with R or Matlab were able to design more complex models. The students were graded on their class participation in discussions, several modeling "checkpoint" assignments designed to monitor progress, and on 4 in-class presentations designed to foster a collaborative atmosphere and improve communication skills. While the course was taught over a month-long interim "semester", students were evenly divided in their feedback about whether they would prefer the course in that format or in a semester-long format.
Full Text Available This paper offers an exploration of current research and related practice in boys’ literacy development, interprets key findings in the literature, and further explores some of the complex dilemmas and debates related to the ‘gender gap’ – i.e., differences between the achievement of boys and girls in this area. In conclusion, the authors suggest that governments, policy-makers, administrators, teachers and parents all need to closely examine and consider available research-based strategies and classroom interventions that can effectively support both boys and girls in their literacy development.
Burgoyne, Ursula; Hull, Oksana
"Classroom Management Strategies to Address the Needs of Sudanese Refugee Learners" (ED499673) examined the extent to which English language, literacy and numeracy teachers used classroom management strategies to meet the needs of adult Sudanese refugee learners. The researchers found that while teachers met the needs of these learners insofar as…
George, Nathan R.; Göksun, Tilbe; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick
Linguistics, psychology, and neuroscience all have rich histories in language research. Crosstalk among these disciplines, as realized in studies of phonology, is pivotal for understanding a fundamental challenge for first and second language learners (SLLs): learning verbs. Linguistic and behavioral research with monolinguals suggests that infants attend to foundational event components (e.g., path, manner). Language then heightens or dampens attention to these components as children map wor...
Passow, M.; Iturrino, G. J.; Baggio, F. D.; Assumpcao, C. M.
The Earth2Class (E2C) workshops, held at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), provide an effective model for improving knowledge, teaching, and technology skills of middle and high school science educators through ongoing interactions with research scientists and educational technology. With support from an NSF GeoEd grant, E2C has developed monthly workshops, web-based resources, and summer institutes in which classroom teachers and research scientists have produced exemplar curriculum materials about a wide variety of cutting-edge geoscience investigations suitable for dissemination to teachers and students. Some of the goals of this program are focused to address questions such as: (1) What aspects of the E2C format and educational technology most effectively connect research discoveries with classroom teachers and their students? (2) What benefits result through interactions among teachers from highly diverse districts and backgrounds with research scientists, and what benefits do the scientists gain from participation? (3) How can the E2C format serve as a model for other research institution-school district partnerships as a mechanism for broader dissemination of scientific discoveries? E2C workshops have linked LDEO scientists from diverse research specialties-seismology, marine geology, paleoclimatology, ocean drilling, dendrochronology, remote sensing, impact craters, and others-with teachers from schools in the New York metropolitan area. Through the workshops, we have trained teachers to enhance content knowledge in the Earth Sciences and develop skills to incorporate new technologies. We have made a special effort to increase the teaching competency of K-12 Earth Sciences educators serving in schools with high numbers of students from underrepresented groups, thereby providing greater role models to attract students into science and math careers. E2C sponsored Earth Science Teachers Conferences, bringing together educators from New York and New Jersey to consider challenges facing classroom teachers trying to incorporate recent research discoveries into the curriculum. Their efforts led to creating web-based resources that provide succinct statements of core concepts, essential vocabulary lists, selected labs, activities, and links to Internet sites providing scientific information that may not be incorporated into textbooks for years. The E2C web site (www.earth2class.org), has become an important resource for Earth Science educators. It provides an effective format for disseminating results of scientific research to teachers and students through a workshop section that includes an introduction, links to scientific discoveries, and suggestions for classroom applications. The educational resources section provides extensive curricular materials, including lesson plans, classroom activities, and links to state and national Science Education Standards. Overall, E2C seeks to make significant contributions to national efforts for creating networks of science researchers working with classroom teachers and teacher-trainers seeking effective methods for innovative instructional techniques, problem-solving strategies, and professional development, as well as meeting the challenges of state and national mandates.
Pappas, Christine C.; Varelas, Maria
This article presents a review of the author's long-term research in urban classrooms. The authors explore six illustrated information books created by children as culminating activities of integrated science-literacy units, Forest and Matter, that they developed, implemented, and studied in several 1st-3rd grade classrooms in Chicago Public…
Goruk, B.; Byrne, J. M.
The research community primarily communicates internally through papers, books and other forms of print publication. Researchers typically depend upon the media to pick up on research important to policymakers, planners, managers and society at large. However in recent decades, there has been a major failure in this communication process as the media has become much less objective and far more opinionated; often contributing more confusion than clarity. We argue that the research community should be much more active in communicating work to sectors of society most in need of the knowledge. Members of society do not read research publications - we essentially speak different languages. Researchers have to reach out to society in a communication form that works for the listeners. We put forward a range of examples using new media to communicate climate change research results to society.
Segalowitz, Norman; Kehayia, Eva
There is growing interest in language barriers in health care (LBHC)--interest, that is, in how the quality of health care service delivery might be compromised when patients and health care providers do not share the same first language. This article discusses LBHC as an emerging research area that provides valuable opportunities for researchers…
Full Text Available Dans la classe de langue étrangère, les étudiants apprennent les conventions d’usage de la langue-cible (L2 et passent des tests dans les domaines suivants : lexique, phonétique, grammaire, stylistique, composition, etc. Mais dans la situation de communication authentique et interculturelle, tout le monde fait des erreurs qui résultent de deux ou plusieurs jeux de conventions superposées et utilisées simultanément. Les tâches des co-participants s’avèrent difficiles car il faut, en même temps, d’une part, communiquer en utilisant des expressions (non-, para- linguistiques adéquates, compréhensibles pour l’autre et, d’autre part, interpréter des signes, tout en sachant que l’interlocuteur peut se baser sur des conventions qui peuvent être communes ou « déviantes ».Dans cette contribution, l’auteur veut élaborer des catégories linguistiques et interactionnelles importantes pour maîtriser des situations interculturelles non enseignées dans la classe de langue. L’accent sera mis sur la tendance observée à interpréter les conventions non congruentes comme l’expression d’un état psychologique de l’autre. Dans ces cas d’erreur fondamentale d’attribution, les co-participants négligent la dimension linguistique en attribuant toute expression inattendue à un « fait » psychologique individuel, situationnel ou culturel.Foreign language learners do learn conventions of use of the target language (L2 and are tested in subjects such as lexicon, phonetics, grammar, stylistics, writing skills, etc. However, in real cross-cultural communication situations, everyone commits “errors” due to two or several sets of linguistic conventions, juxtaposed and used simultaneously. Co-participants’ tasks end up being difficult : they must simultaneously firstly communicate by using appropriate and understandable linguistic, non-linguistic and paralinguistic expressions, and secondly, interpret signs which they know that the speaker may refer to shared or unconventional, “misconstrued” L2-conventions.In this paper, the author will elaborate linguistic and interactional categories in order to overcome cross-cultural situations not taught in the language classroom and focus on the trend among speakers in intercultural situations to interpret “deviant” and L2-influenced conventions as expressions of a psychological state. Here, fundamental attribution errors become apparent : co-participants ignore the linguistic dimensions of interpersonal and intercultural interaction by attributing any unexpected “pieces of talk” to individual, situated or cultural psychological categories.
Makarevitch, Irina; Frechette, Cameo; Wiatros, Natalia
Integration of inquiry-based approaches into curriculum is transforming the way science is taught and studied in undergraduate classrooms. Incorporating quantitative reasoning and mathematical skills into authentic biology undergraduate research projects has been shown to benefit students in developing various skills necessary for future scientists and to attract students to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. While large-scale data analysis became an essential part of modern biological research, students have few opportunities to engage in analysis of large biological data sets. RNA-seq analysis, a tool that allows precise measurement of the level of gene expression for all genes in a genome, revolutionized molecular biology and provides ample opportunities for engaging students in authentic research. We developed, implemented, and assessed a series of authentic research laboratory exercises incorporating a large data RNA-seq analysis into an introductory undergraduate classroom. Our laboratory series is focused on analyzing gene expression changes in response to abiotic stress in maize seedlings; however, it could be easily adapted to the analysis of any other biological system with available RNA-seq data. Objective and subjective assessment of student learning demonstrated gains in understanding important biological concepts and in skills related to the process of science. PMID:26163561
Araya Araya, Karla
Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo se propone esclarecer la importancia y la función que juegan los materiales didácticos –desde los planteamientos de la pedagogía crítica– en la conformación y desarrollo del proceso de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de una lengua. Más allá de la función instrumentalista que suele asignarse a los materiales didácticos, en el presente trabajo éstos se visualizan como construcciones discursivas que pueden facultar la apropiación del pensamiento basada en el desarrollo de habilidades lingüísticas que reflejen un discurso crítico ante los diferentes reclamos (problemas históricos a los que estudiantes se ven expuestos dentro y fuera del aula. Para tal propósito, se realiza una revisión conceptual-teórica sobre la importancia y la función que los materiales tienen en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de una lengua. Bajo una perspectiva crítica, se aborda el tema de los materiales didácticos y la construcción de la motivación así como el tema de ideología y materiales didácticos. Finalmente, se concluye que en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de una lengua, los materiales didácticos son reproductores y reproducciones discursivas e ideológicas de ciertas realidades que pueden ofrecer visiones de mundo basadas en los intereses de clases dominantes si no se abordan desde posturas críticas.Abstract: The aim of this article is to state the importance teaching materials have in developing a language teaching-learning process based on the principles of the critical thinking pedagogy. From this perspective, this work questions the traditional conceptions and notions related to instruments of access assigned to materials. They are conceived as discursive constructions that can, or cannot, help to empower students with a critical discourse in order to promote a significant change in their attitudes towards the social, political and economical problems they face every day. To support this position, a conceptual study about theoretical assumptions related to the importance and the role teaching materials have in the language teaching-learning process has been carried out. Also, there is a general analysis regarding the relationship among teaching materials, motivation and ideology. Finally, it can be concluded that materials are reproductions and constructors of certain discursive and ideological realities that usually favor the interests of the dominant classes. That is why a critical position about the role teaching materials have is necessary to prevent the reproduction of prejudices and common sense assumptions about language and society.
The relationship between identity, lived experience, sexual practices and the language through which these are conveyed has been widely debated in sexuality literature. For example, ‘coming out’ has famously been conceptualised as a ‘speech act’ (Sedgwick 1990) and as a collective narrative (Plummer 1995), while a growing concern for individuals’ diverse identifications in relations to their sexual and gender practices has produced interesting research focusing on linguistic practices among ...
