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Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom. Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field. The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field.

Madeleine Youmans

2008-01-01

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New Understandings of Gender and Language Classroom Research: Texts, Teacher Talk, and Student Talk.  

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Illustrates subtleties and complexities of gender in language education, and suggests implications of research for educational practice. Demonstrates alternatives for research into gender and language classrooms, showing both how the more familiar approaches can be fruitfully developed and how researchers can go beyond them. (Author/VWL)

Sunderland, Jane

2000-01-01

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Learning about Language in Classrooms.  

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Research on communication in classrooms is reviewed to provide implications for the writing process. Studies address language, social identity, and teacher expectation. The importance of meaning as the focus of writing is stressed. (CL)

Florio-Ruane, Susan

1985-01-01

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Classroom interaction and language learning Classroom interaction and language learning  

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Full Text Available In the field of second and foreign language learning, interaction has long been considered to play an important role. Studies taking a more traditional, formalist perspective on language and learning have focused on the role that interaction plays in helping learners to assimilate and internalize knowledge of linguistic forms in the target language. More recently, a group of scholars concerned with interaction and additional language learning, or the learning of languages other than the mother tongue, has begun to move away from this more traditional perspective and into areas outside of what has generally been considered the main focus of the applied linguistics field. Taking more of a sociocultural perspective on language and learning, this research is concerned with documenting the links between student participation in particular kinds of classroom interaction and their communicative development in the target language. In the field of second and foreign language learning, interaction has long been considered to play an important role. Studies taking a more traditional, formalist perspective on language and learning have focused on the role that interaction plays in helping learners to assimilate and internalize knowledge of linguistic forms in the target language. More recently, a group of scholars concerned with interaction and additional language learning, or the learning of languages other than the mother tongue, has begun to move away from this more traditional perspective and into areas outside of what has generally been considered the main focus of the applied linguistics field. Taking more of a sociocultural perspective on language and learning, this research is concerned with documenting the links between student participation in particular kinds of classroom interaction and their communicative development in the target language.

Joan Kelly Hall

2008-01-01

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Exploring the Utility of Action Research to Investigate Second-Language Classrooms as Complex Systems  

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Action research is geared to changes for the better and has the potential to assist teachers to extend their teaching skills and develop a deeper understanding of themselves, their classroom and their learners. However, in the area of applied linguistics, the viability of action research has been seriously questioned. In this article, we argue…

Ahmadian, Mohammad Javad; Tavakoli, Mansoor

2011-01-01

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Oral Corrective Feedback in Second Language Classrooms  

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This article reviews research on oral corrective feedback (CF) in second language (L2) classrooms. Various types of oral CF are first identified, and the results of research revealing CF frequency across instructional contexts are presented. Research on CF preferences is then reviewed, revealing a tendency for learners to prefer receiving CF more…

Lyster, Roy; Saito, Kazuya; Sato, Masatoshi

2013-01-01

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Language Alternation in University Classrooms  

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This paper examines the alternate use of Arabic and English in the context of a university classroom, where a policy to use the former language in place of the latter was being implemented. Analysis of a sample of recorded university lectures of English and Arabic medium classes in sciences and humanities reveals that teachers use code switching,…

Taha, T. A.

2008-01-01

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SLA Research and Language Teaching.  

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This book discusses how second language acquisition (SLA) research can illuminate language pedagogy, and suggests four main roles for the SLA researcher: developing relevant theories; conducting classroom research; making research accessible to teachers; and facilitating action research. The first chapter outlines a number of different…

Ellis, Rod

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Opera in the Italian Language Classroom.  

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Describes class activities for incorporating and teaching about opera into the Italian language instruction classroom, focusing on the enhancement of cultural knowledge and understanding that opera offers. (CB)

Bruno, Salvatore

1989-01-01

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Defining, Teaching, and Evaluating Cultural Proficiency in the Foreign Language Classroom.  

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Examines recent research on teaching culture in the foreign language classroom. Proposes a model for culture teaching that responds to a clearer definition of cultural proficiency. Focuses on classroom testing and proficiency assessment. (Author/VWL)

Storme, Julie A.; Derakhshani, Mana

2002-01-01

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Developing Reflective and Investigative Skills in Teacher Preparation Programs: The design and implementation of the Classroom Research Component at the Foreign Language Program of Universidad del Valle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este articulo se describe el proceso y la experiencia de diseño, planificación e implementación del componente de investigación en el aula en los primeros cinco semestres de la Licenciatura en Lenguas Extranjeras de la Universidad del Valle. Queremos resaltar el papel de la investigación en el aula en la formación inicial de nuestros estudiantes y en nuestro desarrollo profesional como docentes. Además queremos mostrar la importancia de preparar a los futuros pr (more) ofesores no solo en el desarrollo de competencia lingüística en las lenguas extranjeras sino también de competencias que les permitan reflexionar, analizar y encontrar maneras de mejorar su práctica profesional. La descripción de esta experiencia busca compartir nuestros logros, dificultades y planes de desarrollo futuro. Abstract in english In this article we want to describe our process and experience in studying, designing, planning and implementing the Classroom Research Component in the first five semesters of the Licenciatura program at the School of Language Science, Universidad del Valle. We want to stress the role of Classroom Research in our students' initial training and in our own professional development. We also want to show the importance of preparing students and future teachers who possess no (more) t only linguistic competence in the foreign languages, but also competences that allow them to reflect, analyze and find ways of improving their professional practice. The description of this experience leads us to share our achievements, difficulties and plans for future development.

Cárdenas Ramos, Rosalba; Faustino, Carmen Cecilia

2003-01-01

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Action Study of Teacher’s Language on EFL Classroom Interaction  

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Full Text Available From the perspective of the interactive theories and theories of second language acquisition, this paper explores the influence of the teachers’ language upon the EFL classroom interaction. The action research in this paper is based on a small-scale research, which served as a means to find the problems occurring in the teachers’ language in EFL classroom. We make a class observation 10 English teachers and 102 freshmen of non-English majors from HIT. The research results show that the teachers’ language has a great influence on the students’ language acquisition. In the end, a series of strategies for improving teachers’ language are summarized.

Xuemei Meng; Xuesong Wang

2011-01-01

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Body Language in the Classroom  

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Ralph Waldo Emerson and Mae West would seem to have little in common, but there is one thing they both understood--the importance of body language. Educators, psychologists, anthropologists and sociologists define body language or nonverbal communication as communication without words. It includes overt behaviors such as facial expressions, eye…

Miller, Patrick W.

2005-01-01

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EFL Teachers' Language Use for Classroom Discipline: A Look at Complex Interplay of Variables  

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The issue of classroom management in the English as a foreign language (EFL) setting has not been addressed adequately despite teachers' views of it as constituting one of their prioritized tasks. Among the aspects of classroom management, in particular, classroom discipline seems to warrant research focus because it contributes to "smooth and…

Kang, Dae-Min

2013-01-01

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Using Native Language in ESL Classroom  

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Full Text Available The debate over whether to use or not to use to learners’ L1 inside the classroom has always been the topic of discussion for various people for various reasons. The debate has also involved ESL/EFL teachers. Some argue that such use may lead to more dependence of an ESL/EFL on his/her L1 that may hinder the progress of mastering the target language. Whereas others believe that the use of an ESL/EFL learners’ L1 may ease the process of teaching and learning the target language as the teachers can explain complex ideas and rule more effectively in learners’ L1 saving a lot of time. This use can also assist the ESL/EFL learners in acquiring and mastering target language vocabulary. Keeping in mind such counter arguments, the present paper aim to investigate when to use native language in a class and, most importantly, how to use it and promote learning, advantages and disadvantages of using native language in classroom, how to encourage students to use L2 appropriately, and exploring some of the best ways to teach English language.

Isa SPAHIU

2013-01-01

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Inside the "Black Box" of Classroom Language Tests.  

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Reports five studies that provide initial insight into the black box of classroom testing. The studies investigate various aspects of perceptions and practices of assessment in the language classroom. (Author/VWL)

Shohamy, Elana

2000-01-01

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Multimodality and Children's Participation in Classrooms: Instances of Research  

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This paper describes how language and literacy classrooms became more participatory, agentive spaces through addressing a central issue in teaching and learning: the forms of representation through which children make their meanings. It reconsiders pedagogic research in under-resourced Gauteng classrooms during the period 1994-2005, during the…

Newfield, Denise

2011-01-01

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The Relationship between Gender and Iranian EFL Learners’ Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA)  

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Full Text Available Foreign language anxiety is widely used to describe the feeling of tension and apprehension, which is specifically associated with foreign language learning contexts, including listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) is related to foreign language anxiety and language-skill-specific anxiety, and fairly recently identified as distinguished from other forms of anxiety. FLCA is a more general type of anxiety in learning a foreign language with a strong speaking anxiety element; and low self-confidence is identified as an important component of its construct. Research shows that FLCA is a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon; it has many potential sources; and it interferes with the acquisition, retention, and production of a foreign language. It seems that in most of English classes in Iran little attention has been paid to the role of the gender on EFL learners' Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA). Hence, this study attempted to investigate the relationship between EFL learners’ Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) with regard to gender. The data were gathered through questionnaire: the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986).The participants were 52 students studying English at Salmas University. The findings revealed a significant relationship between FLCA and females. It was recommended that foreign language teachers should be aware of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) level, its causes and results. The study also offers some context-specific pedagogical implications for Iranian EFL teachers and practitioners.

Fakhri Mesri

2012-01-01

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Dramatic Activities in Language Arts Classrooms: Resource Summary. ERIC Digest.  

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This digest reviews some of the related literature about the benefits of classroom drama activities and introduces a variety of resources to help educators incorporate dramatic activities in their language arts classrooms. The digest notes that although several terms have been used to refer to "classroom drama" such as creative dramatics,…

Tatar, Sibel

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Anxiety and Predictors of Performance in the Foreign Language Classroom  

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This study is concerned with possible relationships between general foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA), foreign language reading anxiety (FLRA), gender, extended overseas experience, and classroom performance. Versions of previously published measurement scales (the FLCAS and the FLRAS) were administered to three different groups in nine…

Matsuda, Sae; Gobel, Peter

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Communication Strategies Used by High School English Language Learners in Multilingual Classrooms  

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In this study, twenty-five high school English language learners were observed in their classrooms in a New York City public school while they worked in small groups. All observations were video recorded or done by the researcher while in the classrooms. The videos were then transcribed. Communication strategies that the participants used were…

Spromberg, Sarah

2011-01-01

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Bodies and Language: Process Drama and Intercultural Language Learning in a Beginner Language Classroom  

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In this article the author draws on classroom video recordings and student commentary to explore ways in which the kinaesthetic elements of a process drama provided the context and the space for beginner additional language learners to engage with intercultural language learning. In the light of student comments in interviews and questionnaires,…

Rothwell, Julia

2011-01-01

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LANGUAGE LEARNING: TRENDS IN RESEARCH AND PRACTICE  

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Full Text Available If we view researchers’ work as responding to classroom concerns rather than applying their findings directly to the students, then researchers can have a great deal to say to teachers. As teaching a foreign language is an interactive process, learners must have opportunities to produce comprehensible output during interrelation involving meaningful contents. The effectiveness of grammar instruction appears to depend largely on selection and sequencing of grammar rules. Foreign-language students provide at the moment the best research site for finding answers to this crucial area of language learning.

Nicoleta Florina MINC?

2010-01-01

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Code-switching in the foreign language classroom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is a frequently observed phenomenon that language learners often turn to their native language in the foreign language classroom, i.e. they code-switch, but why is it so? In order to investigate this, this study had two aims; the first aim was about trying to see if the frequency of code-switchin...

Youkhana, Sana

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Exploring the Potential of the Digital Language Experience Approach in Australian Classrooms.  

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|Presents an action research project that explains the process creating a digital language experience (D-LEA) in Australian kindergarten and year 1 classrooms. Contends that D-LEA incorporates all the best aspects of the language experience approach, with the added advantage of teaching children to use digital literacies. (PM)|

Turbill, Jan

2003-01-01

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Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho compara as experiências de sala de aula (ESA) de duas universitárias na aprendizagem de língua inglesa. As ESA emergiram de entrevistas individuais, onde vídeos das aulas promoveram a reflexão. A análise revelou que experiências de natureza cognitiva, social ou afetiva influem diretamente no processo de aprendizagem e as que se referem ao contexto, à história, crenças e metas dos alunos influem indiretamente no mesmo. A singularidade de algumas experiências levou à sua categorização como ESA individuais (ESAI). Ao comparar as ESAI de duas informantes, a importância da análise sociocultural do processo de aprendizagem de sala de aula fica evidente. Concluiremos com uma defesa do valor da teoria sociocultural no estudo da aprendizagem de língua estrangeira em sala de aula e com a apresentação das implicações deste estudo para pesquisadores e professores. This paper compares the classroom experiences (CEs) of two university students in their process of learning English as a foreign language (EFL). The CEs emerged from individual interviews, where classroom videos promoted reflection. The analysis revealed that cognitive, social and affective experiences directly influence the learning process and that those which refer to setting, learner’s personal background, beliefs and goal influence the learning process indirectly. The analysis also revealed the singularity of some of these CEs that led to their categorization as individual CEs (ICEs). When comparing the ICEs of the two participants, the importance of a sociocultural analysis of the classroom learning process becomes evident. We conclude with an analysis of the value of sociocultural theory in the study of classroom EFL learning and with the implications of this study for teachers and researchers.

Laura Miccoli

2008-01-01

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Classroom Management Skills of The Language Teachers  

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Full Text Available Teachers or educators, most of the time, concentrate on the theoretical aspects oflanguage teaching and study them as much as possible. However, in practice, we start thinkingthat we will have to keep a number of people together in the same place. These are often thepeople who come from many different backgrounds and whose expectations differ. In thiscase, it becomes more and more difficult to appeal to every individual in class. Therefore, asteachers we should initially be trained on how to manage our classrooms and how to providethe necessary environment to put into practice the things we have learned to teach a language.Obviously, we need management skills as well as the language teaching skill. Actually, it isnot as difficult as many people think. As teachers if we fulfill our duties properly, a wellmanagedclass will ensue. In this study, therefore, the definition of class management isregarded roughly “to keep people from different environments directed to one single goal”.When this is accomplished, we are unlikely to live discipline problems.

Arif Sar?çoban

2005-01-01

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Classroom Discourse Of Malay Language Lesson: A Critical Analysis  

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Full Text Available Research on the teaching and learning process of the Malay language in the classroom usually focuses on the method, content, strategy and teaching aids. Moving away from this norm, this research article examines the process from the discourse analysis perspective called pedagogic discourse analysis, with an adaptation of Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis Framework (1992; 1995). The discussion is based on several hours of teaching-learning case study conducted in a secondary school classroom, which emphasizes integrated curriculum in an attempt to understand the unseen social processes, i.e. teacher dominance in discourse. The research findings indicate that teacher dominance is concealed in turn-taking system, types of questions posed by the teacher, discourse control and the overall structure of the discourse, which have their implications on the implementation of the National Education Philosophy. Contrary to the emphasis on student centredness and thinking skills as laid out by the Integrated Curriculum for Secondary School, it is found that the nature of the learning process in the classroom hardly focused on students’ thinking skills. This article argues that students should be given the opportunity to exercise their critical and creative potentials.

Idris Aman; Rosniah Mustaffa

2006-01-01

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Assessing English Language Learners' Content Knowledge in Middle School Classrooms  

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The purpose of this article is to highlight ways in which middle school content area teachers can more effectively assess English Language Learners (ELLs) in their classrooms. This article poses five questions to guide middle school content teachers in making adaptations and accommodations when using traditional classroom tests. The objective of…

Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Mihai, Florin

2006-01-01

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Sociolinguistics Inputs and English as Second Language Classrooms  

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Full Text Available Sociolinguistic inputs in language acquisition and use of English as Second Language in classrooms is the main focus of this study. A survey research design was adopted. The population consisted of all secondary school students in Akure Local Government of Ondo State, Nigeria. Two hundred and forty (240) students in senior secondary school classes were deliberately selected from six secondary schools randomly sampled. A fourteen-item questionnaire designated to elicit the required information on the sociolinguistic inputs was used for data collection. The face and content validity of the instrument was ensured. A trial test of the instrument was carried out with students in a community senior secondary school in Ekiti State. Split- half reliability was used and a reliability coefficient of 0.9 was obtained. One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), t-test and Pearson Product Moment correlation statistics were employed for the data analysis. Findings revealed that parents’ occupations have significant impact on secondary school students’ use of English. Results also revealed that gender, age and religion have insignificant input on secondary school students’ use of English. It was concluded that the family still remains a major source and most potent place for language learning; therefore, parents should give more attention to students language use at home and provide all the necessary impetus.

Ofodu Graceful Onovughe

2012-01-01

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Complex language encounters : observations from linguistically diverse South African classrooms  

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This article reports on the initial observation phase of a larger, longitudinal project that explores complex language encounters in grades R (Reception) to 3 classrooms in South Africa. Complex language encounters refer to teacher-learner exchanges that take place when neither teachers nor learners...

Evans, Rinelle; Cleghorn, Ailie

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Gender and Language in Four Secondary, ESL Classrooms.  

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Investigated how program types and designs influenced student access to academic discourse in high school English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms using traditional, sheltered content, bilingual content, and holistic approaches. Notes language use according to gender. Students were granted differential access, by gender, to the amount and…

Wolfe, Paula

2000-01-01

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Listening to Dissonance in Second-Language Classrooms  

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|This article reports on a study investigating ways students from Japan studying English as a second language at an American community college encounter cultural dissonance in their classroom interactions. I take a sociocognitive view rooted in the work of Bakhtin and Vygostky to explore the ways language, culture, and cognitive processes…

Wilcox, K. Campbell

2007-01-01

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Classroom Research and Professional Development  

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Full Text Available This article intends to share the experience of a group of teachers in the Classroom Research Seminar of the Teacher Development Program in English carried out at Universidad del Valle, Cali, from January to June, 2007. The seminar was part of a high-level in-service program for teachers of English of a network of private educational institutions. We would like to share the highlights and difficulties of the experience. We will start with the general framework of the program and the concept of professional development that underlies it. Next we will focus on the classroom research seminar, its objectives, methodology and results. Finally we share the voices of some of the participants, who talk about the influence this seminar had on their professional development and daily work. Key words: Classroom research, teacher development, teacher researcher, educational research Este artículo recoge la experiencia de un grupo de profesores universitarios que tuvieron a su cargo el seminario de investigación en el aula con un grupo de docentes inscritos en el programa de formación y desarrollo profesional docente de la Universidad del Valle y pertenecientes a una misma red de instituciones. Nuestro objetivo es compartir los logros y dificultades encontradas en el proceso de trabajar con los docentes, desde el aula universitaria, problemáticas de sus propias aulas a partir de objetivos e intereses diversos. Primeramente presentaremos el marco general del programa y el concepto de formación que lo sustenta; posteriormente nos centraremos en el contexto específico del seminario, sus objetivos metodología y procesos de desarrollo; finalmente exploraremos la incidencia del trabajo desarrollado en el aula universitaria en práctica profesional de los docentes participantes. Palabras clave: Investigación en el aula, desarrollo profesional docente, docente-investigador, investigación educativa

Vergara Luján Omaira; Hernández Gaviria Fanny; Cárdenas Ramos Rosalba

2009-01-01

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Language and Identity : attitudes towards code-switching in the immigrant language classroom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although many studies have been conducted on second language acquisition and bilingual education, little is known about the role of language in the formation of identity by adolescent immigrants in the language classroom. More specifically, this study aims to investigate the use of code-switching by...

Blomquist, Linda

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Digital Storytelling in the Language Arts Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

|Technology offers a number of opportunities for connecting classrooms with the world. The advent of the Internet has offered unprecedented prospects for classroom connections, but the recent diffusion of digital cameras throughout society offers instructional possibilities as well. This document provides a detailed examination of digital…

Bull, Glen; Kajder, Sara

2005-01-01

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Teaching English as a Global Language in Smart Classrooms with PowerPoint Presentation  

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Full Text Available The current study, as part of an ongoing investigation to examine teacher perceptions about the teaching of English as a global language at the tertiary level education, aims at examining learner perceptions about PowerPoint presentations used in English classroom instruction for enhancement and integration of four language skills and effective use of PowerPoint presentation as a teaching technique in smart classroom settings. A classroom action research and a questionnaire survey were conducted in a class consisting of 50 learners of Preparatory Year English Programme at Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. The results showed that learners preferred PowerPoint Presentations over traditional methods of lecture delivery and had positive attitudes towards PowerPoint presentations and lecturers who use them in their lessons. The result of this study conforms to previous studies to find the efficacy of PowerPoint presentations in university classroom instruction.

Abraham Oommen

2012-01-01

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Accelerated learning techniques for the foreign language classroom  

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Full Text Available Recently researchers and teachers have noticed that more and more students have trouble learning. The causes for poor student learning are many and varied. To remedy the situation, programmes have been implemented in many educational institutions to reduce stress and improve· concentration, and to accelerate learning. The author suggests accelerated learning techniques for the foreign language classroom. In die jongste tyd het navorsers en onderwysers opgemerk dat steeds meer studente probleme het met leer. Die oorsake hiervoor is menigvuldig en uiteenlopend van aard. In 'n poging om die situasie te verbeter, is daar met programme begin om spanning in die opvoedingsituasie te verminder, sowel as om konsentrasie te verbeter en die leerproses te versnel. Die skrywer bespreek enkele tegnieke vir versnelde leerprosesse in vreemdetaalonderrig.

W. Jane Bancroft

2013-01-01

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Corrective Feedback in Second Language Classrooms  

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Full Text Available In this paper I attempt to analyse and survey the role of corrective feedback -more specifically recasts- in the interaction between teachers and L2 students in a classroom. Thus, I explore the effects of recasts on students' self-correction in order to finally come to the conclusión whether or not students are able to no tice this type of underlying correction and, therefore, reformulate their ill-formed utterances. Besides, I also undertake a comprehensive survey of the literature on the topic. Two different groups of students from the English Teaching Trainig Programme at Universidad Católica Raúl Silva Henrríquez are studied. Five students taking English courses at an intermedíate level and five taking advanced English courses. Intermedíate and advanced students have been categorised on the basis of their number of English language courses they have taken. Intermedíate students have taken four, whereas advanced have taken seven. In this paper the point at issue is whether harmful and ineffective or essential and rather effective, and whether recasts are noticeable for students to 'read between lines' and figure out the underlying correction. I take the stand that recasts are only effective when using them with advanced students as they are more cognitively advanced and, therefore, able to make inferences and interpret the implicit message to reformulate their mistakes.The results as well as the tests on the whole, clearly demónstrate that recasts as a corrective technique happen to be a bit more effective with advanced students than with intermedíate students, though the difference is not striking.En el presente trabajo procuro analizar el rol de la asesoría remedial o retroalimentación correctiva, precisamente Recasts (corrección implícita), en la interacción entre profesores y alumnos de una segunda lengua. De esta manera, analizo los efectos de la corrección implícita en la auto-corrección de los alumnos para finalmente llegar a la siguiente conclusión: los alumnos avanzados son capaces de percibir este tipo de corrección implícita ya que sus habilidades cognitivas están más desarrolladas. Dos grupos de la Universidad RSH son estudiados. Cinco estudiantes pertenecientes a un nivel intermedio y cinco a nivel avanzado han sido categorizados de acuerdo al número de cursos tomados durante los semestres en la universidad. Mi planteamiento se relaciona a que la corrección implícita (recasts) serán sólo efectiva con estudiantes cognitivamente más avanzados ya que son capaces de hacer inferencias con mayor rapidez, auto-corregirse y así reformular las oraciones mal formuladas y estructuradas.

Leonardo Véliz C

2008-01-01

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Pre-Service Teachers: An Analysis of Reading Instruction in High Needs Districts Dual Language Classrooms  

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Full Text Available Pre-service teachers need opportunities to apply theory and connect to best practices as they teach in classroom settings be it, whole or small group. For many pre-service teachers often times their experience is limited to simply watching instruction or working with small groups of students (Pryor & Kuhn, 2004). The student teaching experience is a critical component of the teacher preparation program. Through the use of the English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI), and researcher observation the hope is that these will aid in bringing to light the instructional activities used by pre-service teachers during reading instruction with ELLs. This study explores how pre-service bilingual teachers connect theory into practice by examining their instruction in the following categories: Instructional Practices, Interactive Teaching, English-Language Development, and Content Specific to Reading as listed in The English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI) developed by Haager, Gersten, Baker, and Graves (2003). To capture these instructional events video tape recordings of eight South Texas pre-service teachers were taken during a reading language arts lesson in order to observe instruction in high need districts’ dual language/bilingual classrooms. Data were compiled to capture the nature and quality of instruction on key essential elements, as well as reading instructional practices specific to the teaching/learning process in the dual language classroom. The findings portray the results of the ELLCOI with bilingual/ESL pre- service teachers and how they make sense of their instructional practices as a means to instruction in one-way dual language public school classrooms.

Michael Whitacre; Zulmaris Diaz; Joy Esquierdo

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Linguagem, NTIC e a sala de aula: o que propõem as pesquisas de intervenção/ Language, ICT and the classroom: what interventional researches propose  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Desenvolveu-se uma análise de aspectos de linguagem e novas tecnologias de informação e comunicação (NTIC) nas teses e dissertações de caráter interventivo em sala de aula de Língua Portuguesa, produzidas entre 2000 e 2010 nos programas de pós-graduação nacionais de Letras e Linguística. Para este artigo, foram abordadas as concepções de linguagem e de aprendizagem, os blogs de turma e o destaque dado a eles nos estudos, além do perfil e lugar dessas pesqu (more) isas de intervenção no âmbito da Linguística Aplicada. Ao final, com base nesses aspectos, procurou-se apresentar não só um balanço da produção no referido período, como também sinalizar desafios para as futuras ações e pesquisas em Linguística Aplicada nesse campo. Abstract in english We developed an analysis of linguistic aspects and of how information and communication technology (ICT) was treated in theses and dissertations that deal with interventional research in Portuguese language classes, produced between 2000 and 2012 in national post-graduation programs of Language and Linguistics. We discuss here conceptions of language and learning adopted by the researches, the emphasis they give to class blogs and the features and place of these intervent (more) ional researches in the scope of Applied Linguistics. Finally, based on these aspects, we tried to present not only a balance of the production in that period, but signaling as well challenges for future actions and research in Applied Linguistics in this field.

Mafra, Núbio Delanne Ferraz; Coscarelli, Carla Viana

2013-09-01

42

The Relationship between Iranian ELT Instructors’ Beliefs about Language Teaching and Their Practices in Real Classrooms  

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Full Text Available Teachers play different roles in multidimensional process of language teaching and their beliefs about language teaching might influence their practices. Donaghue (2003) stated that beliefs guide teachers in their practice. However, Argyris and Schon (1978) claimed that there is almost a discrepancy between teachers’ beliefs about language teaching and their practices in the classrooms. Therefore, the present study investigated the relationship between Iranian ELT instructors’ beliefs about language teaching and their real practices in classrooms. To achieve this goal, the researchers accidentally selected 369 Iranian ELT instructors and 512 Iranian students. To collect the required data, the researchers employed Teacher’s Beliefs Questionnaire (TBQ) to elicit instructors’ beliefs about language teaching and Students’ Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ) to elicit to what extent Iranian instructors applied their beliefs in their practices. Besides, to verify the results of questionnaires, the researchers interviewed nine instructors. The results revealed a positive significant relationship (p?0.05) between instructors’ beliefs about language teaching and their real practices in classrooms. The findings proposed some applicable implications that can be applied by policy makers and curriculum designers to provide facilities to support reflective teaching and to improve teacher education programs.

Morteza Mellati; Mohammad Ali Fatemi; Khalil Motallebzadeh

2013-01-01

43

Formulaic Speech in Early Classroom Second Language Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Formulaic speech, expressions learned as unanalyzed wholes and used on particular occasions by native speakers, is contrasted to "grammatical" sentences using novel combinations of words in the second language classroom. The speech produced by three limited English-speaking children in an English program suggests that formulaic speech enables…

Ellis, Rod

44

Focus on Register in the Spanish Language Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper considers the importance of teaching "register" in the Spanish as a second language classroom. Generally speaking, register means "variety according to use." A register is what you are speaking at the time determined by what you are doing (the nature of the social activity being engaged in), and an expression of diversity of social…

Watts, Keith

45

Twenty Ideas for Using Mobile Phones in the Language Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

These days it seems mobile phones are used everywhere by everyone, which leads to the obvious question: How can mobile phone technology support learning in the second language classroom? The answer is "in a number of ways" because mobile phones come with ever-increasing functions that most students are adept at using. In this article the author…

Reinders, Hayo

2010-01-01

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Twenty Ideas for Using Mobile Phones in the Language Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

|These days it seems mobile phones are used everywhere by everyone, which leads to the obvious question: How can mobile phone technology support learning in the second language classroom? The answer is "in a number of ways" because mobile phones come with ever-increasing functions that most students are adept at using. In this article the author…

Reinders, Hayo

2010-01-01

47

Games for the Foreign Language Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Two marketing games are described, "Le Marche Francais" and "El Mercado: The Mexican Market Comes to Life in the Spanish Classroom." Both are patterned after a published game entitled "Market: A Simulation Game." The adaptation in each instance relied on simplifying the original game and presenting it in a form understandable to middle school…

McMillan, Nancy; Madaras, Susan W.

48

Putting Humpty Dumpty Together Again: Integrating the Language Arts. The Talking and Writing Series, K-12: Successful Classroom Practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prepared as part of a series applying recent research in oral and written communication instruction to classroom practice, this booklet deals with the integrated language arts curriculum. Noting the disparity between what is advocated for and what is practiced in language arts teaching, the first section of the booklet describes an integrated…

Allen, R. R.; Kellner, Robert W.

49

Language, Literacy, Literature: Using Storytelling in the Languages Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

|Stories and storytelling have been used for millennia to entertain, challenge and educate. As a shared form of language interaction, storytelling has engaged communities in developing and perpetuating common understandings of both language and culture, as critical foundations to harmonious societies. Stories and storytelling provide a rich source…

Morgan, Anne-Marie

2011-01-01

50

Language Practices in the Ci-Classroom  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Prelingually deafened children are nowadays likely to receive a cochlear implant (ci). As these children do their language acquisition with a cochlear implant they require a constant rehabilitation and support. Educational staff is instructed on how to work with children with ci in form of guidelines and workshops. This paper discusses language practices used in the setting of a school for cochlear-implanted children. These children encounter language and pronunciation problems that accompany prelingual deafness and hearing with a cochlear implant. I examine two practices, which are used during the storytelling activity: repeat requests and questions. Whereas repeat requests are used in ci-therapy, questions have been shown to be instrumentalized for educational purposes in the setting of a school. I will reveal the educational/rehabilitational issues that are linked to these practices.

Mourtou, Eleni

2014-01-01

51

Cognitive Linguistics and the Second Language Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Cognitive Linguistics (CL) makes the functional assumption that form is motivated by meaning. CL also analyses form-meaning pairings as products of how cognition structures perception. CL thus helps teachers to fit language to the nature of the cognition that learns whilst devising modes of instruction that are better attuned to the nature of the…

Holme, Randal

2012-01-01

52

Language-as-resource and language-as-political: tensions in the bilingual mathematics classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we reflect on the learning of mathematics in bilingual settings from a social and a political perspective. In particular we highlight two concepts that are key to our work: language-as-resource and language-as-political. To do so, we draw on classroom data from students of Mexican origin in Tucson, USA, and students from Latin America in Barcelona, Spain. The language policies in our contexts share a message of privileging the language of instruction (English or Catalan) over other languages. Our analysis of the two sets of data points to differences in the mathematical participation of students on the basis of which language they use. We develop the argument that, even if languages other than Catalan and English are accepted and certain pedagogies may be close to a language-as-resource approach, the use of the students' languages is politically mediated in such a way that its pedagogical value (as a medium of communication and learning) is not always taken into account in the bilingual mathematics classroom.

Planas, Núria; Civil, Marta

2013-09-01

53

Learning to Communicate in the Classroom: A Study of Two Language Learner's Requests.  

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Examines whether communication occurring in a second-language classroom setting sufficiently ensures development of full target language competence. The ability of 2 English-as-a-Second-Language students to "request" in English was followed over 15-21 months. Results indicated that the classroom did not provide the conditions necessary for…

Ellis, Rod

1992-01-01

54

Students and Teachers’ Reasons for Using the First Language Within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico  

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Full Text Available The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and learning process. A small number of students do not like the use of the first language in the classroom and prefer that their teachers use the target language only. La presente investigación explora el uso de la lengua materna en un contexto de enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Esta investigación cualitativa presenta la práctica docente y los puntos de vista de maestros y alumnos de francés e inglés en el contexto de una universidad pública del centro de México, mediante el uso de las técnicas del cuestionario y la entrevista semiestructurada. Los resultados muestran que tanto los maestros como la mayoría de los alumnos perciben el uso de la lengua materna como algo positivo en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Un número reducido de estudiantes rechaza el uso de la lengua materna y prefiere que su clase de lengua extranjera sea dirigida exclusivamente en la lengua meta. Palabras clave: investigación cualitativa, puntos de vista de alumnos y maestros, uso de la lengua materna.

Mora Pablo Irasema; Lengeling M. Martha; Rubio Zenil Buenaventura; Crawford Troy; Goodwin Douglas

2011-01-01

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The Chinese Bouyei College Students’ Classroom Anxiety in Foreign Language Learning: A Survey Study  

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Full Text Available This survey study aims to investigate the level of the Chinese Bouyei college students’ general foreign language (FL) classroom anxiety, the relationships between their FL classroom anxiety and the four independent variables, gender, major field of study, level of academic year, and level of college, and possible causal factors contributive to their FL classroom anxiety. A previously published written questionnaire was administered to 320 1st- and 2nd-year Bouyei college learners in three main fields of study at five colleges of two levels in south and southwest areas of Guizhou Province, China. Ten interview questions were also conducted to 25 interviewees randomly selected from these colleges. The results of the analysis show that the Chinese Bouyei college learners experienced medium level of FL classroom anxiety; there were significant differences between their FL classroom anxiety and the first three independent variables, but not the last; and twelve main causal factors were found contributive to their FL classroom anxiety, among which some are new or different from the findings of the previous studies. Discussion was made on the research findings and what the interviewees expected from the teachers, followed by implications and suggestions for FL instructors that might help enhance and facilitate students’ FL learning.

Jianhua Wei; Butsakorn Yodkamlue

2012-01-01

56

TEACHER’S PERCEIVED CHARACTERISTICS AND PREFERENCES OF MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES IN THE LANGUAGE CLASSROOM  

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Full Text Available Motivated language teachers play a crucial role in building and developing students’ motivation in the classroom. This study aims to investigate teachers’motivational strategies in relation to their characteristics and preferences in Indonesian context of EFL instruction, which is an area that receives scant attention with regard to empirical research. The empirical data were collected through survey questionnaires and interviews. Twenty-eightactive teachers volunteered to participate in the present study. Findings show that most of these English teachers perceive themselves as enthusiastic facilitators as they explore a variety of ways to motivate students in the classroom. The majority of participants prefer assigning various learning activities or tasks in order to energize a learning environment. By doing so, teachers can draw students’ attention and get them engaged in the classroom. The teachers also integrate teaching materials with engaging pedagogical techniquesthat involve student interaction and movement.

Winda Hapsari

2013-01-01

57

Bridging discourses in the ESL classroom students, teachers and researchers  

CERN Multimedia

Bridging Discourses in the ESL Classroom examines the interactions between learners and teachers in the language classroom. It aims to identify patterns of discourse which enable second language development but also support the learning of curriculum knowledge. These patterns are 'bridging discourses' in that they combine the everyday language used by the student, with the specialised language of the academic register. This book puts forward an innovative new theory of classroom discourse analysis, influenced by the work of Halliday and Vygotsky. It is recommended for academics and postgraduat

Gibbons, Pauline

2006-01-01

58

Investigating Pragmatic Language Learning in Foreign Language Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

A lot of research addressing learners' development of pragmatics has recently been conducted (Kasper and Schmidt 1996; Bardovi-Harlig, 2002; Kasper and Rose 2002). From this same approach, a review of theoretical perspectives on pragmatic learning and how they have been operationalised in interlanguage pragmatic research is presented. Second, by…

Soler, Eva Alcon

2008-01-01

59

Gender and Language Use in the ESL Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This literature review focuses on presenting an overview of research on language and gender. An introduction to the factors influencing language use will first be made. Second, a brief discussion on sex and gender will be made to clarify the terminology used in the literature. Third, physical differences between men and women will also be pointed…

Tran, Thu Hoang

2010-01-01

60

Rethinking Language, Rhetoric, Knowledge, and Social Studies: Classroom Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proposes methods of applying new social studies teaching techniques. Suggests making the social studies classroom more social through group discussion, research, and writing. Recommends using textbook journals to help students learn to think, read, and write more critically. Calls for the use of interpersonal and textual metadiscourse. (SG)

Crismore, Avon

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Student Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Using the Target Language in the Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the language teaching profession has long emphasized the use of the target language in the classroom, student teachers face various challenges in their efforts to conduct class in their target language. This case study focused on 10 student teachers with respect to (1) their initial attitudes and beliefs about using the target language,…

Bateman, Blair E.

2008-01-01

62

Language Ideologies in English Learner Classrooms: Critical Reflections and the Role of Explicit Awareness  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper draws on fieldwork conducted over the course of one academic year in two urban high-school English learner (EL) classrooms located in the south-western part of the United States. As part of a larger interest in how language ideologies mediate classroom discourse practices, this paper analyses the role of awareness in language

Razfar, Aria; Rumenapp, Joseph C.

2012-01-01

63

Making Culture Happen in the English Language Classroom  

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Full Text Available The issue of introducing the target culture into language classroom practice has long been an object of debates as well as the opinions of the learners towards it. Eventually, modern practitioners found a way of having the language learners acquainted with the target culture and introducing culture through culture-based textbook activities. However, the issue of additional culturally-oriented activities in improving students learning habits is questionable today. The purpose of this paper is to examine their effect and to investigate the attitudes of students towards language teaching and learning through culture-based activities (games, role plays, dialogues, video clips, discussions and comparisons of local and target cultures). The paper presents the results of the study conducted in one of the top universities of Kazakhstan throughout the spring semester of the 2012 academic year. Eighty students of different cultural backgrounds took part in the study. The activities for the experimental groups were modified according the tasks in each unit of one of the contemporary textbooks used in General English lessons. These activities varied from warm-ups to homework tasks in the units accordingly. The results suggest that practice of the various culture-based tasks and exercises helped the students to improve their communicative and linguistic competences in English. The results obtained from this study also offer insights into how culture-based activities can be used to develop and enhance not only students’ language skills but also their awareness of various culture-sensitive issues.

Yakup Doganay; Madina Ashirimbetova; Brent Davis

2013-01-01

64

Implementing Interventions to Increase Motivation in the English Language Classroom: from Theory to Practice  

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Full Text Available A growing body of empirical research shows a relationship between student motivation and learning outcomes in the teaching of English in ESL and EFL contexts. Despite a sound theoretical framework, however, there are few studies which implement strategies intended to increase motivation and report findings. Using qualitative research, this article attempts to link theory with practice and shed light into the factors which demotivate students and act as barriers to effective foreign language learning. Theoretical principles are applied in the classroom and the effectiveness of interventions to increase motivation is assessed. Thus, the article is pragmatic in focus and provides teachers with a tool for analyzing students’ motivation so that they implement effective motivation strategies in the English classroom. The strategies and interventions suggested can be adapted and used by teachers in various teaching situations after taking into consideration their own teaching context.

