WorldWideScience
1

Flame-resistant kapok fiber manufactured using gamma ray  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Owing to homogeneous hollow tube shape and hydrophobicity of kapok fiber, the usages of this fiber are various such as fiberfill in pillows, quilts, non-woven fabric for oil spill cleanup and plastic green house. Even though kapok fiber is able to apply various industrial usages, it has a serious disadvantage which is the extreme sensitivity to spark or flame. Therefore, we try to make flame-resistant kapok fiber using gamma ray. The radiation caused loss of hydrophobic compounds in kapok fiber and no morphological change, especially fine hollow tube shape, was observed. The lignin contents were negligible changed after gamma irradiation. However, the building units of lignin polymer such as coniferyl alcohol, and sinapyl alcohol were significantly changed that is, functional group as a methoxyl group from lignin polymer was cleaved by gamma irradiation. Based on the results of removal of hydrophobic compounds and cleavage of methoxyl group from lignin polymer, kapok fiber can be converted into a flame-resistant fiber by gamma ray treatment.

Chung, Byung Yeoup; Hyeong, Min Ho; An, Byung Chull; Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Seung Sik; Kim, Jin-Hong; Kim, Jae-Sung [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI), Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Hoon [Department of Herbal Medicinal Pharmacology, Daegu Haany University 712-715 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae-Young [Department of Applied Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: soilcosmos@chonbuk.co.kr

2009-07-15

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Flame-resistant kapok fiber manufactured using gamma ray  

Science.gov (United States)

Owing to homogeneous hollow tube shape and hydrophobicity of kapok fiber, the usages of this fiber are various such as fiberfill in pillows, quilts, non-woven fabric for oil spill cleanup and plastic green house. Even though kapok fiber is able to apply various industrial usages, it has a serious disadvantage which is the extreme sensitivity to spark or flame. Therefore, we try to make flame-resistant kapok fiber using gamma ray. The radiation caused loss of hydrophobic compounds in kapok fiber and no morphological change, especially fine hollow tube shape, was observed. The lignin contents were negligible changed after gamma irradiation. However, the building units of lignin polymer such as coniferyl alcohol, and sinapyl alcohol were significantly changed that is, functional group as a methoxyl group from lignin polymer was cleaved by gamma irradiation. Based on the results of removal of hydrophobic compounds and cleavage of methoxyl group from lignin polymer, kapok fiber can be converted into a flame-resistant fiber by gamma ray treatment.

Chung, Byung Yeoup; Hyeong, Min Ho; An, Byung Chull; Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Seung Sik; Kim, Jin-Hong; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Cho, Jae-Young

2009-07-01

3

Flame-resistant kapok fiber manufactured using gamma ray  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Owing to homogeneous hollow tube shape and hydrophobicity of kapok fiber, the usages of this fiber are various such as fiberfill in pillows, quilts, non-woven fabric for oil spill cleanup and plastic green house. Even though kapok fiber is able to apply various industrial usages, it has a serious disadvantage which is the extreme sensitivity to spark or flame. Therefore, we try to make flame-resistant kapok fiber using gamma ray. The radiation caused loss of hydrophobic compounds in kapok fiber and no morphological change, especially fine hollow tube shape, was observed. The lignin contents were negligible changed after gamma irradiation. However, the building units of lignin polymer such as coniferyl alcohol, and sinapyl alcohol were significantly changed that is, functional group as a methoxyl group from lignin polymer was cleaved by gamma irradiation. Based on the results of removal of hydrophobic compounds and cleavage of methoxyl group from lignin polymer, kapok fiber can be converted into a flame-resistant fiber by gamma ray treatment.

4

The development of nonwoven fabric and agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber for industrial usages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this project is the development of nonwoven fabric using natural kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for industrial usages and the development of manufacturing techniques for nursery bed soil using kapok fiber. Research scopes include the development of agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber and nonwoven fabric using kapok fiber. Main results are as follow; the physico-chemical characterization of kapok fiber (water holding capacity, bulk density, water retention curve, viscoelastic measurement, oil adsorption capacity, analysis of essential elements, measurement of anion and cation); the physico-chemical characterization of kapok bed soil; the evidence experiment of kapok bed soil; the optimum content of kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for nonwoven fabric; establishment of the optimum radiation dose for manufacturing kapok nonwoven fabric

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The development of nonwoven fabric and agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber for industrial usages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this project is the development of nonwoven fabric using natural kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for industrial usages and the development of manufacturing techniques for nursery bed soil using kapok fiber. Research scopes include the development of agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber and nonwoven fabric using kapok fiber. Main results are as follow; the physico-chemical characterization of kapok fiber (water holding capacity, bulk density, water retention curve, viscoelastic measurement, oil adsorption capacity, analysis of essential elements, measurement of anion and cation); the physico-chemical characterization of kapok bed soil; the evidence experiment of kapok bed soil; the optimum content of kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for nonwoven fabric; establishment of the optimum radiation dose for manufacturing kapok nonwoven fabric

Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Seung Sik

2010-01-15

6

KAPOK I: CHARACTERISTCS OF KAPOK FIBER AS A POTENTIAL PULP SOURCE FOR PAPERMAKING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential use of kapok fiber for pulping and papermaking has been investigated. The kapok fibers were cooked using the optimal dosage of sodium hydroxide determined from the experiments. Then, the pulp was refined with two passes using a disc refiner and mixed with commercial hardwood pulp and/or softwood pulp at different blend ratios to make papers. It was found that addition of the kapok pulp to the mixed pulps improved the tensile and burst strengths of the sheets but decreased the tear resistance and elongation. Water repellency of the sheets prepared from the kapok pulp mixed with the commercial pulps was also improved. These results indicate that kapok fiber can be a quality pulp source for papermaking, especially for packaging paper requiring strength and water repellency.

Somporn Chaiarrekij,

2011-11-01

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KAPOK I: CHARACTERISTCS OF KAPOK FIBER AS A POTENTIAL PULP SOURCE FOR PAPERMAKING  

OpenAIRE

The potential use of kapok fiber for pulping and papermaking has been investigated. The kapok fibers were cooked using the optimal dosage of sodium hydroxide determined from the experiments. Then, the pulp was refined with two passes using a disc refiner and mixed with commercial hardwood pulp and/or softwood pulp at different blend ratios to make papers. It was found that addition of the kapok pulp to the mixed pulps improved the tensile and burst strengths of the sheets but decreased the te...

Somporn Chaiarrekij,; Apiporn Apirakchaiskul,; Kuntinee Suvarnakich,; Suda Kiatkamjornwong

2011-01-01

8

Superhydrophobicity determines the buoyancy performance of kapok fiber aggregates  

Science.gov (United States)

Superhydrophobicity is commonly regarded as a surface property that has important consequences for self-cleaning applications. Here we show interestingly that the superhydrophobicity is closely connected to the bulk buoyancy performance of kapok fiber aggregates, a natural material endowed with superhydrophobicity and extraordinary high porosity. First of all, we have determined the superhydrophobicity of a single kapok fiber, which can be ascribed to its micro-nano-binary structure (MNBS) and the thin hydrophobic paraffinic wax layer covered on the surface. Second, based on classic capillary and wicking theory, the buoyancy performance of the kapok fiber aggregates can be modeled and we demonstrate that their buoyancy performance is actually determined by the superhydrophobicity of individual kapok fibers. Our results also suggest an optimized density ˜0.015 g cm-3 for using kapok fiber aggregates as the lightest natural buoyancy.

Zhang, Xiaoyan; Fu, Wangyang; Duan, Chunting; Xiao, Hong; Shi, Meiwu; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian

2013-02-01

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Coated kapok fiber for removal of spilled oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A low-cost and biodegradable oil absorbent based on kapok fiber was prepared. ? The polymer-coated kapok fiber showed higher oil sorption capacity. ? Coated kapok fiber can be reused and the absorbed oil can be easily recovered. ? Adsorption of oil is spontaneous and exothermic physisorption and chemisorption. -- Abstract: Based on raw kapok fiber, two kinds of oil absorbers with high sorption capacity were prepared by a facile solution–immersion process. The coated polymer with low surface energy and rough fiber surface play important role in the retention of oil. The as-prepared fiber can quickly absorb gasoline, diesel, soybean oil, and paraffin oil up to above 74.5%, 66.8%, 64.4% and 47.8% of oil sorption capacity of raw fiber, respectively. The absorbed oils can be easily recovered by a simple vacuum filtration and the recovered coated-fiber still can be used for several cycles without obvious loss in oil sorption capacity. The thermodynamic study indicates that the adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic, with complex physisorption and chemisorption. The results suggest that the coated fiber can be used as a low-cost alternative for the removal of oil spilled on water surface

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Synthesis and Characterization of Kapok Fibers and its Composites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the developing countries are very rich in agricultural and natural fiber. Natural fibers are lignocellulosic in nature. These composites are gaining importance due to their non-carcinogenic and biodegradable in nature. The natural fiber reinforced composite are dominated over the conventional composites because of the main advantage of low cost. Polymeric materials reinforced with natural fibers provide advantages of high stiffness and strength to weight ratio as compared to conventional construction materials. Natural fiber reinforced composites have gained popularity nowadays because of their processing advantage and good technical properties. The present work includes the processing, characterization of kapok fiber reinforced epoxy composites. Keeping in this view the present study has been undertaken to develop a polymer matrix composite (epoxy matrix and kapok fiber (Reinforcement and to study its structural and electrical properties. This study is concerned to investigate the percentage of crystallinity, surface structure, dielectric constant, dielectric loss and resistivity.

Dillip Kumar Bisoyi

2012-01-01

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Effect of jute and kapok fibers on properties of thermoplastic cassava starch composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? TPCS matrix was reinforced by the low (jute) and high (kapok) absorbency cellulosic fibers. ? Water absorption of the TPCS/jute and TPCS/kapok fiber composites decreases. ? Stress and Young’s modulus of the TPCS/jute and TPCS/kapok fiber composites increase. ? Thermal degradation temperature of the TPCS/kapok fiber composite decreases. - Abstract: Since mechanical properties and water uptake of biodegradable thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS) was still the main disadvantages for many applications. The TPCS matrix was, therefore, reinforced by two types of cellulosic fibers, i.e. jute or kapok fibers; classified as the low and high oil absorbency characteristics, respectively. The TPCS, plasticized by glycerol, was compounded by internal mixer and shaped by compression molding machine. It was found that water absorption of the TPCS/jute fiber and TPCS/kapok fiber composites was clearly reduced by the addition of the cellulosic fibers. Moreover, stress at maximum load and Young’s modulus of the composites increased significantly by the incorporation of both jute and kapok fibers. Thermal degradation temperature, determined from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), of the TPCS matrix increased by the addition of jute fibers; however, thermal degradation temperature decreased by the addition of kapok fibers. Functional group analysis and morphology of the TPCS/jute fiber and TPCS/kapok fiber composites were also examined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques

12

Coated kapok fiber for removal of spilled oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on raw kapok fiber, two kinds of oil absorbers with high sorption capacity were prepared by a facile solution-immersion process. The coated polymer with low surface energy and rough fiber surface play important role in the retention of oil. The as-prepared fiber can quickly absorb gasoline, diesel, soybean oil, and paraffin oil up to above 74.5%, 66.8%, 64.4% and 47.8% of oil sorption capacity of raw fiber, respectively. The absorbed oils can be easily recovered by a simple vacuum filtration and the recovered coated-fiber still can be used for several cycles without obvious loss in oil sorption capacity. The thermodynamic study indicates that the adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic, with complex physisorption and chemisorption. The results suggest that the coated fiber can be used as a low-cost alternative for the removal of oil spilled on water surface. PMID:23419751

Wang, Jintao; Zheng, Yian; Wang, Aiqin

2013-04-15

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Investigation of acetylated kapok fibers on the sorption of oil in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kapok fibers have been acetylated for oil spill cleanup in the aqueous environment. The structures of raw and acetylated kapok fiber were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Without severe damage to the lumen structures, the kapok fibers were successfully acetylated and the resulting fibers exhibited a better oil sorption capacity than raw fibers for diesel and soybean oil. Compared with high viscosity soybean oil, low viscosity diesel shows a better affinity to the surface of acetylated fibers. Sorption kinetics is fitted well by the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium data can be described by the Freundlich isotherm model. The results implied that acetylated kapok fiber can be used as the substitute for non-biodegradable oil sorption materials. PMID:23596942

Wang, Jintao; Zheng, Yian; Wang, Aiqin

2013-02-01

14

Mechanical properties testing of kapok fiber and its SiO2 composite  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural fiber polymer composites have various potential applications because of its particular property. In this paper, the template technique is employed to prepare SiO2/kapok fiber composite and the mechanical properties of the kapok fibril and its composite are presented. The mechanical tests are carried out on a probe platform which consists of a micro probe with a sharp tip, a micro-force sensor, and a micromanipulator and operates under an optical microscope. The probe platform has a high accurate load and displacement resolutions that are able to meet the requirements of the measurements. During the tests, the probe is controlled by the manipulator to exert lateral force at the midpoint of the kapok fibers which is clamed as a tension spring on a frame. The force is detected by the force sensor and consecutive deformation images of kapok and SiO2/kapok fibers are acquired by the optical microscopic systems. From consistently fitting the measured deformation profiles follows the more accurate calculation model. Thus, the mechanical properties, such as the load-displacement (stress-strain) curve, the elastic modulus of the kapok and SiO2/kapok fibers under different gripping conditions are obtained.

Xia, Re; Li, Xide

2008-11-01

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Study of oil sorption behavior of filled and structured fiber assemblies made from polypropylene, kapok and milkweed fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on oil sorption behavior of fiber assemblies made up of single natural and synthetic fibers as well as blend of natural and synthetic fibers when tested with high density oil and diesel oil. A series of filled fiber assemblies were prepared from 100% polypropylene, kapok, and milkweed fibers and another series of bonded structured fiber assemblies were prepared from a 70/30 blend of kapok and polypropylene fibers and a 70/30 blend of milkweed and polypropylene fibers. It was observed that the porosity of the fiber assemblies played a very important role in determining its oil sorption capacity. The polypropylene fiber assembly exhibited the highest sorption capacity (g/g) followed by the kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies at porosity diesel oil. As the kapok and milkweed fiber have low cellulose content, hence their slow degradation is an advantage in fresh and marine water applications. The good sorption capacity of kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies along with their bio-degradable nature offer great scope for structuring them into fiber assemblies with large porosity and uniform pores to have efficient oil sorbents. PMID:21146290

Rengasamy, R S; Das, Dipayan; Karan, C Praba

2011-02-15

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Occupational asthma following kapok exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether a distinct kapok allergen exists or whether the fiber's allergenicity is due to contamination by other allergens has never been resolved. Several years ago, we evaluated a patient who appeared to develop occupational asthma to kapok. We performed an environmental assessment, cross-shift spirometric testing of the patient's co-workers, and the first reported bronchoprovocation challenge with kapok. The disappearance of the patient's asthma following cessation of kapok exposure, with now 7 years of follow-up, our inability to incriminate any other agent, and the patient's positive specific bronchoprovocation challenge strengthen the evidence, but do not prove definitively, that kapok fiber itself is allergenic. PMID:8040150

Kern, D G; Kohn, R

1994-01-01

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Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the removal of oil from water using superhydrophobic kapok fiber.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, an oil sorbent based on superhydrophobic kapok fiber fabricated by the sol-gel method was used for the selective sorption of oil from the surface of artificial seawater. The effects of process parameters such as seawater pH, seawater temperature, and contact time on the extent of oil sorption were investigated. The as-prepared fiber showed higher oil sorption capacity than raw fiber in both the trenchant acid and alkaline seawater environment. Results of the kinetic studies show that the sorption process follows pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics. The thermodynamic investigations demonstrate that the sorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. In addition, the as-prepared fiber can float on the water surface after the sorption of oil, which facilitates the post-processing of oil-loaded fiber. The modified fiber might provide a simple method for the removal and collection of oil on the water surface. PMID:24851332

Wang, Jintao; Zheng, Yian; Wang, Aiqin

2014-04-01

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Synthesis and Characterization of Kapok Fibers and its Composites  

OpenAIRE

Most of the developing countries are very rich in agricultural and natural fiber. Natural fibers are lignocellulosic in nature. These composites are gaining importance due to their non-carcinogenic and biodegradable in nature. The natural fiber reinforced composite are dominated over the conventional composites because of the main advantage of low cost. Polymeric materials reinforced with natural fibers provide advantages of high stiffness and strength to weight ratio as compared to conventio...

Dillip Kumar Bisoyi; John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan; Ganesh Kumar Mani

2012-01-01

19

Potential of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok fiber) as a resource for second generation bioethanol: effect of various simple pretreatment methods on sugar production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of bioethanol currently has increased tremendously as it can reduce the total dependency on fossil-fuels, especially gasoline, in the transportation sector. In this study, Ceiba pentandra (kapok fiber) was introduced as a new resource for bioethanol production. The results of chemical composition analysis showed that the cellulose (alpha- and beta-) contents were 50.7%. The glucose composition of the fiber was 59.8%. The high glucose content indicated that kapok fiber is a potential substrate for bioethanol production. However, without a pretreatment, the kapok fiber only yielded 0.8% of reducing sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis. Thus, it is necessary to pre-treat the kapok fiber prior to hydrolysis. Taking into account environmentally friendliness, only simple pretreatments with minimum chemical or energy consumption was considered. It was interesting to see that by adopting merely water, acid and alkaline pretreatments, the yield of reducing sugar was increased to 39.1%, 85.2% and >100%, respectively. PMID:22595099

Tye, Ying Ying; Lee, Keat Teong; Wan Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Leh, Cheu Peng

2012-07-01

20

Sorption kinetics and mechanism of various oils into kapok assembly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sorption rates of kapok fibers on different oils, such as diesel, cooking oil, used motor oil, and motor oil, were quantitatively evaluated by using a wicking method. Kapok fibers absorbing different oils exhibited large differences in terms sorption coefficients. Microscopic observations of oil wetting on a single kapok showed that the four oils had varying wettability and adhesiveness to kapok, but that all of them penetrated into kapok lumens quickly because of the fiber's low surface energy, which was 40.64mN/m, and extreme hydrophobicity, with a water contact angle up to 151°. After treatment with chloroform, there were slight changes in oil absorbencies to kapok, but the sorption coefficients for the four oils increased markedly. SEM demonstrated that chloroform treatments caused the smooth surface of the kapok fibers to become highly roughened, with densely vertical grooves that provided more available surface and a larger driving force for oil sorption through the fiber assembly. PMID:25528222

Dong, Ting; Wang, Fumei; Xu, Guangbiao

2015-02-15

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Potential of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok) fiber as a resource for second generation bioethanol: parametric optimization and comparative study of various pretreatments prior enzymatic saccharification for sugar production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various pretreatments on Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok) fiber prior to enzymatic hydrolysis for sugar production were optimized in this study. The optimum conditions for water, acid, and alkaline pretreatments were 170°C for 45 min, 120°C for 45 min in 1.0% (v/v) H2SO4 solution and 120°C for 60 min in 2.0% (v/v) NaOH solution, respectively. Among the three pretreatments, the alkaline pretreatment achieved the highest total glucose yield (glucose yield calculated based on the untreated fiber) (38.5%), followed by the water (35.0%) and acid (32.8%) pretreatments. As a result, the relative effectiveness of the pretreatment methods for kapok fiber was verified as alkali>water>acid at the condition stated. PMID:23672935

Tye, Ying Ying; Lee, Keat Teong; Abdullah, Wan Nadiah Wan; Leh, Cheu Peng

2013-07-01

22

Modelling fiber drawing: Capillary manufacture  

OpenAIRE

Fiber drawing for capillary manufacture was presented. Microstructured fibers were produced by drawing a macroscopic preform into fiber using a drawing tower. The degree of hole closure was controlled by introducing a pressure difference between air inside and outside the capillary.

Fitt, Ad; Please, Cp; Furusawa, K.; Monro, Tm

2002-01-01

23

Kapok oil methyl esters  

Science.gov (United States)

The increased need for biodiesel feedstocks has caused various vegetable oils to be examined for this purpose. In the present work, the methyl esters of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil were prepared. The essential fuel properties were comprehensively determined and evaluated in comparison to specificati...

24

Preparation of kapok-polyacrylonitrile core-shell composite microtube and its application as gold nanoparticles carrier  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, a new catalyst carrier kapok-polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite microtube was fabricated based on the natural kapok fiber. Kapok-PAN core-shell composite microtubes were prepared by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) assisted self-assembly method. The formation mechanism was proposed and the influence of the concentration of acrylonitrile (AN) monomer and CTAB on the morphology of kapok-PAN was investigated. The hydrophilicity and specific surface area of kapok microtubes were improved because of the outside PAN coating constructed by the PAN nanoparticles aggregation. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were immobilized on the surface of kapok-PAN microtubes via in situ reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl 4) by sodium borohydride (NaBH 4). The obtained Au NPs with mean diameter of 3.1 nm were well dispersed without any aggregation. In addition, kapok-PAN-Au composites exhibited excellent catalytic activity and could be recovered easily without apparent decrease of activity, as demonstrated via the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol by NaBH 4. The kapok-PAN composite microtubes may be one of the promising supporting materials in developing low-cost, high-efficiency catalyst carriers for metal NPs.

Fan, Haosen; Yu, Xiaolan; Long, Yuhua; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xiang, Haifan; Duan, Chunting; Zhao, Ning; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xu, Jian

2012-01-01

25

Evaluation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.) as a natural hollow hydrophobic-oleophilic fibrous sorbent for oil spill cleanup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil sorption capacity and hydrophobic-oleophilic characteristics of an agricultural product, kapok (Ceiba pentandra), was thoroughly examined. The kapok fiber has a hollow structure with large lumen. Its performance was compared with that of a polypropylene (PP), a widely used commercial oil sorbent for oil spill cleanup. The oils investigated were diesel, hydraulic oil (AWS46), and engine oil (HD40). Reusability of the kapok after application to various oils was also evaluated. Both loose (at its natural state) and densely packed kapok assemblies were examined. Sorption capacities of the packed kapok assemblies were very much dependent on their packing densities. At 0.02gcm(-3), its oil sorption capacities were 36, 43 and 45gg(-1) for diesel, ASW46 and HD40, respectively. The values decreased to 7.9, 8.1 and 8.6gg(-1) at 0.09gcm(-3). Its sorption capacities for the three oils were significantly higher than those of PP. When the oil-saturated kapok assemblies were allowed to drain, they exhibited high oil retention ability, with less than 8% of the absorbed diesel and HD40, and 12% of the absorbed AWS46 lost even after 1h of dripping. When applied on oil-over-water baths, the kapok exhibited high selectivity for the oils over the water; almost all oils spilled could be removed with the kapok, leaving an invisible oil slick on water. After the 4th cycle of reuse, the reused kapok assembly only lost 30% of its virgin sorption capacity if packed at 0.02gcm(-3), and the loss in sorption capacity was much less at higher packing densities. The hydrophobic-oleophilic characteristics of the kapok fiber could be attributed to its waxy surface, while its large lumen contributed to its excellent oil absorbency and retention capacity. PMID:16839589

Lim, Teik-Thye; Huang, Xiaofeng

2007-01-01

26

Radiation shielding fiber and its manufacturing method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To manufacture radiation shielding fibers of excellent shielding effects. Method: Fibers containing more than 1 mmol/g of carboxyl groups are bonded with heavy metals, or they are impregnated with an aqueous solution containing water-soluble heavy metal salts dissolved therein. Fibers as the substrate may be any of forms such as short fibers, long fibers, fiber tows, webs, threads, knitting or woven products, non-woven fabrics, etc. It is however necessary that fibers contain more than 1 mmol/g, preferably, from 2 to 7 mmol/g of carboxylic groups. Since heavy metals having radiation shielding performance are bonded to the outer layer of the fibers and the inherent performance of the fibers per se is possessed, excellent radiation shielding performance can be obtained, as well as they can be applied with spinning, knitting or weaving, stitching, etc. thus can be used for secondary fiber products such as clothings, caps, masks, curtains, carpets, cloths, etc. for use in radiation shieldings. (Kamimura, M.)

27

Carbon fiber manufacturing via plasma technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The disclosed invention introduces a novel method of manufacturing carbon and/or graphite fibers that avoids the high costs associated with conventional carbonization processes. The method of the present invention avoids these costs by utilizing plasma technology in connection with electromagnetic radiation to produce carbon and/or graphite fibers from fully or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors. In general, the stabilized or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors are placed under slight tension, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, and carbonized using a plasma and electromagnetic radiation having a power input which is increased as the fibers become more carbonized and progress towards a final carbon or graphite product. In an additional step, the final carbon or graphite product may be surface treated with an oxygen-plasma treatment to enhance adhesion to matrix materials.

Paulauskas, Felix L. (Knoxville, TN); Yarborough, Kenneth D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

28

Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders  

Science.gov (United States)

Pitch-based nanocomposite carbon fibers were prepared with various percentages of carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and the fibers were used for manufacturing composite structures. Experimental results show that these nanocomposite carbon fibers exhibit improved structural and electrical conductivity properties as compared to unreinforced carbon fibers. Composite panels fabricated from these nanocomposite carbon fibers and an epoxy system also show the same properties transformed from the fibers. Single-fiber testing per ASTM C1557 standard indicates that the nanocomposite carbon fiber has a tensile modulus of 110% higher, and a tensile strength 17.7% times higher, than the conventional carbon fiber manufactured from pitch. Also, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber carbonized at 900 C was reduced from 4.8 to 2.2 ohm/cm. The manufacturing of the nanocomposite carbon fiber was based on an extrusion, non-solvent process. The precursor fibers were then carbonized and graphitized. The resultant fibers are continuous.

Tan, Seng; Zhou, Jian-guo

2013-01-01

29

Effects of the Composition and the Preparation Methods on Oil Sorption Capacity of Recycled Rayon Waste-Kapok Mixtures (RRWK) Sorbent  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to investigate the utilization of a recycled rayon waste-kapok mixtures as an oil sorbent for the removal of diesel, motor oil and bunker C. The effects of the kapok fibers: rayon fibers ratio and the additional of sodium sulfate on RRWK sorbents properties were investigated through series of oil sorption tests. The ASTM 726-06 method was used to determine the oil sorption capacity of the sorbents under both static and dynamic conditions. The results showed the high ...

Sutha Khaodhiar; Supawan Tantayanon; Darathip Pejprom; Chaowalit Senanurakwarkul; Panadda Khongsricharoen

2013-01-01

30

16 CFR 303.8 - Procedure for establishing generic names for manufactured fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...establishing generic names for manufactured fibers. 303.8 Section 303.8 Commercial...RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303...establishing generic names for manufactured fibers. (a) Prior to the marketing or...

2010-01-01

31

Effects of the Composition and the Preparation Methods on Oil Sorption Capacity of Recycled Rayon Waste-Kapok Mixtures (RRWK Sorbent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the utilization of a recycled rayon waste-kapok mixtures as an oil sorbent for the removal of diesel, motor oil and bunker C. The effects of the kapok fibers: rayon fibers ratio and the additional of sodium sulfate on RRWK sorbents properties were investigated through series of oil sorption tests. The ASTM 726-06 method was used to determine the oil sorption capacity of the sorbents under both static and dynamic conditions. The results showed the high sorption capacity of the recycled rayon waste-kapok mixture for difference kinds of oil. Oil, which has a high viscosity, tends to have a higher oil sorption ratio. RRWK sorbents had higher oil sorption capacity than commercial polypropylene. The presence of kapok fibers in RRWK increases the hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of the sorbents while the presence of rayon fibers improves the strength of the sorbents. The additional of sodium sulfate during sorbent preparation increases the surface area and pore size of RRWK sorbent and thus improves the oil sorption capacity. It can be concluded that RRWK, which can be produced by utilizing industrial waste, is effective low cost, environmentally friendly oil sorbent with comparable performance to commercial products.

Sutha Khaodhiar

2013-06-01

32

Fiber-reinforced composites materials, manufacturing, and design  

CERN Document Server

The newly expanded and revised edition of Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design presents the most up-to-date resource available on state-of-the-art composite materials. This book is unique in that it not only offers a current analysis of mechanics and properties, but also examines the latest advances in test methods, applications, manufacturing processes, and design aspects involving composites. This third edition presents thorough coverage of newly developed materials including nanocomposites. It also adds more emphasis on underlying theories, practical methods, and problem-solving skills employed in real-world applications of composite materials. Each chapter contains new examples drawn from diverse applications and additional problems to reinforce the practical relevance of key concepts. New in The Third Edition: Contains new sections on material substitution, cost analysis, nano- and natural fibers, fiber architecture, and carbon-carbon composites Provides a new chapter on poly...

Mallick, P K

2007-01-01

33

New Manufacturing Method for Paper filler and Fiber Material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study compares commercial available filler products with a new developed â??Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Materialâ? and how main structural, optical and strength properties are affected by increasing the filler content of at least 5% over commercial values. The study consists of: (i) an overview of paper filler materials used in the paper production process, (ii) discusses the manufacturing technology of lime based filler materials for paper applications, (iii) gives an overview of new emerging paper filler technologies, (iv) discusses a filler evaluation of commercial available digital printing paper products, (v) reports from a detailed handsheet study and 12â? pilot plant paper machine trial runs with the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material, and (vi) evaluates and compares commercial filler products and the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material with a life cycle analyses that explains manufacturing, economic and environmental benefits as they are applied to uncoated digital printing papers.

Doelle, Klaus

2011-11-22

34

Development of multifunctional carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRCs) - Manufacturing process  

Science.gov (United States)

This work describes a successful attempt toward the development of CFRCs based on nanofilled epoxy resins. The epoxy matrix was prepared by mixing a tetrafunctional epoxy precursor with a reactive diluent which allows to reduce the viscosity of the initial epoxy precursor and facilitate the nanofiller dispersion step. As nanofiller, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were embedded in the epoxy matrix with the aim of improving the electrical properties of the resin used to manufacture CFRCs. Panels were manufactured by Resin Film Infusion (RFI) using a non-usual technique to infuse a nano-filled resin into a carbon fiber dry preform.

Guadagno, Liberata; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Vietri, Umberto; Barra, Giuseppina; Vertuccio, Luigi; Volponi, Ruggero; Cosentino, Giovanni; De Nicola, Felice; Grilli, Andrea; Spena, Paola

2014-05-01

35

Manufacturing of robust natural fiber preforms utilizing bacterial cellulose as binder.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel method of manufacturing rigid and robust natural fiber preforms is presented here. This method is based on a papermaking process, whereby loose and short sisal fibers are dispersed into a water suspension containing bacterial cellulose. The fiber and nanocellulose suspension is then filtered (using vacuum or gravity) and the wet filter cake pressed to squeeze out any excess water, followed by a drying step. This will result in the hornification of the bacterial cellulose network, holding the loose natural fibers together. Our method is specially suited for the manufacturing of rigid and robust preforms of hydrophilic fibers. The porous and hydrophilic nature of such fibers results in significant water uptake, drawing in the bacterial cellulose dispersed in the suspension. The bacterial cellulose will then be filtered against the surface of these fibers, forming a bacterial cellulose coating. When the loose fiber-bacterial cellulose suspension is filtered and dried, the adjacent bacterial cellulose forms a network and hornified to hold the otherwise loose fibers together. The introduction of bacterial cellulose into the preform resulted in a significant increase of the mechanical properties of the fiber preforms. This can be attributed to the high stiffness and strength of the bacterial cellulose network. With this preform, renewable high performance hierarchical composites can also be manufactured by using conventional composite production methods, such as resin film infusion (RFI) or resin transfer molding (RTM). Here, we also describe the manufacturing of renewable hierarchical composites using double bag vacuum assisted resin infusion. PMID:24893649

Lee, Koon-Yang; Shamsuddin, Siti Rosminah; Fortea-Verdejo, Marta; Bismarck, Alexander

2014-01-01

36

16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...two aromatic rings. (j) Rubber. A manufactured fiber in...comprised of natural or synthetic rubber, including the following categories...hydrocarbon such as natural rubber, polyisoprene, polybutadiene...synthesized from aliphatic fluorocarbon monomers. (y)...

2010-01-01

37

New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections. and it is important to understand the effect that new manufacturing methods of calcium carbonates have on the energy efficiency and paper production. Research conducted under this award showed that the new fiber filler composite material has the potential to increase the paper filler content by up to 5% without losing mechanical properties. Benefits of the technology can be summarized as follows for a 1% filler increase per metric ton of paper produced: (i) production cost savings over $12, (ii) Energy savings of 100,900 btu, (iii) CO{sub 2} emission savings of 33 lbs, and additional savings for wood preparation, pulping, recovery of 203593 btu with a 46lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per 1% filler increase. In addition the technology has the potential to save: (i) additional $3 per ton of bleached pulp produced, (ii) bleaching energy savings of 170,000 btu, (iii) bleaching CO{sub 2} emission savings of 39 lbs, and (iv) additional savings for replacing conventional bleaching chemicals with a sustainable bleaching chemical is estimated to be 900,000 btu with a 205 lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per ton of bleached pulp produced. All the above translates to a estimated annual savings for a 12% filler increase of 296 trillion buts? or 51 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) or 13.7% of the industries energy demand. This can lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 70% for the industry sector. CO{sub 2} emission of the industry at a 12% filler increase could be lowered by over 39 million tons annually. If the new technology could be implemented for bleaching process a total annual estimated energy savings potential of 64 trillion buts? or 11 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) equal to 3% of the paper industries energy demand could be realized. This could lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 60% for the industry. CO{sub 2} emissions could be lowered by over 7.4 million tons annually. It is estimated that an installed system could also yield a 75 to 100% return of investment (ROI) rate for the capital equipment that need to be installed for the fiber filler composite manufacturing process.

Doelle, Klaus [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

2013-08-25

38

Manufacturing Of Robust Natural Fiber Preforms Utilizing Bacterial Cellulose as Binder  

OpenAIRE

A novel method of manufacturing rigid and robust natural fiber preforms is presented here. This method is based on a papermaking process, whereby loose and short sisal fibers are dispersed into a water suspension containing bacterial cellulose. The fiber and nanocellulose suspension is then filtered (using vacuum or gravity) and the wet filter cake pressed to squeeze out any excess water, followed by a drying step. This will result in the hornification of the bacterial cellulose network, hold...

Lee, Koon-yang; Shamsuddin, Siti Rosminah; Fortea-verdejo, Marta; Bismarck, Alexander

2014-01-01

39

Chemical characterization of fibers from herbaceous plants commonly used for manufacturing of high quality paper pulps  

OpenAIRE

The present work aims at the chemical characterization of several non-woody fibers from herbaceous plants used for manufacturing high quality paper pulps, with especial emphasis in the composition of lignin and lipophilic compounds. Among the fibers studied are bast fibers from flax, hemp, kenaf and jute and leaf fibers from abaca and sisal. Flax and hemp showed the lowest lignin content (< 5%). However, they present a very low lignin S/G ratio (0.3 and 0.6, respectively) that makes them diff...

Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del; Rodri?guez, Isabel Mari?a; Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana

2006-01-01

40

Experimental investigation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil biodiesel as an alternate fuel for diesel engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Kapok (C. pentandra) oil, an indigenous source, has been used to synthesis biodiesel. • A different method has been availed to extract oil from the kapok seeds. • Kapok methyl ester (KME) is tested for the first time in a diesel engine. • Brake thermal efficiency for B25 blend of KME is noticed to be 4% higher than diesel. • Combustion and emission results for B25 blend of KME are almost comparable to diesel. - Abstract: This manuscript explores the possibility of using kapok oil as a source for biodiesel production and experimentally investigate it, KME (kapok oil methyl ester), as a diesel engine fuel. Distinctly, this manuscript is novel on the basis of adopting a different approach in extracting oil from kapok seeds and testing of the produced KME in a diesel engine, perhaps for the first time. Accordingly, kapok oil, an indigenous source, has been extracted from kapok seeds through steam treatment process followed by crushing in an expeller, which has not been considered so far by researchers. Significantly, this method is chosen with the intent to extract oil for its use in diesel engine. Typically, KME is synthesized by trans-esterification process, and the properties of it, evaluated by ASTM standard methods, are in concordance with biodiesel standards. Having ensured the feasibility of its use in diesel engine, KME is tested in a single cylinder diesel engine to appraise the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the engine. The experimental investigation reveals that the thermal efficiency of the engine for B25 is superior to conventional diesel by 4%. In the same token, the emission and combustion results of lower blend of KME (B25), showed comparable results with diesel, making KME as one of the pertinent fuel for diesel engine

41

Method of Manufacturing Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composite Valves  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for forming a carbon composite valve for internal combustion engines is discussed. The process includes the steps of braiding carbon fiber into a rope thereby forming a cylindrically shaped valve stem portion and continuing to braid said fiber while introducing into the braiding carbon fiber rope a carbon matrix plug having an outer surface in a net shape of a valve head thereby forming a valve head portion. The said carbon matrix plug acting as a mandrel over which said carbon fiber rope is braided, said carbon fiber rope and carbon matrix plug forming a valve head portion suitable for mating with a valve seat; cutting said braided carbon valve stem portion at one end to form a valve tip and cutting said braided carbon fiber after said valve head portion to form a valve face and thus provide a composite valve preform; and densifying said preform by embedding the braided carbon in a matrix of carbon to convert said valve stem portion to a valve stem and said valve head portion to a valve head thereby providing said composite valve.

Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

1998-01-01

42

Energy Saving Method of Manufacturing Ceramic Products from Fiber Glass Waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. fiber glass industry disposes of more than 260,000 tons of industrial fiber glass waste in landfills annually. New technology is needed to reprocess this industrial waste into useful products. A low-cost energy-saving method of manufacturing ceramic tile from fiber glass waste was developed. The technology is based on sintering fiber glass waste at 700-900 degrees C to produce products which traditionally require firing temperatures of >1200 degrees C, or glass-melting temperatures >1500 degrees C. The process also eliminates other energy intensive processing steps, including mining and transportation of raw materials, spray-drying to produce granulated powder, drying pressed tile, and glazing. The technology completely transforms fiber glass waste into a dense ceramic product, so that all future environmental problems in the handling and disposal of the fibers is eliminated. The processing steps were developed and optimized to produce glossy and matte surface finishes for wall and floor tile applications. High-quality prototype tile samples were processed for demonstration and tile standards testing. A Market Assessment confirmed the market potential for tile products produced by the technology. Manufacturing equipment trials were successfully conducted for each step of the process. An industrial demonstration plant was designed, including equipment and operating cost analysis. A fiber glass manufacturer was selected as an industrial partner to commercialize the technology. A technology development and licensing agreement was completed with the industrial partner. Haun labs will continue working to transfer the technology and assist the industrial partner with commercialization beyond the DOE project.

Michael J. Haun

2005-07-15

43

LOW-COST COMPOSITES IN VEHICLE MANUFACTURE - Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the last decade, natural fiber composites have experienced rapid growth in the European automotive market, and this trend appears to be global in scale, provided the cost and performance is justified against competing technologies. However, mass reduction, recyclability, and performance requirements can be met today by competing systems such as injection-molded unreinforced thermoplastics; natural fiber composites will continue to expand their role in automotive applications only if such technical challenges as moisture stability, fiber-polymer interface compatibility, and consistent, repeatable fiber sources are available to supply automotive manufacturers. Efforts underway by Tier I and II automotive suppliers to explore hybrid glass-natural fiber systems, as well as applications that exploit such capabilities as natural fiber sound dampening characteristics, could very well have far-reaching effects. In addition, the current development underway of bio-based resins such as Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biodegradable polyesters and bio-based polyols could provide fully bio-based composite options to future automotive designers. In short, the development of the natural fiber composite market would make a positive impact on farmers and small business owners on a global scale, reduce US reliance on foreign oil, improve environmental quality through the development of a sustainable resource supply chain, and achieve a better CO2 balance over the vehicle?s lifetime with near-zero net greenhouse gas emissions.