Rosalba Cárdenas Ramos; Fanny Hernández Gaviria; Omaira Vergara Luján
This article intends to share the experience of a group of teachers in the Classroom Research Seminar of the Teacher Development Program in English carried out at Universidad del Valle, Cali , from January to June, 2007. The seminar was part of a high-level in-service program for teachers of English of a network of private educational institutions. We would like to share the highlights and difficulties of the experience. We will start with the general framework of the program and the concept ...
It is well recognized that science and technology and the quality of scientifically trained manpower crucially determines the development and economic growth of nations and the future of humankind. At the same time, there is growing global concern about flight of talent from physics in particular, and the need to make physics teaching and learning effective and careers in physics attractive. This presentation presents the findings of seminal physics education research on students' learning that are impacting global praxis and motivating changes in content, context, instruments, and ways of teaching and learning physics, focusing on active learning environments that integrate the use of a variety of resources to create experiences that are both hands-on and minds-on. Initiatives to bring about innovative changes in a university system are described, including a triadic model that entails indigenous development of PHYSARE using low-cost technologies. Transfer of pedagogic innovations into the formal classroom is facilitated by professional development programs that provide experiential learning of research-based innovative teaching practices, catalyze the process of reflection through classroom research, and establish a collaborative network of teachers empowered to usher radical transformation.
Full Text Available This paper reports on an experience carried out with second course students of the School of Aeronautical Engineers at the Polytechnic University of Madrid in the subject class Modern Technical Language. In the previous years the problem in that class had been the scarce participation of the students in the oral practices. They seemed to be lead and exclusively represented by a few students when it came to oral participation. The students proposed tackling recent research articles in which opinions could be discussed. The reading of these articles has risen new elements that work as language activators in the language classroom: critical reading and thinking have developed participation in the oral activities and produced a noticeable influence on their scientific and humanist thinking and behavior.From this, we may extract the consequence that the experience is not only related to scientific knowledge, since it has made them better speakers or speaking-counterparts and more class-participating and collaborative, which implies that the human, scientific and linguistic factors progress at the same time through the critical experience. This way, the exposition of their critical ideas has developed both their humanism and scientific mind. These two facets which seem to belong to far away fields become a bond in our experience: the process is scientific since it tries to be a systematic study of the knowledge fleshed in written texts and it is also humanist because it fulfils the students need to grow up as persons, that is absorbing knowledge and processing it in order to produce a new personal approach to the world.
The present paper discusses three types of research perspective on the insider-outsider continuum: outsider research, (insider's) outsider research, and insider research. It examines the essential features of the insider-outsider distinction with reference to categories such as researcher, students, classroom context, contribution, control of…
GLORIA J. SNIVELY
Full Text Available Following the work of contemporary thinkers, we propose that every culture has its own science and that both indigenous and western science knowledge systems are valuable and have been useful to the cultures developing them. Because a valid interpretation of scientific literacy must be consistent with a prevailing image of science and rapid changes taking place in society, we propose more inclusive definitions and metaphors of science literacy. Science literacy for Aboriginal people must reflect a broad cultural approach that recognizes the unique way Aboriginal people live and present their experience and knowledge. Literacy programs from an Aboriginal perspective must go beyond reading, writing, and numeracy to include oracy – stories, songs, dances, symbols, ceremonies. Science literacy from an Aboriginal perspective involves being knowledgeable about the extensive examples and applications of Aboriginal science knowledge, as well as western science knowledge, and science discourse about the nature of science. Literacy also includes the wisdom component of Aboriginal science, which brings the discussion of values and ethics to science and technology and requires sustaining both community and environment. Aboriginal languages serve as storehouses of experience and perspectives that help main-tain cultural identity, resist assimilation, and interpret the relationship between society and environment.
AlrØ, Helle; Skovsmose, Ole
Students' motives for learning mathematics cannot be understood by looking solely at mathematical classroom activities. We discuss this claim in a multicultural context using the notion of 'landscapes of learning'. This notion serves as a theoretical and methodological tool that both defines a research perspective and sketches a field of empirical research. In this paper we want to focus on the notion and illustrate its usefulness when researching mathematical learning in multicultural contexts. We draw on data and results of an empirical study on student’s foregrounds with 45 teenage students in two 8th grade multicultural classes in Denmark. We show the dialectical relationship between each dimension of the landscape and the whole of it; and how, as a whole, it can help us coming closer to better theorisations.
Mohammad Emdadul Huda
It is now argued that a very close relationship exists between culture and learning, and that learners can learn better if the way of their learning corresponds to the cultural features of their society. Taking this argument into account, many linguists, teachers and researchers now suggest that language teaching-learning practices in the classroom should be based on learners’ culture. They argue that if there is a harmony between the mode of teaching-learning activities in the classroom and ...
Casado, Banghwa Lee; Negi, Nalini Junko; Hong, Michin
Despite the growing number of language minorities, foreign-born individuals with limited English proficiency, this population has been largely left out of social work research, often due to methodological challenges involved in conducting research with this population. Whereas the professional standard calls for cultural competence, a discussion…
Waters, Anna Jeddeloh
Research has identified language impairment as a pervasive disability (Bishop & Edmundson, 1987; Greenhalgh & Strong, 2001). Classroom communication behaviors have a role in the maintenance of special education eligibility and functional communication difficulties for young children with language impairment. This paper reviews the…
Bringing experts into our schools allows for highly engaging lessons, encourages career thinking, adds authenticity to the topic, and allows student's questions to be answered by experts. Researchers can physically visit classrooms or appear through presentation technologies, such as Skype, or Google Hangouts. Virtual visits allow students to see laboratories and field sites. Collaborating with scientists builds the connective tissue that helps all educators and our students learn more deeply. When K-12 teachers collaborate with scientists and graduate students, teachers learn more science, and scientists learn more teaching. This growth of background knowledge is a win-win situation and helps us meet the expectations of the Common Core State Standards. Teachers need to feel encouraged to contact their local or regional scientists for support. Reaching out into the universities to make contact with polar scientists or graduate students is a good place to start. Building professional networks allows PI's to address the 'broader impact' requirement on many grant applications, and helps spread the university's work in the polar regions out to the general public. These collaborations also give teachers expert insights and current data to build authentic lessons, and excite their students to seek careers in the sciences. This presentation will focus on three completed interactive opportunities I have built with researchers in my classroom. Students adding daily sediment to their sediment core, after communications from the field with scientist Heidi Roop in Alaska.
Kumagai, Yuri; Iwasaki, Noriko
Questioning the traditional reading instruction that overly emphasizes literal comprehension of texts, one of the authors conducted action research and revised her advanced-level Japanese reading course at a university by incorporating some principles from critical literacy. The "critical reading" course aimed at developing students' ability to…
This study worked to develop the sociolinguistic competence of college learners of first-year Spanish using input enhancement techniques that required learners to actively view video. Research shows that native speakers are more sensitive to sociolinguistic errors than to grammatical errors made by nonnative speakers. Therefore, the study…
Creese, Angela; Blackledge, Adrian; Takhi, Jaspreet Kaur
This article presents a linguistic ethnographic study of a Panjabi complementary school in Birmingham, UK. Researchers observed classes for one academic year, writing field notes, conducting interviews, and making digital audio recordings of linguistic interactions. Sets of beliefs about the production and deployment of certain linguistic signs…
Luke, Christopher L.
This article focuses on a qualitative teacher research project with a fourth-semester university Spanish class that emphasized inquiry-based learning. One of the primary objectives of the class was to increase learner autonomy through self-selected inquiries, self-directed learning activities, and curricular negotiation. Multiple data sources were…
Knutson, Elizabeth M.
In describing reading proficiency--the relative difficulty or ease that an individual reader experiences reading a particular text--researchers have recognized the importance of both text- and reader-based factors. This digest focuses on the factor of purpose, as determined by the reader or the instructional context. Having a purpose means having…
Blair, Heather A.; Paskemin, Donna; Laderoute, Barbara
This paper discusses the context of indigenous language education in western Canada, the hope of language revitalization, and the role of the Canadian Indigenous Languages and Literacy Development Institute (CILLDI) in reclaiming and stabilizing these languages. CILLDI was established in 1999 by a collective of language advocates and educators who…
Cohen, E.; Peart, L. W.
Many science teachers start the year off with classroom safety topics. Annual repetition helps with mastery of this important and basic knowledge, while helping schools to meet their legal obligations for safe lab science. Although these lessons are necessary, they are often topical, rarely authentic and relatively dull. Interesting connections can, however, be drawn between the importance of safety in science classrooms and the importance of safety in academic laboratories, fieldwork, shipboard research, and commercial research. Teachers can leverage these connections through live video interactions with scientists in the field, thereby creating an authentic learning environment. During the School of Rock 2009, a professional teacher research experience aboard the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's research vessel JOIDES Resolution, safety and nature-of-science curricula were created to help address this need. By experimenting with various topics and locations on the ship that were accessible and applicable to middle school learning, 43 highly visual "safety signs" and activities were identified and presented "live" by graduate students, teachers, scientists; the ship's mates, doctor and technical staff. Students were exposed to realistic science process skills along with safety content from the world's only riserless, deep-sea drilling research vessel. The once-in-a-lifetime experience caused the students' eyes to brighten behind their safety glasses, especially as they recognized the same eye wash station and safety gear they have to wear and attended a ship's fire and safety drill along side scientists in hard hats and personal floatation devices. This collaborative and replicable live vide approach will connect basic safety content and nature-of-science process skills for a memorable and authentic learning experience for students.
Rydland, Veslemøy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grøver; Fulland, Helene
This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global Warming Test) consisting of multiple lengthy texts. The sample included 67 language-minority students (native Urdu or native Turkish speakers) from 21 d...
Clarissa Menezes, Jordão; Francisco Carlos, Fogaça.