Iakovos Tsiplakides; Areti Keramida

2010-01-01

65

Perceptions of Iranian English Language Teachers towards the Use of Discourse Markers in the EFL Classroom  

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Full Text Available This study attempts to examine Iranian English language teachers’ perception towards the use of discourse markers (DMs) in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom. It is the contention of this study that past research studies have not paid sufficient attention to how teachers perceive the use of discourse markers in the English language classroom. This research extends on Fung’s (2011) study and further includes the listening and speaking skills together with the role of DMs in teaching the reading and writing skills. Three research questions are posed in this study. They are 1) What is the perception of Iranian English teachers toward the use of discourse markers? 2) How do Iranian English teachers perceive DMs? 3) Do Iranian English teachers exhibit high, moderate, or low attitudes toward the use of discourse markers? The descriptive method to the data analysis in this study provides better understanding of teacher’s perception towards the use of DMs. Forty five Iranian English teachers participated in the study via a questionnaire survey. Results from the analysis of data showed that Iranian English teachers seem to have a moderate attitude toward DMs. Findings also suggest that teachers tend to believe in the pragmatic and practical value of DMs.

Seyed Ali Rezvani Kalajahi; Ain Nadzimah Abdullah

2012-01-01

66

The Relationship between Language Learners’ Anxiety and Learning Strategy in the CLT Classrooms  

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Full Text Available This paper intends to explore how Taiwanese students perceive the relationship between their language learning strategy and anxiety in the foreign language classroom. Due to their previous learning experience, most of the participants hold an unfavorable attitude toward a grammar-translation teaching approach. Consequently, learner-centered instruction has been widely accepted and acknowledged as a welcome concept and feasible teaching approach in the English Foreign Language (EFL) context. To improve the proficiency of language learners in EFL classrooms, it is very important to take into account the need of the learners. The present study utilizes Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) and Communicative Language Teaching Attitude Scale (COLTAS) to examine the participants’ perceptions about learning English. The results indicate that most of the participants express a favorable attitude toward the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach; however, they also reveal their high level of anxiety in the language classroom. Language anxiety is usually reported to have adverse effects on the learning of a second language. It is the language instructors’ mission to accelerate the language learning of their students. One way is to teach students how to learn more effectively and efficiently. Language learning strategies (LLS) are procedures that learners can use to facilitate learning. Both teachers and students should develop an awareness of the learning process and strategies that lead to success. The ultimate goal of this paper is to analyze the factors that affect the participants’ learning strategies and their language anxiety, and offer some pedagogical suggestions.

Kun-huei Wu

2010-01-01

67

Probing EFL Students’ Language Skill Development in Tertiary Classrooms  

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Full Text Available Research in second or foreign language learning indicates that for adult learners, the improvement of one language skill facilitates the development of other skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations among Chinese EFL students’ reading, writing, and listening development by examining their test scores on the College English Test Band 4. The findings showed that the resultant correlation coefficients between reading and writing and between reading and listening were low and not statistically significant. However, there was a significant relationship between listening and writing. It was suggested that factors such as the homogeneous sample selected, students’ motivation, and teaching methodology might affect the outcome of the research. The perceived implications of the research point to the importance of drawing close attention to teachers’ efforts in cultivating and developing students’ language skills evenly in the EFL context of China.

Hong Wang

2008-01-01

68

Firefighter or Fireman? Teachers’ attitudes towards gender neutrality in the foreign language classroom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This essay investigates the extent and significance of a gender decisive language in the foreign language classroom. Focus lies on teachers teaching English as a foreign language and their attitudes towards gender neutrality from a pure linguistic point of view. My starting point was previous resear...

Wessman, Sofia

69

The Benefits of Management and Organisation: A Case Study in Young Language Learners’ Classrooms  

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Full Text Available This study focuses on primary language education within a Greek region: specifically, on the positive effects of classroom management and organisation on a student-centred approach of teaching. In the case of the Greek education system, language teachers are encouraged to adopt student-centred approaches in their classroom but have not received any guidance on how to do so. Language educators are reluctant to abandon their teacher-centred ways, because they have not been trained to apply classroom management and organisation techniques that could support a student-centred environment.

Christina Nicole Giannikas

2013-01-01

70

Building a Synchronous Virtual Classroom in a Distance English Language Teacher Training (DELTT) Program in Turkey  

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Full Text Available This paper reports a synchronous project, “the virtual classroom” prepared for the Distance English Language Teacher Training (DELTT) Program. The process of developing the synchronous project and the interface with its specific components were reported with examples and supported by theoretical background from the related literature. The evaluation of the project concludes that the virtual classroom facilitated increased authentic interaction and encouraged learners to become more autonomous. When the group of students who prefer the traditional classroom, however, was considered a blended approach which consists of both virtual classroom and traditional face-to-face classroom was suggested as the most efficient way for Turkish EFL learners.

Belgin AYDIN; T. Volkan YUZER

2006-01-01

71

Assessment practices in the English language classroom of Greek Junior High School  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare teacher and student perceptions concerning assessment in the English language classroom of Greek Junior High Schools. It focuses on exploring teacher assessment practices and students’ view of these. The degree of agreement between teacher and student views can affect the results of instruction and learning. The central finding of the study was that English language teachers follow an approach that keeps a balance between the requirements of the Cross-Thematic Curriculum (DEPPS) for performance assessment and the official specifications which define final achievement tests. Students understand the purpose of assessment and the importance of attitudes towards learning and have a clear picture of methods and tasks used for their assessment. On the basis of these research findings, a series of suggestions about teachers and teacher trainers are put forward, focusing on teacher professional development, which, in turn, will promote student involvement and responsibility for learning.

Stavroula Vlanti

2012-01-01

72

Cross language information retrieval: a research roadmap  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) has been a research sub-field for more than a decade now. The field has sparked three major evaluation efforts: the TREC Cross Language Track which currently focuses on the Arabic language, the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF) - a spinoff from TREC -...

Gey F. C.; Kando N.; Peters C.

73

A Case Study on the Influence of Organizational Culture on Language Classroom  

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Full Text Available This paper tries to probe the influence of the organizational culture on language classroom at a newly-established local college. It firstly reviews the knowledge of the organizational culture and finds out its features, and then discusses how the organizational culture was greatly influenced by the host educational environment. On the basis of this, the paper interprets how organizational culture in turn influences the classroom culture in terms of English language teaching and learning in China.

Zhihui Liu

2009-01-01

74

Redressing the Roles of Correction and Repair in Research on Second and Foreign Language Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Correction and repair as components of an instructional practice that facilitates learning have figured prominently in research on classroom-based second and foreign language learning. Recent studies incorporating a conversation analytic (CA) perspective on second language acquisition (SLA) have also focused on repair and correction. From a CA…

Hall, Joan Kelly

2007-01-01

75

A linguagem de sala de aula na formação do professor de língua estrangeira/ Classroom discourse in foreign language teacher education  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A análise das gravações de miniaulas ministradas por professores de língua estrangeira em formação permitiu verificar a carência de um léxico específico para a situação de sala de aula. Essa evidência revela que o desenvolvimento de uma proficiência linguística geral não é suficiente na formação inicial de professores de línguas estrangeiras: é necessário que se realize também um trabalho sistemático sobre a linguagem específica de sala de aula. Co (more) m o objetivo de contribuir para a formação desses professores, este artigo apresenta um inventário de falas típicas de sala de aula elaborado a partir das dificuldades observadas no corpus de estudo. Propõe-se utilizar esse inventário como base para atividades que proporcionem ao professor em formação a oportunidade de adquirir proficiência lexical específica para sua prática profissional em língua estrangeira. Abstract in english The analysis of minilessons given by future language teachers revealed their lack of lexical proficiency in foreign language for classroom situation. Such evidence shows it is not sufficient to develop general linguistic competence in foreign language teacher education. It's necessary systematically introduce practices focusing the acquisition of the language for the specific purpose of classroom interaction. Aiming at the improvement of teacher education, this paper pres (more) ents a list of typical classroom talk based on difficulties observed in the corpus of this research. It is proposed to apply such list as a starting point for activities that enable teachers to acquire specific lexical proficiency for their professional practice in foreign language.

Ortale, Fernanda Landucci; Duran, Magali Sanches

2009-06-01

76

Classroom Has a Heart: Teachers and Students Affective Alignment in a Persian Heritage Language Classroom  

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This research study investigated how the teachers and students at a Persian heritage language class acknowledged and modified their affective behavior based on the affective feedback they received from one another. The notion that interactants can modify their affective output in such fashion is referred in the literature as affective alignment…

Atoofi, Saeid

2013-01-01

77

"I've Got an Idea": A Social Semiotic Perspective on Agency in the Second Language Classroom  

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This paper addresses the role of multimodal fluency in establishing agency in the second language classroom. The focus of the paper is on the semiotic resourcefulness of an English Language Learner in an English as a Second Language classroom in the United States. Framed from a social semiotic perspective, fine grained multimodal analysis of…

Pinnow, Rachel J.

2011-01-01

78

Teacher and Learner Roles in the Hong Kong English Language Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports findings from a large-scale investigation into the implementation of Hong Kong's communicative English-language curriculum at the secondary level. Focuses on the roles of teachers and learners and the impact of these roles on patterns of interaction and the nature of language used in the classroom. (DSK)

Evans, Stephen

1997-01-01

79

"Ma Sha Allah!" Creating Community through Humor Practices in a Diverse Arabic Language Flagship Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on Lave and Wenger's (1991) and Wenger's (1998) "communities of practice" (CoP) framework, this study explores the shared repertoire of humor practices in the creation of community within the context of a culturally diverse and multilevel adult Arabic language classroom consisting of two native speakers, five heritage language learners…

Hillman, Sara Katherine

2011-01-01

80

Teaching Pragmatics in the Foreign Language Classroom: Grammar as a Communicative Resource  

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This article focuses on the teaching of pragmatics in the Spanish as a Foreign Language classroom and examines the role of grammar as a communicative resource. It also aims to highlight the importance of teaching pragmatics from beginning levels of language instruction, with the spotlight on speech acts at the discourse level. After the concept of…

Felix-Brasdefer, J. Cesar; Cohen, Andrew D.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

ELT Teacher Trainees' Attitudes towards Environmental Education and Their Tendency to Use It in the Language Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

With the change of focus in language teaching from grammar-based approaches to more communicative approaches, contextual language learning gained importance and found body in the English Language classroom. Global issues constitute one of the most popular contexts for purposeful language learning and meaningful language use. Increasing number of…

Gursoy, Esim; Saglam, Gulderen T.

2011-01-01

82

Non-native Teacher Talk as Lexical Input in the Foreign Language Classroom  

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Full Text Available Non-native or indigenous English teachers have provided the largest teaching and professional support in Asian countries where English is taught and learnt in school as an additional or international language. As the language environment outside classroom in these countries is generally poor, teachers become a major source of language input for learners. This article explores the Lexical Variation (LV) ratio of non-native teacher talk and the percentage of words teachers used at different vocabulary levels to determine the lexical richness in a foreign language classroom. The classroom data revealed that teachers’ oral input failed to provide a lexically rich environment as the teacher talk were limited in both variation and frequency range. Ways to enhance the lexical environment will be discussed.

Eunice Tang

2011-01-01

83

Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools  

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Full Text Available Complying with school regulations and teachers’ instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality 

Quintero Corzo Josefina; Ramírez Contreras Odilia

2011-01-01

84

Bilingual Lexical Interillumination in the Foreign Language Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

|Foreign language (FL) education has been marked by a monolingual principle that has favoured "intralingual" methodologies. Bakhtin's view of language interillumination--that languages throw light on each other--challenges such language teaching practices radically. Using conversation analysis methods, this article examines transcripts of…

St. John, Oliver

2010-01-01

85

Students' Social Positioning in the Language Classroom: Implications for Interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines some findings of a three-month investigation into the effects of students' interpersonal relationships on communication in two EFL classrooms in a Japanese university. Data was collected to identify and describe the various social subgroups that existed within the classes, and samples of classroom discourse were then analysed…

Stone, Paul; Kidd, Andrew

2011-01-01

86

Access to mathematics versus access to the language of power: the struggle in multilingual mathematics classrooms  

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Full Text Available In this article I explore how teachers and learners position themselves in relation to use of language(s) in multilingual mathematics classrooms. I draw from two studies in multilingual mathematics classrooms in South Africa. The analysis presented shows that teachers and learners who position themselves in relation to English are concerned with access to social goods and positioned by the social and economic power of English. They do not focus on epistemological access but argue for English as the language of learning and teaching. In contrast, learners who position themselves in relation to mathematics and so epistemological access, reflect more contradictory discourses, including support for the use of the their home languages as languages of learning and teaching.

Mamokgethi Setati

2008-01-01

87

Communicative Language Teaching in the Yemeni EFL Classroom: Embraced or Merely Lip-serviced?  

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Full Text Available This study examines Yemeni EFL teachers’ knowledge of the major principles of Communicative Language Teaching (henceforth, CLT) and their classroom subscription to these principles. The findings reveal that although these teachers are fairly knowledgeable of the principles of CLT, their classroom behavior does not always reflect this knowledge, which is most evident in their tendency to resort to structure-based practices. The authors conclude with a number of recommendations and pedagogical implications.

Rula Fahmi Bataineh; Ruba Fahmi Bataineh; Samiha Saif Thabet

2011-01-01

88

Practical Techniques for Cultural-based Language Teaching in the EFL Classroom  

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Full Text Available The present paper concerns itself with a study of the cultural-based language teaching issue, particularly with the issue of some practical techniques for teaching culture in the EFL classroom. We want to emphasize the importance of cultural acquisition in the study of language courses, and to present a range of practical techniques that have been found to be effective and successful in cultural-based courses and a few tips that can help to make the teaching of culture a better experience for both teachers and students. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective approaches of culture communication transmission in English classroom teaching.

Lili Dai

2011-01-01

89

Bringing Polar Research to the Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic (TEAA) was a professional development opportunity for teachers funded through the National Science Foundation. A TEAA teacher worked closely with scientists, participated in cutting-edge research, and was immersed in the process of science. The TEAA teacher experience enhances professional development and enabled teachers to increase content knowledge, enhance teaching skills, transfer the research experience to the classroom, assume leadership roles, and collaborate with a network of researchers and education colleagues. A primary goal of the TEAA program was to establish a growing, collaborative Polar Learning Community of teachers, students, administrators, researchers, and the broader community to build on the research experience. One example of how this collaboration was through work with researchers at the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics. In 1995 and 2004, two geophysical research cruises in Antarctica included the same TEAA. During the 2004 cruise, bathymetric data were collected that found some unique seafloor features of an unknown origin. Of particular interest was a cluster of 5 km in diameter, circular structures that may be glacial remnants. Given the uniqueness of these features, an opportunity has been created for students to actively investigate and research the data, and to describe these features. The data will be made available to high schools and middle schools in digital form that the students can use. The bathymetric charts of the seafloor show location, length and depths of the features. The goal of this collaboration is to develop an inquiry based science activity that uses real data as a focus for students to develop their own hypotheses for the origin of these unique formations. Students in Wisconsin will make field trips to actual glacial drumlins and compare their field measurements to those collected during the cruise. Teachers, students, and scientists will work together to explain the origin of the Antarctic features using their local data as a basis for comparison. Students and teachers will be encouraged to share their conclusions with one another and with the scientists. This is intended to be a long-term project initiated in the fall of 2004 and will be provided to the educational community prior to the start of the International Polar Year (2007).

Stevenoski, S.; Lawver, L. A.; Wilson, T. J.

2004-12-01

90

Factors Influencing Student Nurses’ Perceptions of Success and Failure in Second Language Writing – A Classroom-based Study  

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Full Text Available This article applies attribution theory to identify the factors that influence nursing students’ perceptions of success and failure in learning English writing skills. The study took place in a language classroom in southern Taiwan involving fifty-one female nursing students, a writing teacher, and the researcher. Teaching activities included five writing cycles based on an online writing platform, process approach, and multiple revisions. Evidence data has been collected from learners’ questionnaires and interviews, teacher’s interviews, classroom observations, teaching materials, and researcher’s diaries. The data has been analysed quantitatively using SPSS and qualitatively with the aid of QSR NVivo software. Results reveal the major factors given by learners involve the amount writing practice given and their perceptions of their competence in vocabulary and with grammar. The work is supported by observations made by the language teacher and the researcher on issues which have emerged on the students’ writing skills, psychology, language competence, and learning context. This article concludeswith the implications for teaching.

Hung-Cheng TAI

2013-01-01

91

A Reader Responds to Guilloteaux and Dornyei's "Motivating Language Learners: A Classroom-Oriented Investigation of the Effects of Motivational Strategies on Student Motivation"  

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There is a wealth of literature examining the role of motivation in second language (L2) learning but remarkably little research that has examined how teachers can foster motivation in the classroom. For this reason alone Guilloteaux and Dornyei's (2008) correlational study of the relationship between motivational strategies and student motivation…

Ellis, Rod

2009-01-01

92

Book Review: Creating equitable classrooms through action research  

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Full Text Available Creating Equitable Classrooms through Action Research is compelling reading for a wide-ranging audience including professional development participants, preservice and inservice teachers, students of educational administration, and teacher educators.

Geoff Mills

2009-01-01

93

Code-Switching in English as a Foreign Language Classroom: Teachers’ Attitudes  

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Full Text Available Code-switching has always been an intriguing phenomenon to sociolinguists. While the general attitude to it seems negative, people seem to code-switch quite frequently. Teachers of English as a foreign language too frequently claim that they do not like to code-switch in the language classroom for various reasons – many are of the opinion that only the target language should be used in the classroom. This study looks at the teachers’ attitudes towards code-switching in teaching English as a foreign language to Malay students at one of the local universities in Malaysia. Data was collected through observations, questionnaires and interviews. Each teacher was observed, their language use were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed using the functions proposed by Gumperz (1982). The results of the study showed that teachers do code-switch in the language classroom, despite their claim that they do not. Analysis of the data showed that, in most cases, code switching by teachers was done to serve pedagogical purposes.

Engku Haliza Engku Ibrahim; Mohamed Ismail Ahamad Shah; Najwa Tgk. Armia

2013-01-01

94

Classroom Learning Styles and Their Effect on Second Language Acquisition: A Study of Two Learners.  

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Reports on a study of the learning styles of two adult classroom learners of German as a second language. The extent to which, and in what ways, learners' learning style varies, whether one learning style results in more effective learning, and the effect of instructional style on the subjects' learning outcomes are explored. (29 references)…

Ellis, Rod

1989-01-01

95

Galaxy Classroom Project Evaluation, Language Arts, Grades 3-5. Final Report.  

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The GALAXY Language Arts Demonstration Program is a package of integrated curricular and instructional approaches that features the organization of instruction around themes presented through television broadcasts, children's literature, classroom activities, and the use of interactive technology. During the GALAXY Project demonstration phase for…

Guth, Gloria J. A.; Block, Clifford

96

Language Factors Associated with Achievement Grouping in Math Classrooms: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study  

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The study examines the effects of classroom achievement grouping (AG) practices on the early mathematics performance of language-minority students and compares their mathematics achievement to that of English-speaking majority students. Using a nationally representative database of the USA, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were done.…

Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Filer, Kimberly

2009-01-01

97

Investigating foreign language anxiety in Iranian classrooms: The effect of gender  

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Full Text Available In an attempt to delve into the issue of affective variables related to language learning, the present study focuses on the influence of gender on learners' foreign language anxiety in the Iranian context. The objective of this case study is first to determine the extent to which Iranian EFL learners perceive foreign language anxiety in matched-gender and mixed-gender classrooms and second to see if there is any significant difference between the two types of the investigated classrooms. To this end, a 16 items self-reporting questionnaire with a five Likert-type scale was designed. The developed questionnaire was then given to 96 Iranian lower intermediate EFL learners to complete it. After analyzing the collected data, the findings indicated that mixed-gender classrooms can be considered as an anxiety-provoking teaching context in Iran, since the presence of the opposite gender in EFL classrooms was found to cause statistically significant amount of language anxiety among Iranian learners. The study also offers some context-specific pedagogical implications for Iranian EFL teachers and practitioners.

Mahmoodzadeh, Masoud

2013-01-01

98

Techniques for Using Humor and Fun in the Language Arts Classroom  

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The authors, former middle and high school English teachers, review the rationale for using humor and fun in the classroom and provide detailed descriptions for teaching practices and activities that confer enjoyment and learning for language arts students. Although fun activities, these methods foster vocabulary development, grammar instruction,…

Minchew, Sue S.; Hopper, Peggy F.

2008-01-01

99

The education of English language learners research to practice  

CERN Multimedia

This comprehensive volume describes evidence-based strategies for supporting English language learners (ELLs) by promoting meaningful communication and language use across the curriculum. Leading experts explain how and why learning is different for ELLs and pinpoint specific best practices for the classroom, illustrated with vivid examples. Particular attention is given to ways in which learning English is intertwined with learning the student's home language. The book addresses both assessment and instruction for typically developing ELLs and those with language disabilities and

Shatz, Marilyn

2010-01-01

100

Conceptualizing Humanistic Competence in the Language Classroom by TJP - A Chinese Case  

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Full Text Available As learning is seen to be a social process as well as an intellectual activity in which teachers work in active partnership with students, “Teaching by Joint Presentation” (TJP) project sought to investigate what a humanistic concept of teacher-student joint presentation and critical inquiry can evoke in the language classroom within Chinese context. 289 college English literature learning students and 87 in-service secondary school teachers have participated in this study. The findings articulated a series of multifaceted differences concerning with students’ learning aspiration and competence, together with the complexities of teaching methods in a humanistic language classroom. The results indicate that humanistic ideal does increase students’ learning competence of critical insight, independent thought and reflective analysis. The study provides insights into humanistic competence growth of Chinese college language students based on empirical evidence.

Ling Zhang; Chris Atkin

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Towards an understanding of the role of language in the science classroom and its association with cultural identity development in the context of Mozambique  

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I am reflecting here my struggle to understand the issue of language in the science classroom and in our lives from three different perspectives: before and after Mozambican independence and after completion of my doctoral research. The main method used is auto|ethnographic inquiry in which I use the events in my life to question what is happening in my society. I have used Maria Rivera Maulucci's paper, Language experience narratives and the role of autobiographical reasoning in becoming an urban science teacher as a reference. This paper helps me to show how isolated and generalized is the Mozambican situation and the value of our struggle in giving value to local languages.

Cupane, Alberto Felisberto

2011-06-01

102

Classroom research in Environmental Engineering Courses- CREUPI: a feasible practice  

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Full Text Available Classroom research is a strategy that proposes linking teaching and research, thereby rendering teachers and students partners in the search for knowledge and combining theory and practice as allies in the educational process. This paper reports on classroom research experience in the subjects of Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Research Metodology, which are disciplines taught in CREUPI’s Environmental Engineering course. The conceptual and methological landmark achieved through this educational approach is discussed, analyzing the process involved in each discipline as well as the results derived from this practice.

Nirlei Maria Oliveira; Gerson Araújo de Medeiros

2004-01-01

103

Developing Teaching in the "University Classroom": The Teacher as Researcher when Initiating and Researching Innovations  

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Full Text Available The teacher’s role in the university classroom has traditionally been to present the syllabus to listening students. In Norway new rules have been introduced for the activity in this classroom. The overarching goal for the teaching is to organize a learning situation that makes the students active learners. The article deals with the teacher as a researcher, and focuses on how innovative actions can be implemented by the teacher and studied from a researcher point of view. The text presents cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) as both the theoretical framework for the organized actions in the classroom and as an approach for studying the classroom processes. The article gives an overview over a material that can be gathered in a classroom characterized by student activity. It ends by reflections on how development in one classroom can be transferred to other classrooms.   

May Britt Postholm

2011-01-01

104

Instructors' Use of English in the Modern Language Classroom  

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Contemporary best practices in the profession encourage teaching as much as possible in the target language, but when university faculty were observed teaching Spanish, the majority spoke English during instruction and many engaged in frequent code switching (alternations) between English and Spanish. Findings indicate that instructors used…

Wilkerson, Carol

2008-01-01

105

Incorporating Competency-Based Blended Learning in a Chinese Language Classroom: A Web 2.0 Drupal Module Design  

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|This study aims to create a blended learning environment, based on the concept of competency-based training, in a Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) classroom at an American university. Drupal platform and web 2.0 tools were used as supplements to traditional face-to-face classroom instruction. Students completed various selective tasks and…

Huang, Chung-Kai; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chiang, Yueh-Hui

2010-01-01

106

A Case Study of Five Science Teachers’ Understandings of Classroom Research and Their Willingness to Become Active Classroom Researchers  

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Full Text Available This article reports on the views of five secondary school science teachers who accepted the challenge to explore the self-assessment aspect of their practice with specific regard to their understandings of classroom research and their willingness to actively initiate and engage in classroom research. The approach is an explorative one and the accounts outline the context in which the teachers work, provide brief descriptions of their work, and consider what lessons from these case studies might guide or inform teachers and teacher educators in the personal and professional development of science teachers as researchers.

Rawatee Maharaj-Sharma

2011-01-01

107

¿Duermes mucho Tony? Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom  

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Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students’ first language (l1) in English Language Teaching (elt ), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of l1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students’ mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English. Key words: First language, critical pedagogy, phatic communion Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (l1) de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (ei), un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (l1) parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido. Palabras clave: Lengua materna, pedagogía crítica, comunión fática

Higareda Sandra; López Georgina; Mugford Gerrard

2009-01-01

108

Literacy Instruction for English Language Learners A Teacher's Guide to Research-Based Practices  

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Literacy Instruction for English Language Learners turns hundreds of ELL studies into dozens of strategies for regular classroom instruction. Nancy Cloud, Fred Genesee, and Else Hamayan have examined the research evidence to determine what works for ELLs. They recommend best practices for teaching English learners to read and write from emergent literacy to primary school and on through middle school and include helpful features that make the research directly accessible to all teachers.

Cloud, Nancy; Hamayan, Else

2009-01-01

109

A Classroom Research Study on Oral Error Correction  

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This study has the main objective to present the findings of a small-scale classroom research carried out to collect data about my spoken error correction behaviors by means of self-observation. With this study, I aimed to analyze how and which spoken errors I corrected during a specific activity in a beginner's class. I used Lyster and Ranta's…

Coskun, Abdullah

2010-01-01

110

Encouraging Empirical Research: Findings from the Music Appreciation Classroom  

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Full Text Available Empirical research can be a very useful tool for the music history pedagogue, as a collection of studies relating to the teaching of collegiate-level music appreciation classes has shown. Although the body of literature is small, the existing empirical research involving collegiate-level music appreciation classrooms provides important pedagogical findings. Studies have investigated how students’ backgrounds influence their music appreciation experience, the success of courses in increasing students’ levels of appreciation for music, and the effectiveness of particular curricular and teaching strategies in the music appreciation classroom. Findings from these studies can help music appreciation teachers make informed, research-supported choices when deciding how to structure and teach their courses. Examining these studies may also stimulate ideas for further areas of empirical research. A willingness to accept and engage in empirical research will lead to a better understanding of our students and an increased quality of teaching.

Scott Dirkse

2011-01-01

111

Identity and Language Ideology in the Intermediate Spanish Heritage Language Classroom  

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This dissertation examines the negotiation of language ideologies and identity construction amongst university intermediate level Spanish Heritage Language (SHL) learners in the U.S. Southwest. Combining sociolinguistic and ethnographic methods with discourse analysis, this study seeks to provide deeper insight into the linguistic practices and…

Lowther Pereira, Kelly Anne

2010-01-01

112

Gender and Language Contact Research in the Australian Context.  

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Examines bilingual women and their discourses of identities, language choice, and language maintenance in light of new research on gender and language contact. Presents a view of value, roles, and directions of past and present research about gender and language contact and provides an example for future directions through examination of the…

Winter, Joanne; Pauwels, Anne

2000-01-01

113

Using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system in preschool classrooms with children with autism spectrum disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study describes the language environment of preschool programs serving children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and examines relationships between child characteristics and an automated measure of adult and child language in the classroom. The Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system was used with 40 children with ASD to collect data on adult and child language. Standardized assessments were administered to obtain language, cognitive, and autism severity scores for participants. With a mean of over 5 hours of recording across two days several months apart, there was a mean of 3.6 child vocalizations per minute, 1.0 conversational turns (in which either the adult or child respond to the other within 5 seconds) per minute, and 29.2 adult words per minute. Two of the three LENA variables were significantly correlated with language age-equivalents. Cognitive age-equivalents were also significantly correlated with two LENA variables. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule severity scores and LENA variables were not significantly correlated. Implications for using the LENA system with children with ASD in the school environment are discussed.

Dykstra JR; Sabatos-Devito MG; Irvin DW; Boyd BA; Hume KA; Odom SL

2013-09-01

114

Using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system in preschool classrooms with children with autism spectrum disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the language environment of preschool programs serving children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and examines relationships between child characteristics and an automated measure of adult and child language in the classroom. The Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system was used with 40 children with ASD to collect data on adult and child language. Standardized assessments were administered to obtain language, cognitive, and autism severity scores for participants. With a mean of over 5 hours of recording across two days several months apart, there was a mean of 3.6 child vocalizations per minute, 1.0 conversational turns (in which either the adult or child respond to the other within 5 seconds) per minute, and 29.2 adult words per minute. Two of the three LENA variables were significantly correlated with language age-equivalents. Cognitive age-equivalents were also significantly correlated with two LENA variables. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule severity scores and LENA variables were not significantly correlated. Implications for using the LENA system with children with ASD in the school environment are discussed. PMID:22751753

Dykstra, Jessica R; Sabatos-Devito, Maura G; Irvin, Dwight W; Boyd, Brian A; Hume, Kara A; Odom, Sam L

2012-07-02

115

Education of English Language Learners Research to Practice  

CERN Multimedia

This comprehensive volume describes evidence-based strategies for supporting English language learners (ELLs) by promoting meaningful communication and language use across the curriculum. Leading experts explain how and why learning is different for ELLs and pinpoint specific best practices for the classroom, illustrated with vivid examples. Particular attention is given to ways in which learning English is intertwined with learning the student's home language. The book addresses both assessment and instruction for typically developing ELLs and those with language disabilities and disorders. I

Shatz, Marilyn

2010-01-01

116

Formative Assessment Probes: Teachers as Classroom Researchers  

Science.gov (United States)

This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. In 1999, a group of researchers from Indiana University and Purdue University decided to investigate data about students' ideas in science by inviting National Science Teachers Association members to participate in a research study about children's conceptions of animals. Published in…

Keeley, Page

2011-01-01

117

How word decoding, vocabulary and prior topic knowledge predict reading comprehension. A study of language-minority students in Norwegian fifth grade classrooms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global Warming Test) consisting of multiple lengthy texts. The sample included 67 language-minority students (native Urdu or native Turkish speakers) from 21 different fifth grade classrooms in Norway. Multiple regression analyses revealed that word decoding and different facets of L2 vocabulary explained most of the variance in Woodcock Passage Comprehension, but a smaller proportion of variance in the Global Warming Test. For the Global Warming Test, prior topic knowledge was the most influential predictor. Furthermore, L2 vocabulary depth appeared to moderate the contribution of prior topic knowledge to the Global Warming Test in this sample of language minority students.

Rydland V; Aukrust VG; Fulland H

2012-02-01

118

How word decoding, vocabulary and prior topic knowledge predict reading comprehension. A study of language-minority students in Norwegian fifth grade classrooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global Warming Test) consisting of multiple lengthy texts. The sample included 67 language-minority students (native Urdu or native Turkish speakers) from 21 different fifth grade classrooms in Norway. Multiple regression analyses revealed that word decoding and different facets of L2 vocabulary explained most of the variance in Woodcock Passage Comprehension, but a smaller proportion of variance in the Global Warming Test. For the Global Warming Test, prior topic knowledge was the most influential predictor. Furthermore, L2 vocabulary depth appeared to moderate the contribution of prior topic knowledge to the Global Warming Test in this sample of language minority students. PMID:22308061

Rydland, Veslemøy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grøver; Fulland, Helene

2010-11-01

119

The Mediational Role of Classroom Practices during the Silent Period: A New-Immigrant Student Learning the English Language in a Mainstream Classroom  

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For this article we aimed to understand the emergence of English as a second language for a newly immigrated Mexican student, a native speaker of Spanish, enrolled in a mainstream kindergarten classroom, who was undergoing the "silent period" (Krashen, 1981). Applying ecological approaches that emphasize learners in relationship with their…

Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva; Jang, Eun-Young

2008-01-01

120

Supporting Early Writing in Dual Language Head Start Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

The following research-to-practice summary addresses the findings from the original intervention study and provides specific guidance for early childhood practitioners. These recommendations respond to a current and growing concern on how to implement developmental, cultural, and linguistically appropriate curricula, namely, recommendations focus…

Matera, Carola

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Teaching Practice and Cultural Difference of an English as Foreign Language Classroom in Taiwan  

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Full Text Available Uninterrupted interactions of merchants and travelers from different countries stress the significance of English. The purpose of the study was to investigate what cultures and teaching practices are different between native English-speaking teachers and Taiwanese senior high school students. Three native English-speaking teachers and six Taiwanese senior high school students in Taichung city participated in this study. Data were collected through native English-speaking teachers’ and Taiwanese senior high school students’ interviews and non-participant classroom observation. Results showed that American teachers lack of diversified cultures, not dealing with the complicated classroom situations. Students were accustomed to Grammar Translation Method “GTM” instead of the Communicative Language Teaching “CLT.” Scarcity of understanding diversified cultures and large classes were major difficulties for both teachers and students. The implications of the study were discussed and some recommendations were made to assist local English teachers and senior high school students in addressing their teaching or learning English.

Hsien-Chung Liao; Cheng-Cheng Yang

2012-01-01

122

La photographie, un outil pour communiquer en classe de langue Photography as a Tool to Communicate in the Language Classroom  

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Full Text Available Cette contribution, qui relève de la didactique des langues, s’appuie sur l’analyse des interactions verbales et de la communication en classe de langue. Elle repose sur la capacité de l’image à susciter des productions verbales. La photographie d’auteur est ici considérée comme un déclencheur d’interactions orales permettant de communiquer. Nous avons mis en œuvre une tâche dans des cours de français langue étrangère en contexte pluriculturel à Paris avec des apprenants de niveaux A1 à B2. Le projet mené en groupe consiste à commenter des photographies d’auteur sans objectifs langagiers prédéterminés. L’analyse d’une séquence recueillie devant la photographie Rue Mouffetard d’H. Cartier-Bresson révèle l’importance de la communication entre les apprenants. La photographie suscite des enjeux communicatifs qui favorisent l’implication des étudiants. Ces derniers prennent position sur l’image et sont amenés à confronter leurs points de vue avec leurs pairs. Les apprenants peuvent également avoir recours à l’humour et modifier leur rôle conversationnel habituel.The article, in the field of foreign language classroom research, deals with verbal interaction analysis. It is based on the capacity of images to trigger verbal expression. Photography is here considered as a means to induce oral interaction, thus enabling students to communicate. We have implemented a task in a “French as a foreign languageclassroom in a multicultural context in Paris, learners’ levels ranging from A1 to B2. In this group project, students were invited to comment on artistic and documentary photographs. We had no predetermined language objectives. The analysis of interactions triggered by the photograph Rue Mouffetard by H. Cartier-Bresson highlights learners’ interactions. The photograph creates communicative needs and induces students to get involved in the activity. They express their views on the image and confront their opinions with their peers. They also use humour, thus modifying their usual interactional role.

Catherine Muller

2012-01-01

123

Corpus in Foreign Language Teaching and Research  

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Full Text Available Corpus-based language research has been long prospered since the middle of last century. Corpus is therefore frequently used in foreign language (mostly English) teaching and research due to the fundamental principles of modern Corpus Linguistics along with the colorful resources of word-banks and the corresponding tools, especially in western countries. In China, the related literature found its way from introducing the foreign researches to our own practice into this field. As a conclusion, corpus and Corpus Linguistics can be closely connected with and widely applied in foreign language teaching and research with a predictable bright future. Keywords: corpus, Corpus Linguistics, foreign language teaching and research Résumé Le moyen de recherches sur le corpus a connu un développement rapide depuis le milieu du siècle précédent et a atteint la maturité aujourd’hui. En raison de l’importance de la linguistique de corpus et de la méthode de recherches sur le corppus, et étant donné ses ressources riches ainsi que les facilités apportées par les outils de recherche, le corpus est appliquée amplement dans les recherches linguistiques notamment dans celles de l’anglais. A l’étranger, l’étude de la linguistique de corpus a débuté tôt et a donné beaucoup de fruits ; le travail du milieu des langues étrangères chinois dans ce domaine a commencé par la présentation du corpus étranger et sa situation d’étude, et puis procède à des applications pratiques. En somme, il existe des relations étroites et diverses entre le corpus et les recherches de l’enseignement-apprentissage des langues étrangères, et les recherches de l’enseignement-apprentissage des langues étrangères basant sur le corpus présente une bonne perspective. Mots-clés: corpus, linguistique de corpus, recherches de l’enseignement-apprentissage des langues étrangères ? ? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

Xin-ping ZHOU

2006-01-01

124

Using Conversation Analysis in the Second Language Classroom to Teach Interactional Competence  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article focuses on the use of conversation analysis (CA) to help teaching interactional competence in English to adult second language learners from lower to intermediate levels. To set the context, this article gives a brief overview on the use of CA in second language research as well as considering the construct of interactional…

Barraja-Rohan, Anne-Marie

2011-01-01

125

MALL Technology: Use of Academic Podcasting in the Foreign Language Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) technology (personal multimedia players, cell phones, and handheld devices) into the foreign language curriculum is becoming commonplace in many secondary and higher education institutions. Current research has identified both pedagogically sound applications and important benefits to students.…

Abdous, M'hammed; Camarena, Margaret M.; Facer, Betty Rose

2009-01-01

126

Deep ocean research meets the special education classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

The scientific activities carried out on board the JOIDES Resolution during IODP Expedition 327: Juan de Fuca Hydrogeology (summer 2010) are exciting to elementary-level students and provide an excellent opportunity to use that enthusiasm to teach concepts outlined in state-mandated curricula. This is especially important for special education classrooms where individualized education plans are implemented to bring students up to these standards when regular classrooms have failed to do so. Using concepts from drilling and coring to geobiology and sedimentology, we have developed cross-curricular lesson plans for elementary special education students with learning and cognitive disabilities. All lesson plans include hands-on, visual and auditory activities and are aimed at using students' natural interest in real research to drive home simple concepts like integers, geography, pressure and descriptive writing. Because special education classrooms more often than not include children with variable abilities in all subjects, the lesson plans developed in this project can be adapted for several levels so that every child in the classroom can participate.

Turner, A.; Turner, M.; Edwards, K. J.; Scientific Team Of Iodp Expedition 327

2010-12-01

127

Participation, Action, and Research in the Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Includes sections written by seminar participants: "Prologue,""Participatory Action Research (PAR)--What Is It?" and "Overall Narrative" (Greenwood); "Gender and Issues of Power" (Matthews, Strubel); "Issues in PAR Pedagogy" (Greenwood); "Participatory Evaluation" (Thomas); "Confronting: The Study of PAR" (Martin); "International Comparisons"…

Elvemo, Johan; Greenwood, Davydd; Martin, Ann; Matthews, Lisa; Streubel, Aleeza; Thomas, Laurine; Whyte, William Foote

1997-01-01

128

The Pedagogical Mediation of a Developmental Learner Corpus for Classroom-Based Language Instruction  

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Full Text Available Although corpora have been used in language teaching for some time, few empirical studies explore their impact on learning outcomes. We provide a microgenetic account of learners’ responses to corpus-driven instructional units for German modal particles and pronominal da-compounds. The units are based on developmental corpus data produced by native speakers during interactions with the very learners for whom the units are designed. Thus, we address the issue of authentication in corpus-driven language pedagogy. Finally, we illustrate how an ethnographically supplemented developmental learner corpus may contribute to second language acquisition research via dense documentation of micro-changes in learners’ language use over time.