Holbery, Jim; Houston, Dan

2006-11-01

44

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon removal from water by natural fiber sorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of two natural sorbents, kapok and cattail fibers, were investigated for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal from water. Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene were the PAHs studied. For comparative purposes, a commercial polyester fiber sorbent was included in the investigation. The PAH sorption and retention capabilities of the three fibers were determined through batch and continuous-flow experiments under non-competitive and competitive conditions. In the batch experiments, cattail fiber was the most effective sorbent. Kapok fiber provided the lowest PAH retention, while cattail fiber had slightly less PAH retention than polyester fiber. When two PAHs were present in the same system, a competitive effect on the much less hydrophobic PAH was observed. Similar results were obtained in the column experiments, except that polyester fiber performed much poorer on naphthalene. Cattail fiber is a promising sorbent for treating PAH-contaminated water, such as urban runoff. PMID:17824537

Khan, Eakalak; Khaodhir, Sutha; Rotwiron, Paritta

2007-08-01

45

Production Performance of Brahman Cross Steer Feed with Concentrate Containing Kapok Seed Meal  

OpenAIRE

The research was conducted to investigate the weight gain and meat physical quality of Brahman cross steer (BX) fed with concentrate containing kapok seed meal (Ceiba pentandra). The research used 12 heads of two years age Brahman cross steer with body weight of 324 ± 11.29 kg. the steer were kept in individual barn and offered with concentrate containing three level of kapok seed meal. i.e: R1 (10%), R2 (20%) and R3 (30%). A completely randomized design with four replications was employed. ...

Soeprapto, H.

2005-01-01

46

Studies on radiation resistance of fiber reinforced plastic composites featured by easiness of manufacturing, 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Degradation behavior of fiber reinforced plastic(FRP) composite materials manufactured by conventional lamination technology was studied by measuring various mechanical properties after irradiation and observing fracture surfaces by scanning electron microscopy. When bisphenol-A type epoxy was used as matrix material, the laminated composites degraded rapidly. This fact was ascribed to poor radiation resistance of the matrix resin. The radiation resistance varied depending on types of hardeners. Diaminodiphenylmethane(DDM) gave radiation resistance higher than diaminodiphenylsulfone(DDS). The dose that produced an incipient decrease in mechanical properties(threshold dose) was larger in case of carbon fiber reinforcement than glass fiber reinforcement. For example, the threshold dose was about 10 MGy in case of glass fiber reinforcement with epoxy matrix hardened by DDS, and about 30 MGy when hardened by DDM. While, it increased to about 60 MGy with the latter matrix when carbon fiber is used. From the results of scanning electron microscopic observation of fractured surfaces, the superior radiation resistance in case of carbon fiber reinforcement was found due to its stable bonding interface between fiber and matrix. When BT(bismaleimide-triazine) resin was used as matrix for glass fiber reinforcement, little influence of irradiation was observed in various mechanical properties at least up to 60 MGy, and three point flexural strength showed no change even up to 100 MGy. This stability was ascribed to the stability of both the matrix resin and the bonding interface. Interlaminar shear strength reflects radiation effects on FRP with highest sensitivity among various mechanical properties tested in this work. (author)

47

Utilization of Non -oven Jute felt - A natural Fiber as a Substitution of Wood Veneer for Manufacture of Plywood  

OpenAIRE

In this study the suitability of using core veneer made from renewable natural fiber i.e. Non-oven jute felt, which is the second most widely used natural fiber for manufacturing of plywood was investigated to minimize the gap between demand and supply of wood veneer. The renewable natural hard jute fibre was impregnated with phenolic resin and was used for the manufacture of plywood. Plywood of 4 mm, 6 mm, 12 mm and 18 mm thick were manufactured by using phenolic resin impregnated jute felt ...

Sahoo, S. C.; Mr. Amitava Sil; Khatua, P. K.

2012-01-01

48

Studies on radiation resistance of fiber reinforced plastic composites featured by easiness of manufacturing, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mechanical properties of glass fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRP) irradiated at room temperature with electron beams were studied in order to characterize the radiation resistance. Mechanical properties were tested by flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) at room and low temperature, and flexural fatigue strength at room temperature. The GFRP used in the present study were manufactured trial with three kinds of epoxy matrices having excellent radiation resistance at room temperature and easiness of manufacturing. These composites prepared in selected curing condition were equipped with high flexural strength at low temperature, about two times at room temperature. GFRP composed of 4,4'-tetraglycidyl diamino diphenyl methane cured with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane showed the highest radiation resistance: the strength after irradiation up to 90 MGy were kept the initial value, that is, flexural strength of 1000 MPa at 77 K and ILSS of 70 MPa at 123 K. It was also confirmed that the flexural strength measured at 4.2 K were well agreed with the values tested at 77 K. On the effects of fiber-matrix bonding materials by using different kinds and/or amount of silane coupling agents, the pronounced difference were found in the degradation behavior but did not affect to the flexural strength of the GFRP. Flexural fatigue behavior showed rather well radiation degradation comparing with three point bending strength at room temperature. (author)

49

CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON FIBER EMISSIONS FROM CURRENT AND PROJECTED ACTIVITIES FOR THE MANUFACTURE AND DISPOSAL OF CARBON FIBER PRODUCTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Composite materials formed by impregnating a carbon or graphite fiber mat with plastic binders are being used increasingly in military, aerospace, sports and automotive applications. Carbon fibers are formed primarily from synthetic fibers carbonized in the absence of oxygen. Pos...

50

Comparison studies of tile/fiber systems manufactured from Kharkov injection molded and Kuraray SCSN-81 scintillators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the results measurements of light output,light yield uniformity,and recovery after radiation damage of tile/fiber systems made from the scintillator produced by the injection molding technique in Kharkov.The results are compared with those obtained using the tile/fiber systems manufactured from the Kuraray SCSN-81 scintillator and tested under the same conditions.The light yield uniformity is found to be improved by masking.Effects of milling,polishing,painting of tile edges and mirroring the fiber were studied

51

Microbubble enhanced ozonation process for advanced treatment of wastewater produced in acrylic fiber manufacturing industry  

KAUST Repository

This work investigated microbubble-ozonation for the treatment of a refractory wet-spun acrylic fiber wastewater in comparison to macrobubble-ozonation. CODcr, NH3-N, and UV254 of the wastewater were removed by 42%, 21%, and 42%, respectively in the microbubble-ozonation, being 25%, 9%, and 35% higher than the removal rates achieved by macrobubble-ozonation at the same ozone dose. The microbubbles (with average diameter of 45?m) had a high concentration of 3.9×105 counts/mL at a gas flow rate of 0.5L/min. The gas holdup, total ozone mass-transfer coefficient, and average ozone utilization efficiency in the microbubble-ozonation were 6.6, 2.2, and 1.5 times higher than those of the macrobubble-ozonation. Greater generation of hydroxyl radicals and a higher zeta potential of the bubbles were also observed in the microbubble ozonation process. The biodegradability of the wastewater was also significantly improved by microbubble-ozonation, which was ascribed to the enhanced degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and the many other bio-refractory organic compounds in the wastewater. Microbubble-ozonation can thus be a more effective treatment process than traditional macrobubble-ozonation for refractory wastewater produced by the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry.

Zheng, Tianlong

2015-02-02

52

Microbubble enhanced ozonation process for advanced treatment of wastewater produced in acrylic fiber manufacturing industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work investigated microbubble-ozonation for the treatment of a refractory wet-spun acrylic fiber wastewater in comparison to macrobubble-ozonation. CODcr, NH3-N, and UV254 of the wastewater were removed by 42%, 21%, and 42%, respectively in the microbubble-ozonation, being 25%, 9%, and 35% higher than the removal rates achieved by macrobubble-ozonation at the same ozone dose. The microbubbles (with average diameter of 45?m) had a high concentration of 3.9×10(5) counts/mL at a gas flow rate of 0.5L/min. The gas holdup, total ozone mass-transfer coefficient, and average ozone utilization efficiency in the microbubble-ozonation were 6.6, 2.2, and 1.5 times higher than those of the macrobubble-ozonation. Greater generation of hydroxyl radicals and a higher zeta potential of the bubbles were also observed in the microbubble ozonation process. The biodegradability of the wastewater was also significantly improved by microbubble-ozonation, which was ascribed to the enhanced degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and the many other bio-refractory organic compounds in the wastewater. Microbubble-ozonation can thus be a more effective treatment process than traditional macrobubble-ozonation for refractory wastewater produced by the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry. PMID:25681716

Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Qunhui; Zhang, Tao; Shi, Zhining; Tian, Yanli; Shi, Shanshan; Smale, Nicholas; Wang, Juan

2015-04-28

53

Influence of the manufacturing process on the radiation sensitivity of fluorine-doped silica-based optical fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, we analyze the origins of the observed differences between the radiation sensitivities of fluorine-doped optical fibers made with different fabrication processes. We used several experimental techniques, coupling in situ radiation-induced absorption measurements with post mortem confocal microscopy luminescence measurements. Our data showed that the silica intrinsic defects are generated both from precursor sites and from strained regular Si-O-Si linkages. Our work also provides evidence for the preponderant role of the chlorine in determining the optical losses at about 3.5 eV. The results show that the manufacturing process of these fibers strongly affects their radiation response. (authors)

54

[Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture].  

Science.gov (United States)

Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean "algarrobo" are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of "algarrobo" cotyledons, the use of "algarrobo cotyledon" flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100 g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100 g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100 g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted ("I like it very much"); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance ("I like it"). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance. PMID:19719017

Escobar, Berta; Estévez, Ana María; Fuentes, Carolina; Venegas, Daniela

2009-06-01

55

Utilization of Non -oven Jute felt - A natural Fiber as a Substitution of Wood Veneer for Manufacture of Plywood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the suitability of using core veneer made from renewable natural fiber i.e. Non-oven jute felt, which is the second most widely used natural fiber for manufacturing of plywood was investigated to minimize the gap between demand and supply of wood veneer. The renewable natural hard jute fibre was impregnated with phenolic resin and was used for the manufacture of plywood. Plywood of 4 mm, 6 mm, 12 mm and 18 mm thick were manufactured by using phenolic resin impregnated jute felt having thickness 16mm of 1850 GSM (approx. as a core in place of the natural wood veneer. From the study, it can be inferred that PF Resin impregnated Non oven jute felt as a natural fibre can suitably replace the wooden glue core veneer to manufacture ply board up to 80% as an alternative substitute of wood. The physico-mechanical properties such as surface roughness, moisture content, density, water absorption, swelling, compressive strength, tensile strength, static bending strength, glue shear strength, of the plywood manufactured by using jute felt as core veneer with different resin dilution have been studied. Data revels that most of the physico-mechanical properties of the plywood showed satisfactory results meeting the requirement of different grades of plywood tested as per IS: 1734 - 1983. The accelerated study of the glued core after impregnation with jute felt have been carried out for three months before plywood manufacture after storing it in proper temperature and humidity. The data revealed that there is no appreciable change in bond quality and mechanical properties of the plyboard manufactured after storing the veneer up to 30 days. The study concluded that wood substituted jute composites could be an ideal solution with ever depleting forest reserves where utilization of renewable resources will be beneficiary for plywood industries to meet the challenges during scarcity of veneer by reducing the cost of imported veneer.

Mr. S.C.Sahoo

2012-04-01

56

Implementing Machining of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites to Manufacturing Courses in 2 Year and 4 Year Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites offer very high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. As a result, the aerospace industry is making a major effort to incorporate an increasing number of composite materials into various components and structures. However, machining of FRP composites is one of the most difficult and least understood areas in manufacturing technology. Thus, it is necessary to include machining and tool regimes of FRP composites into manufacturing curricula, especially at schools in regions of the country where significant aerospace industry exist. This new topic has been applied into various programs such as Machine Manufacturing Technology Program at Portland Community College (PCC) and Mechanical Engineering Program at Washington State University Vancouver (WSUV). This report focuses on all aspects of these newly developed course materials including course content and student feedback.

Flaman, Michael

57

16 CFR 1500.91 - Determinations regarding lead content for certain materials or products under section 101 of the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...from wood or other cellulosic fiber, including, but not limited...consisting of: (i) Natural fibers (dyed or undyed) including...limited to, cotton, kapok, flax, linen, jute, ramie, hemp...guanaco; (ii) Manufactured fibers (dyed or undyed)...

2010-01-01

58

Development of extrusion processing technology for manufacture of fine-celled plastic/wood-fiber composite foams  

Science.gov (United States)

The main benefits of incorporating wood-fibers in plastics are the increased stiffness and lowered cost of the resulting composites. However, these improvements are usually accompanied by loss in the ductility and impact resistance of the composites. These shortcomings can be significantly improved by effectively foaming and incorporating a fine-cell structure in the composites. This thesis presents the development of the processing methodology for the manufacture of fine-celled plastic/wood-fiber composite (PWC) foams and focuses on the elucidation of the fundamental foaming mechanisms and the related issues involved. The volatiles evolved from the wood-fiber during extrusion processing play a dominant role in the foaming process, and can lead to gross deterioration of cell structure unless proper strategies are adopted to limit their contribution to foaming. Thermal analysis of wood-fibers (from pine wood) revealed that apart from moisture, a substantial part of the volatile emissions were evolved from the 'extractives', and hence can contribute to the foaming process as a blowing agent. A tandem extrusion system was developed which could effectively control the volatile wood-fiber emissions, and produce fine-celled PWC foams having the desired density and cell morphology. A series of critical experiments were performed to develop a suitable methodology for controlling the foam density and cell morphology. Fundamental foaming mechanisms for different foaming conditions are proposed.

Rizvi, Ghaus Muhammad

59

Manufacture and characterization of an extrinsic elementary fiber-optical sensor for temperature measurement; Herstellung und Charakterisierung eines extrinsischen faseroptischen Elementarsensors zur Temperaturmessung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Manufacture and characterization of an elementary fiber-optical sensor for temperature measurement is presented. The prism-shaped head of the sensor consisting of indium phosphide uses the temperature dependency of the absorption edge. The dimensions of the prism require a manufacturing method bridging fine mechanics and microsystems technology. (orig.)

Trautner, Ralph [Fachhochschule Regensburg (Germany); Schmauss, Bernhard [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Hochfrequenztechnik; Shamonin, Mikhail [Fachhochschule Regensburg (Germany). Sensorik, Messtechnik und elektromagnetische Metamaterialien

2008-07-01

60

Chemical composition of abaca (Musa textilis) leaf fibers used for manufacturing of high quality paper pulps  

OpenAIRE

The chemical composition of leaf fibers of abaca (Musa textilis), which are commonly used for high-quality paper pulp production, was thoroughly studied. The results revealed that the lignin content was 13.2 % of the total fiber. The analysis of abaca fibers by Pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) released predominantly compounds arising from lignin and p-hydroxycinnamic acids, with high amounts of 4-vinylphenol. The latter compound was demonstrated to arise fr...

Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del; Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana

2006-01-01

61

Cryogenic fiber optic temperature sensor and method of manufacturing the same  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention teaches the fiber optic sensors temperature sensors for cryogenic temperature range with improved sensitivity and resolution, and method of making said sensors. In more detail, the present invention is related to enhancement of temperature sensitivity of fiber optic temperature sensors at cryogenic temperatures by utilizing nanomaterials with a thermal expansion coefficient that is smaller than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber but larger in absolute value than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber at least over a range of temperatures.

Kochergin, Vladimir (Inventor)

2012-01-01

62

Chemical composition and nutritive value of kapok seed meal for broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Mechanically extracted kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seed meal (KSM) contained 324 g crude protein, 97 g ether extract, 289 g fibre, 94 g ash, 128 g available carbohydrates, 3-8 g calcium, 11 g phosphorus, 10.4 g cyclopropenoid fatty acids and 15 g tannins per kg. 2. In a 4 x 2 factorial experiment, KSM was incorporated in broiler starter and finisher feeds at 0, 30, 60 and 90 g/kg, replacing sunflower meal (SFM) w/w; without and with multi-enzyme supplementation. 3. No significant differences were noticed between treatments in body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency, mortality or carcase yields. 4. Multi-enzyme (amylase, endoxylanase, hemicellulase, beta-glucanase, pectinase, phytase and protease) supplementation did not improve the growth performance of broilers fed on the KSM diets. PMID:12964636

Narahari, D; Asha Rajini, R

2003-07-01

63

Production Performance of Brahman Cross Steer Feed with Concentrate Containing Kapok Seed Meal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the weight gain and meat physical quality of Brahman cross steer (BX fed with concentrate containing kapok seed meal (Ceiba pentandra. The research used 12 heads of two years age Brahman cross steer with body weight of 324 ± 11.29 kg. the steer were kept in individual barn and offered with concentrate containing three level of kapok seed meal. i.e: R1 (10%, R2 (20% and R3 (30%. A completely randomized design with four replications was employed. Elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum was fed along with concentrate in 20 : 80% ratio. A total amount of feed given to the cattle was 2.5 % of the body weight on the basis of dry matter and offered twice a day in the morning and the afternoon. Water was given ad libitum. Result showed that there was no significant different on daily gain and meat physical quality. Daily gain of R1, R2 and R3 was 0.73 kg, 0.84 kg, and 0.75 kg of respectively. There was significant different in carcass percentage i.e. 52.57, 50.84, and 48.58 for R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Physical quality of meat consisting of colour, pH, water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL and tenderness indicated non significant effect. The pH value of observed muscle in Longisinus dorsi (LD, semitendinosus (ST, and bicep femoris (BF, was 5.80 (R1 5.87(R2 and 5.81 (R3, meat colour score was 5.48 (R1, 5.58 (R2 and 5.59 (R3, water holding capacity % was 36.40 (R1, 39.66 (R2 and 34,09 (R3, and cooking loss (5 was 46.62, 44.17 and 46.19 for R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Result of meat tenderness (g/mm/second was 57.84 (R1, 56.05 (R2 and 59.41 (R3. In relation to price, feed consumption, and daily gain indicated that feed cost per gain was Rp. 2.991.50 (R1, Rp. 2.638.50 (R2, Rp. 2.965.25 (R3, and income over feed cost was Rp. 818.25 (R1, Rp. 1.238.95 (R2, and Rp. 855.80 (R3 respectively. The result showed that the use of 20% of Kapok Seed meal in concentrate (R2, although there was no significant effect, gives the most efficient result. (Animal Production 7(3: 189-193 (2005 Key Words : Brahman Cross Steer, Body Weight, Meat Quality, Kapok Seed Meal.

H Soeprapto

2005-11-01

64

Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Availability of fossil fuels in the world decrease gradually due to excessive fuel exploitation. This situations push researcher to look for alternative fuels as a source of renewable energy, one of them is kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil. The aim this study was to know the behavior of laminar burning velocity, secondary Bunsen flame with open tip, cellular and triple flame. Premixed combustion of kapok seed oil was studied experimentally on perforated burner with equivalence ratio (? varied from 0.30 until 1.07. The results showed that combustion of glycerol requires a large amount of air so that laminar burning velocity (SL is the highest at very lean mixture (? =0.36 in the form of individual Bunsen flame on each of the perforated plate hole. Perforated and secondary Bunsen flame both reached maximum SL similar with that of ethanol and higher than that of hexadecane. Slight increase of ? decreases drastically SL of perforated and secondary Bunsen flame. When the mixture was enriched, secondary Bunsen and perforated flame disappears, and then the flame becomes Bunsen flame with open tip and triple flame (? = 0.62 to 1.07. Flame was getting stable until the mixture above the stoichiometry. Being isolated from ambient air, the SL of perforated flame, as well as secondary Bunsen flame, becomes equal with non-isolated flame. This shows the decreasing trend of laminar burning velocity while ? is increasing. When the mixture was enriched island (? = 0.44 to 0.48 and petal (? = 0.53 to 0.62 cellular flame take place. Flame becomes more unstable when the mixture was changed toward stoichiometry.

I.K.G. Wirawan

2014-07-01

65

Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

Diet - fiber; Roughage; Bulk ... Dietary fiber adds bulk to your diet. Because it makes you feel full faster, it can help with weight control. Fiber aids digestion and helps prevent constipation . It is ...

66

Carbon fiber/reaction-bonded carbide matrix for composite materials - Manufacture and characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The processing of self-healing ceramic matrix composites by a short time and low cost process was studied. This process is based on the deposition of fiber dual inter-phases by chemical vapor infiltration and on the densification of the matrix by reactive melt infiltration of silicon. To prevent fibers (ex-PAN carbon fibers) from oxidation in service, a self-healing matrix made of reaction bonded silicon carbide and reaction bonded boron carbide was used. Boron carbide is introduced inside the fiber preform from ceramic suspension whereas silicon carbide is formed by the reaction of liquid silicon with a porous carbon xerogel in the preform. The ceramic matrix composites obtained are near net shape, have a bending stress at failure at room temperature around 300 MPa and have shown their ability to self-healing in oxidizing conditions. (authors)

67

Manufacture of a weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold with excellent biocompatibility and space maintenance ability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although collagen scaffolds have been used for regenerative medicine, they have insufficient mechanical strength. We made a weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold from a collagen fiber suspension (physiological pH 7.4) through a process of freeze drying and denaturation with heat under low pressure (1 × 10?1 Pa). Heat treatment formed cross-links between the collagen fibers, providing the scaffold with sufficient mechanical strength to maintain the space for tissue regeneration in vivo. The scaffold was embedded under the back skin of a rat, and biocompatibility and space maintenance ability were examined after 2 weeks. These were evaluated by using the ratio of foreign body giant cells and thickness of the residual scaffold. A weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold with moderate biocompatibility and space maintenance ability was made by freezing at ?10 °C, followed by denaturation at 140 °C for 6 h. In addition, the direction of the collagen fibers in the scaffold was adjusted by cooling the suspension only from the bottom of the container. This process increased the ratio of cells that infiltrated into the scaffold. A weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold thus made can be used for tissue regeneration or delivery of cells or proteins to a target site. (paper)

68

Electronic manufacturing process improvement (EMPI) for automatic winding of quadrupole fiber optic gyro sensor coils  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this EMPI program was to design an Automatic Coil Winding Station (ACWS) for winding Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) sensor coils through the use of TQM, QFD, etc., followed by use of Taguchi an other statistical techniques to optimize the coil winding process. Four phases were involved: Process Definition, Critical Factor Identification, Variability Reduction, and SPC Implementation. Winding FOG coils is both difficult and fragile in that it is a quadrupole wind - as apposed to the conventional thread wind - compounded by the requirement for low tension precision, high-fiber packing density, and always risk of damage to the delicate fiber itself. The critical factor identification in the quadrupole winding process was reduced to fiber crossover - a significant detrimental influence on gyro performance - which, in turn, was closely identified with fiber gap control. The station was completed and deployed to the field where production coils are currently being wound. The ACWS not only lowered the required labor skill but succeeded in reducing the winding cycle time to 1 hour (from 24 hours) and touch labor time to 0.3 hours (from 24 hours) while improving the yield and performance through improved process control.

Safonov, Gregory S.

1994-09-01

69

Reduction of harmful emissions from a diesel engine fueled by kapok methyl ester using combined coating and SNCR technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Thermal barrier coating was accomplished by coating the engine components with PSZ. • Under-utilized kapok oil biodiesel was used as renewable fuel in a coated engine. • The BTE of the engine was improved by 9% with reduced BSFC. • CO, HC and smoke were reduced by 40%, 35.3% and 21.4%, respectively. • After implementing SCR assembly, the NOX emission was decreased by 13.4%. - Abstract: This research work has been formulated to reduce the stinging effect of NOX emission on atmospheric environment from a coated diesel engine fueled by biodiesel. As such, in the current study, we attempted to harness the renewable source of energy from in-edible kapok oil, which is normally under-utilized despite being a viable feedstock for biodiesel synthesis. Notably, steam treatment process followed by crushing of the kapok seeds in a mechanical expeller was done to extract large quantities of kapok oil for the application of diesel engine, which is quite distinct of a method adopted herein. The conventional trans-esterification process was availed to synthesize KME (kapok methyl ester) and the physical and thermal properties of it were estimated by ASTM standard methods. Subsequently, two blends of KME with diesel such as B25 (KME – 25% and diesel – 75%) and B50 (KME – 50% and diesel – 50%) were prepared and tested in a single cylinder diesel engine with thermal barrier coating. To help realize the coating process, PSZ (partially stabilized zirconia), a pertinent coating material in respect of its poor thermal conductivity and better durability, has been chosen as the coating material to be applied on engine components by plasma spray coating technique. As an outcome of the coating study, B50 was found to show improved BTE (brake thermal efficiency) than that in an uncoated engine, with notable decrease in major emissions such as HC (hydrocarbon), CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke. However, due to reduction in heat losses and increase in in-cylinder temperature, the NOX (oxides of nitrogen) emission was expected to be increased in a coated diesel engine. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOX emission, urea based SNCR system was incorporated in the exhaust pipe and by which, NOX emission was reduced

70

Carbon fiber-reinforced carbon composite material and manufacturing method therefor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For a composite material useful as heat shielding tiles for use in first walls of a thermonuclear reactor, a prefoam is formed by a large square rods formed by orienting carbon fibers in the axial direction into a cylindrical shape and arranging them in a matrix in longitudinal and lateral directions of a plate toward the direction of the thickness each at a predetermined distance, and thin square rods stacked in lattice-like manner between the large square rods. The prefoam is impregnated with a thermosetting resin or a pitch and carbonated by heating in an inactive atmosphere. The orientation ratio of the fibers in the direction of the plate thickness and fiber content can be increased to maintain the linearity of the fibers. High thermal conductivity can be provided in the direction of the plate thickness to maintain high thermal conductivity even under a high temperature thereby preventing reduction of the wall thickness due to erosion. The weaving step is simplified and the fabrication time and cost can be reduced. (N.H.)

71

Development of a Fiber Laser Welding Equipment for the LVDT Manufacturing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The instrumented fuel irradiation test at a research reactor is needed to evaluate the performance of the developed nuclear fuel. A LVDT(Linear Variable Differential Transformer) can be designed to measure the pressure level and elongation during the irradiation test by using various metals and MI cables. LVDT's parts were composed of MI cables and Inconel 600 materials. Laser welding technology is widely used to fabricate some products of nuclear fuel in the nuclear industry. Especially, micro-welding using Fiber laser is one of the key technologies to be developed to fabricate precise products of fuel irradiation test. We also have to secure micro-welding technology to perform various instrumentations for fuel irradiation test. Micro-welding technology was adopted to seal between seal tubes and MI cables with thickness of 0.15 mm. The soundness of welding area has to be confirmed to prevent fission gas of the fuel from leaking out of the fuel rods during the fuel irradiation test. In this report, fundamental data for welding technology using Fiber laser was proposed to seal Inconel 600 sheaths of LVDT instrumented capsules for the irradiation test. Moreover, It is expected that the use of fuel irradiation tests will be revitalized by the self-development of LVDT's parts using the Fiber laser welding technology

72

Studies on radiation resistance of fiber reinforced plastic composites featured by easiness of manufacturing, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various mechanical properties were examined at room temperature and at 123 or 77 K on five kinds of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) irradiated with electron beams. Dynamic viscoelastic properties and fractography by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were also measured in order to clarify degradation behavior. Considerable decrease in interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) at room temperature was observed above the absorbed dose of 60 MGy, while three-point bending strength showed no change even up to 100 MGy. On the other hand, the three-point bending strength and the ILSS at 123 K or 77 K strikingly decreased with increasing absorbed dose. The fractography reveals that debonding of glass fiber and matrix resin or the degradation of silane coupling agents plays an important role in the strength reduction at low temperature. These findings suggest that the interface between matrix and fiber loses its bondability at low temperature after electron beam irradiation, although high bond strength still remeins at room temperature. (author)

73

Manufacture of Green-Composite Sandwich Structures with Basalt Fiber and Bioepoxy Resin  

OpenAIRE

Nowadays, there is a growing interest for the use and development of materials synthesized from renewable sources in the polymer composites manufacturing industry; this applies for both matrix and reinforcement components. In the present research, a novel basalt fibre reinforced (BFR) bioepoxy green composite is proposed as an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional petroleum-derived composites. In addition, this material system was combined with cork as core material for the fabr...

J. Andrés; Garc Amp Xed A-manrique, J. A.; Hoto, R.; Torres, J. P.

2013-01-01

74

The Addition of Oat Fiber and Natural Alternative Sweeteners in the Manufacture of Plain Yogurt  

OpenAIRE

Calorie-reduced yogurts that were fortified with 1.32% oat fiber were prepared from lactosehydrolyzed milk, alone and supplemented with 2 and 4% sucrose or with 1.6, 3.6, and 5.5% fructose. Treated samples were compared with unsweetened yogurt and with yogurts sweetened with 2, 4, and 6% sucrose. Addition of 5.5% fructose increased fermentation time by 60%, slowing down the production of lactic, pyruvic, acetic, and propionic acids and the consumption of hippuric an...

Ferna?ndez Garci?a, Estrella; Traylor, Sandra; Mcgregor, John U.

1998-01-01

75

Oxidative Activation of Bagasse Fibers Surfaces in Medium Density Fiberboard Manufacturing  

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Full Text Available This study presents the investigation of the effects of oxidant type (nitric acid and potassium dichromate, oxidant content (three different levels as 2, 4, and 6 percent and urea- formaldehyde (UF resin percentage (two levels as 5 and 7 percent on mechanical and physical properties of interior grade medium density fiberboard made from bagasse fibers. Some panel properties were studied, such as modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE in bending, compression-shear strength (C.S sth., water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS after 2- and 24-hour immersion in cold water. In addition, the results indicated the best values for WA and TS after 2- and 24-hour immersion, and C.S. sth. was discerned at 7 percent UF resin content, together with 6 percent nitric acid. Furthermore, the greatest values for MOR and MOE were related to 7 percent UF resin content together with 4 percent nitric acid.

Doosthoseini

2013-09-01

76

Production and application of chemical fibers with special properties for manufacturing composite materials and goods of different usage  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of modern technologies demands the creation of new nonmetallic, fibrous materials with specific properties. The fibers and materials developed by NII 'Chimvolokno', St. Petersburg, can be divided into two groups. The first group includes heat-resistant fibers, fire-resistant fibers, thermotropic fibers, fibers for medical application, and textile structures. The second group contains refractory fibers, chemoresistant and antifriction fibers, fibers on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol, microfiltering films, and paperlike and nonwoven materials. In cooperation with NPO 'Chimvolokno' MYTITSHI, we developed and started producing heat-resistant high-strength fibers on the base of polyhetarearilin and aromatic polyimides (SVM and terlon); heat-resistant fibers on the base of polyemede (aramid); fire-retardant fibers (togilen); chemoresistant and antifriction fibers on the basis of homo and copolymers of polytetrafluoroethylene (polyfen and ftorin); and water soluble, acetylated, and high-modulus fibers from polyvinyl alcohol (vylen). Separate reports will deal with textile structures and thermotropic fibers, as well as with medical fibers. One of the groups of refractory fibers carbon fibers (CF) and the corresponding paperlike nonwoven materials are discussed in detail. Also, composite materials (CM) and their base, which is the subject of the author's research since 1968, is discussed.

Levit, R.

1993-01-01

77

Optimization of catalyst-free production of biodiesel from Ceiba pentandra (kapok) oil with high free fatty acid contents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Catalyst-free biodiesel production from non-edible Ceiba pentandra (kapok) oil via supercritical methanol transesterification was demonstrated in this work. The supercritical transesterification experiments were performed in a batch reactor at temperatures of 250–350 °C, pressures of 10–18 MPa, reaction times of 120–600 s, and methanol to oil molar ratios of 15:1–35:1. Response surface methodology (RSM) and four-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were applied for the design and optimization of the experiments with respect to temperature, pressure, reaction time, and molar ratio of methanol to oil simultaneously. The response (i.e., FAME yield) was fitted by a quadratic polynomial regression model using least square analysis in a five-level-four-factor central composite design (CCD). The optimum conditions were found as follows: methanol to oil molar ratio of 30:1, temperature of 322 °C, pressure of 16.7 MPa, and reaction time of 476 s with FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) yield of 95.5%. The significance of the reaction parameters toward FAME yield was in the order of methanol to oil molar ratio > reaction time > pressure > temperature. - Highlights: • Transesterification of non-edible kapok oil into biodiesel via a non-catalytic route. • Methanol to oil molar ratio, temperature, pressure, and reaction time were optimized. • Experimental design in a five-level-four-factor central composite design. • Application of quadratic polynomial model for fitting the response (FAME yield)

78

ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS LIGNIN DERIVED FROM CORN STOVER AS AN INTRINSTIC BINDER FOR BIO-COMPOSITES MANUFACTURE: EFFECT OF FIBER MOISTURE CONTENT AND PRESSING TEMPERATURE ON BOARDS’ PROPERTIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL and cotton stalk fibers were prepared under various manufacturing conditions, and their physico-mechanical properties were evaluated. Full factorial experimental design was used to assess the effect of fiber moisture content and pressing temperature on boards’ properties. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg of EHL. We found that both fiber moisture content and pressing temperature had significant effects on binderless fiberboards’ properties. High fiber moisture content and pressing temperature are suggested to contribute to the self-bonding improvement among fibers with lignin-rich surface mainly by thermal softening enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. In this experiment, the optimized pressing temperature applied in binderless fiberboard production should be as high as 190°C in accordance with the EHL Tg value of 189.4°C, and the fiber moisture content should be limited to less than 20% with a higher board density of 950 kg/m3 to avoid the delamination of boards during hot pressing.

Guanben Du

2011-02-01

79

Evaluation of the chemical composition of different non-woody plant fibers used for pulp and paper manufacturing  

OpenAIRE

The chemical composition of several non-woody plant fibers (bast fibers from flax, hemp, kenaf, jute; leaf fibers from sisal, abaca and curaua; and giant reed), which are used as raw materials for pulp and papermaking, has been evaluated. Particular attention was paid to the composition of the lipophilic compounds and the structure of the lignin polymer since they are important components of the fiber that strongly influence the pulping and bleaching performances.

Marques, Gisela; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana; Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del

2010-01-01

80

76 FR 1599 - Foreign-Trade Zone 203-Moses Lake, Washington; Application for Manufacturing Authority, SGL...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing), Moses Lake, WA An application...requesting export-only manufacturing authority on behalf of SGL...SGL Automotive to conduct manufacturing of carbon fiber (1,500...Foreign-origin polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber (HTSUS...

2011-01-11

81

Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural fibers have been used to reinforce materials for over 3,000 years. More recently they have been employed in combination with plastics. Many types of natural fi fibers have been investigated for use in plastics including Flax, hemp, jute, straw, wood fiber, rice husks, wheat, barley, oats, rye, cane (sugar and bamboo), grass reeds, kenaf, ramie, oil palm empty fruit bunch, sisal, coir, water hyacinth, pennywort, kapok, paper-mulberry, raphia, banana fiber, pineapple leaf fiber and papyrus. Natural fibers have the advantage that they are renewable resources and have marketing appeal. The Asian markets have been using natural fibers for many years e.g., jute is a common reinforcement in India. Natural fibers are increasingly used in automotive and packaging materials. Pakistan is an agricultural country and it is the main stay of Pakistan's economy. Thousands of tons of different crops are produced but most of their wastes do not have any useful utilization. Agricultural wastes include wheat husk, rice husk, and their straw, hemp fiber and shells of various dry fruits. These agricultural wastes can be used to prepare fiber reinforced polymer composites for commercial use. This report examines the different types of fibers available and the current status of research. Many references to the latest work on properties, processing and application have been cited in this review. (author)

82

Study of the Equivalent Electrical Capacity of a Thermal Insulating Kapok-plaster Material in Frequency Dynamic Regime Established  

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Full Text Available The study of heat transfer in frequency dynamic regime established helped define the thermal impedance of the material. The material is a plane wall composed of kapok-plaster with thickness of 0.01 m and a thermal conductivity 0.1 W/mK. The thermal behavior of the studied material is highlighted by showing the influences of heat transfer coefficients and external excitation pulse. L'evolution de la capacity equivalent intérêt Donnée en fonction de la pulsation excitatrice Extérieure. The evolution of the equivalent capacitance is given as a function of the external excitation pulse; the influences of the depth of the material, his diffusivity and heat exchange coefficients are shown.

Abdoulaye Korka Diallo

2014-11-01

83

Carcass Characteristics of Kacang Goats Fed Ration Containing MH-1 Variety of Kapok Seed Meal (Ceiba pentandra, GAERTN.  

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Full Text Available This research aimed to study the carcass characteristics of Kacang goats fed ration containing kapok seed meal (KSM as a component of the concentrate. The experiment was conducted in two stages. The first stage was to find out the best variety of kapok that will be used in the second experiment; the second stage was to determine the benefits of KSM on carcass characteristics. Twenty-five, 8 months old Kacang goats with initial body weight of 11.71±1.08 kg, were used in this experiment. The animals were housed individually based on completely randomized design (CRD with 5 treatments and 5 replications. The rations were based on forage:concentrate ratio of 50:50 dry matter basis. The ration contained concentrates, with increasing levels of KSM, i.e.: R0 (napier grass + concentrate: rice bran, coconut cake, corn, urea + 0% KSM; R5 (R0 + KSM 5%; R10 (R0 + KSM 10%; R15 (R0 + KSM 15%; and R20 (R0 + KSM 20%. Drinking water was provided ad libitum. The result of first stage showed that KSM variety of MH-1 would be used as a component of the concentrate on the second experiment. The increasing level of KSM in the rations had significant effect (P<0.05 on physical characteristics of the carcass, such as dressing percentage (44.35%, carcass length (54.006 cm, fleshing index (130.59 g/cm, plumpness of leg (87.48%, loin eye area (5.06 cm2, and percentage of carcass meat (64.69%. It is concluded that MH-1 variety of KSM can be used as a feed component up to 20 % in the goat ration.

T. Hidjaz

2014-04-01

84

Study of Heat Transfer in a Kapok Material from the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient and the Excitation Pulse of Solicitations External Climatic  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize thermal insulating local material, kapok, from a study in 3 dimensions in Cartesian coordinate and in dynamic frequency regime. From a study a 3 dimensional the heat transfer through a material made of wool kapok (thermal conductivity: &lambda = 0,035 W/m/K; density: &rho = 12, 35 kg/m3; thermal diffusivity: &alpha = 17, 1.10-7 m2 /s is presented. The evolution curves of temperature versus convective heat transfer coefficient have helped highlight the importance of pulse excitation and the depth in the material. The thermal impedance is studied from representations of Nyquist and Bode diagrams allowing characterizing the thermal behavior from thermistors. The evolution of the thermal impedance with the thermal capacity of the material is presented.

M. Dieng

2013-02-01

85

46 CFR 164.003-3 - Material and workmanship.  

Science.gov (United States)

...APPROVAL MATERIALS Kapok, Processed § 164.003-3...workmanship. (a) The raw kapok fiber shall be long, clean...adulteration with other fiber, and of a quality equal...grown in Java. (b) Kapok shall be processed...

2010-10-01

86

Chemical characterization of lignin and lipid fractions in industrial hemp bast fibers used for manufacturing high-quality paper pulps  

OpenAIRE

The chemical composition of lignin and lipids of bast fibers from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) used for high-quality paper pulp production was studied. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) of fibers showed a lignin with a p-hydroxyphenyl:guaiacyl:syringyl unit (H: G:S) molar proportion of 13:53:34 (S/G ratio of 0.64). p-Hydroxycinnamic acids, namely, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, were found in only trace amounts. Among the lipids, the main compounds identified by ...

Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana; Rodri?guez Garci?a, Mari?a Isabel; Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del

2006-01-01

87

Recycling of Glass Fibers from Fiberglass Polyester Waste Composite for the Manufacture of Glass-Ceramic Materials  

OpenAIRE

This work presents the feasibility of reusing a glass fiber resulting from the thermolysis and gasification of waste composites to obtain glass-ceramic tiles. Polyester fiberglass (PFG) waste was treated at 550? for 3 h in a 9.6 dm3 thermolytic reactor. This process yielded an oil (?24 wt%), a gas (?8 wt%) and a solid residue (?68 wt%). After the polymer has been removed, the solid residue is heated in air to oxidize residual char and remove surface contamination. The cleaning fibers ...

