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1

Flame-resistant kapok fiber manufactured using gamma ray  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Owing to homogeneous hollow tube shape and hydrophobicity of kapok fiber, the usages of this fiber are various such as fiberfill in pillows, quilts, non-woven fabric for oil spill cleanup and plastic green house. Even though kapok fiber is able to apply various industrial usages, it has a serious disadvantage which is the extreme sensitivity to spark or flame. Therefore, we try to make flame-resistant kapok fiber using gamma ray. The radiation caused loss of hydrophobic compounds in kapok fiber and no morphological change, especially fine hollow tube shape, was observed. The lignin contents were negligible changed after gamma irradiation. However, the building units of lignin polymer such as coniferyl alcohol, and sinapyl alcohol were significantly changed that is, functional group as a methoxyl group from lignin polymer was cleaved by gamma irradiation. Based on the results of removal of hydrophobic compounds and cleavage of methoxyl group from lignin polymer, kapok fiber can be converted into a flame-resistant fiber by gamma ray treatment.

2009-01-01

2

Coated kapok fiber for removal of spilled oil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on raw kapok fiber, two kinds of oil absorbers with high sorption capacity were prepared by a facile solution-immersion process. The coated polymer with low surface energy and rough fiber surface play important role in the retention of oil. The as-prepared fiber can quickly absorb gasoline, diesel, soybean oil, and paraffin oil up to above 74.5%, 66.8%, 64.4% and 47.8% of oil sorption capacity of raw fiber, respectively. The absorbed oils can be easily recovered by a simple vacuum filtration and the recovered coated-fiber still can be used for several cycles without obvious loss in oil sorption capacity. The thermodynamic study indicates that the adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic, with complex physisorption and chemisorption. The results suggest that the coated fiber can be used as a low-cost alternative for the removal of oil spilled on water surface.

Wang J; Zheng Y; Wang A

2013-04-01

3

Investigation of acetylated kapok fibers on the sorption of oil in water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Kapok fibers have been acetylated for oil spill cleanup in the aqueous environment. The structures of raw and acetylated kapok fiber were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Without severe damage to the lumen structures, the kapok fibers were successfully acetylated and the resulting fibers exhibited a better oil sorption capacity than raw fibers for diesel and soybean oil. Compared with high viscosity soybean oil, low viscosity diesel shows a better affinity to the surface of acetylated fibers. Sorption kinetics is fitted well by the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium data can be described by the Freundlich isotherm model. The results implied that acetylated kapok fiber can be used as the substitute for non-biodegradable oil sorption materials.

Wang J; Zheng Y; Wang A

2013-02-01

4

Potential of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok) fiber as a resource for second generation bioethanol: parametric optimization and comparative study of various pretreatments prior enzymatic saccharification for sugar production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various pretreatments on Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok) fiber prior to enzymatic hydrolysis for sugar production were optimized in this study. The optimum conditions for water, acid, and alkaline pretreatments were 170°C for 45 min, 120°C for 45 min in 1.0% (v/v) H2SO4 solution and 120°C for 60 min in 2.0% (v/v) NaOH solution, respectively. Among the three pretreatments, the alkaline pretreatment achieved the highest total glucose yield (glucose yield calculated based on the untreated fiber) (38.5%), followed by the water (35.0%) and acid (32.8%) pretreatments. As a result, the relative effectiveness of the pretreatment methods for kapok fiber was verified as alkali>water>acid at the condition stated. PMID:23672935

Tye, Ying Ying; Lee, Keat Teong; Abdullah, Wan Nadiah Wan; Leh, Cheu Peng

2013-04-26

5

Potential of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok) fiber as a resource for second generation bioethanol: parametric optimization and comparative study of various pretreatments prior enzymatic saccharification for sugar production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Various pretreatments on Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok) fiber prior to enzymatic hydrolysis for sugar production were optimized in this study. The optimum conditions for water, acid, and alkaline pretreatments were 170°C for 45 min, 120°C for 45 min in 1.0% (v/v) H2SO4 solution and 120°C for 60 min in 2.0% (v/v) NaOH solution, respectively. Among the three pretreatments, the alkaline pretreatment achieved the highest total glucose yield (glucose yield calculated based on the untreated fiber) (38.5%), followed by the water (35.0%) and acid (32.8%) pretreatments. As a result, the relative effectiveness of the pretreatment methods for kapok fiber was verified as alkali>water>acid at the condition stated.

Tye YY; Lee KT; Abdullah WN; Leh CP

2013-07-01

6

Characterization of Local Insulators: Sawdust and Wool of Kapok  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The insulation has an important role in the thermal and acoustic applications in particular in theproduction of cold. Also within the framework of this study, we studied the sawdust and wool of kapok in orderto determine insulator best adapted to the manufacture of the cold rooms or the isothermal vats. The syntheticinsulators (polyurethane, polystyrene, glass wool or rock) are very effective, but their use especially burdensthe price with the systems carried out until now in the countries of the south. The characterization of localmaterials, vegetable origin for a possible substitution in the systems and the achievements w hich call upon theinsulation, should make it possible to save energy in the building, heatings water, the cold rooms and topreserve perishable goods (food, drugs, vaccines…). This study enables us to conclude that one canadvantageously use wool of kapok or kapok in the place of heat insulators such as the polyurethane,polystyrene, glass wool or cork. However the wool of kapok compared has a better conductivity to the saw dust.