Julie A. Belz; Nina Vyatkina

2008-01-01

129

The relationship between conceptual metaphors and classroom management language: reactions by native and non-native speakers of English  

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Full Text Available The use of the target language to manage a class and organise its work represents one of the few genuinely communicative uses of the target language in many formal foreign-language or bilingual-education teaching situations. It is thus important that both teachers and learners understand and know how to use the key expressions involved. These tend to be highly metaphoric (Low, 2008) with one particularly productive conceptual metaphor involving the JOURNEY (or TRAVEL) source domain seemingly standing out. There seems to have been little investigation to date into whether or not learners whose first language is not English actually understand the expressions involved in such classroom management language. Moreover, with the recent growing interest in the area of content-based learning, there is increasing pressure on language teachers, whose first language is not English, to use English as their classroom management language. Our first aim was to look at whether the acceptability judgements for classroom management expressions offered by non-native speaking teachers of English resembled those of native speakers, and whether these judgements reflected corpus findings regarding the frequency of usage in spoken English. To do this, we analysed native and non-native speaker responses to a short questionnaire. Our second aim was to look at how non-native speakers of English perceive the meanings of these expressions, comparing our findings to native speaker judgements and corpus results.

Graham Low; Jeannette Littlemore

2009-01-01

130

How to Ensure Ethicality of Action Research in the Classroom?  

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Full Text Available During the past few years, child research has increased both when it comes to various disciplines and various methods. Thepurpose of this article is to discuss those common, special ethical viewpoints that the researcher has to take intoconsideration when conducting action research in the classroom. The article is based on the teacher-researcher’s actionresearch which was carried out among 7-9-year-old pupils (N=21). The purpose was to study their emotional coping. Thefocus is on the following question: how to secure the children’s position and voices by leaning on the principle thatresearch should be just, valuable, and good-producing and not harm the children or have a malign influence on thephenomenon studied. The purpose is to encourage researchers to do child research and to help them pay attention to ethicalchallenges in the various phases of research.

Eeva-Liisa Peltokorpi; Kaarina Määttä; Satu Uusiautti

2012-01-01

131

Students' Oral Participation in the CLIL Classroom. : A comparative study of oral participation of CLIL students and students taught through their native language Swedish.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies have shown that participation and interaction in a language classroom are important. Especially so in the CLIL classroom where the target language is both the subject of study and the medium of instruction. However, it can be difficult for a teacher to get students to participate orally. Man...

Jonsson, Karin

132

Physics Education Research and its Impact on Classroom Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years systematic investigations into student learning of physics have been carried out at an increasing pace, particularly at the undergraduate level. This work, broadly known as ``physics education research,'' involves exploring the process by which students come to understand physics concepts, and uncovering the difficulties and obstacles encountered by students as they learn. The ultimate outcome of this work is the development of new and more effective instructional materials and pedagogical strategies. I will outline the principal goals and methods of this research and show how it can lead to improved learning in the classroom. I will illustrate the process by discussing an ongoing investigation into student learning of thermal physics.

Meltzer, David E.

2006-05-01

133

The use of weblog in language learning: motivation of second language learners in reading classroom  

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Full Text Available The age of technology has enabled learners to interact with other users outside the four wallsof the classroom. Weblogs, in particular, provide a channel for asynchronous computermediatedcommunication to take place in the learning process. Motivation is one of thelearning aspects that is greatly enhanced by the use of technology. Questionnaires andobservations were carried out to 108 undergraduate engineering students taking ReadingCourse to determine the level of the learners’ motivation to participate in online discussionsand to find out whether interactions through the blog have in any way influenced the level ofmotivation to participate in face-to-face discussions. Findings indicate that students werehighly motivated to participate in discussions through the use of blog, and to use it as alearning tool. However, motivation to participate in class discussions was not affected by thetendency of learners to participate in discussion via the weblog.

Ahmad Nasaruddin Sulaiman; Asiah Kassim

2010-01-01

134

An exploratory case study: The impact of constructivist-based teaching on English language learners understanding of science in a middle school classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this exploratory case study was to explore the middle school science classroom of a constructivist teacher and examine how constructivist-based teaching influences ELL students and their learning of science. The researcher's purpose was to discover patterns which emerged after close observations, careful documentation, and thoughtful analysis of the research topic. What was discovered by this exploratory case study was not sweeping generalizations but contextual findings. This case study was conducted in the spring of 2006. The researcher sought to answer the question, "How does constructivist teaching help middle school English Language Learners understand science?" Two variable clusters were examined: (1) the independent variable cluster of the constructivist teaching practices of the one selected teacher; and (2) the dependent variable cluster of the middle school English Language Learners understanding of the science concepts being taught. Four broad categories of data were collected: (1) observations of teaching and learning (including teaching plans and other teaching materials); (2) interviews related to teaching and learning; (3) inventories of teaching and learning; and (4) artifacts of learning. Steve Loos, an eighth grade middle school science teacher, is an expert constructivist-based teacher. His teaching influences English Language Learners understanding of the science concepts being taught. Steve's teaching influenced the English Language Learners through a variety of pedagogical strategies. The researcher concluded in this study that, "Constructivist teaching helps middle school English Language Learners understand science."

Seimears, C. Matt

135

Effective Classroom Management  

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Full Text Available This paper attempts to explore and identify the characteristics of an effective teacher who teaches English as a second language to 10 year old students from different ethnics, various social economic background and multi-level language ability, at a private primary school in Malaysia. The study focused on classroom management using a case study methodology where data was collected using both interviews and classroom observations. The findings concur with previous literature reviews on effective teacher models whilst providing in-depth details on what transpires during classroom activities, thus clarifying further the meaning of effective classroom management. The implications of this study suggest the need to include six new classroom management behaviours of an effective teacher. Further research is warranted to help policy makers and school administrators in identifying the significance of these behaviours for the selection and training of future teachers.

Azlin Norhaini Mansor; Kim Eng Wong; Mohamad Sattar Rasul; Mohd Izham Mohd Hamzah; Aida Hanim A. Hamid

2012-01-01

136

Language barriers and qualitative nursing research: methodological considerations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This review of the literature synthesizes methodological recommendations for the use of translators and interpreters in cross-language qualitative research. BACKGROUND: Cross-language qualitative research involves the use of interpreters and translators to mediate a language barrier between researchers and participants. Qualitative nurse researchers successfully address language barriers between themselves and their participants when they systematically plan for how they will use interpreters and translators throughout the research process. Experienced qualitative researchers recognize that translators can generate qualitative data through translation processes and by participating in data analysis. Failure to address language barriers and the methodological challenges they present threatens the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of cross-language qualitative nursing research. Through a synthesis of the cross-language qualitative methods literature, this article reviews the basics of language competence, translator and interpreter qualifications, and roles for each kind of qualitative research approach. Methodological and ethical considerations are also provided. CONCLUSION: By systematically addressing the methodological challenges cross-language research presents, nurse researchers can produce better evidence for nursing practice and policy making when working across different language groups. Findings from qualitative studies will also accurately represent the experiences of the participants without concern that the meaning was lost in translation.

Squires A

2008-09-01

137

Language barriers and qualitative nursing research: methodological considerations  

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Aim This review of the literature synthesizes methodological recommendations for the use of translators and interpreters in cross-language qualitative research. Background Cross-language qualitative research involves the use of interpreters and translators to mediate a language barrier between researchers and participants. Qualitative nurse researchers successfully address language barriers between themselves and their participants when they systematically plan for how they will use interpreters and translators throughout the research process. Experienced qualitative researchers recognize that translators can generate qualitative data through translation processes and by participating in data analysis. Failure to address language barriers and the methodological challenges they present threatens the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of cross-language qualitative nursing research. Through a synthesis of the cross-language qualitative methods literature, this article reviews the basics of language competence, translator and interpreter qualifications, and roles for each kind of qualitative research approach. Methodological and ethical considerations are also provided. Conclusion By systematically addressing the methodological challenges cross-language research presents, nurse researchers can produce better evidence for nursing practice and policy making when working across different language groups. Findings from qualitative studies will also accurately represent the experiences of the participants without concern that the meaning was lost in translation.

Squires, A.

2009-01-01

138

Students with Learning Disabilities and AD/HD in the Foreign Language Classroom: Supporting Students and Instructors  

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This article explores why students with learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) struggle with the foreign language curriculum and how their difficulties manifest themselves in the classroom setting. Findings of a three-year, federally funded study that sought to combine expertise in the field of learning…

Leons, Eve; Herbert, Christie; Gobbo, Ken

2009-01-01

139

O desenvolvimento de uma metaconsciência, no professor, acerca da importância de vivenciar a linguagem como prática social na sala de aula de língua inglesa por meio da pesquisa colaborativa/ The development of a teacher's meta-awareness on the importance of experiencing language as social practice in an EFL classroom through collaborative research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo, discutimos o processo reflexivo vivenciado por duas professoras de inglês ao problematizarem suas ações em sala de aula. Destacamos particularmente o processo de reconfiguração de suas atividades pedagógicas que inicialmente focalizam estruturas lexicogramaticais isoladas e, no decorrer do processo reflexivo, são reconfiguradas em direção ao uso de gêneros textuais e à (des)construção dos contextos de situação e cultura nos quais esses textos (more) são socialmente produzidos e vivenciados (MOTTA-ROTH, 2006). Essas reflexões foram desenvolvidas por meio de um processo de pesquisa colaborativo (MAGALHÃES, 2004). A análise do discurso dessas professoras indica que o processo reflexivo lhes permitiu desenvolver uma metaconsciência acerca de como a linguagem se organiza e se constitui ao mediar a atividade social. Abstract in english In this paper is discussed the thoughtful process experienced by two English teachers, as they problematize their procedures in the classroom. In the foreground is the process of reconfiguration of their pedagogical activities, which initially would focus on the isolated lexical-grammatical structures and which, along the reflective process, were reconfigured to focus more on textual genres and on the (de)construction of the situational and cultural contexts in which such (more) texts are socially produced and experienced (MOTTA-ROTH, 2006). Such thoughts were developed by means of a collaborative research process (MAGALHÃES, 2004). The discourse analysis of those teachers indicate that the reflective process allowed them to develop a metaawareness about how language organizes itself and constitutes itself when it mediates the social activity.

Ticks, Luciane Kirchhof

2010-08-01

140

The impact of Finno-Ugric languages in second language research: Looking back and setting goals  

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Full Text Available This state of the art review aims at discussing the potential relevance of Finno-Ugric languages in the larger context of second language research. Key results received in the studies conducted in the field of Finno-Ugric languages as second languages are introduced, and some interim conclusions based on them are made. The main areas in focus are cross-linguistic influence, forms and constructions, second language interaction, and motivation, identities and integration. Furthermore, some future lines of investigation are suggested for the researchers of the field. The research activities are recommended to get more closely bound to the internationally established or emerging paradigms, and research activities involving several Finno-Ugric languages are strongly encouraged. To promote international co-operation, some existing gaps or obvious needs for research are pointed out, and preliminary research initiatives are made. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/LV22.14

Minna Suni

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Repositioning of CLT from Curriculum to Classroom: A Review of the English Language Instructions at Bangladeshi Secondary Schools  

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Full Text Available This paper attempts a study of the present state of teaching and learning English at the secondary schools in Bangladesh. It offers an analysis of the current English curriculum and textbooks for the secondary grades and explores the current classroom practices through classroom observation and teachers’ interview. The classroom observations were conducted to identify the features of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach prescribed by the curriculum and syllabus document of National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB) as the desired approach for teaching English at secondary level schools in Bangladesh. The paper also attempts to identify connections between the curriculum objectives and the classroom realities faced by the teachers and seeks suggestions for achieving the stated objectives. Some of the key recommendations include - strengthening of the teacher development initiatives, redefining the entry and exit levels of the learners, providing alternative and supplementary instructional materials and reforming the assessment system.

Md. Zulfeqar Haider; Takad Ahmed Chowdhury

2012-01-01

142

Researching "Practiced Language Policies": Insights from Conversation Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

|In language policy research, "policy" has traditionally been conceptualised as a notion separate from that of "practice". In fact, language practices were usually analysed with a view to evaluate whether a policy is being implemented or resisted to. Recently, however, Spolsky in ("Language policy". Cambridge University press, Cambridge, 2004;…

Bonacina-Pugh, Florence

2012-01-01

143

Classroom Interaction Mediated by Gender and Technology: The Language Laboratory Course  

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Full Text Available This present study investigates classroom interaction with reference to gender and technology. The study data were gathered through partial ethnography by a non-participant observer; two sessions of the course Language Laboratory 1 were carefully observed, and notes were taken with a focus on the nature of interactions. Results of the study show that the interaction patterns are gender-related only to some extent. Also, the interaction pattern in the laboratory classes is similar to, but not the same as, the whole-class discussion patterns proposed in earlier literature. However, the main difference between the two is that the teacher's role in controlling and confirming the volunteer?s contribution to the discussion is markedly visible.

Nematullah SHOMOOSSI; Mohammad AMOUZADEH; Saeed KETABI

2008-01-01

144

On student engagement in whole-class oral interaction: from classroom discourse and sociocultural aspects to implications for language learning On student engagement in whole-class oral interaction: from classroom discourse and sociocultural aspects to implications for language learning  

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Full Text Available This article reports on a study on classroom interaction in an EFL context in Brazil. The study, of an ethnographic nature, analyses recorded lessons, interviews and questionnaires answered by the students. The social rules governing classroom interaction usually determine an asymmetrical relationship between the teacher and the students, though it may be possible, according to the data obtained, to create an atmosphere of co-operation in which interaction may occur within less asymmetrical verbal patterns. This atmosphere, determined by linguistic, pedagogical, psychological and social factors, favours student language production. The data suggest connections between the students’ views of classroom language learning, their engagement in classroom discourse, and possible implications for (foreign) language development. Este artigo relata um estudo sobre interação em sala de aula em um contexto de inglês como língua estrangeira, no Brasil. O estudo, de natureza etnográfica, analisa aulas gravadas, entrevistas e questionários respondidos pelos alunos. As regras sociais que permeiam a interação em sala de aula geralmente determinam uma relação assimétrica entre professor e alunos, embora seja possível, com base nos dados obtidos, criar-se uma atmosfera de cooperação, na qual uma interação caracterizada por padrões verbais menos assimétricos possa ocorrer. Tal atmosfera, determinada por fatores lingüísticos, pedagógicos, psicológicos e sociais, favorece a produção verbal dos alunos. Os dados sugerem relações entre as visões dos alunos sobre aprendizagem de línguas, seu engajamento no discurso de sala de aula e possíveis implicações para o desenvolvimento da competência em língua estrangeira.

Douglas Altamiro Consolo

2008-01-01

145

Research on Statistical Mechanisms of Language Acquisition  

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Full Text Available What mechanisms underlie human language acquisition? Relevant evidence indicates that language learners, with infants included, have the ability to employ statistical properties of linguistic input to find language structure, such as sound patterns, vocabulary, and grammar. These abilities appear to be both powerful and constrained, so that a certain number of statistical patterns are more easily mastered and employed than others. Implications for the structure of human languages are to be discussed.

Haiyan Han

2012-01-01

146

The relevance of body language to evolution of language research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long abstract for Evolang 8 conference , The heterogeneous category of phenomena covered by the term body language (roughly equivalent to nonverbal communication, NVC), although essential to human day-to-day communication, is also largely dissociable from human verbal behaviour. As such, it has receive...

Wacewicz, S?awomir; ?ywiczy?ski, Przemys?aw

147

Research on teaching of "Solar Eclipse" in primary classroom  

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Full Text Available It has been realized that children have their own understanding of how the world works preceding formal education in schools. It is also found in research that the social-cultural views about specific scientific concepts have generated certain alternative concepts in pupils. A great number of western studies have been done to find out students' science understanding; less has been done to understand local children's understanding of science. This research attempts to explore children's understanding of a natural phenomenon "Solar Eclipse". The research also looks into the effectiveness of employing constructivist view in designing teaching and the feasibility of research on teaching in primary classrooms. All primary six pupils of a local school and their General Studies teachers were involved in the study. Research methods include interviews, questionnaires and analysis of lesson. The results showed that children's understanding are enhanced, at the same time, children chose their favorite effective teaching activities. Also, there were changes in teachers' conceptual understandings and use of teaching methods. There was evidence that research on teaching can enhance teachers' professional development.

Winnie Wing Mui SO; Yun Foon KWONG

2003-01-01

148

Investigating Situational Willingness to Communicate within Second Language Classrooms from an Ecological Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

|Previous research into willingness to communicate (WTC) in L2 has focused primarily on its trait dispositions that remain stable across contexts and its situated nature is under explored. Framed with an ecological perspective on second language learning, this multiple case study investigated the dynamic and situated nature of WTC in second…

Cao, Yiqian

2011-01-01

149

Trends in Qualitative Research in Language Teaching since 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews developments in qualitative research in language teaching since the year 2000, focusing on its contributions to the field and identifying issues that emerge. Its aims are to identify those areas in language teaching where qualitative research has the greatest potential and indicate what needs to be done to further improve the…

Richards, Keith

2009-01-01

150

The Relationship between SLA Research and Language Pedagogy: Teachers' Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

There is currently a substantial body of research on second language (L2) learning and this body of knowledge is constantly growing. There are also many attempts in most teacher education programs around the world to inform practicing and prospective L2 teachers about second language acquisition (SLA) research and its findings. However, an…

Nassaji, Hossein

2012-01-01

151

On JALT 95: Curriculum and Evaluation. Proceedings of the JALT International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning (22nd, Nagoya, Japan, November 1995). Section Four: Classrooms and Culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conference papers on second language classrooms and culture are presented, including: "Intercultural Communication as Interpersonal Communication" (Kensaku Yoshida); "Classroom Cultures: East Meets West" (Dominic Cogan); "Laying Down the Law: Teachers' Use of Rules" (Gregory Bornmann); "Student Behavior: Whose Norms?" (Stephen M. Ryan); "What…

Yoshida, Kensaku; And Others

152

Developing the language of thinking within a classroom community of inquiry: pre-service teachers' experiences  

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Full Text Available We argue that the "community of inquiry" approach, using reading materials modelled on Lipman's Philosophy for Children programme, is a theoretically justified and teacher-friendly means of promoting effective thinking skills. The stimulus materials, used by the pre-service teachers, consist ofshort stories ofclassroom life designed to elicit children's ideas for further discussion as a community of inquiry. Research has shown that the community of inquiry approach to classroom discussion is perceived positively by educators and teachers and makes a difference to learners. This study explored how the Intermediate and Senior Phase pre-service teachers experienced a classroom community of inquiry by using a qualitative research design with 47 final year pre-service teachers. Data consisted of written reflections from the whole class and recordings of two focus group interviews with selected individuals from the group. From the analysis of the data, the following themes became evident: personal and professional development, changes in learners, contextual concerns, and curriculum links. We conclude that this approach is a valuable addition to the pedagogical strategies of pre-service teachers.

Lena Green; Janet Condy; Agnes Chigona

2012-01-01

153

Connecting Content and Language for English Language Learners  

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Bridge the gap between content and language and put research into practice to instruct English language learners with strategies that meet their needs in language development and literacy. This must-have book reviews the author's experiences as a teacher in a diverse instructional setting and discusses the challenges and successes teachers experience in the ELL classroom. 200pp.

Smith, Jodene

2011-01-01

154

Paradigms in the teaching of medical research: a view from the classroom, to the classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The guidelines of the University of Cartagena for comprehensive professional training, provide for the inclusion of the research component. In the medical program, research is the cornerstone for the construction of new knowledge, that today, directs the medical act. However, to achieve these objectives educational work in the teaching of medical research, requires that teachers employ innovative strategies for education. An important step in the appropriation and application of these strategies is the identification and understanding of the barriers or “paradigms” that have the medical students during their training. It identifies three: the paradigm of the profession, clinical specialty and general physician, in which addresses the reason for the subjects considered “filler”, the reductionism of the specialties and the passivity of the general physician to the need for research. Knowledge of these paradigms leads to the identification of teachers’ barriers such as unidirectional conception of teaching-learning process, lack of feedback and research to enrich their classroom work. Once internalized these paradigms, is everyone’s, fight.RESUMENLos lineamientos de la Universidad de Cartagena para la formación de profesionales integrales, contempla la inclusión del componente de investigación. En el programa de medicina, la investigación es el pilar para la construcción del nuevo conocimiento, que hoy por hoy, direcciona el acto médico. Sin embargo para cumplir con estos objetivos, la labor docente en la enseñanza de la investigación médica, requiere que los profesores, empleen estrategias novedosas de educación. Un paso importante en la apropiación y aplicación de estas estrategias, constituye la identificación y comprensión de las barreras o “paradigmas” que poseen los estudiantes de medicina a lo largo de su formación. Se identifican tres de ellos: el paradigma de la profesión, de la especialidad clínica y del médico general, en los cuales se aborda la razón de ser de las asignaturas consideradas de “relleno”, el reduccionismo de las especialidades y la pasividad del médico general ante la necesidad de investigar. El conocimiento de estos paradigmas conlleva a la identificación de barreras propias del docente como la concepción unidireccional del proceso enseñanza aprendizaje, la falta de retroalimentación y de investigación de aulaque enriquezca su labor. Una vez asimilados estos paradigmas, es responsabilidad de todos combatirlos.

Ramos Clason Enrique Carlos; Márquez-Cárdenas Evelio José

2010-01-01

155

Task-based Research and Language Pedagogy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines theoretical views of language use, learning, and teaching that underlie the work on tasks. Two broad and disparate views are identified: the psycholinguistic perspective and a perspective based on sociocultural theory. (Author/VWL)

Ellis, Rod

2000-01-01

156

Research on Second Language Teacher Education  

CERN Multimedia

Embracing a sociocultural perspective and employing an array of methodological tools for data collection and analysis, this volume documents the complexities of second language teachers' professional development in diverse L2 teacher education programs around the world.

Johnson, Karen E

2010-01-01

157

BUILDING BLOCKS IN THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM (PILARES BÁSICOS EN EL AULA DE IDIOMAS)  

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Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo presenta las ventajas de la integración de tres áreas comúnmente estudiadas en la enseñanza de idiomas: Estilos de Aprendizaje, Inteligencias Múltiples y Estrategias para el Aprendizaje de Idiomas. Cada una de estas áreas tiene un papel fundamental en la enseñanza de idiomas y el aprendizaje, pero por lo general se utilizan por separado, o en el mejor de los casos, los y las docentes integran ya sea estilos e inteligencias o estrategias, pero no las tres al mismo tiempo. De hecho, la mayoría de la literatura presenta cada una por separado, dando la idea de que sólo una o dos se pueden utilizar en la clase de idiomas, por lo que en muchas oportunidades se ignoran aspectos fundamentales. La tesis principal del artículo es que, para ser más eficaz, Estilos de Aprendizaje, Inteligencias Múltiples y Estrategias de Aprendizaje deben entrelazarse a fin de crear un pilar sólido para el aprendizaje de idiomas. Primeramente, la autora ofrece una visión general de cada una de estas áreas. Luego en el referente teórico explica cómo estas deben usarse como una unidad, y posteriormente da un ejemplo de esto a través de un plan de clase sobre el tema de la conservación del medio ambiente para un curso de Comunicación Oral I de la carrera de inglés de la Escuela de Lenguas Modernas de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Por último, se ofrecen algunas recomendaciones a los y las instructores sobre la integración de estos pilares en el aula.Abstract: This article presents the advantages of integrating three areas commonly addressed in the teaching of languages: Learning Styles, Multiple Intelligences and Language Learning Strategies. Each of these areas plays a fundamental role when teaching and learning languages, but usually they are used separately or in the best of cases, instructors integrate either styles and intelligences or strategies, but not the three of them at the same time. Indeed, most of the literature presents each separately, giving the idea that only one or two can be used in the language classroom, thus missing some important matters. The point of this article is that in order to be more effective, Learning Styles, Multiple Intelligences and Language Learning Strategies must intertwine, so as to create a solid building block. The author first gives an overview of each of these areas. She then explains in the review of the literature how they should be used as a closely-knit unit. Next, she provides an example of this integration through a lesson plan on the topic of environmental conservation for an Oral Communication course for English majors at School of Modern Languages, University of Costa Rica. Finally, some advice is given to instructors on the incorporation of each of these building blocks.

Coto Keith Rossina

2010-01-01

158

Language diversity in the mathematics classroom: does a learner companion make a difference?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Language and education are interrelated because all teaching is given through the medium of language. Language is considered to be both a precondition for thought and a bearer of thought and therefore influences the extent to which a child's intelligence is actualised. In the South African context linguistic diversity is a complex issue. It has increasingly become the task and responsibility of educators to develop strategies in an attempt to facilitate quality education for their learners. In this study, the researchers developed an 'aid' that would assist learners to relate mathematics terms and concepts in English with terms in their own languages. The study determined whether a visual multilingual learner companion brought change in learners' performance in mathematics. Also what the educators' views were about this. A combination of a quasiexperimental study and an interview schedule was conducted. The quasiexperimental study was conducted among learners while the interview schedule was with their educators. The sample comprised 2,348 learners in Grade 4, Grade 5 and Grade 6 from 20 schools as well as 20 educators from the treatment schools. The results indicated that the mathematics marks of the treatment group improved. Also, the educators were complimentary about the learner companion and indicated that they would utilise this going forward in their teaching. It is recommended that the multilingual visual explanatory mathematics learner companion be used and investigated on a larger scale to corroborate the efficacy reported here.

Hendrik Botes; Andile Mji

2010-01-01

159

The use of classroom videos as a context for research on teachers’ practice and teacher education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present communication comes from a project where we are developing multimedia cases for teacher education that integrate video and other resources from classrooms where an inquiry-based approach to teaching is taking place, combing a perspective of research on classroom practice and teacher educ...

Oliveira, Hélia; Menezes, Luís; Canavarro, Ana Paula

160

Being Bilingual: Issues for Cross-Language Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current political debates in England highlight the role of language in citizenship, social exclusion, and discrimination. Similar debates can also be found around the world. Correspondingly, research addressing different language communities is burgeoning. Service providers and academics are increasingly employing bilingual community researchers or interpreters to carry out research. However, there is very little written about the effect of working with bilingual researchers. What it means to be bilingual is often essentialised and rarely problematised. Bilingual researchers are seen as unproblematically acting as bridges between communities just because they are bilingual. Their ties to communities, their use of language, and their perspectives on the research are rarely investigated. Language is tied in an unproblematic way to meaning, values, and beliefs. In this article, I use examples from my own research to question what it means to be bilingual and to do cross-language research. I argue that there is no straightforward way in which meanings can be read off from researchers’ ties to language and that being bilingual is not the same for everyone.

Bogusia Temple

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Sign Languages: Contribution to Neurolinguistics from Cross-Modal Research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using sign language research as an example, we argue that both the cross-linguistic descriptive approach to data, advocated by Evans and Levinson (2009), as well as abstract ('formal') analyses are necessary steps towards the development of "neurolinguistic primitives" for investigating how human languages are instantiated in the brain.

Malaia E; Wilbur R

2010-12-01

162

RESEARCH STUDIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING AND IN CONTRASTIVE RHETORIC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major aim of this article is to review studies of second language writing. The first part deals mainly with the process of writing in the second and first languages. The second part concerns contrastive rhetoric. In this second part, the findings of research studies on the relationship of first and second language rhetoric will be presented. Included in the discussion are research studies on contrastive rhetoric in the Indonesian context. The last section of this article concludes the discussion and proposes the implementation of more research on the relationship between Indonesian rhetoric and English rhetoric in essays written by Indonesian learners of English.

Bambang Yudi Cahyono

2001-01-01

163

Conducting Original, Hands-On Astronomical Research in the Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2007 I have been a Team Leader for the Tzec Maun Foundation, a non-profit foundation dedicated to providing free, research grade, Internet telescopes to students, teachers and researchers around the world. The name Tzec Maun (pronounced “Teh-Zeck-Moan”) comes from Mayan culture. Tzec Maun was the jovial messenger, laughed at adversity. Based on the challenges students, researchers and professional astronomers face with finances, equipment, and telescope access, the jovial mascot seems to fit. Hundreds of hours performing astronomical outreach as a NASA/JPL Solar System Ambassador and Astronomical League Master of outreach taught me that the best way to inspirationally teach astronomy and space science (and most subjects) is actually being at the eyepiece. I’m NOT a fan of the traditional planetarium experience as a teaching tool because it inhibits inspiration and the learning experience to a 2-D mat on a faux horizon with artificial representations. Once, a student at my dark sky observatory excitedly commented that the night sky was like a 3-D planetarium. I have hosted several classes at my own personal dark sky observatory, but this resource is impractical for all but a few lucky students. Experience has taught me that the next best thing to being at the eyepiece is to control a remote telescope via the Internet. Tzec Maun’s arsenal of telescopes is all research capable, linked to the Internet and positioned for round-the-clock dark skies. The final conditions described above, mean that I can enter an 8:30am science class, log onto the Tzec Maun telescope Portal and turn over control of an Australian system (where it is night) to a student or teacher. Working as a group, the class can either begin their investigations. My Tzec Maun science team (TARP) is engaged in searching for potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs). PHA work excites student and teacher alike. Teaching from telescopes can unleash powerful attention-getting tools that enable teachers to convey moderately complex computer science, optical, geographic, mathematical, informational and physical principles through hands-on telescope operations. In addition to the general studies aspects of classroom internet-based astronomy, Tzec Maun supports real science by enabling operators precisely point telescopes and acquire extremely faint, magnitude 19+ CCD images. Thanks to the creative Team of Photometrica (photometrica.org), my teams now have the ability to process and analyze images online and produce results in short order. Normally, astronomical data analysis packages cost greater than thousands of dollars for single license operations. Free to my team members, Photometrica allows students to upload their data to a cloud computing server and read precise photometric and/or astrometric results. I’m indebted to Michael and Geir for their support. The efficacy of student-based research is well documented. The Council on Undergraduate Research defines student research as, "an inquiry or investigation conducted by an undergraduate that makes an original intellectual or creative contribution to the discipline." (http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/studentresearch/What. Teaching from Tzec Maun in the classroom is the most original teaching research I can imagine. I very much look forward to presenting this program to the convened body.

Corneau, M. J.

2009-12-01

164

Using Original Methods in Teaching English Language to Foreign Students (Chinese) in Indian Classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article gives information on English language teaching schemes in Indian classrooms for foreign students. The teacher monitors as facilitator and instructor. The trainees were trained in the four macro skills, LSRW. I taught some topics in three skills, namely, writing, listening and reading (just three, not speaking skills) to Chinese students in VIT University. The other skill speaking was trained by other teachers among the four. Students were trained to listen to English words and passages, to read the comprehension passages and answer the questions, and to coach basic grammar and revising it. More over, beginners were also guided to learn technical words related to their respective disciplines (major subjects) other than English words. For example, Chinese students posed a query to the faculty to explain on technical words and terms of their main subjects in English, for instance, B.Sc Computer Science (under graduate programme) students wished to learn about the word data. Since, the English Oxford Dictionary meaning is ‘facts or statistics used for reference or analysis’, but in the field of Computer Science, the word means “information processed by a computer”. So, there arouse a need to help them in distinguishing the different meanings of the word. In addition to, many students were not familiar with English. Thus through the above said way of facilitating, they acquired a good knowledge by varied types of expressions to master their particular subjects. It was a moment to state that they had come from China to India to obtain the nuances of English language. They undertook and were gradually expertised at specific courses in English medium of instruction, perhaps to get degree. Teacher’s a few lesson plans (how the practices are conducted in listening, reading and writing skills) as well as some parts in allotted syllabus (listening to songs, passages, writing a paragraph and essay, picture-story writing and write about yourself, reading the passage and writing) were discussed in the current paper. Role of the teacher and student were explained in detail. Therefore, the abstract would portray how the beginners were trained, taught, convinced, persuaded and managed by a tutor to reach the goal of English language teaching to Chinese students.

Devimeenakshi. K.; C. N. Baby Maheswari

2012-01-01

165

Methodological challenges in cross-language qualitative research: a research review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Cross-language qualitative research occurs when a language barrier is present between researchers and participants. The language barrier is frequently mediated through the use of a translator or interpreter. The purpose of this analysis of cross-language qualitative research was threefold: (1) review the methods literature addressing cross-language research; (2) synthesize the methodological recommendations from the literature into a list of criteria that could evaluate how researchers methodologically managed translators and interpreters in their qualitative studies; (3) test these criteria on published cross-language qualitative studies. DATA SOURCES: A group of 40 purposively selected cross-language qualitative studies found in nursing and health sciences journals. REVIEW METHODS: The synthesis of the cross-language methods literature produced 14 criteria to evaluate how qualitative researchers managed the language barrier between themselves and their study participants. To test the criteria, the researcher conducted a summative content analysis framed by discourse analysis techniques of the 40 cross-language studies. RESULTS: The evaluation showed that only 6 out of 40 studies met all the criteria recommended by the cross-language methods literature for the production of trustworthy results in cross-language qualitative studies. Multiple inconsistencies, reflecting disadvantageous methodological choices by cross-language researchers, appeared in the remaining 33 studies. To name a few, these included rendering the translator or interpreter as an invisible part of the research process, failure to pilot test interview questions in the participant's language, no description of translator or interpreter credentials, failure to acknowledge translation as a limitation of the study, and inappropriate methodological frameworks for cross-language research. CONCLUSIONS: The finding about researchers making the role of the translator or interpreter invisible during the research process supports studies completed by other authors examining this issue. The analysis demonstrated that the criteria produced by this study may provide useful guidelines for evaluating cross-language research and for novice cross-language researchers designing their first studies. Finally, the study also indicates that researchers attempting cross-language studies need to address the methodological issues surrounding language barriers between researchers and participants more systematically.

Squires A

2009-02-01

166

Good Practices of the Use of Information Communication Technology in a Second Language Classroom: An Alternating Use of Small Group Learning and Computers for Independent Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This presentation is going to analyse the good practices of the alternating use of small group learning and independent learning with computers in a second language classroom. It was a weekly Reading and Phonics lesson scheduled in the Language Learning room for the lower form of primary students. T...

Fong, N

167

The Use of L1 in the Foreign Language Classroom/ El uso de la lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El uso de la lengua materna es una ocurrencia común en los contextos de la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, a pesar de que a veces reciba críticas por su interferencia en la adquisición de la Lengua meta. Mientras que los docentes deben maximizar el uso de la Lengua meta, sin duda, hay espacios para que el profesor utilice la lengua materna de los estudiantes en su pedagogía. En este trabajo se presenta un argumento basado en las perspectivas teóricas y la investi (more) gación empírica dentro de la literatura existente, apoyando el uso apropiado de la Lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera. El argumento se centra en tres cuestiones fundamentales-racionales para el uso de la lengua materna: Los efectos positivos que la lengua materna tiene tanto en el aprendizaje y la instrucción de una lengua extranjera, como en las formas en las que la lengua materna ayuda a los docentes de idiomas extranjeros. Abstract in english L1 use is a common occurrence in foreign language teaching contexts despite the fact that it often receives criticism for its interference with target language (TL) acquisition. While foreign language teachers should maximize their use of the TL, there is indeed a place for the teacher to use the students' L1 in their pedagogy. In this paper, an argument derived from theoretical perspectives and empirical research within existing literature supporting the appropriate use (more) of L1 in foreign language classrooms is presented. The argument addresses three key issues-rationales for L1 use, positive effects L1 has on both foreign language learning and instruction, and ways that L1 assists instructors on foreign languages.

Pan, Yi-chun; Pan, Yi-ching

2010-07-01

168

The African Languages Research Institute: A Milestone in the Development of the Zimbabwean Languages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: This article is an assessment of the work the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI) has done towards developing the indigenous languages of Zimbabwe. It looks at what the research team at ALRI has achieved, first in initiating serious research on the Zimbabwean languages and the progress it has made towards achieving its goal, developing and raising the status of these languages. It also considers what ALRI has planned for the future of the different categories or levels into which the various Zimbabwean languages have been classified. Part of the assessment focuses on measures ALRI has put in place to ensure the initiated research programme is sustainable and will continue in future. The article furthermore discusses the importance of the research work being done at ALRI, especially with regard to language development as a means towards self-realisation and actualisation, national advancement and the sustenance of the languages involved. ALRI's agenda is also analysed to see how well it agrees with popular thinking in Zimbabwe concerning the development and promotion of all of the indigenous languages.Keywords: ALRI, CAPACITY BUILDING, INSTITUTIONALISATION, LANGUAGE HAR-MONISATION, LANGUAGE STANDARDISATION, MONOLINGUAL LEXICOGRAPHY, ZIM-BABWEAN LANGUAGESOpsomming: Die African Languages Research Institute: 'n Mylpaal in die ont-wikkeling van die Zimbabwiese tale. Hierdie artikel is 'n evaluering van die werk wat die African Languages Research Institute (ALRI) gedoen het in die ontwikkeling van die inheemse tale van Zimbabwe. Dit kyk na wat die navorsingspan bereik het, eerstens deur ernstige navorsing oor die Zimbabwiese tale te onderneem en die vordering wat gemaak is met die bereiking van sy doel, die ontwikkeling en die statusverhoging van hierdie tale. Dit beskou ook wat ALRI beplan het vir die toekoms van die verskillende kategorieë of vlakke waarin die onderskeie Zimbabwiese tale geklassifiseer is. 'n Deel van die evaluering fokus op maatreëls wat ALRI in plek gestel het om te verseker dat die onderneemde navorsingsprogram volhoubaar is en in die toekoms sal voortgaan. Verder bespreek die artikel die belangrikheid van die navorsingswerk wat by ALRI gedoen word, veral met betrekking tot taalontwikkeling as 'n manier tot selfverwesenliking en -aktualisering, nasionale vooruitgang en die onderhoubaarheid van die betrokke tale. ALRI se agenda word ook ontleed om te sien hoe goed dit ooreenstem met die algemene denke in Zimbabwe betreffende die ontwikkeling en bevordering van al die inheemse tale.Sleutelwoorde: ALRI, VERMOËNSBOU, INSTITUSIONALISERING, TAALHARMONI-ERING, TAALSTANDAARDISERING, EENTALIGE LEKSIKOGRAFIE, ZIMBABWIESE TALE

Emmanuel Chabata

2011-01-01

169

Arctic research in the classroom: A teacher's experiences translated into data driven lesson plans  

Science.gov (United States)

Incorporating research into high school science classrooms can promote critical thinking skills and provide a link between students and the scientific community. Basic science concepts become more relevant to students when taught in the context of research. A vital component of incorporating current research into classroom lessons is involving high school teachers in authentic research. The National Science Foundation sponsored Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program has inspired me to bring research to my classroom, communicate the importance of research in the classroom to other teachers and create lasting connections between students and the research community. Through my experiences as an RET at Toolik Field Station in Alaska, I have created several hands-on lessons and laboratory activities that are based on current arctic research and climate change. Each lesson uses arctic research as a theme for exemplifying basic biology concepts as well as increasing awareness of current topics such as climate change. For instance, data collected on the Kuparuk River will be incorporated into classroom activities that teach concepts such as primary production, trophic levels in a food chain and nutrient cycling within an ecosystem. Students will not only understand the biological concepts but also recognize the ecological implications of the research being conducted in the arctic. By using my experience in arctic research as a template, my students will gain a deeper understanding of the scientific process. I hope to create a crucial link of information between the science community and science education in public schools.

Kendrick, E. O.; Deegan, L.

2011-12-01

170

Research on Language Learning Strategies: Methods, Findings, and Instructional Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveys research on formal and informal second-language learning strategies, covering the effectiveness of research methods involving making lists, interviews and thinking aloud, note-taking, diaries, surveys, and training. Suggestions for future and improved research are presented. (131 references) (CB)

Oxford, Rebecca; Crookall, David

1989-01-01

171

Developing the language of thinking within a classroom community of inquiry: pre-service teachers' experiences  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english We argue that the "community of inquiry" approach, using reading materials modelled on Lipman's Philosophy for Children programme, is a theoretically justified and teacher-friendly means of promoting effective thinking skills. The stimulus materials, used by the pre-service teachers, consist ofshort stories ofclassroom life designed to elicit children's ideas for further discussion as a community of inquiry. Research has shown that the community of inquiry approach to cla (more) ssroom discussion is perceived positively by educators and teachers and makes a difference to learners. This study explored how the Intermediate and Senior Phase pre-service teachers experienced a classroom community of inquiry by using a qualitative research design with 47 final year pre-service teachers. Data consisted of written reflections from the whole class and recordings of two focus group interviews with selected individuals from the group. From the analysis of the data, the following themes became evident: personal and professional development, changes in learners, contextual concerns, and curriculum links. We conclude that this approach is a valuable addition to the pedagogical strategies of pre-service teachers.