Full Text Available Este artigo relata uma experiência de desenvolvimento de materiais didáticos para alunos de escolas públicas no sul do Brasil, em um projeto financiado pela SEED - Secretaria de Estado da Educação do Paraná. Os materiais foram pensados como recursos a serem utilizados pelos professores de acordo com [...] suas necessidades locais, ao invés de constituírem-se simplesmente em um livro didático. A teoria subjacente ao projeto está baseada no letramento crítico e na concepção da língua como discurso, ou seja, uma língua repleta de valores culturais e ideológicos, os quais determinam significados e estabelecem relações de poder entre textos, entre leitores e entre textos e seus leitores, em sintonia com o conceito freiriano de palavramundo - "wor(l)d". Os alunos leitores são, nesse sentido, coprodutores de significados e responsáveis por dar sentido à realidade. Esperamos que alunos e professores, que venham a utilizar os materiais que elaboramos, se tornem mais cientes de suas possibilidades como agentes e, desse modo, pretendemos estimular um sentido de cidadania ativa tanto em alunos quanto em professores. Abstract in english This paper reports the experience of developing teaching materials for public school teachers and students in southern Brazil in a project funded by the Education Department of Paraná State. The materials were intended as resources to be used by teachers according to their needs and those of their l [...] ocal communities, rather than as a textbook per se. The theory underlying this project is based on critical literacy and the idea that language is discourse, i.e. embedded in cultural and ideological values which determine its meaning and establish power relations among texts, among readers and among texts and their readers - Freirean "readers of the wor(l)d". Student-readers are, in this sense, co-constructors of meanings and responsible for making sense of reality. We expect students and teachers who use the materials we designed to become more aware of their possibilities as agents and this way we intend to foster a sense of active citizenship.
Lin, Tzu-Bin; Wu, Chiao-Wen
After introducing new curriculum guidelines during education reform, the Taiwan Ministry of Education has taken the lead in integrating a communicative approach into the new English language curriculum. Task-based language teaching (TBLT) is viewed as a realisation of communicative language teaching and is one of the most popular English language…
The Impact of a Professional Development Program on English Language Teachers' Classroom Performance / El impacto de un programa de desarrollo profesional en el desempeño en clase de profesores de lengua inglesa
Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación-acción en un programa de desarrollo profesional y su impacto en el desempeño de clase de profesores de inglés de un instituto de lenguas de una universidad pública colombiana. Para recoger los datos se utilizaron cuestionarios, entrev [...] istas, observaciones de clase y el diario del investigador. Los resultados sugieren mejorías en el desempeño de los docentes, ya que la enseñanza fue más comunicativa, organizada, atenta a las necesidades de los estudiantes y basada en principios. La teoría, la práctica, la reflexión y el papel desempeñado por el tutor se combinaron de manera efectiva para ayudar a los profesores a mejorar. Se concluye que los programas de desarrollo profesional deben planearse con base en las filosofías y necesidades de los profesores y articular la teoría, la práctica, la experiencia y la reflexión de manera más efectiva. Abstract in english This article reports the findings of an action research study on a professional development program and its impact on the classroom performance of in-service English teachers who worked at a language institute of a Colombian state university. Questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, class observa [...] tions, and a researcher's journal were used as data collection instruments. Findings suggest that these in-service teachers improved their classroom performance as their teaching became more communicative, organized, attentive to students' needs, and principled. In addition, theory, practice, reflection, and the role of the tutor combined effectively to help the in-service teachers improve classroom performance. It was concluded that these programs must be based on teachers' philosophies and needs and effectively articulate theory, practice, experience, and reflection.
Burgoyne, Ursula; Hull, Oksana
This document presents the methodology and literature review for the research report "Classroom Management Strategies to Address the Needs of Sudanese Refugee Learners" (ED499673), which examined the extent to which English language, literacy and numeracy teachers used classroom management strategies to meet the needs of adult Sudanese refugee…
Hill, Laura A.
Students who are classified as ESOL at the secondary level may face various factors that prevent participation in class thus inhibiting second language acquisition. The purpose of the study was to determine if asynchronous discussions (ASD) affected the second language acquisition of secondary ESOL students. The researcher examined the effects of…
Milner, K.; Becker, T. W.; Boschi, L.; Sain, J.; Schorlemmer, D.; Waterhouse, H.
The Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software framework to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. SEATREE is open source and community developed, distributed freely under the GNU General Public License. It is a fully contained package that lets users operate in a graphical mode, while giving more advanced users the opportunity to view and modify the source code. Top level graphical user interfaces which initiate the calculations and visualize results, are written in the Python programming language using an object-oriented, modern design. Results are plotted with either Matlab-like Python libraries, or SEATREE’s own Generic Mapping Tools wrapper. The underlying computational codes used to produce the results can be written in any programming language and accessed through Python wrappers. There are currently four fully developed science modules for SEATREE: (1) HC is a global geodynamics tool based on a semi-analytical mantle-circulation program based on work by B. Steinberger, Becker, and C. O'Neill. HC can compute velocities and tractions for global, spherical Stokes flow and radial viscosity variations. HC is fast enough to be used for classroom instruction, for example to let students interactively explore the role of radial viscosity variations for global geopotential (geoid) anomalies. (2) ConMan wraps Scott King’s 2D finite element mantle convection code, allowing users to quickly observe how modifications to input parameters affect heat flow over time. As seismology modules, SEATREE includes, (3), Larry, a global, surface wave phase-velocity inversion tool and, (4), Syn2D, a Cartesian tomography teaching tool for ray-theory wave propagation in synthetic, arbitrary velocity structure in the presence of noise. Both underlying programs were contributed by Boschi. Using Syn2D, students can explore, for example, how well a given input structure (e.g., a checkerboard pattern) will be resolved by data for different types of earthquake-receiver geometries. Additionally, Larry3D, a three-dimensional seismic tomography tool contributed by Boschi, and NonLinLoc, a nonlinear earthquake relocation tool by Anthony Lomax, are both under development. The goal of all of the implemented modules is to aid in teaching research techniques, while remaining flexible enough for use in true research applications. In the long run, SEATREE may contribute to new ways of sharing scientific research, making published (numerical) experiments truly reproducible again. SEATREE can be downloaded as a package from http://geosys.usc.edu/projects/seatree/wiki/, and users can also subscribe to our Subversion project page. The software is designed to run on GNU/Linux based platforms and has also been successfully run on Mac OS-X. Our poster will present the four currently implemented modules, along with our design philosophies and implementation details.
Full Text Available In this report, we provide a brief discussion of syntactic priming and how this methodology has provided insight into issues of syntactic representation, specifically in terms of the autonomy of syntax and the relationship between production and perception in syntactic representation. We present results from studies related to syntactic priming in bilinguals and second/foreign language learners that focus on the ways in which syntactic priming can illuminate the representation of syntax in acquisition and bilingual grammar. Finally, we suggest further paths of research using this methodology.
Reed, D. L.
The growth of the cyberinfrastructure provides new opportunities for students and instructors to place data- driven, classroom and laboratory exercises in the context of an integrated research project. Undergraduate majors in a classroom section of the applied geophysics course at SJSU use Google Earth to first visualize the geomorphic expression of the Silver Creek fault in the foothills of the eastern Santa Clara Valley in order to identify key research questions regarding the northward projection of the fault beneath the valley floor, near downtown San Jose. The 3-D visualization, both regionally and locally, plays a key element in establishing the overall framework of the research. Students then plan a seismic hazards study in an urban environment, which is the primary focus of the class, using satellite imagery to locate specific stations along a geophysical transect crossing the inferred location of the fault. Geophysical modeling along the transect combines field-based data acquisition by members of the class with regional geophysical data, downloaded from an online USGS database. Students carry out all aspects of the research from project planning, to data acquisition and analysis, report writing, and an oral presentation of the results. In contrast, online courses present special challenges as students may become frustrated navigating complex user interfaces, sometimes employed in research-driven online databases, and not achieve the desired learning outcomes. Consequently, an alternate approach, implemented in an online oceanography course, is for the instructor to first extract research data from online databases, build visualizations, and then place the learning objects in the context of a virtual oceanographic research expedition. Several examples of this approach, to engage students in the experience of oceanographic research, will be presented, including seafloor mapping studies around the Golden Gate and across the major ocean basins, using data obtained in part through the use of the Marine Geoscience Data System and GeoMapApp. Students also locate and undertake submersible dives inside hydrothermal vents using visualizations provided by the OceanExplorer program and New Millennium Observatory of NOAA/PMEL. Other learning activities include participation, at least virtually, in an iron fertilization experiment in the Southern Ocean (SOFeX) and the development of a model of surface circulation using data from the Global Drifter Program and the National Data Buoy Center. One factor contributing to student learning is to establish a research context for the class early on, so that students become engaged in a sense of exploration, testing and discovery.
Wiley, Emily A.; Stover, Nicholas A.
Use of inquiry-based research modules in the classroom has soared over recent years, largely in response to national calls for teaching that provides experience with scientific processes and methodologies. To increase the visibility of in-class studies among interested researchers and to strengthen their impact on student learning, we have extended the typical model of inquiry-based labs to include a means for targeted dissemination of student-generated discoveries. This initiative required: 1) creating a set of research-based lab activities with the potential to yield results that a particular scientific community would find useful and 2) developing a means for immediate sharing of student-generated results. Working toward these goals, we designed guides for course-based research aimed to fulfill the need for functional annotation of the Tetrahymena thermophila genome, and developed an interactive Web database that links directly to the official Tetrahymena Genome Database for immediate, targeted dissemination of student discoveries. This combination of research via the course modules and the opportunity for students to immediately “publish” their novel results on a Web database actively used by outside scientists culminated in a motivational tool that enhanced students’ efforts to engage the scientific process and pursue additional research opportunities beyond the course. PMID:24591511
Full Text Available This study explores the close relationship between language and culture. Nowadays, the issue of human communication is one of the most important subjects occupying the minds of linguists, anthropologists, psychologists, and philosophers. .Since it is the most important means for communication among human beings, the relation between language, culture, and their mutual interactions have high significance. The inextricable connection highlights various manifestations of conventionalized language including the idiomatic expressions as one of the important and pervasive language uses reflecting culture in real life. Like other types of figurative language, idioms appear to be the natural decoders of customs, cultural beliefs, social conventions, and norms. Idioms, as a major component of native-like communication, enable a language learner to understand the thoughts, emotions and views of the speakers of target language. For this reason, learning idioms provides learners with a significant chance to acquire information about the underlying parameters of a language. Awareness of figurative language particularly idioms will improve teaching and assist learners to have better communication strategies. Otherwise, accurate and appropriate target language use and understanding will be at risk and the learners will tend to transfer their native language conceptual structure which will most probably be inappropriate. The strong relationship among the language, culture, and the figurative branch of the language especially idioms need particular attention in language learning since it appears to have inadequate research. Therefore, a systematic knowledge of language and culture integration inside and beyond the classroom setting can be built up.
Jader Martins, Rodrigues Junior; Izabel, Magalhães.