Maximina Romero; Francisco Jose Alguacil; Olga Rodríguez; Irene García-Díaz; Maria Isabel Martín; Felix Antonio López

2012-01-01

88

Evaluation of manufacturing processes for boron/aluminum composites containing 0.2-mm-diameter boron fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of starting materials and fabrication techniques on the properties and cost of producing boron/aluminum (B/Al) composite panels containing 0.2-mm-diameter boron fibers are evaluated. The boron fibers were obtained from a single supplier. Five kinds of B/Al tape were used to produce 105, 8-ply panels. Consolidation was accomplished by hot pressing in air or in vacuum. Nondestructive and destructive tests included room-temperature tensile tests. On the basis of an evaluation of the test results and relative cost estimates, two kinds of tape were selected for use: fugitive binder tape and dry woven tape.

Moore, T. J.; Moorhead, P. E.

1978-01-01

89

Radiation pretreatments of cellulose materials for the enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis—II. Wood chips, paper, grain straw, hay, kapok  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of ?-ray pre-irradiation of cellulose materials such as wood chips, paper, grain straw, hay and kapok on glucose production on enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase has been investigated. These materials have been irradiated in air, water and acetate buffer solution over the dose range 10 3-4 x 10 6 Gy. In the relatively low dose range, up to about 5 x 10 5 Gy, the glucose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis are practically insensitive to radiation. At higher dose levels, up to 1.7-2 x 10 6 Gy, the pre-irradiation becomes very effective on enzymatic cellulose conversion. It has been found that the radiation-induced degradation of cellulose into low molecular weight polysaccharides is dependent on the nature and chemical composition of the cellulose materials and on the radiation environmental conditions. Further increases of dose causes radiation-induced structural modifications in polysaccharides previously produced, which can lead to a decrease in glucose production by enzymatic hydrolysis.

Ardica, S.; Calderaro, E.; Cappadona, C.

90

Biodiesel Production from Kapok (Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil using Naturally Alkaline Catalyst as an Effort of Green Energy and Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, energy that used to serve all the needs of community, mainly generated from fossil (conventional energy. Terrace in energy consumption is not balanced with adequate fossil fuel reserves and will be totally depleted in the near future. Indonesian Government through a Presidential Decree No. 5 year 2006 mandates an increased capacity in renewable energy production from 5 percent to 15 percent in 2025. C. pentandra seed oil has feasibility as a sustainable biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia. The aim of this paper was to investigate biodiesel production from ceiba petandra seed oil using naturally potassium hydroxide catalyst. Research designs are based on factorial design with 2 levels and 3 independent variables (temperature, reaction time and molar ratio of methanol to oil. According to data calculation, the most influential single variable is molar ratio of methanol to oil. Characterization of biodiesel products meet all the qualifications standardized by SNI 04-7182-2006. Keywords: biodiesel, kapok seed oil, c. pentandra, green technology

N.A. Handayani

2013-10-01

91

Boron and/or silicon containing one directional carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite material and manufacturing method therefor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention concerns a material for first walls used in a thermonuclear reactor. In one directional carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materials, at least one of boron, silicon and compounds thereof having an average grain size of not greater than 10?m is incorporated homogeneously by from 2 to 45wt% as boron and/or silicon in a matrix. In addition, the volume content of the capacity of the carbon fibers is determined from 45 to 75%. This can provide heat conductivity and mechanical property which are satisfactory for a material of the first walls of a thermonuclear reactor and also provide high bending strength and low elasticity in 90deg direction. (T.M.)

92

Recycling of Glass Fibers from Fiberglass Polyester Waste Composite for the Manufacture of Glass-Ceramic Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents the feasibility of reusing a glass fiber resulting from the thermolysis and gasification of waste composites to obtain glass-ceramic tiles. Polyester fiberglass (PFG waste was treated at 550? for 3 h in a 9.6 dm3 thermolytic reactor. This process yielded an oil (?24 wt%, a gas (?8 wt% and a solid residue (?68 wt%. After the polymer has been removed, the solid residue is heated in air to oxidize residual char and remove surface contamination. The cleaning fibers were converted into glass-ceramic tile. A mixture consisting of 95 wt% of this solid residue and 5% Na2O was melted at 1450? to obtain a glass frit. Powder glass samples (<63 ?m was then sintered and crystallized at 1013?, leading to the formation of wollastonite-plagioclase glass-ceramic materials for architectural applications. Thermal stability and crystallization mechanism have been studied by Differential Thermal Analysis. Mineralogy analyses of the glass-ceramic materials were carried out using X-ray Diffraction.

Maximina Romero

2012-08-01

93

Fiber Singular Optics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present review is devoted to the optical vortex behavior both in free space and optical fibers. The processes of the vortex transformations in perturbed optical fibers are analyzed on the base of the operator of the spin – orbit interaction in order to forecast the possible ways of manufacturing the vortex preserving fibers and their applications in supersensitive optical devices.

A. V. Volyar

2002-06-01

94

Airclad fiber laser technology  

OpenAIRE

High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last 5 years. Many of the traditional manufacturers of gas and solid-state lasers are now pursuing the fiber-based systems, which are displacing the conventional technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems require reliable fibers with large cores, stable mode quality, and good power handling capabilities-requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through ma...

Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes; Noordegraaf, Danny; Maack, Martin D.; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko; Nikolajsen, Thomas; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; Sørensen, Mads Hoy; Denninger, Mark; Jakobsen, Christian; Simonsen, Harald R.

2011-01-01

95

Manufacturing Success  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that manufacturing output in America…

Reese, Susan

2007-01-01

96

Why Manufacturing?  

Science.gov (United States)

This web page from the Florida Advanced Technological Education Center for Manufacturing (FLATE) will help students and educators looking at domestic manufacturing. The page highlights products manufactured in the state of Florida including food, beverages, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, metals, plastics, electronic devices and more. A video on the variety of items manufactured in the state of Florida is available in both English and Spanish.

97

46 CFR 164.003-4 - Inspections and tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Inspections and tests. (a) Kapok fibers to be used in a finished product...expressed in cubic feet. (e) Kapok fiber shall, at the option of the inspector...be subjected to separation of kapok fibers from foreign matter by hand,...

2010-10-01

98

Using a Fiber Loop and Fiber Bragg Grating as a Fiber Optic Sensor to Simultaneously Measure Temperature and Displacement  

OpenAIRE

This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to the module, and, consequently, the center wavelength displacement of FBG was limited by only the effects of temperature change. Displacement and temperature were determined by measuring changes in th...

Hsu-Chih Cheng; Yue-Shiun Wu; Chih-Ta Yen; Yao-Tang Chang

2013-01-01

99

Manufacturing Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective 7:05 - Students will develop an awareness of the designed World through : Describing a manufacturing system; listing and describing the basic type of manufacturing; defining production and manufacturing enterprise;defining AGV, CAD, CIM, CAM, CNC, production tooling, automation, and material processes. Day 1: Introduction/Background Objective Preassessment: Use a KWL chart to assess your students prior knowledge. This will also help you deal with any misconceptions regarding manufacturing system. Students will use the curriculum companion PowerPoint and Objective 7.05 Outline to develop an awarness of: Define manufacturing List and describe the basic types of Manufacturing Student ...

S Wallace

2010-07-16

100

Lean Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

For instructors looking for a basic outline of what lean manufacturing is, this website provides the information in a brief, easy to read format. Students will learn about the history of lean manufacturing, the basic goals of lean manufacturing and key processes involved. An interesting section at the end of the webpage asks students to take a lean manufacturing viewpoint in regards to their own lives, considering areas like overproduction, waiting, inventory and overprocessing.

101

MANUFACTURING SIMULATORS  

OpenAIRE

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Simulation modelling has been identified as one of the most powerful techniques available for the analysis and design of complex manufacturing systems. A number of manufacturing simulators have been designed in an effort to make it easier to use the simulation approach in the manufacturing environment. This paper will attempt to describe and ~valuate the characteristics of some of the available manufacturing simulators as well as possible ways to alleviate some of t...

Kruger, P. S.; Schutte, C. S. L.

2012-01-01

102

Optical fiber placement for crossover-free fiber optic gyros  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) coils have traditionally been produced by cylindrical winding techniques. Regardless of the type of cylindrical wind, standard or quadrupolar, the resulting coils contain fiber crossovers that degrade performance. In 1998, the U.S. Army patented a fiber coil configuration that essentially eliminated crossovers, was thermally symmetric, and allowed the use of inexpensive single-mode (SM) fiber. The crossover-free fiber optic gyro (CFOG) necessitated a paradigm shift in coil production methodology. The CFOG coil design was analyzed in depth to determine manufacturability. Design enhancements were made to enable automated high speed fabrication, resulting in the Improved Crossover-free Fiber Optic Gyro (ICFOG). A prototype Fiber Placement Machine (FPM) was designed and constructed to produce CFOG coils. The fiber placement concept was verified by producing test articles and complete coils.

Williams, Marty

2006-08-01

103

Precision manufacturing  

CERN Document Server

Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

Dornfeld, David

2008-01-01

104

Green insulation: hemp fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.

Anon

2011-09-15

105

Agave Americana Leaf Fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

Ashish Hulle

2015-02-01

106

46 CFR 160.048-3 - Materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements of subpart 164.019 of this chapter. (b) Kapok. The kapok shall be all new material complying with Specification... (h) Welting. The welting where used may be any fiber or plastic material suitable for the purpose....

2010-10-01

107

Manufacturing Careers  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource, created by Technology and Innovation in Manufacturing Education (TIME Center), examines the many career paths in manufacturing. These include design and development, production and quality assurance, inventory and distribution, health, safety, and environment, as well as installation, maintenance, and repair. Links to websites with relevant information are included such as "Stanford University - How Everyday Things Are Made by the Alliance for Innovative Manufacturing" and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

108

Manufacturing Engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufacturing Engineering is a monthly publication of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers. It is targeted primarily at manufacturing professionals, but it can also be of use to anyone with an interest in the field. This Web site posts between six and ten in-depth articles from each issue of the magazine. Examples of some topics that have been addressed in past issues include turbomachining processes, computer-aided design and manufacturing, and robotic assembly. The online archive maintains all previous monthly postings back to January 2000.

109

Airclad fiber laser technology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems require specially designed fibers with large cores and good power handling capabilities - requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 ?m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350 W CW fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. Finally, we briefly touch upon the subject of photo darkening andits origin.

Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

2008-01-01

110

Manufacturing technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

NONE

1995-09-01

111

Gene expression in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber: cloning of the mRNAs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotton, an important natural fiber, is a differentiated epidermal cell. The number of genes that are active in fiber cells is similar to those in leaf, ovule, or root tissues. Through differential screening of a fiber cDNA library, we isolated five cDNA clones that are preferentially expressed in fiber. One of the cDNA clones, pCKE6, corresponded to an abundant mRNA in fiber. Transcripts for E6 were detected throughout the development of the fiber. Immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products and Western blot analysis of fiber proteins showed two polypeptides in the range of 30-32 kDa as the products of E6 mRNA. Sequence analysis and hybrid-selected RNA translation also suggest that E6 mRNAs encode two polypeptides. Concentrations of E6 mRNA and protein are highest during the late primary cell wall and early secondary cell wall synthesis stages. Sequence comparison of E6 with other known eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes reveals no significant homology (GenBank; December 1991). E6 or a homologous gene(s) is conserved in several members of Malvaceae as well as in one other fiber-producing plant, kapok, but is not found in several other plants examined or in Acetobacter xylinum. A genomic clone corresponding to pCKE6 was isolated, and the promoter element of the E6 gene was shown to direct the expression of a carrot extensin mRNA in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated fashion in transgenic cotton plants. PMID:1631059

John, M E; Crow, L J

1992-07-01

112

Manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

Blaedel, K.L.

1997-02-01

113

Manufacturing Planning  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufacturing Planning is a lesson plan that introduces the knowledge and skills necessary to organize and plan a manufacturing project. Use of actual planning charts provides direct carryover to the work floor. After completing this module, students should be able to access and use a variety of resources (human, equipment, tools, plans, vendors and materials) to plan and complete projects according to process and time requirements. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

King, John

114

Micro Manufacturing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance. If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management addresses these issues for products based on metal, polymers and ceramics.

Hansen, Hans NØrgaard

2003-01-01

115

Manufacturing pop  

Science.gov (United States)

What is energy's role in the manufacturing of a soft drink can? This article, part of a series about the future of energy, describes the many energy-laden steps needed to make pop cans. Students read about the steps of aluminum can manufacture, beginning with removing the aluminum from ore within the ground. Three sets of thought-provoking questions afford students opportunities to reflect on what they've read. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

116

Semiconductor Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

6.780 Semiconductor Manufacturing, a course through MIT's OpenCourseWare, covers statistical modeling and the control of semiconductor fabrication processes and plants. Topics covered include: design of experiments, response surface modeling, and process optimization; defect and parametric yield modeling; process/device/circuit yield optimization; monitoring, diagnosis, and feedback control of equipment and processes; and analysis and scheduling of semiconductor manufacturing operations. Course materials are downloadable via a zip file.

117

Changes of propagation light in optical fiber submicron wires  

Science.gov (United States)

At the moment technology allows to miniaturize measurement system to several micrometers. Application of an optical fiber taper in such system needs to manufacture a new one with diameters below single micrometers which is very difficult and expensive. Another way to obtain this level of diameters is the process of tapering from the existing fibers. In the paper, experimental results of propagation light from a supercontinnum sources of the wavelength generates the wavelength of 350-2000 nm, in different optical fiber submicron wires made from tapers manufactured from single mode fibers are presented. Biconical optical fibers' tapers were manufactured in low pressure gas burner technique. There are presented spectral characteristics of a propagated beam. For the test, there was manufactured an optical fiber submicron wires with a different length of waist region with a diameter near one micrometer. We put to the test a taper made from a standard telecommunication fiber SMF-28 with a cutoff wavelength equal to 1260.

Stasiewicz, K. A.; ?ukowski, A.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.

2013-05-01

118

Polymer fiber waveguides for terahertz radiation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Terahertz radiation offers many exciting applications noticeably in spectroscopy and it is showing promising results in imaging, mainly for security applications. In this project the study of using structured polymer fibers for THz waveguiding is presented. The inspiration for the THz fiber is taken from microstructured polymer optical fibers (mPOFs) used at optical wavelengths for sensing and communication. The fibers investigated can be divided into two groups, the solid core fibers and the hollow core fibers. The solid core fibers offer the broadest bandwidth with the best dispersion profile, while the hollow core fibers hold the promise for lowest loss but at the cost of lower bandwidth. In both cases the fabrication and characterization of the fibers is presented. The fibers are also investigated numerically and the numerical results are held up against the experimental results. The polymer material with lowest loss is Topas and all the solid core fibers are manufactured using this material. The polymer PMMA however has higher refractive index along with higher loss, and this higher refractive index is utilized to achieve a large bandwidth hollow core fiber with a low air-fill fraction. Finally, an example of an application is presented in the form of a broadband 3-dB directional fiber coupler. The device is numerically investigated and designed in such a way that it is manufacturable.

Nielsen, Kristian

2011-01-01

119

Design of Natural Fiber Composites Chemical Container Using Resin Flow Simulation of VARTML Process  

OpenAIRE

In this study, an investigation on mechanical properties of flax natural fiber composite is performed as a precedent study on the design of eco-friendly structure using flax natural fiber composite. The Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding-Light (VARTML) manufacturing method is adopted for manufacturing the flax fiber composite panel. The VARTML is a manufacturing process that the resin is injected into the dry layered –up fibers enclosed by a rigid mold tool under vacuum. In this work, t...

Changduk Kong; Hyunbum Park; Haseung Lee; Jounghwan Lee

2014-01-01

120

Next Generation Manufacturing Manufacturing 2030  

OpenAIRE

The presentation describes actual topics of discussion within the research initiative Manufuture. It starts with an overview on the strategic Research Agenda and megatrends with impact on manufacturing. New Business Models, Dematerialisation of Products, Knowledge based Manufacturing Engineering as well as the Green Factory are among the addressed topics. The presentation closes with results of an internet based consultation that identified volume production as prime focus of interest for sta...

Westka?mper, Engelbert

2011-01-01

121

Parameter optimization of fusion splicing of photonic crystal fibers and conventional fibers to increase strength  

Science.gov (United States)

A splicing parameter optimization method to increase the tensile strength of splicing joint between photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and conventional fiber is demonstrated. Based on the splicing recipes provided by splicer or fiber manufacturers, the optimal values of some major splicing parameters are obtained in sequence, and a conspicuous improvement in the mechanical strength of splicing joints between PCFs and conventional fibers is validated through experiments.

Zhang, Chunxi; Zhang, Zuchen; Song, Jingming; Wu, Chunxiao; Song, Ningfang

2015-03-01

122

Photosensitivity, chemical composition gratings and optical fiber based components  

OpenAIRE

The different topics of this thesis include high-temperaturestable fiber Bragg gratings, photosensitivity and fiber basedcomponents. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are wavelength dispersiverefractive index structures manufactured through UV exposure ofoptical fibers. Their applications range from WDM filters,dispersion compensators and fiber laser resonators fortelecommunication applications to different types of point ordistributed sensors for a variety of applications. One aim of this thesis ha...

Fokine, Michael

2002-01-01

123

Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

124

Small Business Innovations (Fiber Optics)  

Science.gov (United States)

Foster-Miller, Inc. Waltham, MA developed the In-Situ Fiber Optic Polymer Reaction Monitor which could lead to higher yields and lower costs in complex composite manufacturing. The monitor, developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center, uses an infrared, fiber optic sensor to track the molecular vibrational characteristics of a composite part while it is being cured. It is the first analytical system capable of directly measuring the chemistry of advanced composite materials.

1991-01-01

125

Using a Fiber Loop and Fiber Bragg Grating as a Fiber Optic Sensor to Simultaneously Measure Temperature and Displacement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to the module, and, consequently, the center wavelength displacement of FBG was limited by only the effects of temperature change. Displacement and temperature were determined by measuring changes in the transmission of optical power and shifts in Bragg wavelength. This study provides a simple and economical method to measure displacement and temperature simultaneously.

Hsu-Chih Cheng

2013-05-01

126

Using a fiber loop and fiber bragg grating as a fiber optic sensor to simultaneously measure temperature and displacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to the module, and, consequently, the center wavelength displacement of FBG was limited by only the effects of temperature change. Displacement and temperature were determined by measuring changes in the transmission of optical power and shifts in Bragg wavelength. This study provides a simple and economical method to measure displacement and temperature simultaneously. PMID:23681094

Chang, Yao-Tang; Yen, Chih-Ta; Wu, Yue-Shiun; Cheng, Hsu-Chih

2013-01-01

127

Chrysotile asbestos exposure in the manufacturing of thermal insulating boards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to asbestos fibers has been extensively studied in milling, mining of asbestos fibers, and in industries manufacturing asbestos-cement sheets, pipes, etc. However, very few studies have been reported in asbestos textiles, brake lining workers, and insulation products. In the present investigation, chrysotile exposure monitoring was carried out in a small thermal insulating boards manufacturing facility. Twenty-eight samples were analyzed from various locations like feeding of raw materials, weighing, pressing, machine grinding, and hand finishing of final products. Twenty-five percent of the samples were found to be above ACGIH TLV of 0.1 fibers per milliliter. However, mean fiber concentrations were found to be lower than 0.1 fibers per milliliter, except for the process of feeding of raw materials where the mean fiber concentration was 0.1087+/-0.0631 fibers per milliliter. PMID:19626449

Bhagia, L J; Vyas, J B; Shaikh, M I; Dodia, S L

2010-08-01

128

Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigueing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

129

Simulating Fiber Aggregation in Shear Flow with Dissipative Particle Dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a mesoscale simulation of fiber aggregation using LAMMPS and its implementation of dissipative particle dynamics. Fiber-fiber interactions are approximated by combinations of standard pairwise forces, allowing exploration of multiple interaction-influenced fiber behaviors such as aggregation and bundling. We determine viscosity, stresses, fluid velocity field, and fiber forces while simulating the evolution of a model fiber system in shear flow. Preliminary simulations supported by AFOSR HPC resources have demonstrated several aggregate types dependent on system parameters. Explorations of fiber interaction mechanisms and parameters may enable greater insight into processes such as nanocomposite material manufacturing and silk fibrillation.

Stimatze, Justin; Egolf, David; Urbach, Jeffrey

2013-03-01

130

Apparel Manufacture  

Science.gov (United States)

Marshall Space Flight Center teamed with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in 1989 on a program involving development of advanced simulation software. Concurrently, the State of Alabama chartered UAH to conduct a technology advancement program in support of the state's apparel manufacturers. In 1992, under contract to Marshall, UAH developed an apparel-specific software package that allows manufacturers to design and analyze modules without making an actual investment -- it functions on ordinary PC equipment. By 1995, Marshall had responded to requests for the package from more than 400 companies in 36 states; some of which reported savings up to $2 million. The National Garment Company of Missouri, for example, uses the system to design and balance a modular line before committing to expensive hardware; for setting up sewing lines; and for determining the composition of a new team.

1995-01-01

131

Photonic liquid crystal fiber intermodal interferometer  

OpenAIRE

In this work, we present a novel interferometer based on liquid crystal and photonic crystal fiber technology. The objective of this project is the development of a tunable (switchable) modal (Mach-Zehnder) interferometer for optical communications or sensing. This interferometer has been manufactured splicing a short portion (between 15 and 30 mm) of photonic crystal fiber with two single mode fiber pigtails. The study shows a high sensitivity of the interferometer to the polarization of the...

Poudereux Sa?nchez, David; Corredera Guille?n, Pedro; Oto?n Marti?nez, Eva; Oto?n Sa?nchez, Jose? Manuel; Quintana Arregui, Patxi Xabier

2013-01-01

132

Porous-core honeycomb bandgap THz fiber  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this Letter we propose a novel (to our knowledge) porous-core honeycomb bandgap design. The holes of the porous core are the same size as the holes in the surrounding cladding, thereby giving the proposed fiber important manufacturing benefits. The fiber is shown to have a 0:35-THz-wide fundamental bandgap centered at 1:05 THz. The calculated minimum loss of the fiber is 0:25 dB=cm.

Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

2011-01-01

133

Manufacturing Today  

OpenAIRE

Curated by Cristina Ricupero and Will Bradley 'Manufacturing Today' is conceived as a five year research project and exhibition based in Norway but created, in collaboration between art academies in Norway, Finland, Lithuania and the UK. This research is publicly manifested in formal workshop sessions, a symposium, a publication, an exhibition and a series of commissions, all in an effort to address the question of how art and art education might resist instrumentalisation by the art mark...

Kelly, Susan

2010-01-01

134

Manufacturing land  

OpenAIRE

Manufacturing productive land is the basis for this thesis document. The document is split into five related sections each displaying an emphasis on manipulation of ground in a productive manner over time. O rganising land deals with a study based on a farm in Derryleigh, Newport, Co. Tipperary and explores through case study the changing nature of productivity of ground/farmland and the resultant dwellings and sheds which become an extension of such the landscap...

Doheny, Gavin

2012-01-01

135

Green Manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

Patten, John

2013-12-31

136

Photonic crystal fibers - : from theory to practice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During this ph.d. work, attention has been focused on understanding and analyzing the modal behavior of micro-structured fibers. Micro-structured fibers are fibers with a complex dielectric toplogy, and offer a number of novel possibilities, compared to standard silica based optical fibers. The thesis focuses on understanding the basic mechanisms controlling the modal properties of micro-structured fibers. One important sub-class of micro-structured fibers are fibers that guide light by index effects similar to those index effects that ensure guidance of light in standard optical fibers. Such micro-structured fibers are the ones most often trated in literature concerning micro-structured fibers. These micro-structured fibers offer a whole range of novel wave guiding characteristics, including the possibility of fibers that guide only one mode irrespective of the frequency of light, and nonlinear fibers with zero dispersion wavelength well below 1300 nm. This thesis dexcribes the functionalities of these fibers, and further point to novel application areas, such as new efficient fiber amplifiers and fibers with new possibilities within dispersion management. When pointing toward novel possibilities, the thesis will attempot to offer a proof of concept, rather than an in-depth analysis, thus reflecting the present state of the art within the area of micro-structured fibers. Another important sub-class of micro-structured fibers is photonic bandgap fibers. Photonic bandgap fibers are far more complicated to manufacture, compared to micro-structured fibers that guide light by simple index effects, because of stringent requirements concerning the periodicity of the cladding structure of the fibers. The theoretical investigation of these fibers is also more complex, than the investigation of micro-structured fibers that guide light by simple index effects. However, photonic bandgap fibers offer more radical possibilities, such as core regions with an effective index that is lower than the surrounding effective claddingindex one may guide light in air- and dispersion qualities that differ from both those of index guiding micro-structured fibers as well as from the dispersion properties of standard optical fibers.

Libori, Stig E. Barkou

2002-01-01

137

Method of manufacturing fibrous hemostatic bandages  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of manufacturing a sturdy and pliable fibrous hemostatic dressing by making fibers that maximally expose surface area per unit weight of active ingredients as a means for aiding in the clot forming process and as a means of minimizing waste of active ingredients. The method uses a rotating object to spin off a liquid biocompatible fiber precursor, which is added at its center. Fibers formed then deposit on a collector located at a distance from the rotating object creating a fiber layer on the collector. An electrical potential difference is maintained between the rotating disk and the collector. Then, a liquid procoagulation species is introduced at the center of the rotating disk such that it spins off the rotating disk and coats the fibers.

Larsen, Gustavo; Spretz, Ruben; Velarde-Ortiz, Raffet

2012-09-04

138

FLAX FIBERS  

Science.gov (United States)

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a versatile plant, supplying both fiber and seed for industrial uses. The long, strong fibers processed for linen are prized for comfort and appearance in textiles, while shorter fibers are used in textile blends and for specialty paper, reinforced composites, and a...

139

Manufacturing network evolution : a manufacturing plant perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing plant affects the other plants in the same network by altering their strategic roles, which leads to the subsequent transformation of the manufacturing network. Originality/value – A review of the existing literature investigated different elements of a manufacturing network independently. In this paper, the complex phenomenon of a manufacturing network evolution is observed by combining the analysis of a manufacturing plant and network level. The historical trajectories of manufacturing networks that are presented in the case studies are examined in order to understand and determine the future shape of the networks. This study will help industrial managers make more knowledgeable decisions regarding manufacturing network management.

Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami

2011-01-01

140

V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

2012-10-01

141

Mode conversion in hybrid optical fiber coupler  

Science.gov (United States)

Designing of all in-line fiber optic systems with a supercontinuum light source gives some issues. The use of a standard single mode fiber (SMF) as an input do not secure single mode transmission in full wavelength range. In the paper, the experimental results of the tested hybrid fiber optic coupler were presented. It was manufactured by fusing a standard single mode fiber (SMF28) and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process is based on the standard fused biconical taper technique. Two types of large mode area fibers (LMA8 and LAM10 NKT Photonics) with different air holes arrangements were used as the photonic crystal fiber. Spectral characteristics within the range of 800 nm - 1700 nm were presented. All process was optimized to obtain a mode conversion between SMF and PCF and to reach a single mode transmission in the PCF output of the coupler.

Stasiewicz, Karol A.; Marc, P.; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

2012-04-01

142

Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologi  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologies Project - Preliminary Manufacturing Demonstration Articles for Ares V Payload Shroud Barrel Acreage Structure

2010-01-01

143

Flexible scalable photonic manufacturing method  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for flexible, scalable photonic manufacturing is described. Optical components are actively pre-aligned and secured to precision mounts. In a subsequent operation, the mounted optical components are passively placed onto a substrate known as an Optical Circuit Board (OCB). The passive placement may be either manual for low volume applications or with a pick-and-place robot for high volume applications. Mating registration features on the component mounts and the OCB facilitate accurate optical alignment. New photonic circuits may be created by changing the layout of the OCB. Predicted yield data from Monte Carlo tolerance simulations for two fiber optic photonic circuits is presented.

Skunes, Timothy A.; Case, Steven K.

2003-06-01

144

Embedded sensors in layered manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Layered Manufacturing can be applied to build ``smart'' parts with sensors, integrated circuits, and actuators placed within the component. Embedded sensors can be used to gain data for validating or improving designs during the prototype stage or to obtain information on the performance and structural integrity of components in service. Techniques for embedding fiber optic sensors in metals, polymers, and ceramics have been investigated. Embedding optical fibers into metals is especially challenging because engineering alloys tend to exhibit high melting temperatures. In the present research an embedding sequence was developed capable of embedding fiber sensors into parts made of metal alloys with high melting temperatures. Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors were selected as the most promising sensor candidate. The embedded FBG sensors were characterized for temperature and strain measurements. The embedded FBG sensors in nickel and stainless steel provided high sensitivity, good accuracy, and high temperature capacity for temperature measurements. Temperature sensitivity approximately 100% higher than that of bare FBGs was demonstrated. For strain measurements, the sensors embedded in metal and polyurethane yielded high sensitivity, accuracy, and linearity. The sensitivity of the embedded FBGs was in good agreement with that of bare FBGs. Moreover, a decoupling technique for embedded FBG sensors was developed to separate temperature and strain effects. The embedded FBG sensors were used to monitor the accumulation of residual stresses during the laser- assisted Layered Manufacturing, to measure the strain field in layered materials, to measure pressure, and to monitor temperature and strain simultaneously. New techniques have been developed for temperature and strain measurements of rotating components with FBG sensors embedded or attached to the surface. Tunable laser diodes were incorporated into the sensing system for monitoring the Bragg grating wavelength, and thus the temperature or strain was determined. The non-contact sensing system provides a new sensing tool that is superior to slip rings. Moreover, the new techniques provide a new health monitoring methodology for rotating structures, especially those exposed to hostile environments, such as blades in gas turbine engines. For laser-assisted Layered Manufacturing, residual stresses caused by the temperature gradient and material property mismatches result in part inaccuracy, warpage, or even delamination. Thus, material issues have been investigated, and a new class of metal matrix composites of INVAR and TiC were designed and fabricated. The materials can reduce deformation caused by residual stresses and improve mechanical properties significantly compared to other materials used in Layered Manufacturing.

Li, Xiaochun

145

Advanced Manufacturing Career Collaborative  

Science.gov (United States)

This website is all about advanced manufacturing including: Career Exploration, Manufacturing Career Pathways, Gold Collar Careers, Careers for the Future, and FAQs. It is aimed at manufacturing in Southwestern Pennsylvania, but has valuable information for the industry in general.

146

Tribology in Manufacturing Technology  

CERN Document Server

The present book aims to provide research advances on tribology in manufacturing technology for modern industry. This book can be used as a research book for final undergraduate engineering course (for example, mechanical, manufacturing, materials, etc) or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. Also, this book can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and tribology researchers, mechanical, mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineers, professionals in related industries with manufacturing and tribology.

2013-01-01

147

Manufacturing Engineering Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufacturing Engineering Skills provides an assessment of what the key manufacturing skills along with skill gaps are in the marketplace. Joe Loughrey is president and chief operating officer of Cummins Inc. and chairman of The Manufacturing Institute, the research and education arm of the National Association of Manufacturers. Additionally, Manufacturing Engineering Skills was shared by Mike Mohlar and by Roger Lang at an SME mfg executive roundtable in 2005 to provide clarity and encouragement about careers in manufacturing.

Loughrey, Joe

148

Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had amounts of bonded and physisorbed sizing similar to what has been presented in literature. An estimated sizing thickness was found to be approximately 100 nm. It is indicated that an epoxy-resin containing film former and a polyethylene oxide lubricant are present, yet no silanes or other sizing components were identified in the extractant.

Petersen, Helga NØrgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro

2013-01-01

149

Introduction to Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction to Manufacturing provides an overview of basic manufacturing processes and career opportunities within manufacturing. Students will participate in a manufacturing simulation in which they will analyze the manufacturing process for a product and redesign the process to incorporate a teaming approach. After completing this module, students should be able to analyze and execute a manufacturing process, identify problems in the process, and redesign the process for improvement during a simulated manufacturing line. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

150

Effect of fiber content on the properties of glass fiber-phenolic matrix composite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glass fiber-Phenolic matrix composite is used for the manufacturing of parts /components related to electronic and aerospace industry due to its high strength, dimensional stability and excellent electrical insulation properties. The evaluation of this composite material is necessary prior to make parts/components of new designs. In the present research, thermosetting phenolic plastic was reinforced with E-glass fiber in different fiber-to-resin ratios to produce composites of different compositions. Mechanical and electrical properties of these composite materials were evaluated with reference to the effect of fiber content variation in phenolic resin. (author)

151

Effect of fiber content on the mechanical properties of glass fiber-phenolic matrix composite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glass fiber-Phenolic matrix composite is used for the manufacturing of parts related to aerospace and electronic industry due to its high strength, dimensional stability and excellent electrical insulation properties. The evaluation of this composite material is necessary prior to make components/articles of new designs. In the present work, Thermosetting Phenolic plastic was reinforced with E-glass fiber, in different fiber-to-resin ratios to produce composites of different compositions. Mechanical properties of these composite materials were evaluated with reference to the effect of fiber content variation in phenolic resin. (author)

152

Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements

153

Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements.

Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.; Farmer, J.P. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-04-01

154

METHOD FOR MEASURING CARBON FIBER EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon fibers are highly conductive, lightweight and of small dimensions. When released as emissions from production, manufacturing, processing and disposal sources they may become airborne and disperse over wide areas. If they settle onto electronic or electrical components they...

155

Manufacturing Strategy, Capabilities and Performance  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation addresses the topic of manufacturing strategy, especially the manufacturing capabilities and operational performance of manufacturing plants. Manufacturing strategy research aims at providing a structured decision making approach to improve the economics of manufacturing and to make companies more competitive. The overall objective of this thesis is to investigate how manufacturing companies make use of different manufacturing practices or bundles of manufacturing practices ...

Hallgren, Mattias

2007-01-01

156

Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

We designed, manufactured and characterized two birefringent microstructured fibers that feature a 5-fold increase in polarimetric sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure compared to the earlier reported values for microstructured fibers. We demonstrate a good agreement between the finite element simulations and the experimental values for the polarimetric sensitivity to pressure and to temperature. The sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure has a negative sign and exceeds -43 rad/MPa x m at 1.55 microm for both fibers. In combination with the very low sensitivity to temperature, this makes our fibers the candidates of choice for the development of microstructured fiber based hydrostatic pressure measurement systems. PMID:20639996

Martynkien, Tadeusz; Statkiewicz-Barabach, Gabriela; Olszewski, Jacek; Wojcik, Jan; Mergo, Pawe?; Geernaert, Thomas; Sonnenfeld, Camille; Anuszkiewicz, Alicja; Szczurowski, Marcin K; Tarnowski, Karol; Makara, Mariusz; Skorupski, Krzysztof; Klimek, Jacek; Poturaj, Krzysztof; Urbanczyk, Waclaw; Nasilowski, Tomasz; Berghmans, Francis; Thienpont, Hugo

2010-07-01

157

Birefringence in optical fibers formed by proton implantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Birefringence can be induced in silica-based optical fibers by ion implantation. In the present research, protons were implanted in single-mode optical fibers with two different energies, one being the energy with which the protons can just reach the center of the optical fiber core and the other being a slightly lower energy. The degree of birefringence was evaluated by measuring reflection spectra of Bragg gratings formed at the proton-implanted region of the optical fibers. The results confirmed that birefringence is induced by unidirectional densification along the projected range of protons formed in the fiber core and by densification of the fiber cladding. The induced birefringence reached three to ten times higher than that of a conventional birefringent fiber. The birefringence caused by ion implantation can be a versatile tool for manufacturing various optical fiber devices

158

Radiation oxidation and subsequent thermal curing of polyacrylonitrile fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were exposed to gamma-ray irradiation at room temperature under vacuum, air and oxygen to investigate the radiation oxidation effects on PAN fibers. Radiation-induced oxidation degradation and crosslinking was evaluated by measuring the gel fraction. It was found that radiation oxidation took place mainly on the fiber surface due to the limited penetration of oxygen into PAN fibers from the surface, and the oxidation thickness increased with the oxygen pressure. Chain scission was dominant in the oxidized area, and crosslinking occurred in the inner part of the fibers. However, the oxidized regions of the fibers can be converted to gel via crosslinking by thermal curing at 160 °C in a N2 atmosphere. Higher extents of radiation oxidation degradation led to a greater increase in the gel fraction. These results suggest that the radiation treatment of PAN fibers prior to thermal oxidation may be useful for manufacturing carbon fibers.

Liu, Weihua; Wang, Mouhua; Xing, Zhe; Wu, Guozhong

2014-01-01

159

Fiber Optics Technician. Curriculum Research Project. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined the role of technicians in the fiber optics industry and determined those elements that should be included in a comprehensive curriculum to prepare fiber optics technicians for employment in the Texas labor market. First the current literature, including the ERIC database and equipment manufacturers' journals were reviewed. After…

Whittington, Herschel K.

160

Dry Process for Making Polyimide/ Carbon-and-Boron-Fiber Tape  

Science.gov (United States)

A dry process has been invented as an improved means of manufacturing composite prepreg tapes that consist of high-temperature thermoplastic polyimide resin matrices reinforced with carbon and boron fibers. Such tapes are used (especially in the aircraft industry) to fabricate strong, lightweight composite-material structural components. The inclusion of boron fibers results in compression strengths greater than can be achieved by use of carbon fibers alone. The present dry process is intended to enable the manufacture of prepreg tapes (1) that contain little or no solvent; (2) that have the desired dimensions, fiber areal weight, and resin content; and (3) in which all of the fibers are adequately wetted by resin and the boron fibers are fully encapsulated and evenly dispersed. Prepreg tapes must have these properties to be useable in the manufacture of high-quality composites by automated tape placement. The elimination of solvent and the use of automated tape placement would reduce the overall costs of manufacturing.

Belvin, Harry L.; Cano, Roberto J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Marchello, Joseph M.

2003-01-01

161

Fiber-assisted emulsification microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of aromatic amines in aqueous samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel fiber-assisted emulsification microextraction (FAEME) method was developed for the determination of eight aromatic amines (AAs) in aqueous samples. In this method, the extraction solvent (100 ?L chlorobenzene) and the dispersive material (1.0mg kapok fiber fragments) were added successively into the aqueous sample (5.0 mL), and then the mixture was emulsified by ultrasound to form the cloudy solution. Phase separation was performed by centrifugation, and the sedimented phase was transferred to micro-inserts with a microsyringe for analysis. All variables involved in the extraction process were identified and optimized. By coupling the analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), excellent detection limits (0.01-0.2 ?g L(-1)), good precision (RSDs, 3.33-6.56%) and linear ranges (0.10-160 ?g L(-1) and 1.0-160 ?g L(-1)) were obtained. Compared with the traditional solvent-emulsification method, the extraction recoveries of the proposed method were much higher. Satisfactory recoveries were achieved when the method was used for the analysis of AAs in spiked real water samples. PMID:25152494

Feng, Wen; Jiang, Ruifen; Chen, Bo; Ouyang, Gangfeng

2014-09-26

162

Design of Natural Fiber Composites Chemical Container Using Resin Flow Simulation of VARTML Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, an investigation on mechanical properties of flax natural fiber composite is performed as a precedent study on the design of eco-friendly structure using flax natural fiber composite. The Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding-Light (VARTML manufacturing method is adopted for manufacturing the flax fiber composite panel. The VARTML is a manufacturing process that the resin is injected into the dry layered –up fibers enclosed by a rigid mold tool under vacuum. In this work, the resin flow analysis of VARTM manufacturing method is performed. A series of flax composite panels are manufactured, and several kinds of specimens cut out from the panels are tested to obtain mechanical performance data. Based on this, structural design of chemical storage tank for agricultural vehicle was performed using flax/vinyl ester. After structural design and analysis, the resin flow analysis of VARTM manufacturing method was performed

Changduk Kong

2014-08-01

163

Curved Piezoelectric Actuators for Stretching Optical Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Assemblies containing curved piezoceramic fiber composite actuators have been invented as means of stretching optical fibers by amounts that depend on applied drive voltages. Piezoceramic fiber composite actuators are conventionally manufactured as sheets or ribbons that are flat and flexible, but can be made curved to obtain load-carrying ability and displacement greater than those obtainable from the flat versions. In the primary embodiment of this invention, piezoceramic fibers are oriented parallel to the direction of longitudinal displacement of the actuators so that application of drive voltage causes the actuator to flatten, producing maximum motion. Actuator motion can be transmitted to the optical fiber by use of hinges and clamp blocks. In the original application of this invention, the optical fiber contains a Bragg grating and the purpose of the controlled stretching of the fiber is to tune the grating as part of a small, lightweight, mode-hop-free, rapidly tunable laser for demodulating strain in Bragg-grating strain-measurement optical fibers attached to structures. The invention could also be used to apply controllable tensile force or displacement to an object other than an optical fiber.

Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

2008-01-01

164

Asbestos exposure during routine brake lining manufacture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occupational exposure to asbestos fiber and total dust of workers of a major brake lining manufacture plant in a developing country were examined and compared with those in developed countries. Time weighted average of total dust and asbestos fiber concentration in the potential sources of exposure were monitored. All personal air sampling were collected on membrane filters and analyzed by phase contrast optical microscopy (PCM) for comparison with the occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc, 8-h time--weighted average. This study demonstrates that routine mixing, polishing and beveling process in the brake lining production can result in elevated levels of airborne asbestos. Greater releases of airborne asbestos were observed during mixing process and mixer machine. The results also showed that the employees working in the process had the exposure to total dust concentrations ranging from 2.08 to 16.32 mg/m(3) that is higher than OSHA, recommendation. According to OSHA definition of fibers, it has been indicated that from 3,000 counted particles, 90% of particles are in the form of non-fiber and reaming have fiber-shaped. The particle analyze gives the geometric mean diameter as 6.02 mum, and also indicated that the arithmetic mean of the number distribution for the particle population was 8.4 mum. Approximately 60.4% of the counted fibers were lower than 10 mum in length, from which only 8% consists of fibers (>5 mum in length). In conclusion, the analysis showed a presence in the air of only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of other types of asbestos. During an 8-h shift, the average asbestos fiber exposure (0.78 f/cc) were 7.8 time in excess of OSHA PEL. Additional studies in occupational exposure to asbestos are needed. PMID:18212474

Kakooei, Hossein; Sameti, Mahmod; Kakooei, Ali Akbar

2007-12-01

165

75 FR 104 - Manufacturing & Services' Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative; Update  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMERCE International Trade Administration Manufacturing & Services' Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative; Update ACTION: Notice and...proposed new areas of work for the Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative which could include a...

2010-01-04

166

Soluble vs. insoluble fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

Insoluble vs. soluble fiber; Fiber - soluble vs. insoluble ... There are two different types of fiber -- soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. ...

167

Automotive Manufacturing Scholarships  

Science.gov (United States)

This page from the Consortium for Alabama Regional Center for Automotive Manufacturing (CARCAM) provides some information about scholarships in automotive manufacturing. The highlighted scholarship is only open to Alabama residents, but the page provides links to other scholarship opportunities.

168

Rapid Manufactured Textiles  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Rapid Manufacturing (RM) is increasingly becoming a viable manufacturing process due to dramatic advantages that are achievable in the area of design complexity. Through the exploration of the design freedom afforded by RM, this paper introduces the concept and novel research area of RM textiles. The paper highlights the design and manufacturing possibilities applied to textiles when considering additive manufacturing techniques, the current limitations of conventional Com...

Bingham, Guy; Hague, Richard; Tuck, Christopher John; Long, Andrew; Crookston, Jonathan Josiah; Sherburn, Martin

2006-01-01

169

Manufacturing in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report compares the manufacturing strategies, practices, performances and improvement activities of 39 companies that are representative for the Danish assembly industry with those of 804 companies from 19 other countries. The data supporting this report were collected in 2013 and concern: • Manufacturing strategies pursued and implemented between 2010 and 2012. • Performance improvements achieved during that period. • Actual manufacturing practices and performances as well as competitive priorities in 2012. • Manufacturing strategies pursued for the years 2010-2012.

Hansen, Johannes; Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth

2014-01-01

170

What is Manufacturing?  

Science.gov (United States)

This PowerPoint presentation from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center provides an introduction to general manufacturing. The material focuses on manufacturing that is Florida based, but would be useful for students in other regions as well. The presentation demonstrates the manufacturing cycle (innovate, design, fabricate, test, market, distribute) and shows student the pathway they may take to a career in manufacturing.

171

Safety in Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Safety in Manufacturing provides participants with an understanding of the critical nature of safety in manufacturing and of the individual's role in providing for a safe manufacturing environment. After completing this module, students should be able to evaluate the degree of hazard in a given scenario and recommend appropriate corrective action. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

172

75 FR 30781 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade...Application Period for Membership on the Manufacturing Council...applications for membership on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The March...

2010-06-02

173

Designing using manufacturing features  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a design system that enables the composition of a part using manufacturing features. Features are selected from feature libraries. Upon insertion, the system ensures that the feature does not contradict the design-for-manufacture rules. This helps eliminating costly manufacturing problems. The system is developed as an extension to a commercial CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineer.

Szecsi, T.; Hoque, A. S. M.

2012-04-01

174

Workforce Development for Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

Bernard, Rosalie

2007-01-01

175

Uso de harina de cotiledón de algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) como fuente de proteína y fibra dietética en la elaboración de galletas y hojuelas fritas / Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Los aminoácidos limitantes en la proteína de algarrobo chileno son isoleucina, treonina y metionina/cisteina. La mezcla de cereales y leguminosas, permite mejorar el balance aminoacídico, ya que las leguminosas tienen más lisina y los cereales son más ricos en aminoácidos azufrados. Debido al interé [...] s nutricional del cotiledón de algarrobo, se evaluó la incorporación de harina de cotiledón de algarrobo (HCA) en la elaboración de “snack” dulces y salados. Se prepararon galletas dulces y hojuelas fritas saladas con 0%, 10% y 20% de HCA. En las harinas se determinó, color, granulometría, humedad, composición proximal, lisina disponible, fibra dietética total, soluble e insoluble. A las galletas y hojuelas se les determinaron las mismas características físicas y químicas (excepto granulometría) que las harinas; además se determinó actividad de agua, peso y dimensiones y se calculó el aporte calórico. Se evaluó la calidad y aceptabilidad sensorial de ambos productos. Destaca el alto contenido de proteínas, lípidos, cenizas, fibra cruda (63,6; 10,2; 4,3 y 4,2 g/100g bms, respectivamente), lisina disponible (62,4 mg/g proteína) y fibra dietética total (24,2 g/100g bms) de la HCA. Tanto en las galletas como en las hojuelas con HCA, aumenta significativamente el contenido de proteínas, lípidos, cenizas, fibra cruda, lisina disponible (desde 15,5 a 19,3 y de 20,3 a 29,6 mg lisina/g proteína, respectivamente) y fibra dietética total (de 1,39 a 2,80 y de 1,60 a 5,60 g/100g bms, respectivamente). Todos los tratamientos de galletas fueron igualmente aceptados (“me gusta mucho”); las hojuelas, con 10% de HCA presentaron la mayor aceptabilidad (“me gusta medianamente”). Se puede concluir que la incorporación de HCA en la elaboración de galletas y hojuelas fritas aumenta el aporte de lisina disponible, su contenido de proteínas y fibra dietética, mejorando la relación fibra soluble/ insoluble, sin afectar sus características físicas ni la aceptabilidad sensorial. Abstract in english Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean “algarrobo” are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of “algarrob [...] o” cotyledons, the use of “algarrobo cotyledon” flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted (“I like it very much”); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance (“I like it”). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance.

Berta, Escobar; Ana María, Estévez A; Carolina, Fuentes G; Daniela, Venegas F.

2009-06-01

176

Manufacturing Planning Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

Waid, Michael

2011-01-01

177

Orbital angular momentum in optical fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Internet data traffic capacity is rapidly reaching limits imposed by nonlinear effects of single mode fibers currently used in optical communications. Having almost exhausted available degrees of freedom to orthogonally multiplex data in optical fibers, researchers are now exploring the possibility of using the spatial dimension of fibers, via multicore and multimode fibers, to address the forthcoming capacity crunch. While multicore fibers require complex manufacturing, conventional multi-mode fibers suffer from mode coupling, caused by random perturbations in fibers and modal (de)multiplexers. Methods that have been developed to address the problem of mode coupling so far, have been dependent on computationally intensive digital signal processing algorithms using adaptive optics feedback or complex multiple-input multiple-output algorithms. Here we study the possibility of using the orbital angular momentum (OAM), or helicity, of light, as a means of increasing capacity of future optical fiber communication links. We first introduce a class of specialty fibers designed to minimize mode coupling and show their potential for OAM mode generation in fibers using numerical analysis. We then experimentally confirm the existence of OAM states in these fibers using methods based on fiber gratings and spatial light modulators. In order to quantify the purity of created OAM states, we developed two methods based on mode-image analysis, showing purity of OAM states to be 90% after 1km in these fibers. Finally, in order to demonstrate data transmission using OAM states, we developed a 4-mode multiplexing and demultiplexing systems based on free-space optics and spatial light modulators. Using simple coherent detection methods, we successfully transmit data at 400Gbit/s using four OAM modes at a single wavelength, over 1.1 km of fiber. Furthermore, we achieve data transmission at 1.6Tbit/s using 10 wavelengths and two OAM modes. Our study indicates that OAM light can exist, and be long lived, in a special class of fibers and our data transmission demonstrations show that OAM could be considered an additional degree of freedom for data multiplexing in future optical fiber communication links. Our studies open the doors for other applications such as micro-endoscopy and nanoscale imaging which require fiber based remote delivery of OAM light.

Bozinovic, Nenad

178

A 0.63 micrometers polarization maintaining optical fiber cable  

Science.gov (United States)

Polarization maintaining single mode optical fiber cable was developed with negligible small loss increase and high crosstalk for optical interferometric measuring system of JT-60 (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute TOKAMAK-60). Optical interferometric measuring system is required for high precise non-contact measurement of distance or vibration. Polarization maintaining optical fiber enabled to measure them in extremely high electromagnetic field of JT-60. Developed cable is flame-resistant non-metallic type complex 16 fiber cable for 0.6 micron use, that has 8 polarization maintaining optical fibers (stress applying, called PANDA fiber) and 8 single mode optical fibers. This paper shows the experimental result and the possibility of manufacturing polarization maintaining single mode optical fiber cable for 0.63 micron use.

Yoshida, H.; Kikuchi, Y.; Tamaki, Y.

1986-11-01

179

Fiber Lasers V : Technology, Systems, and Applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems require specially designed fibers with large cores and good power handling capabilities – requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 ?m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350 W CW fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. Finally, we briefly touch upon the subject of photo darkening andits origin.

Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

2008-01-01

180

Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the glycocluster controlled biological molecule synthesizing under the industrial and scientific technology research and development theme [university collaborated type]. Bio-fiber manufacturing technology of glycocluster utilizing type; 1999 nendo glycocluster seigyo seitai bunshi gosei gijutsu seika hokokusho (glycocluster riyogata bio sen'i seizo gijutsu)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1999 on development of the technology to manufacture glycocluster controlled biological molecules, particularly bio-fibers. It was made clear for the first time that the method for synthesizing glycoside and sugar chain using solid ultra-strong acid can be a new method for polysaccharide synthesis (polycondensation reaction) which is extremely simple and versatile as a result of using the solid ultra-strong acid. It can also be applied to general glycoside synthesis. In glycopeptide synthesis of the regular sequence type using high-functional condensation reaction, such a condensation agent as diphenyl phosphoryl azide was found effective in polymerization reaction without protection of glycopeptide, which has been impossible conventionally, and was found to have high versatility as a method for synthesizing mucin glycoproteins widely distributed naturally. In simplified synthesis of physiologically active glycopeptide, notice was given to tyrosine which is not glycosylated in the natural world, even though having hydroxyl groups in side chains as in serine and threonine. A method was established to introduce sugar chains into this hydroxyl group. This method exhibits power also in the synthesis of physiologically active glycopeptide of non-natural type. The paper describes also the comprehensive survey. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

181

Aligning carbon fibers in micro-extruded composite ink  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct write processes include a wide range of additive manufacturing techniques with the ability to fabricate structures directly onto planar and non-planar surfaces. Most additive manufacturing techniques use unreinforced polymers to produce parts. By adding carbon fiber as a reinforcing material, properties such as mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity can be enhanced. Carbon fibers can be long and continuous, or short and discontinuous. The strength of carbon fiber composite parts is greatly increased when the fibers are preferentially aligned. This research focuses on increasing the strength of additively manufactured parts reinforced using discontinuous carbon fibers that have been aligned during the micro extrusion process. A design of experiments (DOE) approach was used to identify significant process parameters affecting fiber alignment. Factors such as the length of carbon fibers, nozzle diameter, fiber loading fraction, air pressure, translational speed and standoff distance were considered. A two dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2D FFT) was used to quantify the degree of fiber alignment in the extruded composite inks. ImageJ software supported by an oval profile plugin was used with micrographs of printed samples to obtain the carbon fiber alignment values. The optimal value for the factors was derived by identifying the significant main and interaction effects. Based on the results of the DOE, tensile test samples were printed with fibers aligned parallel and perpendicular to the tensile axis. A standard test method for tensile properties of plastic revealed that the extruded parts with fibers aligned along the tensile axis were better in tensile strength and modulus.

Mahajan, Chaitanya G.

182

Fibered ribbon disks  

OpenAIRE

We study the relationship between fibered ribbon 1-knots and fibered ribbon 2-knots by studying fibered disk-knots with handlebody fibers. We give a characterization of fibered homotopy-ribbon disk-knots and give analogues of the Stallings twist for fibered disk-knots and 2-knots. As an application, we produce infinite families of distinct homotopy-ribbon disks with homotopy equivalent exteriors, with relevance to the Slice-Ribbon Conjecture. We show that any fibered ribbon ...

Larson, Kyle; Meier, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

183

General Tips Concerning What Has Been Learned About Cotton Processing in Traditional Textile Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

This article, under the following sub-headings, briefly describes a few important practical tips involving processing of cotton in traditional textile manufacturing: (1)Bale Selection and Fiber Mixing, (2) Fiber Opening and Cleaning, (3) Carding, (4) Drawing, (5) Combing (if necessary), (6) Roving, ...

184

A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described. A novel adsorbent carbon composite material has been developed comprising carbon fibers and a binder. The material, called carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), was developed through a joint research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER).

Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

1995-06-01

185

Effect of Fiber Surface Structure on Absorption Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carbon fibers with different surface structures were obtained through changing the treatment intensities in the process of electrochemical oxidation, and then oxidized carbon fibers were used as reinforcements to manufacture carbon fiber/epoxy composites. The relationship between fiber surface structure and the moisture absorption of carbon fiber/epoxy composites after hygrothermal aging treatment was studied. Results show that a significant increase happen to the surface activity of carbon fiber after electrochemical oxidation, and there is also a large extent of elevation in the relative content of oxygen-containing functional groups especially –OH group which increases from 18.62% to 34.84%. The moisture absorption mechanism of carbon fiber/epoxy composites varies with the change of hygrothermal aging conditions. Temperature is considered to be a leading factor in the moisture absorption process. Results also indicate that the higher the surface activity of carbon fiber, the greater composite materials get the equilibrium moisture content. There is an obvious decline in the ILSS values of carbon fiber/epoxy composites with the increase of moisture uptake content.

QIAN Xin, ZHI Jian-Hai, WANG Xue-Fei, ZHANG Yong-Gang, YANG Jian-Xing

2013-02-01

186

Surface analysis of plasma grafted carbon fiber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The surface characteristics of carbon fibers were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wetting measurements. The surface of carbon fiber was modified by means of plasma graft silsesquioxane. The oxygen/carbon and silicon/carbon ratio increased rapidly after treatments. Fitting the C 1s, O 1s, and Si 2p spectra demonstrated that new photopeaks were emerged, which were indicated C-Si, Si-O groups, respectively. The degree of surface roughness and the wettability of carbon fiber surface were both increased by plasma graft silsesquioxane. The results may shed some light on the design of the appropriate surface structure, which could react with resin, and the manufacture of the carbon fiber reinforced composites

187

Interactive: Locating American Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Where are America's manufacturing jobs located? It's a timely question for policy makers, politicians, and other wonkish types. This interactive feature from the Brookings Institution provides interested parties with a way to explore the geography of manufacturing in the United States. The materials on the site are divided into eight sections, including Why It Matters, Basic Geography, Industry Specialties, and Wage Variations. Visitors will want to read the brief introduction on the site, and then go ahead with using the interactive map to look around. The map allows visitors to zoom in and out around different metropolitan areas, look up quick facts about manufacturing, and access additional resources. Some of these resources include reports such as "Locating American Manufacturing: Trends in the Geography of Production" and "Why Does Manufacturing Matter? Which Manufacturing Matters."

2012-05-09

188

Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation  

OpenAIRE

Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

2008-01-01

189

Advanced Manufacturing Discovery Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a 3:15 minute video on YouTube. It shows a set of high school students assigned to a manufacturing project that is very much like a real industry situation. A diverse mix of students work on developing a hovercraft. Their skills and backgrounds include: 3D CAD, engineering, manufacturing, marketing, math, sciences, business, communications, arts, and electronics. They learn how to work together to create a finished product while discovering the many opportunities available in manufacturing.

190

Optimizing Belt Conveyor Manufacturing  

OpenAIRE

This final year project was carried out at a Chinese company, Chaohu Machinery Manufacturing Co, Ltd, which produces all kinds of conveying equipments for all walks of life. Chaohu Machinery Manufacturing Co, Ltd was established in 1990, and is located in Anhui Province, the southern part of China. The purpose of this project was to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the basic production process theory of manufacturing belt conveyors. The project focuses on choosing the right conveyor b...

Chen, Honghong

2010-01-01

191

Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining an...

Sigmund, Ole

2009-01-01

192

Cloud agile manufacturing  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposes a new manufacturing paradigm, we call Cloud Agile Manufacturing, and whose principal objective is to offer industrial production systems as a service. Thus users can access any functionality available in the cloud of manufacturing (process design, production, management, business integration, factories virtualization, etc.) without knowledge — or at least without having to be experts — in managing the required resources. The proposal takes advantage of many of the bene...

Macia? Pe?rez, Francisco; Berna? Marti?nez, Jose? Vicente; Marcos Jorquera, Diego; Lorenzo Fonseca, Iren; Ferra?ndiz Colmeiro, Antonio

2012-01-01

193

Manufacturing Field Trip  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufacturing Field Trip is a lesson plan which helps students gain a realistic picture of employment within the manufacturing sector when visiting the manufacturing plant of an MTAG industry partner. After completing this module, students should be able to describe the qualifications required by, as well as the daily functions and work environment offered by various positions within the company visited. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

Alston, Michele

194

Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

The Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory (MEL) is a division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Its function is to work with companies and perform research to improve manufacturing performance. Because of its broad scope, MEL has five divisions -- Precision Engineering, Manufacturing Metrology, Intelligent Systems, Manufacturing Systems Integration, and Fabrication Technology. The laboratory's homepage offers descriptions, research project information, conference and workshop times, and photo and movie galleries from various projects. There is also a link to an Engineering Metrology Toolbox used to "solve real problems in dimensional measurement."

195

Efficient bending compensation of large mode area fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

While much research has been developed to achieve very large mode areas (LMA) fibers, many difficulties arise, such as bending losses, mode deformation, and high order modes suppression. The main obstacle which remains difficult to confront in LMA fibers is bending distortion. When a conventional LMA fiber is coiled, it will generally suffer large bending distortion, and the mode area will contract accordingly, which would significantly affect laser or amplifier performances for some LMA fibers. In this report, we proposed a simple and efficient way for bending compensation in LMA fiber. A periodically etching structure is proposed to compensate the deformation, bending loss, and mode-coupling effects in large mode area fibers. The numerical simulation results showed that the design not only efficiently improves the effective area, but also the fundamental mode bending loss is resistant. Without the structure, the bending losses are very low at large bending radius. When the bending radius reduces, there is a rapid increase of losses. In particular, for smaller bending radius (less than 20 cm), the fundamental mode deforms severely, and cannot normally transmit in the core. The numerical simulation results showed that the design not only efficiently improves the effective mode area, but also the fundamental mode bending loss is resistant. Even at bending radius as small as 5cm, the fundamental mode can transmit normally in the fiber with an increased mode area scaling. Furthermore, the LMA fiber with the structure can be flexibly manufactured by conventional fiber manufacturing approaches and recent etching technologies.

Farida, Souaci; Fan, Ya-Xian; Yuan, Li-Bo

2014-11-01

196

Continuous fiber ceramic composites for energy related applications. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy has established the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program to develop technology for the manufacture of CFCC`s for use in industrial applications where a reduction in energy usage or emissions could be realized. As part of this program, the Dow Chemical Company explored the manufacture of a fiber reinforced/self reinforced silicon nitride for use in industrial chemical processing. In Dow`s program, CFCC manufacturing technology was developed around traditional, cost effective, tape casting routes. Formulations were developed and coupled with unique processing procedures which enabled the manufacture of tubular green laminates of the dimension needed for the application. An evaluation of the effect of various fibers and fiber coatings on the properties of a fiber reinforced composites was also conducted. Results indicated that fiber coatings could provide composites exhibiting non-catastrophic failure and substantially improved toughness. However, an evaluation of these materials in industrial process environments showed that the material system chosen by Dow did not provide the required performance improvements to make replacement of current metallic components with CFCC components economically viable.

NONE

1998-04-07

197

Reduced toxicity polyester resins and microvascular pre-preg tapes for advanced composites manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced composites manufacturing broadly encapsulates topics ranging from matrix chemistries to automated machines that lay-up fiber-reinforced materials. Environmental regulations are stimulating research to reduce matrix resin formulation toxicity. At present, composites fabricated with polyester resins expose workers to the risk of contact with and inhalation of styrene monomer, which is a potential carcinogen, neurotoxin, and respiratory irritant. The first primary goal of this thesis is to reduce the toxicity associated with polyester resins by: (1) identification of potential monomers to replace styrene, (2) determination of monomer solubility within the polyester, and (3) investigation of approaches to rapidly screen a large resin composition parameter space. Monomers are identified based on their ability to react with polyester and their toxicity as determined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) and a green screen method. Solubilities were determined by the Hoftyzer -- Van Krevelen method, Hansen solubility parameter database, and experimental mixing of monomers. A combinatorial microfluidic mixing device is designed and tested to obtain distinct resin compositions from two input chemistries. The push for safer materials is complemented by a thrust for multifunctional composites. The second primary goal of this thesis is to design and implement the manufacture of sacrificial fiber materials suitable for use in automated fiber placement of microvascaular multifunctional composites. Two key advancements are required to achieve this goal: (1) development of a roll-to-roll method to place sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber pre-preg tape; and (2) demonstration of feasible manufacture of microvascular carbon fiber plates with automated fiber placement. An automated method for placing sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber tapes is designed and a prototype implemented. Carbon fiber tows with manual placement of sacrificial fibers is implemented within an automated fiber placement machine and the successful fabrication of a carbon fiber plate with an integrated microvascular channel is demonstrated.

Poillucci, Richard

198

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products FDA Video - Kids 'n Fiber FDA Home FDA Video Food - Kids 'n Fiber Getting kids to eat the fiber they need can be a challenge. Join FDA ...

199

Computer Aided Manufacturing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains course outlines in computer-aided manufacturing developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The four units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM); (2) CAM…

Insolia, Gerard

200

Additive Versus Subtractive Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

For manufacturing students learning the basics, this page from SnoCAMP would be a useful addition to in-class instruction. The webpage combines photographs of examples with descriptive text. This would be a good introduction for students learning the basics about manufacturing.

201

Fiber distributed feedback laser  

Science.gov (United States)

Utilizing round optical fibers as communication channels in optical communication networks presents the problem of obtaining a high efficiency coupling between the optical fiber and the laser. A laser is made an integral part of the optical fiber channel by either diffusing active material into the optical fiber or surrounding the optical fiber with the active material. Oscillation within the active medium to produce lasing action is established by grating the optical fiber so that distributed feedback occurs.

Elachi, C.; Evans, G. A.; Yeh, C. (inventors)

1976-01-01

202

Laser assisted direct manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct Laser Manufacturing (DLM) with coaxial powder injection (TRUMPF DMD 505 installation) was applied for fabrication of 3D objects from metallic and ceramic powder. One of the advantages of DLM is the possibility to build functionally graded objects in one-step manufacturing cycle by application of a 2-channel powder feeder. Several models with different types of material gradients (smooth, sharp, periodic) and multi-layered structures were manufactured from SS, stellite (Cobalt alloy), Cu and W alloys. Technology of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) was applied for manufacturing of net shaped objects from different powders (PHENIX PM-100 machine) : Inox 904L, Ni625, Cu/Sn, W and Zr02-Y2O3. Performance and limitations of SLM technology for fabrication of elements for chemical and mechanical industries are analysed. Two-component objects (Stainless steel /Cu - H13/CuNi) were fabricated in a two-step manufacturing cycle.

Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

2007-06-01

203

Aerospace Manufacturing Education (AME)  

Science.gov (United States)

The NSF funded Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project's mission is to "develop and disseminate curricula modules to enhance manufacturing technician and engineering programs in higher education with relevant aerospace manufacturing examples." The project is developing curricula modules to prepare manufacturing technology practitioners for the aerospace industry and increase the number of interested candidates for aerospace manufacturing jobs. Curricula modules are being developed and used by two-year colleges for student education and by industry for in-house training of employees. Visitors will find the downloadable curriculum modules (after a quick and free registration form) on the left side of the homepage, as well as further info about the project, its partners, and advisors.

204

STUDY THE CREEP OF TUBULAR SHAPED FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inpresent work tubular –shaped fiber reinforced composites were manufactured byusing two types of resins ( Epoxy and unsaturated polyester and separatelyreinforced with glass, carbon and kevlar-49 fibers (filament and woven roving,hybrid reinforcement composites of these fibers were also prepared. The fiberswere wet wound on a mandrel using a purposely designed winding machine,developed by modifying an ordinary lathe, in winding angle of 55° for filament. A creep test was made of either the fulltube or specimens taken from it. Creep was found to increase upon reinforcementin accordance to the rule of mixture and mainly decided by the type of singleor hybridized fibers. The creep behavior, showed that the observed strain tendsto appear much faster at higher temperature as compared with that exhibited atroom temperate. The creep rate also found to be depending on fiber type, matrixtype, and the fiber /matrix bonding. The creep energy calculated fromexperimental observations was found to exhibit highest value for hybridizedreinforcement.

Najat J. Saleh

2013-05-01

205

Surface-bonded and embedded optical fibers as ultrasonic sensors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of surface-bonded and embedded optical fibers for the detection of ultrasonic Lamb waves in 2-3-mm-thick steel, carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) and glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) plates are compared. A novel integrating ultrasonic sensor was achieved using the signal arm of an actively stabilized 633-nm homodyne Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer which was either bonded directly to the plate surface or spliced to single-mode fibers embedded within a composite plate during manufacture. An embedded fiber is shown to be about 20 times more sensitive to Lamb wave motions than a surface-bonded fiber. However, the latter may be more practical. PMID:21102956

Pierce, S G; Philp, W R; Gachagan, A; McNab, A; Hayward, G; Culshaw, B

1996-09-01

206

Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness losses) during wet/dry cycling. SCMs have been found to be effective in mitigating composite degradation through several processes, including a reduction in the calcium hydroxide content, stabilization of monosulfate by maintaining pore solution pH, and a decrease in ettringite reprecipitation accomplished by increased binding of aluminum in calcium aluminate phases and calcium in the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phase.

Mohr, Benjamin J.

207

Pressure sensitivity analysis of fiber Bragg grating sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent development in fiber optic sensing technology has mainly focused on discrete sensing, particularly, sensing systems with potential multiplexing and multi-parameter capabilities. Bragg grating fiber optic sensors have emerged as the non-disputed champion for multiplexing and simultaneous multi-parameter sensing for emerging high value structural components, advanced processing and manufacturing capabilities and increased critical infrastructure resilience applications. Although the number of potential applications for this sensing technology is large and spans the domains of medicine, manufacturing, aerospace, and public safety; critical issues such as fatigue life, sensitivity, accuracy, embeddability, material/sensor interface integrity, and universal demodulation systems still need to be addressed. The purpose of this paper is to primarily evaluate Commercial-Of-The-Shelf (COTS) Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors' sensitivity to pressure, often neglected in several applications. The COTS fiber sensitivity to pressure is further evaluated for two types of coatings (Polyimide and Acrylate), and different arrangements (arrayed and single).

Mrad, Nezih; Sridharan, Vasant; Kazemi, Alex

2014-09-01

208

75 FR 12507 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade...opportunity to apply for membership on the Manufacturing Council...applications for membership on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose...

2010-03-16

209

77 FR 66179 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade...application period for membership on the manufacturing council...for appointment of 25 members of the Manufacturing Council (Council) for a...

2012-11-02

210

77 FR 69794 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade...Application Period for Membership on the Manufacturing Council...for appointment of 25 members of the Manufacturing Council (Council) for a...

2012-11-21

211

76 FR 33244 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade...Opportunity To Apply for Membership on the Manufacturing Council...to fill two vacant positions on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose...

2011-06-08

212

77 FR 2275 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade...opportunity to apply for membership on the Manufacturing Council...to fill six vacant positions on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose...

2012-01-17

213

75 FR 80040 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade...Application Period for Membership on the Manufacturing Council...to fill one vacant position on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The...

2010-12-21

214

Chemical characterization of PAN based carbon fibers produced by microwave assisted plasma (MAP) technology and effect of plasma treatment on carbon fiber surface and interphase with polymer matrix  

Science.gov (United States)

The first objective of this research was to chemically characterize the surface of conventional carbon fiber and carbon fiber produced by microwave assisted plasma (MAP) manufacturing process. The chemical composition and functional groups on the surface of the fibers were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The untreated unsized MAP carbon fibers were compared to untreated unsized conventional carbon fibers and showed a significant amount of oxygen. Comparison between treated unsized MAP carbon fiber and treated unsized conventional carbon fiber reveal a 100% enhancement of oxygen elemental concentration. Two plasma systems, remote applicator and atmospheric plasma were used to treat untreated unsized conventional carbon fiber. XPS results indicated that both systems have changed the chemical composition of carbon fiber surface. Oxygen-containing functional groups were found on carbon fiber surface after plasma treatment. Auger electron spectroscopy combining with chemical deritivazation was used to investigate the effect of morphological structure of carbon fiber surface on the placement of carboxyl groups. It was found that carboxyl groups were located preferentially in the valleys. A model of surface morphological structure of carbon fibers treated with plasma was proposed. Chemical bonding formed in the interphase between plasma treated carbon fiber and urethane was investigated using FTIR imaging. Directed evidence of formation of hydrogen bonding between carbon fiber and urethane was observed.

Luo, Xiaoyu

215

Time for a forum on terms used for textile fibers  

OpenAIRE

The advances in manufactured fibers and textiles have garnered interest and excitement of textile artists and consumers alike for a myriad of reasons, including health, environmental, and fashion. The chemical and molecular nature of these advances, however leads to confusion and misunderstanding of the new fibers in the materials. This is exacerbated by the current climate of distrust for chemical words and desire for "green" products and the unregulated (mis)information and marketing on the...

Zawistoski, P. S.

2012-01-01

216

Clad fiber capacitor and method of making same  

Science.gov (United States)

A clad capacitor and method of manufacture includes assembling a preform comprising a ductile, electrically conductive fiber; a ductile, electrically insulating cladding positioned on the fiber; a ductile, electrically conductive sleeve positioned over the cladding. One or more of the preforms are then bundled, heated and drawn along a longitudinal axis to decrease the diameter of the ductile components of the preform and fuse the preform into a unitized strand.

Tuncer, Enis

2013-11-26

217

Composite materials: Assessment of R D requirements and manufacturing feasibility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The penetration of high-tech composites into world markets is expected to occur with further R D investment in this field. The manufacturing feasibility of proposed composites is determined through a combined effort involving the application of suitable materials characteristics analysis codes, subsequent new product design and the acquisition of knowledge concerning the new polymer's rheological and physical characteristics so as to allow manufacturing process modelling and optimization. Conceptual product design is a necessary preliminary stage leading towards the determination of the optimum combination of product form, and choice of matrix and reinforcing fiber. Manufacturing reliability is strongly influenced by process modality and efficiency, and the simulation of the manufacturing process is essential in determining final product design, especially in the case of the commercialization of thermo-plastic matrices with recycling capability.

Apicella, A.; Montanino, M.; Nicolais, L. (Naples Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria dei Materiali e della Produzione Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Naples (Italy))

1991-10-01

218

Radiation oxidation and subsequent thermal curing of polyacrylonitrile fiber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were exposed to gamma-ray irradiation at room temperature under vacuum, air and oxygen to investigate the radiation oxidation effects on PAN fibers. Radiation-induced oxidation degradation and crosslinking was evaluated by measuring the gel fraction. It was found that radiation oxidation took place mainly on the fiber surface due to the limited penetration of oxygen into PAN fibers from the surface, and the oxidation thickness increased with the oxygen pressure. Chain scission was dominant in the oxidized area, and crosslinking occurred in the inner part of the fibers. However, the oxidized regions of the fibers can be converted to gel via crosslinking by thermal curing at 160 °C in a N2 atmosphere. Higher extents of radiation oxidation degradation led to a greater increase in the gel fraction. These results suggest that the radiation treatment of PAN fibers prior to thermal oxidation may be useful for manufacturing carbon fibers. - Highlights: • PAN fiber was irradiated in the presence of oxygen to induce oxidation at room temperature. • Oxidation degradation occurred at the fiber surface. • Oxidation thickness increased with oxygen pressure. • The oxidized region can be converted to a gel by the thermal treatment

219

Wood versus plant fibers: Similarities and differences in composite applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The work on cellulose fiber composites is typically strictly divided into two separated research fields depending on the fiber origin, that is, from wood and from annual plants, representing the two different industries of forest and agriculture, respectively. The present paper evaluates in parallel wood fibers and plant fibers to highlight their similarities and differences regarding their use as reinforcement in composites and to enable mutual transfer of knowledge and technology between the two research fields. The paper gives an introduction to the morphology, chemistry, and ultrastructure of the fibers, the modeling of the mechanical properties of the fibers, the fiber preforms available for manufacturing of composites, the typical mechanical properties of the composites, the modeling of the mechanical properties with focus on composites having a random fiber orientation and a non-negligible porosity content, and finally, the moisture sensitivity of the composites. The performance of wood and plant fibercomposites is compared to the synthetic glass and carbon fibers conventionally used for composites, and advantages and disadvantages of the different fibers are discussed. © 2013 Bo Madsen and E. Kristofer Gamstedt.

Madsen, Bo; Gamstedt, E. Kristofer

2013-01-01

220

Manufacturing of laboratory equipments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A design of an automatic machine to manufacture components as well as an automatic system for assembly were developed. The designs and system developed are as follows: a) Designs of automatic tack welder in the process of CANDU fuel fabrication. b) Cam design for plug manufacturing lathe. c) Design, mold and fabrication of tool machine for the components of CANDU fuel bundle. d) Service another division

221

Manufacturing and economic development  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the theoretical and empirical evidence for the hypothesis that manufacturing is the main engine of growth in developing countries. The paper opens with an overview of the main arguments supporting the engine of growth hypothesis and then examines each of these arguments using a mix of statistical analysis of secondary data and secondary literature. The paper concludes that manufacturing will continue to be important in accelerating growth and achieving catch-up in developi...

Szirmai, Adam

2011-01-01

222

Manufacturing technology acquisition  

OpenAIRE

This thesis concerns the acquisition of newly developed production equipment in factories. Types of Manufacturing Technology Acquisition (MTA) can range from in-house development through to outright purchase from a supplier. MTA projects often fail because the new equipment fails to perform well enough or the expected financial benefits are not achieved. The purpose of this research has been to find out how to select the right manufacturing technology acquisition projects, a...

Mallon, Michael John

2002-01-01

223

Institute for Molecular Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

The Institute for Molecular Manufacturing (IMM) conducts and supports research on molecular systems engineering and molecular manufacturing (molecular nanotechnology, or MNT). The website provides information on the IMM research projects. Also posted here are IMM's "guidelines for research and development practices that will minimize risk from accidental misuse or from abuse of molecular nanotechnology." Some article preprints are also available to download free of charge.

224

Novel design of dual-core microstructured fiber with enhanced longitudinal strain sensitivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Constantly refined technology of manufacturing increasingly complex photonic crystal fibers (PCF) leads to new optical fiber sensor concepts. The ways of enhancing the influence of external factors (such as hydrostatic pressure, temperature, acceleration) on the fiber propagating conditions are commonly investigated in literature. On the other hand longitudinal strain analysis, due to the calculation difficulties caused by the three dimensional computation, are somehow neglected. In this paper we show results of such a 3D numerical simulation and report methods of tuning the fiber strain sensitivity by changing the fiber microstructure and core doping level. Furthermore our approach allows to control whether the modes' effective refractive index is increasing or decreasing with strain, with the possibility of achieving zero strain sensitivity with specific fiber geometries. The presented numerical analysis is compared with experimental results of the fabricated fibers characterization. Basing on the aforementioned methodology we propose a novel dual-core fiber design with significantly increased sensitivity to longitudinal strain for optical fiber sensor applications. Furthermore the reported fiber satisfies all conditions necessary for commercial applications like good mode matching with standard single-mode fiber, low confinement loss and ease of manufacturing with the stack-and-draw technique. Such fiber may serve as an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer when highly coherent source is used. With the optimization of single mode transmission to 850 nm, we propose a VCSEL source to be used in order to achieve a low-cost, reliable and compact strain sensing transducer.

Szostkiewicz, Lukasz; Tenderenda, T.; Napierala, M.; Szyma?ski, M.; Murawski, M.; Mergo, P.; Lesiak, P.; Marc, P.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.; Nasilowski, T.

2014-05-01

225

X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF YB3+-DOPED OPTICAL FIBERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optical fibers doped with Ytterbium-3+ have become increasingly common in fiber lasers and amplifiers. Yb-doped fibers provide the capability to produce high power and short pulses at specific wavelengths, resulting in highly effective gain media. However, little is known about the local structure, distribution, and chemical coordination of Yb3+ in the fibers. This information is necessary to improve the manufacturing process and optical qualities of the fibers. Five fibers doped with Yb3+ were studied using Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), in addition to Yb3+ mapping. The Yb3+ distribution in each fiber core was mapped with 2D and 1D intensity scans, which measured X-ray fluorescence over the scan areas. Two of the five fibers examined showed highly irregular Yb3+ distributions in the core center. In four of the five fibers Yb3+ was detected outside of the given fiber core dimensions, suggesting possible Yb3+ diffusion from the core, manufacturing error, or both. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis has so far proven inconclusive, but did show that the fibers had differing EXAFS spectra. The Yb3+ distribution mapping proved highly useful, but additional modeling and examination of fiber preforms must be conducted to improve XAS analysis, which has been shown to have great potential for the study of similar optical fi bers.

Citron, Robert; Kropf, A.J.

2008-01-01

226

Simplified sensor design for temperature-strain discrimination using fiber Bragg gratings embedded in laminated composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Several easy-to-manufacture designs based on a pair of Fiber Bragg Gratings structure embedded in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) have been explored. These smart composites can be used for strain and temperature discrimination. A Finite Elements Analysis and Matlab software were used to study the mechanical responses and its optical behaviors. The results exhibited different sensitivity and using a matrix method it is possible to compensate the thermal drift in a real application keeping a simple manufacture process.

Rodriguez-Cobo, L.; Marques, A. T.; Lopez-Higuera, J. M.; Santos, J. L.; Frazão, O.

2013-05-01

227

Manufacturing information system  

Science.gov (United States)

The size and cost of manufacturing equipment has made it extremely difficult to perform realistic modeling and simulation of the manufacturing process in university research laboratories. Likewise the size and cost factors, coupled with many uncontrolled variables of the production situation has even made it difficult to perform adequate manufacturing research in the industrial setting. Only the largest companies can afford manufacturing research laboratories; research results are often held proprietary and seldom find their way into the university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development of miniature prototype equipment suitable for use in an integrated CAD/CAM Laboratory. The equipment being developed is capable of actually performing production operations (e.g. drilling, milling, turning, punching, etc.) on metallic and non-metallic workpieces. The integrated CAD/CAM Mini-Lab is integrating high resolution, computer graphics, parametric design, parametric N/C parts programmings, CNC machine control, automated storage and retrieval, with robotics materials handling. The availability of miniature CAD/CAM laboratory equipment will provide the basis for intensive laboratory research on manufacturing information systems.