Green, Lena; Condy, Janet; Chigona, Agnes

2012-01-01

172

Raising the Bar on Technology Research in English Language Arts  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article represents an attempt to begin a dialogue among the research community to identify what is known about using technology in various content areas. Although it does not present new empirical data, it does offer the reader one researcher's perspective on technology in literacy and language arts. The author discusses the effects of…

McNabb, M. L.

2005-01-01

173

Spoken Language Research and ELT: Where Are We Now?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the relationship between spoken language research and ELT practice over the last 20 years. The first part is retrospective. It seeks first to capture the general tenor of recent spoken research findings through illustrative examples. The article then considers the sociocultural issues that arose when the relevance of these…

Timmis, Ivor

2012-01-01

174

Opera in the Foreign Language Classroom: Learning German with Mozart, Wagner, Weber, and Johann Strauss  

Science.gov (United States)

Content-based instruction (CBI) has been part of the foreign language curriculum for many years at US colleges, leading to courses that combine language instruction with specific content domains, such as film, literature, politics, sports and many others. This article presents a rather unusual choice of content domain for a second-year language

Heinz, Solveig M.

2010-01-01

175

Language Minority Students in the Mainstream Classroom. 2nd Edition. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 33.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book integrates current second language teaching and learning theories and instructional strategies, helping to make mainstream educators aware that language minority students, especially those who are not totally proficient in English, need special attention, appropriate assessment, an appropriate language environment, and a challenging…

Carrasquillo, Angela L.; Rodriguez, Vivian

176

Language Learning Strategy Research: Where do we go from here?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Language learning strategy (LLS) research has been on the decline since the mid-1990s, when there was a boom in strategy research. This decline is, in part, due to growing criticisms of categorizations of learning strategies (Dörnyei, 2005), the data collection instruments used (Dörnyei, 2005; Woodrow, 2005), and contradictory and questionable results (Hadwin & Winne, 1996). In more recent years some research has been conducted under the umbrella of terms such as strategic learning and self-regulation, which aim to distance themselves from the past problems of LLS research. This article uses a recent study of strategic learning to illustrate how strategy research can be conducted in the current academic environment. The study shows that research frameworks need to be context-specific rather than generalized across languages and learning tasks. The study also illustrates the usefulness of qualitative data collection instruments over previously and widely applied questionnaires.

Heath Rose

2012-01-01

177

Research on Fostering Intercultural Communication Competence of Foreign Language Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Globalization has made cross-cultural communication a necessity. The mobility of people and the contact between countries have greatly increased cross-cultural communication. Intercultural awareness has become a prerequisite for successful cross-cultural communication. Intercultural awareness is required if a foreign language learner is to achieve the intercultural communication competence, which is now considered to be the major goal of foreign language learning. Intercultural communication competence is multi-dimensional in nature, implicating not only the linguistic competence, but also the power of perceiving and interpreting socio-cultural events, and the behavioral ability of coping independently with cross-cultural encounters. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of how language and culture are dealt with from a cross-cultural perspective, to discuss concerns with defining norms and standards for foreign language learning raised by this perspective, and to consider how to foster the intercultural communication competence by pedagogical approaches that integrate current understandings and researches of language, culture and learning into their curricular and instructional designs.Key words: Intercultural awareness; Intercultural communication competence; Language and culture; Socio-cultural perspective; Curriculum design

Yueqin HAN

2013-01-01

178

Dyslexia in Chinese Language: An Overview of Research and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

|Dyslexia appears to be the most prevalent disability of students with special educational needs in many mainstream classes, affecting around 9.7% of the school population in Hong Kong. The education of these students is therefore of great concern to the community. In the present paper research into dyslexia in the Chinese language is briefly…

Chung, Kevin K. H.; Ho, Connie S. H.

2010-01-01

179

The Competency Based Approach to English Language Education and the Walls between the Classroom and the Society in Cameroon: Pulling Down the Walls  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper contends that English as a foreign language teaching in the classrooms at all the levels of education is not adapted to the everyday communication needs of the Cameroonian learners and that an English language pedagogy of integration; otherwise known as the outcomes approach or the competency based approach can solve the problem. This approach seeks for linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in the language. In fact, walls seem to exist between the knowledge these learners get in the classrooms and the implementation of the knowledge in the real world society for which that knowledge is destined. Literature in the domain of attitudes and motivation shows that they are affectively predisposed to learn the language. A critical examination of the syllabus revealed that it spells out laudable learning outcomes or expectations and that it has adequate communicative approach recommendations for a post-methods era English language teacher. But recent literature on classroom teaching holds that English language teaching in Cameroon is a matter of teacher talk and chalk and course books; some of which are not adapted to the learners’ needs and interests

Carlous Muluh Nkwetisama

2012-01-01

180

Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language Within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico/ Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La presente investigación explora el uso de la lengua materna en un contexto de enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Esta investigación cualitativa presenta la práctica docente y los puntos de vista de maestros y alumnos de francés e inglés en el contexto de una universidad pública del centro de México, mediante el uso de las técnicas del cuestionario y la entrevista semiestructurada. Los resultados muestran que tanto los maestros como la mayoría de los alumnos per (more) ciben el uso de la lengua materna como algo positivo en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Un número reducido de estudiantes rechaza el uso de la lengua materna y prefiere que su clase de lengua extranjera sea dirigida exclusivamente en la lengua meta. Abstract in english The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the t (more) eaching and learning process. A small number of students do not like the use of the first language in the classroom and prefer that their teachers use the target language only.

Mora Pablo, Irasema; Lengeling, M. Martha; Rubio Zenil, Buenaventura; Crawford, Troy; Goodwin, Douglas

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language Within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results show that teachers and the majority of students perceive the use of the first language as positive and part of the teaching and learning process. A small number of students do not like the use of the first language in the classroom and prefer that their teachers use the target language only.La presente investigación explora el uso de la lengua materna en un contexto de enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Esta investigación cualitativa presenta la práctica docente y los puntos de vista de maestros y alumnos de francés e inglés en el contexto de una universidad pública del centro de México, mediante el uso de las técnicas del cuestionario y la entrevista semiestructurada. Los resultados muestran que tanto los maestros como la mayoría de los alumnos perciben el uso de la lengua materna como algo positivo en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Un número reducido de estudiantes rechaza el uso de la lengua materna y prefiere que su clase de lengua extranjera sea dirigida exclusivamente en la lengua meta.

Irasema Mora Pablo; M. Martha Lengeling; Buenaventura Rubio Zenil; Troy Crawford; Douglas Goodwin

2011-01-01

182

Speakers’ comfort and voice level variation in classrooms: Laboratory research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Teachers adjust their voice levels under different classroom acoustics conditions, even in the absence of background noise. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in order to understand further this relationship and to determine optimum room acoustic conditions for speaking. Under simulated acoustic environments, talkers do modify their voice levels linearly with the measure voice support, and the slope of this relationship is referred to as room effect. The magnitude of the room effect depends highly on the instruction used and on the individuals. Group-wise, the average room effect ranges from 0.93 dB/dB, with free speech, to 0.1 dB/dB with other less demanding communication tasks as reading and talking at short distances. The room effect for some individuals can be as strong as 1.7 dB/dB. A questionnaire investigation showed that the acoustic comfort for talking in classrooms, in the absence of background noise, is correlated to the decay times derived from an impulse response measured from the mouth to the ears of a talker, and that there is a maximum of preference for decay times between 0.4 and 0.5 s. Teachers with self-reported voice problems prefer higher decay times to speak in than their healthy colleagues.

Pelegrin Garcia, David; Brunskog, Jonas

2012-01-01

183

Project LINC: Supporting Lecturers and Adjunct Instructors in Foreign Language Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Foreign language learning can pose a barrier to some students with disabilities. This practice brief describes a collaborative process used on one campus to provide professional development for foreign language instructors. Training opportunities were intentionally focused on the needs of adjunct and temporary lecturers in providing inclusive…

Scott, Sally S.; Edwards, Wade

2012-01-01

184

Using a "Living Lab" to Engage Students in the Foreign Language Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes how a group of foreign language teachers created and used a theatre set (called the "living lab") with changeable painted backdrops. Describes a number of ways to use the living lab in the language class; describes how one class wrote and produced an original 10-page drama in French; and describes the process of creating the living lab.…

Prince, Tamara G.

2000-01-01

185

Engaging Learner Attribute Research in Dialogue with Classroom Practice: Predictors of Success in the Accelerated, Online Classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research examining student success in online education has focused extensively on internal learner attributes with little emphasis on external, controllable factors that may mediate a student’s ability to perform within the distinctive environment of the virtual classroom. The purpose of this study is to balance student characteristic research with external, direct data from the perspective of online instructors in order to provide a practice-oriented understanding of the unique factors predictive of student success in accelerated, online courses. Experienced online educators were surveyed to identify practical skills, strategies or factors most likely to lead to success for students enrolled in online courses. A content-analysis of open-ended responses revealed 23 relevant factors that clustered into six broad themes. Within these themes, four issues emerge as the most predictive of online learner success: time, technology, initiative, and competence. Discussion examines the practical, deliberate application of this information to facilitate students’ successful completion of online courses.

B. Jean Mandernach; Emily Donnelli; Amber Dailey-Hebert

2006-01-01

186

What Picture Books Do You Recommend for Use in the English Language Arts Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Presents 10 short articles written by high school and middle school teachers about specific picture books they recommend and how they use them in their classrooms. Concludes with an extensive list of picture books containing examples of specific literary devices. (SR)|

Matthews, Rene; Mingrone, Maria Conti; Zuidema, Leah A.; Mascia, Elizabeth G.; Panousis, Gracie Conway; Perrin, Robert; Franklin, Yolanda; Downing, Karen; Martin, Terry; Schreck, Mary Kim; Giorgis, Cyndi; Pollak, Judy

1999-01-01

187

Classroom Discourse and Teacher Talk Influences on English Language Learner Students' Mathematics Experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the features of the classroom discourse in eight Algebra I classes from two urban high schools with diverse student populations. In particular, by using the discursive analysis perspective, the type of communication between teachers and students was examined. The study investigated to what extent teachers' patterns of discourse…

Petkova, Mariana M.

2009-01-01

188

Folklore, Literature, Ethnography, and Second-Language Acquisition: Teaching Culture in the ESL Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Recognizing that to learn about culture will aid the new Canadian in attaining cultural awareness, this article argues that it is imperative to develop strategies for teaching about culture. Using folklore as a critical methodology in the ESL classroom is such a strategy. Because folklore is an intrinsic part of everyday life, its use promotes and…

Gholson, Rachel; Stumpf, Chris-Anne

2005-01-01

189

A University Level Linguistics Course Classroom Research: Vocabulary Retention and the Use of L2 and L1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is a classroom research carried out in the Linguistics course at university level. The present study aims at finding out to what degree the technical vocabulary of the course is retained by the individuals, while also investigating the effect of using L2 and L1 in the classroom during the lectures. Participants were second grade (N=70) and fourth grade (N=30) university students in the English Language Teaching Department. The data were conducted through a vocabulary and knowledge retention test, and the visa and final exams of the linguistics course. Students’ opinions about the Linguistics course were also collected by the help of an interview. The findings suggest that the technical vocabulary as well as the knowledge of the course is forgotten at a significant rate within a certain time. Considering the grades of the students as an indicator of success, the study also revealed that the use of L1 contributed positively to the comprehension of the subject.

Levent UZUN

2011-01-01

190

Focus on the use of language in the multicultural mathematics classroom  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Learning mathematics can be seen as learning a foreign language or learning a particular mathematical discourse.  Nolte (2004) calls mathematics the students' first second language. The use of language in mathematics teaching, hence the way we talk and the way we write, differ from the way the same words and concepts are used in everyday language or in teaching and learning other subjects. Looking through material for mathematics teaching shows that the students are expected to have a certain level of mathematical ability (ex. being able to count to ten) and a certain level of language ability (ex. understanding the meaning of the words "in front of") when they enter first grade in primary school (Nyborg and Nyborg, 1990). Students who lack these abilities either with regard to mathematics or language are from the beginning of schooling limited in their mathematical performance and in a "risk zone" of developing learning difficulties in mathematics. Teaching the teachers a consciousness for the use of language in mathematics teaching as well as educating them to have a special focus on developing the vocabulary of the students can render the mathematics teaching more inclusive. Furthermore, it may help students with different ethnical background to succeed in mathematics (Johansen; 2007).

Johansen, Lene Østergaard

191

Developing laboratory research techniques for an ongoing research program in a high school classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Incorporating research into a high school classroom is an excellent way to teach students fundamental concepts in science. One program that incorporates this approach is the Waksman Student Scholar Program (WSSP), which allows high school students, teachers and Rutgers professors to work side by side on an ongoing molecular biology research program. Students in the program first isolated plasmid clones from bacteria that contain cDNA fragments of genes from the Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana. They then determined the size of the DNA by performing molecular biology experiments. Students then analyzed the DNA sequence and after review from WSSP staff and high school teachers, the student's sequences were published in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. This was often the last step in the project the students performed. However, if the project were being conducted in a research lab instead of a high school, the cDNA clone would often be further analyzed. In the past, safety, convenience, and affordability have limited the availability of these experiments in a high school setting. Although additional bioinformatic experiments could easily be performed in the high school, there is a strong need for additional "wet lab" experiments to keep the students engaged and motivated to work on the project. I have worked on developing three experimental modules that can be performed in a high school setting. These experiments were tested with the students and teachers of the WSSP. This work will expand the scope of experiments that can be performed in a high school environment.

Adornato, Philip

192

Input-Based Approaches to Teaching Grammar: A Review of Classroom-Oriented Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the theoretical rationales (universal grammar, information-processing theories, skill-learning theories) for input-based grammar teaching and reviews classroom-oriented research (i.e., enriched-input studies, input-processing studies) that has integrated this option. (Author/VWL)

Ellis, Rod

1999-01-01

193

An Action Research Study: Using Classroom Guidance Lessons to Teach Middle School Students about Sexual Harassment  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article describes a three-part classroom guidance lesson that teaches middle school students the definition of sexual harassment, the difference between flirting and sexual harassment, and the harmful effects of sexual harassment. An action research study evaluated the effectiveness of the lessons in decreasing referrals for sexual…

Bates, Rebecca C.

2006-01-01

194

The Effects of Global Education in the English Language Conversation Classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global education is the backbone of balanced teaching. This is also applicable in the second language teaching domain where its application could result in enhancing global awareness and the linguistic competence of learners. It is, however, important to consider the platform of teaching English to speakers of other languages where the participant’s content as well as task plays an important role in enhancing the learning curve. With the above as a theoretical background, this study puts global issues into practice within the content of a syllabus of English language teaching in an intermediate, multilingual and multi- cultural conversation class at the Institute Of Language Studies (IOLS), India, producing competent students. The effect of integrated global education in teaching English as a second language has been qualitatively evaluated throughout the course of the experiment. Global education issues are investigated, amalgamating the content-based and task-based language teaching methods as offshoots of the communicative approach. At the same time, the learners were also encouraged to think critically. After the instruction of the intended syllabus, participants basically showed a higher degree of awareness of global issues and the ability to analyze problems and apply critical thinking in their environment. They were also more effective and coherent in their class participation than in other classes.

Reza Omidvar; Benjamin Sukumar

2013-01-01

195

Classroom Management. TESOL Classroom Practice Series  

Science.gov (United States)

This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…

Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

2008-01-01

196

Review Article: Recent Publications on Research Methods in Second Language Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

The central goal of the field of second language acquisition (SLA) is to describe and explain how second language learners acquire the target language. In order to achieve this goal, SLA researchers work with second language data, which can take a variety of forms, including (but not limited to) such commonly used methods as naturalistic…

Ionin, Tania

2013-01-01

197

The Teaching and Learning of Arabic Post 9/11: Late Modernity and Possibilities for Change in Language Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

In this current era of postmodernity, globalization, and new technological and social conditions, new approaches to literacy teaching are being introduced and examined. Studies that explore complexities of language teaching and learning in discourses of postmodernity as they relate to college contexts are significant for educators, researchers,…

Abbadi, Sawsan Omar

2011-01-01

198

Une approche discursive de la classe de langue étrangère en tant que lieu de travail/ A discoursive approach of foreign language classroom as a place of work  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo centra-se na análise dos discursos da aula de língua estrangeira em uma situação particular: o ensino da língua francesa como língua profissional. Nosso objetivo consistirá em depreender marcas enunciativas por intermédio das quais se inscreve a natureza do trabalho realizado em sala de aula, tendo em vista a construção coletiva de um texto cuja autoria é responsabilidade dos atores da cena didática, professor e alunos. Para tal, interrogamos (more) esses discursos da sala de aula sob uma tríplice ótica: em primeiro lugar, a oposição que se verifica entre trabalho coletivo e trabalho individual; a seguir, a dupla função exercida pela linguagem no referido contexto, a saber, a linguagem enquanto trabalho e a linguagem sobre o trabalho; finalmente, a distância que se verifica entre o trabalho prescrito e o trabalho real da sala de aula. Abstract in english This paper focuses the analysis of speech in foreign language classroom in a particular situation: the teaching of French as a professional language. Our purpose will be to explore enunciative marks that contribute to determine the nature of the work carried out in classroom throughout the collective construction of a text which is built by the actors of the didactic scene, the teacher and the students. In order to achieve our goal, we will interrogate these discourses fr (more) om a triple point of view: first of all, the opposition between collective work and individual work in classroom; afterwards, the double function of language - language as work and language about work - in such a context; finally, the distance verified between prescribed work and real work in classroom.

Rocha, Décio

2003-01-01

199

The Effects of Global Education in the English Language Conversation Classroom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global education is the backbone of balanced teaching. This is also applicable in the second language teaching domain where its application could result in enhancing global awareness and the linguistic competence of learners. It is, however, important to consider the platform of teaching English ...

Reza Omidvar; Benjamin Sukumar

200

Natural Conversation Reconstruction Tasks: The Language Classroom as a Meeting Place  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper, drawing on Pratt’s notion of ‘transculturation’ and Bhabha’s ‘third space’, presents an example of language learning tasks that empower learners’ agency and promote their cross-cultural awareness and sensitivities to a different set of cultural expectations, using a naturally occurred Ja...

Jun Ohashi

 
 
 
 
201

Language and Space in a Multilingual Undergraduate Physics Classroom in Rwanda  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study examines how a lecturer and a group of students adjust to a request for English-only medium of instruction in tertiary education. The study draws on sociocultural theories considering context and language use as tools for meaning making. Goffman's theories of stage setting and footing are used to analyse how the lecturer positions…

Andersson, Ingrid; Rusanganwa, Joseph

2011-01-01

202

GLOBE Integrates Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Technology into the Foreign Language Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Describes the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program. GLOBE is a worldwide network of teachers and students representing over 6,500 schools in more than 75 countries. It is an excellent vehicle for learning a foreign language while exploring science, mathematics, social studies, and technology, providing a…

Kennedy, Teresa

1999-01-01

203

Film, Culture and Identity: Critical Intercultural Literacies for the Language Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

|Language teaching in the last 10-15 years has seen a shift away from the communicative approach and towards the paradigm of intercultural (communicative) competence. It has also been influenced by a broader educational shift away from an emphasis on print literacy and towards multiliteracies. At the same time, we have witnessed the rise of…

Pegrum, Mark

2008-01-01

204

How to Ensure Ethicality of Action Research in the Classroom?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the past few years, child research has increased both when it comes to various disciplines and various methods. The

purpose of this article is to discuss those common, special ethical viewpoints that the researcher has to take into

consideration wh...

Eeva-Liisa Peltokorpi; Kaarina Määttä; Satu Uusiautti

205

Identity and the Young English Language Learner. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This ethnographic case study examines the language socialization experiences of Hari, a Punjabi-speaking English language learner integrated into a mainstream kindergarten classroom in an urban area of British Columbia, Canada. The book begins by discussing theory and literature (e.g., mainstream second language acquisition research, language as…

Day, Elaine Mellen

206

CRITICAL READING OF RESEARCH ARTICLES AS ORAL ACTIVATOR IN THE LANGUAGE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on an experience carried out with second course students of the School of Aeronautical Engineers at the Polytechnic University of Madrid in the subject class Modern Technical Language. In the previous years the problem in that class had been the scarce participation of the students in the oral practices. They seemed to be lead and exclusively represented by a few students when it came to oral participation. The students proposed tackling recent research articles in which opinions could be discussed. The reading of these articles has risen new elements that work as language activators in the language classroom: critical reading and thinking have developed participation in the oral activities and produced a noticeable influence on their scientific and humanist thinking and behavior.From this, we may extract the consequence that the experience is not only related to scientific knowledge, since it has made them better speakers or speaking-counterparts and more class-participating and collaborative, which implies that the human, scientific and linguistic factors progress at the same time through the critical experience. This way, the exposition of their critical ideas has developed both their humanism and scientific mind. These two facets which seem to belong to far away fields become a bond in our experience: the process is scientific since it tries to be a systematic study of the knowledge fleshed in written texts and it is also humanist because it fulfils the students need to grow up as persons, that is absorbing knowledge and processing it in order to produce a new personal approach to the world.

Veronica VIVANCO

2012-01-01

207

Discussing Animal Rights and Animal Research in the Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Reviews two prominent philosophical justifications for animal liberation and describes a simulation that facilitates class discussion of animal research issues. Students reported that the exercise increased their awareness of the issues and of the complexity of making ethical decisions. (DB)|

Herzog, Harold A.

1990-01-01

208

The Combine Project: An Experience in a Dual-Language Classroom  

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Full Text Available This article describes what happened when a bilingual kindergarten class in West Liberty, Iowa, investigated a combine. The dual-language program supports content area instruction in both Spanish and English. The first part of the article tells the story of the Combine Project, this class's first project work. The story begins with a typical kindergarten field trip to a farm and ends with a parent night to show a combine constructed by the kindergartners. The second part of the article discusses the teacher's reflections on learning how to guide projects. Reflections by the teacher include relating kindergarten goals to projects, supporting second-language learners, involving parents, and including children with special needs.

Rebecca Wilson

2001-01-01

209

Natural Conversation Reconstruction Tasks: The Language Classroom as a Meeting Place  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper, drawing on Pratt’s notion of ‘transculturation’ and Bhabha’s ‘third space’, presents an example of language learning tasks that empower learners’ agency and promote their cross-cultural awareness and sensitivities to a different set of cultural expectations, using a naturally occurred Japanese thanking episodes. The paper discusses the merits of Natural Conversation Reconstruction Tasks (NCRTs) as a practical method for helping L2 learners develop this ‘intercultural competence’. It is based on a qualitative study of the results of one NCRT created for use in the context of teaching Japanese as a L2 in a multicultural society. It suggests the NCRT encourages the learners to explore the intersection where language use, speaker intention and L1 and L2 cultural norms meet. Such a process helps the learners become aware of socially expected patterns of communication in L1 and L2 in terms of the choices of speech act, formulaic expressions, sequential organization and politeness orientation. The learners’ comments suggest that the NCRT helps learners transcend their cultural boundaries by overcoming their narrow understanding of ‘thanking’ as ‘expressions of gratitude and appreciation’ and by cross-culturally widening their views of what counts as thanking. The NCRT with rich contextual information promotes the learners’ intercultural awareness, sensitivity to context and intercultural exploration in the space between L1 and L2, where they have authority and freedom of making sense of conversations, and pragmatics is fully integrated into language pedagogy.

Jun Ohashi

2009-01-01

210

Experimental research on thermal comfort in the university classroom of regular semesters in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research has investigated physical variables affecting indoor thermal comfort and subjective responses of thermal comfort of students in a university in Korea in which the weather is oceanic temperate climate, and has been performed to contribute to the research fields of Sustainable Thermal Standard and Adaptive Thermal Comfort (ATC). This research is based on the ISO 7730-2005 standard and the ATC theories and 4 main variables of PMV such as dry bulb temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH), black bulb temperature (Tg), and air velocity (Va) are measured once a week during two regular semesters. A clothing insulation, a thermal sensation vote (TSV), an acceptability of thermal environment, and a preference for cooling and heating are investigated at the same time using a questionnaire. This study was carried out for 26 weeks during the spring season, from March to June 2009, and the autumn season, from September to December 2009. The main achievements of this study are as follows. Monthly Mean Outdoor Temperature (MMOT) and Operative Temperature (OT) in the classroom during research periods are 7.4?23.3 .deg. C and 17.5?29.0 .deg. C, respectively. The acceptability ratio of thermal environment shows over 80% when the range of OT in the classroom is 17?25 .deg. C, and the range can be applicable to operative index of heating and cooling of classroom. The mean TSV of respondents is almost 'neutral (0)' when the PMV in the classroom moves to 'neutral (0)' and 'slightly cool (-1)', and the TSV is almost '+1.5' when the PMV moves to 'slightly warm (+1)'. The acceptability ratio of thermal environment is slightly different from ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. So it is necessary to more investigate standard range of acceptability of thermal environment in oceanic temperate climate region using much more databases

2011-01-01

211

L’erreur fondamentale d’attribution dans la classe de langue Fundamental attribution errors in the foreign language classroom  

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Full Text Available Dans la classe de langue étrangère, les étudiants apprennent les conventions d’usage de la langue-cible (L2) et passent des tests dans les domaines suivants : lexique, phonétique, grammaire, stylistique, composition, etc. Mais dans la situation de communication authentique et interculturelle, tout le monde fait des erreurs qui résultent de deux ou plusieurs jeux de conventions superposées et utilisées simultanément. Les tâches des co-participants s’avèrent difficiles car il faut, en même temps, d’une part, communiquer en utilisant des expressions (non-, para-) linguistiques adéquates, compréhensibles pour l’autre et, d’autre part, interpréter des signes, tout en sachant que l’interlocuteur peut se baser sur des conventions qui peuvent être communes ou « déviantes ».Dans cette contribution, l’auteur veut élaborer des catégories linguistiques et interactionnelles importantes pour maîtriser des situations interculturelles non enseignées dans la classe de langue. L’accent sera mis sur la tendance observée à interpréter les conventions non congruentes comme l’expression d’un état psychologique de l’autre. Dans ces cas d’erreur fondamentale d’attribution, les co-participants négligent la dimension linguistique en attribuant toute expression inattendue à un « fait » psychologique individuel, situationnel ou culturel.Foreign language learners do learn conventions of use of the target language (L2) and are tested in subjects such as lexicon, phonetics, grammar, stylistics, writing skills, etc. However, in real cross-cultural communication situations, everyone commits “errors” due to two or several sets of linguistic conventions, juxtaposed and used simultaneously. Co-participants’ tasks end up being difficult : they must simultaneously firstly communicate by using appropriate and understandable linguistic, non-linguistic and paralinguistic expressions, and secondly, interpret signs which they know that the speaker may refer to shared or unconventional, “misconstrued” L2-conventions.In this paper, the author will elaborate linguistic and interactional categories in order to overcome cross-cultural situations not taught in the language classroom and focus on the trend among speakers in intercultural situations to interpret “deviant” and L2-influenced conventions as expressions of a psychological state. Here, fundamental attribution errors become apparent : co-participants ignore the linguistic dimensions of interpersonal and intercultural interaction by attributing any unexpected “pieces of talk” to individual, situated or cultural psychological categories.

Bernd Müller-Jacquier

2011-01-01

212

Educating Language Minority Students and Affirming Their Equal Rights: Research and Practical Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article describes one researcher's journey as an experimental psycholinguist through changes in practice and policy in the education of English language learners in the United States from the 1970s to the present day. The development of key debates on issues such as bilingualism, language of instruction, and the inclusion of English language

Hakuta, Kenji

2011-01-01

213

“COMING TO KNOW”: WEAVING ABORIGINAL AND WESTERN SCIENCE KNOWLEDGE, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY INTO THE SCIENCE CLASSROOM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following the work of contemporary thinkers, we propose that every culture has its own science and that both indigenous and western science knowledge systems are valuable and have been useful to the cultures developing them. Because a valid interpretation of scientific literacy must be consistent with a prevailing image of science and rapid changes taking place in society, we propose more inclusive definitions and metaphors of science literacy. Science literacy for Aboriginal people must reflect a broad cultural approach that recognizes the unique way Aboriginal people live and present their experience and knowledge. Literacy programs from an Aboriginal perspective must go beyond reading, writing, and numeracy to include oracy – stories, songs, dances, symbols, ceremonies. Science literacy from an Aboriginal perspective involves being knowledgeable about the extensive examples and applications of Aboriginal science knowledge, as well as western science knowledge, and science discourse about the nature of science. Literacy also includes the wisdom component of Aboriginal science, which brings the discussion of values and ethics to science and technology and requires sustaining both community and environment. Aboriginal languages serve as storehouses of experience and perspectives that help main-tain cultural identity, resist assimilation, and interpret the relationship between society and environment.

GLORIA J. SNIVELY; LORNA B. WILLIAMS

2008-01-01

214

Cultural Model of Classroom Instruction for ELT in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is now argued that a very close relationship exists between culture and learning, and that learners can learn better if the way of their learning corresponds to the cultural features of their society. Taking this argument into account, many linguists, teachers and researchers now suggest that language teaching-learning practices in the classroom should be based on learners’ culture. They argue that if there is a harmony between the mode of teaching-learning activities in the classroom and the cultural features in the broader community outside the classroom, learners can behave competently in the classroom and can, therefore, learn effectively. The present article has attempted to discuss this relationship between culture and learning in general, and also between culture and language learning in particular, with a view to determining a cultural model of classroom instruction for ELT in Bangladesh.

Mohammad Emdadul Huda

2013-01-01

215

Language, Culture, Idioms, and Their Relationship with the Foreign Language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explores the close relationship between language and culture. Nowadays, the issue of human communication is one of the most important subjects occupying the minds of linguists, anthropologists, psychologists, and philosophers. .Since it is the most important means for communication among human beings, the relation between language, culture, and their mutual interactions have high significance. The inextricable connection highlights various manifestations of conventionalized language including the idiomatic expressions as one of the important and pervasive language uses reflecting culture in real life. Like other types of figurative language, idioms appear to be the natural decoders of customs, cultural beliefs, social conventions, and norms. Idioms, as a major component of native-like communication, enable a language learner to understand the thoughts, emotions and views of the speakers of target language. For this reason, learning idioms provides learners with a significant chance to acquire information about the underlying parameters of a language. Awareness of figurative language particularly idioms will improve teaching and assist learners to have better communication strategies. Otherwise, accurate and appropriate target language use and understanding will be at risk and the learners will tend to transfer their native language conceptual structure which will most probably be inappropriate. The strong relationship among the language, culture, and the figurative branch of the language especially idioms need particular attention in language learning since it appears to have inadequate research. Therefore, a systematic knowledge of language and culture integration inside and beyond the classroom setting can be built up.

Oktay Ya?iz; Siros Izadpanah

2013-01-01

216

Implementing Interventions to Increase Motivation in the English Language Classroom: from Theory to Practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A growing body of empirical research shows a relationship between student motivation and learning outcomes in the teaching of English in ESL and EFL contexts. Despite a sound theoretical framework, however, there are few studies which implement strategies intended to increase motivation and report f...

Iakovos Tsiplakides; Areti Keramida

217

Disassembling the Classroom--An Ethnographic Approach to the Materiality of Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethnography of education is challenged by the materiality of the classroom. Ethnographic accounts of school lessons mostly highlight language and interaction and offer no suitable methodology for researching objects and their role in the classroom. Moreover, objects are part of complex and interwoven assemblages involving human actors,…

Roehl, Tobias

2012-01-01

218

Critical literacy in the english language classroom O letramento crítico na aula de língua inglesa  

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Full Text Available This paper reports the experience of developing teaching materials for public school teachers and students in southern Brazil in a project funded by the Education Department of Paraná State. The materials were intended as resources to be used by teachers according to their needs and those of their local communities, rather than as a textbook per se. The theory underlying this project is based on critical literacy and the idea that language is discourse, i.e. embedded in cultural and ideological values which determine its meaning and establish power relations among texts, among readers and among texts and their readers - Freirean "readers of the wor(l)d". Student-readers are, in this sense, co-constructors of meanings and responsible for making sense of reality. We expect students and teachers who use the materials we designed to become more aware of their possibilities as agents and this way we intend to foster a sense of active citizenship.Este artigo relata uma experiência de desenvolvimento de materiais didáticos para alunos de escolas públicas no sul do Brasil, em um projeto financiado pela SEED - Secretaria de Estado da Educação do Paraná. Os materiais foram pensados como recursos a serem utilizados pelos professores de acordo com suas necessidades locais, ao invés de constituírem-se simplesmente em um livro didático. A teoria subjacente ao projeto está baseada no letramento crítico e na concepção da língua como discurso, ou seja, uma língua repleta de valores culturais e ideológicos, os quais determinam significados e estabelecem relações de poder entre textos, entre leitores e entre textos e seus leitores, em sintonia com o conceito freiriano de palavramundo - "wor(l)d". Os alunos leitores são, nesse sentido, coprodutores de significados e responsáveis por dar sentido à realidade. Esperamos que alunos e professores, que venham a utilizar os materiais que elaboramos, se tornem mais cientes de suas possibilidades como agentes e, desse modo, pretendemos estimular um sentido de cidadania ativa tanto em alunos quanto em professores.

Clarissa Menezes Jordão; Francisco Carlos Fogaça

2012-01-01

219

How can we carry out an action-research to improve practice in the science classroom?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work describes a program of action-research carried out with secondary education science teachers. The program persues the professional development through the curricular innovation, taking as promotional agent the action-oriented reflection, lending itself special attention to the socialization of the teachers. Throughout two school years actions directed to such effects were taken, organizing themselves through pedagogical content knowledge. The results show that the teachers, in a slow and gradual form, are incorporating new practical theories to their reflections and work in the classroom.

Bartolomé Vázquez Bernal; Roque Jiménez-Pérez; Vicente Mellado Jiménez

2008-01-01

220

Research and Innovation in Physics Education: Transforming Classrooms, Teaching, and Student Learning at the Tertiary Level  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well recognized that science and technology and the quality of scientifically trained manpower crucially determines the development and economic growth of nations and the future of humankind. At the same time, there is growing global concern about flight of talent from physics in particular, and the need to make physics teaching and learning effective and careers in physics attractive. This presentation presents the findings of seminal physics education research on students' learning that are impacting global praxis and motivating changes in content, context, instruments, and ways of teaching and learning physics, focusing on active learning environments that integrate the use of a variety of resources to create experiences that are both hands-on and minds-on. Initiatives to bring about innovative changes in a university system are described, including a triadic model that entails indigenous development of PHYSARE using low-cost technologies. Transfer of pedagogic innovations into the formal classroom is facilitated by professional development programs that provide experiential learning of research-based innovative teaching practices, catalyze the process of reflection through classroom research, and establish a collaborative network of teachers empowered to usher radical transformation.

Jolly, Pratibha

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

Breen, M (Ed.) (2001). Learner contributions to language learning: New directions in research Breen, M (Ed.) (2001). Learner contributions to language learning: New directions in research.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The advances in the field of second (L2) and foreign (FL) language teaching and learning in the past two decades have been manifold, among these: acquisition theories that have emerged as a consequence of refinements in experimental and methodological tools; the shift of focus to approaches rather than methods in L2 and FL teaching; socio- interactionist studies’ emphasis on the ecology of the classroom, geared towards community building; and the questioning of teacher training paradigms by teacher development and education programs. The advances in the field of second (L2) and foreign (FL) language teaching and learning in the past two decades have been manifold, among these: acquisition theories that have emerged as a consequence of refinements in experimental and methodological tools; the shift of focus to approaches rather than methods in L2 and FL teaching; socio- interactionist studies’ emphasis on the ecology of the classroom, geared towards community building; and the questioning of teacher training paradigms by teacher development and education programs.

Heliana Mello

2008-01-01

222

Factors Influencing Oral Corrective Feedback Provision in the Spanish Foreign Language Classroom: Investigating Instructor Native/Nonnative Speaker Status, SLA Education, & Teaching Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of interactional feedback has been a critical area of second language acquisition (SLA) research for decades and while findings suggest interactional feedback can facilitate SLA, the extent of its influence can vary depending on a number of factors, including the native language of those involved in communication. Although studies have…

Gurzynski-Weiss, Laura

2010-01-01

223

Researching multicultural mathematics classroom through the lens of landscapes of learning : NORMA 2008  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Students' motives for learning mathematics cannot be understood by looking solely at mathematical classroom activities. We discuss this claim in a multicultural context using the notion of 'landscapes of learning'. This notion serves as a theoretical and methodological tool that both defines a research perspective and sketches a field of empirical research. In this paper we want to focus on the notion and illustrate its usefulness when researching mathematical learning in multicultural contexts. We draw on data and results of an empirical study on student’s foregrounds with 45 teenage students in two 8th grade multicultural classes in Denmark. We show the dialectical relationship between each dimension of the landscape and the whole of it; and how, as a whole, it can help us coming closer to better theorisations.

AlrØ, Helle; Skovsmose, Ole

224

Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning Volume 2  

CERN Multimedia

This landmark volume provides a broad-based, comprehensive, state-of-the-art overview of current knowledge and research into second language teaching and learning. Volume II captures new and ongoing developments, research, and trends in the field.

Hinkel, Eli

2011-01-01

225

WormClassroom.org: An Inquiry-Rich Educational Web Portal for Research Resources of "Caenorhabditis elegans"  

Science.gov (United States)

The utilization of biology research resources, coupled with a "learning by inquiry" approach, has great potential to aid students in gaining an understanding of fundamental biological principles. To help realize this potential, we have developed a Web portal for undergraduate biology education, WormClassroom.org, based on current research

Lu, Fong-Mei; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Stewart, James; White, John G.

2007-01-01

226

Problems in SLA. Second Language Acquisition Research Series  

Science.gov (United States)

Second language acquisition has an identity problem. It is a young field struggling to emerge from the parent fields of education and applied linguistics. In this book, the author proposes a way to help second language acquisition develop a systematic and coherent focus using the philosophy of science as the lens. The structure of the book allows…

Long, Michael H.

2006-01-01

227

Professora e pesquisadora: um encontro na sala de aula Teacher and researcher: contact in a classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estive inserida como pesquisadora em uma escola de Ensino Fundamental da Rede Municipal de Campinas-SP de 2003 a 2005. Opto, neste trabalho, por narrar o meu encontro em sala de aula com uma professora cujo trabalho acompanhei no ano letivo de 2004. Esta escolha está motivada por eu ter sido convidada por essa professora para participar semanalmente das suas aulas e pelas inquietações surgidas a partir do diálogo por nós estabelecido. Problematizo o lugar de uma pesquisadora quando entra na sala de aula, as expectativas da professora diante da presença da pesquisadora na sua sala e os sentidos produzidos pelos alunos com a presença de uma outra professora. A partir de uma pesquisa de orientação sócio-histórica, trago para reflexão a questão da alteridade e do diálogo, a fim de pensarmos na formação de professores e pesquisadores.During the period from 2003 to 2005 I worked as a researcher in an elementary school from the Municipal Education Network of Campinas. This paper is about my contact with a teacher whose classes I attended during the school year of 2004. This choice was motivated by this teacher's invitation to participate in her classes on a weekly basis and by the doubts that arised from our dialogue. The condition of a researcher in a classroom, a teacher's expectations in the presence of a researcher in her classroom and the students' senses in the presence of another teacher are questioned. From a socio-historical research, the alterity and the dialogue issues are discussed to foster a reflection about teachers' and researchers' education.