M.L. Voumbo

2010-01-01

7

Manufacture of optical fibers for communications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optical fibers are hair thin strands of silica based glass or plastic or a combination of both used to transmit optical signals. In the field of communications silica based glass fibers are used almost exclusively. Optical fibers are widely used in the field of telecommunications and CATV. In addition, they are also widely used in medical applications, industrial control applications, a variety of sensor applications, and military applications. Currently, tens of millions of km of fibers are deployed in worldwide information movement networks of all types. The total fiber optic cable market in 1993 was close to $4.0 Billion, and is projected to grow approximately 15% annually till 1998. The fiber manufacturing industry has thus matured very rapidly within the last decade, and tremendous advances have been made in terms of quality and productivity. I will briefly describe the basic requirements for a fiber and then discuss fiber manufacturing. I will conclude with my view of the areas of future attention in fiber manufacturing.

Tariyal, B.K. [LITESPEC Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1995-12-01

8

Forest products: Fiber loading for paper manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fact sheet on manufacturing filler during paper manufacturing written for the NICE3 Program. With its new fiber loading process, Voith Sulzer, Inc., is greatly improving the efficiency of paper production and recycling. Fiber loading produces precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) filler in the pulp recycling process at costs below conventional means. Fiber loading allows papermakers to use as much filler, like PCC, as possible because it costs 80% less than fiber. In addition, increased filler and fines retention due to fiber loading reduces the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions, deinking sludge, and other waste while substantially lowering energy costs. Currently, the most efficient way to produce PCC as filler is to make it in a satellite plant adjacent to a paper mill. Satellite plants exist near large scale paper mills (producing 700 tons per day) because the demand at large mills justifies building a costly ($15 million, average) satellite plant. This new fiber loading process combines the PCC manufacturing technology used in a satellite plant with the pulp processing operations of a paper mill. It is 33% less expensive to augment an existing paper mill with fiber loading technology than to build a satellite plant for the same purpose. This technology is applicable to the manufacturing of all printing and writing paper, regardless of the size or capacity of the paper mill.

NONE

1999-09-29

9

Radiation shielding fiber and its manufacturing method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To manufacture radiation shielding fibers of excellent shielding effects. Method: Fibers containing more than 1 mmol/g of carboxyl groups are bonded with heavy metals, or they are impregnated with an aqueous solution containing water-soluble heavy metal salts dissolved therein. Fibers as the substrate may be any of forms such as short fibers, long fibers, fiber tows, webs, threads, knitting or woven products, non-woven fabrics, etc. It is however necessary that fibers contain more than 1 mmol/g, preferably, from 2 to 7 mmol/g of carboxylic groups. Since heavy metals having radiation shielding performance are bonded to the outer layer of the fibers and the inherent performance of the fibers per se is possessed, excellent radiation shielding performance can be obtained, as well as they can be applied with spinning, knitting or weaving, stitching, etc. thus can be used for secondary fiber products such as clothings, caps, masks, curtains, carpets, cloths, etc. for use in radiation shieldings. (Kamimura, M.)

1987-02-13

10

Radiation shielding fiber and its manufacturing method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To manufacture radiation shielding fibers of excellent shielding effects. Method: Fibers containing more than 1 mmol/g of carboxyl groups are bonded with heavy metals, or they are impregnated with an aqueous solution containing water-soluble heavy metal salts dissolved therein. Fibers as the substrate may be any of forms such as short fibers, long fibers, fiber tows, webs, threads, knitting or woven products, non-woven fabrics, etc. It is however necessary that fibers contain more than 1 mmol/g, preferably, from 2 to 7 mmol/g of carboxylic groups. Since heavy metals having radiation shielding performance are bonded to the outer layer of the fibers and the inherent performance of the fibers per se is possessed, excellent radiation shielding performance can be obtained, as well as they can be applied with spinning, knitting or weaving, stitching, etc. thus can be used for secondary fiber products such as clothings, caps, masks, curtains, carpets, cloths, etc. for use in radiation shieldings. (Kamimura, M.).

Tanaka, Koji; Ono, Hiroshi.

1988-08-17

11

Carbon fiber manufacturing via plasma technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The disclosed invention introduces a novel method of manufacturing carbon and/or graphite fibers that avoids the high costs associated with conventional carbonization processes. The method of the present invention avoids these costs by utilizing plasma technology in connection with electromagnetic radiation to produce carbon and/or graphite fibers from fully or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors. In general, the stabilized or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors are placed under slight tension, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, and carbonized using a plasma and electromagnetic radiation having a power input which is increased as the fibers become more carbonized and progress towards a final carbon or graphite product. In an additional step, the final carbon or graphite product may be surface treated with an oxygen-plasma treatment to enhance adhesion to matrix materials.

Paulauskas, Felix L. (Knoxville, TN); Yarborough, Kenneth D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

12

Nonionizing radiation aspects of optical fiber manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of the spectral distribution of the electromagnetic emissions from a system composed of a hydrogen-oxygen torch and a glass tube, used in the manufacturing of glass rods from which optical fibers are drawn, indicated levels in the visible and infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that necessitated a specific type of eye protection to be worn by employees operating this equipment. Specific eye wear which provided qualities of both being lightweight and reducing transmission of all three major regions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, visible, infrared) were specified. 5 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

Huggins, R.G.; Testagrossa, P.A.; Petersen, R.C.; Philen, D.L.; Turnipseed, J.M.