Allen, D. K.; Smith, P. R.; Smart, M. J.

1983-12-01

228

Fiber Optics Physics and Technology  

CERN Document Server

Telephone, telefax, email and internet -- the key ingredient of the inner workings is the conduit: the line which is designed to carry massive amounts of data at breakneck speed. In their data-carrying capacity optical fiber lines beat other technologies (copper cable, microwave beacons, satellite links) hands down, at least in the long haul. This book tells you all you want to know about optical fibers: Their structure, their light-guiding mechanism, their material and manufacture, their use. Several effects tend to degrade the signal as it travels down the fiber: they are spelled out in detail. Nonlinear processes are given due consideration for a twofold reason: On the one hand they are fundamentally different from the more familiar processes in electrical cable. On the other hand, they form the basis of particularly interesting and innovative applications, provided they are understood well enough. A case in point is the use of so-called solitons, i.e. special pulses of light which have the wonderful prope...

Mitschke, Fedor

2010-01-01

229

Polymer optical fiber fuse  

OpenAIRE

Although high-transmission-capacity optical fibers are in demand, the problem of the fiber fuse phenomenon needs to be resolved to prevent the destruction of fibers. As polymer optical fibers become more prevalent, clarifying their fuse properties has become important. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a fuse propagation velocity of 21.9 mm/s, which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude slower than that in standard silica fibers. The achieved threshold power density and proportion...

Mizuno, Yosuke; Hayashi, Neisei; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro

2013-01-01

230

NASA's National Center for Advanced Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA has designated the Principal Center Assignment to the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for implementation of the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM). NCAM is NASA s leading resource for the aerospace manufacturing research, development, and innovation needs that are critical to the goals of the Agency. Through this initiative NCAM s people work together with government, industry, and academia to ensure the technology base and national infrastructure are available to develop innovative manufacturing technologies with broad application to NASA Enterprise programs, and U.S. industry. Educational enhancements are ever-present within the NCAM focus to promote research, to inspire participation and to support education and training in manufacturing. Many important accomplishments took place during 2002. Through NCAM, NASA was among five federal agencies involved in manufacturing research and development (R&D) to launch a major effort to exchange information and cooperate directly to enhance the payoffs from federal investments. The Government Agencies Technology Exchange in Manufacturing (GATE-M) is the only active effort to specifically and comprehensively address manufacturing R&D across the federal government. Participating agencies include the departments of Commerce (represented by the National Institute of Standards and Technology), Defense, and Energy, as well as the National Science Foundation and NASA. MSFC s ongoing partnership with the State of Louisiana, the University of New Orleans, and Lockheed Martin Corporation at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) progressed significantly. Major capital investments were initiated for world-class equipment additions including a universal friction stir welding system, composite fiber placement machine, five-axis machining center, and ten-axis laser ultrasonic nondestructive test system. The NCAM consortium of five universities led by University of New Orleans with Mississippi State University, Tennessee Technological University, Texas A&M University, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University provided wide-ranging engineering research, new degree/curriculum programs, and a web-based lecture series. NCAM has fostered an important presence and leadership role within the national manufacturing community. Its progressive influence can be seen in government, industry and academia, and in national associations, professional organizations, conferences, workshops, and forums.

Vickers, John

2003-01-01

231

Manufacturing strategy issues in selected Indian manufacturing industry  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents some findings of Indian manufacturing sectors viz. automobile (especially two-wheeler), tractor and general manufacturing industry. Various manufacturing strategy issues such as competitive priorities, improvement activities, and performance measures, have been identified and assessed in Indian context. Sector wise comparison of competitive priorities, improvement activities i.e. advanced manufacturing technology (AMT), integrated information systems (IIS), and advanced ma...

Mahender Singh; Basak, P. C.; Rajbir Singh

2013-01-01

232

1997 Economic Census Manufacturing, Industry Series: Ice Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

This data from the US Department of Commerce Census Bureau constitutes the one of the first in a series of several hundred reports on individual industries in the manufacturing sector from the 1997 Economic Census. According to the 1997 Economic Census Manufacturing, Industry Series on Ice Manufacturing, Texas expended the most on ice manufacturing in 1997.

233

Carbon Dioxide Laser Fiber Optics In Endoscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon dioxide laser surgery has been limited to a great extent to surgical application on the integument and accessible cavities such as the cervix, vagina, oral cavities, etc. This limitation has been due to the rigid delivery systems available to all carbon dioxide lasers. Articulating arms (series of hollow tubes connected by articulating mirrors) have provided an effective means of delivery of laser energy to the patient as long as the lesion was within the direct line of sight. Even direct line-of-sight applications were restricted to physical dimension of the articulating arm or associated hand probes, manipulators and hollow tubes. The many attempts at providing straight endoscopic systems to the laser only stressed the need for a fiber optic capable of carrying the carbon dioxide laser wavelength. Rectangular and circular hollow metal waveguides, hollow dielectric waveguides have proven ineffective to the stringent requirements of a flexible surgical delivery system. One large diameter (1 cm) fiber optic delivery system, incorporates a toxic thalliumAbased fiber optic material. The device is an effective alternative to an articulating arm for external or conventional laser surgery, but is too large and stiff to use as a flexible endoscopic tool. The author describes the first highly flexible inexpensive series of fiber optic systems suitable for either conventional or endoscopic carbon dioxide laser surgery. One system (IRFLEX 3) has been manufactured by Medlase, Inc. for surgical uses capable of delivering 2000w, 100 mJ pulsed energy and 15w continuous wave. The system diameter is 0.035 inches in diameter. Surgically suitable fibers as small as 120 um have been manufactured. Other fibers (IRFLEX 142,447) have a variety of transmission characteristics, bend radii, etc.

Fuller, Terry A.

1982-12-01

234

Ytterbium-Phosphate Glass for Microstructured Fiber Laser  

OpenAIRE

In the paper, we report on the development of a synthesis and melting method of phosphate glasses designed for active microstructured fiber manufacturing. Non-doped glass synthesized in a P2O5-Al2O3-BaO-ZnO-MgO-Na2O oxide system served as the matrix material; meanwhile, the glass was doped with 6 mol% (18 wt%) of Yb2O3, as fiber core. The glasses were well-fitted in relation to optical (refractive index) and thermal proprieties (thermal expansion coefficient, rheology). The fiber with the Yb3...

Ryszard St?pie?; Marcin Franczyk; Dariusz Pysz; Ireneusz Kujawa; Mariusz Klimczak; Ryszard Buczy?ski

2014-01-01

235

Reconfigurable manufacturing system: an overview  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the review of Reconfigurable manufacturing system. That aims at achievingcost effective and rapid system changes needed, by incorporating principle of modularity, integrability andscalability as this new manufacturing system. Reconfigurable manufacturing system promises customizedflexibility in a short time, while the other manufacturing system provides generalized flexibility designed foranticipation variations.This paper shows the definition and background of reconfigura...

Malhotra V.; Raj T.; Arora A

2009-01-01

236

Pitch for Direct spinning into carbon fibers derived from a coal distillate feedstock  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pitch suitable for carbon fiber manufacture features a pitch having a weight content of between 80 and 100 percent toluene insolubles. The pitch is derived from a deasphaltenated fraction of a feedstock. The pitch is characterized as being relatively free of impurities and ash. The pitch can be spun directly into carbon fibers

237

Ultraviolet-extended flat supercontinuum generation in cascaded photonic crystal fiber tapers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cascaded photonic crystal fiber (PCF) tapers in a monolithic fiber obtained by post-processing techniques such as hole inflation and tapering have been manufactured. An ultraviolet-extended supercontinuum (SC) generation down to 352 nm wavelength pumped at 1064 nm in cascading PCF tapers has been obtained. High spectral flatness (5 dB) has been achieved in the entire visible window. (letter)

238

Optimized manufacturable porous materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM/S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization. The distribution of the material in the unit cell is optimized according to a given objective (e.g. maximum bulk modulus or minimum Poisson’s ratio) and some given constraints (e.g. isotropy) using topology optimization. The manufacturability is achieved using various filtering techniques together with a stochastic approach, where the mean performance of several slightly different designs is optimized. In most cases this assures a minimum length scale for the intermediate design, and thereby manufacturability is achieved. Furthermore, the study will look at how "negative" aspects of the manufacturing method can be exploited to achieve exotic material properties. An example of this is how the SLM/S causes softer regions in the structure due to insufficient heating of the metal powder. If the goal is to design a material, which to some degree is compliant, such as negative Poisson’s ratio material, softer regions are desirable. Another example is closedcell materials, e.g. maximum bulk modulus material, where the cells will be filled by metal powder if manufactured using SLM/S. This is considered as a drawback, because it makes the structure heavier. However, it also drastically increases the damping ratio of the structure, which is beneficial in many applications.

Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

239

Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing  

CERN Document Server

This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

Yablon, Andrew D

2005-01-01

240

Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization.

Sigmund, Ole

2009-01-01

241

Evaluation of transverse elastic properties of fibers used in composite materials by laser resonant ultrasound spectroscopy  

OpenAIRE

We evaluate the elastic properties of glass, carbon, and flax fibers that are used to manufacture composite materials. The transverse elastic properties of fibers are more difficult to measure than the longitudinal properties. But the knowledge of the transverse properties is mandatory to predict correctly the mechanical behavior of a composite material. We apply the laser resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) technique to evaluate the transverse Young modulus and Poisson ratio of fibers. Th...

Mounier, Denis; Poila?ne, Christophe; Bu?cher, Ce?cile; Picart, Pascal

2012-01-01

242

Low-temperature hermetic sealing of optical fiber components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for manufacturing low-temperature hermetically sealed optical fiber components is provided. The method comprises the steps of: inserting an optical fiber into a housing, the optical fiber having a glass core, a glass cladding and a protective buffer layer disposed around the core and cladding; heating the housing to a predetermined temperature, the predetermined temperature being below a melting point for the protective buffer layer and above a melting point of a solder; placing the solder in communication with the heated housing to allow the solder to form an eutectic and thereby fill a gap between the interior of the housing and the optical fiber; and cooling the housing to allow the solder to form a hermetic compression seal between the housing and the optical fiber.

Kramer, D.P.

1995-12-31

243

A fiber-optic hydrophone with an acoustic filter  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel Michelson interferometric fiber-optic hydrophone with a mechanical anti-aliasing acoustic filter, which consists of a two-hole cylindrical Helmholtz resonator, has been manufactured and tested. Experimental results show that this new fiber-optic hydrophone has a function of acoustic low-pass filtering. The low frequency sensitivity, as determined by the fiber interferometer and the sensing mandrel, is about -159dB re 1rad/?Pa. The frequency response has a break point near 1200Hz and a measured roll-off of 50dB/octave. The fiber-optic hydrophone is a prototype device for a class of sensors that used to eliminate aliasing in the future sonar systems. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such a fiber-optic hydrophone has been reported.

Wang, Zefeng; Hu, Yongming; Meng, Zhou; Ni, Ming; Luo, Hong

2007-11-01

244

Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Cissus quadrangularis stem.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polymer composite has contributed tremendously for energy efficient technologies in automotive and aero industries. Environmental and health concerns related to the carcinogenic nature of artificial fiber in polymer composite needs a retrofit. Eco friendly natural cellulosic fiber extract from the stem of Cissus quadrangularis plant is extensively characterized to consider as a viable alternative for man-made hazardous fibers. Anatomical study, chemical analysis, physical analysis, FTIR, XRD, SEM analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis were done to establish the certainty of using them as reinforcement fiber. Its light weight and the presence of high cellulose content (82.73%) with very little wax (0.18%) provide high specific strength and good bonding properties in composite manufacturing. The flaky honeycomb outer surface revealed through electron microscopy contributes for high modulus in CQ stem fiber and thermo gravimetric analysis ensures thermal stability up to 270 °C, which is within the polymerization process temperature. PMID:25498651

Indran, S; Raj, R Edwin

2015-03-01

245

Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Cissus quadrangularis root.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber reinforced polymer composites are replacing many metallic structures due to its high specific strength and modulus. However commonly used man-made E-glass fibers are hazardous for health and carcinogenic by nature. Comprehensive characterization of Cissus quadrangularis root fiber such as anatomical study, chemical analysis, physical analysis, FTIR, XRD, SEM analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis are done. The results are very encouraging for its application in fiber industries, composite manufacturing, etc. Due to its light weight and the presence of high cellulose content (77.17%) with very little wax (0.14%) provide high specific strength and good bonding properties. The flaky honeycomb outer surface and low microfibril angle revealed through electron microscopy contributes for its high modulus. The thermo gravimetric analysis indicates better thermal stability of the fiber up to 230°C, which is well within the polymerization process temperature. PMID:24906775

Indran, S; Raj, R Edwin; Sreenivasan, V S

2014-09-22

246

Computational Techniques in Manufacturing Technology  

OpenAIRE

Manufacturing processes are complex and therefore difficult to plan by software. The present state in computational techniques in manufacturing technology as well as software applications at the Department of Manufacturing Technology of CTU in Prague are discussed in this article. Computational techniques may help to solve many manufacturing problems as such programs in the field of process planning have been developed. However, due to the complexity of manufacturing processes, complete plann...

Ma?dl, J.; C?erma?k, J.; Vrabec, M.

2000-01-01

247

Wettability of nano-epoxies to UHMWPE fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers have a unique combination of outstanding mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. However, as reinforcements for manufacturing high performance composite materials, UHMWPE fibers have poor wettability with most polymers. As a result, the interfacial bonding strength between the fibers and polymer matrices is very low. Recently, developing so-called nano-matrices containing reactive graphitic nanofibers (r-GNFs) has been proposed to promote the wetting of such matrices to certain types of fiber reinforcements. In this work, the wettability of UHMWPE fibers with different epoxy matrices including a nano-epoxy, and a pure epoxy was investigated. Systematic experimental work was conducted to determine the viscosity of the epoxies, the contact angle between the epoxies and the fibers. Also obtained are the surface energy of the fibers and the epoxies. The experimental results show that the wettability of the UHMWPE fibers with the nano-epoxy is much better than that of the UHMWPE fibers with the pure epoxy. PMID:16524585

Neema, S; Salehi-Khojin, A; Zhamu, A; Zhong, W H; Jana, S; Gan, Y X

2006-07-01

248

Boiler tube manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In boiler tube manufacture it is necessary to pay special attention to the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and freedom from defects of the product. These properties are affected by both composition and production methods. The production route for boiler tubes at SANDVIK is described. The merits of pilgering and drawing as cold working methods are discussed. A tube mill especially designed for making PWR steam generator tubing is described. Finally the importance of a well developed quality control system for successful tube manufacture is stressed. (author)

249

Advanced Integrated Manufacturing Center  

Science.gov (United States)

A 15,000 sq. ft. state of the art model factory is the centerpiece of the Advanced Integrated Manufacturing (AIM) Center, which offers workforce development, production support, and process improvement services for local industry. In addition to the factory, which companies may utilize for their production needs, the AIM Center also offers Lean Manufacturing workshops (on-site or at the AIM Center). Other workshops, such as CNC programming, CAD/CAM training, injection molding, safety, project management, setup reduction/quick change, value stream mapping, 5S/visual controls, work place organization, lean office, workflow improvement, simulation modeling for workflow, and quality assurance, are also available.

Dilley, David

250

Manufacturing and automation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

2010-04-01

251

Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers  

Science.gov (United States)

Composed of thirteen vehicle manufacturers, the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers is an advocacy group for the automobile industry with special focuses on vehicle safety and the environment. Its Web site is loaded with information about emerging technologies, fuel facts, and safety data. One outstanding resource is the Driver Focus Guidelines report, found in the Vehicle Safety section. This report, released last month, discusses the best practices of "driver interactions with future in-vehicle information and communications systems" such as cellular phones and navigation systems. There are many other features on the site, like detailed descriptions of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid and fully electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles.

252

Steel fiber reinforced concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

253

Radiation curing of composites for vehicle component and vehicle manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some traditional uses of metals in vehicle component and vehicle manufacture, such as steel (specific gravity 7.8) or aluminum (specific gravity 2.7), can be replaced by carbon-fiber composites (specific gravity 1.6) to provide significant weight savings while maintaining structural integrity. The aerospace and aircraft industries have adopted this approach. The auto or motor vehicle industries have explored the use of composites, but have been reluctant to widely adopt this technology because of concerns over manufacturing processes. A typical steel auto body weighing ? 750 kilos would weigh only ? 155 kilos if replaced with carbon-fiber composites. Structural members, as the vehicle chassis, could also be fabricated out of carbon-fiber composites. With only 20% of the body weight, smaller, lower horse-power and more fuel efficient engines could be used to power such vehicles. Commercial aircraft manufacturers that have adopted carbon-fiber structures in lieu of aluminum (a 40% weight savings) estimate a 20% savings in fuel costs for large planes. These are still made with conventional materials being used for motors, tires, interiors, and the like. A fuel efficient auto now running at ? 10 kilometers/liter would more than double its fuel efficiency given the nearly 80% weight savings attainable by use of carbon-fiber composites just for the vehicle body. As with aircraft, conventional systems for propulsion (motors), braking, tires and interiors could still be, tires and interiors could still be used. Radiation curing can simplify the manufacture of carbon-fiber composite vehicle components. Highly penetrating X-rays derived from high current, high energy electron beam (EB) accelerators can be used to cure structural composites while they are constrained within inexpensive molds; thus reducing cure cycles, eliminating heat transfer concerns and concerns over potentially hazardous emissions during the curing process. Since X-rays can penetrate mold walls, the curing process is quite versatile, enabling diverse components with varying designs to be cured using a common X-ray source or multiple parts of the same design could be cured at once. Since the energy output of an EB unit can be tightly controlled, EB processing itself can be used to produce 'B' staged fiber-reinforced composite materials for sheet molding (SMC) and prepregs. Such materials can significantly reduce the time-to-cure should alternative energy sources or even subsequent X-ray curing be used. In the EB mode, SMC materials can be made in excess of 100 meters/minute. The matrix systems are proprietary formulations based on common radiation responsive materials used in a variety of radiation curing applications. (author)

254

Array fiber welding on micro optical glass substrates for chip-to-fiber coupling  

Science.gov (United States)

High bandwidth parallel optical transceivers are highly demanded for optical interconnects in data centers and in high performance computing. Such transceivers are composed of VCSEL- and photodiode components which have to be fiber coupled, and the appropriate driving and amplifying circuitry. For high density fiber optical connectors lens arrays for improved coupling efficiency have to be used. We propose an advantageous adhesive free method to interconnect optical fibers with such kind of lens arrays. Common approaches using adhesive bonding have high challenges in terms of yield, reliability and optical performance. We introduce our novel fiber welding approach for joining directly fused silica fibers on borosilicate glass substrates with integrated micro optics, e.g. lenses and lens arrays. It is a thermal process with a precise heat input by CO2-laser processing, which is combinable with sequential passive or active alignment of each single fiber to the substrate causing flexibility and highest coupling efficiencies. Since the fiber is accessed only from one side, a two dimensional high-density fiber array can be realized. The manufacturing time of such an interconnection is very short. Due to the adhesive free interface high power transmission is enabled and the occurrence of polymer caused misalignment and degradation are prevented. The paper presents current results in thin glass-based opto-electronic packaging. In particular our laboratory setup for array fiber welding and experimental results of such connections will be discussed and compared to UV-adhesive joining. Also further investigation, for example optical characterization and reliability tests are included. Finally a machine concept, which is under development, will be discussed.

Schröder, Henning; Neitz, Marcel; Brusberg, Lars; Queiser, Marco; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Lang, K.-D.

2014-03-01

255

Fundamentals of Digital Manufacturing Science  

CERN Document Server

The manufacturing industry will reap significant benefits from encouraging the development of digital manufacturing science and technology. Digital Manufacturing Science uses theorems, illustrations and tables to introduce the definition, theory architecture, main content, and key technologies of digital manufacturing science. Readers will be able to develop an in-depth understanding of the emergence and the development, the theoretical background, and the techniques and methods of digital manufacturing science. Furthermore, they will also be able to use the basic theories and key technologies described in Digital Manufacturing Science to solve practical engineering problems in modern manufacturing processes. Digital Manufacturing Science is aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students, academic researchers and researchers in the manufacturing industry. It allows readers to integrate the theories and technologies described with their own research works, and to propose new ideas and new methods to...

Zhou, Zude; Chen, Dejun

2012-01-01

256

Improvement in refractive index sensitivity by means of internally curved long period fiber gratings  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel configuration of long period fiber grating (LPFG), based on a specially designed refractive index (RI) profile, was manufactured and studied. The internally manufactured geometric structure is characterized by grating planes tilted at increasing angles, as moving away from the center of symmetry of the structure towards its both edges. This structure reproduces the bending of an optical fiber and improves the RI sensitivity of an LPG to the external surrounding medium. A three-fold enhancement in the RI sensitivity was experimentally proved, thus giving a further contribution towards the development of more sensitive RI sensors based on optical fiber LPGs.

Chiavaioli, F.; Trono, C.; Baldini, F.

2014-05-01

257

Fiber bundle fluorescence endomicroscopy  

OpenAIRE

An improved design for fiber bundle fluorescence endomicroscopy is demonstrated. Scanned illumination and detection using coherent fiber bundles with 30,000 elements with 3 ?m resolution enables high speed imaging with reduced pixel cross talk.

Tsai, Tsung-han; Zhou, Chao; Fujimoto, James G.

2010-01-01

258

Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

2010-01-01

259

Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter  

Science.gov (United States)

A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

1983-06-30

260

Neutron imaging of fiber-reinforced materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glass-fiber-reinforced plastic laminates used for the insulation of Toroidal Field (TF) magnet-coils and fiber-reinforced silicon carbide ceramic composites used as structural material for the self-cooled Pb-17Li blanket module are attractive candidate materials for fusion reactors because of their high performance under extreme conditions. Porosity, which depends on the manufacturing process, and swelling of fiber-reinforced materials due to the high flux of radiation are the main problems. The aim of this study is to describe the experimental procedures of different imaging methods, and also to decide the most efficient imaging method for the investigations of the complex microstructure of fiber-reinforced materials. In this work, the fiber-reinforced composites were inspected with neutron and X-ray radiographies at ATI-Vienna and also at PSI-Villigen. A contrast enhancement at the edges can be achieved by means of phase contrast neutron radiography (NR), which is based on the wave properties of neutrons and arises from the neutron refraction (rather than attenuation). Elements having different refractive index within a sample cause a phase shift between coherent neutron waves. The degree of coherence can be determined by means of the coherence pattern caused by the sample, when a point source (pinhole) is used and the distance between source and sample is varied

261

Cladding tube manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report 'Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding.' Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs.

Hahn, R. [Kraftwerk Union AG, Mulheim (Germany); Jeong, Y.H.; Baek, B.J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, B.K.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1999-04-01

262

Manufacturing & Electronics Hourly Pay  

Science.gov (United States)

This sheet from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center highlights hourly wages for individuals working in the manufacturing and electronics industries. The information may serve to motivate students to obtain education beyond high school for use in these industries.

263

Manufacturing and Merchandising Careers  

Science.gov (United States)

Anyone with a flair for business, product development, or promotion might consider a manufacturing or merchandising occupation. The music industry offers many career opportunities for administrators, salespersons, marketing specialists--the record industry offers positions from promotion manager to rack jobber. Describes instrument company…

Ryan, Peter J.; And Others

1977-01-01

264

Virtual manufacturing in reality  

Science.gov (United States)

SMEs play an important role in manufacturing industry. But from time to time there is a shortage in resources to complete the particular order in time. Number of systems is introduced to produce digital information in order to support product and process development activities. Main problem is lack of opportunity for direct data transition within design system modules when needed temporary extension of design capacity (virtuality) or to implement integrated concurrent product development principles. The planning experience in the field is weakly used as well. The concept of virtual manufacturing is a supporting idea to solve this problem. At the same time a number of practical problems should be solved like information conformity, data transfer, unified technological concepts acceptation etc. In the present paper the proposed ways to solve the practical problems of virtual manufacturing are described. General objective is to introduce the knowledge-based CAPP system as missing module for Virtual Manufacturing in the selected product domain. Surface-centered planning concept based on STEP- based modeling principles, and knowledge-based process planning methodology will be used to gain the objectives. As a result the planning module supplied by design data with direct access, and supporting advising environment is expected. Mould producing SME would be as test basis.

Papstel, Jyri; Saks, Alo

2000-10-01

265

Nuclear fuel manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technologies used to manufacture nuclear fuel from uranium ore are outlined, with particular reference to the light water reactor fuel cycle. Capital and operating cost estimates for the processing stages are given, and the relevance to a developing uranium industry in Australia is discussed

266

Advanced Computing for Manufacturing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses ways that supercomputers are being used in the manufacturing industry, including the design and production of airplanes and automobiles. Describes problems that need to be solved in the next few years for supercomputers to assume a major role in industry. (TW)

Erisman, Albert M.; Neves, Kenneth W.

1987-01-01

267

Qualification and Lessons Learned with Space Flight Fiber Optic Components  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation covers lessons learned during the design, development, manufacturing and qualification of space flight fiber optic components. Changes at NASA, including short-term projects and decreased budgets have brought about changes to vendors and parts. Most photonics for NASA needs are now commercial off the shelf (COTS) products. The COTS Tecnology Assurance approach for space flight and qualification plans are outlined.

Ott, Melanie

2007-01-01

268

Advanced Fibers for Composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews high performance fibers used in the production of textile composites. Techniques used to produce preform using these fibers are discussed. The properties of fibers such as kevlar, spectra, glass, carbon and ceramic are presented. The paper also discusses densification or consolidation techniques used to produce composites from each fiber. Finally, the paper compares the properties of Carbon/Epoxy composites with that of 6061 aluminum. 3 figs., 4 tabs

269

Rayleigh fiber optics gyroscope  

OpenAIRE

A novel kind of fiber-optic gyroscope based on Rayleigh backscattering in a fiber-ring resonator is presented in this letter. Information on the rotation rate is obtained from the composed response of the fiber ring to an optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) instrument. The developed model based on the coherence properties of the Rayleigh scattering yields a polarization-insensitive and low-cost gyroscope

Kung, A.; Budin, J.; The?venaz, Luc; Robert, P. A.

1997-01-01

270

Fiber Laser Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

This pdf from OP-TEC, the National Center for Optics and Photonics Education, addresses basic concepts underlying the operation of fiber lasers. This free 19 page document supplements the fiber laser material presented in an Elements of Photonics Course by provided a more current and detailed description of how lasers operate. This course covers an introduction to fiber laser application, established laser types, advantages of fiber lasers, application in materials processing, and other applications.

271

Construction of an automated fiber pigtailing machine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At present, the high cost of optoelectronic (OE) devices is caused in part by the labor-intensive processes involved with packaging. Automating the packaging processes should result in a significant cost reduction. One of the most labor-intensive steps is aligning and attaching the fiber to the OE device, the so-called pigtailing process. Therefore, the goal of this 2-year ARPA-funded project is to design and build 3 low-cost machines to perform sub-micron alignments and attachments of single-mode fibers to different OE devices. These Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machines (AFPMS) are intended to be compatible with a manufacturing environment and have a modular design for standardization of parts and machine vision for maximum flexibility. This work is a collaboration among Uniphase Telecommunications Products (formerly United Technologies Photonics, UTP), Ortel, Newport/Klinger, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Manufacturing Institute (MIT), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). UTP and Ortel are the industrial partners for whom two of the AFPMs are being built. MIT and LLNL make up the design and assembly team of the project, while Newport/Klinger is a potential manufacturer of the AFPM and provides guidance to ensure that the design of the AFPM is marketable and compatible with a manufacturing environment. The AFPM for UTP will pigtail LiNbO{sub 3} waveguide devices and the AFPM for Ortel will pigtail photodiodes. Both of these machines will contain proprietary information, so the third AFPM, to reside at LLNL, will pigtail a non-proprietary waveguide device for demonstrations to US industry.

Strand, O.T.

1996-01-01

272

Stacked macro fiber piezoelectric composite generator for a spinal fusion implant  

Science.gov (United States)

A manufacturing method was developed to create a piezoelectric 3-layer stacked, macro fiber composite generator operating in d33 mode to promote bone growth in spinal fusion surgeries. A specimen of 9 × 17 × 9 mm thick was constructed from 800 ?m diameter PZT fibers and medical grade epoxy. Electromechanical testing was performed at three stages of manufacturing to determine the influence of these processes on power generation. An average peak power of over 335 ?W was generated in the heat-treated specimen during simulated human body loads. The work provides insights into manufacturing methods for lowered source impedance power generation for a variety of applications.

Tobaben, Eric J.; Goetzinger, Nathan C.; Domann, John P.; Barrett-Gonzalez, Ronald; Arnold, Paul M.; Friis, Elizabeth A.

2015-01-01

273

Resonant filtered fiber amplifiers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present our recent result on utilizing resonant/bandgap fiber designs to achieve high performance ytterbium doped fiber amplifers for achieving diffraction limited beam quality in large mode area fibers, robust bending performance and gain shaping for long wavelength operation of yb-doped amplifiers.

Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko

2013-01-01

274

Three-Axis Distributed Fiber Optic Strain Measurement in 3D Woven Composite Structures  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading. Keywords: fiber optic, distributed strain sensing, Rayleigh scatter, optical frequency domain reflectometry

Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

2013-01-01

275

1997 Economic Census Manufacturing, Industry Series: Plastics Bottle Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

This data from the US Department of Commerce Census Bureau constitutes the one of the first in a series of several hundred reports on individual industries in the manufacturing sector from the 1997 Economic Census. The 1997 Economic Census Manufacturing, Industry Series on Plastics Bottle Manufacturing reports that California, Illinois, and Ohio accounted for a third of the $6.4 billion worth of 1997 goods shipped by the nation's plastics bottle manufacturers.

276

Improvement of physico-mechanical properties of coir-polypropylene biocomposites by fiber chemical treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Coir-polypropylene biocomposites were manufactured using hot press technique. • OH groups in raw coir cellulose were converted to OH?Cr groups during treatment. • SEM indicates improved interfacial adhesion between coir and PP upon treatment. • Chemically treated composites yielded the best set of mechanical properties. - Abstract: In preparing polymer–matrix composites, natural fibers are widely used as “reinforcing agents” because of their biodegradable characteristic. In present research, coir fiber reinforced polypropylene biocomposites were manufactured using hot press method. In order to increase the compatibility between the coir fiber and polypropylene matrix, raw coir fiber was chemically treated with basic chromium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate salt in acidic media. Both raw and treated coir at different fiber loading (10, 15 and 20 wt%) were utilized during composite manufacturing. During chemical treatment, hydrophilic –OH groups in the raw coir cellulose were converted to hydrophobic –OH?Cr groups. Microstructural analysis and mechanical tests were conducted. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicates improvement in interfacial adhesion between the coir and polypropylene matrix upon treatment. Chemically treated specimens yielded the best set of mechanical properties. On the basis of fiber loading, 20% fiber reinforced composites had the optimum set of mechanical properties among all composites manufactured

277

Lunar preform manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

278

Fiber optic laser rod  

Science.gov (United States)

A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

Erickson, G.F.

1988-04-13

279

Superconducting tin core fiber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

280

Smart Cellulose Fibers Coated with Carbon Nanotube Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Smart multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers with a unique sensing ability were manufactured by a simple dip coating process. The formation of electrically-conducting MWCNT networks on cellulose mono- and multi-filament fiber surfaces was confirmed by electrical resistance measurements and visualized by scanning electron microscopy. The interaction between MWCNT networks and cellulose fiber was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The piezoresistivity of these fibers for strain sensing was investigated. The MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers exhibited a unique linear strain-dependent electrical resistance change up to 18% strain, with good reversibility and repeatability. In addition, the sensing behavior of these fibers to volatile molecules (including vapors of methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran was investigated. The results revealed a rapid response, high sensitivity and good reproducibility for these chemical vapors. Besides, they showed good selectivity to different vapors. It is suggested that the intrinsic physical and chemical features of cellulose fiber, well-formed MWCNT networks and favorable MWCNT-cellulose interaction caused the unique and excellent sensing ability of the MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers, which have the potential to be used as smart materials.

Haisong Qi

2014-11-01

281

Energy Absorption in Chopped Carbon Fiber Compression Molded Composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In passenger vehicles the ability to absorb energy due to impact and be survivable for the occupant is called the ''crashworthiness'' of the structure. To identify and quantify the energy absorbing mechanisms in candidate automotive composite materials, test methodologies were developed for conducting progressive crush tests on composite plate specimens. The test method development and experimental set-up focused on isolating the damage modes associated with the frond formation that occurs in dynamic testing of composite tubes. Quasi-static progressive crush tests were performed on composite plates manufactured from chopped carbon fiber with an epoxy resin system using compression molding techniques. The carbon fiber was Toray T700 and the epoxy resin was YLA RS-35. The effect of various material and test parameters on energy absorption was evaluated by varying the following parameters during testing: fiber volume fraction, fiber length, fiber tow size, specimen width, profile radius, and profile constraint condition. It was demonstrated during testing that the use of a roller constraint directed the crushing process and the load deflection curves were similar to progressive crushing of tubes. Of all the parameters evaluated, the fiber length appeared to be the most critical material parameter, with shorter fibers having a higher specific energy absorption than longer fibers. The combination of material parameters that yielded the highest energy absorbing material was the highest energy absorbing material was identified

282

Energy Absorption in Chopped Carbon Fiber Compression Molded Composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In passenger vehicles the ability to absorb energy due to impact and be survivable for the occupant is called the ''crashworthiness'' of the structure. To identify and quantify the energy absorbing mechanisms in candidate automotive composite materials, test methodologies were developed for conducting progressive crush tests on composite plate specimens. The test method development and experimental set-up focused on isolating the damage modes associated with the frond formation that occurs in dynamic testing of composite tubes. Quasi-static progressive crush tests were performed on composite plates manufactured from chopped carbon fiber with an epoxy resin system using compression molding techniques. The carbon fiber was Toray T700 and the epoxy resin was YLA RS-35. The effect of various material and test parameters on energy absorption was evaluated by varying the following parameters during testing: fiber volume fraction, fiber length, fiber tow size, specimen width, profile radius, and profile constraint condition. It was demonstrated during testing that the use of a roller constraint directed the crushing process and the load deflection curves were similar to progressive crushing of tubes. Of all the parameters evaluated, the fiber length appeared to be the most critical material parameter, with shorter fibers having a higher specific energy absorption than longer fibers. The combination of material parameters that yielded the highest energy absorbing material was identified.

Starbuck, J.M.

2001-07-20

283

Fiber Optic Sensors for Health Monitoring of Morphing Aircraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber optic sensors are being developed for health monitoring of future aircraft. Aircraft health monitoring involves the use of strain, temperature, vibration and chemical sensors. These sensors will measure load and vibration signatures that will be used to infer structural integrity. Sine the aircraft morphing program assumes that future aircraft will be aerodynamically reconfigurable there is also a requirement for pressure, flow and shape sensors. In some cases a single fiber may be used for measuring several different parameters. The objective of the current program is to develop techniques for using optical fibers to monitor composite cure in real time during manufacture and to monitor in-service structural integrity of the composite structure. Graphite-epoxy panels were fabricated with integrated optical fibers of various types. The panels were mechanically and thermally tested to evaluate composite strength and sensor durability. Finally the performance of the fiber optic sensors was determined. Experimental results are presented evaluating the performance of embedded and surface mounted optical fibers for measuring strain, temperature and chemical composition. The performance of the fiber optic sensors was determined by direct comparison with results from more conventional instrumentation. The facilities for fabricating optical fiber and associated sensors and methods of demodulating Bragg gratings for strain measurement will be described.

Brown, Timothy; Wood, Karen; Childers, Brooks; Cano, Roberto; Jensen, Brian; Rogowski, Robert

2001-01-01

284

Additive Manufacturing for Large Products  

OpenAIRE

This thesis researches the possibility and feasibility of applying additive manufacturing technology in the manufacturing of propellers. The thesis concerns the production at the foundry Oshaug Metall AS. Their products consist of propellers and other large products cast in Nickel-Aluminium Bronze. This report looks at three approaches and applications for additive manufacturing at the foundry. These are additively manufactured pattern, sand mold and end metal parts. The available \\emph{State...

Leirva?g, Roar Nelissen

2013-01-01

285

Manufacture of heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tube bundle for use in a heat exchanger has a series of spaced parallel tubes supported by tube plates and is manufactured by depositing welding material around the end of each tube, machining the deposited material to form an annular flange around the end of the tube and welding the flange into apertures in the tube plate. Preferably the tubes have a length which is slightly less than the distance between the outer surfaces of the tube plates and the deposited material is deposited so that it overlaps and protects the end surfaces of the tubes. A plug may be inserted in the bore of the tubes during the welding material deposition which, as described, is effected by manual metal arc welding. One use of heat exchangers incorporating a tube bundle manufactured as above is in apparatus for reducing the volume of, and recovering nitric acid from, radioactive effluents from a nuclear reprocessing plant. (author)

286

Roof Coatings Manufacturers Association  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by the Roof Coatings Manufacturers Association, a trade association which represents manufacturers of cold-applied coatings and cements used in the roofing industry, this site provides users with a useful assortment of materials as well as some basic information about the association itself. The easy to navigate site offers users an overview that details some specifics on cold applied roof coatings including a brief history, the types of coatings available and the product's advantages. A list of organizational links, articles and technical bulletins provide more in depth information on topics related to application of roof coatings, weather related concerns, fire ratings, white coatings and much more. A news and events page and a supplier�s directory are valuable additions to this useful site.

287

Beyond dietary fiber.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complexity of plant foods high in dietary fiber poses new challenges to clinical investigators and leads to many study-design dilemmas. There are basic differences in studying purified polymers, highly concentrated but not purified fibers, and diets high in high-fiber whole foods. The fibrils of the plant cell wall are most likely altered when prepared as a pure chemical entity, and when fiber concentrates (eg, wheat bran) are used, the method of preparation may alter the composition of the final product. Whole-plant, high-fiber foods are complex storehouses of a diversity of polymers, including resistant starch, and of bioactive compounds. Furthermore, the addition of a reasonable amount of high-fiber food to the diet not only adds dietary fiber but many digestible, caloric macronutrients that alter the entire diet composition. These problems and dilemmas are reviewed. PMID:1654738

Spiller, G A

1991-10-01

288

Fiber Accelerating Structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the options for future particle accelerators are photonic band gap (PBG) fiber accelerators. PBG fibers are specially designed optical fibers that use lasers to excite an electric field that is used to accelerate electrons. To improve PBG accelerators, the basic parameters of the fiber were tested to maximize defect size and acceleration. Using the program CUDOS, several accelerating modes were found that maximized these parameters for several wavelengths. The design of multiple defects, similar to having closely bound fibers, was studied to find possible coupling or the change of modes. The amount of coupling was found to be dependent on distance separated. For certain distances accelerating coupled modes were found and examined. In addition, several non-periodic fiber structures were examined using CUDOS. The non-periodic fibers produced several interesting results and promised more modes given time to study them in more detail.