Laura Noemi Chaluh

2009-01-01

228

Professora e pesquisadora: um encontro na sala de aula/ Teacher and researcher: contact in a classroom  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Estive inserida como pesquisadora em uma escola de Ensino Fundamental da Rede Municipal de Campinas-SP de 2003 a 2005. Opto, neste trabalho, por narrar o meu encontro em sala de aula com uma professora cujo trabalho acompanhei no ano letivo de 2004. Esta escolha está motivada por eu ter sido convidada por essa professora para participar semanalmente das suas aulas e pelas inquietações surgidas a partir do diálogo por nós estabelecido. Problematizo o lugar de uma pesq (more) uisadora quando entra na sala de aula, as expectativas da professora diante da presença da pesquisadora na sua sala e os sentidos produzidos pelos alunos com a presença de uma outra professora. A partir de uma pesquisa de orientação sócio-histórica, trago para reflexão a questão da alteridade e do diálogo, a fim de pensarmos na formação de professores e pesquisadores. Abstract in english During the period from 2003 to 2005 I worked as a researcher in an elementary school from the Municipal Education Network of Campinas. This paper is about my contact with a teacher whose classes I attended during the school year of 2004. This choice was motivated by this teacher's invitation to participate in her classes on a weekly basis and by the doubts that arised from our dialogue. The condition of a researcher in a classroom, a teacher's expectations in the presence (more) of a researcher in her classroom and the students' senses in the presence of another teacher are questioned. From a socio-historical research, the alterity and the dialogue issues are discussed to foster a reflection about teachers' and researchers' education.

Chaluh, Laura Noemi

2009-04-01

229

The English Teacher as Midwife: Gender Sensitivity in Teaching Methods (Research in the Classroom).  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines gender issues in the English classroom. Notes that by thoughtfully orchestrating classroom activities, English teachers can bolster female students' self-confidence, helping them to construct and convey their own interpretations of texts, characters, and situations. (MM)

Roop, Laura Jane

1989-01-01

230

Research Notes ~ Second Language Acquisition Theories as a Framework for Creating Distance Learning Courses  

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Full Text Available Moore and Kearsley (1996) maintain distance educators should provide for three types of interaction: a) learner-content; b) learner-instructor; and c) learner-learner. According to interactionist second language acquisition (SLA) theories that reflect Krashen’s theory (1994) that comprehensible input is critical for second language acquisition, interaction can enhance second language acquisition and fluency. Effective output is necessary as well. We reviewed the research on distance learning for second language learners and concluded that SLA theories can, and should, be the framework that drives the development of courses for students seeking to learn languages by distance technology. This article delineates issues to consider in support of combining SLA theories and research literature as a guide in creating distance language learning courses.

Eileen N. Ariza; Sandra Hancock

2003-01-01

231

Language and rigour in qualitative research: Problems and principles in analyzing data collected in Mandarin  

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Full Text Available Abstract In collaborative qualitative research in Asia, data are usually collected in the national language, and this poses challenges for analysis. Translation of transcripts to a language common to the whole research team is time consuming and expensive; meaning can easily be lost in translation; and validity of the data may be compromised in this process. We draw on several published examples from public health research conducted in mainland China, to highlight how language can influence rigour in the qualitative research process; for each problem we suggest potential solutions based on the methods used in one of our research projects in China. Problems we have encountered include obtaining sufficient depth and detail in qualitative data; deciding on language for data collection; managing data collected in Mandarin; and the influence of language on interpreting meaning. We have suggested methods for overcoming problems associated with collecting, analysing, and interpreting qualitative data in a local language, that we think help maintain analytical openness in collaborative qualitative research. We developed these methods specifically in research conducted in Mandarin in mainland China; but they need further testing in other countries with data collected in other languages. Examples from other researchers are needed.

Smith Helen J; Chen Jing; Liu Xiaoyun

2008-01-01

232

Using a Humanoid Robot to Develop a Dialogue-Based Interactive Learning Environment for Elementary Foreign Language Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary school is the critical stage during which the development of listening comprehension and oral abilities in language acquisition occur, especially with a foreign language. However, the current foreign language instructors often adopt one-way teaching, and the learning environment lacks any interactive instructional media with which to…

Chang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Gwo-Dong

2010-01-01

233

Evaluating standards in cross-language research: a critique of Squires' criteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Innovative methods to conduct cross-language research continue to evolve. There is a need to evaluate the processes involved in cross-language research to assess the extent to which they are fit for purpose from an epistemological point of view, and the subsequent impact on quality of resultant findings. Debate continues about the application of evaluative criteria to qualitative research, not least because of the multiplicity of worldviews and perspectives associated with different qualitative research paradigms. In this article we use two of the authors' studies to discuss how we assess whether methodologies underpinning cross-language research and the choice of methods used are 'fit for purpose'. We use Squires' (2009) 14 criteria to evaluate cross-language nursing and health sciences research based around conceptual equivalence, translator credentials, translator role/competence and study methods, and consider their value as an heuristic or a guide to encourage reflexivity and fuller accounting of the justifications for the approaches taken.

Croot EJ; Lees J; Grant G

2011-08-01

234

Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools/ Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razones que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artíc (more) ulo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación. Abstract in english Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study (more) on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.

Quintero Corzo, Josefina; Ramírez Contreras, Odilia

2011-10-01

235

Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razones que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artículo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación.

Josefina Quintero Corzo; Odilia Ramírez Contreras

2011-01-01

236

Teacher Professional Development through Collaborative Action Research: Impact on Foreign English-Language Teaching and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2011 we, a group of English-as-a-foreign-language teachers at a secondary school in Argentina, decided to investigate our teaching practices through collaborative action research so as to improve our students' learning opportunities and thus revitalise English-language teaching in our context. We implemented and evaluated the integration of…

Banegas, Dario; Pavese, Anahi; Velazquez, Aurelia; Velez, Sandra Maria

2013-01-01

237

Implications of Psycholinguistic Research for Language Learning in the Elementary School.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses some of the educational potential of psycholinguistic research. The first area discussed is the educational implications of the human capacity for acquiring language. Studies cited cover topics related to the universality of language acquisition, children's mastery of basic grammatical devices, neurophysiological states of…

Higginbotham, Dorothy C.

238

Classroom Research and Professional Development Investigación en el aula y desarrollo profesional  

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Full Text Available This article intends to share the experience of a group of teachers in the Classroom Research Seminar of the Teacher Development Program in English carried out at Universidad del Valle, Cali , from January to June, 2007. The seminar was part of a high-level in-service program for teachers of English of a network of private educational institutions. We would like to share the highlights and difficulties of the experience. We will start with the general framework of the program and the concept of professional development that underlies it. Next we will focus on the classroom research seminar, its objectives, methodology and results. Finally we share the voices of some of the participants, who talk about the influence this seminar had on their professional development and daily work.Este artículo recoge la experiencia de un grupo de profesores universitarios que tuvieron a su cargo el seminario de investigación en el aula con un grupo de docentes inscritos en el programa de formación y desarrollo profesional docente de la Universidad del Valle y pertenecientes a una misma red de instituciones. Nuestro objetivo es compartir los logros y dificultades encontradas en el proceso de trabajar con los docentes, desde el aula universitaria, problemáticas de sus propias aulas a partir de objetivos e intereses diversos. Primeramente presentaremos el marco general del programa y el concepto de formación que lo sustenta; posteriormente nos centraremos en el contexto específico del seminario, sus objetivos metodología y procesos de desarrollo; finalmente exploraremos la incidencia del trabajo desarrollado en el aula universitaria en práctica profesional de los docentes participantes.

Omaira Vergara Luján; Fanny Hernández Gaviria; Rosalba Cárdenas Ramos

2009-01-01

239

Analysing Students’ Drawings of their Classroom: A Child-Friendly Research Method  

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Full Text Available Including students’ voices in research directly affecting their life and development has been emphasised in a wide range of studies. Children's rights movement and childhood sociology have argued that young students are active participants in investigations and not merely passive recipients or objects to be studied; when adequate participatory strategies are used, children have the ability to report competently and meaningfully on issues relevant to them. However, despite this re-conceptualization of children as social actors, their opinions have not often found their way into research. Concerns about children communicative and cognitive abilities, about appropriateness and desirability of involving them directly in research have restricted their participation. The study “School as it is – research on students’ and teachers’ profiles and interactions”, conducted by UNICEF and Centre Education 2000+, Romania, demonstrates that children are nor overlooked exactly when specialists reflect on educational matters. Child inclusive methodologies have been added for this purpose to a multi-method, multi-site research project focused mainly on depicting the real portrait of Romanian school. The present paper explores the use of students’ drawings of their classroom as a child friendly research method, utilized – together with other approaches involving adults – to present “school as it is”. Drawings are considered an open-ended, familiar activity for children, one of their preferred means of communication and, therefore, an effective strategy for engaging them in research. As a concrete proof of the efficiency and reliability of the method, the interpretation of students’ drawings is selectively presented. The findings fully demonstrate children capacity of contributing to research, as their drawings revealed a powerful, convincing image of their learning environment.

Anca NEDELCU

2013-01-01

240

The influence of constructivism on nature of Science as an area of research and as a classroom subject  

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Full Text Available This paper is an general article about the influence of constructivism on nature of science Constructivism has influenced research on the teaching and learning of nature of science, as well as actual teaching of the nature of science ideas. In the area of research, a constructivist learning theory perspective has influenced researchers to shift from using quantitative research techniques to using qualitative research methods in investigating the nature of science in the science classrooms. In the area of promoting the teaching of the nature of science, a constructivist learning theory perspective has influenced science educators to shift from merely emphasizing the teaching of the history of science in science classrooms to sequencing in instruction in science lessons and promotion of better teacher preparation programs in the universities.

Mehmet KARAKAS

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Why Do Care Workers Withdraw From Elderly Care? Researcher’s Language as a Hermeneutical Key  

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Full Text Available Care workers frequently withdraw from elderly people in their care; this has resulted in a number of scandals in the media. Here I analyze an empirical scene observed at an old people’s home in Denmark, which contains behavioral patterns among the care workers which could be seen as withdrawal. At the same time it illustrates the care workers’ commitment to the elderly. A paradoxical “empathy at a distance” is characteristic of the scene. When analyzing my written observations in an interpretation group, my use of language was a point of discussion. What did it mean when I described the interactions between care workers and elderly residents in words commonly used to describe mother-child interactions? My use of language became a “hermeneutical key” which enabled a psychoanalytically inspired interpretation. This focuses on the care relationship as activating our earliest memories of our own care relations, independently of whether we are in the role of care providers or care receivers. Through collusion theory, the interpretation accepts both the anxiety which the helpless elderly people arouse in the care workers and their motivation for care work as two sides of a subjectively important theme. The article illustrates how working consciously with the researcher’s subjectivity makes it possible to understand apparently irrational patterns. The insights thus gained may be used to prevent withdrawals in care work as an argument for care workers’ need for emotional supervision.

Anne Liveng

2012-01-01

242

'Passivity' or 'Potential'?: Teacher responses to learner identity in the low-level ESL classroom  

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Full Text Available This paper explores some initial findings from a multi-site, classroom-based case study research project into English as a Second Language (ESL) literacy provision to very low-literate adult learners within Australia’s Language, Literacy and Numeracy Program (LLNP). The aim of the research is to report on the researcher’s observations of teachers’ pedagogical practices and to investigate the extent to which they are responsive to learners’ developing and multiple identities.

Sue Ollerhead

2012-01-01

243

Innovation in Researching the Effects of Frame – Focused Instruction on Second Language Acquisition  

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Full Text Available In the context of globalization the research of innovative teaching methods and techniques becomes relevant. The traditional teaching approach where the training of practice material is preceded by rule-presentation (explanation + mechanical formoriented practice) doesn’t meet the requirements of constantly developing rational language processing. Contemporary studies are considering the ways how to allow second language learners to be rational in the sense that their mental models of language functioning are the most optimal. This paper outlines current cognitive perspectives on second language acquisition. Language learning involves the acquisition of frame instructions or input-processing instructions (explanation + structured-input activities). Competence and performance both emerge from the dynamic system of frequently used memorized constructions. Frames are dynamic contextualized activation of stereotyped situations. This system proves to be rational since it aims at optimal reflection of prior first language usage and induces learners to think consciously about some sort of rule in order to work out the meaning. The frame–based instruction consists of activities which present learners with a stimulus and require them to respond choosing the appropriate language form for communication. The targeted feature of such communicative tasks has two aims: 1). to stimulate communicative language use and 2). to target the use of a particular predetermined linguistic feature. The empirical research shows that frame-focused tasks direct learners attention to the meaning realized by the target form. Methodological basis includes some theoretical propositions from recent Relevance theory and cognitive linguistics.

Elena SOKOLOVA

2010-01-01

244

DIY Media in the Classroom: New Literacies Across Content Areas (Middle Through High School). Language & Literacy Series (Practitioner's Bookshelf)  

Science.gov (United States)

|This book shows teachers how to bring students' Do-It-Yourself media practices into the classroom (Grades 6-12). In one accessible resource, the authors explain DIY media, identify their appealing features for content area instruction, and describe the literacy skills and strategies they promote. Chapters address: Adolescents' DIY Media as New…

Guzzetti, Barbara; Elliot, Kate; Welsch, Diana

2010-01-01

245

Language through literature through language: An action research report on the English 100 course at the University of North West  

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Full Text Available In this article the writer surveys attitudes to the integration of language and literature in ESL/EFL teaching, noting the reservations that have been expressed about it in the past, and which still continue to linger in some quarters. Against this background he then describes the development and implementation of an integrated English syllabus at the University of North West, focusing on his current action research in teaching the first year modules. Using examples from the material he has developed for these modules, he demonstrates how the principles of language/literature integration, as articulated by writers in the field, can be translated into practice in a number of ways. Since this is an on-going project the writer presents his findings as a report on work in progress. The article does, however, conclude with a brief summary of the positive responses received from lecturers and students in response to questionnaires and surveys conducted in 2000 and 2001. A linguist deaf to the poetic function of language and a literary scholar indifferent to linguistic problems and unconversant with linguistic methods, are equally flagrant anachronisms. Roman Jakobson (in Simpson, 1997:ii) I imagined how it would be like to study literature alone. This would be tough especially if English is not your first language. Just tough. (From the journal of an English 100 student, University of North West)

I. Butler

2002-01-01

246

CONVERGING LINES: TOWARDS THE INTEGRATION OF SECOND LANGUAGE RESEARCH AND TEACHING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the increasing research in second language acquisition, a gap seems to exist between researchers' technical knowledge and teachers' practical knowledge. This is evident from a review of research studies in form-focused instruction summarized in this article. Additional review of articles in...

Bambang Yudi Cahyono

247

Second Language Writing Research and Written Corrective Feedback in SLA: Intersections and Practical Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

For more than a decade now, a great deal of research has been done on the topic of written corrective feedback (CF) in SLA and second language (L2) writing. Nonetheless, what those research efforts really have shown as well as the possible implications for practice remain in dispute. Although L2 writing and SLA researchers often examine similar…

Ferris, Dana R.

2010-01-01

248

"Multiculturalism" - a dead end in conceptualizing difference, or an open-ended approach to facilitating democratic experiences in the foreign language classroom?  

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Full Text Available The focus of this text is on the multicultural condition, related to the foreignlanguage classroom as a possible arena for democratic experiences. However,due to the increasing ambiguity, to say the least, of the conceptions of “culture”and “multiculturalism” today, I will argue that, depending on how “multicul-turalism” is conceived, this focus may indeed either lead to a cultural andcommunicative closure, or open up the possibility of multi-vocal dialogue andcommunication. If, on the one hand, “multiculturalism” is understood asdifference, mainly constituted by a variety of categorized cultural groupings,you may end up essentializing culture to something that people “have”, andthat is imposed on them collectively from an outside position. If, on the otherhand, cultural differences are seen as constructed within human practices ofongoing narratives and negotiations between individuals and groups – acrossand beyond all kinds of cultural borders – then the hybrid, pluralistic condi-tion of a society, or even of a foreign language classroom, may offer at least anopportunity for cultural identities to co-construct a social space, where nor-mative conflicts and different viewpoints could be dealt with through multi-vocal deliberative communication.

Ulrika Tornberg

2004-01-01

249

The use of concept maps for knowledge management: from classrooms to research labs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our contemporary society asks for new strategies to manage knowledge. The main activities developed by academics involve knowledge transmission (teaching) and production (research). Creativity and collaboration are valuable assets for establishing learning organizations in classrooms and research labs. Concept mapping is a useful graphical technique to foster some of the disciplines required to create and develop high-performance teams. The need for a linking phrase to clearly state conceptual relationships makes concept maps (Cmaps) very useful for organizing our own ideas (externalization), as well as, sharing them with other people (elicitation and consensus building). The collaborative knowledge construction (CKC) is supported by Cmaps because they improve the communication signal-to-noise ratio among participants with high information asymmetry. In other words, we can identify knowledge gaps and insightful ideas in our own Cmaps when discussing them with our counterparts. Collaboration involving low and high information asymmetry can also be explored through peer review and student-professor/advisor interactions, respectively. In conclusion, when it is used properly, concept mapping can provide a competitive advantage to produce and share knowledge in our contemporary society. To map is to know, as stated by Wandersee in 1990.

Correia PR

2012-02-01

250

Classroom management of situated group learning: A research study of two teaching strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Although peer-based work is encouraged by theories in developmental psychology and although classroom interventions suggest it is effective, there are grounds for recognising that young pupils find collaborative learning hard to sustain. Discontinuities in collaborative skill during development have been suggested as one interpretation. Theory and research have neglected situational continuities that the teacher may provide in management of formal and informal collaborations. This experimental study, with the collaboration of the science faculty in one urban secondary college, investigated the effect of two role attribution strategies on communication in peer groups of different gender composition in three parallel Year 8 science classes. The group were set a problem that required them to design an experiment to compare the thermal insulating properties of two different materials. This presents the data collected and key findings, and reviews the findings from previous parallel studies that have employed the same research design in different school settings. The results confirm the effectiveness of social role attribution strategies in teacher management of communication in peer-based work.

Smeh, Kathy; Fawns, Rod

2000-06-01

251

Language Learning Strategies --- The Theoretical Framework and Some Suggestions for Learner Training Practice  

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Full Text Available Research in the field of second language learning indicates that proper use of language learning strategies leads to the improvement of overall Second Language (L2) or Foreign Language (FL) proficiency as well as specific language skills. This essay firstly attempts to build a theoretical framework of learning strategies theories by clarifying the definitions and categories of learning strategies, discussing the relevant factors influencing strategy choice, while making references to the status quo in China; then it looks at what some learners do that makes them ‘good language learners’; finally, some preparatory work is suggested as a start for undertaking learner training in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) classrooms.

Ting Liang

2009-01-01

252

Grounding the Translation: Intertwining analysis and translation in cross-language grounded theory research  

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Full Text Available Grounded theory research in cross-language, cross-cultural context is associated with the challenges of linguistic sensitivity of conceptualization. The author, a bilingual researcher, offers reflection on her experience of doing grounded theory research, assuming a dual role of a theorist and a translator. The reflection is based on self-observations. Grounding the translation is shown to be acheived through the strategy of intertwining the activities of translation and conceptual analysis, performed by one person. The two activities are inseparable in time and take place along with constant comparison across language boundaries. Intertwining requires that theoretical sensitivity of the researcher be enriched with the sensitivity to linguistic and cultural meanings. Intertwining, through revealing differences between linguistic meanings or language structures, facilitates the emergence of concepts and theoretical categories from the very act of translation. Combining the functions of translation and analysis and using the strategy of intertwining worked effectively for this researcher.

Svetlana Shklarov, MD, RSW, PhD Candidate

2009-01-01

253

Rationale and strategies for American Sign Language intervention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A Midwest school district established a demonstration Total Communication Project. Its goal was for teachers to become consistent in their role modeling of English and American Sign Language (ASL). English was the primary language of the classroom and ASL was used as an intervention tool. There has been little research on the effectiveness of ASL in the classroom. By implementing an ASL intervention program this project is a first step in establishing an environment conducive to investigating the effectiveness of ASL intervention for teaching deaf students. This paper describes: (a) techniques used for identifying classroom situations that call for the use of ASL; (b) discourse situations that influence the use of different language codes in total communication classrooms; and (c) guidelines for code-switching between English and ASL.

Stewart DA

1990-07-01

254

Graphic Novels in the Secondary Classroom and School Libraries  

Science.gov (United States)

The author examines the rise in popularity of graphic novels, the sales of which have steadily increased as their influence expands into adolescent culture. This article also includes an overview of current research results supporting the use of graphic novels within the classroom and school library; graphic novels support English-language

Griffith, Paula E.

2010-01-01

255

Classroom Communication Climate and Communicative Linguistic Competence of EFL Learners  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the classroom communication climate and communicative linguistic competence of EFL students who are in their senior years in a university. This is a descriptive method of research which intended to find out the correlation between classroom communication climate and communicative linguistic competence. A validated questionnaire on the perceived classroom communication climate was used. To measure the students’ proficiency in the English language, a validated 100-item communicative linguistic assessment was given. The data gathered from the study were subjected to descriptive statistics such as means and standard deviations; and inferential statistics which included t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson r Correlation, all set at .05 alpha. The findings revealed that the students perceived the classroom communication climate as supportive. This supportive communication climate means that the communication atmosphere in the classroom allows students’ flexibility, experimentation, and creativity. Understanding and listening to the students, respecting their feelings and acknowledging their individual differences, making them feel secure, and avoiding control in the classroom are the teacher attributes that corroborate a supportive communication climate in the classroom. Moreover, the teacher is also a free of hidden motives and honest but with a few limitations. The students’ communicative linguistic competence was proficient. Programme enrolled and sex were not significant correlates of the perceived type of classroom communication climate and students’ communicative linguistic competence. There was a significant relationship between classroom communication climate and communicative linguistic competence.

Danebeth Tristeza Glomo-Narzoles

2013-01-01

256

CONVERGING LINES: TOWARDS THE INTEGRATION OF SECOND LANGUAGE RESEARCH AND TEACHING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the increasing research in second language acquisition, a gap seems to exist between researchers' technical knowledge and teachers' practical knowledge. This is evident from a review of research studies in form-focused instruction summarized in this article. Additional review of articles in the teaching of writing also leads to a similar conclusion. The theoretical development of the writing process does not seem to provide many insights for teachers to apply the process approach to the teaching of writing. The results of the two reviews then indicate that an attempt is required to relate second language research to teaching. Theoretical-pedagogical research, action research, and participatory research are referred to as models of research that can bridge the gap. A review of sample studies recently conducted demonstrates how the integration between technical and practical knowledge can be achieved through the three types of research.

Bambang Yudi Cahyono

1999-01-01

257

New Approaches in the Language Classroom: Coping with Change. Proceedings of the National Modern Languages Convention (2nd, Dublin, Ireland, January 31-February 1, 1986).  

Science.gov (United States)

These conference proceedings include: (1) opening speeches; (2) "Must Language Teaching Be Communicative?" (Christopher Brumfit); (3) "Recipes for Tired Teachers" (Mario Rinvolucri); (4) "Facing the Challenge of New Technologies: Interactive Video and the AUTOTUTOR Project" (David Little, Eugene Davis); (5) a panel discussion of questions…

Little, David, Ed.; And Others

258

Improving the Oral Language Skills of the Arabic-as-a-Second-Language Student by Introducing Dialectal Vocabulary, Minimizing Introduction of Other Language Skills, Reducing Corrections during the Uttering Process, Avoiding Excessive Grammar, and Consideration of the Student's Culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The practicum reported was designed to improve listening and speaking skills of 30 (grades 7-11) learners of Arabic as a second language. The teacher/researcher used these classroom instructional strategies: introducing carefully selected dialectal vocabulary and language forms; concentrating only on oral skills; avoiding heavy introduction of…

Tahrawi, Khalil A.

259

Meaning: lost, found or 'made' in translation? : A hermeneutical approach to cross-language interview research.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Qualitative research that includes interviews in languages foreign to the researcher(s) has become increasingly common. However, there is surprisingly little reflection on the methodological implications of such research practices. Furthermore, strategies on how to analyse cross- and multi-language interview material are lacking. The aim of this article is to present possible ways of handling these challenges, focusing mainly on analysis. I propose a hermeneutical approach to the issue. First, I will discuss the epistemological/methodological foundations of the approach before proposing some 'tools' to help practically tackle the 'problem' of analysis using the chosen methodological perspective. Rather than ignoring or trying to circumvent the question of foreign language and/or translation, in the proposed approach linguistic questions and questions of translation are the central focus.

Fersch, Barbara

2013-01-01

260

After babel: language and the fundamental challenges of comparative aging research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rapid growth in comparative survey research carried out in multiple countries, or among different language communities within a single nation, has given rise to a renewed concern with problems of translation. The fundamental problem facing the comparative survey researcher relates to the complexity and subjectivity of language, and the fact that complete equivalence of concepts in different linguistic, cultural, and social class contexts may be in principle impossible to achieve. Yet language remains the only medium through which information concerning subjective states, values, and beliefs can be collected. That language and the subjective constructs to which it refers are influenced by a wide range of cultural and social factors. This fact has particular relevance for comparative aging research since older individuals are often monolingual in their native languages and more tied to traditional cultures than younger individuals. This paper consists of a review of basic issues related to the nature of language and communication, and discusses the possibility of a truly scientific translation process. It outlines current best practices, and also raises questions related to the common practice of using information collected with translated survey instruments in ways that assume it reflects a comparable and quantifiable latent construct.

Angel RJ

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

After Babel: Language and the Fundamental Challenges of Comparative Aging Research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rapid growth in comparative survey research carried out in multiple countries, or among different language communities within a single nation, has given rise to a renewed concern with problems of translation. The fundamental problem facing the comparative survey researcher relates to the complexity and subjectivity of language, and the fact that complete equivalence of concepts in different linguistic, cultural, and social class contexts may be in principle impossible to achieve. Yet language remains the only medium through which information concerning subjective states, values, and beliefs can be collected. That language and the subjective constructs to which it refers are influenced by a wide range of cultural and social factors. This fact has particular relevance for comparative aging research since older individuals are often monolingual in their native languages and more tied to traditional cultures than younger individuals. This paper consists of a review of basic issues related to the nature of language and communication, and discusses the possibility of a truly scientific translation process. It outlines current best practices, and also raises questions related to the common practice of using information collected with translated survey instruments in ways that assume it reflects a comparable and quantifiable latent construct.

Angel RJ

2013-06-01

262

Research in Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching and Learning in New Zealand (2006-2010)  

Science.gov (United States)

This survey gives an overview of research into language teaching and learning in New Zealand over a five-year period, including the context of that research. The majority of New Zealanders are monolingual English speakers, yet the country faces complex linguistic challenges arising from its bicultural foundations and the multicultural society it…

Ker, Alastair; Adams, Rebecca; Skyrme, Gillian

2013-01-01

263

Second Life as a Foreign Language Learning Environment: A Review of Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to present a review of research on Second Life (SL) as a learning environment within English as a foreign language (EFL) context, as research on its use within EFL learning is relatively new. The study is categorized into four main sections. Introduction section introduces the rationale of the paper and SL. Next…

Aydin, Selami

2013-01-01

264

Natural Vs. Precise Concise Languages For Human Operation Of Computers: Research Issues And Experimental Approaches  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper raises concerns that natural language frontends for computer systems can limit a researcher'sscope of thinking, yield inappropriately complex systems,and exaggerate public fear of computers. Alternativemodes of computer use are suggested and the role ofpsychologically oriented controlled experimentation isnphasized. Research methods and recent experimentalresults are briefly reviewed

Ben Shneiderman; Department Of Computer Science

265

UPGRADING THE INTEREST OF STUDENT LEARNING ON INTRODUCING NUMBER CONCEPT (Classroom Action Research on Initial Learning of Mathematics)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study intended to know the progress of applying Drawing Number Card method in learning of number concept. Number concept was one of initial mathematical learning. The methodology consisted of classroom action research and it was carried out in the class of kindergarten school at Taman Harapan, Malang of Indonesia. Result was used to perform a teaching model which would apply to upgrade the learning interest of student on mathematical learning.

Soelistianah

2011-01-01

266

Teaching to Exceed the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards A Literacy Practices Approach for 6-12 Classrooms  

CERN Multimedia

As the new English Language Arts Common Core State Standards take hold across the United States, the need grows for pre-service and in-service teachers to be ready to develop curriculum and instruction that addresses their requirements. This timely, thoughtful, and comprehensive text directly meets this need. It delineates a literacy practices and critical engagement curriculum framework for 6-12 English language arts education that explains and illustrates how the Standards' highest and best intentions for student success can be implemented from a critical, culturally relevant perspective tha

Beach, Richard; Webb, Allen

2012-01-01

267

Using Two/Three Languages in Philippine Classrooms: Implications for Policies, Strategies, and Practices [and] A Response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the multilingual situation underlying the educational scheme in the Philippines, a system inherent with problems arising from the unequal developmental status of Filipino and English and the subsequent failure to meet manpower and material needs. The article issues a call to use the synergy created by two languages. Bajunid's response…

Gonzalez, Andrew; Bajunid, Ibrahim Ahmed

1996-01-01

268

"I Am Proud that I Did It and It's a Piece of Me": Digital Storytelling in the Foreign Language Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

|This case study examines students' experiences regarding the infusion of digital storytelling in their high school fourth-year Spanish class. The aim of this case study is to determine if digital storytelling can be an effective tool for language learners to communicate emotion and present information to an audience. Sources of information for…

Castaneda, Martha E.

2013-01-01

269

Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

Crossley, Scott A.

2013-01-01

270

Learners' Perceived Value of Video as Mediation in Foreign Language Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Video is commonly employed as curriculum enhancement in the foreign language classroom. The use of video as a mediation tool for language production tasks is relatively less cognizant by researchers and practitioners, which points to an area worthy of investigation. This study, therefore, aimed to examine the potential of learner video production…

Hung, Hsiu-Ting

2009-01-01

271

Naturally Simplified Input, Comprehension, and Second Language Acquisition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the concept of simplification in second language (SL) learning, reviewing research on the simplified input that both naturalistic and classroom SL learners receive. Research indicates that simplified input, particularly if derived from naturally occurring interactions, does aid comprehension but has not been shown to…

Ellis, Rod

272

The Relationship between Listening and Other Language Skills in International English Language Testing System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Listening comprehension is the primary channel of learning a language. Yet of the four dominant macro-skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), it is often difficult and inaccessible for second and foreign language learners due to its implicit process. The secondary skill, speaking, proceeds listening cognitively. Aural/oral skills precede the graphic skills, such as reading and writing, as they form the circle of language learning process. However, despite the significant relationship with other language skills, listening comprehension is treated lightly in the applied linguistics research. Half of our daily conversation and three quarters of classroom interaction are virtually devoted to listening comprehension. To examine the relationship of listening skill with other language skills, the outcome of 1800 Iranian participants undertaking International English Language Testing System (IELTS) in Tehran indicates the close correlation between listening comprehension and the overall language proficiency.

Hossein Bozorgian

2012-01-01

273

EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGY ON MOTIVATION IN EFL CLASSROOMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In language classrooms, being in unnatural conversational situations, students need motivation more than other learning milieus. Teachers try to capture the attention of students through various methods and techniques. Many researchers in EFL teaching profession have stated that good motivation has appositive effect on foreign language learning. The purpose of this study is to explore how technology could be used to increase students’ motivation in EFL classrooms. For this purpose; a questionnaire was administered to a group of students at Akdeniz University Preparatory Classes in 2007-2008 academic year. As a result it was found out that technology was a dynamic and challenging motivating factor in EFL classrooms and there may be some suggestions focusing on the achievement of learning objectives.

Binnur GENC ILTER

2009-01-01

274

Dyslexia in Chinese language: An overview of research and practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dyslexia appears to be the most prevalent disability of students with special educational needs in many mainstream classes, affecting around 9.7% of the school population in Hong Kong. The education of these students is therefore of great concern to the community. In the present paper research into ...

Chung, KKH; Ho, CSH

275

Gua sha research and the language of integrative medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article is based on research findings published by Nielsen et al. [2007a. The effect of 'Gua sha' treatment on the microcirculation of surface tissue: a pilot study in healthy subjects. EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing 3, 456-466]. The abstract was accepted for poster session at the conference on fascia (www.fascia2007.com) and appears in the conference text Fascia Research [Nielsen, A., Knoblauch, N., Dobos, G., Michalsen, A., Kaptchuk, T., 2007b. The effect of 'Gua sha' treatment on the microcirculation of surface tissue: a pilot study in healthy subjects. In: Findley, T.W., Schleip, R. (Eds.), Fascia Research: Basic Science and Implications for Conventional and Complementary Health Care. Elsevier, Munich, Germany, pp. 249-250]. Our Gua sha perfusion study, the abstract of which is reprinted in Box 1, was the first investigation into the physiology of Gua sha, a technique of traditional East Asian medicine used to treat conditions that have features of blood stasis, pain, and/or inflammation. Issues raised by our study are discussed here such as the significance of the terms used in Western medical literature to describe traditional indigenous therapies like Gua sha and the implication of our findings not only for future research but toward a shift in how the integrative medical community signifies its work.

Nielsen A

2009-01-01

276

Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL): A Research-Based Tool. CIERA Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

|The Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL) is an instrument that measures skills identified as critical in the New Standards for Speaking and Listening. In 5 to 10 minutes and without prior training, teachers can assess an individual child's current standing with respect to skills that research has identified as critical for…

Dickinson, David K.; McCabe, Allyssa; Sprague, Kim

277

Research on the Integrated Performance Assessment in an Early Foreign Language Learning Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on the implementation of the Integrated Performance Assessment (IPA) in an Early Foreign Language Learning program. The goal of this research was to examine the performance of grade 4 and 5 students of Spanish on the IPA. Performance across the three communicative tasks is described and modifications to IPA procedures based on…

Davin, Kristin; Troyan, Francis J.; Donato, Richard; Hellman, Ashley

2011-01-01

278

Corpora for terminology extraction : the differing perspectives and objectives of researchers, teachers and language services providers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using corpora to find correct terminology is an activity that is interpreted rather differently according to the final objectives of those involved. This paper will try to show how the perspectives and objectives of researchers, teachers and language services providers do not always coincide, and ho...

Maia, Belinda Mary Harper Sousa

279

Language Research Needs an "Emotion Revolution" and Distributed Models of the Lexicon  

Science.gov (United States)

|Pavlenko urges the community of language researchers to modify their conceptions of the mental lexicon, based on findings from bilingualism and emotions. She makes a compelling case. While reading her article, one can temporarily forget that in contemporary practice, emotion is not regarded as relevant to the theoretical question of the structure…

Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.

2008-01-01

280

The Use of Web Questionnaires in Second Language Acquisition and Bilingualism Research  

Science.gov (United States)

|The present article focuses on data collection through web questionnaires, as opposed to the traditional pen-and-paper method for research in second language acquisition and bilingualism. It is argued that web questionnaires, which have been used quite widely in psychology, have the advantage of reaching out to a larger and more diverse pool of…

Wilson, Rosemary; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The Use of Web Questionnaires in Second Language Acquisition and Bilingualism Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The present article focuses on data collection through web questionnaires, as opposed to the traditional pen-and-paper method for research in second language acquisition and bilingualism. It is argued that web questionnaires, which have been used quite widely in psychology, have the advantage of reaching out to a larger and more diverse pool of…

Wilson, Rosemary; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

2010-01-01

282

TEACHERS? ACCOUNTS OF LANGUAGE VARIATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on teachers' stigmatizing perspectives of their students' nonstandard varieties of Portuguese. Theoretically, the study was grounded on Personal Construct Psychology, Perspective Transformation in Teacher Education, Transformative Bidialectalism and Critical Language Awareness. The objectives were to jointly access and assess the teachers? implicit theories about nonstandard language and to verify to what extent these theories affected their classroom pedagogy. My research questions turned to how the participating teachers understood nonstandard language; and to how their understandings are reflected on their language teaching. The viewing of the teachers? videotaped classes and Repertory Grid activities inspired reflective conversations with the two teacher participants on their language and classroom experiences. These conversations were audio-recorded, transcribed and their analysis followed the thematizing approach of Hermeneutic Phenomenology. The study revealed teachers? implicit theories about language variation defining pedagogies based on deficit and standard grammar perspectives. These pedagogies are in constant interaction with the teachers? lived experiences, the contextual restrictions of schools and the limitations of teacher education programs.

Telles João A.

1998-01-01

283

¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom/ ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1) de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI ), un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1) parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje (more) de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido. Abstract in english Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1) in English Language Teaching (ELT), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining ho (more) w new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.

Higareda, Sandra; López, Georgina; Mugford, Gerrard

2009-10-01

284

¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1) in English Language Teaching (ELT), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1) de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI ), un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1) parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido.

Sandra Higareda; Georgina López; Gerrard Mugford

2009-01-01

285

Teaching Strategies and Class Practices of the Teachers who Teach Turkish as a Foreign Language (A Qualitative Research)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: In the globalizing world, second language/foreign language has gained a great importance. The importance of the foreign language teaching has increased in our time in which knowing a foreign language has deviated from being a specialty and become a feature that everyone must have. For that purpose, teachers must know the characteristics of the learners very well and must enrich the learning environment with different techniques and materials in accordance with the environment facilities. Approach: In this study, it has been aimed to determine the language teaching strategies and class practices of the teachers who taught students of foreign origin in Turkey Turkish as a foreign language. To that end, interview and observation forms have been prepared. The content analysis of the data obtained with interview and observation forms has been conducted in the scope of qualitative research approach. Results: Teachers are not capable of giving an adequate language education due to such reasons as they did not receive a special education with the purpose of teaching Turkish as a foreign language and they preferred traditional methods instead of modern strategy and methods. Conclusions/Recommendations: In order to conduct language education in Turkey in accordance with the international norms, importance must be attached to the training of qualified language teachers, the significance of teaching Turkish as a foreign language must be discussed in academic environments and researches must be carried out.

Ali Gocer

2008-01-01

286

Research on language and prejudices in the environment field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research in question has explored 39 central notions of the environmental discussion as to its semantic and meaning for persons and institutions - from waste incineration to the dying of woods. The interviewed were asked to give a semantic profile, a common description, the positive, the negative aspects as well as synonyms/alternatives for every notion. 200 members of institutions (out of the sections of economy, public institutions, environmental initiatives) and consumers were questioned. The results show, that single notions that are of high significance to an institutional section of the consumers may mean little to other institutional sections and vice versa. If a notion is regarded as unimportant, communication with this notion and about the corresponding facts will hardly be possible. Depending on the point of interest notions are used in totally different meanings. The differences in meaning are revealed. (orig.) With 7 tabs., 38 diagrams

1991-01-01

287

Evidence-based Special Education: Research Strategies in Child Language Intervention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Empirical research in the field of speech and language therapy (SLT) is increasingly influenced by the conceptual framework provided by so-called evidence based practice (EBP). In this paper, the underpinnings, aims, elements and pitfalls of the EBP-concept are summarized. The impact of the EBP-approach on political and administrational decisions which recently concern SLT practitioners, instructors and researchers alike are illustrated with reference to the German health system.Furthermore, it is discussed whether the dominating empirical approach in evidence based medicine, i.e. randomized controlled trials provide an adequate or even the only acceptable framework for collecting evidence in SLT as well. This discussion is related to therapy research on one of the most prevalent and relevant communication disorders in clinical practice and special education, i.e. specific language impairments in children.

Jürgen Cholewa

2010-01-01

288

Language Teachers: Research and Studies in Language(s) Education, Teaching, and Learning in "Teaching and Teacher Education," 1985-2012  

Science.gov (United States)

|The article reviews twelve of 79 articles focusing on language teachers, language(s) teacher education, teaching, and learning published in "Teaching and Teacher Education" since 1985. The twelve articles, divided into three sections, include narrative inquiry and identity, teacher education topics, and contexts. The articles provide local and…

Kleinsasser, Robert C.