1984-12-01

13

BN Bonded BN fiber article and method of manufacture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A boron nitride bonded boron nitride fiber article and the method for its manufacture which comprises forming a shaped article with a composition comprising a bonding compound selected from boron oxide and boric acid and a structural fiber selected from the group consisting of boron oxide, boron nitride and partially nitrided boron oxide fibers, heating the composition in an anhydrous gas to a temperature above the melting point of the compound and nitriding the resulting article in ammonia gas.

Hamilton, Robert S. (Youngstown, NY)

1981-08-18

14

16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...rings. (u) PBI. A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long chain aromatic polymer having reoccurring imidazole groups as an integral part of the polymer chain. (v) Elastoester. A manufactured fiber in which the...

2009-01-01

15

Plant fiber chewing gum and manufacture method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a plant fiber chewing gum and a manufacture method thereof. The plant fiber chewing gum comprises 75-85 percent of plant crude fiber yarn containing sugar and fiber powder, 10-21 percent of powder of a plant which can be used as both food and medicine, and 4-5 percent of additive. The manufacture method comprises the steps: stems and fruits of a plant, which are rich in crude fibers and are edible, are cleaned, divided, frozen, dried, flavored and reconstituted, and are prepared into crude fiber yarn and fiber powder which contain sugar after being pulverized and screened the fiber yarn and the fiber powder are mixed with the powder of the plant which can be used as both food and medicine and the additive by the percentage, the mixture is put into a stirring mill to be stirred evenly and is extruded or pressed to be made into blocks of various shapes the blocks are coated with chewing gum sugar-coat and are dried and packaged to obtain the finished product. The invention overcomes the defect that the chewing gum taking edible rosin glycerin ester as a chewable carrier pollutes environment after being eaten. The invention takes crude fiber of edible plants to replace the edible rosin glycerin ester, has good chewable capability, does not adhere after being eaten, can be degraded naturally and does not pollute the environment.

NIANQIU LI

16

Neutron shielding synthetic acrylic fiber and manufacturing method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Upon manufacturing acryl synthetic fibers by wet spinning, rare earth metal oxides are dispersed uniformly in an organic solvent, admixed with a solution of an organic solvent of acrylonitrile copolymer and then applied with wet spinning. As the rare earth metal oxides usable herein, those having excellent neutron absorbing property such as gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) are preferred, due to excellent dispersion stability. Organic solvents, for example, dimethyl formamide, etc. are used as the solvent. In view of the above, synthetic fibers having washing resistance, wide range for fiber fabrication conditions, and excellent neutron shielding property can be obtained. (T.M.)

1989-05-11

17

Neutron shielding synthetic acrylic fiber and manufacturing method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upon manufacturing acryl synthetic fibers by wet spinning, rare earth metal oxides are dispersed uniformly in an organic solvent, admixed with a solution of an organic solvent of acrylonitrile copolymer and then applied with wet spinning. As the rare earth metal oxides usable herein, those having excellent neutron absorbing property such as gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are preferred, due to excellent dispersion stability. Organic solvents, for example, dimethyl formamide, etc. are used as the solvent. In view of the above, synthetic fibers having washing resistance, wide range for fiber fabrication conditions, and excellent neutron shielding property can be obtained. (T.M.).

Arai, Masashi; Yamamoto, Toshihiro.

1990-12-07

18

New Manufacturing Method for Paper filler and Fiber Material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study compares commercial available filler products with a new developed â??Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Materialâ? and how main structural, optical and strength properties are affected by increasing the filler content of at least 5% over commercial values. The study consists of: (i) an overview of paper filler materials used in the paper production process, (ii) discusses the manufacturing technology of lime based filler materials for paper applications, (iii) gives an overview of new emerging paper filler technologies, (iv) discusses a filler evaluation of commercial available digital printing paper products, (v) reports from a detailed handsheet study and 12â? pilot plant paper machine trial runs with the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material, and (vi) evaluates and compares commercial filler products and the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material with a life cycle analyses that explains manufacturing, economic and environmental benefits as they are applied to uncoated digital printing papers.

Doelle, Klaus

2011-11-22

19

Automated Fiber Placement Composite Manufacturing: The Mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the M...

J. H. Vickers L. I. Pelham

1993-01-01

20

Photolithography for composites manufacturing: Continuous glass fiber/polyacrylate composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of a novel technique for the manufacturing of composite materials by photolithography is described. Composite samples comprised of a photosensitive acrylate resin as the matrix and continuous glass fibers as the reinforcement were prepared in a Stereolithography apparatus to demonstrate the feasibility of the process. Experimental results indicate that the tensile strength increases from about 50 MPa for the pure resin to 120 MPa for a unidirectional composite containing 8 vol% fibers whereas a 0/90/0 laminate containing 10 vol% fibers displayed a strength of 160 MPa. The experimentally observed values for the composite strength were lower than the composite model predictions. However, the tensile strength of these samples indicates a definite improvement over the resin properties with the addition of the reinforcing fibers.