Hammond, Andrew P.; /Reed Coll. /SLAC

2010-08-25

289

Radiation curing of composites for vehicle component and vehicle manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some ordinary uses of metals in vehicle components and vehicle manufacture, such as steel (specific gravity 7.8) or aluminum (specific gravity 2.7), can be replaced by carbon fiber composites (specific gravity 1.6) to provide significant weight savings while still maintaining structural integrity. The aircraft and aerospace industries have adopted this concept. The motor vehicle industry is using composite materials for some nonstructural components in automobiles, but have been reluctant to widely adopt this technology because of concerns about thermal curing times and other issues in high-volume manufacturing processes. A typical steel auto body weighing ?750 kilograms would weigh only ?155 kilograms if replaced with carbon fiber composites. Structural members, such as the vehicle chassis and body frame, could also be made out of carbon fiber composites. With only 20% of the typical body weight, smaller, lighter, less powerful and more fuel efficient engines could be used in such vehicles. Commercial aircraft manufacturers have adopted large carbon fiber structures in lieu of aluminum for a 40% weight reduction and estimate a 20% savings in fuel costs for large planes. These aircraft still use conventional materials for motors, tires and interior components. The fuel efficiency of an automobile could be doubled with an 80% weight reduction. As with aircraft, conventional motors, tires and interior components could be used in automobiles. Radiation curing can sim automobiles. Radiation curing can simplify the manufacture of carbon fiber composites. Penetrating X-rays generated with high-energy, high-power electron beam (EB) accelerators can cure structural composites while they are constrained within inexpensive molds; thus reducing cure times, eliminating heat transfer concerns and potentially hazardous volatile emissions during the curing process. Since X-rays can penetrate mold walls, the curing process is quite versatile, enabling diverse components with varying designs to be cured using a common X-ray generator or multiple parts of the same design could be cured at the same time. Since the power output of an EB accelerator can be tightly controlled, EB processing can be used to produce 'B' staged, fiber-reinforced composite materials for sheet molding compounds (SMC) and prepregs. Such materials can significantly reduce the time-to-cure should alternative energy sources or subsequent X-ray curing be used. In the EB mode, SMC materials can be made at more than 100 meters per minute. The polymeric matrix systems are proprietary formulations based on common radiation responsive materials which are used in a variety of radiation curing applications. (author)

290

Additive Manufactured Material  

OpenAIRE

This project treats Additive Manufacturing (AM) for metallic material and the question if it is suitable to be used in the aeronautics industry. AM is a relatively new production method where objects are built up layer by layer from a computer model. The art of AM allows in many cases more design freedoms that enables production of more weight optimized and functional articles. Other advantages are material savings and shorter lead times which have a large economic value. An extensive literat...

Ek, Kristofer

2014-01-01

291

Smart PWB manufacturing technologies  

OpenAIRE

The inherent functionality of a printed wiring board (PWB) can be dramatically increased by embedding electronic components into the board. For resistors, capacitors and inductors, technological turnkey solutions are offered by major manufacturers and novel technologies are also under development. A further boost of functionality will be accomplished by the integration of active chips into the board. Two approaches for chip integration into the board will be discussed in detail: the chip in p...

Lo?her, T.; Neumann, A.; Pahl, B.; Reich, H.; Ostmann, A.

2006-01-01

292

Manufacture of phosphor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described of the manufacture of a phosphor based on barium, strontium, or lead, requiring no annealing. Hot aqueous solutions containing a cation and an anion of the phosphor are added (at intensive stirring) to a third solution containing a cation or an anion. Filtration, washing and drying of the precipitate in a temperature range of up to 300 0C follow. (B.S.)

293

Manufacturing and automation  

OpenAIRE

The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken a...

Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

2010-01-01

294

Nuclear fuel manufacture by BNFL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the major processes involved in nuclear fuel manufacture at the British Nuclear Fuels Springfields Works. Uranium ore concentrate processing, uranium metal production, magnox fuel manufacture, production of uranium hexafluoride, ceramic uranium dioxide production, uranium dioxide pellet production, manufacture of uranium dioxide fuel elements, and recovery of uranic residues, are all briefly discussed. (UK)

295

Fiber-optic strain gauge with attached ends and unattached microbend section  

Science.gov (United States)

A strain gauge is made of an optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. The permanent microbends cause a reduction in the fiber's optical transmission, but, when the gauge is attached to a substrate that is subsequently strained, the amplitude of the deformations will diminish and the optical transmission through the fiber will increase. An apparatus and process for manufacturing these microbends into the optical fiber through a heat-set process is employed; this apparatus and process includes a testing and calibration system.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

296

Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach by comparison with the full numerical simulations. Finally, we discuss possible sources of instability that are due to resonances in the device.

Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev

2000-01-01

297

Fiber Optical Sensing with Fiber Bragg Gratings  

OpenAIRE

A new measurement method is presented utilizing glass fibers with inscribed Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG). Strain and temperature changes have direct effects on these gratings. With this technology and suitable transducers, however, also parameters like pressure, dislocation, vibration, acceleration, humidity and even chemicals can be monitored. A broadband or sweeping laser light source is used and light with wavelengths corresponding to the FBGs is reflected back to a data acquisition unit (in...

 eisenmann, T.

2010-01-01

298

Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past decade, natural-fiber composites with thermoplastic and thermoset matrices have been embraced by European car manufacturers and suppliers for door panels, seat backs, headliners, package trays, dashboards, and interior parts. Natural fibers such as kenaf, hemp, flax, jute, and sisal offer such benefits as reductions in weight, cost, and CO2, less reliance on foreign oil sources, and recyclability. However, several major technical considerations must be addressed before the engineering, scientific, and commercial communities gain the confidence to enable wide-scale acceptance, particularly in exterior parts where a Class A surface finish is required. Challenges include the homogenization of the fiber's properties and a full understanding of the degree of polymerization and crystallization, adhesion between the fiber and matrix, moisture repellence, and flame-retardant properties, to name but a few.

Holbery, James; Houston, Dan

2006-11-01

299

Melt extraction of gold fibers and precious metal doped fibers and preparation of porous gold fiber structures: Presentation held at the International Gold Conference 2003 - New Industrial Applications of Gold. Vancouver, Canada, September 28-October 1, 2003  

OpenAIRE

Crucible melt extraction yields short metal fibers with eqivalent diameters as low as 50 µm from almost arbitrary metals and alloys. Highly porous components can be made from such fibers by suitable deposition and sintering methods. This technology is being developed at the Dresden based Department of Powder Metallurgy and Composite Materials of the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials (IFAM) and has been applied to gold alloys and iron-base alloys containing small a...

Andersen, O.; Kostmann, C.; Stephani, G.

2003-01-01

300

Polymer optical fiber fuse  

CERN Document Server

Although high-transmission-capacity optical fibers are in demand, the problem of the fiber fuse phenomenon needs to be resolved to prevent the destruction of fibers. As polymer optical fibers become more prevalent, clarifying their fuse properties has become important. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a fuse propagation velocity of 21.9 mm/s, which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude slower than that in standard silica fibers. The achieved threshold power density and proportionality constant between the propagation velocity and the power density are respectively 1/186 of and 16.8 times the values for silica fibers. An oscillatory continuous curve instead of periodic voids is formed after the passage of the fuse. An easy fuse termination method is presented herein, along with its potential plasma applications.

Mizuno, Yosuke; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro

2013-01-01

301

Improving the beam quality in LMA fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents the results concerning with beam quality improvement by concurrently modifying the index and the doping profile in LMA fibers. Further, the mode effective area is maximized by providing a passive ring in the cladding. The influence of the index profile over the distribution of the optical power among various modes is presented. The aim is to favor the fundamental mode by concurrently rejecting the higher modes, i.e. generating a quality beam. Simulation results and manufacturer's tests led to a novel design which consists in providing a passive ring in the cladding. That was of great help in rejecting the higher-order modes, and it can be applied to a large range of LMA fibers. The cladding ring procedure is of interest for Liekki, and it is very likely that it would be put into production.

Voiculescu, Emil; Hotoleanu, Mircea; Csipkes, Gabor

2008-02-01

302

Durable fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to produce thin precast elements, a self-compacting concrete was prepared. When manufacturing these elements, homogenously dispersed steel fibers instead of ordinary steel-reinforcing mesh were added to the concrete mixture at a dosage of 10% by mass of cement. An adequate concrete strength class was achieved with a water to cement ratio of 0.40. Compression and flexure tests were carried out to assess the safety of these thin concrete elements. Moreover, serviceability aspects were taken into consideration. Firstly, drying shrinkage tests were carried out in order to evaluate the contribution of steel fibers in counteracting the high concrete strains due to a low aggregate-cement ratio. Secondly, the resistance to freezing and thawing cycles was investigated on concrete specimens in some cases superficially treated with a hydrophobic agent. Lastly, both carbonation and chloride penetration tests were carried out to assess durability behavior of this concrete mixture

303

Stripping and splicing polyimide-coated fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyimide is often used as a coating material for optical fibers used in high temperature environments such as aerospace or oil and gas sensor applications. Unfortunately, polyimide coating is very difficult to strip by conventional mechanical stripping methods. The glass fiber is easily damaged if the stripping process is not extremely well controlled. Stripping the polyimide coating by heating with a flame or arc typically results in a significant reduction in fiber strength. Strength may be maintained by using hot acid stripping, however the use of the strong hot acid presents safety hazards and also requires controlled and safe waste disposal. Another issue with polyimide coating is variability of the coating diameter from various manufacturers or due to different polyimide coating processes. This not only complicates the polyimide stripping issue, but also presents problems with precise clamping and alignment during splicing, especially when it is necessary to splice with a short cleave length. In this paper, we present new polyimide coating stripping technology. The significant feature of this stripping technology is achievement of good strength while avoiding the use of hot acid or heating. We also developed a new specialty fiber fusion splicer that enables precise alignment and splicing regardless of the variability of polyimide coating diameter, even when clamping on the coating.

Duke, Douglas; Kanda, Yoshiharu; Tobita, Kenyo; Yamauchi, Ryozo

2011-05-01

304

Concepts in syngas manufacture  

CERN Document Server

This book provides a general overview of syngas technologies as well as an in-depth analysis of the steam reforming process. Syngas is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon oxides which can be made from hydrocarbons, coal and biomass. It is an important intermediate in the chemical industry for manufacture of ammonia, methanol and other petrochemicals as well as hydrogen for refineries and fuel cells. Syngas is playing a growing role in the energy sector, because it can be converted into a number of important energy carriers and fuels. Syngas catalysis creates new options and flexibility in the com

Rostrup-Nielsen, Jens

2011-01-01

305

Manufacturing Safety and Awareness  

Science.gov (United States)

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into manufacturing safety and awareness, including identifying hazards, risk assessment, and hazard prevention or control. An assessment follows the module to gauge student understanding.

306

Oriented Fiber Filter Media  

OpenAIRE

Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

Bharadwaj, R.; A Patel, S. Chokdeepanich; G G Chase, Ph D.

2008-01-01

307

Development of Fiber Laser  

OpenAIRE

In recent years, fiber lasers have been focused as research topic in the field of laser. It is widely applicable in the field of modern optical communication, optical sensing, materials technology, life sciences and precision mechanics, national defence science ,etc. Fiber laser is typical representative of the third generation lasers. Fiber lasers have great ad-vantages compare to any other lasers, such as long lifetime, small size, high efficiency, compact structure, etc. This repor...

Zhang, Yang; Huang, Guoqing

2013-01-01

308

Fiber optics in SHIVA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SHIVA is a twenty arm laser which is controlled with a network of fifty computers, interconnected with digital fiber optic links. Three different fiber optic systems employed on the Shiva laser will be described. Two of the systems are for digital communications, one at 9600 baud and the other at 1 megabaud. The third system uses fiber optics to distribute diagnostic triggers with subnanosecond jitter

309

NOVEL USE OF WASTE KERATIN AND COTTON LINTER FIBERS FOR PROTOTYPE TISSUE PAPERS AND THEIR EVALUATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corporate environmental sustainability calls for sustainable product manufacturing with less creation of waste material or increased reuse of waste materials. One example is the use of keratin fiber from the poultry industry and cotton linter from the textile industry for paper and tissue manufacturing. In this paper, the feasibility of using these waste fibers to make paper was demonstrated in handsheets. The properties of these handsheets were compared to the properties of handsheets made with standard bleached eucalyptus tropical hardwood fibers. A blend of cotton linter and keratin fibers at 80/20 and 60/40 ratios showed a 59% and 73% improvement in sheet bulk, respectively, compared to eucalyptus handsheets. Similarly, air permeability of the cotton / keratin fiber handsheets improved 414% and 336%, respectively, versus the eucalyptus. However, the tensile index of the cotton and keratin fiber blends was lower than the eucalyptus sheets. There was no remarkable difference in water absorbency up to 20% keratin fiber. Above 20% of keratin fibers the water absorbency started to decrease, which is likely attributable to the hydrophobic nature of the protein-based keratin fiber.

Bo Shi

2010-05-01

310

Bragg Grating Based Sensors in Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers: Accelerometers and Microphones  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With the growing interest towards fiber Bragg grating sensors and the growing ability in manufacturing polymer optical fibers, the development of polymer fiber Bragg sensors has catched the attention of industries with the goal of developing high performance sensors. This thesis presents the development of fiber sensors based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings. The whole process from the preform to the device is discussed and reported. A presentation on the fiber drawing technique used is given. Issues encountered when working with polymer fibers and solutions concerning fiber cleaving and gluing of polymer to silica fibers are discussed. The realization of gratings in polymer fibers is shown with two different techniques: the UV phase mask technique and the direct writing technique reported here for the first time for polymer fibers. Realization of gratings in PMMA step index fibers and in microstructured fibers made of PMMA and TOPAS is reported. The gratings have been written at both 1550 nm, to take advantage of components made for telecommunications, and 850 nm, to exploit the lower loss of polymers and the fast acquisition electronics at this wavelength. A technique for writing multiplexed gratings is shown and temperature compensation of strain sensors, by using two adjacent gratings, is demonstrated. Humidity insensitivity in a strain sensor based on a TOPAS fiber is also shown. In order to investigate the possibility of using viscoelastic materials, such as polymers, in dynamic sensors, dynamic mechanical characterization of polymer fibers was made and it is presented. The investigated and produced fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured polymer optical bers were used to produce optical accelerometers. The accelerometers and their characterization are reported. Finally the realization of an optical microphone based on polymer ber Bragg gratings is reported.

Stefani, Alessio

2011-01-01

311

Cloud manufacturing distributed computing technologies for global and sustainable manufacturing  

CERN Document Server

Global networks, which are the primary pillars of the modern manufacturing industry and supply chains, can only cope with the new challenges, requirements and demands when supported by new computing and Internet-based technologies. Cloud Manufacturing: Distributed Computing Technologies for Global and Sustainable Manufacturing introduces a new paradigm for scalable service-oriented sustainable and globally distributed manufacturing systems.   The eleven chapters in this book provide an updated overview of the latest technological development and applications in relevant research areas.  Following an introduction to the essential features of Cloud Computing, chapters cover a range of methods and applications such as the factors that actually affect adoption of the Cloud Computing technology in manufacturing companies and new geometrical simplification method to stream 3-Dimensional design and manufacturing data via the Internet. This is further supported case studies and real life data for Waste Electrical ...

Mehnen, Jörn

2013-01-01

312

Oriented Fiber Filter Media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

R. Bharadwaj

2008-06-01

313

Continuous fiber coating system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A CVD system for coating continuous fiber tows and monofilaments was designed, fabricated, and successfully operated. The vertical CVD furnace is of the hot wall type which permits coating of electrically insulating or conducting fibers. A supply spool of as-received fiber is used to feed fiber into the bottom of the furnace, through the reactor, and onto a second, motorized spool affixed to the top of the coater. Experience in depositing YBa2Cu3Ox, BN, and SiC coatings is described

314

Fiber-diffraction Interferometer using Coherent Fiber Optic Taper  

OpenAIRE

We present a fiber-diffraction interferometer using a coherent fiber optic taper for optical testing in an uncontrolled environment. We use a coherent fiber optic taper and a single-mode fiber having thermally-expanded core. Part of the measurement wave coming from a test target is condensed through a fiber optic taper and spatially filtered from a single-mode fiber to be reference wave. Vibration of the cavity between the target and the interferometer probe is common to bot...

Kihm, Hagyong; Lee, Yun-woo

2010-01-01

315

Magnet cable manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cable is the heart of a superconducting accelerator magnet. Since the initial development of the Rutherford Cable more than twenty years ago, many improvements in manufacturing techniques have increased the current carrying capacity. When the Tevatron cable was specified fifteen years ago the current carrying capacity was 1800 A/mm{sup 2} at a field of 5.3T. During the intervening years it has been increased to 3000 A/mm{sup 2}. These improvements were due to refinements in the fabrication of the strands and the formation of the cable from the strands. The metallurgists were able to impart significant gains in performance by improving the homogeneity of the conductor. The engineers and technicians who designed and built the modern cabling machines made an enormous contribution by significantly reducing the degradation of wire performance that occurs when the wire was cabled. The fact that these gains were made while increasing the speed of cabling is one of the technological advances that made accelerators like the SSC possible. This article describes the cabling machines that were built to manufacture the cable for the full scale SSC prototype magnets and the low beta quadrupoles for the Fermilab Tevatron. This article also presents a compendium of the knowledge that was gained in the struggle to make high performance cable to exacting dimensional standards and at the throughput needed for the SSC. The material is an important part of the technology transfer from the Department of energy Laboratories to Industry.

Royet, J.

1990-10-01

316

Improving the Value Chain of Biofuel Manufacturing Operations by Enhancing Coproduct Transportation and Logistics  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofuels, including corn-based ethanol, can partially meet the increasing demand for transportation fuels. The production of ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased; so too has the quantity of manufacturing coproducts. These nonfermentable residues (i.e., proteins, fibers, oils) are sold as...

317

General Tips of What Little This Author has Learned of Cotton Processing in Traditional Textile Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

This article, under the following sub-headings, only lists a few very important tips that the author has experienced in his career involving processing of cotton in the traditional textile manufacturing: (1) Fiber Opening and Cleaning (2) Carding (3) Drawing (4) Combing, if necessary (5) Roving (6)...

318

Fiber-Reinforced Reactive Nano-Epoxy Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

An ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene/ matrix interface based on the fabrication of a reactive nano-epoxy matrix with lower surface energy has been improved. Enhanced mechanical properties versus pure epoxy on a three-point bend test include: strength (25 percent), modulus (20 percent), and toughness (30 percent). Increased thermal properties include higher Tg (glass transition temperature) and stable CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion). Improved processability for manufacturing composites includes faster wetting rates on macro-fiber surfaces, lower viscosity, better resin infusion rates, and improved rheological properties. Improved interfacial adhesion properties with Spectra fibers by pullout tests include initial debonding force of 35 percent, a maximum pullout force of 25 percent, and energy to debond at 65 percent. Improved mechanical properties of Spectra fiber composites (tensile) aging resistance properties include hygrothermal effects. With this innovation, high-performance composites have been created, including carbon fibers/nano-epoxy, glass fibers/nano-epoxy, aramid fibers/ nano-epoxy, and ultra-high-molecularweight polyethylene fiber (UHMWPE).

Zhong, Wei-Hong

2011-01-01

319

Tapered fiber bundle couplers for high-power fiber amplifiers  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we would like to demonstrate our results on performing (6+1)x1 tapered fiber bundle combiners using a trielectrode fiber splicing system. In our combiners we have used 9/80 ?m (core/clad) diameter fibers as single-mode signal input ports. Using this fiber, instead of a conventional 9/125 ?m single-mode fiber allowed us to reduce the taper ratio and therefore significantly increase the signal transmission. We have also performed power combiner which is based on the LMA fibers: input signal fiber 20/125?m and passive double clad fiber 25/300 ?m at the output.

Sliwinska, Dorota; Kaczmarek, Pawel; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

2014-12-01

320

Development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes: Phase 2, Improved refractory fiber and industrial benefit development. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is Phase II of a three-phase study for the development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes, for use in the aluminum, glass, cement, and iron and steel industries. Fiberization of 24 out of 25 compositions in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Si0{sub 2}-Zr0{sub 2} system were achieved. These 24 and three existing fiber compositions were evaluated: The shrinkage and the crystalline and vitreous phases were determined vs heat treatment time and temperature. Four theoretical models were developed: Shrinkage, devitrification kinetics, density change, and fiberization. Although some of the fibers formed during Phase II had properties as good as the reference ASZ fiber, no fiber had a significantly improved performance. This work, although not entirely successful, did produce significant benefits to refractory insulating fiber manufacturers and users: Mechanisms of both linear and thickness shrinkage for vitreous refractory fibers were determined, devitrification kinetics were quantified and used in models to predict shrinkage during service, and the mechanism of fiber formation in the melt spinning process was studied.

Cai, Yifang; Curtis, J.M.; DePoorter, G.L.; Martin, P.C.; Munoz, D.R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

1995-05-01

321

Advanced Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The Aerospace manufacturing industry segment is facing problems of a "graying" workforce. In addition they face the challenges of increasing productivity and integrating new materials accentuating the need to attract new engineers to the manufacturing workplace. This paper describes a project funded by the National Science Foundation to examine the changing needs of the aerospace manufacturing industries, and to develop curricula materials to address those needs. These materials will be in the public domain and fit into existing engineering and manufacturing technology programs. The project is a joint venture between El Camino College, Wichita Area Technical College, Oregon Institute of Technology and Purdue University, and is supported by the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, The Boeing Company, Northrop Grumman Corp., Bell Helicopter, Lockheed Martin Corp., and other leading aerospace companies. The first phase of this project involved conducting interviews with new manufacturing engineers and their mangers, and results of these interviews are included.

Anderson, John

322

Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

323

Manufacturing Simulation For Industrial Projects  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufacturing simulation is a major component of the technology program at this university, and has provided opportunities for numerous industrial projects. This software application is being used extensively by many major corporations to model, analyze, and optimize complex manufacturing operations, including Boeing, Lockheed-Martin, Daimler-Chrysler and Toyota.Companies are utilizing these advanced 3D digital manufacturing tools as a component of their product life-cycle management to optimize and continuously improve the manufacturing processes. In many cases simulations are mandatory prior to implementation of any significant new operation, project or process. Manufacturing technologists and engineers need to be familiar with these modern tools and their applications, and to understand when and how to effectively utilize them. At our university these applications are being taught under the title of virtual simulation (VS). This paper explains how VS has been integrated into our curriculum, and has been used to establish effective partnerships with major manufacturing companies

Nutter, Paul

324

ISS Fiber Optic Failure Investigation Root Cause Report  

Science.gov (United States)

In August of 1999, Boeing Corporation (Boeing) engineers began investigating failures of optical fiber being used on International Space Station flight hardware. Catastrophic failures of the fiber were linked to a defect in the glass fiber. Following several meetings of Boeing and NASA engineers and managers, Boeing created and led an investigation team, which examined the reliability of the cable installed in the U.S. Lab. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Components Technologies and Radiation Effects Branch (GSFC) led a team investigating the root cause of the failures. Information was gathered from: regular telecons and other communications with the investigation team, investigative trips to the cable distributor's plant, the cable manufacturing plant and the fiber manufacturing plant (including a review of build records), destructive and non-destructive testing, and expertise supplied by scientists from Dupont, and Lucent-Bell Laboratories. Several theories were established early on which were not able to completely address the destructive physical analysis and experiential evidence. Lucent suggested hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching of the glass and successfully duplicated the "rocket engine" defect. Strength testing coupled with examination of the low strength break sites linked features in the polyimide coating with latent defect sites. The information provided below explains what was learned about the susceptibility of the pre-cabled fiber to failure when cabled as it was for Space Station and the nature of the latent defects.

Leidecker, Henning; Plante, Jeannette

2000-01-01

325

Investigation of the photosensitivity, temperature sustainability and fluorescence characteristics of several Er-doped photosensitive fibers  

CERN Document Server

Three different types of Er doped photosensitive fibers, germanium/erbium (Ge/Er) fiber, tin/germanium/erbium fiber (Sn/Er) and antimony/germanium/erbium fiber (Sb/Er) have been manufactured and studied for use in optical sensor systems. Their characteristics of photosensitivity, the temperature sustainability of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written into these fibers and the fluorescence emission from the Er dopant were investigated and compared. It has been shown in this work that these fibers all show a satisfactory degree of photosensitivity to enable the fabrication of FBGs and a significant level of fluorescence emission within the 1550 nm band for sensor use. The high temperature sustainability of the FBGs written into these fibers was investigated and seen to be quite significant at temperatures as high as 850 ^{\\circ}C, in particular for the Sn/Er and Sb/Er fibers. A fiber laser using the Sb/Er fiber as the gain medium was demonstrated, giving evidence of the strong fluorescence emission from the Er do...

Shen, Y H; Mandal, J; Sun, T; Grattan, K T V; Wade, S A; Collins, Stephen F; Baxter, Gregory W; Dussardier, Bernard; Monnom, Gérard; 10.1016/j.optcom.2004.04.004

2011-01-01

326

Fiber-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof  

Science.gov (United States)

A fiber-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The fiber-based adsorbent includes polymer fibers with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight over known fibers to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. The polymer fibers include a circular morphology in some embodiments, having a mean diameter of less than 15 microns, optionally less than about 1 micron. In other embodiments, the polymer fibers include a non-circular morphology, optionally defining multiple gear-shaped, winged-shaped or lobe-shaped projections along the length of the polymer fibers. A method for forming the fiber-based adsorbents includes irradiating high surface area polymer fibers, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting the grafted fibers with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. High surface area fiber-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

Janke, Christopher J; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

2014-05-13

327

Fiber Bundle Estimation and Parameterization  

OpenAIRE

Individual white matter fibers cannot be resolved by current magnetic resonance (MR) technology. Many fibers of a fiber bundle will pass through an individual volume element (voxel). Individual visualized fiber tracts are thus the result of interpolation on a relatively coarse voxel grid, and an infinite number of them may be generated in a given volume by interpolation. This paper aims at creating a level set representation of a fiber bundle to describe this apparent continuum of fibers. It ...

Niethammer, Marc; Bouix, Sylvain; Westin, Carl-fredrik; Shenton, Martha E.

2006-01-01

328

Photonic bandgap fiber bundle spectrometer  

OpenAIRE

We experimentally demonstrate an all-fiber spectrometer consisting of a photonic bandgap fiber bundle and a black and white CCD camera. Photonic crystal fibers used in this work are the large solid core all-plastic Bragg fibers designed for operation in the visible spectral range and featuring bandgaps of 60nm - 180nm-wide. 100 Bragg fibers were chosen to have complimentary and partially overlapping bandgaps covering a 400nm-840nm spectral range. The fiber bundle used in our...

Hang, Qu; Ung, Bora; Syed, Imran; Guo, Ning; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

2010-01-01

329

Green manufacturing processes and systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book provides the recent advances on green manufacturing processes and systems for modern industry. Chapter 1 provides information on sustainable manufacturing through environmentally-friendly machining. Chapter 2 is dedicated to environmentally-friendly machining: vegetable based cutting fluids. Chapter 3 describes environmental-friendly joining of tubes. Chapter 4 contains information on concepts, methods and strategies for zero-waste in manufacturing. Finally, chapter 5 is dedicated to the application of hybrid MCDM approach for selecting the best tyre recycling process.

Davim, J. Paulo (ed.) [Aveiro Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Universitario de Santiago

2013-02-01

330

Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

1994-12-01

331

Fessenheim fuel design and manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel elements in first cores of Fessenheim 1 and 2 consisted of 15 x 15 pin arrays. After revision of the ECCS criteria in 1973 a new 17 x 17 pin array was favoured. Implementation of this concept involved design tasks and adaptation of manufacturing processes and procedures. Specific qualification programs which were developed for the manufacturers are described. These concerned the production of uranium dioxide pellets and zircaloy-4 cladding tubes. An integrated system, set up to administer and analyse the quality of the manufactured fuel included a traceability system for locating and identifying the fuels, and quality evaluation during manufacturing. (U.K.)

332

Treatment and characterization of fiber licuri for synthesis of polymeric composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural fibers are materials of increasing use of polymeric composites, due to several advantageous properties compared to synthetic fibers: low cost, density, toxicity and excellent biodegradability. Licuri fiber is widely used in the manufacture of handicrafts, with a wide range of possible applications. Before this, characterize the properties of the fiber is of great interest economic, technological and social. This study characterized the fibers in nature, which were washed with water, treated with 5% H2SO4 or 5% NaOH. Techniques were used FTIR, DSC, TGA and XRD, as well as analysis of surface reactivity of the acid and base. All treatments altered the surface of licuri, exposing reactive sites. It was observed that sodium hydroxide licuri changed significantly, as expected. These results are very significant for the recovery of a natural fiber (licuri), abundant in poor regions of the country. (author)

333

Characterization of Optical Fiber Strength Under Applied Tensile Stress and Bending Stress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various types of tensile testing and bend radius tests were conducted on silica core/silica cladding optical fiber of different diameters with different protective buffer coatings, fabricated by different fiber manufacturers. The tensile tests were conducted to determine not only the average fiber strengths at failure, but also the distribution in fracture strengths, as well as the influence of buffer coating on fracture strength. The times-to-failure of fiber subjected to constant applied bending stresses of various magnitudes were measured to provide a database from which failure times of 20 years or more, and the corresponding minimum bend radius, could be extrapolated in a statistically meaningful way. The overall study was done to provide an understanding of optical fiber strength in tensile loading and in applied bending stress as related to applications of optical fiber in various potential coizfgurations for weapons and enhanced surveillance campaigns.

P.E. Klingsporn

2011-08-01

334

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN. In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo

2012-01-01

335

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF) which receive an additional activation process and [...] can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

Jossano Saldanha, Marcuzzo; Choyu, Otani; Heitor Aguiar, Polidoro; Satika, Otani.

2013-02-01

336

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN. In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo

2013-02-01

337

Characterisation of pulsed Carbon fiber illuminators for FIR instrument calibration  

CERN Document Server

We manufactured pulsed illuminators emitting in the far infrared for the Planck-HFI bolometric instrument ground calibrations. Specific measurements have been conducted on these light sources, based on Carbon fibers, to understand and predict their properties. We present a modelisation of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity and the calorific capacitance of the fibers. A comparison between simulations and bolometer data is given, that shows the coherence of our model. Their small time constants, their stability and their emission spectrum pointing in the submm range make these illuminators a very usefull tool for calibrating FIR instruments.

Henrot-Versillé, S; Couchot, F

2007-01-01

338

Curvilinear fiber optimization tools for aeroelastic design of composite wings  

Science.gov (United States)

The aeroelastic design of composite wings modeled as thin-walled beams is investigated through the use of curvilinear fiber. The structural model considers non-classical effects such as transverse shear, warping restraint, rotary inertia, nonuniform torsional model and also aerodynamic loads based on Wagner's function. In this paper, a linear spanwise variation of the fiber orientation resulting in a variable-stiffness structure is used to optimize the wing for maximum aeroelastic instability speed purpose, while manufacturing constraints are incorporated. Numerical results indicate improvements of aeroelastic stability of variable-stiffness wings over conventional, constant-stiffness ones.

Haddadpour, H.; Zamani, Z.

2012-08-01

339

Time for a forum on terms used for textile fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The advances in manufactured fibers and textiles have garnered interest and excitement of textile artists and consumers alike for a myriad of reasons, including health, environmental, and fashion. The chemical and molecular nature of these advances, however leads to confusion and misunderstanding of the new fibers in the materials. This is exacerbated by the current climate of distrust for chemical words and desire for "green" products and the unregulated (misinformation and marketing on the web. Textile artists, consumers, and the clothing and household textile industry need clear names and labels to identify the materials they are using.

Zawistoski, P. S.

2012-11-01

340

Fiber-optical systems in physical experiment technique. Part 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of fiber-optic systems (FOS) application in modern physical experiment automatization systems mainly oriented to functional monitoring electrophysical installations (EPI), beams, plasma, targets diagnostics as well as experiment environment investigation is considering. Questions of the FOS functioning in high and low pressure; high and cryogenic temperature; pulsed, SHF and radiational fields, high potentials are discussed. Attention is attached to designing, manufacturing and servicing FOS, their metrological support. There are functioning concepts of FOS, and modern component base: fiber and optical cabels, connectors, and couplers, spectral devices, optical sources and photodetectors, transmitter and receiver devices. 191 refs.; 19 figs.; 9 tabs

341

SERIAL SECTIONS THROUGH A CONTINUOUS FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The microstructure of a unidirectional glass-fiber composite material is described seeking especially for the influence of the stitching perpendicular to the reinforcement. Serial cuts are performed through the composite and the microstructure is quantified using global parameters and linear morphological analysis. A key result is that the stitching induces variations in fibers spacing within the yarns and in the matrix volume between the yarns. This can affect noticeably the flow of the resin during the manufacturing process and also the mechanical properties of the composite.

Laurent Bizet

2011-05-01

342

Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

King, Kenneth L.; Dean, Rashe A.; Akbar, Shahzad; Kouzes, Richard T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2010-08-10

343

Contact fiber bundles  

CERN Document Server

We define contact fiber bundles and investigate conditions for the existence of contact structures on the total space of such a bundle. The results are analogous to minimal coupling in symplectic geometry. The two applications are construction of K-contact manifolds generalizing Yamazaki's fiber join construction and a cross-section theorem for contact moment maps

Lerman, E

2003-01-01

344

Super capacitor with fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electrical cell apparatus includes a first current collector made of a multiplicity of fibers, a second current collector spaced from the first current collector; and a separator disposed between the first current collector and the second current collector. The fibers are contained in a foam.

Farmer, Joseph Collin; Kaschmitter, James

2015-02-17

345

Multimode optical fiber  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

2014-11-04

346

MEGARA fiber bundles  

Science.gov (United States)

MEGARA (Multi Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is the future optical Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) for the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC). MEGARA has three different fiber bundles, the Large Central Bundle covering 12.5 arcsec x 11.3 arcsec on sky, the Small Compact Bundle, of 8.5 arcsec x 6.7 arcsec, and a Fiber MOS positioner system that is able to place up to 100 mini-bundles with 7 fibers each in MOS configuration within a 3.5 arcmin x 3.5 arcmin FOV. The MEGARA focal plane subsystems are located at one of the GTC Folded Cassegrain focal stations. A field lens provides a telecentric focal plane, where the fibers are located. Micro-lenses arrays couple the telescope beam to the collimator focal ratio at the entrance of the fibers. Finally, the fibers, organized in bundles conducted the light from the focal plane to the pseudo-slit plates at the entrance of the MEGARA spectrograph, which shall be located at one of the Nasmyth platforms. This article also summarizes the prototypes already done and describes the set-up that shall be used to integrate fibers and micro-lens and characterize the fiber bundles.

Pérez-Calpena, A.; García-Vargas, María. Luisa; Arrillaga, X.; Gil de Paz, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Martínez-Delgado, I.; Carrera, M. A.; Gallego, J.; Carrasco, E.; Sánchez-Moreno, F. M.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

2014-07-01

347

Technique for microswitch manufacture  

Science.gov (United States)

A five-step technique for microswitch manufacture is described: (1) A clad board is inlaid with a precious metal and the board is pressed. (2) One end of the fixed contact containing a precious metal inlay section is curved, and this edge of the precious metal inlay section becomes a fixed contact. (3) Inserts are formed in the unit body and terminal strips are placed through the top and bottom of the base and held. (4) The unit body is held by the base and the sequential contact strips are cut off. (5) Movable stripes are attached to the support of the terminal strips on the movable side and movable contacts are placed opposite the fixed contacts.

Kitamura, T.; Kiyoyama, S.

1983-05-01

348

Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficiency and effectiveness of the gas turbine engine is directly related to the turbine inlet temperatures. The ability to increase these temperatures has occurred as a result of improvements in materials, design, and processing techniques. A generic sequence indicating the relationship of these factors to temperature capability is schematically shown in Figure 1 for aircraft engine and land based engine materials. A basic contribution that is not captured by the Figure is the significant improvement in process and manufacturing capability that has accompanied each of these innovations. It is this capability that has allowed the designs and innovations to be applied on a high volume, cost effective scale in the aircraft gas turbine market.

Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

1995-10-01

349

Chalcogenide glass optical fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Amorphous Materials (AMI) has served since 1977 as a source of high purity, optically homogeneous plates of selenium-based glasses used in passive IR (FLIR) night vision systems. Over the past three years, Amorphous Materials has used this chalcogenide glass technology and capability to develop a unique process to prepare optical fibers. The process is based on using 2 inch cores removed from a homogeneous plate and sealed in a chamber which can be heated so that fibers may be pulled from a small tube in the bottom. Methods for cladding and coating with thermal plastic using split dies have been developed. The method has been used to produce flexible, low attenuation fibers based on an As-Se-Te composition. High purity As2S3 glass has been used to produce fibers capable of transmitting substantial amounts of IR laser energy. Physical properties of both fibers are discussed.

Hilton, Albert R., Sr.

1992-01-01

350

Python fiber optic seal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories has developed a high security fiber optic seal that incorporates tamper resistance features that are not available in commercial fiber optic seals. The Python Seal is a passive fiber optic loop seal designed to give indication of unauthorized entry. The seal includes a fingerprint feature that provides seal identity information in addition to the unique fiber optic pattern created when the seal is installed. The fiber optic cable used for the seal loop is produced with tamper resistant features that increase the difficulty of attacking that component of a seal. A Seal Reader has been developed that will record the seal signature and the fingerprint feature of the seal. A Correlator software program then compares seal images to establish a match or mismatch. SNL is also developing a Polaroid reader to permit hard copies of the seal patterns to be obtained directly from the seal.

Ystesund, K.; Bartberger, J.; Brusseau, C.; Fleming, P.; Insch, K.; Tolk, K.

1993-08-01

351

Manufacturing strategy issues in selected Indian manufacturing industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents some findings of Indian manufacturing sectors viz. automobile (especially two-wheeler, tractor and general manufacturing industry. Various manufacturing strategy issues such as competitive priorities, improvement activities, and performance measures, have been identified and assessed in Indian context. Sector wise comparison of competitive priorities, improvement activities i.e. advanced manufacturing technology (AMT, integrated information systems (IIS, and advanced management systems (AMS, and performance measure, is provided. Our results showed that most of the Indian companies are still emphasizing on quality. However, automobile sector has set to compete globally with high innovation rate, faster new product development, and continuous improvement. It is also observed that Indian companies are investing more in AMS as compared to IIS and AMT. Manufacturing competence index is also computed for each sector.

Mahender Singh

2013-03-01

352

The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food Sensory Characteristics and Palatability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine (a the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition, guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%, sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size, and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size. The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods manufactured with inclusion of different fibers.

Kadri Koppel

2015-02-01

353

Fiber reinforcement of investment cast parts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For 3 years now the Foundry-Institute (Giesserei-Institut) of the Aachen Institute of Technology has worked on the development of a new, low-cost production process for longfiber-reinforced light alloy components. The process baseline is oriented on the precision casting process in its investment casting mode, also known as lost wax process. The investment casting process is well known as a typical near-net-shape process for the manufacture of high-quality cast components, predominantly for applications in the aerospace industry (structured components, turbine blades and parts etc.) and enjoys significant growth rates during the last decades. After preliminary studies on the modification of single process substeps R & D work concentrated on the final-shape production of Al-components (Al-alloys A356, A357, 201 etc.) reinforced with long ceramic fibers. Both SiC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based fibers of several producers were used. Main interest focuses on techniques for a selective reinforcement of main stress sections. Without using conventional sintered preforms the fibers are infiltrated with molten metal under a support pressure of less than 1 MPa. Combined with a new developed wax pattern technique test specimens with a nearly homogeneous fiber distribution were produced. In addition, even reactive matrix alloys did not lead to destructive interface reactions. In most cases sufficient bonding between fibers and matrix could be observed. Following to these positive tendencies a considerable improvement of mechanical properties could be measured for longfiber reinforced Al-alloys. Both tensile strength and elastic modulus could be increased up to 100% compared with the unreinforced matrix alloy. Latest work concentrated on the production of small representative components for potential applications.

Nolte, M.; Neussl, E.; Schaedlich-Stubenrauch, J.; Sahm, P.R. [Aachen Institute of Technology (Germany)

1993-12-31

354

76 FR 57714 - The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration...SUMMARY: The Manufacturing Council will hold a meeting to hear...

2011-09-16

355

75 FR 10216 - The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration...SUMMARY: The Manufacturing Council will hold a meeting to...

2010-03-05

356

75 FR 60411 - The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration...SUMMARY: The Manufacturing Council will hold a meeting to...

2010-09-30

357

77 FR 27029 - The Manufacturing Council: Teleconference Meeting of the Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Teleconference Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade...open teleconference meeting of the Manufacturing Council (Council). The agenda...

2012-05-08

358

75 FR 80039 - The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration...SUMMARY: The Manufacturing Council will hold a meeting to...

2010-12-21

359

75 FR 36421 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Postapproval Manufacturing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Postapproval Manufacturing Changes Reportable in Annual Reports...industry entitled ``CMC Postapproval Manufacturing Changes Reportable in Annual...