Full Text Available Resumo: O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar o discurso em uma sala de aula de nível iniciante em escola de língua estrangeira. Para tanto, apresentamos uma breve revisão do conceito de discurso ( FOUCAULT, 1996 2008 FAIRCLOUGH, 2003 2010 MAINGUENEAU, 2008 ), também abordando os conceitos [...] do dialogismo bakhtiniano (2011) e da interincompreensão regulada de Maingueneau (2008 ). Nessa esteira adotamos, em nossa metodologia de análise, a teoria social do discurso ( FAIRCLOUGH, 2001 ), bem como as considerações de Blommaert (2005 ) sobre a natureza dialógica da comunicação. Dessa forma, pretendemos estabelecer a ancoragem teórico-metodológica que norteia nossa análise das amostras de eventos comunicativos. Como resultado da análise, concluímos que as relações interdiscursivas que se realizam nessa sala de aula são controladas entre os participantes da interação, conforme as metas estabelecidas no programa do curso, gerando uma dialogicidade inter-regulada de acordo com o plano de ensino. Abstract in spanish Resumen: Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar el discurso en una sala de aula de nivel iniciante, en escuela de lengua extranjera. Así, presentamos una breve revisión del concepto de discurso ( FOUCAULT, 1996 2008 FAIRCLOUGH, 2003 2010 MAINGUENEAU, 2008 ), abordando también los conceptos del di [...] alogismo de Bajtín (2011) y de la inter-incomprensión regulada de Maingueneau (2008 ). En ese camino, adoptamos como metodología de análisis la teoría social del discurso ( FAIRCLOUGH, 2001 ), y las consideraciones de Blommaert (2005 ) sobre la naturaleza dialógica de la comunicación. Además, pretendemos establecer el anclaje teórico-metodológico que sirve de norte para nuestro análisis de las muestras de eventos comunicativos. Como resultado del análisis, concluimos que las relaciones inter-discursivas que se realizan en esa sala de aula son controladas entre los participantes de la interacción, de acuerdo con las metas establecidas en el programa del curso, generando una dialogicidad inter-regulada conforme el plan de enseñanza. Abstract in english Abstract: The present work aims at analysing the discourse of a beginner's foreign language classroom. To do so, we present a brief review of the concept of discourse ( FOUCAULT, 1996 2008 FAIRCLOUGH, 2003 2010 MAINGUENEAU, 2008 ), bringing to our discussion the Bakhtinian (2011 ) principle of dialo [...] gism, and the concept of regulated inter-incomprehension ( MAINGUENEAU, 2008 ). For the analysis, our methodology is based on the social theory of discourse ( FAIRCLOUGH, 2001 ), as well as Blommaert's (2005 ) considerations on the dialogic nature of meaning. Thus, we propose to set the theoretical and methodological basis guiding our analysis of samples of communicative events. As a result of the analysis, we conclude that the interdiscursive relations which take place in this classroom are regulated in interaction, according to the goals set in the course program, generating an inter-regulated dialogue in accordance with the teaching plan.
Pierce, D.; Radencic, S.; Funderburk, W. K.; Walker, R. M.; Jackson, B. S.; Dawkins, K. S.; Schmitz, D.; Bruce, L. M.; McNeal, K.
INSPIRE, a five-year partnership between Mississippi State University and three local school districts, is designed to strengthen the communication skills of graduate Fellows in geosciences, physics, astronomy, chemistry, and engineering as they incorporate their research into inquiry-based lessons in 7th - 12th grade science and math classrooms. All lesson plans designed and taught by the graduate Fellows must include one or more connections to their research, and these connections must be demonstrated to the students during the lessons. International research partnerships with Australia, the Bahamas, England, and Poland provide valuable opportunities for graduate Fellows to conduct field work abroad and allow our partner teachers to have authentic research experiences that they can bring back to their classrooms. Program effectiveness has been examined using pre- and post-year attitudinal surveys, formal lesson plan documents, Fellow and teacher journals, focus group meetings with a project evaluator, and direct observation of Fellow-led classroom activities. Analyses of data gathered during the past four years of the partnership will be presented that examine the diversity in approaches taken by Fellows to communicate big ideas, changes in the ability of Fellows to find connections between their research and classroom lessons while keeping them aligned with state and national standards, and the quality of the mentorship provided to the Fellows by our partner teachers. INSPIRE is funded by the Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellowship Program of the National Science Foundation (Award No. DGE-0947419).
This presentation will focus on the experiences of a middle school science teacher from Brownsville, TX who attended the NSF-funded Research Based Science Education program during the summer of 2000. RBSE, sponsored by the National Optical Astronomy Observatories based in Tucson, AZ, provided attending teachers the opportunity to interact with and receive instruction from professional astronomers, both at the NOAO facility in Tucson, and at the Kitt Peak Observatory. Teachers were provided with raw astronomical data collected by astronomers and then trained in the use of image processing software for data analysis. Upon returning to the classroom in Brownsville, a research-based after school program was initiated by the teacher for four interested students. The students were given background on the research projects, taught to use the software, and then developed their own research questions in each of the three areas of RBSE: a search for novae in the Andromeda galaxy; an analysis of the number and area of sunspots; and an investigation into spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei. Students came to the classroom after school daily during a large part of the year and generally would work for one to two hours processing and analyzing data. Completed research projects were presented in a variety of formats including: competition at the Brownsville School District, Rio Grande Valley Regional, and Texas State science fairs; publication of professional-style research articles in the RBSE journal; and poster presentations at Research Day at the University of Texas-Brownsville. The students have won numerous awards at all levels of Science Fair competition, have been the subject of three local newspaper articles, and two of them have accelerated their academics to the point of graduating from high school in only two years and have received full college scholarship offers. The students today credit their RBSE experience with increasing their interest level in science, helping them to understand the scientific method and research, and developing the self-confidence that has enabled them to pursue greater academic and personal goals.
This article will provide an overview of computers; an overview of the history of CALL, itspros and cons, the internet, World Wide Web, Multimedia, and research related to the uses of computers in the language classroom. Also, it also aims to provide some background for the beginnerson using the Internet in language classes today. It discusses some of the common types of Internetactivities that are being used today, what the minimum requirements are for using the Internet forlanguage learning...
Lu, Fong-Mei; ELICEIRI, KEVIN W.; Stewart, James; White, John G
The utilization of biology research resources, coupled with a “learning by inquiry” approach, has great potential to aid students in gaining an understanding of fundamental biological principles. To help realize this potential, we have developed a Web portal for undergraduate biology education, WormClassroom.org, based on current research resources of a model research organism, Caenorhabditis elegans. This portal is intended to serve as a resource gateway for students to learn biological conc...
Graffi, Paige Valderrama; Stefanov, William; Willis, Kim; Runco, Sue
Teachers in today s classrooms are bound by state required skills, education standards, and high stakes testing. How can they gain skills and confidence to replace units or individual activities with curriculum that incorporates project and inquiry-based learning and promotes authentic research in the classroom? The key to promoting classroom authentic research experiences lies in educator professional development that is structured around teacher needs. The Expedition Earth and Beyond Program is a new geosciences program based at the NASA Johnson Space Center designed to engage, inspire and educate teachers and students in grades 5-14. The program promotes authentic research experiences for classrooms and uses strategies that will help NASA reach its education goals while still allowing educators to teach required standards. Teachers will have access to experts in terrestrial and planetary remote sensing and geoscience; this will enhance their use of content, structure, and relevant experiences to gain the confidence and skills they need to actively engage students in authentic research experiences. Integrated and powerful educational strategies are used to build skills and confidence in teachers. The strategies are as follows: 1) creating Standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources as ready-to-use materials that can be modified by teachers to fit their unique classroom situation; 2) providing ongoing professional development opportunities that focus on active experiences using curricular materials, inquiry-based techniques and expanding content knowledge; 3) connecting science experts to classrooms to deepen content knowledge and provide relevance to classroom activities and real world applications; 4) facilitating students sharing research with their peers and scientists reinforcing their active participation and contributions to research. These components of the Expedition Earth and Beyond Education Program will be enhanced by providing exciting and diverse research opportunities that are inspired by views of Earth from space taken by astronauts on board the International Space Station. The interest and connection to viewing our home planet from space will inevitably spark questions that will drive students to pursue their research investigations, as well as forming a basis for comparisons to the exploration of other planetary bodies in our solar system.
Ehrensberger-Dow, Maureen; Jekat, Susanne J.
The two pilot studies described in this article, both part of a larger on-going project investigating multilingualism in a translation context, deal with separation of languages in translation students. At the same time, they demonstrate how multilingualism research can be integrated into the translation classroom. Within the framework of Grosjean's model (1997, 1998, 2001), the first study tests the influence on translation performance of preferentially activating one of the languages for th...
Gardner, Robert C.; Smythe, Padric C.
A two-year research project was conducted to investigate factors that promote second language acquisition and to monitor changes in these factors associated with increased training and proficiency in the second language. Two French programs in London, Ontario second language program beginning in grade 7 and the secondary school French program in…
Osborn, Terry A.; Reagan, Timothy G.; Freiberg, Jo Ann
When the International Society for Language Studies (ISLS) was founded in 2002 and the journal that is now "Critical Inquiry in Language Studies (CILS)" was in the planning stages, we recognized a need for an interdisciplinary, or perhaps even transdisciplinary (see Kaufman, Moss, & Osborn, 2003), venue for the publication of research on language…
Linck, Jared A.; Cunnings, Ian
Second language acquisition researchers often face particular challenges when attempting to generalize study findings to the wider learner population. For example, language learners constitute a heterogeneous group, and it is not always clear how a study's findings may generalize to other individuals who may differ in terms of language background…
Chun, Christian W
This book examines how critical literacy pedagogy has been implemented in a classroom through a year-long collaboration between the author (a researcher) and an EAP teacher. It details the teacher's introduction to functional grammar and accompanying critical literacy approaches to EAP, and her growing critical language and discourse awareness of power and meaning making in the classroom. The book traces her evolving classroom practices and addresses how powerful discourses in social circulation found their way into the classroom via the curriculum materials the students encountered. The main
Finnish youth are found to be, despite their broad knowledge, uninterested in politics and in societal participation. As a remedy, international studies suggest enabling democratic experiences in schools. This article discusses an action research project aimed at developing deliberation-based democratic practice in an elementary classroom. Results…
Agarwal, Pooja K.; Bain, Patrice M.; Chamberlain, Roger W.