2013-01-01

289

Languages in contact: The influence of language activation and competing language patterns on translation performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The two pilot studies described in this article, both part of a larger on-going project investigating multilingualism in a translation context, deal with separation of languages in translation students. At the same time, they demonstrate how multilingualism research can be integrated into the translation classroom. Within the framework of Grosjean's model (1997, 1998, 2001), the first study tests the influence on translation performance of preferentially activating one of the languages for the translation version Spanish (L2) into German (L1). The second assesses the transfer of structures from the dominant language in translating from German (L1) into English (L2). Despite the relatively small database, various inferences can be made about multilingual language processing in trainee translators.

Ehrensberger-Dow, Maureen; Jekat, Susanne J.

2005-01-01

290

En Francasis: A Supplement of Classroom Activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This classroom activity supplement is designed to accompany the "En Francais" language instruction series (programs 1-13) used on closed circuit television in South Carolina. It is intended to enrich classroom follow-up of the film program and to prvide a variety of activities and suggestions for teaching French language skills. Lessons introduce…

Enwall, Beverly; Joiner, Elizabeth

291

Should Foreign Language Teaching be Supported by Mother Tongue?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to focus on the importance of mother tongue in foreign language classrooms. During the last two decades it has been an active area of debate to whether activate the mother tongue in foreign language teaching or not. In this research it is suggested that foreign language should be supported by mother tongue teaching instead of dismissing it a priori. This article also makes the point that brief episodes of switching to mother tongue can function as a learning aid to improve the communicative competence of the foreign language learner.

Müfit ?enel

2010-01-01

292

Blending research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches to researching computer corpora for language learning.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper outlines how corpora (in printed, electronic or multi-modal form) can be used in language learning, an area often referred to as "data-driven learning" or DDL (Johns 1991). The alleged advantages are numerous, but are in need of empirical support which is frequently claimed to be lacking ...

Boulton, Alex

293

Transforming Practice in Design and Technology: Evidence from a Classroom-Based Research Study of Students' Responses to an Intervention on Inclusive Design  

Science.gov (United States)

This article offers evidence from a classroom-based research study in English secondary schools which developed an innovative approach to teaching in Design and Technology based on inclusive design (also known as universal design). The research evidence highlights how creative, problem-solving approaches in Design and Technology can be used to…

Nicholl, B.; Flutter, J. A. E.; Hosking, I. M.; Clarkson, P. J.

2013-01-01

294

THE JOURNALISM STUDIES NETWORK (REJ) EXPERIENCE: a French-language experiment in collaborative research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the limitations and potentialities of journalism research utilizing the international networking model. It presents the experience of the Journalism Studies Network (REJ in the French/Portuguese acronym), a French-language research experiment, founded in 1999 and made up of 33 researchers linked to universities in Germany, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, France, Mexico and on Reunion Island. The report shows that despite the existing difficulties, the REJ takes the form of a place with relative autonomy in proposing objectives and methodologies for the study of journalism, which is reflected in the diversity of approaches and research interests developed within the Network. It also permits a more frank and level debate between researchers who occupy different positions in their careers. Coherence is also observed in the approaches adopted inside the REJ, which assures the continuity of the research programs developed.

Zélia Leal Adghirni; Fábio Henrique Pereira

2011-01-01

295

The potential of a dialogical understanding of language for empirical research in developmental psychology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on recent developments within the field of discursive psychology that integrate the works of Bakhtin, the present paper discusses the dialogical self with regard to early infancy research. It draws on examples from a comparative study of mother-infant interactions among North German middle class families and Cameroonian Nso to illustrate the potential of a dialogical approach to language and self for developmental psychology and to demonstrate empirical ways of studying child development from this perspective.

Carolin Demuth

2011-01-01

296

Factor Analysis of the Test of English as a Foreign Language for Several Language Groups. TOEFL Research Reports, 6.  

Science.gov (United States)

A factor analytic study of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) was undertaken to determine the component abilities that underlie performance on the test for several major language groups: African, Arabic, Chinese (non-Taiwanese), Farsi, Germanic, Japanese, and Spanish. Evidence was found that three major factors underlie performance…

Swinton, Spencer S.; Powers, Donald E.

297

Narratividade do professor: mediação e linguagem na sala de aula/ Teacher's narrativity: mediation and language in the classroom  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: construir e analisar uma experiência de formação do professor em sua narratividade e os efeitos da mesma na narratividade das crianças. MÉTODO: a amostra se constituiu de duas professoras de pré-escola, 28 alunos, 14 de cada professora sendo, um grupo experimental e o outro grupo controle, e os pais das crianças como controle ambiental. As avaliações foram feitas a partir de sessões de filmagem das professoras, coleta das narrativas das crianças e que (more) stionário sobre como desenvolviam a atividade de contar em casa. RESULTADOS: o processo de mediação fonoaudiólogo/professor, com enfoque na narrativa, provocou mudança no modo de narrar não só do professor, mas também nas categorias narrativas das crianças, demonstrando a importância de o profissional que assessore o professor em sua prática trazendo novos subsídios teóricos. CONCLUSÃO: após a realização desta pesquisa observou-se que a Experiência de Aprendizagem Mediada (EAM) e os princípios interacionistas sobre a aquisição da linguagem e o desenvolvimento narrativo foram efetivos na construção de uma experiência formativa do professor para melhorar sua narratividade e que a evolução do professor se refletiu na evolução das habilidades narrativas das crianças. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to build and analyze an experience in the teacher's formation in his/her narrativity and the effects of it on the children's narrativity. METHOD: the sample consisted of two pre-school teachers, 28 students, composing two groups of 14, one for each teacher, being one the experimental group and the other the control group, and the children's parents as the environmental control. Evaluations were conducted through filming sessions of the teachers, collection of chi (more) ldren's narratives and a questionnaire about how the recounting activity was developed at home. RESULTS: the process of pnonoaudiologist/teacher mediation, focusing on narrative, caused variation not only in the teacher's way of narrating, but also in the children's narrative categories, demonstrating the importance of a professional who can advise the teacher in his/her practice by bringing in new theoretical support. CONCLUSION: after the development of this study, it was observed that the Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) and the interactionism principles on language acquisition and narrative development were effective in building teacher's formative experience to improve his/her narrativity and that the teacher's evolution was reflected in the development of the children's narrative skills.

Chesini, Isabel Maganin; Crestani, Anelise Henrich; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de

2013-01-01

298

Why Use Music in English Language Learning? A Survey of the Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of music and song in the English language-learning classroom is not new. While many teachers intuitively feel that music is beneficial in teaching English language, there is sometimes a lack of the theoretical underpinnings that support such a choice. There are examples in the literature to argue the strong relationship between music and language that are substantiated by research in the fields of cognitive science, anthropology, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, First Language Acquisition (FLA) and Second Language Acquisition (SLA).

Dwayne Engh

2013-01-01

299

The History of Winter Thermochron Mission: Utilizing An Innovative Technology to Promote Science Research in the Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of the Thermochron Mission, an embedded strand of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center History of Winter (HOW) Program, is to engage participants actively in research methods while focusing on the observation and analysis of changes in ambient temperature. Through experiential learning opportunities, peer coaching, and expert instruction sessions, participants including in-service teachers, pre-service teachers, and ultimately their K-12 students, enhance their understanding of the processes and methods of science research. The initial engagement and exploration training has been provided to participants in the History of Winter (HOW) workshop since 2004. Supportive web-based multimedia resources utilized through modeling within the training program are available to participants online for continued later use within a classroom setting. The Thermochron Mission echoes the learning cycle embedded within the History of Winter Program. Emphasized are critical aspects of inquiry investigation including active and immersive experiences, opportunities for comparison and analysis of data, application of findings to new situations, and the communication of information in an appropriate forum. As a result, past HOW participants have utilized the Thermochron in settings as different as environmental studies through an outdoor education center and the study of acid mine drainage and its effect on local stream. In 2007, we collaborated with the FINNMARK 2007 and the GO NORTH expeditions, providing snow collection information and Thermochrons to gather a continual temperature record during these remote expeditions to the Arctic region. Both FINNMARK2007 and the POLAR Husky GoNorth 2007 dog sled expeditions took a complement of Thermochrons with multimedia instructions and the tools and protocols of the Global Snowflake Network (GSN), an International Polar Year project of the History of Winter Program, to measure temperature and the shape and characteristics of snow falling to the ground. The thermochron enables continuous temperature measurement for the record and for information to accompany the snowflake data acquisition. Professor Svein Mathiesen of EALÁT (Reindeer Herders Vulnerability Network Study), and reindeer herder and Ph.D. student, Inger Marie G. Eira, are incorporating the HOW and GSN thermochrons, snow pit observations, and snowflake identification protocols into Inger Marie's work for her Ph.D. dissertation on snow changes and reindeer pastures in Northern Norway. The HOW program introduced the Global Snowflake Network and Thermochrons to them as a part of the Indigenous Peoples" Opening Ceremonies for the International Polar Year. Now launching is a new opportunity for teachers to engage in the Thermochron Mission, an online collaborative environment to develop and refine solid science research projects based on temperature studies prior to launching them in the classroom. The goal is to enhance the quality of science research projects for the secondary school classroom and to increase the comfort level of teachers in facilitating research opportunities for students. Interested teachers are invited to participate by submitting a proposal for a research project employing Thermochrons. Select entrants will receive a set of Thermochrons and participate in a peer-coached and scientifically reviewed online forum to guide the implementation of the research project and its refinement prior to classroom use. All projects will then be made available through the History of Winter web site.

Bender, K. J.

2007-12-01

300

Recasts in the L2 Classroom: A Meta-Analytic Review  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to examine what we know and understand about the effectiveness of recasts in the second language classroom, this paper presents the results of a meta-analytic review of the current research on recasts. Initial analysis showed an average weighted effect size of 0.38. A "Q"-statistic test revealed that the studies contain heterogeneous…

Miller, Paul Chamness; Pan, Wei

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Reflective Classroom Practice for Effective Classroom Instruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improving English language skills of learners is a strenuous task because of the variations in culture, background and learning styles. This strenuous task is further aggravated when English teachers realizes the proficiency level of students is far too low that his/her expectation. In most of the ESL and EFL context, English teachers rely on mid-term test to evaluate the proficiency level of the students. Blame game follows when there are too many failures in the classroom. Teachers blame the students for giving least importance to English language which resulted in low scores while the students blame the teacher for making the exam tough. The college/university management considers failure of students as a failure of the teachers in the classroom teaching.The information presented in this paper is an alarming wakeup call and a reminder for the teachers to be constant self-evaluators of their classroom teaching rather than waiting for the results of a test to understand the students’ progress in classroom. This paper gives insights to the struggling teachers to succeed through reflective teaching practices.

Nalliveettil George Mathew

2012-01-01

302

THE POWER OF LITERATURE IN EFL CLASSROOMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes the importance of acknowledging literature as one of the best resources for promoting language learning in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) classrooms. It reviews briefly various theoretical issues in teaching English through literature. Highlights are given to the justifications and guidelines for literature in the language classroom. Finally, the article presents examples of practical teaching and learning tasks based on one specific literary text.

Flora Debora Floris

2004-01-01

303

Looking, language, and memory: bridging research from the visual world and visual search paradigms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the visual world paradigm as used in psycholinguistics, eye gaze (i.e. visual orienting) is measured in order to draw conclusions about linguistic processing. However, current theories are underspecified with respect to how visual attention is guided on the basis of linguistic representations. In the visual search paradigm as used within the area of visual attention research, investigators have become more and more interested in how visual orienting is affected by higher order representations, such as those involved in memory and language. Within this area more specific models of orienting on the basis of visual information exist, but they need to be extended with mechanisms that allow for language-mediated orienting. In the present paper we review the evidence from these two different - but highly related - research areas. We arrive at a model in which working memory serves as the nexus in which long-term visual as well as linguistic representations (i.e. types) are bound to specific locations (i.e. tokens or indices). The model predicts that the interaction between language and visual attention is subject to a number of conditions, such as the presence of the guiding representation in working memory, capacity limitations, and cognitive control mechanisms.

Huettig F; Olivers CN; Hartsuiker RJ

2011-06-01

304

Code-switching in Iranian Elementary EFL Classrooms: An Exploratory Investigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a small-scale exploratory investigation of code-switching (CS) between English and Farsi by 4 Iranian English foreign language (EFL) teachers in elementary level EFL classrooms in a language school in Isfahan, Iran. Specifically, the present study aimed at exploring the syntactical identification of switches and the functions that the switches served. The data consist of field notes and scripts of audio-recordings of the teachers’ talk collected during classroom observations. The findings suggest that CS is a frequently applied strategy and a valuable resource for bilingual teachers in foreign language classrooms, and its judicious and skillful use can boost the quality of teaching. Moreover, it was found that EFL teachers in this study tended to use the learners’ L1 (i.e., Farsi) to serve a number of pedagogic and social functions, which contributed to better teacher-student classroom interaction. Implications may be drawn for language teacher education programs and for further research on systematic investigation into actual classroom practices.

Ehsan Rezvani; Abbass Rasekh

2011-01-01

305

Memory-based language processing: psycholinguistic research in the 1990s.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are two main domains of research in psycholinguistics: sentence processing, concerned with how the syntactic structures of sentences are computed, and text processing, concerned with how the meanings of larger units of text are understood. In recent sentence processing research, a new and controversial theme is that syntactic computations may rely heavily on statistical information about the relative frequencies with which different syntactic structures occur in the language. In text processing, recent research has focused on what information the words and ideas of a text evoke from long-term memory quickly, passively, and at low processing cost. Research in both domains has begun to use the information that can be obtained from large corpora of naturally occurring texts.

McKoon G; Ratcliff R

1998-01-01

306

A Brief Comment on Communicative Language Teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is more and more popular and becoming the mainstream in the second language teaching classroom. It reviews its development and explores the use in china all around. Via analyzing some hidden problems in second language classroom, some suggestions are promoted.

Fang Yuan

2011-01-01

307

A Brief Comment on Communicative Language Teaching  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is more and more popular and becoming the mainstream in the second language teaching classroom. It reviews its development and explores the use in china all around. Via analyzing some hidden problems in second language classroom, some suggestions are promoted.

Fang Yuan

308

Aquisição da linguagem: uma retrospectiva dos últimos trinta anos/ Language acquisition: a survey of the research of the last thirty years  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A survey of the research on language acquisition is presented, in which the major trends, controversies and findings of the last 30 years are highlighted. The study of language acquisition carried out in Brazil is situated within the broader context of the research in this area. The perspectives of a theory of language acquisition are considered.

CORREA, Letícia Maria Sicuro

1999-01-01

309

Aquisição da linguagem: uma retrospectiva dos últimos trinta anos Language acquisition: a survey of the research of the last thirty years  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of the research on language acquisition is presented, in which the major trends, controversies and findings of the last 30 years are highlighted. The study of language acquisition carried out in Brazil is situated within the broader context of the research in this area. The perspectives of a theory of language acquisition are considered.

Letícia Maria Sicuro CORREA

1999-01-01

310

"Teacher, There's an Elephant in the Room!" An Inquiry Approach to Preschoolers' Early Language Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Children need sound language and literacy skills to communicate with others and actively participate in a classroom learning community. When an early childhood classroom offers a language- and literacy-rich environment, children have numerous opportunities to practice language and literacy in a social setting. A language-rich classroom includes an…

Kampmann, Jennifer Anne; Bowne, Mary Teresa

2011-01-01

311

Review of Recent Applied Linguistics Research in Finland and Sweden, with Specific Reference to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

This review covers recent applied linguistic research in Finland and Sweden during the years 2006-2011, with particular emphasis on foreign language learning and teaching. Its primary aim is to inform the international research community on the type of research that is going on in these countries. Special attention is given to topics which have…

Ringbom, Hakan

2012-01-01

312

Factors influencing research engagement: research interest, confidence and experience in an Australian speech-language pathology workforce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Recent initiatives within an Australia public healthcare service have seen a focus on increasing the research capacity of their workforce. One of the key initiatives involves encouraging clinicians to be research generators rather than solely research consumers. As a result, baseline data of current research capacity are essential to determine whether initiatives encouraging clinicians to undertake research have been effective. Speech pathologists have previously been shown to be interested in conducting research within their clinical role; therefore they are well positioned to benefit from such initiatives. The present study examined the current research interest, confidence and experience of speech language pathologists (SLPs) in a public healthcare workforce, as well as factors that predicted clinician research engagement. METHODS: Data were collected via an online survey emailed to an estimated 330 SLPs working within Queensland, Australia. The survey consisted of 30 questions relating to current levels of interest, confidence and experience performing specific research tasks, as well as how frequently SLPs had performed these tasks in the last 5 years. RESULTS: Although 158 SLPs responded to the survey, complete data were available for only 137. Respondents were more confident and experienced with basic research tasks (e.g., finding literature) and less confident and experienced with complex research tasks (e.g., analysing and interpreting results, publishing results). For most tasks, SLPs displayed higher levels of interest in the task than confidence and experience. Research engagement was predicted by highest qualification obtained, current job classification level and overall interest in research. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents generally reported levels of interest in research higher than their confidence and experience, with many respondents reporting limited experience in most research tasks. Therefore SLPs have potential to benefit from research capacity building activities to increase their research skills in order to meet organisational research engagement objectives. However, these findings must be interpreted with the caveats that a relatively low response rate occurred and participants were recruited from a single state-wide health service, and therefore may not be representative of the wider SLP workforce.

Finch E; Cornwell P; Ward EC; McPhail SM

2013-01-01

313

IS IT THE WAY TO TEACH LANGUAGE THE WAY WE TEACH LANGUAGE? ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING IN RURAL PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the growing importance and need of English language in the global context, efforts are being made in the developing context to improve the quality of teaching English with the assumption thatteaching of English facilitates the acquisition of English Language. What is Pakistani teachers approach to the teaching of English language and does the way they teach English facilitate the language acquisition? The current study explores this question at secondary level in the context of Chitral, a remote district of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa province Pakistan. The researcher visited the randomly selected secondary schools and consulted English teachers interviewing them and observing the teaching and learning processes. The study reveals that in the context of Chitral, teaching of English is not different from teaching of other subjects such as social studies, history etc. Translation method is the dominant way to teach English and learners hardly get any opportunity to practice language skills in the classrooms. The reasons behind this approach to the teaching of English are; lack of purposefully trained teachers, non-availability of in-service courses for secondary level English teachers, memory driven exam system, overcrowded classrooms, teachers’ work load, shortage of resources and lack of ongoing support system. The study suggests that English teachers should be trained separately focusing teaching English as a language unlike other subjects.

Ali Nawab

2012-01-01

314

Action Research: A Tool for Improving Teacher Quality and Classroom Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the experiences and insights of 34 graduate students in an elementary education master's degree program as they engaged in an action research project during two required action research courses over a year's span. Data were analyzed according to the following two research questions: (1) What do teachers report as the most…

O'Connor, Katherine A.; Greene, H. Carol; Anderson, Patricia J.

2006-01-01

315

3rd grade English language learners making sense of sound  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the extensive body of research that supports scientific inquiry and argumentation as cornerstones of physics learning, these strategies continue to be virtually absent in most classrooms, especially those that involve students who are learning English as a second language. This study presents results from an investigation of 3rd grade studentsâ discourse about how length and tension affect the sound produced by a string. These students came from a variety of language backgrounds, and all were learning English as a second language. Our results demonstrate varying levels, and uses, of experiential, imaginative, and mechanistic reasoning strategies. Using specific examples from studentsâ discourse, we will demonstrate some of the productive aspects of working within multiple language frameworks for making sense of physics. Conjectures will be made about how to utilize physics as a context for English Language Learners to further conceptual understanding, while developing their competence in the English language.

Suarez, Enrique; Otero, Valerie K.

2013-07-13

316

3rd grade English language learners making sense of sound  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the extensive body of research that supports scientific inquiry and argumentation as cornerstones of physics learning, these strategies continue to be virtually absent in most classrooms, especially those that involve students who are learning English as a second language. This study presents results from an investigation of 3rd grade students' discourse about how length and tension affect the sound produced by a string. These students came from a variety of language backgrounds, and all were learning English as a second language. Our results demonstrate varying levels, and uses, of experiential, imaginative, and mechanistic reasoning strategies. Using specific examples from students' discourse, we will demonstrate some of the productive aspects of working within multiple language frameworks for making sense of physics. Conjectures will be made about how to utilize physics as a context for English Language Learners to further conceptual understanding, while developing their competence in the English language.

Suarez, Enrique; Otero, Valerie

2013-01-01

317

Pesquisa aplicada em linguagem: alguns desafios para o novo milênio Applied research in language: challenges for the new millenium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Faz-se uma leitura crítica de modos hegemônicos de conceber a linguagem verbal em lingüística como ponto de partida para uma reflexão sobre alguns desafios para o futuro das pesquisas aplicadas em linguagem.The text presents a critical reading of hegemonic ways of conceiving verbal language in Linguistics as a starting point for a reflection on some challenges to the future of applied researches in language.

Carlos Alberto Faraco

2001-01-01

318

APS Summer Research Teachers Convene to Focus on Enhancing Effective Classroom Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is on pages 187-188 of the PDF file. As part of the year-long 2011 Frontiers in Physiology Fellowship program, 16 enthusiastic science teachers from across the nation took a weeklong break from their summer research experience in APS membersÃÂ research laboratories in July. The research teachers (RTs) convened for the ÃÂAPS Science Teaching Forum,ÃÂ an intensive week-long workshop retreat at the Airlie Center in Warrenton, VA.

APS Education Office (American Physiological Society Education Office)

2011-10-01

319

CONCEPTUALISING CLASSROOM INTERACTIONAL COMPETENCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article offers a preliminary conceptualisation of classroom interactional competence (CIC). Placing interaction at the centre of language learning, the paper considers the various practices available to both teachers and learners to enhance CIC and to produce classrooms which are more dialogic, more engaged and more focused on participation. Using a conversation analytic informed methodology, data extracts are presented to highlight specific features of CIC, relating to the ways in which space for learning is created and learner contributions ‘shaped’. I suggest that better understandings of these practices offer an alternative approach to enhancing learning and learning opportunity and highlight the need for a movement away from classroom decisions which are essentially materials -and methodology- based towards ones which are centred on spoken interaction.

Steve WALSH

2012-01-01

320

The Lozanov Language Class.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Sofia, Bulgaria, at the Institute of Suggestology headed by Dr. Georgi Lozanov, yoga relaxation has been combined with the Mauger oral method to produce a unique system of foreign language teaching: Suggestopedia. In a pleasant classroom, 12 students sit in specail chairs in front of a teacher individually trained in the foreign language and in…

Bancroft, W. Jane

 
 
 
 
321

What Would Jesus Do Now in the Classroom? The CREATe Research Project  

Science.gov (United States)

CREATe (Christian Reflection on Ethics And Teaching) groups are peer support groups which use an action research model to facilitate reflection and to promote the development of thinking about Christian ethics in teaching. This report summarises the findings of a pilot research project commissioned by The Stapleford Centre to offer a preliminary…

Green, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

322

TEACHING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN HIGH SCHOOL USING MULTIMEDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: to define effective methods of teaching foreign languages in high school. In current context of globalization and the development of higher education researchers are actively seeking for new methods to improve the quality of foreign language training. The use of multimedia is one of these methods. This article researches topical tasks of modern higher education in teaching foreign languages; reveals an interactive teaching method notion; studies possibilities of using multimedia in foreign language classroom in high school for non-linguistic students; analyzes advantages of multimedia; justifies the need for use of multimedia in educational purposes; considers the most effective tasks that can be used in the process of teaching a foreign language in a technical university.

Kuimova Marina Valeryevna

2012-01-01

323

Jordanian University Communicative Language Teaching Dangling Between Theory and Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates whether Jordanian university instructors’ practices match their attitudes in regards to selected communicative language teaching (viz. pair/group work, the teacher’s role, error correction, and use of native language).The research design is essentially qualitative in which observation is the basic instrument. The researcher traced the aforementioned CLT principles in the practices and attitudes of two university instructors teaching English. After the researcher observed the two participants’ classroom practices and took notes of their classroom behaviors for three 60-minute lectures, she conducted a semi-structured interview to reveal their attitudes towards CLT as well as challenges hindering its adoption in their context. The findings indicated a relative disparity between the instructors’ attitudes and their classroom practices despite some instinctive embracement of certain CLT features. The major challenges were embodied in lack of CLT training, huge class sizes, limited exposure vents to English, structure-oriented syllabuses and shortage of time.Key words: Communicative language teaching; Communicative competence; Attitude; Classroom practices

Raghd Yacoub Al Rabadi

2012-01-01

324

Review: TEACHERS VOICES 8: EXPLICITLY SUPPORTING READING AND WRITING IN THE CLASSROOM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available EDITED BY ANNE BURNS AND HELEN DE SILVA JOYCE National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2005, 77pp, ISBN 1 74138 103 7   This is the most recent book in a series that deals with teaching and learning in the classroom.  The specific focus of this book is the explicit support of reading and writing in adult ESL teaching, investigated through classroom projects within the framework of an action research approach. It consists of three sections: the first outlines the theoretical ideas underpinning the book, the second deals with the nature of action research, and the third and longest section presents the participating teachers’ own accounts of their research projects. It is accompanied by a DVD containing excerpts of their classroom teaching.

Sarah Ahern

2011-01-01

325

CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE.  

Science.gov (United States)

IDEAS FOR THE CREATIVE USE OF ORAL LANGUAGE IN THE ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM ARE PRESENTED IN THIS SYMPOSIUM. PART 1, "THE NEED FOR CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE" BY M.W. HENRY, IS CONCERNED WITH THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREATIVE ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES AND THE ACQUISITION OF READING AND WRITING SKILLS. PART 2, "CHORIC INTERPRETATION" BY…

HENRY, MABEL WRIGHT, ED.

326

Why do care workers withdraw from elderly care? : Researcher's language as a hermeneutical key  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Care workers frequently withdraw from elderly people in their care; this has resulted in a number of scandals in the media. Here I analyze an empirical scene observed at an old people's home in Denmark, which contains behavioral patterns among the care workers which could be seen as withdrawal. At the same time it illustrates the care workers' commitment to the elderly. A paradoxical "empathy at a distance" is characteristic of the scene. When analyzing my written observations in an interpretation group, my use of language was a point of discussion. What did it mean when I described the interactions between care workers and elderly residents in words commonly used to describe mother-child interactions? My use of language became a "hermeneutical key" which enabled a psychoanalytically inspired interpretation. This focuses on the care relationship as activating our earliest memories of our own care relations, independently of whether we are in the role of care providers or care receivers. Through collusion theory, the interpretation accepts both the anxiety which the helpless elderly people arouse in the care workers and their motivation for care work as two sides of a subjectively important theme. The article illustrates how working consciously with the researcher's subjectivity makes it possible to understand apparently irrational patterns. The insights thus gained may be used to prevent withdrawals in care work as an argument for care workers' need for emotional supervision.

Liveng, Anne

2012-01-01

327

Using Video in the English Language Clasroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Video is a popular and a motivating potential medium in schools. Using video in the language classroom helps the language teachers in many different ways. Video, for instance, brings the outside world into the language classroom, providing the class with many different topics and reasons to talk about. It can provide comprehensible input to the learners through contextualised models of language use. It also offers good opportunities to introduce native English speech into the language classroom. Through this article I will try to show what the benefits of using video are and, at the end, I present an instrument to select and classify video materials.

Amado Vicente

2002-01-01

328

SECOND LIFE AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: A Review of Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a review of research on Second Life (SL) as a learning environment within English as a foreign language (EFL) context, as research on its use within EFL learning is relatively new. The study is categorized into four main sections. Introduction section introduces the rationale of the paper and SL. Next section reviews the studies on Second Life in EFL learning, and focuses on the effects of SL on affective states, interaction and communication in SL, collaborative and autonomous learning in SL, sharing culture in SL, engagement and participation in SL, some other issues and drawbacks. Third, the study compares SL usage in Turkish EFL context to its use in a global scale. Last, the study concludes that there has been a serious lack of research on the use of SL, as current literature reflects how SL might more readily be utilized as EFL learning environment. Finally, the study ends with recommendations for teachers and researchers.

Selami AYDIN,

2013-01-01

329

Teaching language arts to English language learners  

CERN Multimedia

This thoroughly revised and updated edition of Teaching Language Arts to English Language Learners provides readers with the comprehensive understanding of both the challenges that face ELLs and ways in which educators might address them in the language arts classroom. The authors offer proven techniques that teachers can readily use to teach reading, writing, grammar, and vocabulary as well as speaking, listening, and viewing skills. A complete section is also devoted to ways teachers can integrate all five strands of the language arts curriculum into a comprehensive unit of study w

Vásquez, Anete; Smith, Philip C

2013-01-01

330

Many Languages, One Teacher: Supporting Language and Literacy Development for Preschool Dual Language Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

While children in a classroom of 4-year-olds are actively engaged during center-based learning, a small group begins constructing a tower using blocks of all sizes. Jose, Cindy, and Thomas are all at different stages of language development. Jose is a dual language learner (DLL) in the early stages of English language acquisition; Cindy is a DLL…

Magruder, Elizabeth S.; Hayslip, Whitcomb W.; Espinosa, Linda M.; Matera, Carola

2013-01-01

331

Using Large-Scale Classroom Research to Study Student Conceptual Learning in Mechanics and to Develop New Approaches to Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) tools and guided discovery curricula have been developed as an aid to all students, including the underprepared and underserved, in learning physical concepts. To guide this development, extensive work has been done to find useful measures of students' conceptual understanding that can be used in widely varying contexts. This paper focuses primarily on the evaluation of student conceptual understanding of mechanics (kinematics and dynamics) with an emphasis on Newton's 1st and 2nd laws in introductory courses in the university. Student understanding of mechanics is looked at before and after traditional instruction. It is examined before and after MBL curricula that are consciously designed to promote active and collaborative learning by students. The results show that the majority of students have difficulty learning essential physical concepts in the best of our traditional courses where students read textbooks, solve textbook problems, listen to well-prepared lectures, and do traditional laboratory activities. Students can, however, learn these fundamental concepts using MBL curricula and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations which have been based on extensive classroom research. Substantial evidence is given that student answers to the short answer questions in the Tools for Scientific Thinking Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation provide a useful statistical means of evaluating students' beliefs and understandings about mechanics. Evidence for the hierarchical learning of velocity, acceleration, and force concepts is presented.

Thornton, Ronald K.

2006-12-07

332

Room for Improvement? : A comparative study of Swedish learners’ free written production in English in the foreign language classroom and in immersion education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study examines the effects of immersion education on the English of two groups of advanced Swedish learners at upper secondary school. In immersion education, or CLIL, subject content is taught through a second language as a means of enhancing target language competence. In this study, l...

Kjellén Simes, Marika

333

How to Read Scientific Research Articles: A Hands-On Classroom Exercise  

Science.gov (United States)

|Undergraduate students are generally unfamiliar with scientific literature. Further, students experience frustration when they read research articles the way they read textbooks, from beginning to end. Using a team-based active learning exercise, an instruction librarian and colleagues at University of Texas at Austin introduce nutritional…

Bogucka, Roxanne; Wood, Emily

2009-01-01

334

From the Classroom to the Boardroom: The Impact of Information Literacy Instruction on Workplace Research Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

|Since the wide-scale adoption of the ACRL "Information Literacy Standards" (2000), there have been numerous students who have graduated from universities that have formal library instruction programs. Currently there has been very little assessment of their post-graduate research skills or what role information literacy plays on workplace…

Travis, Tiffini

2011-01-01

335

The Foundations of Classroom Action-Research in Initial Teacher Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper stresses the importance of collaborative evaluation and discussion for helping preservice teachers develop the disposition and skill to engage in self-evaluation. Participation in the action-research process can enhance students' abilities to analyze different types of teaching experiences. (Author/PP)

Biott, Colin

1983-01-01

336

The Evaluation of Physical Variables Which Effects Classroom Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Classroom managament has great importance on increasing productivity of education activities.So that,it is necessary to be careful while arranging classroom environment.The teacher has an important role on arranging classroom environment.The teachers should arrange the classroom by taking care classroom physical variables and effects of classroom management.It increases productivity of education.This research explains the importance of classroom management and classroom’s physical variables on positive learning environment and reaching the students’learning aims.

Ay?e KARAÇALI

2006-01-01

337

Want to Inspire Science Students to Consider a Research Career? Host a Scientist in Your Classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most biology students have limited exposure to research since this is not a public activity and the pace of science does not lend itself to television dramatization. In contrast, medicine is the subject of numerous TV shows, and students’ experience visiting doctors may lead them to think they want to become physicians. One effective way to encourage these students to consider a research career is to invite engaging scientists to speak about their career paths and lives during class. Students are most likely to be influenced by people they consider to be like themselves. While this method is well-suited to a lecture format where the scientist can address a larger audience, the laboratory would also be appropriate.

Patricia J. Baynham

2010-01-01

338

Linking Science and Literacy in the K-8 Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

If you've ever believed you don't have time to teach much science--or feared you don't know how to integrate it with all-important language arts lessons--this is the book that will change your thinking. The message: It isn't just possible to incorporate science into language arts, it also makes a lot of sense. Linking Science and Literacy is divided into two kinds of convincing content. In 16 chapters, prominent National Science Foundation-funded researchers and professional development experts write in lay language about the connections between science and literacy. They offer a broad range of perspectives from the classroom, district administrators, and the research community. The nine accompanying "case stories" show how teachers actually made the curriculum connections in K-8 classrooms. These anecdotal accounts are frank and engaging, with numerous teacher-student dialogues and examples of students' work. The profiled teachers make it clear that there are lessons to be learned even from failed attempts. Based on conferences in Seattle and Dallas, sponsored by NSTA and funded by NSF, this book is just right for K-8 teachers, science and literacy supervisors, school administrators, and professional development providers. Separate sections cover reading, writing, special instruction for English language learners, and the administrators' role in the process of blending science and literacy to the benefit of all.

2006-01-01

339

THE LITERATURE CLASSROOM: Spaces for dialogue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The following article constructs an account of the pedagogy of a teacher of literature in an Australian secondary school. It provides a small window on her professional practice, and draws on arange of data, including notes made by a ‘critical friend’ as she observed the teacher giving lessons over several days. The participating teacher shared her lesson plans and engaged in conversations with her critical friend, as well as writing reflections about her teaching. In addition to recording classroom observations,the critical friend wrote extended reflections about what she had observed, sometimes in response to the teacher’s ensuing reflections about the success of the lessons. The study thus arises out of a professional dialogue between the teacher and her critical friend, and it attempts to convey a sense of their continuing conversation, as they reflect on what they have learnt from their collaboration. The article captures not only the professional learning which the teacher and her critical friend experienced through their ongoing dialogue, but the exchanges that occurred in this teacher’s classroom, as her students engaged ininterpretive discussions in response to the text they were studying. The very best literature classrooms - so this article maintains - enable students to engage in exploratory talk (Barnes, 1978), where the very notion of ‘literature’, as an esteemed body of texts, is open to interrogation. The students in this classroom appropriate the language of literary analysis in a dialogical way (Bakhtin, 1981), making this language their own through their discussions of the work of a distinguished Australian writer.The protocols for classroom observation that were followed derive from the International Mother Tongue Education Network (IMEN), which positions teachers and academics as collaborators in research on the teaching of L-1, with the aim of facilitating comparative research on mother tongue education in various national settings. Rather than judging the work of individual teachers, the aim is to create opportunities for them to reflect on their teaching and to articulate their views and values in dialogue with educators inother countries. The goal of the following article is not simply to present the results of a research project, but to prompt readers to enact the interpretive activities at the heart of this inquiry into the teaching of literature. This article is itself a vehicle for others to join in a wider conversation about the teaching ofliterature across national boundaries.

BRENTON DOECKE; PRUE GILL; BELLA ILLESCA; PIET-HEIN VAN DE VEN

2009-01-01

340

People, Travel, Seminars, Reading, the Classroom, and Curiosity-Sources of Research Inspiration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este escrito es el resultado de una conferencia plenaria impartida por el autor en el 44o Congreso Mexicano de Química, realizado en Puebla, México, del 26 al 30 de Septiembre del 2009. Al preparar la presentación, se tomó en consideración el origen de las ideas que motivaron la investigación que se describió. Este intento fue dirigido a los miembros mas jóvenes de la audiencia, a los alumnos de licenciatura y posgrado, y a aquellos en búsqueda de trabajo. En una (more) etapa similar de mi carrera científica, me dí cuenta de la necesidad de formular planes de investigación requeridos para completar las solicitudes de trabajo. ¿De dónde vinieron esas ideas? ¿Cuales son los factores que estimulan la curiosidad? ¿Cual es la motivación para seguir una línea particular de investigación? Los temas que se discuten en el contexto de intentar abordar estas preguntas incluyen la electrohidrociclización y la ciclización electroreductiva, y sus aplicaciones en la síntesis total de productos naturales, el uso del níquel salen y trietilaminas como mediadores y catalizadores redox. las transposiciones regioespecíficas de cationes radicales derivados de hidrocarburos tensionados y la aplicación de la química a la síntesis de un sesquiterpeno, y finalmente, se incluye una discusión del papel que la química redox puede jugar en la expresión de la bioactividad de los productos naturales marinos del tipo pseudopterosina. Abstract in english This manuscript is the outgrowth of a plenary lecture delivered by the author at the 44th Congreso Mexicano de Química that was held in Puebla, Mexico from 26-30 September of 2009. In formulating the presentation, consideration was given to thinking about the origins of the ideas that were integral to the formulation of the research to be described. The intent was to address the younger members of the audience - advanced undergraduate and graduate students, and those beg (more) inning the process of searching for a job. At a similar stage in my scientific career, I realized the need to formulate research plans in order to complete job applications where they were required. Where do these ideas come from? What factors stimulate one's curiosity? What stimulates one to pursue a particular line of research? Topics discussed within the context of attempting to address these questions include electrohydrocyclization and electroreductive cyclization, and their application to the total synthesis of natural products, the use of nickel salen and triarylamines as mediators and redox catalysts, the regiospecific rearrangement of cation radicals derived from strained hydrocarbons and the application of the chemistry to the synthesis of a sesquiterpene, and finally, a discussion of the role redox chemistry may play in the expression of the bioactivity of the pseudopterosin class of marine natural products.

Little, R. Daniel

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
341

Adult learners’ perceptions of working with awareness in the EFL classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Language education for adults has traditionally proceeded from the assumption that the student is linguistically and communicatively aware, and furthermore, knows how to learn a language. Language teaching methodology and materials therefore concentrate upon the subject matter with no indication of the importance that awareness plays in either learning or communication. I first became conscious of this lack when I returned to the university to study a foreign language, and when I began to teach English as a foreign language in Mexico the issue became so pressing for me that I decided to undertake research to learn about other adult foreign language learners’ perceptions of whether explicitly working with awareness in the classroom might be beneficial to the language learning process. The research was conducted in eleven English as a foreign language classes at two universities in Mexico, with the ‘medium’ being an introductory course I wrote specifically for the learners I was working with. The course was designed with a general-to-specific (or top-down) methodology which began with awareness training and included suggestions throughout for learning-to-learn strategies. Results from the qualitative research as to the adult learners’ perceptions of these aspects of the course are discussed in this article, and clearly indicate that awareness training and such a teaching methodology help to fulfill genuine and pressing adult foreign language learner needs.

Kimberly Anne Brooks-Lewis

2011-01-01

342

3rd grade English language learners making sense of sound  

CERN Multimedia

Despite the extensive body of research that supports scientific inquiry and argumentation as cornerstones of physics learning, these strategies continue to be virtually absent in most classrooms, especially those that involve students who are learning English as a second language. This study presents results from an investigation of 3rd grade students' discourse about how length and tension affect the sound produced by a string. These students came from a variety of language backgrounds, and all were learning English as a second language. Our results demonstrate varying levels, and uses, of experiential, imaginative, and mechanistic reasoning strategies. Using specific examples from students' discourse, we will demonstrate some of the productive aspects of working within multiple language frameworks for making sense of physics. Conjectures will be made about how to utilize physics as a context for English Language Learners to further conceptual understanding, while developing their competence in the English l...