2010-06-25

360

Longitudinally Graded Optical Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Described herein, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, are optical fibers possessing significant compositional gradations along their length due to longitudinal control of the core glass composition. More specifically, MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers were fabricated that exhibited a gradient of up to about 0.55 weight percent GeO2 per meter. These gradients are about 1900 times greater than previously reported for fibers possessing longitudinal changes in composition. The refractive index difference is shown to change by about 0.001, representing a numerical aperture change of about 10%, over a fiber length of less than 20 m. The lowest attenuation measured from the present longitudinally-graded fiber (LGF) was 82 dB/km at a wavelength of 1550 nm, though this is shown to result from extrinsic process-induced factors and could be reduced with further optimization. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectrum from the LGF exhibited a 4.4 dB increase in the spectral width, and thus reduction in Brillouin gain, relative to a standard commercial single mode fiber, over a fiber length of only 17 m. Fibers with longitudinally uniform (i.e., not gradient) refractive index profiles but differing chemical compositions among various core layers were also fabricated to determine acoustic effects of the core slug method. The refractive index of the resulting preform varies by about +/- 0.00013 from the average. Upon core drilling, it was found that the core slugs had been drilled off-center from the parent preform, resulting in semi-circular core cross sections that were unable to guide light. As a result, optical analysis could not be conducted. Chemical composition data was obtained, however, and is described herein. A third fiber produced was actively doped with ytterbium (Yb3 ) and fabricated similarly to the previous fibers. The preforms were doped via the solution doping method with a solution of 0.015 M Yb 3 derived from ytterbium chloride hexahydrate and 0.30 M Al 3 derived from aluminum chloride hexahydrate. The doped preform was engineered to have two core layers of differing chemical composition, resulting in both a gradient refractive index profile as well as a gradient acoustic profile. While exhibiting higher loss than the original LGF, the Yb 3-doped fiber showed slightly better SBS suppression with preliminary calculations showing at least 6 dB reduction in Brillouin gain. Lastly, reported here is a straight-forward and flexible method to fabricate silica optical fibers of circular cladding cross-section and rectilinear cores whose aspect ratio and refractive index profile changes with position along the fiber in a deterministic way. Specifically, a modification to the process developed to produce longitudinally-graded optical fibers, was employed. Herein reported are MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers with rectangular cores where the aspect ratio changes by nearly 200 % and the average refractive index changed by about 5 %. Fiber losses were measured to be about 50 dB/km. Such rectangular core fibers are useful for a variety of telecommunication and biomedical applications and the dimensional and optical chirp provides a deterministic way to control further the modal properties of the fiber. Possible applications of longitudinally graded optical fibers and future improvements are also discussed. The methods employed are very straight-forward and technically simple, providing for a wide variety of longitudinal refractive index and acoustic velocity profiles, as well as core shapes, that could be especially valuable for SBS suppression in high energy laser systems. Next generation analogs, with longitudinally-graded compositional profiles that are very reasonable to fabricate, are shown computationally to be more effective at suppressing SBS than present alternatives, such as externally-applied temperature or strain gradients.

Evert, Alexander George

361

FIBERBOARD MANUFACTURED WITHOUT RESIN USING THE FENTON REACTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Resin-free fiberboards were manufactured using industrial fiber from Pinus radiata activated by an oxidative treatment using the Fenton reaction (H(2)0(2)/ Fe(II)). A multivariate analysis was used to study the effect of fiber moisture content (MC), press temperature (T), and the H(2)0(2)/Fe(II) rat [...] io on the board internal bond strength (IB). Using response surface methodology, a set of máximum IB conditions was obtained. Validation of these conditions which included 25% MC, 170°C press temperature and a H(2)0(2)/Fe(II) relation of 25 produced an optimal board with an IB strength of 0.888 MPa. Without the addition of sizing agents or other additives, the dimensional stability properties were 16% of thickness swell and 40% of the water absorption of control boards.

JUAN, RIQUELME-VALDÉS; ESTEBAN, RAMÍREZ; DAVID, CONTRERAS; JUANITA, FREER; JAIME, RODRÍGUEZ.

1722-17-01

362

Manufacturing Complicated Shells And Liners  

Science.gov (United States)

Explosive forming, wax filling, and any one of welding, diffusion bonding, or brazing used in method of manufacturing large, complicated shell-and-liner vessels or structures. Method conceived for manufacture of film-cooled rocket nozzles but applicable to joining large coaxial shells and liners in general.

Sobol, Paul J.; Faucher, Joseph E.

1993-01-01

363

Guitar Design and Manufacture Workbook  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource from the Guitarbuilding.org project is a comprehensive workbook on the design and manufacture of guitars. In addition to the obvious ties to general manufacturing concepts, the material will incorporate science, math, electronics and technology into your curriculum. This workbook includes a number of learning activities and exercises. Useful appendices are also provided.

364

Hazard Assessments of Manufactured Nanomaterials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: It has been difficult to make reliable hazard assessments of manufactured nanomaterials, because the nanomaterials form large agglomerations in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Objective: A project by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of Japan has succeeded in ensuring the stability of dispersion (nanoscale NEDO project, and also assess the hazards presented by manufactured nanoparticles. PMID:20543525

Morimoto, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Shinohara, Naohido; Myojo, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Isamu; Nakanishi, Junko

2010-06-10

365

Characteristics of wood-fiber plastic composites made of recycled materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the feasibility of using recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE), polypropylene (rPP) and old newspaper (rONP) fiber to manufacture experimental composite panels. The panels were made through air-forming and hot press. The effects of the fiber and coupling agent concentration on tensile, flexural, internal bond properties and water absorption and thickness swelling of wood-fiber plastic composites were studied. The use of maleated polypropylene as coupling agent improved the compatibility between the fiber and both plastic matrices and mechanical properties of the resultant composites compared well with those of non-coupled ones. Based on the findings in this work, it appears that recycled materials can be used to manufacture value-added panels without having any significant adverse influence on board properties. It was also found that composites with rHDPE provided moderately superior properties, compared with rPP samples. PMID:19168343

Ashori, Alireza; Nourbakhsh, Amir

2009-04-01

366

MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARD (MDF MANUFACTURING FROM WHEAT STRAW (Triticum aestivum L. AND STRAW WOOD MIXTURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study wheat straw was taken from Ankara province. In order to produce dry process MDF, urea formaldehyde resin was used at the ratio of 8 %, 10 % and 12 %, 1 % ammonium chloride was used as hardening agent on the basis of dry fiber weight. On the other hand, 5, 6 and 7 min. pressing times were applied. Alcohol benzene, cold water, hot water and 1 % NaOH solubility of wheat straw were 5.15 %, 7.31 %, 9.84 % and 40.79 % respectively. In addition, holocellulose, cellulose, lignin and ash contents were found as 74.79 %, 52.67 %, 20.17% and 4.21 % respectively. Optimum fiber morphology values were as follow; fiber length 1.2-1.5 mm, fiber width 12-16 µm, lumen diameter 4-6 µm and double wall thickness 7.5 -11.5 µm Optimum fiber production conditions for MDF manufacturing were as follows; Vapor pressure : 10.5 atm, steaming time : 4 minutes, defibration time : 2 minutes. 0.700 g/cm 3 , 0.800 g/cm 3 density straw MDF boards and 0.800 g/cm 3 density wood fiber MDF boards were manufactured. On the other hand, 0.800 g/cm 3 straw-wood fiber mixture MDF boards were produced at the rates of 70% -30%, 50%-50% and 30%-70%. Modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE, internal bonding (IB, thickness swelling and water absorption of the boards were measured. After the evaluations of the results obtained, optimum straw MDF boards manufacturing conditions were as follows; Adhesive ratio : 12 %, pressing time : 6 minutes, press temperature : 150 °C, pressure : 200-220 kp/cm 2 , hardening agent : 1 % and straw - wood ratio 50 %- 50 %.

Hüdaverdi ERO?LU

2001-02-01

367

Static and dynamic mechanical properties of alkali treated unidirectional continuous Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fiber/jute fiber reinforced hybrid polyester composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • New type of hybrid composite with Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fibers (PPLSF) and jute. • Composites fabricated with continuous, unidirectional fibers. • Alkali treatment and hybridizing jute imparted good static and dynamic properties. • Properties are comparable with well know natural/glass fiber composites. • New hybrid composite can be an alternative in place of synthetic fiber composites. - Abstract: Alkali treated continuous Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fiber (PPLSF) and jute fibers were used as reinforcement in unsaturated polyester matrix and their static and dynamic mechanical properties were evaluated. Continuous PPLSF and jute fibers were aligned unidirectionally in bi-layer arrangement and the hybrid composites were fabricated by compression molding process. Positive hybrid effect was observed for the composites due to hybridization. Increasing jute fiber loading showed a considerable increase in tensile and flexural properties of the hybrid composites as compared to treated PPLSF composites. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) of the fractured surfaces showed the nature of fiber/matrix interface. The impact strength of the hybrid composites were observed to be less compared to pure PPLSF composites. Addition of jute fibers to PPLSF and alkali treatment of the fibers has enhanced the storage and loss modulus of the hybrid composites. A positive shift of Tan ? peaks to higher temperature and reduction in the peak height of the composites was also observed. The composites with higher jute loading showed maximum damping behavior. Overall the hybridization was found to be efficient showing increased static and dynamic mechanical properties. A comparative study of properties of this hybrid composite with other hybrids made out of using natural/glass fibers is elaborated. Hybridization of alkali treated jute and PPLSF has resulted in enhanced properties which are comparable with other natural/glass fiber composites thus increasing the scope of application in manufacturing of light weight automotive parts

368

Collaborative Network Learning in Manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the antecedents of collaborative networked learning (CNL, to develop an integrative CNL framework and to bridge the gap between theory and praxis in manufacturing. It provides a holistic perspective of CNL within the complexity of the manufacturing environment, including empirical investigation using survey questionnaires. The findings and discussions draw upon socio-technical systems (STS theory, and present the theoretical context and interpretations through the lens of manufacturing employees. Results of the study show the existence of significant positive influences of organizational support, promotive interactions, positive interdependence, internal-external learning, perceived effectiveness and perceived usefulness of CNL among manufacturing employees. The study offers a basis for empirical validity for measuring CNL in organizational learning, knowledge and information sharing in manufacturing.

Wee Hock Quik

2014-12-01

369

Fiber optic hydrogen sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

1991-01-01

370

Virtual Manufacturing Techniques Designed and Applied to Manufacturing Activities in the Manufacturing Integration and Technology Branch  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the identified goals of EM3 is to implement virtual manufacturing by the time the year 2000 has ended. To realize this goal of a true virtual manufacturing enterprise the initial development of a machinability database and the infrastructure must be completed. This will consist of the containment of the existing EM-NET problems and developing machine, tooling, and common materials databases. To integrate the virtual manufacturing enterprise with normal day to day operations the development of a parallel virtual manufacturing machinability database, virtual manufacturing database, virtual manufacturing paradigm, implementation/integration procedure, and testable verification models must be constructed. Common and virtual machinability databases will include the four distinct areas of machine tools, available tooling, common machine tool loads, and a materials database. The machine tools database will include the machine envelope, special machine attachments, tooling capacity, location within NASA-JSC or with a contractor, and availability/scheduling. The tooling database will include available standard tooling, custom in-house tooling, tool properties, and availability. The common materials database will include materials thickness ranges, strengths, types, and their availability. The virtual manufacturing databases will consist of virtual machines and virtual tooling directly related to the common and machinability databases. The items to be completed are the design and construction of the machinability databases, virtual manufacturing paradigm for NASA-JSC, implementation timeline, VNC model of one bridge mill and troubleshoot existing software and hardware problems with EN4NET. The final step of this virtual manufacturing project will be to integrate other production sites into the databases bringing JSC's EM3 into a position of becoming a clearing house for NASA's digital manufacturing needs creating a true virtual manufacturing enterprise.

Shearrow, Charles A.

1999-01-01

371

Developing Gradient Metal Alloys through Radial Deposition Additive Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has dramatically expanded in the last several years, owing to the paradigm shift that the process provides over conventional manufacturing. Although the vast majority of recent work in AM has focused on three-dimensional printing in polymers, AM techniques for fabricating metal alloys have been available for more than a decade. Here, laser deposition (LD) is used to fabricate multifunctional metal alloys that have a strategically graded composition to alter their mechanical and physical properties. Using the technique in combination with rotational deposition enables fabrication of compositional gradients radially from the center of a sample. A roadmap for developing gradient alloys is presented that uses multi-component phase diagrams as maps for composition selection so as to avoid unwanted phases. Practical applications for the new technology are demonstrated in low-coefficient of thermal expansion radially graded metal inserts for carbon-fiber spacecraft panels.

Hofmann, Douglas C.; Roberts, Scott; Otis, Richard; Kolodziejska, Joanna; Dillon, R. Peter; Suh, Jong-Ook; Shapiro, Andrew A.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Borgonia, John-Paul

2014-06-01

372

Kinetics of stress fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Stress fibers are contractile cytoskeletal structures, tensile actomyosin bundles which allow sensing and production of force, provide cells with adjustable rigidity and participate in various processes such as wound healing. The stress fiber is possibly the best characterized and most accessible multiprotein cellular contractile machine. Here we develop a quantitative model of the structure and relaxation kinetics of stress fibers. The principal experimentally known features are incorporated. The fiber has a periodic sarcomeric structure similar to muscle fibers with myosin motor proteins exerting contractile force by pulling on actin filaments. In addition the fiber contains the giant spring-like protein titin. Actin is continuously renewed by exchange with the cytosol leading to a turnover time of several minutes. In order that steady state be possible, turnover must be regulated. Our model invokes simple turnover and regulation mechanisms: actin association and dissociation occur at filament ends, while actin filament overlap above a certain threshold in the myosin-containing regions augments depolymerization rates. We use the model to study stress fiber relaxation kinetics after stimulation, as observed in a recent experimental study where some fiber regions were contractile and others expansive. We find that two distinct episodes ensue after stimulation: the turnover overlap system relaxes rapidly in seconds, followed by the slow relaxation of sarcomere lengths in minutes. For parameter values as they have been characterized experimentally, we find the long time relaxation of sarcomere length is set by the rate at which actin filaments can grow or shrink in response to the forces exerted by the elastic and contractile elements. Consequently, the stress fiber relaxation time scales inversely with both titin spring constant and the intrinsic actin turnover rate. The model's predicted sarcomere velocities and contraction expansion kinetics are in good quantitative agreement with experiment.

Stachowiak, Matthew R.; O'Shaughnessy, Ben

2008-02-01

373

Kinetics of stress fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stress fibers are contractile cytoskeletal structures, tensile actomyosin bundles which allow sensing and production of force, provide cells with adjustable rigidity and participate in various processes such as wound healing. The stress fiber is possibly the best characterized and most accessible multiprotein cellular contractile machine. Here we develop a quantitative model of the structure and relaxation kinetics of stress fibers. The principal experimentally known features are incorporated. The fiber has a periodic sarcomeric structure similar to muscle fibers with myosin motor proteins exerting contractile force by pulling on actin filaments. In addition the fiber contains the giant spring-like protein titin. Actin is continuously renewed by exchange with the cytosol leading to a turnover time of several minutes. In order that steady state be possible, turnover must be regulated. Our model invokes simple turnover and regulation mechanisms: actin association and dissociation occur at filament ends, while actin filament overlap above a certain threshold in the myosin-containing regions augments depolymerization rates. We use the model to study stress fiber relaxation kinetics after stimulation, as observed in a recent experimental study where some fiber regions were contractile and others expansive. We find that two distinct episodes ensue after stimulation: the turnover-overlap system relaxes rapidly in seconds, followed by the slow relaxation of sarcomere lengths in minutes. For parameter values as they have been characterized experimentally, we find the long time relaxation of sarcomere length is set by the rate at which actin filaments can grow or shrink in response to the forces exerted by the elastic and contractile elements. Consequently, the stress fiber relaxation time scales inversely with both titin spring constant and the intrinsic actin turnover rate. The model's predicted sarcomere velocities and contraction-expansion kinetics are in good quantitative agreement with experiment.

Stachowiak, Matthew R; O' Shaughnessy, Ben [Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)], E-mail: bo8@columbia.edu

2008-02-15

374

Kinetics of stress fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stress fibers are contractile cytoskeletal structures, tensile actomyosin bundles which allow sensing and production of force, provide cells with adjustable rigidity and participate in various processes such as wound healing. The stress fiber is possibly the best characterized and most accessible multiprotein cellular contractile machine. Here we develop a quantitative model of the structure and relaxation kinetics of stress fibers. The principal experimentally known features are incorporated. The fiber has a periodic sarcomeric structure similar to muscle fibers with myosin motor proteins exerting contractile force by pulling on actin filaments. In addition the fiber contains the giant spring-like protein titin. Actin is continuously renewed by exchange with the cytosol leading to a turnover time of several minutes. In order that steady state be possible, turnover must be regulated. Our model invokes simple turnover and regulation mechanisms: actin association and dissociation occur at filament ends, while actin filament overlap above a certain threshold in the myosin-containing regions augments depolymerization rates. We use the model to study stress fiber relaxation kinetics after stimulation, as observed in a recent experimental study where some fiber regions were contractile and others expansive. We find that two distinct episodes ensue after stimulation: the turnover-overlap system relaxes rapidly in seconds, followed by the slow relaxation of sarcomere lengths the slow relaxation of sarcomere lengths in minutes. For parameter values as they have been characterized experimentally, we find the long time relaxation of sarcomere length is set by the rate at which actin filaments can grow or shrink in response to the forces exerted by the elastic and contractile elements. Consequently, the stress fiber relaxation time scales inversely with both titin spring constant and the intrinsic actin turnover rate. The model's predicted sarcomere velocities and contraction-expansion kinetics are in good quantitative agreement with experiment

375

THEORETICAL ESTIMATION OF FIBER DISTRIBUTION IN FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETES  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement. Theory of fiber reinforcement of concrete materials calls for the construction of appropriate mathematical models. The article describes the mathematical basis for calculating the density of intersections of reinforcing fibers in cross section of fiber concrete element as well as average cross sectional area of fibers.Results and conclusions. The problems of geometric probability are taken as the basis for con-struction of the model of reinforcing fiber distribution in conc...

Tkachenko, A. N.; Nikolenko, S. D.; Fedulov, D. V.

2011-01-01

376

Micromechanical modeling of the progressive failure in short glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastics  

OpenAIRE

Thermoplastics reinforced with short glass fibers are increasingly used in many industrial applications due to their attractive mechanical properties, rapid processing and relatively low manufacturing cost. Injection molding is a widely used process for the production of reinforced parts with complex shapes. However, the concentration and the orientation of the fibers vary from one point to the other. This induces a strong heterogeneity throughout the material, making the prediction of its be...

Kammoun, Slim

2011-01-01

377

Jute fiber reinforced polypropylene produced by continuous extrusion compounding. Part 1. Processing and ageing properties  

OpenAIRE

This article addresses the processing and ageing properties of jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. The composite has been manufactured by a continuous extrusion process and results in free flowing composite granules, comprising up to 50 weight percent (wt %) jute fiber in PP. These granules have similar shape and diameter as commercially available PP granules. Rheological analysis shows that viscosity of the compounds follows the same shear rate dependency as PP and is on the...

Oever, M. J. A.; Snijder, M. H. B.

2008-01-01

378

Characterization of Limulus amoebocyte lysate-reactive material from hollow-fiber dialyzers.  

OpenAIRE

Hollow-fiber hemodialyzers containing cellulose-based membranes have been shown to produce positive results with the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test. This study was undertaken to determine whether endotoxin was causing the reaction. Rinses from 45 parallel-plate and hollow-fiber dialyzers from eight different manufacturers were tested before and after treatment with cellulase, using three lysates and four Limulus amoebocyte lysate methods. In addition, four in vitro cellular methods--human leu...

Pearson, F. C.; Bohon, J.; Lee, W.; Bruszer, G.; Sagona, M.; Jakubowski, G.; Dawe, R.; Morrison, D.; Dinarello, C.

1984-01-01

379

Fluid-fiber-interactions in rotational spinning process of glass wool production  

OpenAIRE

The optimal design of rotational production processes for glass wool manufacturing poses severe computational challenges to mathematicians, natural scientists and engineers. In this paper we focus exclusively on the spinning regime where thousands of viscous thermal glass jets are formed by fast air streams. Homogeneity and slenderness of the spun fibers are the quality features of the final fabric. Their prediction requires the computation of the fluid-fiber-interactions which involves the s...

Arne, W.; Marheineke, N.; Schnebele, J.; Wegener, R.

2010-01-01

380

FOA Lecture 3: Optical Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

This is Lecture 3 in the FOA Series on fiber optics. This lecture covers optical fiber, how it works, the types of fiber, fiber specifications, and how it is made. Running time for the lecture is 10:39. Flash is required to view the video.

381

Reduced Gravity Zblan Optical Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

Two optical fiber pullers have been designed for pulling ZBLAN optical fiber in reduced gravity. One fiber puller was designed, built and flown on board NASA's KC135 reduced gravity aircraft. A second fiber puller has been designed for use on board the International Space Station.

Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

2000-01-01

382

Random Fiber Laser  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the effects of two dimensional confinement on the lasing properties of a classical random laser system operating in the incoherent feedback (diffusive) regime. A suspension of 250nm rutile (TiO2) particles in a Rhodamine 6G solution was inserted into the hollow core of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) generating the first random fiber laser and a novel quasi-one-dimensional RL geometry. Comparison with similar systems in bulk format shows that the random fiber laser presents an efficiency that is at least two orders of magnitude higher.

de Matos, Christiano J S; Brito-Silva, Antônio M; Gámez, M A Martinez; Gomes, Anderson S L; de Araújo, Cid B

2007-01-01

383

Fiber Optic Cables  

Science.gov (United States)

This brief interactive activity, by the Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty, is an easy-to-use introduction to fiber optic cables and their uses. Students are able to reveal each section at their leisure as they click through the helpful illustrations and animations on fiber optic cable components, LEDâ??s, multi-mode and single-mode cables, and cable connectors. Three review questions wrap up the slide show to test knowledge gained. This would be a great resource for teachers to help introduce the topic to students, or for students to have a comprehensive overview of fiber optic cables.

Bartelt, Terry L. M.

384

Random fiber laser.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the effects of two-dimensional confinement on the lasing properties of a classical random laser system operating in the incoherent feedback (diffusive) regime. A suspension of 250 nm rutile (TiO2) particles in a rhodamine 6G solution was inserted into the hollow core of a photonic crystal fiber generating the first random fiber laser and a novel quasi-one-dimensional random laser geometry. A comparison with similar systems in bulk format shows that the random fiber laser presents an efficiency that is at least 2 orders of magnitude higher. PMID:17995168

de Matos, Christiano J S; de S Menezes, Leonardo; Brito-Silva, Antônio M; Martinez Gámez, M A; Gomes, Anderson S L; de Araújo, Cid B

2007-10-12

385

Nuclear fuel manufacturing device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To prevent the deposition of UO2 powder to the oxidizing and exhausting systems of UO2 prepared in a reducing furnace. Constitution: In a conduit for introducing nuclear fuels discharged from a reducing furnace to a capturing vessel, an inert gas or gaseous carbon dioxide is supplied in the same direction as that of the flow of the nuclear fuels and exhaust gases from the capturing vessel are discharged by way of a scrubber to an exhaust system. Specifically, when the UO2 powder manufactured in the reducing furnace is captured in a capturing vessel through a conduit by way of a spontaneous falling system, it is cooled by the inert gas or carbonic gas supplied and prevented from oxidation. Further, gases flowing in the capturing vessel enter by way of a hose to a lower chamber of a scrubber and removed with fine UO2 particles contained in the gases through the mesh layer and by the spray water jetted out from the spray nozzle in the course of uprising in the scrubber. The gases passed through the mesh layer further pass through a filter layer to be removed with fine UO2 that can not be eliminated through the mesh layer. (Ikeda, J.)

386

Manufacturing methods for canisters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study is focused upon the manufacturing of a large copper canister meant for encapsulation of nuclear waste. Tube making processes for high and low quantity production are reviewed as a background to the problem. 'Three-roll forming' is considered to be a possible method for forming the tube (longitudinal weld) of the canister. The strip material for the bending operation is produced by hot rolling. A rolling schedule is presented. The requirements of a fine grained microstructure of the copper material, free from voids is taken into serious account. The schedule is scrutinized with respect to roll contact pressures, force requirements and stress states in the centre of the workpiece, all of them gradually changing from one pass to another. 'Non-bite' rolling, is described as a method for improving the stress states. As an alternative way for making the tube, 'ring-forging' and 'ring-rolling' are discussed. The idea is to build the long tube by means of a series of rings which are joint by welding (circumferential welds). 'Impact extrusion', as a method for forming the bottom of the canister is analyzed by means of a commercial FEM-program. 9 refs, 32 figs

387

Intelligent modelling in manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Modeling of production systems is very important and makes optimization of complicated relation in production system possible. The purpose of this paper is introducing artificial techniques, like Genetic Algorithms in modeling and optimization of job shop scheduling in production environment and in programming of CNC machine tools.Design/methodology/approach: Conventional methods are not suitable for solving such complicated problems. Therefore Artificial Intelligent method was used. We apply Genetic Algorithm method. Genetic Algorithms are computation methods owing their power in particular to autonomous mechanisms in biological evolution, such as selection, “survival of the fittest” (competition, and recombination.Findings: In example solutions are developed for an optimization problem of job shop scheduling by natural selection. Thus no explicit knowledge was required about how to create a good solution: the evolutionary algorithm itself implicitly builds up knowledge about good solutions, and autonomously absorbs knowledge. CNC machining time was significant shorter by using GA method for NC programming.Research limitations/implications: The system was developed for PC and tested in simulation process. It needs to be tested more in detail in the real manufacturing environment.Practical implications: It is suitable for small and medium-sized companies. Human errors are avoid or at lover level. It is important for engineers in job – shops.Originality/value: The present paper is a contribution to more intelligent systems in production environment. It used genetic based methods to solve engineering problem.

J. Balic

2007-09-01

388

Cesium removal in freshwater using potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate-impregnated fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate compounds (KCo-HCFe's) were impregnated onto a 6-nylon fiber by radiation-induced graft polymerization and subsequent chemical modifications. First, dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate was graft-polymerized onto the nylon fiber. Second, hexacyanoferrate ions were bound to graft chains via an anion-exchange interaction. Third, KCo-HCFe's were formed on the nylon fiber via the precipitation reaction of hexacyanoferrate ions with cobalt ions in the presence of potassium chloride. The resulting KCo-HCFe-impregnated fiber had an impregnation percentage of the fiber for KCo-HCFe's of 7%. The cesium concentration in 10 ppm cesium chloride solution with the immersion of this fiber decreased to 0.6 ppm within 60 min at a ratio of liquid volume (10 mL) to fiber mass (0.1 g). The fiber was fabricated into a braid with a length of 100 cm and a diameter of 8 cm for practical use at sites contaminated with cesium. - Highlights: • Dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate was grafted onto a 6-nylon fiber. • Potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate compounds were precipitated onto the grafted fibers. • With increasing KCl concentration, the rate of cesium removal from cesium chloride solution increased. • To achieve the practical use, we established the manufacturing equipment on a scale of 100 kg

389

Study of Maleic Anhydride Grafted Polypropylene Effect on Resin Impregnated Bamboo Fiber Polypropylene Composit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previously, Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA and phenolic resin were used for resin impregnated bamboo fiber reinforced PP composites which was manufactures for resin impregnated bamboo fiber with polypropylene (PP. Resin impregnation method can show improvement on tensile strength of fiber. However, to reduce the contact surface area and low inter-facial shear strength (IFSS between impregnated resin and matrix, using 40% weight fraction of bamboo fiber in PP matrix, PVA impregnated composites with mean flexural and tensile strength 10% higher than untreated composites were produced butphenolic resin impregnated fiber reinforced composition’s mechanical properties were decreased. In this study maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP was used to increase interfacial shear strength between resin impregnated fiber and PP. With 10% MAPP, IFSS between resin impregnated fiber and PP increased more than 100% and reinforced composites. MAPP with untreated, phenolic resin and PVA impregnated cases showed similar mechanical properties. Yet in water absorption test, the PVA treatment with bamboo/PP composites increased water absorption ratio. But with 10% MAPP, matrix PP water absorption ratio decreased like phenolic resin impregnated fiber reinforced composites. 10% MAPP with resin impregnated bamboo fiber reinforced PP composites can improve IFSS, mechanical properties of composite and can decrease water absorption PVA resin impregnated bamboo fiber reinforced composites.

Gibeop Nam

2014-11-01

390

Fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to develop the radiation sensor, which is composed of a scintillator, an optical fiber bundle and a light measuring device to detect the tritium in real-time. In this study, we have fabricated fiber-optic radiation sensors using inorganic scintillators and plastic optical fiber bundles. Each scintillator interacts with electron or beta ray and generates 455-550 nm wavelength of scintillation photons. An optical fiber bundle is usually made of plastic or glass, which is used to guide the light signal from a scintillating probe to light measuring device. For the purpose of selecting the best scintillator with a high efficiency, fiber-optic sensors manufactured using three kinds of inorganic scintillator such as Gd2O2S:Tb, Y3Al5O12:Ce and CsI:Tl, and they are tested with a metal hydride type of tritium source. In addition, the scintillation photons are measured as a function of distance between a fiber-optic sensor and source. Finally, we have measured the amounts of scintillation photon with different activities of tritium source and compared the measured results with those obtained using a surface activity monitor.

391

Mode profiling of optical fibers at high laser powers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes the development of a measuring equipment capable of analysing the beam profile at high optical powers emitted by delivery fibers used in manufacturing processes. Together with the optical delivery system, the output beam quality from the delivery fiber and the shape of the focused spot can be determined. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating wire being swept though the laser beam, while the reflected signal is recorded [1]. By changing the incident angle of the rotating rod from 0° to 360° in relation to the fiber, the full profile of the laser beam is obtained. Choosing a highly reflective rod material and a sufficiently high rotation speed, these measurements can be done with high laser powers, without any additional optical elements between the fiber and analyzer. The performance of the analyzer was evaluated by coupling laser light into different fibers, and measuring the output beam profiles. Fibers with different core diameters and different surface qualities were tested.

Nielsen, Peter CarØe; Pedersen, David Bue

2008-01-01

392

SOLVING THE PROBLEMS OF RECYCLED FIBER PROCESSING WITH ENZYMES  

OpenAIRE

The pulp and paper industry has started applying new, ecologically sound technology (biotechnology) in its manufacturing processes. Many interesting enzymatic applications have been proposed. Implemented technologies tend to change the existing industrial process as little as possible. Enzymes have great potentials in solving many problems associated with the use of recycled fiber, especially related to deinking, drainability, hornification, refining, and stickies. Based on the promising resu...

Bajpai, Pramod K.

2010-01-01

393

Fiber bundle phase conjugate mirror  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved method and apparatus for passively conjugating the phases of a distorted wavefronts resulting from optical phase mismatch between elements of a fiber laser array are disclosed. A method for passively conjugating a distorted wavefront comprises the steps of: multiplexing a plurality of probe fibers and a bundle pump fiber in a fiber bundle array; passing the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle array through a collimating lens and into one portion of a non-linear medium; passing the output from a pump collection fiber through a focusing lens and into another portion of the non-linear medium so that the output from the pump collection fiber mixes with the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle; adjusting one or more degrees of freedom of one or more of the fiber bundle array, the collimating lens, the focusing lens, the non-linear medium, or the pump collection fiber to produce a standing wave in the non-linear medium.

Ward, Benjamin G.

2012-05-01

394

Process simulations for manufacturing of thick composites  

Science.gov (United States)

The availability of manufacturing simulations for composites can significantly reduce the costs associated with process development. Simulations provide a tool for evaluating the effect of processing conditions on the quality of parts produced without requiring numerous experiments. This is especially significant in parts that have troublesome features such as large thickness. The development of simulations for thick walled composites has been approached by examining the mechanics of resin flow and fiber deformation during processing, applying these evaluations to develop simulations, and evaluating the simulation with experimental results. A unified analysis is developed to describe the three-dimensional resin flow and fiber preform deformation during processing regardless of the manufacturing process used. It is shown how the generic governing evaluations in the unified analysis can be applied to autoclave molding, compression molding, pultrusion, filament winding, and resin transfer molding. A comparison is provided with earlier models derived individually for these processes. The evaluations described for autoclave curing were used to produce a one-dimensional cure simulation for autoclave curing of thick composites. The simulation consists of an analysis for heat transfer and resin flow in the composite as well as bleeder plies used to absorb resin removed from the part. Experiments were performed in a hot press to approximate curing in an autoclave. Graphite/epoxy laminates of 3 cm and 5 cm thickness were cured while monitoring temperatures at several points inside the laminate and thickness. The simulation predicted temperatures fairly closely, but difficulties were encountered in correlation of thickness results. This simulation was also used to study the effects of prepreg aging on processing of thick composites. An investigation was also performed on filament winding with prepreg tow. Cylinders were wound of approximately 12 mm thickness with pressure gages at the mandrel-composite interface. Cylinders were hoop wound with tensions ranging from 13-34 N. An analytical model was developed to calculate change in stress due to relaxation during winding. Although compressive circumferential stresses occurred throughout each of the cylinders, the magnitude was fairly low.

Kempner, Evan A.

395

Fiber-optically sensorized composite wing  

Science.gov (United States)

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and light-weight, fiber-optic sensor based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) will find increasing application in aerospace structures ranging from aircraft wings to jet engine vanes. Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) has been developing multi-functional fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor systems including parallel processing FBG interrogators combined with advanced signal processing for SHM, structural state sensing and load monitoring applications. This paper reports work with Auburn University on embedding and testing FBG sensor arrays in a quarter scale model of a T38 composite wing. The wing was designed and manufactured using fabric reinforced polymer matrix composites. FBG sensors were embedded under the top layer of the composite. Their positions were chosen based on strain maps determined by finite element analysis. Static and dynamic testing confirmed expected response from the FBGs. The demonstrated technology has the potential to be further developed into an autonomous onboard system to perform load monitoring, SHM and Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of composite aerospace structures (wings and rotorcraft blades). This platform technology could also be applied to flight testing of morphing and aero-elastic control surfaces.

Costa, Joannes M.; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Oblea, Levy; Patel, Rona; Sotoudeh, Vahid; Abouzeida, Essam; Quinones, Vladimir; Gowayed, Yasser; Soobramaney, Paul; Flowers, George

2014-04-01

396

Processing and microstructures of fiber bragg grating sensors embedded in stainless steel  

Science.gov (United States)

The benefit of layered manufacturing is the ability to create physical parts with little or no restriction from shape complexity. Using a laser-assisted shape deposition manufacturing (LASDM) methodology, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were embedded into stainless steel structures. The embedding sequence included sputtering a thin metallic film as a conductive layer on the silica fiber, electroplating the fibers with a Ni protective layer, and then laser cladding with stainless steel. Microstructural studies of each layer and interface were conducted. The grain size of electroplated nickel was approximately 150 nm before laser cladding. The electroplated nickel recrystallized during and after the laser cladding. The nickel grain size gradually increased from very fine (˜1 - to 10- µm diameter) in the immediate layer surrounding the optical fibers to approximately 200 µm near the interface with the laser-deposited stainless steel. The deposited stainless steel appeared as a coarse dendritic structure with a grain size larger than 100 µm. The Ni/fiber interface shows full contact between the silica fibers and the Ni matrix of adequate thickness before and after laser cladding. Microstructural studies were used to conclude that the degradation of the embedded sensors is due to thermally induced stress from laser deposition if a thinner Ni layer is used. Strain and temperature measurements were successfully performed using the embedded FBG sensor, thus demonstrating the viability of this manufacturing technique.

Li, Xiaochun; Johnson, Jill; Groza, Joanna; Prinz, Fritz

2002-09-01

397

Fiber alignment apparatus and method  

Science.gov (United States)

A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Warren, Mial Evans (Albuquerque, NM); Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe (Albuquerque, NM); Word, V., James Cole (Albuqueruqe, NM)

1997-01-01

398

Radiation Damage of Quartz Fibers  

CERN Document Server

Quartz fibers are used in high energy physics experiments as the active medium in high radiation area calorimetry. Quartz fibers are also used in the transmission of optical signals. Even though quartz does not damage by moderate amounts of irradiation, the clad of the fibers and the protective coating ( buffer) do damage reducing light transmission. Various types of quartz fibers have been irradiated and measured for light transmission. The most radiation hard quartz fibers are those with quartz clad and aluminum buffer.

Hagopian, V

1999-01-01

399

Neuroanatomic Fiber Orientation Maps (FOMs)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new neuroanatomic method is described which allows to map the orientation of central nervous fibers in gross histological sections. Polarised light is used to calculate the angle of inclination and direction of the fibers in each pixel. Serial fiber orientation maps (FOMs) can be aligned and 3D reconstructed. This volume allows to identify and segment the major fiber tracts. The feasible goal is a human central nervous fiber atlas.

Axer, Hubertus; Jantzen, Jan

2002-01-01

400

Dry sliding wear behaviour of Cu based composite materials reinforced with alumina fibers  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: Parameters for new manufacturing route of Cu casting reinforced with alumina fibers were elaborated. There was observed improvement of hardness and wear properties of composite materials comparing to the unreinforced copper and this indicates for the proper applied process parameters.Design/methodology/approach: Manufacturing of composite materials involves two stages, preparation of porous preforms and next their infiltration with molten Cu. Preforms exhibits semioriented arrangemen...

Naplocha, K.; Granat, K.; Kaczmar, J. W.

2013-01-01

401

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products FDA Video - Kids 'n Fiber FDA Home FDA Video Food - ... foods. [vpfood] Run Time: 1:46 Share this Video Search Videos Editor's Choice Fresh and Frozen Seafood: ...

402

Fiber optic gas sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

403

Fiber optics standard dictionary  

CERN Document Server

Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

Weik, Martin H

1997-01-01

404

Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb (electromagnetic) and Cu (hadron) absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters, for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles (1 degree--7 degree). The 7 ? deep hadron tower contained 2.8% by volume 1.5 mm diameter core clear plastic fibers. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.8% and 7.2% of 1 mm diameter core quartz fibers as the active Cerenkov sampling medium. The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response, pulse shapes and angular studies are presented

405

Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters  

Science.gov (United States)

Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb (electromagnetic) and Cu (hadron) absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters, for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles(1 deg -7 deg). The 7 lambda deep hadron tower contained 2.8% by volume 1.5 mm diameter core clear plastic fibers. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.8% and 7.2% of 1 mm diameter core quartz fibers as the active Cerenkov sampling medium. The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response, pulse shapes and angular studies are presented

Arrington, K.; Kefford, D.; Kennedy, J.; Pisani, R.; Sanzeni, C.; Segall, K.; Wall, D.; Winn, D. R.; Carey, R.; Dye, S.

1994-08-01

406

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Most Popular Searches Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Kids 'n Fiber Run Time: 01:46 Food Safety during Power Run Time: 02:46 Recently Added ...

407

Fiber based optofluidic biosensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal diagnosis requires the development of innovative devices allowing the detection of small amounts of biological species. Among the large variety of available biosensors, the ones based on fluorescence phenomenon are really promising. Here, we show a prototype of the basic unit of a multi-sensing biosensor combining optics and microfluidics benefits. This unit makes use of two crossed optical fibers: the first fiber is used to carry small probe molecules droplets and excite fluorescence, while the second one is devoted to target molecules droplets transport and fluorescence detection. Within this scheme, the interaction takes place in each fiber node. The main benefits of this detection setup are the absence of fibers functionalization, the use of microliter volumes of target and probe species, their separation before interaction, and a better detection limit compared to cuvettes setups.

Lismont, M.; Vandewalle, N.; Joris, B.; Dreesen, L.