Renault, T.; Ogale, A.A.; Dooley, R.L.; Bagchi, A.; Jara-Almonte, C.C. (Clemson Univ., SC (United States))

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...generic description of the fiber. (e) Acetate. A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is cellulose acetate. Where not less than 92 percent of the hydroxyl groups are acetylated, the term triacetate may be used as a...

2013-01-01

22

AROMATIC DIAMINE AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING THE SAME, AND ARAMID FIBER AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING THE SAME  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is aromatic diamine with high purity obtained by efficiently removing impurities and preventing oxidation, and a method for manufacturing the same and aramid fiber with improved discoloration resistance realized by preventing deterioration in quality even for a long-period exposure to the external environments of sunlight, atmosphere, and moisture, and a method for manufacturing the same.

LEE HYOJIN; HAN IN SIK

23

New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections. and it is important to understand the effect that new manufacturing methods of calcium carbonates have on the energy efficiency and paper production. Research conducted under this award showed that the new fiber filler composite material has the potential to increase the paper filler content by up to 5% without losing mechanical properties. Benefits of the technology can be summarized as follows for a 1% filler increase per metric ton of paper produced: (i) production cost savings over $12, (ii) Energy savings of 100,900 btu, (iii) CO{sub 2} emission savings of 33 lbs, and additional savings for wood preparation, pulping, recovery of 203593 btu with a 46lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per 1% filler increase. In addition the technology has the potential to save: (i) additional $3 per ton of bleached pulp produced, (ii) bleaching energy savings of 170,000 btu, (iii) bleaching CO{sub 2} emission savings of 39 lbs, and (iv) additional savings for replacing conventional bleaching chemicals with a sustainable bleaching chemical is estimated to be 900,000 btu with a 205 lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per ton of bleached pulp produced. All the above translates to a estimated annual savings for a 12% filler increase of 296 trillion buts? or 51 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) or 13.7% of the industries energy demand. This can lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 70% for the industry sector. CO{sub 2} emission of the industry at a 12% filler increase could be lowered by over 39 million tons annually. If the new technology could be implemented for bleaching process a total annual estimated energy savings potential of 64 trillion buts? or 11 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) equal to 3% of the paper industries energy demand could be realized. This could lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 60% for the industry. CO{sub 2} emissions could be lowered by over 7.4 million tons annually. It is estimated that an installed system could also yield a 75 to 100% return of investment (ROI) rate for the capital equipment that need to be installed for the fiber filler composite manufacturing process.

Doelle, Klaus [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

2013-08-25

24

The comparison of two methods to manufacture fused biconical tapered optical fiber coupler  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical fiber coupler is a directional coupler which is crucial component for optical fiber communication systems. The fused biconical taper is the most important method in facture of optical fiber coupler, with many advantages of low excess loss, precise coupling ratio, good consistency and stability. In this paper we have introduced a new method to manufacture optical fiber coupler. And more over the new manufacture process has been compared with the traditional manufacture method. In the traditional crafts, two optical fibers are parallel placed, and then use the method of tie a knot of the two optical fibers. In the new process, a new program of fiber placement is introduced. Two optical fibers are parallel placed in the middle of the fixture, and then in order to make the bare part of the optical fiber close as much as possible, the new plan using high temperature resistant material bind the both end of the fiber which are not removing the cladding. After many contrast tests, we can see that adopt the improved method of fiber placement, during the process of fiber pulling, the variation of optical power in the directional arm and the coupler arm are more smooth and steady. But the excess loss (EL) generated in the process of pulling is a bit higher than the traditional method of tie a knot. The tests show that the new method of optical fiber placement is feasible in the actual projects for the manufacture of coupler with low coupling ratio, but for the control of the EL still need further studying.

Wang, Yue; Liu, Hairong

2009-08-01

25

77 FR 73978 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN, Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...57-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 148--Knoxville, TN, Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Authority), Opening...approved Subzone 148C at the manufacturing facilities of Toho Tenax America, Inc. (TTA), located in Rockwood,...

2012-12-12

26

Design considerations for manufacturing carbon-fiber thermoplastic composites using microwave heating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an effort to lower the cost of manufacturing carbon-fiber thermoplastic composites, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace is investigating automated tape and fiber placement manufacturing methods. In these methods, structures are fabricated one ply at a time by applying heat to raise the bond line to the softening point of the thermoplastic and applying pressure to consolidate the ply to the structure being fabricated. Infrared, microwave, radio frequency and laser methods are being considered to quickly heat the thermoplastic resin to its consolidation temperature. The penetration of the heating power is different in each of these methods. We are currently conducting studies to determine if microwave heating has significant advantages over alternate heating methods and if so, how it should be incorporated into an actual manufacturing process. This paper describes the results of our studies concerning how the power density and penetration depth affect the manufacturing process.

Lind, A.C.; Wear, F.C. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, St. Louis, MO (United States)

1995-12-01

27

Carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composite springs as self-centering supports: manufacture and evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variety of engineering and experimental applications require primary support structures which are self-centering. High mechanical strength, low-density, carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composite springs are used in unique planar, cylindrical, conical, and spherical configurations to self-center components. The sinusoidal and triangular-shaped composite springs are readily manufactured and assembled into component hardware. Design considerations, flexural strength properties, load bearing and centering data plus procedures for the manufacture of composite springs are presented.

Mackay, H.A.