Over the course of a 5-year applied research project with more than 1,400 middle school students, evidence from a number of studies revealed that retrieval practice in authentic classroom settings improves long-term learning (Agarwal et al. 2009; McDaniel et al., "Journal of Educational Psychology" 103:399-414, 2011; McDaniel et al. 2012; Roediger…
Bess Renee Neal 1980
This study is a result of experimenting with the use of drama to teach English as a foreign language in Iceland with special attention placed on a mixed-ability classroom environment. It begins with a comprehensive review of research pertaining to the use of drama for the instruction of English as a foreign language. It then examines my experience in the classroom through personal observation and unstructured interviews. The discussion focuses on the main benefits to using drama in the EFL cl...
Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas
Josefina Quintero Corzo
Full Text Available Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razones que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artículo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación.
Chen Jing; Smith Helen J; Liu Xiaoyun
Abstract In collaborative qualitative research in Asia, data are usually collected in the national language, and this poses challenges for analysis. Translation of transcripts to a language common to the whole research team is time consuming and expensive; meaning can easily be lost in translation; and validity of the data may be compromised in this process. We draw on several published examples from public health research conducted in mainland China, to highlight how language can influence r...
Full Text Available This paper explores some initial findings from a multi-site, classroom-based case study research project into English as a Second Language (ESL literacy provision to very low-literate adult learners within Australia’s Language, Literacy and Numeracy Program (LLNP. The aim of the research is to report on the researcher’s observations of teachers’ pedagogical practices and to investigate the extent to which they are responsive to learners’ developing and multiple identities.
Chang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Gwo-Dong
Elementary school is the critical stage during which the development of listening comprehension and oral abilities in language acquisition occur, especially with a foreign language. However, the current foreign language instructors often adopt one-way teaching, and the learning environment lacks any interactive instructional media with which to…
Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Eng, Wong Kim; Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Hamzah, Mohd Izham Mohd; Hamid, Aida Hanim A.
This paper attempts to explore and identify the characteristics of an effective teacher who teaches English as a second language to 10 year old students from different ethnics, various social economic background and multi-level language ability, at a private primary school in Malaysia. The study focused on classroom management using a case study…
Full Text Available Using an ethnographic case study design, this study investigates language learners' socialization into the cultural values of Uzbek language. Informed by a language socialization theoretical framework, the study focuses on the classroom routines and interactions that socialize students into certain social values through mini-lectures that are beyond the linguistic objectives of the curriculum. The research questions addressed are: What social values are being taught implicitly or explicitly? What cultural values are students being socialized into? What constitutes valuable cultural knowledge as claimed by the teacher? In the audio and video recorded observation data, a selected excerpt of typical classroom interactions is analyzed adopting discourse analysis methods. The findings of the study could be implemented in teacher education programs and in designing textbooks and curriculum for less commonly taught languages.
van der Veen, Wil E.; Moody, T.
What types of instructional experiences help students learn and understand science? What do professional development providers and curriculum designers need to know to create and support such experiences? Ready, Set, Science! is a book that provides a practical and accessible account of current research about teaching and learning science. Based on the groundbreaking National Research Council report "Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8” (2006), the book reviews principles derived from the latest educational research and applies them to effective teaching practice. Ready, Set, Science! is a MUST READ for everyone involved in K-12 education, or creating products intended for K-12 use. We will review Ready, Set, Science!'s new vision of science in education, its most important recommendations, and its implications for the place of astronomy in K-12 classrooms. We will review some useful suggestions on how to make student thinking visible and report on how we have put this into practice with teachers. We will engage the audience in a brief interactive demonstration of specific questioning techniques described in the book that help to make student thinking visible.
Muhammad Aslam Sipra
This study is an investigation into the contribution of the use of bilingualism as an aid in learning/teaching English as a foreign language and bilingualism in EFL classroom does not reduce students’ communicative abilities but in effect can assist in teaching and learning process. The study employed a qualitative, interpretive research design involving questionnaires, classroom observations and semi-structured interviews. The data part analyzed the students and the teachers’ expressed respo...
EDITED BY ANNE BURNS AND HELEN DE SILVA JOYCE National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2005, 77pp, ISBN 1 74138 103 7 This is the most recent book in a series that deals with teaching and learning in the classroom. The specific focus of this book is the explicit support of reading and writing in adult ESL teaching, investigated through classroom projects within the framework of an action research approach. It consists of three s...
As part of the Australian Antarctic Division, Classroom Antarctica gives dozens of downloadable Adobe Acrobat files that allow students to discover this unique continent. Subjects include the history of the scientific research undertaken on Antarctica, surviving its climate, its biological ecosystem, the land's physical characteristics and affects on climate, and much more.
[eng] "Teachers' Reactions to Foreign Language Learner Output" BY: Leticia Vicente-Rasoamalala TEXT: A series of theoretical and practical educational studies have suggested that learners need teacher assistance to progress in their learning. Therefore, a considerable amount of language classroom research has been concerned with the study of teacher activities, especially those focusing on their instructional methods. In an attempt to contribute to this research area, the general objective of...
Symons, C. M.; Helly, M.; Staudigel, H.; Koppers, A.; Reining, J.; Helly, J.; Miller, S.
The ERESE Project (Enduring Resources for Earth Science Education) has hosted 10-15 teachers during a two-week workshop at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) each of the last two summers. The workshop is a concentrated introduction to the resources available on two National Science Digital Library collections maintained at SIO - http://www.EarthRef.org and http://www.SIOExplorer.ucsd.edu. The workshop is run by a team of scientists from SIO, the San Diego Supercomputer Center and a Lead Educator who is also a classroom teacher. This year three teachers from the first year were invited to return to serve as mentors. During the first week of the workshop teachers play the role of student while a lead scientist plays the role of teacher. The students (aka, teachers) analyze maps of seafloor magnetic anomalies to investigate plate tectonic problems. The magnetic data were collected onboard Scripps ships and are archived at SIOExplorer.ucsd.edu. Technical content lessons were designed to introduce the resource matrices on EarthRef.org, how to upload and download classroom lessons within the collection, SIOExplorer's CruiseViewer (portal to over 600 archived cruises) and Mozilla Browser and Composer for building lessons using our inquiry template. The inquiry lesson templates model scientific inquiry and help to streamline lesson design, enactment and sharing. They reference local, state and national standards in order to increase their appeal to a broad audience. The most valuable feature of hosting an on-campus workshop was that participants were afforded the opportunity to collaborate with scientists and research staff on a daily basis. More than 15 guest speakers addressed the teachers, some of whom led guided tours of their respective research facilities and collections. Guest speakers shared data, lecture notes and engaging "sea stories" all of which painted a picture of life as a research earth scientist. Combining their workshop experience in the role of student, the technical content lessons, the inquiry based pedagogical model and daily collaboration with scientists, the teachers developed plate tectonic lessons using resources from EarthRef.org and SIOExplorer.ucsd.edu. Following implementation during the fall semester teachers will add them to the existing collection of lessons at EarthRef.org.
Abeysekera, Lakmal; Dawson, Phillip
Flipped classroom approaches remove the traditional transmissive lecture and replace it with active in-class tasks and pre-/post-class work. Despite the popularity of these approaches in the media, Google search, and casual hallway chats, there is very little evidence of effectiveness or consistency in understanding what a flipped classroom…
Jellison, Judith; Brown, Laura; Draper, Ellary
Contemporary music classrooms include a beautiful mosaic of individual children from diverse backgrounds, children who vary considerably in their capabilities, interests, and levels of motivation. Some of the variations we observe are related to social skills and knowledge. The effects of appropriate classroom behavior and positive social…
Cleary, Anne M.
College instructors are increasingly relying on wireless clicker systems as instructional tools in the classroom. Instructors commonly use clicker systems for such classroom activities as taking attendance, giving quizzes, and taking opinion polls. However, these systems are uniquely well suited for the teaching of psychology and other courses…
Marina V. Kostina
Full Text Available In the United States, teaching less commonly taught languages has been a very challenging task due to low student enrollment and the high costs of hiring permanent teaching faculty. Therefore, webbased distance learning (DL is beginning to attract serious attention from the less commonly taught languages profession (Fleming, Hiple and Du, 2002. However, DL classes are often associated with student isolation, where learners are deprived of non-verbal clues, vocal expression, and eye contact that are crucial for foreign language learning (White, 2005. Thus, working in a more isolated context requires higher learner autonomy (White, 2005. This article provides a review of literature on autonomy that exists in the foreign language field, and describes four aspects of autonomy that need to be considered by language teachers while developing their web-based courses. It also offers some practical suggestions for the less commonly taught language instructors that foster autonomy and decrease isolation online.
Smeh, Kathy; Fawns, Rod
Although peer-based work is encouraged by theories in developmental psychology and although classroom interventions suggest it is effective, there are grounds for recognising that young pupils find collaborative learning hard to sustain. Discontinuities in collaborative skill during development have been suggested as one interpretation. Theory and research have neglected situational continuities that the teacher may provide in management of formal and informal collaborations. This experimental study, with the collaboration of the science faculty in one urban secondary college, investigated the effect of two role attribution strategies on communication in peer groups of different gender composition in three parallel Year 8 science classes. The group were set a problem that required them to design an experiment to compare the thermal insulating properties of two different materials. This presents the data collected and key findings, and reviews the findings from previous parallel studies that have employed the same research design in different school settings. The results confirm the effectiveness of social role attribution strategies in teacher management of communication in peer-based work.
Hanauer, David I.; Englander, Karen
This article provides quantitative data to establish the relative, perceived burden of writing research articles in English as a second language. Previous qualitative research has shown that scientists writing English in a second language face difficulties but has not established parameters for the degree of this difficulty. A total of 141…
Hine, A. C.; Greely, T.; Lodge, A.