2014-09-01

408

Evaluation of exposure to the airborne asbestos in an automobile brake and clutch manufacturing industry in Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

About 2000 tons of chrysotile is used annually to produce friction materials in Islamic Republic of Iran. Approximately, 3000 workers are exposed to the asbestos fibers in the different processes of brake and clutch manufacturing. In the current study, asbestos fiber concentrations during brake and clutch manufacture were measured. This study also evaluated the fiber size and morphology distribution according to the Asbestos International Association (AIA) for standardization analytical method for asbestos. The airborne asbestos fiber concentrations and its chemical composition of 92 personal samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX). Personal monitoring of fiber levels demonstrated counts that ranged from 0.31 to 1.3 PCM f/ml (15.5-51.5 SEM f/ml). Geometric means of the asbestos concentrations were 1.3 PCM f/ml (51.5 SEM f/ml) and 0.86 PCM f/ml (42.1 SEM f/ml) according to the brake weighting and mixing and clutch mixing process, respectively. The geometrical mean concentrations were 0.63 PCM f/ml (31 SEM f/ml), which is considerably higher than threshold limit value (TLV) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) which is 0.1f/ml. The SEM data demonstrate that the fibrous particles consisted, approximately, of chrysotile (50%), tremolite (30%), and actinolite (20%). Based on these findings, the 50% of airborne fibers inhaled by the workers were amphiboles asbestos with fibers equal and greater than 5 microm in length and 0.2 microm in diameter, and thus not included in the PCM-based fiber counts. Therefore, it might be expected that workers who worked in the brake and clutch manufacture will suffer from negative health effects of exposing to the amphibole asbestos fibers. PMID:19818821

Kakooei, Hossein; Marioryad, Hossein

2010-03-01

409

Free radical activity of industrial fibers: role of iron in oxidative stress and activation of transcription factors.  

OpenAIRE

We studied asbestos, vitreous fiber (MMVF10), and refractory ceramic fiber (RCF1) from the Thermal Insulation Manufacturers' Association fiber repository regarding the following: free radical damage to plasmid DNA, iron release, ability to deplete glutathione (GSH), and activate redox-sensitive transcription factors in macrophages. Asbestos had much more free radical activity than any of the man-made vitreous fibers. More Fe3+ was released than Fe2+ and more of both was released at pH 4.5 tha...

Gilmour, P. S.; Brown, D. M.; Beswick, P. H.; Macnee, W.; Rahman, I.; Donaldson, K.

1997-01-01

410

Beryllium Manufacturing Processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61 cm high), may be cut or machined into parts or be thermomechanically processed to develop the desired microstructure, properties, and shapes. Vacuum hot-isostatic pressing and cold-isostatic pressing (CIP) followed by sintering and possibly by a final HIP'ing (CIP/Sinter/HIP) are important in their use for the production of near net-shaped parts. For the same starting powder, a HIP'ed product will have less anisotropy than that obtained for a VHP'ed product. A schematic presentation illustrating the difference between VHP'ing and HIP'ing is shown in Figure I-1. The types of powders and the various beryllium grades produced from the consolidated powders and their ambient-temperature mechanical properties were presented in the consolidation report referred to above. Elevated-temperature properties and the effect of processing variables on mechanical properties are described in the mechanical properties report. Beryllium can also be deposited as coatings as well as freestanding forms. The microstructure, properties, and various methods used that are related to the deposition of beryllium are discussed in the report on beryllium coatings.

Goldberg, A

2006-06-30

411

Dark Soliton Fiber Laser  

OpenAIRE

We report on the experimental observation of stable dark solitons in an all normal dispersion fiber laser. We found experimentally that dark soliton formation is a generic feature of the fiber laser under strong continuous wave (CW) emission. However, only under appropriate pump strength and negative cavity feedback, stable single or multiple dark soliton could be achieved. Furthermore, we show that the features of the observed dark solitons could be well understood based on...

Zhang, H.; Tang, D. Y.; Zhao, L. M.; Wu, X.; Bao, Q. L.; Loh, K. P.

2009-01-01

412

Fiber optic detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

1990-12-31

413

Brominated graphitized carbon fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Low cost, high break elongation graphitized carbon fibers having low degree of graphitization are inert to bromine at room or higher temperatures, but are brominated at -7 to 20 C, and then debrominated at ambient. Repetition of this bromination-debromination process can bring the bromine content to 18 percent. Electrical conductivity of the brominated fibers is three times of the before-bromination value.

Hung, Ching-Cheh (inventor)

1991-01-01

414

Manufacture of FBTR sodium pumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Centrifugal mechanical pumps are chosen for sodium heat transfer system of Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). The manufacturing technology of these pumps differs to a large extent from the conventional pumps because these pumps operate at high temperature (about 673 deg. K) and handle chemically reactive sodium. These pumps have been manufactured first time in India to stringent technical requirements. This paper highlights the important technical requirements and the major problems faced during manufacture of these pumps and how these problems have been overcome in order to achieve the desired requirements. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs

415

Exploring manufacturing solutions for SMEs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This exploratory study provides an overview over current state of manufacturing solutions in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in region of Southern Denmark. Building on manufacturing paradigms, this paper reveals relevant aspects for the development and implementation of improving SMEs’ automation processes. The paper presents an embedded case study based on 10 low- and medium-tech Danish companies. Based on the development of production paradigms and the presented study, this research helps to understand key determinants and processes for SMEs’ exploration of future directions of manufacturing solutions, which are required to increase their competitiveness and assure sustainable growth.

Radziwon, Agnieszka; Blichfeldt, Henrik

416

Molded optics design and manufacture  

CERN Document Server

While several available texts discuss molded plastic optics, none provide information on all classes of molded optics. Filling this gap, Molded Optics: Design and Manufacture presents detailed descriptions of molded plastic, glass, and infrared optics. Since an understanding of the manufacturing process is necessary to develop cost-effective, producible designs, the book extensively covers various manufacturing methods, design guidelines, trade-offs, best practices, and testing of critical parameters. It also discusses topics that often arise when designing systems with molded optics, such as

Schaub, Michael

2007-01-01

417

Micro manufacturing techniques and applications  

CERN Document Server

Micro/meso-scale manufacturing has been developed in research fields of machining, forming, materials and others, but its potential to industries are yet to be fully realized. The theme of the current volume was to build a bridge joining academic research and industrial needs in micro manufacturing. Among the 12 papers selected for publication are three keynote addresses onmicro and desktop factories for micro/meso-scale manufacturing applicationsand future visions, tissue cutting mechanics and applications for needlecore biopsy and guidance, and micro-texturing onto amorphous carbonmaterials

Du, Ruxu; Li, Zifu

2013-01-01

418

Manufacturing engineering: Principles for optimization  

Science.gov (United States)

Various subjects in the area of manufacturing engineering are addressed. The topics considered include: manufacturing engineering organization concepts and management techniques, factory capacity and loading techniques, capital equipment programs, machine tool and equipment selection and implementation, producibility engineering, methods, planning and work management, and process control engineering in job shops. Also discussed are: maintenance engineering, numerical control of machine tools, fundamentals of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture, computer-aided process planning and data collection, group technology basis for plant layout, environmental control and safety, and the Integrated Productivity Improvement Program.

Koenig, Daniel T.

419

The VIRMOS mask manufacturing tools: (b) Mask manufacturing and handling  

OpenAIRE

We describe the VIRMOS Mask Manufacturing Unit (MMU) configuration, composed of two units:the Mask Manufacturing Machine (with its Control Unit) and the Mask Handling Unit (inclusive of Control Unit, Storage Cabinets and robot for loading of the Instrument Cabinets). For both VIMOS and NIRMOS instruments, on the basis of orders received by the Mask Preparation Software (see paper (a) in same proceedings), the function of the MMU is to perform an off-line mask cutting and ide...

Conti, G.; Chiappetti, L.; Mattaini, E.; Maccagni, D.; Fevre, O. Le; Saisse, M.; Vettolani, G.

1999-01-01

420

Enzymatic modification of flaxseed fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) fibers were modified by oxidoreductive and cellulolytic enzymes. The lignin amount and intrinsic plant peroxidase activity was evaluated by histochemical and spectrophotometric assays. Peroxidase activity was not found from bast fibers. The flaxseed fibers were further separated and treated with laccase to conjugate the model compounds, that is, the hydrophobic gallate molecules on fiber surfaces. Laccase was able to slowly oxidize fiber-conjugated phenolics, but no fundamental changes in fiber cell surface structure or notable coupling of the applied hydrophobic gallate molecules onto the fibers occurred, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The reactivity of the mature fibers was further investigated using cellulolytic enzymes. Cellobiohydrolase (CBH) and endoglucanase (EG)-rich enzyme preparations were applied to reach a hydrolysis degree of 1-6% (of the fiber dry matter) using a standard enzyme dosage. The CBH mixture altered the fiber surface morphology distinctly, and SEM images illustrated fibers in which the cellulose fibrils seemed to be loosened and partially hydrolyzed. In contrast, the effect of the EG-rich preparation without CBH activity was notable on the fiber surface, polishing the surfaces. The cellulolytic treatments were potentially interesting for specific enzymatic modifications of flax fiber surfaces, whereas the approach to use oxidoreductive enzyme treatments on mature linseed fibers offered little potential, obviously due to the low lignin content of the fibers. PMID:23098092

Maijala, Pekka; Mäkinen, Marliina; Galkin, Sari; Fagerstedt, Kurt; Härkäsalmi, Tiina; Viikari, Liisa

2012-11-01

421

Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors <1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants. During the first year a custom batch furnace was built to develop the method with high power radiative heating to simulate transfer of glass into a hot slumping zone in a production line. To preserve the original high polish of the float glass on both front and back surfaces, as required for a second surface mirror, the mold surface is machined to the required shape as grooves which intersect the glass at cusps, reducing the mold contact area to significantly less than 1%. The mold surface is gold-plated to reflect thermal radiation. Optical metrology of glass replicas made with the system has been carried out with a novel, custom-built test system. This test provides collimated, vertically-oriented parallel beams from a linear array of co-aligned lasers translated in a perpendicular direction across the reflector. Deviations of each reflected beam from the paraboloid focus give a direct measure of surface slope error. Key findings • A gravity sag method for large (2.5 m2) second surface glass solar reflectors has been developed and demonstrated to a uniquely high level of accuracy. Mirror surface slope accuracy of 0.65 mrad in one dimension, 0.85 mrad in 2 dimensions (point focus) has been demonstrated by commercial partner REhnu using this process. This accuracy exceeds by a factor of two current solar reflector accuracy. Our replicas meet the Sunshot accuracy objective of 2 mrad optical, which requires better than 1 mrad rms slope error. • Point-focus as well as line-focus mirrors have been demonstrated at 1.65 m x 1.65 m square – a unique capability. • The new process using simple molds is economical. The molds for the 1.65 m square reflectors are bent and machined steel plates on a counter-weighted flotation support. To minimize thermal coupling by radiative heat transfer, the mold surface is grooved and gilded. The molds are simple to manufacture, and have minimal thermal stresses and distortion in use. Lapping and bending techniques have been developed to obtain better than 1 mrad rms surface mold accuracy. Float glass is sagged into the molds by rapid radiative heating, using a custom high power (350 kW) furnace. The method of manufacture is well suited for small as well as large volume production, and as it requires little capital investment and no high technology, it could be used anywhere in the world to make solar concentrating reflectors. • A novel slope metrology method for full 1.65 aperture has been demonstrated, with 25 mm resolution across the face of the replicas. The method is null and therefore inherently accurate: it can easily be reproduced without high-tech equipment and does not need sophisticated calibration. We find by cross calibration with reference trough reflectors from RioGlass that our null-test laser system yields a measurement accuracy better than 0.4 mrad rms slope error. Our system is inexpensive and could have broad application for test

Angel, Roger [University of Arizona

2014-12-17

422

Right- and left-handed twist in optical fibers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english The effect of twist-induced variation of the output state of polarization on clockwise and counterclockwise torsion was measured in two standard optical fibers made by different manufacturers. It was found that standard fiber samples may exhibit a different twist-induced polarization performance for [...] right- and left-handed twists. In this work we compare the results obtained for two commercial fibers using linearly polarized input signals with azimuth angles between 0 and 150°, within the 1520-1570 nm spectral range. In all cases these results could be described using the same theoretical model. We demonstrate that the different behavior observed for right- and left-handed twists for one of the samples can be explained by the presence of a residual torsion.

D., Tentori; A., Garcia-Weidner.

2014-02-01

423

Infrared single mode chalcogenide glass fiber for space.  

Science.gov (United States)

An important measuring technique under study for the DARWIN planet finding mission, is nulling interferometry, enabling the detection of the weak infrared emission lines of an orbiting planet. This technique requires a perfect wavefront of the light beams to be combined in the interferometer. By using a single mode waveguide before detection, wavefront errors are filtered and a virtually perfect plane wavefront is obtained. In this paper the results on the development and the optical characterisation of suitable infrared transmitting chalcogenide glasses and mid-IR guiding optical fibers are reported. Two different perform techniques for manufacturing core-cladding chalcogenide fibers are described. Two types of step index fibers, prepared with Te(2)As(3)Se(5) chalcogenide glasses, offer single mode guidance at 10.6 mum. PMID:19547623

Houizot, P; Boussard-Plédel, C; Faber, A J; Cheng, L K; Bureau, B; Van Nijnatten, P A; Gielesen, W L M; Pereira do Carmo, J; Lucas, J

2007-09-17

424

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Composites for Propulsion Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber reinforced ceramic composites are materials of choice for gas turbine engines because of their high thermal efficiency, thrust/weight ratio, and operating temperatures. However, the successful introduction of ceramic composites to hot structures is limited because of excessive cost of manufacturing, reproducibility, nonuniformity, and reliability. Intense research is going on around the world to address some of these issues. The proposed effort is to develop a comprehensive status report of the technology on processing, testing, failure mechanics, and environmental durability of carbon fiber reinforced ceramic composites through extensive literature study, vendor and end-user survey, visits to facilities doing this type of work, and interviews. Then develop a cooperative research plan between NASA GRC and NCA&T (Center for Composite Materials Research) for processing, testing, environmental protection, and evaluation of fiber reinforced ceramic composites.

Freedman, Marc (Technical Monitor); Shivakumar, Kunigal N.

2003-01-01

425

Glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes for evoked potential recordings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current methods for recording field potentials with tungsten electrodes make it virtually impossible to use the same recording electrode also as a lesioning electrode, for example for histological confirmation of the recorded site, because the lesioning procedure usually wears off the tungsten tip. Therefore, the electrode would have to be replaced after each lesioning procedure, which is a very high cost solution to the problem. We present here a low cost, easy to make, high quality glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrode that shows resistive, signal/noise and electrochemical coupling advantages over tungsten electrodes. Also, currently used carbon fiber microelectrodes often show problems with electrical continuity, especially regarding electrochemical applications using a carbon-powder/resin mixture, with consequent low performance, besides the inconvenience of handling such a mixture. We propose here a new method for manufacturing glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes with several advantages when recording intracerebral field potentials

Moraes M.F.D.

1997-01-01

426

Glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes for evoked potential recordings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Current methods for recording field potentials with tungsten electrodes make it virtually impossible to use the same recording electrode also as a lesioning electrode, for example for histological confirmation of the recorded site, because the lesioning procedure usually wears off the tungsten tip. [...] Therefore, the electrode would have to be replaced after each lesioning procedure, which is a very high cost solution to the problem. We present here a low cost, easy to make, high quality glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrode that shows resistive, signal/noise and electrochemical coupling advantages over tungsten electrodes. Also, currently used carbon fiber microelectrodes often show problems with electrical continuity, especially regarding electrochemical applications using a carbon-powder/resin mixture, with consequent low performance, besides the inconvenience of handling such a mixture. We propose here a new method for manufacturing glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes with several advantages when recording intracerebral field potentials

M.F.D., Moraes; N., Garcia-Cairasco.

1997-11-01

427

EDF's surveillance on fuel manufacturing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EDF has 58 PWR reactors requiring an annual supply of approximately 2,300 fuel assemblies. The issues of safety and reliability are important concerning the fuel given the risk of generic manufacturing issues. Being a nuclear power operator, EDF is responsible for the safety of the fuel being used in their vessels. EDF is subject to a French law which requires in particular the surveillance of the manufacture of the components involved in safety. This law is in some way an opportunity. It permits the entities involved to have an influence on the quality of components supplied which is an important condition to exercise an operational responsibility. EDF has applied for 30 years surveillance of the manufacturing processes of suppliers of fuel assemblies and contracts have specific clauses in order to organize this surveillance. In order to focus the surveillance on important matters, critical characteristics of the fuel have been determined between EDF and the suppliers to ensure the safety requirements. Activities related to the manufacturing and having an influence on these characteristics are subject to the surveillance required by regulation authorities. In order to obtain fuel assemblies that fulfill the safety requirements, EDF considers that several aspects need to be treated correctly: - The clear and sufficient definition of the components that constitutes the assembly (technical file: drawings and specifications), a definition which takes into account as far efinition which takes into account as far as possible the critical characteristics. - The demonstration of the efficiency, in terms of results, of complex manufacturing or controls steps (equipment qualification) included in the global manufacturing process (efficiency which depends on parameters that need to be defined and determined). - The definition of manufacturing processes (manufacturing quality plan) and the demonstration of their efficiency (qualification of manufacturing processes) to produce components that meet safety requirements (efficiency which depends on parameters that need to be defined and determined). - The relevancy of the justifications of usability of non-conforming products, taking into account the fact that any manufacturing process can normally produce some from time to time. - The continuous improvement of the manufacturing processes which are in fact not always as robust as expected to segregate non-conforming products (abnormal manufacturing event). The first three aspects contribute to obtain in a complementary way components that meet all the safety requirements given the fact that those requirements sometimes cannot be guaranteed for economic reasons by means of direct controls but only indirectly by the fulfillment of specific parameters. EDF surveys consequently: - The definition of the requirements in the technical file. - The initial qualifications of complex equipment, and subsequently during the manufacturing, the compliance with the parameters that guarantee the validity of the results of this equipment. - The initial qualification of the manufacturing processes, and subsequently during the manufacturing, the compliance within the parameters that need to be applied in order for the components to meet the safety requirements. The fourth aspect strongly involves EDF, given its responsibility as operator. The justification of usability when they have an impact on safety cannot be handled unilaterally by a supplier. - EDF surveys that the justification of usability of non-conform products are submitted for validation when the non-conformity has an impact on safety. - EDF verifies the relevancy of those justifications. The last aspect deals with the feedback needed for the continuous improvement of the robustness of the manufacturing processes. EDF asks its suppliers to declare the abnormal manufacturing events detected at the plants given the fact that non-conform products may have been supplied without knowing. According to this: - EDF discuss and validate the corrective actions proposed by suppliers to secure their manuf

428

Integrated flexible manufacturing program for manufacturing automation and rapid prototyping  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Inc., as part of the Integrated Flexible Manufacturing Program (IFMP), is developing an integrated manufacturing environment. Several systems are being developed to produce standards and automation tools for specific activities within the manufacturing environment. The Advanced Manufacturing Development System (AMDS) is concentrating on information standards (STEP) and product data transfer; the Expert Cut Planner system (XCUT) is concentrating on machining operation process planning standards and automation capabilities; the Advanced Numerical Control system (ANC) is concentrating on NC data preparation standards and NC data generation tools; the Inspection Planning and Programming Expert system (IPPEX) is concentrating on inspection process planning, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection standards and CMM part program generation tools; and the Intelligent Scheduling and Planning System (ISAPS) is concentrating on planning and scheduling tools for a flexible manufacturing system environment. All of these projects are working together to address information exchange, standardization, and information sharing to support rapid prototyping in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) environment.

Brooks, S. L.; Brown, C. W.; King, M. S.; Simons, W. R.; Zimmerman, J. J.

1993-01-01

429

Emergence of fiber supercapacitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supercapacitors (SCs) are energy storage devices which have high power density and long cycle life. Conventional SCs have two-dimensional planar structures. As a new family of SCs, fiber SCs utilize one-dimensional cylindrically shaped fibers as electrodes. They have attracted significant interest since 2011 and have shown great application potential either as micro-scale devices to complement or even replace micro-batteries in miniaturized electronics and microelectromechanical systems or as macro-scale devices for wearable electronics or smart textiles. This tutorial review provides an essential introduction to this new field. We first introduce the basics of performance evaluation for fiber SCs as a foundation to understand different research approaches and the diverse performance metrics reported in the literature. Next, we summarize the current state-of-the-art progress in structure design and electrode fabrication of fiber SCs. This is followed by a discussion on the integration of multiple fiber SCs and the combination with other energy harvesting or storage devices. Last, we present our perspectives on the future development of fiber SCs and highlight key technical challenges with the hope of stimulating further research progress. PMID:25420877

Yu, Dingshan; Qian, Qihui; Wei, Li; Jiang, Wenchao; Goh, Kunli; Wei, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Yuan

2015-02-01

430

Fiber optics for controls  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenge of those involved in control-system hardware development is to accommodate an ever-increasing complexity in aircraft control, while limiting the size and weight of the components and improving system reliability. A technology that displays promise towards this end is the area of fiber optics for controls. The primary advantages of employing optical fibers, passive optical sensors, and optically controlled actuators are weight and volume reduction, immunity from electromagnetic effects, superior bandwidth capabilities, and freedom from short circuits and sparking contacts. Since 1975, NASA Lewis has performed in-house, contract, and grant research in fiber optic sensors, high-temperature electro-optic switches, and fly-by-light control-system architecture. Passive optical sensor development is an essential yet challenging area of work and has therefore received much attention during this period. A major effort to develop fly-by-light control-system technology, known as the Fiber-Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program, was initiated in 1985 as a cooperative effort between NASA and DOD. Phase 1 of FOCSI, completed in 1986, was aimed at the design of a fiber-optic integrated propulsion/flight control system. Phase 2, yet to be initiated, will provide subcomponent and system development, and a system engine test. In addition to a summary of the benefits of fiber optics, the FOCSI program, sensor advances, and future directions in the NASA Lewis program will be discussed.

Seng, Gary T.

1987-11-01

431

Electrospun amplified fiber optics.  

Science.gov (United States)

All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ?20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics. PMID:25710188

Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

2015-03-11

432

Process for Converting Waste Glass Fiber into Value Added Products, Final Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nature of the Event: Technology demonstration. The project successfully met all of its technical objectives. Albacem has signed an exclusive licensing agreement with Vitro Minerals Inc., a specialty minerals company, to commercialize the Albacem technology (website: www.vitrominerals.com). Location: The basic research for the project was conducted in Peoria, Illinois, and Atlanta, Georgia, with third-party laboratory verification carried out in Ontario, Canada. Pilot-scale trials (multi-ton) were conducted at a facility in South Carolina. Full-scale manufacturing facilities have been designed and are scheduled for construction by Vitro Minerals during 2006 at a location in the Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina tri-state area. The Technology: This technology consists of a process to eliminate solid wastes generated at glass fiber manufacturing facilities by converting them to value-added materials (VCAS Pozzolans) suitable for use in cement and concrete applications. This technology will help divert up to 250,000 tpy of discarded glass fiber manufacturing wastes into beneficial use applications in the concrete construction industry. This technology can also be used for processing glass fiber waste materials reclaimed from monofills at manufacturing facilities. The addition of take-back materials and reclamation from landfills can help supply over 500,000 tpy of glass fiber waste for processing into value added products. In the Albacem process, waste glass fiber is ground to a fine powder that effectively functions as a reactive pozzolanic admixture for use in portland ce¬ment-based building materials and products, such as concrete, mortars, terrazzo, tile, and grouts. Because the waste fiber from the glass manufacturing industry is vitreous, clean, and low in iron and alkalis, the resulting pozzolan is white in color and highly consistent in chemical composition. This white pozzolan, termed VCAS Pozzolan (for Vitreous Calcium-Alumino-Silicate). is especially suited for white concrete applications where it imparts desirable benefits such as increased long-term strength and improved long-term durability of concrete products. Two U.S. patents entitled have been issued to Albacem covering the technology. Third-party validation testing has confirmed that the pozzolanic product is an excellent, high performance material that conforms to a ASTM standards and improves the strength and durability of concrete. Currently, there are no known significant competing technologies to process glass fiber manufacturing by-products and con¬vert them into value-added products. Most glass fiber-forming and fabrication wastes continue to be disposed in landfills at significant costs and with associated negative environmental impact. It is estimated that in a typical glass fiber manufactur¬ing facility, 10-20% by weight of the processed glass material is sent for dis¬posal to a landfill. Today, supplementary ce¬menting materials or mineral admixtures are key to achieving strong and durable concrete. Recovered materials such as coal fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and silica fume are widely accepted and used in concrete all over the world, espe¬cially in the construction of “high performance” structures such as massive dams, bridges, subway tunnels, etc. These min¬eral admixtures are not suitable for white concrete and light-colored architectural concrete applications. Converting waste glass fibers into a high performance white pozzolan would allow white concrete producers to gain from the same durability benefits currently realized by gray concrete producers. Description of the Benefit: Albacem’s technology will enable the glass fiber industry to eliminate nearly 100% of its glass fiber produc¬tion waste streams by converting them into viable value-added products. With this technology, the glass industry can prevent the landfilling of about 250,000 tons of waste glass fiber annually. Glass manufacturers will realize improved production efficiency by reducing process costs through the elimination of solid was

Hemmings, Raymond T.

2005-12-31

433

Numerical implementation of constitutive material law for simulating the kinkband formation in fiber composites  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Finite element models with a constitutive material behavior that represents the non-linear response of fiber composites are used to simulate the compressive failure mechanism i.e. kinkband formation. A constitutive material law in framework of micromechanical modeling containing comprehensive constitutive equations for the constituent materials is adopted to model the non-linear behavior of the unidirectional layered materials. This material law is implemented as UMAT user subroutine in ABAQUS/Standard to study kinkband formation. The methodology provides a procedure to investigate the kinkband formation due to fiber misalignment for various complex structures having voids and material discontinuities that occur normally during the manufacture of these unidirectional fiber composites.

Veluri, Badrinath; Jensen, Henrik Myhre

2011-01-01

434

Broadband photonic crystal fiber coupler with polarization selection of coupling ratio  

Science.gov (United States)

In the paper a new broadband photonic crystal fiber coupler is presented. The proper application of the biconical taper technology has been used for manufacturing the coupler without air holes collapse in LMA10 fiber (NKT Photonics Crystal). This coupler, operates in the weakly coupling condition, protects coupling operation in range from 900 nm to 1700 nm. The coupling ratio between output arms is depending on wavelength and can be tuning by selection the proper input state of polarization. It gives opportunity to use the broadband crystal fiber coupler in many applications in which it is necessary to tune a coupling between output arms during the measurement.

Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.; Stasiewicz, Karol A.; Mar?, Pawe?; Szyma?ski, Micha?

2010-09-01

435

Manufacture of dissolving pulps from cornstalk by novel method coupling steam explosion and mechanical carding fractionation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to solve the inhomogeneity of cornstalk as fiber material to manufacture dissolving pulp, a novel method of steam explosion coupling mechanical carding was put forward to fractionate cornstalk long fiber for the production of cornstalk dissolving pulp. The fractionated long fiber had homogeneous structure and low hemicellulose and ash content. The fiber cell content was up to 85% in area, and the hemicellulose and ash content was 8.34% and 1.10% respectively. The ?-cellulose content of cornstalk dissolving pulps was up to 93.10-97.10%, the viscosity was 14.37-23.96 mPas, and the yields of cornstalk dissolving pulps were from 10.11% to 12.44%. In addition, the fractionated short fiber was to be hydrolyzed by enzyme to build sugar platform. The constructed method of steam explosion coupling mechanical carding achieved the fractionation of cornstalk into long fiber and short fiber cleanly and effectively, and provided a new way for cornstalk integrated refinery. PMID:23644071

Wang, Ning; Chen, Hong-Zhang

2013-07-01

436

Optomechanical behavior of embedded fiber Bragg grating strain sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) can provide extremely sensitive strain measurements for various materials and structures. The main functionality of the Bragg grating is along the fiber's main axis, where changes in the grating's spacing can be converted into strain measurements. Previous work from a number of researchers has identified bifurcation and broadening of the Bragg signal under transverse loading. The work presented in this thesis highlights efforts to relate transverse loading to changes in index of refraction in the fiber core cross section, and then ultimately to predicted changes in Bragg signals. The background of FBGs, their application, manufacturing, and operation is outlined. In addition, background on the general concept of photoelasticity, the relationship of stress and index of refraction, in glass materials is presented. A theoretical analysis was performed for uncoated silica fiber to calculate the stresses within an optical fiber core under transverse loading. The transverse loading profile ranged from pure diametric point loading to a more distributed profile. The stresses calculated were translated into changes of index of refraction and FBG signal values. The analysis was then simulated utilizing a numerical model, calculating stress, change of index of refraction, and change in FBG signal with various transverse loading profiles. In addition to an uncoated fiber, a polymer coated fiber system was analyzed. The model was verified by performing a laboratory experiment where FBGs were loaded transversely and their signal monitored. A special loading rig was designed and fabricated to impart transverse loading to the fiber while monitoring the compression load and deflection of the loading plates. The laboratory experienced showed reasonable agreement with the numerical model. The data show that side loading of the FBG caused a bifurcation of the signal, and that this effect can be predicted by the theoretical model. The modeling work completed provides a useful tool in predicting effects on FBGs of potential transverse loading scenarios, whether these effects are undesirable, or sought after.

Mastro, Stephen A.

2005-11-01

437

Fabricated nano-fiber diameter as liquid concentration sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanofiber is characterized by thin, long, and very soft silica. Taper fibers are made using an easy and low cost chemical method. Etching is conducted with a HF solution to remove cladding and then a low molarity HF solution to reduce the fiber core diameter. One approach to on-line monitoring of the etching process uses spectrophotometer with a white light source. In the aforementioned technique, this method aims to determine the diameter of the reduced core and show the evolution of the two different processes from the nanofiber regime to the fixed regime in which the mode was remote from the surrounding evanescent field, intensity can propagate outside the segment fiber when the core diameter is less than 500 nm. Manufacturing technologies of nano-fiber sensors offer a number of approved properties of optical fiber sensors utilized in various sensory applications. The nano-fiber sensor is utilized to sense the difference in the concentration of D-glucose in double-distilled deionized water and to measure the refractive index (RI) of a sugar solution. Our proposed method exhibited satisfactory capability based on bimolecular interactions in the biological system. The response of the nano-fiber sensors indicates a different kind of interaction among various groups of AAs. These results can be interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and the structure making or breaking ability of solutes in the given solution. This study utilized spectra photonics to measure the transmission of light through different concentrations of sugar solution, employing cell cumber and nano-optical fibers as sensors.

Chyad, Radhi M.; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi

438

Study on basalt fiber parameters affecting fiber-reinforced mortar  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers the effect of different dosages and diameters of basalt fibers on tensile strength increase during bending of fiberboard-reinforced mortar samples. The optimal dosages of fiber, providing maximum strength in bending are revealed. The durability of basalt fiber in an environment of cement, by means of microscopic analysis of samples of fibers and fiberboard-reinforced mortar long-term tests is examined. The article also compares the behavior of basalt fiber in the cement stone environment to a glass one and reveals that the basalt fiber is not subject to destruction.

Orlov, A. A.; Chernykh, T. N.; Sashina, A. V.; Bogusevich, D. V.

2015-01-01

439

RESHORING IN MANUFACTURING AND SERVICES  

OpenAIRE

The extent of offshoring and outsourcing recorded in manufacturing and services in the last two decades has gradually eroded the advantage of the global arbitrage of labor costs. Along with other factors, this process began to change the options of international relocation of some companies that initially had adopted such a strategy, generating a reverse trend for returning in the country of origin of manufacturing and other activities. This process, called "reshoring" has rec...

SERGHEI M?RGULESCU; ELENA M?RGULESCU

2014-01-01

440

Manufacturers' outsourcing to employment services  

OpenAIRE

We estimate the effects of manufacturers' use of employment services-comprised primarily of temporary help and professional employer organizations-on measured employment and labor productivity in manufacturing between 1989 and 2004. A major contribution of the paper is the construction of panel data on employment by occupation and industry from the Occupational Employment Statistics program. We use these data to document the dramatic rise of production and other manual occupations within the ...

Dey, Matthew; Houseman, Susan; Polivka, Anne

2006-01-01

441

Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Solar Collector Manufacturing Activity 1990 report prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents summary and detailed data provided by domestic manufacturers on shipments of solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the period 1974 through 1990. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the period 1982 through 1990. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1990

442

IMPROVED COMMUNICATION BETWEEN MANUFACTURING ROBOTS  

OpenAIRE

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Communication between manufacturing robots and autonomous vehicles in the industrial environment is important, sinceinstructions and information are crucial for communication between the control station and the robot station. Information is required between different manufacturing robots for optimal performance and dedication to industrial tasks within the environment. Failures in communication could cause robots to be a safety hazard or to perform tasks that are no...

Stopforth, R.; Bright, G.; Davrajh, S.; Walker, A.

2012-01-01

443

CT-assisted agile manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

The next century will witness at least two great revolutions in the way goods are produced. First, workers will use the medium of virtual reality in all aspects of marketing, research, development, prototyping, manufacturing, sales and service. Second, market forces will drive manufacturing towards small-lot production and just-in-time delivery. Already, we can discern the merging of these megatrends into what some are calling agile manufacturing. Under this new paradigm, parts and processes will be designed and engineered within the mind of a computer, tooled and manufactured by the offspring of today's rapid prototyping equipment, and evaluated for performance and reliability by advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and sophisticated computational models. Computed tomography (CT) is the premier example of an NDE method suitable for future agile manufacturing activities. It is the only modality that provides convenient access to the full suite of engineering data that users will need to avail themselves of computer- aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and computer- aided engineering capabilities, as well as newly emerging reverse engineering, rapid prototyping and solid freeform fabrication technologies. As such, CT is assured a central, utilitarian role in future industrial operations. An overview of this exciting future for industrial CT is presented.

Stanley, James H.; Yancey, Robert N.

1996-11-01

444

Mechanical and thermal properties of basalt fiber reinforced poly(butylene succinate) composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Novel basalt fiber-reinforced biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) composites have been successfully fabricated with various fiber loadings. ? The tensile and flexural properties of the PBS matrix resin are improved significantly by increasing the fiber loading in the composites. ? The impact strength of the BF/PBS composite decreases with the addition fibers primarily and increases with increasing fiber loading due to energy dissipation when the fibers are pulled out. ? Heat deflection temperature tests clearly show that the HDT of the basalt fiber reinforced PBS composites is significantly higher than the HDT of the PBS resin. - Abstract: Basalt fiber (BF) reinforced poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) composites have been fabricated with different fiber contents by a injection molding method and their tensile, flexural and impact properties, as well as thermal stability have been investigated. The tensile and flexural properties of the PBS matrix resin are improved markedly by increasing the fiber contents in the composites. The values are relatively higher than the natural fiber/PP systems reported earlier by other research groups. The heat deflection temperature (HDT) and Vicat softening temperature (VST) of the composites are significantly higher than those of the neat PBS resin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) conducted on the fracture surfaces of the composites reveals superior interfacial linkage between the basalt fibers and PBS matrix. the basalt fibers and PBS matrix. The results suggest that the BF/PBS composites may be a potential candidate of PP or PP composites to manufacturing some daily commodities to solve the “white pollution” in environmental management.

445

Hydroxyapatite fiber reinforced poly(alpha-hydroxy ester) foams for bone regeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

A process has been developed to manufacture biodegradable composite foams of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and hydroxyapatite short fibers for use in bone regeneration. The processing technique allows the manufacture of three-dimensional foam scaffolds and involves the formation of a composite material consisting of a porogen material (either gelatin microspheres or salt particles) and hydroxyapatite short fibers embedded in a PLGA matrix. After the porogen is leached out, an open-cell composite foam remains which has a pore size and morphology defined by the porogen. By changing the weight fraction of the leachable component it was possible to produce composite foams with controlled porosities ranging from 0.47 +/- 0.02 to 0.85 +/- 0.01 (n = 3). Up to a polymer:fiber ratio of 7:6, short hydroxyapatite fibers served to reinforce low-porosity PLGA foams manufactured using gelatin microspheres as a porogen. Foams with a compressive yield strength up to 2.82 +/- 0.63 MPa (n = 3) and a porosity of 0.47 +/- 0.02 (n = 3) were manufactured using a polymer:fiber weight ratio of 7:6. In contrast, high-porosity composite foams (up to 0.81 +/- 0.02, n = 3) suitable for cell seeding were not reinforced by the introduction of increasing quantities of hydroxyapatite short fibers. We were therefore able to manufacture high-porosity foams which may be seeded with cells but which have minimal compressive yield strength, or low porosity foams with enhanced osteoconductivity and compressive yield strength.

Thomson, R. C.; Yaszemski, M. J.; Powers, J. M.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

446

Influence of moisture absorption on properties of fiber reinforced polyamide 6 composites  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A state-of-the art study of thermoplastic polymer matrix materials for fiber composites has identified polyamide 6 (PA6) as a potential candidate thermoplastic polymer relevant for manufacturing large composite structures like wind turbine blades. The mechanical properties of PA6 are highly sensitive to moisture, and if PA6 is used as matrix material in a fiber composite, the properties of the fiber composite will depend on the moisture content of the material. At standard condition (23 °C and 50% RH) polyamide6 absorbs about 3 weight-% of water, whereas the PA6 material is dry right after manufacturing of components. In the current article, lamina properties of dry glass fiber/PA6 and conditioned (23 °C, 50% RH) glass fiber/PA6 are calculated for lamina with two different fiber content (45 and 50 vol.-%) by the use of classical micro mechanics. The matrix dominated properties like the shear stiffness, the shear strength and the stiffness and strength across the fiber direction are the ones which are mostly affected by the moisture content in the material.

Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; LØgstrup Andersen, Tom

2011-01-01

447

[Research on optical fiber SPR humidity sensor and resonance spectrum characteristic].  

Science.gov (United States)

A new type of humidity sensor based on optical fiber SPR sensor probe was introduced and manufactured. Firstly the sensitivity of optical fiber SPR sensor probe to environment humidity was studied. On this basis, coating with thin PVA film of different thickness and with capacity of adsorbing water molecule on the surface of optical fiber SPR sensor probe, for the purpose of monitoring relative humidity was proposed. The research shows that the SPR sensor probe coated with double layers of thin PVA film gets better detection result, and humidity measurement sensitivity is 1.59%/%RH, being improved notably compared with SPR optical fiber probe. The SPR sensor coated with single layer of thin PVA film has relative humidity measuring sensitivity of 2.411 nm/%RH related to resonance wavelength in high humidity area. In addition, the new type of optical fiber humidity-sensitive probe with PVA film losing efficiency can be reusable after special treatment. PMID:22512178

Zhang, Shao-hua; Zeng, Jie; Sun, Xiao-ming; Mu, Hao; Liang, Da-kai

2012-02-01

448

Fast qualitative analysis of textile fiber in near infrared spectroscopy based on support vector machine  

Science.gov (United States)

The fast qualitative analysis of textile fiber is a crucial step in textile manufacture, export and inspection. This paper presents a near infrared spectroscopy classification method based on SVM for fast qualitative analysis of textile fiber. SVM is a new automatic classification tool and it has successfully been applied to standard classification tasks, such as text classification, pattern identification, bioinformatics and medical diagnosis. In this paper, SVM is extended into near infrared fast qualitative analysis of textile fiber for the first time. In this paper, eight kinds classification algorithms which are composed of two classifiers(C-SVC and ?-SVC) and four kernel functions (linear, polynomial, RBF and sigmoid) are used to do classification experiments and comparison analysis for ten kinds familiar textiles fiber. Experiment results show that it is feasible to apply SVM in fast qualitative analysis of textile fiber, and the optimal classifier algorithm and the corresponding experimental results are reported.

Wang, Donghui; Jin, Shangzhong; Gan, Bin; Feng, Hongnian

2006-02-01

449

Characterization of Amazon fibers of the peach palm, balsa, and babassu by XDR, TGA and NMR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was to present the results by testing X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and determining the moisture content of the peach palm, balsa and babassu fibers for assessing the feasibility of composite materials. The fibers of peach palm, balsa and babassu showed characteristic chemical structure of lignocellulosic material, and good thermal stability up to 220 deg C. The fiber with the highest crystallinity index (Ic) is the peach palm (72%) and the less crystalline is the babassu (37%), while the balsa fibers have Ic equal to 64%. The results have shown that these fibers can be used in the manufacture of composite materials. (author)

450

The Physics of Fiber Optics  

Science.gov (United States)

This module, produced by the Wind Technician TV project from Highland Community College, introduces students to the physics of fiber o