1984-01-01

28

Easily manufactured TiO2 hollow fibers for quantum dot sensitized solar cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

TiO(2) hollow fibers with high surface area were manufactured by a simple synthesis method, using natural cellulose fibers as template. The effective light scattering properties of the hollow fibers, originating from their micron size, were observed by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. In spite of the micrometric length of the TiO(2) hollow fibers, the walls were highly porous and high surface area (78.2 m(2) g(-1)) was obtained by the BET method. TiO(2) hollow fibers alone and mixed with other TiO(2) pastes were sensitized with CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) and integrated as a photoanode in quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). High power conversion efficiency was obtained, 3.24% (V(oc) = 503 mV, J(sc) = 11.92 mA cm(-2), FF = 0.54), and a clear correspondence of the cell performance with the photoanode structure was observed. The unique properties of these fibers: high surface area, effective light scattering, hollow structure to facile electrolyte diffusion and the rather high efficiencies obtained here suggest that hollow fibers can be introduced as promising nanostructures to make highly efficient quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

Samadpour M; Giménez S; Zad AI; Taghavinia N; Mora-Seró I

2012-01-01

29

Neutron-shielding fabric and composite fiber and method of manufacture thereof  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to the composite fiber incorporating the neutron-shielding properties consisting of a fiber-forming polymer as the core-component essentially containing certain compounds capable of shielding the neutrons and the other fiber-forming polymer as the sheath-component capable of bonding said core-component, while this invention also relates to the method of manufacturing said composite fiber embodied by this invention. The composite fibers embodied by this invention are not only capable of containing a large amount of the neutron-shielding compounds in the fiber themselves, but also capable of being made into knits and sewn fabrics by means of conventional spinning, knitting and sewing machines, and yet, these fabrics made from said composite fibers can be completely free from drop-out of even the slightest amount of the neutron-shielding compounds during either fabrication procedures or use and also free from any problem that may potentially be caused by atmospheric diffusion of the secondary radioactive material generated by the nuclear reaction. The neutron-shielding fabrics thus embodied will protect the surgical operators as well as the patients from any of the irradiated neutrons during surgical operations such as in removing cerebral tumor and also protect the operators of the nuclear-reactor from potential hazard of exposure to the neutron rays.

Ohuchi, S.; Kataoka, M.

1985-06-11

30

BUNDLE OF SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE POLYSULFONE-BASED HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANES AND PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURING THE SAME  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides polysulfone-based hollow fiber membranes having high water permeable performance and for use in therapy of chronic renal failures, said hollow fiber membranes having high safety and high stability in performance and being excellent in module-fabricating workability. The present invention also provides a process for manufacturing the same. The present invention relates to a bundle of a plurality of selectively permeable polysulfone-based hollow fiber membranes wherein the amount of a hydrophilic polymer eluting from each hollow fiber membrane is not larger than 10 ppm, and wherein the content of the hydrophilic polymer in the outer surface of the hollow fiber membrane is 25 to 50 mass %, and this bundle is characterized in that any of extracted solutions from ten fractions of said bundle, obtained by dividing the bundle at substantially regular intervals along the lengthwise direction, shows a maximum value of smaller than 0.10 in UV absorbance at a wavelength of 220 to 350 nm, with the proviso that the extracted solutions are obtained by the extraction method for tests regulated in the approval manufacturing standards for dialytic artificial kidney devices; and in that the difference between the maximum and the minimum out of the maximum values of UV absorbance of the extracted solutions from the respective fractions is not larger than 0.05.

MABUCHI Kimihiro; c/o Toyo Boseki K.K. Res. Inst.; TAMAMURA Noriyuki c/o Toyo Boseki K.K.; SAKURAI Hidehiko; c/o Toyo Boseki K.K. Res. Inst.; KATO Noriaki; c/o Toyo Boseki K.K. Res. Inst.; SHIBANO Hiroshi; c/o Toyo Boseki K.K.; NOSE Katsuhiko; c/o Toyo Boseki K.K.

31

78 FR 55057 - Authority To Manufacture Carbon Fiber for the U.S. Market Not Approved; Foreign-Trade Subzone...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Market Not Approved; Foreign-Trade Subzone 148C; Toho Tenax America, Inc.; Rockwood, Tennessee Pursuant to its authority...Foreign-Trade Zone 148, has requested authority on behalf of Toho Tenax America, Inc. (TTA), to manufacture carbon fiber...