The Center for Integrated Modeling & Analysis of Gulf Ecosystems (C-IMAGE) is one of eight consortia participating in the BP/Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative. C-IMAGE is a comprehensive research consortium of 13 national and international universities tasked with evaluating the environmental impacts of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (DWH) on coastal ecosystems, the water column and the sea floor. The associated C-IMAGE research cruises provide a unique opportunity for Florida's K12 science educators to participate in the data collection and collaboration process alongside marine scientists as a member of the scientific crew. The mission of the C-IMAGE cruises is to help to answer several fundamental questions about the DWH event and subsequent impacts on the plankton population, reef and fish communities and the microbial communities. Deep sea sediment samples, plankton and fishes collected during these expeditions are the data sources. Sampling activities include the use of the SIPPER plankton sampler, multi-core sediment system and long line surveys to assess fish health. While at sea teachers participate in the at sea research and serve as the ship to shore communicator via social media (FB, Twitter, daily blogs) and LIVE video conferencing with formal and informal classrooms. Marine scientists, post-docs and graduate students participating in the C-IMAGE cruises collaborate with the teacher on board to communicate the science, technology and life at sea experiences to educational and general audiences. Upon return to shore, teachers will translate their At Sea learning experience to understandable inquiry-based lessons about the science and technology encompassing the northern Gulf of Mexico ecology, the DWH event and subsequent impacts. Lessons developed from the cruises will inform a future series of C-IMAGE Teacher Professional Developments during Phase 2 of Outreach activities. The results from three Gulf of Mexico expeditions (Aug-Nov) will be presented: related to teachers' working knowledge of research and sampling procedures as well as metrics for the potential value-added of social media as a mechanism for communicating research with formal and informal audiences. C-IMAGE teachers will engage in research with experts in biological and chemical modeling, marine resource assessment, sedimentary geochemistry and toxicology. This research is made possible by a grant from BP/The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative. Contract #SA 12-10/GoMRI-007;
Lacina, Jan; Levine, Linda New; Sowa, Patience
There is a nationwide call to better provide schools with a teaching force equipped with the knowledge, skills, and abilities to effectively teach the diversifying U.S. student population. This series, Collaborative Partnerships Between ESL and Classroom Teachers, edited by Debra Suarez, aims to contribute to the field's responses to this…
Fandiño, Yamith José
The 21st century demands the explicit integration of learning strategies, digital competences and career abilities. Schools in general and EFL classrooms in particular should provide students with practices and processes focused on acquiring and developing, among other things, creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, self-direction, and…
Young, D.; Robigou, V.
In 2000, as land-collaborator for REVEL teacher C. Maldonado while on an ocean-going research cruise, I got hooked by seafloor exploration, tectonic plate processes, and biological communities around hydrothermal vent systems. I decided then to bring deep-sea research to my classroom through participation in SEAS (Students Experiments at Sea) in 2003. But, to truly understand the scientific process, I needed to experience research myself. I was selected for the REVEL Project in 2004 and went to sea for a month to study hydrothermal plumes in the N.E. Pacific Ocean. While working with SEAS curriculum helped to introduce my students to authentic research, it wasn't until I experienced a research cruise and all the aspects of research on board that I felt confident enough to help my classes pursue and achieve the honor of sending their own experiments to sea. My 7th grade students wrote 2 proposals for the 2004 SEAS program. Neither proposal was chosen, but my students experienced the scientific process while collaborating with scientists as they wrote up results from experiments that had been implemented. The following year, my 9th grade class proposed to compare how water pressure at different depths affects various materials and different shapes. This proposal was selected and their experiment was deployed on the seafloor during an R/V Atlantis research cruise in April 2005. The material shapes (and controls) were exposed to increasing pressure at variable depths, including that of the seafloor. The results predicted by the students did not occur and the students submitted an "explanation article" explaining the possible reasons for the experiment failure and what they could better to prepare for a future deployment. Throughout the process students interacted with the scientists at sea. Despite the disappointing outcome of the experiment, it was a great learning experience for the class and an honor for all students to have their hard work validated by the deployment of their experiment on the seafloor. How many young people can say that they worked with scientists on research in such a remote environment as the bottom of the deep sea? I am currently at St. Joseph Catholic School in Pine Bluff, Arkansas and I am excited about bringing deep ocean research to this land locked state! Many of my students have never even been to an ocean shore! As I did in Washington State, I will be introducing them to oceanography and show them a world they have never dreamed of. These students are excited at the possibility of doing authentic research in the remote, deep ocean! In addition, I will continue to share my research-based expertise in teaching and in science with colleagues that might not have had the opportunity to do scientific research. My REVEL experience will continue to feed my enthusiasm for learning, and will spread as I entrain teachers and students in Arkansas to follow research cruises via the Internet. Research-based education is a window to worlds never before experienced by and often inaccessible to my students. My practice of research has given me the confidence to bring new research opportunities into my classroom and to serve as facilitator for students' research. Last year, I took high school students to Kitt Peak, Arizona where they made solar observations. They wrote a college level research paper on the magnetic field strengths of sunspots. And their paper was published in spring 2005 in the Research Based Science Education journal.
Ebrahimi, Nabi. A.
This article reports the validation and application of an English language teacher education (LTE) version of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES). The instrument, called the CLES-LTE, was field tested with a sample of 622 Iranian English language student teachers in 28 classes. When principal components analysis led to the…
This paper will demonstrate how to enhance second language (L2) learners' linguistic and cultural competencies through the use of the Multiple Intelligences Film Teaching (MIFT) model. The paper will introduce two ideas to teachers of English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL). First, the paper shows how L2 learners learn linguistic and…
Smith, David I.; DeVries, Herman J., Jr.; Roberts, F. Corey
Music offers to language teachers benefits in terms of language exposure, cultural information, and multisensory appeal. This article describes how the use of music videos offers potential for exploring spiritual and moral concerns, especially as the intersections between words, sounds, and images are explored. Exploring how (in this case)…
Salcedo, Claudia S.
Music represents an integral part of the human culture, and particularly language and communication. Music can be a powerful tool in the learning experience. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether English native-speaker students learning a foreign language can benefit from integrating music into the curriculum. Students' text…
Qualitative research that includes interviews in languages foreign to the researcher(s) has become increasingly common. However, there is surprisingly little reflection on the methodological implications of such research practices. Furthermore, strategies on how to analyse cross- and multi-language interview material are lacking. The aim of this article is to present possible ways of handling these challenges, focusing mainly on analysis. I propose a hermeneutical approach to the issue. First...
Full Text Available The focus of this text is on the multicultural condition, related to the foreignlanguage classroom as a possible arena for democratic experiences. However,due to the increasing ambiguity, to say the least, of the conceptions of “culture”and “multiculturalism” today, I will argue that, depending on how “multicul-turalism” is conceived, this focus may indeed either lead to a cultural andcommunicative closure, or open up the possibility of multi-vocal dialogue andcommunication. If, on the one hand, “multiculturalism” is understood asdifference, mainly constituted by a variety of categorized cultural groupings,you may end up essentializing culture to something that people “have”, andthat is imposed on them collectively from an outside position. If, on the otherhand, cultural differences are seen as constructed within human practices ofongoing narratives and negotiations between individuals and groups – acrossand beyond all kinds of cultural borders – then the hybrid, pluralistic condi-tion of a society, or even of a foreign language classroom, may offer at least anopportunity for cultural identities to co-construct a social space, where nor-mative conflicts and different viewpoints could be dealt with through multi-vocal deliberative communication.
Collins, Belva C.; Grisham-Brown, Jennifer; Schuster, John W.
The ability to conduct field-based research is a particularly valuable tool for special education teachers working in isolated rural areas. To address this need, the University of Kentucky's Developmental and Behavioral Disorders Program focuses on preparing graduate-level special education personnel to work in diverse settings; provide…
Green, Carolyn J.; Chambers, Lin H.; Racel, Anne M.
NASA's Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) project, a hands-on educational project, was an innovative idea conceived by the scientists in the Radiation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, in 1996. It came about after a local teacher expressed the idea that she wanted her students to be involved in real-life science. S'COOL supports NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument, which was launched on the Tropical Rainforest Measuring Mission (TRMM) in November, 1997, as part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. With the S'COOL project students observe clouds and related weather conditions, compute data and note vital information while obtaining ground truth observations for the CERES instrument. The observations can then be used to help validate the CERES measurements, particularly detection of clear sky from space. In addition to meeting math, science and geography standards, students are engaged in using the computer to obtain, report and analyze current data, thus bringing modern technology into the realm of classroom, a paradigm that demands our attention.
Full Text Available Abstract In collaborative qualitative research in Asia, data are usually collected in the national language, and this poses challenges for analysis. Translation of transcripts to a language common to the whole research team is time consuming and expensive; meaning can easily be lost in translation; and validity of the data may be compromised in this process. We draw on several published examples from public health research conducted in mainland China, to highlight how language can influence rigour in the qualitative research process; for each problem we suggest potential solutions based on the methods used in one of our research projects in China. Problems we have encountered include obtaining sufficient depth and detail in qualitative data; deciding on language for data collection; managing data collected in Mandarin; and the influence of language on interpreting meaning. We have suggested methods for overcoming problems associated with collecting, analysing, and interpreting qualitative data in a local language, that we think help maintain analytical openness in collaborative qualitative research. We developed these methods specifically in research conducted in Mandarin in mainland China; but they need further testing in other countries with data collected in other languages. Examples from other researchers are needed.
On the continuum along which theories of first and second language acquisition are located, the two extremes represent the classic controversy of nature (nativist) vs. nurture (environmentalist), while those in the middle view language acquisition as a result of a more or less balanced interaction between innate capacities and linguistic…
Eileen N. Ariza
Full Text Available Moore and Kearsley (1996 maintain distance educators should provide for three types of interaction: a learner-content; b learner-instructor; and c learner-learner. According to interactionist second language acquisition (SLA theories that reflect Krashen’s theory (1994 that comprehensible input is critical for second language acquisition, interaction can enhance second language acquisition and fluency. Effective output is necessary as well. We reviewed the research on distance learning for second language learners and concluded that SLA theories can, and should, be the framework that drives the development of courses for students seeking to learn languages by distance technology. This article delineates issues to consider in support of combining SLA theories and research literature as a guide in creating distance language learning courses.
In daily life people use their body language subconciously and effectively. Some research findings have suggested that two thirds of communication and at least 75% of all classroom communication is nonverbal. Therefore, body language makes a great difference in helping teachers to make and maintain a solid first impression in a classroom full of curious students. This study tries to explain various body movements, gestures and facial expressions that could help teachers to leave a good impres...
Teacher collaboration is a key feature of effective professional development and is a necessary element for improved student achievement and ongoing school success. This study investigated pre-service Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (NNESTs)’ attitude towards the recruitment of Native English Speaking Teachers (NESTs) and the collaboration with NESTs in EFL classrooms. The results show that most participants are not against the presence of NESTs as their teaching partners, but see ...
Medgyes, Péter; Nikolov, Marianne
In the past quarter century, Hungary has offered fertile ground for innovative developments in foreign language (FL) education. The appropriate, albeit disparaging, label applied to Hungary in the mid-1970s--"a land of foreign language illiterates" (Köllo 1978: 6)--no longer applies. In the wake of the dramatic changes of 1989, the…
Xianqing Liu; Jinyan Fan
Speaking process and language attention are hot topics in current psycholinguistics and cognitive linguistics separately. By the example of Levelt’s Speaking: From Intention to Articulation, taking Talmy’s theory of language attention system as a guide, this paper explores how attention is represented in speaking process.