Suarez, Enrique

2012-01-01

343

76 FR 14954 - National Professional Development Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Professional Development Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information...designed to improve classroom instruction for English Learners (ELs) and will assist...

2011-03-18

344

Review of Doctoral Research in English Language Education in the Philippines, Singapore and Malaysia (2007-2010)  

Science.gov (United States)

This review highlights recent doctoral research in English language education and related areas completed between 2007 and 2010 in three countries in Southeast Asia: Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines. Out of sixty dissertations initially chosen from major universities in these countries, five from the Philippines, four from Malaysia and…

Rubdy, Rani; Tupas, T. Ruanni F.; Villareal, Corazon D.; David, Maya Khemlani; Dumanig, Francisco Perlas

2012-01-01

345

Incorporating Service-Learning, Technology, and Research Supportive Teaching Techniques into the University Chemistry Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Technology was integrated into service-learning activities to create an interactive teaching method for undergraduate students at a large research institution. Chemistry students at the University of Central Florida partnered with high school students at Crooms Academy of Information Technology in interactive service learning projects. The projects allowed UCF students to teach newly acquired content knowledge and build upon course lecture and lab exercises. Activities utilized the web-conferencing tool Adobe Connect Pro to enable interaction with high school students, many of whom have limited access to supplemental educational opportunities due to low socioeconomic status. Seventy chemistry I students created lessons to clarify high school students' misconceptions through the use of refutational texts. In addition, 21 UCF students enrolled in the chemistry II laboratory course acted as virtual lab partners with Crooms students in an interactive guided inquiry experiment focused on chemical kinetics. An overview of project's design, implementation, and assessments are detailed in the case study and serve as a model for future community partnerships. Emerging technologies are emphasized as well as a suggested set of best practices for future projects.

Saitta, E. K. H.; Bowdon, M. A.; Geiger, C. L.

2011-12-01

346

An Analysis of College English Classroom Discourse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English classroom teaching and learning is an important aspect of English teaching and learning. The analysis of classroom discourse is a very important form which classroom process research has taken. The present study focuses on college English classroom discourse. Through a detailed description and analysis of the collected data by referring to Sinclair and Coulthard’s classroom discourse analysis model, the problem of patterns of the classroom discourse is made clear and on the basis of which a few strategies for college English teachers are put forward by the author in order to improve college English teaching and learning.

Weihua Yu

2009-01-01

347

The Influence of Formal Language Learning Environment on Vocabulary Learning Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates ESL students studying in the program Teaching English as a Second Language in Universiti Putra Malaysia. This investigation attempts to understand the influence of a formal language learning environment (classroom, teachers, and peers) on vocabulary learning strategies. This study describes how school environments as well as mediating agents interfere in vocabulary learning strategies of ESL students or support them. This research adopts the qualitative method. The researcher gathered data through in depth interviews and used open coding as well as constant comparative methods to analyze the data. The findings suggest that teaching methods, the level of encouragement students received, peers’ negative and positive behaviors, classroom’s activity and textbooks were significant factors that generally effected the learners’ choice of vocabulary learning strategies in school.

Shima Kameli; Ghazali Bin Mostapha; Roselan Bin Baki

2012-01-01

348

Formação docente no trabalho com gêneros textuais na graduação em letras: construindo a relação entre a aprendizagem e o ensino em aulas de línguas/ Teacher education in the work with textual genres in undergraduate language teacher education courses: constructing the relationship between learning and teaching in language classrooms/ Formación docente en el trabajo con géneros textuales en la graduación en Letras: construyendo la relación entre el aprendizaje y la enseñanza en clases de lenguas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo discute o processo de (re)constituição das representações sobre ensinar e aprender línguas, como práticas sócio-histórico-culturais, de futuros professores, em uma aula de Inglês de um curso de graduação em Letras, como visto nos relatos reflexivos por eles escritos. Fundamenta-se teoricamente na perspectiva sócio-histórico-cultural, e tem na Linguística Sistêmico Funcional seu instrumento de análise. Os resultados revelam o processo de (re)con (more) stituição das representações e valorações dos futuros professores sobre ensinar e aprender línguas, a partir da análise de sua própria aprendizagem à luz das situações de sala de aula vivenciadas, como um processo mediado continuadamente por suas avaliações dessas situações, de seus participantes, e de si próprios. O trabalho oferece contribuições para a compreensão de pesquisadores e formadores sobre o processo de formação docente em aulas de línguas. Abstract in spanish Este artículo discute el proceso de (re)constitución de las representaciones sobre enseñar y aprender lenguas, como prácticas socio-histórico-culturales, de futuros profesores, en una clase de Inglés de un curso de graduación en Letras, como visto en los relatos reflexivos por ellos escritos. Se fundamenta teóricamente en la perspectiva socio-histórico-cultural, y tiene en la Lingüística Sistémico Funcional, su instrumento de análisis. Los resultados revelan (more) el proceso de (re)constitución de las representaciones y valoraciones de los futuros profesores sobre enseñar y aprender lenguas, a partir del análisis de su propio aprendizaje a la luz de las situaciones de aula vivenciadas, como un proceso mediado continuadamente por sus evaluaciones de esas situaciones, de sus participantes, y de sí propios. El trabajo ofrece contribuciones para la comprensión de investigadores y formadores sobre el proceso de formación docente en clases de lenguas. Abstract in english This article discusses the process of (re)constitution of representations of language teaching and learning, as socio-historical-cultural practices, of future teachers, in EFL classes in an undergraduate language teacher education course, as seen in the students' reflexive reports. Theoretically it is grounded in socio-historical-cultural perspective, and has in Systemic Functional Linguistics its instrument of analysis. Results reveal the process of (re)constitution of t (more) he representations and evaluations of future teachers, about language teaching and learning, based on the analysis of their own learning in the light of classroom situations, as a process continuously mediated by their evaluations of these situations, their participants, and the teachers themselves. The work offers contributions to the comprehension of researchers and educators about the process of teacher education in language classes.

Castro, Solange Teresinha Ricardo de

2010-12-01

349

Cross-cultural adaptation of research instruments: language, setting, time and statistical considerations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Research questionnaires are not always translated appropriately before they are used in new temporal, cultural or linguistic settings. The results based on such instruments may therefore not accurately reflect what they are supposed to measure. This paper aims to illustrate the process and required steps involved in the cross-cultural adaptation of a research instrument using the adaptation process of an attitudinal instrument as an example. Methods A questionnaire was needed for the implementation of a study in Norway 2007. There was no appropriate instruments available in Norwegian, thus an Australian-English instrument was cross-culturally adapted. Results The adaptation process included investigation of conceptual and item equivalence. Two forward and two back-translations were synthesized and compared by an expert committee. Thereafter the instrument was pretested and adjusted accordingly. The final questionnaire was administered to opioid maintenance treatment staff (n=140) and harm reduction staff (n=180). The overall response rate was 84%. The original instrument failed confirmatory analysis. Instead a new two-factor scale was identified and found valid in the new setting. Conclusions The failure of the original scale highlights the importance of adapting instruments to current research settings. It also emphasizes the importance of ensuring that concepts within an instrument are equal between the original and target language, time and context. If the described stages in the cross-cultural adaptation process had been omitted, the findings would have been misleading, even if presented with apparent precision. Thus, it is important to consider possible barriers when making a direct comparison between different nations, cultures and times.

Gjersing Linn; Caplehorn John RM; Clausen Thomas

2010-01-01

350

PS1-63: PRISM Online Training: A Free, Customized, Effective Plain Language Tutorial for Researchers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background/AimsGroup Health Research Institute (GHRI) created the Program for Readability In Science & Medicine (PRISM) in 2005 to help overcome the well-documented problem of low readability among research consent forms and other print materials created for study participants. Since then, PRISM training and editing services have helped GHRI researchers consistently meet the 8th-grade reading level target recommended by most IRBs. Our newest public-domain resource, PRISM Online Training, was launched with grant funding in October 2010 to help other institutions do the same.MethodsThe hour-long online tutorial includes:Registration for the course is required and a 10-question evaluation is optional.ResultsAlthough we designed the training specifically for researchers, a wide range of health care professionals are taking it. After 11 months in the field, 506 users from institutions across the US and abroad had registered, including: 214 (43%) investigators or research staff; 82 (16%) health educators; 41 (8%) clinicians; 36 (7%) IRB administrators or members; and 35 (7%) medical writers/editors. Four hundred seventeen users answered an optional question about how they heard about the course, revealing that 206 (49%) learned about it through a colleague or on a listserv. One-hundred forty-seven users completed the evaluation and provided consistently high ratings, including: 135 (92%) agreed or strongly agreed that the course was a good use of their time; 135 (92%) agreed or strongly agreed that they learned readability strategies they could immediately apply; and 137 (93%) agreed or strongly agreed that they would recommend the course to others. Boosting skills and knowledge was the most-cited reason for taking the course; fulfilling an institutional requirement was the least-cited reason.DiscussionThis free online training is an effective way to boost the plain language skills of the research community?and of other health care professionals. Word-of-mouth and listserv recommendations were more effective drivers of dissemination than targeted conference presentations or newsletter announcements. Enhancing individual skills was a more common motivator for taking the course than fulfilling institutional requirements.

Ridpath J; Greene S

2012-08-01

351

Classroom Silence: Voices from Japanese EFL Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores Japanese EFL learners' classroom silence in a Japanese EFL context. The existence of silence in second language learning contexts can be a source of conflict between students and teachers and even among students themselves. It can also be an obstacle to acquiring the target language. In order to tackle this problem and to…

Harumi, Seiko

2011-01-01

352

Classroom Management, Bullying, and Teacher Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

While bullying in schools has begun to receive attention, little is known about the relationship between classroom management and bullying in the classroom. The process for exploring this relationship will be a review of research and literature related to bullying in the school environment, classroom management, teacher practices, and student…

Allen, Kathleen P.

2010-01-01

353

The Use and Functions of Discourse Markers in EFL Classroom Interaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to investigate classroom interaction in the context of English as a foreign language being the teacher a non-native speaker of the language. One specific aspect of classroom interaction and language use is the focus of attention, namely discourse markers (DMs). Using data fr...

Chapetón Castro Claudia Marcela

354

A tool for sharing annotated research data: the "Category 0" UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) vocabularies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Large biomedical data sets have become increasingly important resources for medical researchers. Modern biomedical data sets are annotated with standard terms to describe the data and to support data linking between databases. The largest curated listing of biomedical terms is the the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The UMLS contains more than 2 million biomedical terms collected from nearly 100 medical vocabularies. Many of the vocabularies contained in the UMLS carry restrictions on their use, making it impossible to share or distribute UMLS-annotated research data. However, a subset of the UMLS vocabularies, designated Category 0 by UMLS, can be used to annotate and share data sets without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Methods The UMLS Category 0 vocabularies can be extracted from the parent UMLS metathesaurus using a Perl script supplied with this article. There are 43 Category 0 vocabularies that can be used freely for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Among the Category 0 vocabularies are: MESH (Medical Subject Headings), NCBI (National Center for Bioinformatics) Taxonomy and ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modifiers). Results The extraction file containing all Category 0 terms and concepts is 72,581,138 bytes in length and contains 1,029,161 terms. The UMLS Metathesaurus MRCON file (January, 2003) is 151,048,493 bytes in length and contains 2,146,899 terms. Therefore the Category 0 vocabularies, in aggregate, are about half the size of the UMLS metathesaurus. A large publicly available listing of 567,921 different medical phrases were automatically coded using the full UMLS metatathesaurus and the Category 0 vocabularies. There were 545,321 phrases with one or more matches against UMLS terms while 468,785 phrases had one or more matches against the Category 0 terms. This indicates that when the two vocabularies are evaluated by their fitness to find at least one term for a medical phrase, the Category 0 vocabularies performed 86% as well as the complete UMLS metathesaurus. Conclusion The Category 0 vocabularies of UMLS constitute a large nomenclature that can be used by biomedical researchers to annotate biomedical data. These annotated data sets can be distributed for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. These vocabularies may be of particular importance for sharing heterogeneous data from diverse biomedical data sets. The software tools to extract the Category 0 vocabularies are freely available Perl scripts entered into the public domain and distributed with this article.

Berman Jules J

2003-01-01

355

Future directions in feedback on second language writing: Overview and research agenda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the contributions made to this special issue on feedback by the seven papers, examining how they reflect both the growing interest in different areas of research into feedback on writing and the continuing search by teachers for more effective feedback practices. Focusing first on the papers by Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn and Allen, it discusses how these papers situate written corrective feedback research in the wider area of second language acquisition research and contribute to the debate in feedback research on research design issues. This is followed by an examination of the major findings of the four situated empirical studies by Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary and Windeatt, and Martinez and Roca, which make up the second section. Echoing the authors of these papers, this article argues that we need more longitudinal naturalistic studies, adopting both cognitive and socio-cultural SLA frameworks to investigate the role of feedback and its impact on individual learners in more depth. Finally some pedagogic implications are discussed, including the need for feedback practices which facilitate students’ abilities to self regulate and evaluate their performance, and the need to raise teachers’ awareness of the different feedback sources and modes of delivery available to them.Este artículo ofrece una revisión de las siete aportaciones incluidas en este número especial sobre feedback, constatando cómo reflejan tanto el creciente interés por el tema en las distintas áreas de investigación como la continua búsqueda de técnicas más efectivas por parte del profesorado. Centrándose en primer lugar en las contribuciones de Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn y Allen, analiza cómo estos artículos sitúan la investigación sobre feedback en la corrección de trabajos escritos dentro del área más amplia de adquisición de segundas lenguas, contribuyendo al debate, dentro de la investigación sobre feedback, en torno a aspectos de diseño de la investigación. A continuación se examinan los resultados principales de los cuatro estudios empíricos realizados por Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary & Windeatt, y Martinez & Roca de Larios, que conforman la segunda sección. Siguiendo a estos autores, el artículo aboga por la realización de más estudios longitudinales de corte naturalista, que utilicen enfoques dentro del campo de la Adquisición de Segundas Lenguas tanto de carácter cognitivo como sociocultural, para investigar con más profundidad el papel del feedback y su impacto en perfiles concretos de aprendices. Finalmente, se tratan algunas implicaciones pedagógicas, incluyendo la necesidad de que las prácticas de feedback faciliten el desarrollo de habilidades de autocorrección y de evaluación del propio rendimiento por parte de los estudiantes, y la necesidad de incrementar el conocimiento que los docentes tienen acerca de las distintas fuentes y modos de implementación de feedback.

Fiona Hyland

2010-01-01

356

Expanding Learning and Teaching Processes in an ESL/Civics ABE Classroom Using an Interactive Video Lesson Plan in the U.S. Southwest: An Action Research Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is an action research project that analyzed the ways in which ESL students improve their language learning processes by using as a teaching tool a media literacy video and Civics Education for social skills; it was presented to two groups of 12 students who were attending an ESL/Civics Education Intermediate-Advanced class in an ABE…

Cajar-Bravo, Aristides

2010-01-01

357

Approche culturelle et Internet en classe de FLE : exemple d’une pratique à l’école nationale des ponts et chaussées (ENPC) The potential of Internet in the French as a Foreign Language classroom: a cultural approach in the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (ENPC)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article présente une recherche-action, menée à l'École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (ENPC), qui avait pour but de s'interroger sur les potentialités d'Internet en classe de Français Langue Étrangère (FLE) lors de l'"enseignement" de la culture et / ou civilisation à un public spécialiste d'autres disciplines. Pour vérifier et contrôler notre hypothèse de départ, relevant des domaines, d'une part, des Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication (TIC), et d'autre part, de la didactique des langues, deux cours thématiques ont été mis en place, "La France et ses controverses" et "Partager la culture des Français". Ils proposent, lors de séances en présentiel, d'utiliser Internet comme support pédagogique. Le contenu de ces séances est axé sur une approche culturelle. D'abord, cette étude traite, tout en s'appuyant sur les fondements de la didactique des langues, de différents repères TIC et des approches culturelles liées aux TIC. Ensuite, nous présentons l'expérimentation réalisée au cours de l'année académique 2004-2005 et les résultats obtenus. Enfin, nous discutons des avantages d'une telle approche de l'"enseignement / apprentissage" de la culture et / ou civilisation, de la valeur ajoutée d'Internet et des pistes pédagogiques pour une recherche future.This article presents a research project carried out at École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (ENPC), one of France's leading engineering schools. It explores the use of the Internet in the classroom in the context of French as a Foreign Language teaching to engineering students in a programme designed to teach cultural aspects. The research straddles the two domains of IT and language teaching methodology. Two theme-based courses, "France and its controversies" and "Sharing French culture" were devised to test the initial hypothesis of the research project. The Internet was used as a teaching aid during classes, which emphasized a cultural approach. First, the underlying theories behind the use of IT and cultural approaches to language learning / teaching are presented. The experiment carried out in the academic year 2004-2005 and the results obtained are then given. Finally, the advantages of this approach to the teaching / learning of cultural aspects, with the added value of the Internet, are discussed and future research possibilities outlined.

Isabelle Salengros

2006-01-01

358

LANGUAGE POLICY AND METHODOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit recommendations about the methods to be used in classroom practice, or indirectly, through the conceptualisation of language leaming which underlies the policy. It can be argued that all language policies have the potential to influence teaching methodologies indirectly and that those policies which have explicit recommendations about methodology are actually functioning of two levels. This allows for the possibility of conflict between the direct and indirect dimensions of the policy which results from an inconsistency between the explicitly recommended methodology and the underlying conceptualisation of language teaching and learning which informs the policy.

Antony J. Liddicoat

2004-01-01

359

The relation between behavior problems and peer preference in different classroom contexts. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tested two alternative hypotheses regarding the relations between child behavior and peer preference. The first hypothesis is generated from the person-group similarity model, which predicts that the acceptability of social behaviors will vary as a function of peer group norms. The second hypothesis is generated by the social skill model, which predicts that behavioral skill deficiencies reduce and behavioral competencies enhance peer preference. A total of 2895 children in 134 regular first-grade classrooms participated in the study. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to compare four different behaviors as predictors of peer preference in the context of classrooms with varying levels of these behavior problems. The results of the study supported both predictive models, with the acceptability of aggression and withdrawal varying across classrooms (following a person-group similarity model) and the effects of inattentive/hyperactive behavior (in a negative direction) and prosocial behavior (in a positive direction) following a social skill model and remaining constant in their associations with peer preference across classrooms. Gender differences also emerged, with aggression following the person-group similarity model for boys more strongly than for girls. The effects of both child behaviors and the peer group context on peer preference and on the trajectory of social development are discussed. PMID:10191521

Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; Bruschi, C; Dodge, K A; Coie, J D

360

The relation between behavior problems and peer preference in different classroom contexts. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study tested two alternative hypotheses regarding the relations between child behavior and peer preference. The first hypothesis is generated from the person-group similarity model, which predicts that the acceptability of social behaviors will vary as a function of peer group norms. The second hypothesis is generated by the social skill model, which predicts that behavioral skill deficiencies reduce and behavioral competencies enhance peer preference. A total of 2895 children in 134 regular first-grade classrooms participated in the study. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to compare four different behaviors as predictors of peer preference in the context of classrooms with varying levels of these behavior problems. The results of the study supported both predictive models, with the acceptability of aggression and withdrawal varying across classrooms (following a person-group similarity model) and the effects of inattentive/hyperactive behavior (in a negative direction) and prosocial behavior (in a positive direction) following a social skill model and remaining constant in their associations with peer preference across classrooms. Gender differences also emerged, with aggression following the person-group similarity model for boys more strongly than for girls. The effects of both child behaviors and the peer group context on peer preference and on the trajectory of social development are discussed.

Stormshak EA; Bierman KL; Bruschi C; Dodge KA; Coie JD

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Classroom Teachers' Views on Inclusion. Research Institute on Secondary Education Reform for Youth with Disabilities (RISER) Brief.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This brief discusses the outcomes of a study that examined the views of 32 secondary education teachers in four secondary schools on the inclusion of students with disabilities in their classrooms. Analyses of the interview data indicate that the general education teachers were committed to inclusion and that they did make instructional…

King, M. Bruce; Youngs, Peter

362

Does more target language use by the teacher encourage more target language use by the students?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to investigate how the target language is used in the foreign language classroom and how different teachers combine the target language and the first language in their teaching. The study was conducted in three different Swedish schools at different levels: one at the inter...

Frohm, Therese

363

High-Stakes Testing and English Language Learners: Using Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Literacy Practices in the High School English Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This multicase study investigated the impact of high-stakes testing on the literacy practices of teachers of high school English language learners (ELLs) in three Long Island, New York, school districts, in one of the most racially and socioeconomically segregated regions of the United States. The goal of the study was to explore what kinds of…

Giouroukakis, Vicky; Honigsfeld, Andrea

2010-01-01

364

Looking inward, looking outward: Developing knowledge through teacher research in a middle school science classroom during a unit on magnetism and electricity  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study I aimed to understand effective teaching and learning in the context of my middle school science classroom. The study was a multiple case analysis of two classes of students, one gifted and one academic, during a unit on magnetism and electricity. From a teacher researcher perspective, I conducted the study to investigate the development of my knowledge---scientific, pedagogical content, and reflective---as a teacher. From an analysis of questionnaires, field notes, transcribed audio tapes of small and large group discussions, and student artifacts, I constructed an understanding of my students' learning and my own growth in several realms. My scientific knowledge grew both substantively and syntactically; I elaborated my understanding of magnetism, rethought my delivery of electricity, realized a need for training in electronics, and refined my definition of the nature of science in research. I built on my pedagogical content knowledge with regard to students ideas about magnetism and electricity, learning characteristics of gifted students, tools of inquiry that facilitate learning, and methods to operationalize the situated learning model. Most importantly I gained an understanding of teacher research and its three components: ownership, purpose, and methodology. The findings contribute to the understanding of teacher research as well as various bodies of science education literature: (a) students' ideas about magnetism, (b) the science learning characteristics of gifted students, (c) tools of inquiry in the science classroom, and (d) operationalization of the situated learning model.

George, Melissa D.

365

The countries and languages that dominate biological research at the beginning of the 21st century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally,studies of scientific productivity are biased in two ways: they are based on Current Contents, an index centered in British and American journals, and they seldom correct for population size, ignoring the relative effort that each society places in research. We studied national productivity for biology using a more representative index, the Biological Abstracts, and analyzed both total and relative productivity. English dominates biological publications with 87% (no other individual language reaches 2%). If the USA is considered a region by itself, it occupies the first place in per capita production of biology papers, with at least twice the productivity of either Asia or Europe. Canada, Oceania and Latin America occupy an intermediate position. The global output of scientific papers is dominated by Europe, USA, Japan, Canada, China and India. When corrected for population size, the countries with the greatest productivity of biology papers are the Nordic nations, Israel, Switzerland, Netherlands, Australia, Saint Lucia and Montserrat. The predominance of English as the language of biological research found in this study shows a continuation of the trend initiated around the year 1900. The large relative productivity of the USA reflects the importance that American society gives to science as the basis for technological and economic development, but the USA’s share of total scientific output has decreased from 44% in 1983 to 34% in 2002, while there is a greater growth of science in India, Japan and Latin America, among others. The increasing share obtained by China and India may reflect a recent change in attitude towards funding science. The leadership of Nordic nations, Israel, Switzerland, Netherlands and Australia can be explained by cultural attitude. Apparently, a positive trend is emerging in Latin America, where Chile improved its ranking in per capita productivity but Argentina, Costa Rica, Uruguay, Brazil and Cuba fell. Nevertheless, the most productive countries in total number of papers are Brazil, Mexico and Argentina: large countries with a long tradition of funding scientific research. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(1-2):283-294. Epub 2005 Jun 24Tradicionalmente, los estudios sobre productividad científica tienen dos sesgos: se basan en el Current Contents, un índice basado en revistas de países industrializados, y rara vez toman en cuenta el tamaño de la población, con lo cual dejan por fuera a la mayoría de la producción de países no industrializados (e.g. América Latina) e ignoran el esfuerzo relativo que cada sociedad dedica a la ciencia. Estudiamos la productividad por país usando Biological Abstracts, que incluye más revistas y tomamos en cuenta el tamaño de la población. El idioma inglés domina la literatura científica con un 87% de los artículos (ningún otro idioma llega al 2%). Si se considera a los EEUU como una región, ocupa el primer lugar en productividad por habitante de artículos científicos en el área de la biología, con al menos el doble de la productividad que Asia o Europa. En tanto Canadá, Oceanía y América Latina ocupan lugares intermedios. Mundialmente, la producción total es dominada por Europa, EEUU, Japón, Canadá, China e India. Si se toma en cuenta el tamaño de la población, los países con mayor productividad son las naciones nórdicas, Israel, Suiza, Holanda, Australia, Santa Lucía y Montserrat. El dominio del inglés comenzó a desarrollarse desde cerca del año 1900. La gran producción relativa de los EEUU refleja la importancia que la sociedad estadounidense da a la ciencia como base para el desarrollo tecnológico y económico, pero la porción estadounidense de la producción científica mundial ha bajado de 44% en 1983 a 34% en 2002, al tiempo que se acelera el crecimiento de la producción científica en India, Japón y América Latina, entre otros. La proporción creciente de la literatura de China e India podría reflejar un cambio reciente en actitud hacia la inversión en ciencia. El liderazgo de las naciones

Julián Monge-Nájera; Vanessa Nielsen

2005-01-01

366

Spanish translation and cross-language validation of a sleep habits questionnaire for use in clinical and research settings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To translate, back-translate and cross-language validate (English/Spanish) the Sleep Heart Health Study Sleep Habits Questionnaire for use with Spanish-speakers in clinical and research settings. METHODS: Following rigorous translation and back-translation, this cross-sectional cross-language validation study recruited bilingual participants from academic, clinic, and community-based settings (N = 50; 52% women; mean age 38.8 ± 12 years; 90% of Mexican heritage). Participants completed English and Spanish versions of the Sleep Habits Questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II one week apart in randomized order. Psychometric properties were assessed, including internal consistency, convergent validity, scale equivalence, language version intercorrelations, and exploratory factor analysis using PASW (Version18) software. Grade level readability of the sleep measure was evaluated. RESULTS: All sleep categories (duration, snoring, apnea, insomnia symptoms, other sleep symptoms, sleep disruptors, restless legs syndrome) showed Cronbach ?, Spearman-Brown coefficients and intercorrelations ? 0.700, suggesting robust internal consistency, correlation, and agreement between language versions. The Epworth correlated significantly with snoring, apnea, sleep symptoms, restless legs, and sleep disruptors) on both versions, supporting convergent validity. Items loaded on 4 factors accounted for 68% and 67% of the variance on the English and Spanish versions, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish-language Sleep Habits Questionnaire demonstrates conceptual and content equivalency. It has appropriate measurement properties and should be useful for assessing sleep health in community-based clinics and intervention studies among Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans. Both language versions showed readability at the fifth grade level. Further testing is needed with larger samples.

Baldwin CM; Choi M; McClain DB; Celaya A; Quan SF

2012-04-01

367

Concept-based problem solving: Combining educational research results and practical experience to create a framework for learning physics and to derive effective classroom practices  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper identifies five types of learning experiences which are relevant to understanding students' grasp of concepts and principles. These include exploring existing concepts, honing and clustering concepts, developing analytical and reasoning skills, developing problem solving skills, and structuring knowledge in memory. Each of these learning experiences is presented with research results and some of the instructional methods and classroom techniques identified for a rich learning environment. Changes in teaching approaches require new roles for both teachers and students. This paper suggests a way for teachers to model for students and presents a student-centered process for learners to extract knowledge from experience. (Contains 49 references.)

Leonard, William J.; Gerace, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.; Mestre, Jose P.

2005-11-02

368

La corrección del error en clases de inglés como lengua extranjera/ Correcting mistakes in the classroom of english as a foreign language/ La correction de l?erreur dans des cours d?anglais langue etrangere  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio sobre los tipos de corrección del error y las respuestas de los estudiantes en las clases de inglés como lengua extranjera (ILE) en tres instituciones de educación superior. Este estudio examina los tipos y frecuencia de las correcciones usadas por profesores no nativos y su relación con las respuestas de los estudiantes. 12 profesores de diferentes programas de pregrado con sus estudiantes participaron en el estudi (more) o. La base de datos consiste en 16 horas de interacción en clases de inglés como lengua extranjera. Esta información fue grabada en audio, transcrita y codificada de acuerdo con las categorías desarrolladas por Lyster y Ranta (1997). Los hallazgos indican que la modificación (recast) es la forma implícita preferida para dar la realimentación. Otras formas explícitas de realimentación como la inducción (elicitation) y la repetición son también frecuentes. Los resultados también muestran que las formas de realimentación que más exitosamente conducen a una corrección por parte del estudiante son la modificación, la inducción y la repetición. Abstract in english This article presents an observational study on corrective feedback and learner uptake patterns in English as foreign language (EFL) classrooms. This study examines types and frequency of feedback used by non-native English instructors and their relationship to learner uptake. Twelve teachers with their intact classes from different undergraduate programs participated in the study. The database consists of 16 hours of classroom interaction taken from general EFL lessons. (more) The data was audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded according to Lyster and Ranta?s categories (1997). The findings indicate that recasts are the preferred implicit type of feedback. Other explicit feedback types such as elicitation and repetition are frequent. The feedback types that lead more successfully to student generated repair were recast, elicitation, and repetition.

Balcarcel, Gloria

2006-01-01

369

Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL): A Research-Based Tool.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we describe the Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL), an instrument that measures skills identified as critical in the New Standards for Speaking and Listening (Tucker & Codding, 1998). In 510 minutes and without prior tra...

A. McCabe D. K. Dickinson K. Sprague

2001-01-01

370

THE RESEARCH ON THE LANGUAGE LEVEL OF THE TURKS LIVING IN GERMANY  

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Full Text Available In this study, Turkish writing and speaking skills of third and fourth Turkish generations still living in Germany was discussed. Among those generations thought to be permanent in Germany; especially the fourth generations' lower ability of using Turkish language issue has been analyzed. The importance of mother language in nations experience was stressed and it was emphasized that Nations who are not able keep their values could lose their nationalities. Referring this study and thoughts importance of mother language, the misuse of Turkish language in casual and education was highlighted. Recently, the significance of "German Turkish" notion was both exemplified and emphasized. In this respect, samples were analyzed in writing, speaking and vocabulary, and were made suggestions in terms of keeping Turkish.

Muhammet KOÇAK

2012-01-01

371

Triadic Scaffolds: Tools for Teaching English Language Learners with Computers  

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Full Text Available Active communication with others is key to human learning. This straightforward premise currently undergirds much theory and research in student learning in general, and in second language and literacy learning in particular. Both of these academic areas have long acknowledged communication's central role in successful learning with the exact intricacies of instructional conversations and the forms these take having been the focus of close analysis (Cazden, 1988; Gee, 2001; Nystrand, Gamoran, Kachur, & Prendergast, 1997; Tharp & Galimore, 1991; van Lier, 2000). In this examination of computer-supported classroom discourse, specific forms of instructional conversation employed by a veteran elementary teacher of beginning-level English language learners (ELLs) are examined. The focal teacher orchestrates instructional conversations around computers with children whose immediate needs are to learn the English language, specifically the "language of school" and the concomitant social complexities implied in order to participate in mainstream instructional activity. With these goals shaping language and literacy activity, their ESOL (English for speakers of other languages) teacher makes use of the computer to capture, motivate, and anchor learner attention to, and render comprehensible the target language they hear and see on and around the computer screen. The anatomy of the activity she orchestrates around the computer and the language she uses to support it -- labeled here as triadic scaffolds -- are the focus of analysis. Forms and functions of triadic discourse (teacher, learner, computer) are examined for their potential unique role in second language and literacy instruction.

Carla Meskill

2005-01-01

372

Classroom Triangles  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, students will use bearing measurements to triangulate and determine objects' locations. Working in teams of two or three, students must put on their investigative hats as they take bearing measurements to specified landmarks in their classroom (or other rooms in the school) from a mystery location. With the extension activity, students are challenged with creating their own map of the classroom or other school location and comparing it with their classmates' efforts.

Lippis, Matt; Axelrad, Penny; Yowell, Janet; Zarske, Malinda S.

2006-01-01

373

The countries and languages that dominate biological research at the beginning of the 21st century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Tradicionalmente, los estudios sobre productividad científica tienen dos sesgos: se basan en el Current Contents, un índice basado en revistas de países industrializados, y rara vez toman en cuenta el tamaño de la población, con lo cual dejan por fuera a la mayoría de la producción de países no industrializados (e.g. América Latina) e ignoran el esfuerzo relativo que cada sociedad dedica a la ciencia. Estudiamos la productividad por país usando Biological Abstra (more) cts, que incluye más revistas y tomamos en cuenta el tamaño de la población. El idioma inglés domina la literatura científica con un 87% de los artículos (ningún otro idioma llega al 2%). Si se considera a los EEUU como una región, ocupa el primer lugar en productividad por habitante de artículos científicos en el área de la biología, con al menos el doble de la productividad que Asia o Europa. En tanto Canadá, Oceanía y América Latina ocupan lugares intermedios. Mundialmente, la producción total es dominada por Europa, EEUU, Japón, Canadá, China e India. Si se toma en cuenta el tamaño de la población, los países con mayor productividad son las naciones nórdicas, Israel, Suiza, Holanda, Australia, Santa Lucía y Montserrat. El dominio del inglés comenzó a desarrollarse desde cerca del año 1900. La gran producción relativa de los EEUU refleja la importancia que la sociedad estadounidense da a la ciencia como base para el desarrollo tecnológico y económico, pero la porción estadounidense de la producción científica mundial ha bajado de 44% en 1983 a 34% en 2002, al tiempo que se acelera el crecimiento de la producción científica en India, Japón y América Latina, entre otros. La proporción creciente de la literatura de China e India podría reflejar un cambio reciente en actitud hacia la inversión en ciencia. El liderazgo de las naciones nórdicas, Israel, Suiza, Holanda y Australia puede explicarse debido a la actitud cultural. Parece estar emergiendo una tendencia positiva en América Latina, donde Chile mejoró su ubicación en producción por habitante, pero Argentina, Costa Rica, Uruguay, Brasil y Cuba desmejoraron. Sin embargo, en producción bruta total, los países más productivos son Brasil, México y Argentina: países grandes con larga tradición de financiar la investigación científica Abstract in english Traditionally,studies of scientific productivity are biased in two ways: they are based on Current Contents, an index centered in British and American journals, and they seldom correct for population size, ignoring the relative effort that each society places in research. We studied national productivity for biology using a more representative index, the Biological Abstracts, and analyzed both total and relative productivity. English dominates biological publications with (more) 87% (no other individual language reaches 2%). If the USA is considered a region by itself, it occupies the first place in per capita production of biology papers, with at least twice the productivity of either Asia or Europe. Canada, Oceania and Latin America occupy an intermediate position. The global output of scientific papers is dominated by Europe, USA, Japan, Canada, China and India. When corrected for population size, the countries with the greatest productivity of biology papers are the Nordic nations, Israel, Switzerland, Netherlands, Australia, Saint Lucia and Montserrat. The predominance of English as the language of biological research found in this study shows a continuation of the trend initiated around the year 1900. The large relative productivity of the USA reflects the importance that American society gives to science as the basis for technological and economic development, but the USA?s share of total scientific output has decreased from 44% in 1983 to 34% in 2002, while there is a greater growth of science in India, Japan and Latin America, among others. The increasing share obtained by China and India may reflect a recent change in attitude towards funding scie

Monge-Nájera, Julián; Nielsen, Vanessa

2005-06-01

374

The Improvement of Foreign Language Teachers’ Affective Variables in Universities for Ethnic Minorities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper states the current situation of foreign language teachers’ affective variables in universities for ethnic minorities when teaching a foreign language. It emphasizes the urgent need of improvement of affective variables in such universities based on relevant research results and an interview performed in a university for ethnic minorities. Its purpose is to arouse people’s attention on teachers’ quality development, especially teachers’ affective variables. Several methods are mentioned to help teachers build a harmonious atmosphere in the classroom and improve teachers’ quality and future language teaching.

Kun Li

2012-01-01

375

[Science Modules: Classroom Management.  

Science.gov (United States)

This module, one in a series of science modules (Appendix A) designed for use in a science methods course research project at Central Michigan University, emphasizes classroom management skills. All of the modules are part of a project aimed at developing, evaluating, and revising competency-based materials for use in science methods education for…

Oana, Robert G.; Eiszler, Charles F.

376

Social interactive entropy and interaction in the language teacher education classroom/ Entropia sociointerativa e interação na sala de aula de formação de professores de línguas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho tem como ideias centrais o pressuposto de que a interação é essencial para a construção do conhecimento e a afirmação de que grupos de indivíduos em contextos de aprendizagem podem ser vistos como sistemas adaptativos complexos (SAC). Alguns pontos de vista diferentes, mas congruentes sobre a sala de aula como um SAC são apresentados, e o fenômeno que está constantemente em ação e afetando todo e qualquer SAC - a entropia - é trazido à discuss (more) ão. Um tipo específico de entropia para grupos sociais, definido como entropia socio-interativa, também é apresentado com o objetivo de promover a reflexão sobre como tal fenômeno afeta o comportamento de uma sala de aula, sob a perspectiva complexa, e influencia tal SAC social, quando propicia ou restringe condições para que a interação ocorra e, consequentemente, para que a aprendizagem emerja. Abstract in english This paper has as core ideas the assumption that interaction is essential for knowledge construction and the claim that groups of individuals in learning contexts can be seen as complex adaptive systems (CAS). Some different, but congruous views on the classroom as a complex adaptive system are presented and the phenomenon which is constantly at work and affecting each and every CAS - the entropy - is brought to discussion. A specific type of entropy for social groups, de (more) fined as social interactive entropy, is also introduced as an attempt to promote reflection on how this phenomenon affects the behavior of a classroom under a complex perspective and how it influences such a social CAS by providing or restricting conditions for interaction and, hence, learning to emerge.

Vetromille-Castro, Rafael

2013-06-01

377

Development and Datametric Properties of a Scale Measuring Students' Perceptions of The Classroom Assessment Environment  

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Full Text Available Each classroom has its own assessment environment perceived by the students and springs from the teacher's assessment practices. Although students' perceptions of the assessment environment may influence their achievement-related outcomes, little attention has been given to the measurement of perceived classroom assessment environment. This study reports on the development and datametric properties of a scale measuring students' perceptions of the classroom assessment environment. A total of 450 students enrolled in the tenth grade English language classes at Muscat public schools in Oman completed the scale. Results yielded two subscales of the perceived classroom assessment environment: learning-, and performance-oriented environments. The correlations between them suggested that they represented unique aspects of the classroom assessment environment as perceived by the students. Additional validity evidence was obtained through gender differences and correlations of the subscales scores with the total scores received in the subject at end of the semester. Reliability analyses showed that the subscales' scores had relatively moderate levels of internal consistency. Implications and recommendations for classroom instruction and assessment as well as for future research are discussed.