2013-09-09

32

Production Performance of Brahman Cross Steer Feed with Concentrate Containing Kapok Seed Meal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the weight gain and meat physical quality of Brahman cross steer (BX) fed with concentrate containing kapok seed meal (Ceiba pentandra). The research used 12 heads of two years age Brahman cross steer with body weight of 324 ± 11.29 kg. the steer were kept in individual barn and offered with concentrate containing three level of kapok seed meal. i.e: R1 (10%), R2 (20%) and R3 (30%). A completely randomized design with four replications was employed. Elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum) was fed along with concentrate in 20 : 80% ratio. A total amount of feed given to the cattle was 2.5 % of the body weight on the basis of dry matter and offered twice a day in the morning and the afternoon. Water was given ad libitum. Result showed that there was no significant different on daily gain and meat physical quality. Daily gain of R1, R2 and R3 was 0.73 kg, 0.84 kg, and 0.75 kg of respectively. There was significant different in carcass percentage i.e. 52.57, 50.84, and 48.58 for R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Physical quality of meat consisting of colour, pH, water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (CL) and tenderness indicated non significant effect. The pH value of observed muscle in Longisinus dorsi (LD), semitendinosus (ST), and bicep femoris (BF), was 5.80 (R1) 5.87(R2) and 5.81 (R3), meat colour score was 5.48 (R1), 5.58 (R2) and 5.59 (R3), water holding capacity % was 36.40 (R1), 39.66 (R2) and 34,09 (R3), and cooking loss (5) was 46.62, 44.17 and 46.19 for R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Result of meat tenderness (g/mm/second) was 57.84 (R1), 56.05 (R2) and 59.41 (R3). In relation to price, feed consumption, and daily gain indicated that feed cost per gain was Rp. 2.991.50 (R1), Rp. 2.638.50 (R2), Rp. 2.965.25 (R3), and income over feed cost was Rp. 818.25 (R1), Rp. 1.238.95 (R2), and Rp. 855.80 (R3) respectively. The result showed that the use of 20% of Kapok Seed meal in concentrate (R2), although there was no significant effect, gives the most efficient result. (Animal Production 7(3): 189-193 (2005) Key Words : Brahman Cross Steer, Body Weight, Meat Quality, Kapok Seed Meal.

H Soeprapto

2005-01-01

33

Effects of manufacturing techniques on the flexural behavior of steel fiber-reinforced concrete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents experimental research investigating the effects of manufacturing techniques on the mechanical properties of steel fiber-reinforced concrete. Both the effects of curing environments and that of testing direction relative to casting direction on the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced concrete are reported. Specimens were cured in three different environmental conditions: steam, moisture, and air. Results show that steam curing, as compared to moisture curing, does not enhance the flexural strength of steel fibrous concrete but does reduce flexural toughness. As expected, air curing shows detrimental effects on all aspects of the test results, as compared to steam and moisture curing. The flexural behavior of steel fiber-reinforced concrete is strongly affected by testing direction. When testing direction is perpendicular to casting direction, specimens exhibit reductions in both flexural strength and toughness compared to the case when testing and casting directions are parallel. The effect of testing direction relative to casting direction on flexural strength and toughness increases with increasing the flowability (workability) of the fibrous mixture, which encourages fiber settlement during placement.

Toutanji, H. [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Bayasi, Z. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1998-01-01

34

Interconnected, Microporous Hollow Fibers for Tissue Engineering: Commercially Relevant, Industry Standard Scale-up Manufacturing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Significant progress has been achieved in the field of tissue engineering to create functional tissue using biomimetic three-dimensional scaffolds that support cell growth, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production. However, many of these constructs are severely limited by poor nutrient diffusion throughout the tissue-engineered construct, resulting in cell death and tissue necrosis at the core. Nutrient transport can be improved by creation and use of scaffolds with hollow and microporous fibers, significantly improving permeability and nutrient diffusion. The purpose of this review is to highlight current technological advances in the fabrication of hollow fibers with interconnected pores throughout the fiber walls, with specific emphasis on developing hollow porous nonwoven fabrics for use as tissue engineering constructs via industry standard processing technologies: Spunbond processing and polymer melt extrusion. We outline current methodologies to create hollow and microporous scaffolds with the aim of translating that knowledge to the production of such fibers into nonwoven tissue engineering scaffolds via spunbond technology, a commercially relevant and viable melt extrusion manufacturing approach that allows for facile scale-up.

Tuin SA; Pourdeyhimi B; Loboa EG

2013-10-01

35

Influence of dose and fiber type on respiratory malignancy risk in asbestos cement manufacturing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This investigation provides information concerning the risk or respiratory malignancy in relation to duration, degree, and fiber type of exposure to asbestos in a manufacturing cohort of 5,645 with long-term follow-up. Excess mortality for this cause was found in groups with moderate and high cumulative exposure (standard mortality ratios of 290 and 226). Analysis of the influence of components of total exposure dose (duration, average concentration) revealed no detectable excess risk in persons employed for less than 2 years or with low-degree average exposure. Exposure to corcidolite (blue) fiber in addition to the predominantly used chrysotile in pipe making appeared to be associated with higher risk than was exposure to chrysotile alone.

Weill H; Hughes J; Waggenspack C

1979-08-01

36

Influence of dose and fiber type on respiratory malignancy risk in asbestos cement manufacturing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation provides information concerning the risk or respiratory malignancy in relation to duration, degree, and fiber type of exposure to asbestos in a manufacturing cohort of 5,645 with long-term follow-up. Excess mortality for this cause was found in groups with moderate and high cumulative exposure (standard mortality ratios of 290 and 226). Analysis of the influence of components of total exposure dose (duration, average concentration) revealed no detectable excess risk in persons employed for less than 2 years or with low-degree average exposure. Exposure to corcidolite (blue) fiber in addition to the predominantly used chrysotile in pipe making appeared to be associated with higher risk than was exposure to chrysotile alone. PMID:475155