Full Text Available Speaking process and language attention are hot topics in current psycholinguistics and cognitive linguistics separately. By the example of Levelt’s Speaking: From Intention to Articulation, taking Talmy’s theory of language attention system as a guide, this paper explores how attention is represented in speaking process.
The use of music and song in the English language-learning classroom is not new. While many teachers intuitively feel that music is beneficial in teaching English language, there is sometimes a lack of the theoretical underpinnings that support such a choice. There are examples in the literature to argue the strong relationship between music and language that are substantiated by research in the fields of cognitive science, anthropology, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, First Language Acq...
Professor Numa P. Markee is Associate Professor of Linguistics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States) where he teaches courses in Conversation Analysis, Second Language Acquisition, Task Based Language Teaching and in Language Program Administration. His principal research interests are in the area of ethnomethodological Conversation Analysis applied to Second Language Acquisition (CA-for-SLA), Discursive Psychology, socially distributed cognition, classroom researc...
Cárdenas Beltrán Melba Libia
The research reports corresponding to the titles we list in the following pages can be consulted in the Foreign Languages Department at Universidad Nacional de Colombia. There, we can find a detailed account of the theoretical issues that led teachers to undertake classroom research. Reference is also made to research procedures and findings in the teaching settings where investigations were carried out.
Binnur GENC ILTER
Full Text Available In language classrooms, being in unnatural conversational situations, students need motivation more than other learning milieus. Teachers try to capture the attention of students through various methods and techniques. Many researchers in EFL teaching profession have stated that good motivation has appositive effect on foreign language learning. The purpose of this study is to explore how technology could be used to increase students’ motivation in EFL classrooms. For this purpose; a questionnaire was administered to a group of students at Akdeniz University Preparatory Classes in 2007-2008 academic year. As a result it was found out that technology was a dynamic and challenging motivating factor in EFL classrooms and there may be some suggestions focusing on the achievement of learning objectives.
Over the past twenty-five years researchers have been concerned with understanding the science student. The need for such research is still grounded in contemporary issues including providing opportunities for all students to develop scientific literacy and the failure of school science to connect with student's lives, interests and personal identities. The research reported here is unusual in its use of discourse analysis in social psychology to contribute to an understanding of the way students make meaning in secondary school science. Data constructed for the study was drawn from videotapes of nine consecutive lessons in a year-seven science classroom in Melbourne, post-lesson video-stimulated interviews with students and the teacher, classroom observation and the students' written work. The classroom videotapes were recorded using four cameras and seven audio tracks by the International Centre for Classroom Research at the University of Melbourne. Student talk within and about their science lessons was analysed from a discursive perspective. Classroom episodes in which students expressed their sense of personal identity and agency, knowledge, attitude or emotion in relation to science were identified for detailed analysis of the function of the discourse used by students, and in particular the way students were positioned by others or positioned themselves. This article presents the discursive Umwelt or life-space of one middle years science student, Tasha. Her case is used here to highlight the complex social process of meaning making in science classrooms and the need to attend to local moral orders of rights and duties in research on student language use, identity and learning in science.
Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.; McCollum, T.; Baker, M.; Lindgren, C.; Mailhot, M.
Classroom teachers are challenged with engaging and preparing today s students for the future. Activities are driven by state required skills, education standards, and high-stakes testing. Providing educators with standards-aligned, inquiry-based activities that will help them engage their students in student-led research in the classroom will help them teach required standards, essential skills, and help inspire their students to become motivated learners. The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education Program, classroom educators, and ARES scientists at the NASA Johnson Space Center created the Expedition Earth and Beyond education program to help teachers promote student-led research in their classrooms (grades 5-14) by using NASA data, providing access to scientists, and using integrated educational strategies.
Gardner, R. C.; Smythe, P. C.
After a brief review of the research concerned with the relationship between students' attitudes and second-language learning the present paper attempts to answer the question, "Do attitudes, in and of themselves, relate directly to second-language acquisition, or do they play an indirect role in providing a basis for the motivation to acquire a…
Houston, David Andrew Samuel
This dissertation offers an interdisciplinary argument in favour of integrating empirically grounded musicological evidence into linguistic curricula. Phonological, syntactic, and neurological convergences between music and language are identified and supported by existing research. However, differences in semantic content and the deliberateness ascribed to a musical or linguistic event inhibit the extent to which a music-language comparison can advance without qualification. I...
Fenton-Smith, Ben; Walkinshaw, Ian
Griffith University is set across five campuses in south-east Queensland, Australia, and has a student population of 43,000. The School of Languages and Linguistics (LAL) offers programs in linguistics, international English, Chinese, Italian, Japanese and Spanish, as well as English language enhancement courses. Research strands reflect the…
As in any field of scientific inquiry, advancements in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) rely in part on the interpretation and generalizability of study findings using quantitative data analysis and inferential statistics. While statistical techniques such as ANOVA and t-tests are widely used in second language research, this review…
When adult newcomers arrive in a new society, the new language encroaches immediately into their everyday lives. As a minimum, newcomers are overhearers of and eavesdroppers to encounters in public life, education, at workplaces, or in the media and they meet texts wherever they go. In daily life, there are ample daily opportunities for engaging with the language of the society. It has a paramount presence in the daily life of newcomers even before they have acquired the nuts and bolts for using it actively. Language encounters ‘in the wild’ happen in a sometimes chaotic, sometimes repetitive environment, in fully embodied ways, in familiar and unfamiliar settings - all of which the newcomers constantly need to make sense of. Compared to these experiences in their life-world, newcomers experience radically different opportunities for participation when seated in language classrooms where the conditions for interacting are rather different. Classroom activities are usually well ordered, often based on written material, and performed sitting at tables. This chapter is concerned with the question whether and how language encounters ‘in the wild’ can support the learning of the local (second) language, how language contacts and experiences can be enhanced and brought back into the classroom to study and learn from them. How can the ‘wild’ language be practically supported to become the ‘food chain’ of language acquisition? The paper will present an example of language encounters ‘in the wild’ and analyze the sense-making procedures used. It will call for change in the division of labor between the classroom and everyday second language life. The final section offers pedagogical practices to support the second languages outside of classrooms and to bring the experiences back into the classrooms. I will point at practical possibilities for changes and report about cooperation between second language practitioners, researchers and interactive designers from Sweden, Denmark, Iceland and Finland in a project that explores ways of building support structures in the everyday life environment of the newcomers and intends to make the their explorations into the ‘wild’ available for teaching practices in the classroom.
When adult newcomers arrive in a new society, the new language encroaches immediately into their everyday lives. As a minimum, newcomers are overhearers of and eavesdroppers to encounters in public life, education, at workplaces, or in the media and they meet texts wherever they go. In daily life, there are ample daily opportunities for engaging with the language of the society. It has a paramount presence in the daily life of newcomers even before they have acquired the nuts and bolts for using it actively. Language encounters ‘in the wild’ happen in a sometimes chaotic, sometimes repetitive environment, in fully embodied ways, in familiar and unfamiliar settings - all of which the newcomers constantly need to make sense of. Compared to these experiences in their life-world, newcomers experience radically different opportunities for participation when seated in language classrooms where the conditions for interacting are rather different. Classroom activities are usually well ordered, often based on written material, and performed sitting at tables. This chapter is concerned with the question whether and how language encounters ‘in the wild’ can support the learning of the local (second) language, how language contacts and experiences can be enhanced and brought back into the classroom to study and learn from them. How can the ‘wild’ language be practically supported to become the ‘food chain’ of language acquisition? The paper will present an example of language encounters ‘in the wild’ and analyze the sense-making procedures used. It will call for change in the division of labor between the classroom and everyday second language life. The final section offers pedagogical practices to support the second languages outside of classrooms and to bring the experiences back into the classrooms. I will point at practical possibilities for changes and report about cooperation between second language practitioners, researchers and interactive designers from Sweden, Denmark, Iceland and Finland in a project that explores ways of building support structures in the everyday life environment of the newcomers and intends to make the their explorations into the ‘wild’ available for teaching practices in the classroom.
Choi, Jayoung; Yi, Youngjoo
Despite the important use of pop culture in many instructional settings, its use in the heritage language (HL) classroom remains largely unexplored. Thus, this article reports findings from classroom-based qualitative research that examined the use and role of pop culture in advanced Korean HL learners' literacy engagement and identity…
Many history pupils in South African classrooms study history in second or third language. This creates a number of problems for pupils who have to struggle with the language of learning and teaching as they grapple with historical events. This study sought to examine the impact of the protest song in the teaching of South African (struggle) history. The researcher employed qualitative research methods to investigate one teacher’s practice in her two history classes. She used struggle stalwar...
It is suggested that print advertising is particularly well suited to classroom second language teaching because it is attractive, entertaining, contains powerful emotional or factual messages, and is concise. Research indicates that multilingual or code-mixed advertising is common and reveals interesting linguistic phenomena, including semantic,…
Navarro, Ann M.
Background: Many classrooms today have ESL students who do not speak English and are completely lost. How can teachers help these students comprehend what they are learning in English? Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify effective reading strategies to build schema for English language learners (ELLs) to help them comprehend.…
Raga Preston, Liz
How does classroom interaction contribute to language learning? This study aims at identifying and interpreting some patterns of teacher-student interaction within an EFL classroom. Different interactional patterns and strategies are examined through the self-observation of the teacher's own performance as a student-teacher during her practicum period in a secondary school
Globalization has made cross-cultural communication a necessity. The mobility of people and the contact between countries have greatly increased cross-cultural communication. Intercultural awareness has become a prerequisite for successful cross-cultural communication. Intercultural awareness is required if a foreign language learner is to achieve the intercultural communication competence, which is now considered to be the major goal of foreign language learning. Intercultural communication ...
Li Hongmei; Li Lei; Zhou Huiqiang
Java language is very good in a variety of development platforms to develop all kinds of application software for its simple and efficient, widely used. The programming language owning platform independent is adopted to solve the image flicker, sound loading and other issues by the threading technology, multimedia technology, graphics and point by point comparison techniques.Dynamic real-time simulation process simulation is implemented and a two-dimensional network of CNC machining simulatio...
Klee, Carol A., Ed.