Hussain Alkharusi

2011-01-01

378

Young English language learners making thinking and language visible  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo pretende proveer al maestro recursos que le asistan a entender el trabajo intelectual del niño pequeño que aprende inglés como segunda lengua y cómo este exteriorice su pensamiento utilizando ya sea su primera lengua o su segunda lengua. En la medida que se incrementa el número de niños que vienen de familias donde se habla otra lengua que no sea el inglés es un llamado para considerar el papel crítico que juegan los maestros en implementar práctic (more) as adecuadas en el salón de clase. Este artículo analiza cómo los maestros pueden ayudar a los niños a adquirir un segundo idioma sin sacrificar el primer idioma y la motivación. El artículo enfoca su atención en los procesos de lenguaje de los niños a través de la interacción entre lenguaje y cognición y el rol que juega el ambiente. Resultados de una investigación de acción que implementaba ideas del proyecto Pensamiento Visible del Proyecto Cero en la Universidad de Harvard sirve de evidencia para discutir los beneficios de crear una cultura de pensamiento en el salón para promover un modelo aditivo en niños pequeños bilingües. Abstract in english This paper aims to provide teachers with a resource to assist them in understanding the inner workings of young English Language Learners (ELLs) and how they externalize their thoughts in either their first or second language. This article not only analyzes how teachers can help children acquire a second language without sacrificing their first language and motivation, but also focuses on language processing in bilingual children through providing an understanding of both (more) the interplay between language and cognition and the role of the environment. Results from an action research project implementing Harvard Project Zero's Visible Thinking ideas serve as evidence to discuss the benefits of creating a culture of thinking in the classroom to promote additive bilingualism in young children.

Salmon, Angela K

2008-01-01

379

Beliefs about Foreign Language Learning and Their Relationship to Gender  

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Full Text Available Learners’ beliefs about foreign language learning have been stressed in educational research because they are regarded as fundamental to learners’ progress (e.g. Altan, 2012; Russell, 2009; Rieger, 2009; Kormos & Csizér, 2008;). This paper deals with the results of a research project conducted among first-year English language majors studying the Intensive English Language Program at Qassim University. A total of 250 male and female students participated in this study. A modified Arabic version of Horwitz’s (1987) BALLI (Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory) was used to explore the overall beliefs of Saudi university students about learning English as a foreign language and to investigate the effect of gender on those beliefs. Results revealed that Saudi university students have positive and realistic beliefs about foreign language as regard the nature of language learning, communication strategies, and motivation and expectations about learning English as a foreign language. The findings also indicated that overall males and females held similar beliefs about language learning as regard the difficulty and the nature of language learning. However, statistical significant gender differences were found in the areas of English language aptitude, learning and communication, and motivation and expectations. The study recommends an identification of Saudi learners' beliefs on a wider scale, so as to provide guidelines to EFL teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to tailor their teaching methods to avoid mismatches between classroom practices and learners' beliefs. Finally, the study suggest that recognition of learners' beliefs and reflection on their possible effect on language learning might increase awareness and even adjustment of their expectations.

Ayman Sabry Daif-Allah

2012-01-01

380

O paradigma conexionista aplicado às pesquisas em linguagem The connectionist paradigm applied to language researches  

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Full Text Available O estudo trata da Teoria Conexionista e suas vertentes e de como este modelo teórico pode contribuir para a prática fonoaudiológica. O objetivo do trabalho foi reunir e discutir diversos estudos sobre a teoria conexionista aplicada à aprendizagem da linguagem, com o intuito de promover uma reflexão sobre as contribuições que esta teoria pode trazer à prática fonoaudiológica. A partir disso, verificou-se que os estudos baseados na teoria conexionista relacionados à Fonoaudiologia são predominantes na área de aquisição e terapia da linguagem, processamento auditivo e de leitura. Porém, os mesmos são escassos e pouco aplicados. Além disso, não há uma relação direta com as técnicas que podem ser utilizadas, mas sim com a análise da evolução terapêutica, especialmente na interpretação de como se dá o processo de aprendizagem da língua falada e/ou escrita.The study deals with the Connectionist Theory and its branches, and how this theoretical model can contribute to the speech and language practice. This was aimed to collect and discuss several studies on the Connectionist Theory applied to language acquisition aiming at promoting the reflection on the contributions that this theory may bring out to speech and language therapy. It was found that the studies based on the connectionist theory related to speech and language therapy are prevalent in the area of language acquisition and language therapy, auditory and reading processing. However, they are scarce and little applied. Moreover, there is no direct relation between this theory and the techniques that can be used, but yes, with the analysis of therapeutic outcome, especially with the interpretation of how the process concerning learning the spoken and written language is carried out.

Fernanda Marafiga Wiethan; Fabieli Thaís Backes; Gabriela Cortiana Machado Valle; Gabriele Rodrigues Bastilha; Graciele de Brito Escobar; Giordana Minosso Bolzan; Jayne Guterres de Mello; Leonardo Carvalho Alves; Helena Bolli Mota

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Mother Tongue Use in Task-Based Language Teaching Model  

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Full Text Available Researches of English language teaching (ELT) have focused on using mother tongue (L1) for years. The proliferation of task-based language teaching (TBLT) has been also occurred. Considerable findings have been made in the existing literature of the two fields; however, no mentions have been made in the combination of these two ELT aspects, i.e., the use of L1 in English as a Second and Foreign Language (L2) classrooms in which TBLT is adopted. Hence, this paper is to make an argumentation in the appropriateness of this combination. Firstly, terminologies related to Tasks and TBLT framework are shortly revised. Secondly, the controversies with for and against views in monolingual approach in second and foreign language teaching (L2 teaching) is mentioned. Lastly, the paper makes an argumentation on why and how to use mother tongue in a modern teaching model as TBLT.

Nguyen Viet Hung

2012-01-01

382

Foreign Language Careers for International Business and the Professions  

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Full Text Available The U.S. work and market places are becoming more global, multilingual, and multicultural in nature and are making foreign language and cultural studies, particularly those of Asia and Latin America, an important part of career planning and development. Many jobs demand knowledge of one or more languages and their attendant cultures and require experience in international and/or cross cultural areas. They also demand specialized interdisciplinary training such as that offered at many schools, colleges, and universities, and encourage internships that can lead to promising careers. Job sources for foreign language-based careers also abound and with guidance and research can be easily found. This paper seeks to provide the information and sources educators at all levels and institutions need to know in order to emphasize the importance of foreign language in careers and also facilitate ways of integrating their study into the general curriculum and classroom.

Cere, Ronald C.

2012-01-01

383

The Relationship between Foreign Language Anxiety and English Achievement of Y?ld?z Technical University School of Foreign Languages Preparatory Students  

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Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the relation between foreign language anxiety and students’ English achievement. The sample of the study consisted of 150 A, B and C level students attending Y?ld?z Technical University, School of Foreign Languages, Basic English Department Prep Classes. The level of students’ foreign language anxiety was measured by ‘Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale’ developed by Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope (1986). Students’ achievement level was determined by the average of their 1st and 2nd midterm grades. Pearson Correlation, t-test and ANOVA were used to test research problems. According to the findings of the study, it was found that while students’ initial foreign language anxiety didn’t vary according to their English level, their latter foreign language anxiety differed significantly for B and C level students. It was also found that neither students’ initial foreign language anxiety, nor their latter foreign language anxiety differed according to their gender. Study showed that for all levels of students, there was a significant negative relationship between students’ foreign language anxiety and their English achievement at the significance level of 0.45. Finally, it was found that B and C level students’ foreign language anxiety differs in successful and unsuccessful students. Unsuccessful students’ foreign language anxiety was higher than successful students.

Didar Zeynep BATUMLU; Münire ERDEN

2007-01-01

384

Polish as a foreign language at elementary level of instruction : crosslinguistic influences in writing  

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Full Text Available Being a minority European language, Polish has not attracted the attention of second language research (SLA) very much. Most studies in the area focus on English and other major languages describing variables and process observed in learners’ interlanguage development. This article looks at the language performance of elementary learners of Polish as a foreign language with a view to diagnosing areas of difficulty at the initial stages of language instruction. It is a case study of five learners’ written production after a year of intensive language instruction in the controlled conditions of a classroom. The objective of the study presented here is: 1. to determine the types of error produced in a short translation task at different levels of language (morphosyntactic, lexical) 2. to observe manifestations of crosslinguistic influences between languages the subjects know (interlingual transfer) as well as those related to the language learnt itself (intralingual transfer).The small sample of texts produced does not allow for any generalized observations and conclusions, however, at the level of elementary competence in any foreign language, as other research shows, the amount of individual variation is not the most significant factor. Thus the incorrect forms produced may testify to some more universally error-prone areas of language. The value of this kind of analysis lies in this direct application to the teaching of Polish as a synthetic language. The study also demonstrates the fact that communicative teaching has a limited contribution to make in the case of this family of languages. It suggests that overt and explicit teaching of a synthetic language will give a sounder basis for further development of language competence in its communicative dimension

Danuta Gabrys-Barker

2007-01-01

385

Language production and working memory in classic galactosemia from a cognitive neuroscience perspective: future research directions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most humans are social beings and we express our thoughts and feelings through language. In contrast to the ease with which we speak, the underlying cognitive and neural processes of language production are fairly complex and still little understood. In the hereditary metabolic disease classic galactosemia, failures in language production processes are among the most reported difficulties. It is unclear, however, what the underlying neural cause of this cognitive problem is. Modern brain imaging techniques allow us to look into the brain of a thinking patient online - while she or he is performing a task, such as speaking. We can measure indirectly neural activity related to the output side of a process (e.g. articulation). But most importantly, we can look into the planning phase prior to an overt response, hence tapping into subcomponents of speech planning. These components include verbal memory, intention to speak, and the planning of meaning, syntax, and phonology. This paper briefly introduces cognitive theories on language production and methods used in cognitive neuroscience. It reviews the possibilities of applying them in experimental paradigms to investigate language production and verbal memory in galactosemia.

Timmers I; van den Hurk J; Di Salle F; Rubio-Gozalbo ME; Jansma BM

2011-04-01

386

Language production and working memory in classic galactosemia from a cognitive neuroscience perspective: future research directions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most humans are social beings and we express our thoughts and feelings through language. In contrast to the ease with which we speak, the underlying cognitive and neural processes of language production are fairly complex and still little understood. In the hereditary metabolic disease classic galactosemia, failures in language production processes are among the most reported difficulties. It is unclear, however, what the underlying neural cause of this cognitive problem is. Modern brain imaging techniques allow us to look into the brain of a thinking patient online - while she or he is performing a task, such as speaking. We can measure indirectly neural activity related to the output side of a process (e.g. articulation). But most importantly, we can look into the planning phase prior to an overt response, hence tapping into subcomponents of speech planning. These components include verbal memory, intention to speak, and the planning of meaning, syntax, and phonology. This paper briefly introduces cognitive theories on language production and methods used in cognitive neuroscience. It reviews the possibilities of applying them in experimental paradigms to investigate language production and verbal memory in galactosemia. PMID:21290187

Timmers, Inge; van den Hurk, Job; Di Salle, Francesco; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Jansma, Bernadette M

2011-02-03

387

Using Language Sample Databases  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Over the past 50 years, language sample analysis (LSA) has evolved from a powerful research tool that is used to document children's linguistic development into a powerful clinical tool that is used to identify and describe the language skills of children with language impairment. The Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; J.…

Heilmann, John J.; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann

2010-01-01

388

RAPPORT-BUILDING THROUGH CALL IN TEACHING CHINESE AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY  

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Full Text Available Technological advances have brought about the ever-increasing utilisation of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) media in the learning of a second language (L2). Computer-mediated communication, for example, provides a practical means for extending the learning of spoken language, a challenging process in tonal languages such as Chinese, beyond the realms of the classroom. In order to effectively improve spoken language competency, however, CALL applications must also reproduce the social interaction that lies at the heart of language learning and language use. This study draws on data obtained from the utilisation of CALL in the learning of L2 Chinese to explore whether this medium can be used to extend opportunities for rapport-building in language teaching beyond the face-to-face interaction of the classroom. Rapport's importance lies in its potential to enhance learning, motivate learners, and reduce learner anxiety. To date, CALL's potential in relation to this facet of social interaction remains a neglected area of research. The results of this exploratory study suggest that CALL may help foster learner-teacher rapport and that scaffolding, such as strategically composing rapport-fostering questions in sound-files, is conducive to this outcome. The study provides an instruction model for this application of CALL.

Wenying Jiang; Guy Ramsay

2005-01-01

389

Contribution of Bilingualism in Language Teaching  

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Full Text Available This study is an investigation into the contribution of the use of bilingualism as an aid in learning/teaching English as a foreign language and bilingualism in EFL classroom does not reduce students’ communicative abilities but in effect can assist in teaching and learning process. The study employed a qualitative, interpretive research design involving questionnaires, classroom observations and semi-structured interviews. The data part analyzed the students and the teachers’ expressed responses and beliefs about the role of bilingualism in EFL classes. The findings of the study in general are that bilingualism as a resource in teaching facilitates in learning L2 and helps make more people acknowledge the contribution of bilingualism in EFL classes.

Muhammad Aslam Sipra

2013-01-01

390

Classroom Provision of Corrective Feedback Revisited  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The shift of priority in current second language teaching to boost the use of the targetlanguage for communication, the conception of error as natural product of languagedevelopment that can be self-eliminated with the increase of the amount of exposureto the target language, and the existing problems with feedback provision as observedin the daily classroom practice have jointly given way to a tendency to undervaluethe provision of corrective feedback in adult second language classroom. To say thatadult second language acquisition bears a direct dependence on error correctionseems to be oblivious of the reality, yet the usefulness of the provision of correctivefeedback can hardly be denied. Viewing second language acquisition as cognitive skillacquisition and taking a hypothesis-testing stance, the present paper reinstates thefacilitative role of corrective feedback in adult SLA, particularly in classroomlearning. In respect of the actual provision of corrective feedback in...

Zhaohong Han

391

Towards Python-based Domain-specific Languages for Self-reconfigurable Modular Robotics Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper explores the role of operating system and high-level languages in the development of software and domain-specific languages (DSLs) for self-reconfigurable robotics. We review some of the current trends in self-reconfigurable robotics and describe the development of a software system for ATRON II which utilizes Linux and Python to significantly improve software abstraction and portability while providing some basic features which could prove useful when using Python, either stand-alone or via a DSL, on a self-reconfigurable robot system. These features include transparent socket communication, module identification, easy software transfer and reliable module-to-module communication. The end result is a software platform for modular robots that where appropriate builds on existing work in operating systems, virtual machines, middleware and high-level languages.

Moghadam, Mikael; Johan Christensen, David

2013-01-01

392

Research in knowledge representation for natural language communication and planning assistance. Final report, 18 March 1985-30 September 1988  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

BBN's DARPA project in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Communication and Planning Assistance has two primary objectives: 1) To perform research on aspects of the interaction between users who are making complex decisions and systems that are assisting them with their task. In particular, this research is focused on communication and the reasoning required for performing its underlying task of discourse processing, planning, and plan recognition and communication repair. 2) Based on the research objectives to build tools for communication, plan recognition, and planning assistance and for the representation of knowledge and reasoning that underlie all of these processes. This final report summarizes BBN's research activities performed under this contract in the areas of knowledge representation and speech and natural language. In particular, the report discusses the work in the areas of knowledge representation, planning, and discourse modeling. We describe a parallel truth maintenance system. We provide an extension to the sentential theory of propositional attitudes by adding a sentential semantics. The report also contains a description of our research in discourse modelling in the areas of planning and plan recognition.

Goodman, B.A.; Grosz, B.; Haas, A.; Litman, D.; Reinhardt, T.

1988-11-01

393

Motivating Students in the EFL Classroom: A Case Study of Perspectives  

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Full Text Available Motivating EFL students to develop in the target language is quite complex. In many cases, these students face difficulties in learning English and are often demotivated to learn. Research in classroom motivation has found that certain strategies can help these students adopt more positive attitudes and become more motivated in the learning process. This exploratory study investigates the perceptions through interviewing students and surveying teachers’ views in an EFL Program of the problems that hinder these students’ learning in the English classes related to motivation. Findings show that learners are not motivated to learn English because of an over-focus on writing skills with very little new learning experiences, uninteresting materials, and unclear links between language courses and their majors or future careers. Results also indicate that teachers complain of unmotivated students and pre-structured syllabi leaving little room for communicative methods. Implications are made for the classroom

Rima Bahous; Nahla Bacha; Mona Nabhani

2011-01-01

394

Foreign language training as cognitive therapy for age-related cognitive decline: A hypothesis for future research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the next fifty years, the number of older adults is set to reach record levels. Protecting older adults from the age-related effects of cognitive decline is one of the greatest challenges of the next few decades as it places increasing pressure on families, health systems, and economies on a global scale. The disease-state of age-related cognitive decline-Alzheimer's disease and other dementias-hijacks our consciousness and intellectual autonomy. However, there is evidence that cognitively stimulating activities protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Similarly, bilingualism is also considered to be a safeguard. We propose that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. It is recommended that future research should test this potentially fruitful hypothesis.

Antoniou M; Gunasekera G; Wong PC

2013-09-01

395

EXAMPLES IN THE CLASSROOM: PATTERN CLASSIFICATION USING THE R LANGUAGE/ EJEMPLOS EN EL AULA DE CLASE: CLASIFICACIÓN DE PATRONES USANDO EL LENGUAJE R  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish : En muchos cursos con un fuerte contenido matemático, los estudiantes usualmente experimentan dificultades cuando los conceptos son puestos en práctica para resolver problemas. En nuestra experiencia docente, el lenguaje R para la computación estadística es una poderosa herramienta para ejemplificar algoritmos, resolver problemas numéricos y para ilustrar conceptos usando gráficos complejos En este artículo, se presentan algunos ejemplos no triviales de la aplicac (more) ión del lenguaje R en la enseñanza del curso de clasificación de patrones en nuestra facultad de ingeniería. Abstract in english In many courses with a strong mathematical background, students often experience difficulties when concepts are put into practice to solve problems. In our teaching experience, the R language for statistical computing is a powerful tool for exemplifying algorithms, solving numerical problems, and illustrating concepts by using complex graphics. This paper presents some non-trivial examples of the application of the R language from our instruction of the pattern classification course in our school of engineering.

VELÁSQUEZ HENAO, JUAN DAVID; BRANCH BEDOYA, JOHN WILLIAN

2012-06-01

396

Curriculum reform and the classroom norms  

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Full Text Available Rationale of the study: Turkish curricula have been undergoing a massive change since 2005, especially at primary level. The new curricula set forth certain basic skills that every student at primary level needs to acquire; these skills are: critical and creative thinking, communication, questioning, problem solving, use of information communication technologies, initiation and use of Turkish language eloquently. However, research (Bingolbali et al., 2008; Ozmantar et al., 2008) shows that teachers working at this level experience difficulties in teaching such skills to the students. Hence, the need to help teachers for that matter is obvious. Having recognized this need, this study makes use of the notion of social classroom norms proposed by Cobb and his colleagues (Yackel and Cobb, 1996; Cobb et al., 1997) and suggests that teaching students such skills requires the establishment of certain classroom norms in line with the target skills. Classroom norms could be considered as tacit rules shaped by the interactions and dialogues amongst the agents in the classroom. The norms involve how students and teachers view themselves with regard to teaching and learning activities and what kinds of roles are assigned to the members of the classroom. Norms also reflect value judgements and determine what is important in a classroom regarding teaching and learning.The purpose of the study: This paper aims to demonstrate how the notion of social classroom norms can be used to enable the teachers to get students equipped with the basic skills (e.g. critical thinking and questioning skills) that the new curricula set forth.Method: This is a qualitative study which involves document analysis. To determine the kind of classroom norms, official documents concerning the new curricula are subjected to the content analysis. Further to this, literature (Cobb et al., 1997; Tsai, 2004 & 2007) on classroom norms is examined and the norms developed and used in classrooms by others are evaluated along with the basic skills. The analyses are carried out independently by each of the authors who determined such norms as they think are necessary for basic skills to develop. The determined norms are later compared and contrasted along with the targeted skills by the curricula. The norms are finalized through the agreement of all the authors and the relations between the determined norms and every each of basic skills are detailed.Results: The analyses of the official documents and details of the basic skills given in those documents lead to the development of eight classroom norms which, we believe, need to be existent in each and every classroom concerned with teaching the students these skills. The determined norms are as follows:1. Explanation of the ideas (i.e. solutions, arguments and explanations)2. Justification of the arguments3. Sharing the ideas without any fear4. Making real effort to understand the others’ ideas5. Stating agreement or disagreement with the ideas shared in the classrooms6. Stating explicitly what is understood and what is not7. Developing alternative solutions8. Questioning the validity of the argumentsThese norms are closely related to each other and every one of them needs to be established in the classrooms in order to create an environment in which students find opportunities to gain the basic skills that the new curricula aim. The use and importance of these norms are exemplified through dialogues obtained from Cobb et al’s (1997) study. The dialogues take place in a mathematics class where a teacher tries to establish similar norms as proposed in this study. The dialogues are examined in terms of both the norms and the basic skills in such a way to exemplify the relationships amongst them.Discussion: The discussion addresses teachers with regard to creating particular classroom cultures through the determined classroom norms and how these norms can be used to help students to obtain the basic skills. It is argued that the new roles that the curricula assign to the teacher and students during t

Mehmet Fatih Özmantar; Erhan Bingölbali; Servet Demir; Y?lmaz Sa?lam; Zehra Keser

2009-01-01

397

Colloquium--Toward a Reconceptualization of "Language" and "Acquisition" in SLA Research  

Science.gov (United States)

|Held at the American Association for Applied Linguistics Annual Conference, Denver, CO, USA; 21 March 2009. This all-day colloquium was part of an ongoing discussion of ways that methods and frameworks from micro-ethnography, Conversation Analysis (CA), and Vygotskian Sociocultural Theory are re-specifying "language" and "acquisition" from a…

Hellermann, John; Olsher, David

2010-01-01

398

Changes to English as an Additional Language Writers' Research Articles: From Spoken to Written Register  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of writing journal articles is increasingly being seen as a collaborative process, especially where the authors are English as an Additional Language (EAL) academics. This study examines the changes made in terms of register to EAL writers' journal articles by a native-speaker writing centre advisor at a private university in Turkey.…

Koyalan, Aylin; Mumford, Simon

2011-01-01

399

Colloquium--Toward a Reconceptualization of "Language" and "Acquisition" in SLA Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Held at the American Association for Applied Linguistics Annual Conference, Denver, CO, USA; 21 March 2009. This all-day colloquium was part of an ongoing discussion of ways that methods and frameworks from micro-ethnography, Conversation Analysis (CA), and Vygotskian Sociocultural Theory are re-specifying "language" and "acquisition" from a…

Hellermann, John; Olsher, David

2010-01-01

400

Use of the A&HCI to evaluate research in minority language literatures : the case of Catalan and Danish literature  

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Full Text Available Purpose. The tools for measuring the research impact are of little use in disciplines such as history and literature, which have a strong cultural, linguistic and regional component and often use channels of academic communication in languages other than English. The aim of this article is to provide a methodological contribution to the use of WoS data bases showing that it is nevertheless possible to obtain quantitative information on these disciplines through the A&HCI if a suitable strategy is used. We also wish to stress the need to improve the coverage of citation databases in humanities and the information retrieval tools that they include. The cases of Catalan and Danish literature are used as examples. -- Methodology. To carry out this research we have created a protocol that could be employed as a general way for the study of any other literature from citations databases. This method consists of complementing the search for subject categories of Catalan and Danish literature as topics in the A&HCI with a list of outstanding authors in each of the two languages. -- Findings. We identify international trends in Catalan and Danish literature research. We also determine the international visibility of the studies in comparison with those of other literatures. Research into literature in Catalan and Danish literature does not seem to be gaining ground internationally. The results are in agreement with those of previous studies, which proves the efficacy of the proposed method.

Ardanuy Baró, Jordi; Urbano Salido, Cristóbal; Quintana Trias, Lluís

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Motivation and the Foreign Language In Greek State Primary School Context  

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Full Text Available The first step towards the acquisition of a foreign language is largely determined by the motivational factors present in the classroom, both with regard to the learner and with regard to the teacher. However, there are motivational factors that extend beyond classroom boundaries. The learner group, the parents and the philosophy of the school itself are three of these external factors. The aim of this small-scale research was to confirm the assumption that these three factors can heavily influence the motivation of students attending foreign language classes in the context of a State Primary School in Greece. The theoretical background supporting this assumption is considered in our presentation. Moreover, the data deriving from questionnaires distributed to learners, parents and the teaching staff reveal the extent of the influence that these three groups exercise on learners’ motivation and on the increase of their interest in the foreign language.

Kanela Kyriakoulia

2010-01-01

402

Gruppeorganiseret og selvstyret fremmedsprogstilegnelse. Et undervisningseksperiment pa RUC [and] Skolesprogene. Om fremmedsprogenes status og funktion i gymnasiet. ROLIG Papir 22 (Group Organized and Self Managed Foreign Language Acquisition. A Research Project at RUC [and] School Languages. On the Status and Function of Foreign Languages in Secondary Schools. ROLIG Paper 22).  

Science.gov (United States)

Two articles highlight different issues on foreign language learning and instruction in Denmark. The first article describes a research project at Roskilde University Center that focuses on group organized and self managed foreign language acquisition. The idea for the project came about as a result of concern over problems related to foreign…

Jakobsen, Karen Sonne

403

Research Results in Three Large Televised FLES Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Three research projects conducted by three major televised FLES programs attempted to assess the effect of follow-up activities by the classroom teacher. The programs involved in the projects were "Parlons Francais," the University of Illinois Foreign Language Instruction Project (Spanish), and the Denver-Stanford Project on the Context of…

Randall, E.S.

404

Foreign Language Usage by Secondary Education EFL Teachers  

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Full Text Available In the last few decades there is growing interest in pre- and in- service teacher education which aims to help teachers keep up to date with new trends and developments in the field of education. Although this movement has resulted in upgraded approaches to the design and implementation of teacher training courses, most of them focus mainly on theoretical and methodological issues neglecting the systematic improvement and development of English teachers’ language proficiency and competence. However, it is a reality that several teachers sometimes feel uncomfortable with using the foreign language inside and outside the classroom. The present research investigates how comfortable teachers feel with their foreign language proficiency, whether their confidence in using it influences in any way their teaching practices and whether there is a need for in-service teacher training courses targeting teachers’ language development and improvement. From the analysis of the research data we are able to assume that teachers of English feel that there are deficiencies in their foreign language proficiency and competence and admit that their participation in training courses targeting their language development would improve not only their language proficiency but their actual teaching practices as well.

Sophia Kakavoula

2010-01-01

405

ENGLISH LANGUAGE ANXIETY: AN INVESTIGATION ON ITS CAUSES AND THE INFLUENCE IT POURS ON COMMUNICATION IN THE TARGET LANGUAGE  

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Full Text Available That anxiety has an influential effect on learning English language is undeniable. It has been observed through different research activities that most of the students in English language classrooms experience anxiety that results in stuttering and fast heart beating. The wide-spread use of English language and the use of communicative language teaching have increased the demand to have a good command over English but existence of such anxiety prevent, most of the time , them from achieving the expected goal. To achieve the desired goal, the responsibility of a language teacher is deemed highly important in order to assist the learners. This qualitative study has attempted to investigate the factors that language anxiety can possibly stem from learning environment and has recommended a variety of strategies to cope with it. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews with four individuals who have been learning English for several years. Findings of the study exhibit the basic causes of English learning anxiety from the learners’ perspectives as well as the effects of it. Furthermore, considering the important role of teachers in foreign language pedagogy, a need has been felt to investigate the beliefs and perceptions of language teachers about learning and teaching English.

Dr. T. Karunakaran; Md. Masud Rana; Manwarul Haq

2013-01-01

406

Multicultural science education in Lesotho high school biology classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated how Basotho high school biology students responded to a multicultural science education (MCSE) approach. Students' home language---Sesotho---and cultural experiences were integrated into the teaching of a unit on alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD) abuse. The focus was on students whose cultural background is African and who are English second language users. The study was conducted in three high school biology classrooms in Lesotho where the ATOD unit was taught using MCSE. A fourth biology classroom was observed for comparison purposes. In this classroom the regular biology teacher taught ATOD using typical instructional strategies. The study was framed by the general question: How does a multicultural science education approach affect Basotho high school biology students? More specifically: How does the use of Sesotho (or code-switching between Sesotho and English) and integration of Basotho students' cultural knowledge and experiences with respect to ATOD affect students' learning? In particular how does the approach affect students' participation and academic performance? A qualitative research method was used in this study. Data were drawn from a number of different sources and analyzed inductively. The data sources included field-notes, transcripts of ATOD lessons, research assistant lesson observation notes and interviews, regular biology teachers' interviews and notes from observing a few of their lessons, students' interviews and pre and posttest scripts, and other school documents that recorded students' performance throughout the year. Using the students' home language---Sesotho---was beneficial in that it enabled them to share ideas, communicate better and understand each other, the teacher and the material that was taught. Integrating students' cultural and everyday experiences was beneficial because it enabled students to anchor the new ATOD ideas in what was familiar and helped them find the relevance of the unit by connecting it with their socio-cultural and personal circumstances. But students had misgivings about the usefulness of their home language in preparing them for external COSC biology examinations. Students' classroom participation increased. Overall academic performance of students who experienced MCSE increased significantly. Performance on individual questions varied depending on whether they were related to cultural and everyday life experiences.

Nthathakane, Malefu Christina

2001-12-01

407

Vygotskian Approaches to Second Language Research provides an introduction to the Vygotskianperspective (also called "Socio-cultural Theory"- SCT) on second language (SL) Vygotskian Approaches to Second Language Research provides an introduction to the Vygotskianperspective (also called "Socio-cultural Theory"- SCT) on second language (SL)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available studies by presenting some studies which adopted this point of view to carry out different types of second language related research. The main tenet of Vygotskian Theory (Vygotsky, 1978, 1986) is that human cognition is socially developed and constructed; thus, this approach offers the possibility of bringing together the cognitive and social domains, traditionally separated in human sciences. The book can be divided into two parts: a theoretical Chapter 1, and nine chapters that report on empirical studies carried out within the Vygotskian perspective studies by presenting some studies which adopted this point of view to carry out different types of second language related research. The main tenet of Vygotskian Theory (Vygotsky, 1978, 1986) is that human cognition is socially developed and constructed; thus, this approach offers the possibility of bringing together the cognitive and social domains, traditionally separated in human sciences. The book can be divided into two parts: a theoretical Chapter 1, and nine chapters that report on empirical studies carried out within the Vygotskian perspective

Gloria Gil

2008-01-01

408

CRIMEAN TATAR LANGUAGE: RESEARCHES ON SUDAK DIALECTS / KIRIM TATARCASI: SUDAK A?IZLARI ÜZER?NE ARA?TIRMALAR  

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Full Text Available The aims of our researches are; to analyze the characteristics of Sudak dialects, which are still spoken in the Crimea Peninsula as the prolongation of Anatolian dialects, to examine the differences between Sudak dialects and other dialects in the group of Southern dialects, and to define the role of these dialects in the history of Crimean Tatar Language. In analyzing the characteristics of dialects spoken in the region, the type records, which included the interviews of inhabitants, who had lived in the region before the 1944 mass deportation and managed to come back later, the folk songs of the region and the various written sources of ours were used.

Dr. Niyar KURTB?LAL

2007-01-01

409

A sala de aula como campo de pesquisa: aproximações e a utilização de equipamentos digitais The classroom as a research field: approximations and the use of digital equipment  

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Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta considerações de ordem metodológica sobre pesquisas de observação de sala de aula realizadas na cidade de São Paulo, em 2002 e 2005, e em duas cidades francesas, no ano letivo 2006-2007. Com base na metodologia utilizada nessas pesquisas e no diálogo com a bibliografia sobre pesquisas de campo, inclusive de outras áreas, os autores analisam as dificuldades enfrentadas nesse contexto e propõem a utilização de equipamentos digitais em campo como contribuição ao rigor e à validade desse tipo de pesquisa. Na primeira parte do artigo, são discutidos problemas fundamentais da pesquisa de observação de sala de aula, como o estranhamento do familiar, a conquista da " solidariedade" e da " camaradagem" dos atores de campo e o estabelecimento de certa diferença entre observação e interpretação. Na segunda parte, são apresentados equipamentos digitais utilizados nas pesquisas citadas que não apenas agilizam ou facilitam o ofício do pesquisador. O uso desses equipamentos, orientado por uma metodologia que lhes dê sentido, pode auxiliar os pesquisadores de sala de aula a ampliar significativamente o rigor e a validade de seu trabalho ao multiplicar as possibilidades de criação de tipos de fonte de dados. Nessa parte do artigo, é discutido o uso de palmtops, gravadores de áudio e câmeras fotográficas digitais, smartphones, microcâmeras sem fio, notebooks e editores de áudio e vídeo em pesquisas de observação de sala de aula.This article offers considerations of a methodological order about classroom observation studies carried out in 2002 and 2005 in the city of São Paulo and in the 2006/2007 academic year in two French cities. Based on the methodology employed in these studies, and on a dialogue with the literature on fieldworks, including those from other areas, the authors analyze the difficulties faced within this context and propose the use of digital equipment in the field as a contribution to the rigor and validity of this kind of research. In the first part of the article, fundamental problems of the research involving classroom observation are discussed, such as the perplexity with the familiar, the conquest of the " solidarity" and " camaraderie" of the field agents, and the establishment of a difference between observation and interpretation. The second part of the text describes digital equipment used in the above-mentioned studies which do more than just speed up or facilitate the task of the researcher. The use of these equipments, guided by a methodology that gives them meaning, can help researchers in the classrooms to expand significantly the rigor and validity of their work by multiplying the possibilities of creating types of data sources. This part of the article discusses the use of palmtops, audio recorders and digital cameras, smartphones, wireless micro-cameras, notebooks, and audio and video editors in researches involving classroom observation.

Oldimar Cardoso; Sonia Teresinha de Sousa Penin

2009-01-01

410

A sala de aula como campo de pesquisa: aproximações e a utilização de equipamentos digitais/ The classroom as a research field: approximations and the use of digital equipment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta considerações de ordem metodológica sobre pesquisas de observação de sala de aula realizadas na cidade de São Paulo, em 2002 e 2005, e em duas cidades francesas, no ano letivo 2006-2007. Com base na metodologia utilizada nessas pesquisas e no diálogo com a bibliografia sobre pesquisas de campo, inclusive de outras áreas, os autores analisam as dificuldades enfrentadas nesse contexto e propõem a utilização de equipamentos digitais em campo (more) como contribuição ao rigor e à validade desse tipo de pesquisa. Na primeira parte do artigo, são discutidos problemas fundamentais da pesquisa de observação de sala de aula, como o estranhamento do familiar, a conquista da " solidariedade" e da " camaradagem" dos atores de campo e o estabelecimento de certa diferença entre observação e interpretação. Na segunda parte, são apresentados equipamentos digitais utilizados nas pesquisas citadas que não apenas agilizam ou facilitam o ofício do pesquisador. O uso desses equipamentos, orientado por uma metodologia que lhes dê sentido, pode auxiliar os pesquisadores de sala de aula a ampliar significativamente o rigor e a validade de seu trabalho ao multiplicar as possibilidades de criação de tipos de fonte de dados. Nessa parte do artigo, é discutido o uso de palmtops, gravadores de áudio e câmeras fotográficas digitais, smartphones, microcâmeras sem fio, notebooks e editores de áudio e vídeo em pesquisas de observação de sala de aula. Abstract in english This article offers considerations of a methodological order about classroom observation studies carried out in 2002 and 2005 in the city of São Paulo and in the 2006/2007 academic year in two French cities. Based on the methodology employed in these studies, and on a dialogue with the literature on fieldworks, including those from other areas, the authors analyze the difficulties faced within this context and propose the use of digital equipment in the field as a contri (more) bution to the rigor and validity of this kind of research. In the first part of the article, fundamental problems of the research involving classroom observation are discussed, such as the perplexity with the familiar, the conquest of the " solidarity" and " camaraderie" of the field agents, and the establishment of a difference between observation and interpretation. The second part of the text describes digital equipment used in the above-mentioned studies which do more than just speed up or facilitate the task of the researcher. The use of these equipments, guided by a methodology that gives them meaning, can help researchers in the classrooms to expand significantly the rigor and validity of their work by multiplying the possibilities of creating types of data sources. This part of the article discusses the use of palmtops, audio recorders and digital cameras, smartphones, wireless micro-cameras, notebooks, and audio and video editors in researches involving classroom observation.

Cardoso, Oldimar; Penin, Sonia Teresinha de Sousa

2009-04-01

411

A Case Study of a Foreign Language Learner with Severe Learning Problem: The Role of Anxiety  

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Full Text Available This study is a case study of a foreign language learner with severe learning problem. After selecting the subject, he was interviewed by the researcher for some sessions. The researcher discussed the items of some valid questionnaires about anxiety. Some parts of the so called interview were taped with the learner's collaboration and consciousness. Then the results were analyzed by classifying the items of the questionnaire and taking into account the cross check items. It was found that the participant was suffering from anxiety in English language classrooms.

Farid Ghaemi; Naeemeh Kharaghani

2011-01-01

412

Constructivism in Practice: The Case for English Language Learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-CN; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;">A classroom of diverse learners with diverse language b...

Nyaradzo H. Mvududu; Jennifer Thiel-Burgess

413

GLOBAL EDUCATION: WHAT TEACHERS CAN DO IN THE CLASSROOMS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article will give examples of what teachers of second language can do to implement global education, especially peace and environmental education in the classrooms in university level. This is an attempt to give a new meaning to the same materials used in the classrooms. Besides enabling the s...

Julia Eka Rini

414

The Language Grid  

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This volume presents an overview of relevant research results and development involving the Language Grid -- an initiative to build an infrastructure where end users can create composite language services for intercultural collaboration.

Ishida, Toru

2011-01-01

415

Foreign Language Teaching in Rudolf Steiner Schools. Guidelines for Class-Teachers and Language Teachers. First Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is intended for foreign language teachers interested in the approaches used in Rudolf Steiner schools, and also classroom teachers who teach foreign languages. Chapters address these issues: what the language lesson is to achieve; how the language lesson differs from other lessons; lesson design; examples of actual lessons; avoiding the…

Stott, Michael

416

Using News Articles to Build a Critical Literacy Classroom in an EFL Setting  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines an effort to support critical literacy in an English as a foreign language (EFL) setting by analyzing one college EFL reading classroom in which students read and responded to articles from "The New Yorker". Data include transcribed audiotapes of classroom interaction and interviews with students, classroom materials, and…

Park, Yujong

2011-01-01

417

"You Need Some Laugh Bones!": Leveraging AAL in a High School English Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine how a White teacher (Gina) responded to African American Language (AAL) in ways that situated students as valuable members of a high school English classroom. This 5-month qualitative study in a 10th grade classroom drew from positioning theory and discourse analysis to make sense of classroom interactions…

Vetter, Amy

2013-01-01

418

A child's development of interactional competence in a Swedish L2 classroom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores a child's emergent second language (L2) interactional competence during her first year in a Swedish immersion classroom. Within the theoretical framework of situated learning, it focuses on how she acquires expertise in a specific classroom practice: multiparty classroom talk. Th...

Cekaite Thunqvist, Asta

419

Are Classroom and Naturalistic Acquisition the Same? A Study of the Classroom Acquisition of German Word Rules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on a study of the classroom acquisition of German word order by adult learners. Results of the study support the claim that classroom and naturalistic second language acquisition of complex grammatical features such as word order follow similar routes. (50 references) (Author/OD)

Ellis, Rod

1989-01-01

420

Chaos/ Complexity Theory in Second Language Acquisition  

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Full Text Available System theory explores items in terms of their internal connectivities (interactions) and externalrelationships with their surroundings. It is argued that EFL research should be built on recent advances in scientificthinking and adopt systems theory for the purposes of investigating the English language classroom so that a morecomprehensive picture of the factors involved in learning can be drawn. Unlike some traditional scientificapproaches that analyze systems in isolation, chaos / complexity theory (C / CT) considers the synthesis of emergingwholes of their individual components. From unpredictable interactions larger structures emerge, taking on newforms. In this article, a brief look at chaos / complexity theory and its application on second language acquisition as adynamic and complex process is evaluated. While doing that, Larsen-Freeman’s (1997) work is used as the main textfor discussion.

Nasrin Hadidi TAMJID

2007-01-01