Weill, H; Hughes, J; Waggenspack, C

1979-08-01

37

Characteristics and oil sorption effectiveness of kapok fibre, sugarcane bagasse and rice husks: oil removal suitability matrix.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The characteristics and water/oil sorption effectiveness ofkapok fibre, sugarcane bagasse and rice husks have been compared. The three biomass types were subjected to field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and surface tension analyses for liquid-air and oil-water systems were conducted. Both kapok fibre and sugarcane bagasse exhibit excellent oil sorption capabilities for diesel, crude, new engine and used engine oils as their oil sorption capacities all exceed 10 g/g. The synthetic sorbent exhibits oil sorption capacities comparable with sugarcane bagasse, while rice husks exhibit the lowest oil sorption capacities among all the sorbents. Kapok fibre shows overwhelmingly high oil-to-water sorption (O/W) ratios ranging from 19.35 to 201.53 while sugarcane bagasse, rice husks and synthetic sorbent have significantly lower O/W ratios (0.76-2.69). This suggests that kapok fibre is a highly effective oil sorbent even in well-mixed oil-water media. An oil sorbent suitability matrix is proposed to aid stakeholders in evaluating customized oil removal usage of the natural sorbents.

Ali N; El-Harbawi M; Jabal AA; Yin CY

2012-02-01

38

Studies on radiation resistance of fiber reinforced plastic composites featured by easiness of manufacturing, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Mechanical properties of glass fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRP) irradiated at room temperature with electron beams were studied in order to characterize the radiation resistance. Mechanical properties were tested by flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) at room and low temperature, and flexural fatigue strength at room temperature. The GFRP used in the present study were manufactured trial with three kinds of epoxy matrices having excellent radiation resistance at room temperature and easiness of manufacturing. These composites prepared in selected curing condition were equipped with high flexural strength at low temperature, about two times at room temperature. GFRP composed of 4,4'-tetraglycidyl diamino diphenyl methane cured with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane showed the highest radiation resistance: the strength after irradiation up to 90 MGy were kept the initial value, that is, flexural strength of 1000 MPa at 77 K and ILSS of 70 MPa at 123 K. It was also confirmed that the flexural strength measured at 4.2 K were well agreed with the values tested at 77 K. On the effects of fiber-matrix bonding materials by using different kinds and/or amount of silane coupling agents, the pronounced difference were found in the degradation behavior but did not affect to the flexural strength of the GFRP. Flexural fatigue behavior showed rather well radiation degradation comparing with three point bending strength at room temperature. (author)

1989-01-01

39

CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON FIBER EMISSIONS FROM CURRENT AND PROJECTED ACTIVITIES FOR THE MANUFACTURE AND DISPOSAL OF CARBON FIBER PRODUCTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Composite materials formed by impregnating a carbon or graphite fiber mat with plastic binders are being used increasingly in military, aerospace, sports and automotive applications. Carbon fibers are formed primarily from synthetic fibers carbonized in the absence of oxygen. Pos...

40

Neural network-based control for the fiber placement composite manufacturing process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), an artificial neural network-based control system has been developed and implemented to control laser heating for the fiber placement composite manufacturing process. This neurocontroller learns the inverse model of the process on-line to provide performance that improves with experience and excess that of conventional feedback control techniques. When untrained, the control system behaves as a proportional-integral (PI) controller. However, after learning from experience, the neural network feedforward control module provides control signals that greatly improve temperature tracking performance. Faster convergence to new temperature set points and reduced temperature deviation due to changing feed rate have been demonstrated on the machine. A cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) network is used for inverse modeling because of its rapid learning performance. This control system is implemented in an IBM-compatible 386 PC with an A/D board interface to the machine.

Lichtenwalner, P.F. (Intelligent Systems Development, St. Louis, MO (United States). McDonnell Douglas Aerospace)

1993-10-01

 
 
 
 
41

Three-phase Coupling of Air, Droplets and Fibers for the Spray Molding Manufacturing Process of Polyurethane-Fiber-Reinforced Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present paper the authors present a multiphase flow simulation model of the interaction of a droplet-laden air flow with flexible fibers. This highly complex flow is occurring during a manufacturing process of fiber reinforced polyurethane based composites, where the liquid plastic polyurethane (PUR) is sprayed with air assistance in a tool form or on a substrate. Simultaneously chopped fibers are laterally inserted in the polyurethane-air spray cone for wetting before the entire mixture deposits on the substrate, where it starts curing. This investigation aims to compute the statistical fiber orientation and density distribution in the final composite, which will help modeling its anisotropic material properties. It is presumed that the final position and orientation of a fiber on a substrate results from its dynamics and coupled interactions with air, PUR-droplets and other fibers within the spray cone. Therefore, we present a new approach simplifying the multiply coupled interaction of the three phases. In this paper a model of the process is built, that computes the transient, 4-way-coupled behavior of the air-liquid droplets mixture with the CFD code ANSYS Fluent and the 1-way-air- and 1-way-droplet-coupled dynamics of the fibers with an extra code called FIDYST. Two approaches for the coupling of fibers with the air-droplets-mixture are presented: One considers the mixture as a pseudo-fluid (``homogenization''), the other computes a force for each of the phases separately, wherein the average momentum transfer for the fiber-droplet collision is estimated based on the probability of local collision events.

Diffo, P.; Wulf, P.; Breuer, M.