The papers in this collection fall into three categories. Part 1, "Overview of Research," includes "New Directions in Language Anxiety Research" (Dolly Jesusita Young) and "Native Genderlects and Their Relation to Gender Issues in Second Language Classrooms: The Sex of Our Students as a Sociolinguistic Variable" (Lydie E. Meunier). Part 2,…
Beach, Richard; Webb, Allen
As the new English Language Arts Common Core State Standards take hold across the United States, the need grows for pre-service and in-service teachers to be ready to develop curriculum and instruction that addresses their requirements. This timely, thoughtful, and comprehensive text directly meets this need. It delineates a literacy practices and critical engagement curriculum framework for 6-12 English language arts education that explains and illustrates how the Standards' highest and best intentions for student success can be implemented from a critical, culturally relevant perspective tha
Gurnam Kaur Sidhu
Full Text Available Literature is an expression of life through the medium of language and in the ESL classroom it is often seen as an authentic means of learning the target language. A literature-enriched curriculum not only helps learners improve their reading and writing skills but more importantly helps them internalise grammar and vocabulary. The many benefits of literature saw the implementation of the Contemporary Children’s Literature (CCL programme in all upper primary ESL classrooms in Malaysia two years ago. Using classrooms observations and interviews as research instruments, this paper critically examines the instructional practices of five Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL teachers teaching Year 4 students in the state of Selangor and evaluates the various challenges faced by them in their ESL classrooms. Preliminary findings on the Contemporary Children’s Literature programme revealed that teachers spent a lot of time on individual comprehension work with little emphasis given to comprehension instruction and higher order thinking skills. The integration of literary elements in the literature classrooms was also minimal and teachers lacked creativity as far as organising learning tasks were concerned. Nevertheless, the CCL programme offers great potential for English language enhancement skills among students. Policy makers and education leaders also need to take cognizance of related concerns, challenges and issues prevalent in Malaysian ESL classrooms.
Alcon, Eva Guzman
Two groups of nonnative Spanish students and four nonnative English teachers participated in a study of the effect of high cognitive questions on foreign language learning. Results indicate that the use of high cognitive questions can promote the kind of verbal interaction that facilitates comprehension and written production of the foreign…
Castaneda, Martha E.
This case study examines students' experiences regarding the infusion of digital storytelling in their high school fourth-year Spanish class. The aim of this case study is to determine if digital storytelling can be an effective tool for language learners to communicate emotion and present information to an audience. Sources of information for…
Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.
With the growing acceptance of American Sign Language (ASL) as a true language comes increasing possibility for incorporating it into the classroom, especially for visual learners. While children in general may benefit from ASL, early exposure to ASL is particularly important for Deaf and Hard of Hearing children (D/HH). In this article, we summarize research on the impact of an educational media series in ASL on early language and literacy development, provide research-based strategies for u...
Meyer, Tom; Young, Martha; Lieberstein-Solera, Fabiola
One of the most challenging aspects of the teaching profession, at all levels, is to identify and illuminate assumptions--one's students' and one's own. This article describes how three members of the Hudson Valley Writing Project (HVWP) at the State University of New York (SUNY) at New Paltz worked closely with the National Writing Project's…
Teaching culture in EFL classroom has long been debated and studied in foreign language teaching field. But the perfect combination of language and culture in a foreign language classroom is a noble aim and how the transition can be made from theoretical matters to the active, crowded, and sometimes noisy foreign language classroom is a completely different story. This paper will introduce a new cultural teaching model, named by Experiential cultural teaching model. This model is ...
Full Text Available Care workers frequently withdraw from elderly people in their care; this has resulted in a number of scandals in the media. Here I analyze an empirical scene observed at an old people’s home in Denmark, which contains behavioral patterns among the care workers which could be seen as withdrawal. At the same time it illustrates the care workers’ commitment to the elderly. A paradoxical “empathy at a distance” is characteristic of the scene. When analyzing my written observations in an interpretation group, my use of language was a point of discussion. What did it mean when I described the interactions between care workers and elderly residents in words commonly used to describe mother-child interactions? My use of language became a “hermeneutical key” which enabled a psychoanalytically inspired interpretation. This focuses on the care relationship as activating our earliest memories of our own care relations, independently of whether we are in the role of care providers or care receivers. Through collusion theory, the interpretation accepts both the anxiety which the helpless elderly people arouse in the care workers and their motivation for care work as two sides of a subjectively important theme. The article illustrates how working consciously with the researcher’s subjectivity makes it possible to understand apparently irrational patterns. The insights thus gained may be used to prevent withdrawals in care work as an argument for care workers’ need for emotional supervision.
Sobre-Denton, Miriam; Simonis, Jana
The infamous word "fuck" has become one of the most powerful words in the English language. The current research project explores the relationship between language and cultural norms in the university classroom through an analysis of the use of a documentary film on the word "fuck" as a teaching tool in intercultural communication classes. For the…
Anderson, Linda M.; And Others
A year-long study of 28 third-grade teachers yielded extensive data describing their classroom management practices. The seven most effective and the seven least effective teachers were compared to determine what dimensions of mangement discriminated between them. Teachers who qualified as "better managers" had a firm preconceived notion of…
Wilmes, Barbara; Harrington, Lauren; Kohler-Evans, Patty; Sumpter, David
The following paper addresses the responses that the learner has to changes in the learning environment that enhance instruction. While theorists have supported the notion that instruction embedded in sensory-filled, brain-based and hands-on activities, classrooms remain unchanged in many, if not most interactions. What can we do to wake up…
Norris, John M.
Traditions of statistical significance testing in second language (L2) quantitative research are strongly entrenched in how researchers design studies, select analyses, and interpret results. However, statistical significance tests using "p" values are commonly misinterpreted by researchers, reviewers, readers, and others, leading to…
Anwaruddin, Sardar M.; Pervin, Nasrin
In this article, we report on a small-scale study in which we investigated English-language teachers' engagement with educational research. We conceptualized engagement with research as reading and systematically using research for professional development. Using questionnaires and in-depth interviews, we gathered empirical materials from 40…
Full Text Available Teacher collaboration is a key feature of effective professional development and is a necessary element for improved student achievement and ongoing school success. This study investigated pre-service Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (NNESTs’ attitude towards the recruitment of Native English Speaking Teachers (NESTs and the collaboration with NESTs in EFL classrooms. The results show that most participants are not against the presence of NESTs as their teaching partners, but see qualification as the key criterion in recruiting NESTs. Even though the participants believe that team teaching with NESTs is beneficial to English learners, they are concerned about unequal partnerships and communication problems with NESTs. The results suggest that teacher educators need to take greater responsibilities to engage pre-service teachers in team teaching to support pre-service teachers’ professional lives.
Marschark, Marc; Sapere, Patricia; Convertino, Carol; Seewagen, Rosemarie
Despite the importance of sign language interpreting for many deaf students, there is surprisingly little research concerning its effectiveness in the classroom. The limited research in this area is reviewed, and a new study is presented that included 23 interpreters, 105 deaf students, and 22 hearing students. Students saw two interpreted…
Lo Bianco, Joseph
This booklet posits that language teacher education is an important component of nation building in a multilingual community. Communication is a crucial component of nation building, and teachers play a key role in the creation, renewal, and re-negotiation of the nation and its bonds, the state and its resources. This booklet discusses the…
Morrow, Jennifer Ann; Kelly, Stephanie; Skolits, Gary
Understanding and conducting research is a complex, integral skill that needs to be mastered by both undergraduate and graduate students. Yet many students are reluctant and often somewhat apprehensive about undertaking research and understanding the underlying statistical methods used to evaluate research (Dauphinee, Schau, & Stevens, 1997).…
Huitt, William G.; Segars, John K.
A review of research and proposed models on classroom processes allows identification of four key characteristics of effective classrooms in elementary and secondary education. The four characteristics encompass (1) teacher attention to student characteristics, including prior learning and learning styles; (2) congruence among the course goals,…
This article critiques traditional single-level statistical approaches (e.g., multiple regression analysis) to examining relationships between language test scores and variables in the assessment setting. It highlights the conceptual, methodological, and statistical problems associated with these techniques in dealing with multilevel or nested…
For this study, a research-based lab module was implemented in two high school chemistry classes for the purpose of examining classroom dynamics throughout the process of students completing the module. A research-based lab module developed for use in undergraduate laboratories by the Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE) was modified and implemented in two high school settings. This module consisted of four phases: Skill Building, Experimental Design, Independent Research, and Results and Poster Presentation. Classroom dynamics were studied by considering the students' and teachers' perceptions of their experiences during the completion of the module and by examining the interactions between students and teachers that took place throughout the module. The results reveal that there are shifts in classroom dynamics throughout the four phases of the module. In the Skill Building phase there was a great deal of dependence on the teacher for help in completing tasks. However, there is a slight contrast to what the students and teachers reported about their experiences during this phase. The teachers describe the students as being very dependent on them and asking questions constantly during the Skill Building experiments. The students report that they tried to figure out their problems with their lab partners and students in other lab groups before asking the teacher for help. The teachers perceived that students came to them immediately for help and did not realize that students were coming to them as sort of a last resort when they could not solve problems on their own. In the Experimental Design phase the students and teachers both report that the lab groups were working together as groups to design their experiments, and rarely had interactions with anyone outside of their lab group. For the Independent Research phase both students and teachers report that lab groups worked very independently of any outside assistance and that they began to use a division of labor strategy within their group to complete tasks. This also is the case for the Results and Poster Presentation phase of the module. In examination of the student-student and student-teacher interactions, a comparison is made between the Skill Building and Independent Research phases of the module. During the Skill Building phase, students tend to be less confident in their work and their lab partners work as compared to the Independent Research phase. Lab groups also tended to be more dependent on seeking help from outside of their lab group when completing experiments in the Skill Building phase as compared to the Independent Research phase. One finding that contrasts these is that students are dependent on their teacher for help when completing data analysis calculations. The overall results show that classroom dynamics shift throughout the completion of a research-based lab module and that a community develops in the classroom that mirrors the scientific community.
Dam-Jensen, Helle; Heine, Carmen
Teaching of translation and writing in the university classroom tends to focus on task knowledge by practicing text production and analyzing and discussing the quality of products. In this article, we will argue that the outcome of teaching may be increased if students are taught to see themselves not only as learners, but also as thinkers and problem solvers. This can be achieved by systematically applying knowledge from process research as this can give insight into mental and physical processes of text production. This article provides an overview of methods commonly used in process research and discusses the pros and cons of their application in teaching of translation and writing at university levels.
¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera
Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1 in English Language Teaching (ELT, critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1 de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI , un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1 parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido.
¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom / ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera
Sandra, Higareda; Georgina, López; Gerrard, Mugford.
Full Text Available Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1) de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI ), un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argume [...] ntos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1) parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido. Abstract in english Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1) in English Language Teaching (ELT), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifica [...] tions favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.