2011-09-01

42

Biological sulfate removal from acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater using a two-stage UASB reactor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A two-stage UASB reactor was employed to remove sulfate from acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater. Mesophilic operation (35 +/- 0.5 degree C) was performed with hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied between 28 and 40 hr. Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) in the reactor was maintained about 8000 mg/L. The results indicated that sulfate removal was enhanced with increasing the ratio of COD/SO4(2-). At low COD/SO4(2-), the growth of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was carbon-limited. The optimal sulfate removal efficiencies were 75% when the HRT was no less than 38 hr. Sulfidogenesis mainly happened in the sulfate-reducing stage, while methanogenesis in the methane-producing stage. Microbes in sulfate-reducing stage performed granulation better than that in methane-producing stage. Higher extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content in sulfate-reducing stage helped to adhere and connect the flocculent sludge particles together. SRB accounted for about 31% both in sulfate-reducing stage and methane-producing stage at COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 0.5, while it dropped dramatically from 34% in sulfate-reducing stage to 10% in methane-producing stage corresponding to the COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 4.7. SRB and MPA were predominant in sulfate-reducing stage and methane-producing stage respectively.

Li J; Wang J; Luan Z; Ji Z; Yu L

2012-01-01

43

Biological sulfate removal from acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater using a two-stage UASB reactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-stage UASB reactor was employed to remove sulfate from acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater. Mesophilic operation (35 +/- 0.5 degree C) was performed with hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied between 28 and 40 hr. Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) in the reactor was maintained about 8000 mg/L. The results indicated that sulfate removal was enhanced with increasing the ratio of COD/SO4(2-). At low COD/SO4(2-), the growth of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was carbon-limited. The optimal sulfate removal efficiencies were 75% when the HRT was no less than 38 hr. Sulfidogenesis mainly happened in the sulfate-reducing stage, while methanogenesis in the methane-producing stage. Microbes in sulfate-reducing stage performed granulation better than that in methane-producing stage. Higher extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content in sulfate-reducing stage helped to adhere and connect the flocculent sludge particles together. SRB accounted for about 31% both in sulfate-reducing stage and methane-producing stage at COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 0.5, while it dropped dramatically from 34% in sulfate-reducing stage to 10% in methane-producing stage corresponding to the COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 4.7. SRB and MPA were predominant in sulfate-reducing stage and methane-producing stage respectively. PMID:22655398

Li, Jin; Wang, Jun; Luan, Zhaokun; Ji, Zhongguang; Yu, Lian

2012-01-01

44

Utilization of Non -oven Jute felt - A natural Fiber as a Substitution of Wood Veneer for Manufacture of Plywood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the suitability of using core veneer made from renewable natural fiber i.e. Non-oven jute felt, which is the second most widely used natural fiber for manufacturing of plywood was investigated to minimize the gap between demand and supply of wood veneer. The renewable natural hard jute fibre was impregnated with phenolic resin and was used for the manufacture of plywood. Plywood of 4 mm, 6 mm, 12 mm and 18 mm thick were manufactured by using phenolic resin impregnated jute felt having thickness 16mm of 1850 GSM (approx.) as a core in place of the natural wood veneer. From the study, it can be inferred that PF Resin impregnated Non oven jute felt as a natural fibre can suitably replace the wooden glue core veneer to manufacture ply board up to 80% as an alternative substitute of wood. The physico-mechanical properties such as surface roughness, moisture content, density, water absorption, swelling, compressive strength, tensile strength, static bending strength, glue shear strength, of the plywood manufactured by using jute felt as core veneer with different resin dilution have been studied. Data revels that most of the physico-mechanical properties of the plywood showed satisfactory results meeting the requirement of different grades of plywood tested as per IS: 1734 - 1983. The accelerated study of the glued core after impregnation with jute felt have been carried out for three months before plywood manufacture after storing it in proper temperature and humidity. The data revealed that there is no appreciable change in bond quality and mechanical properties of the plyboard manufactured after storing the veneer up to 30 days. The study concluded that wood substituted jute composites could be an ideal solution with ever depleting forest reserves where utilization of renewable resources will be beneficiary for plywood industries to meet the challenges during scarcity of veneer by reducing the cost of imported veneer.

Mr. S.C.Sahoo; Mr. Amitava Sil; Mr. P.K.Khatua

2012-01-01

45

Manufacture and characterization of an extrinsic elementary fiber-optical sensor for temperature measurement; Herstellung und Charakterisierung eines extrinsischen faseroptischen Elementarsensors zur Temperaturmessung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Manufacture and characterization of an elementary fiber-optical sensor for temperature measurement is presented. The prism-shaped head of the sensor consisting of indium phosphide uses the temperature dependency of the absorption edge. The dimensions of the prism require a manufacturing method bridging fine mechanics and microsystems technology. (orig.)

Trautner, Ralph [Fachhochschule Regensburg (Germany); Schmauss, Bernhard [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Hochfrequenztechnik; Shamonin, Mikhail [Fachhochschule Regensburg (Germany). Sensorik, Messtechnik und elektromagnetische Metamaterialien

2008-07-01

46

Study of Heat Transfer in a Kapok Material from the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient and the Excitation Pulse of Solicitations External Climatic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize thermal insulating local material, kapok, from a study in 3 dimensions in Cartesian coordinate and in dynamic frequency regime. From a study a 3 dimensional the heat transfer through a material made of wool kapok (thermal conductivity: &lambda = 0,035 W/m/K; density: &rho = 12, 35 kg/m3; thermal diffusivity: &alpha = 17, 1.10-7 m2 /s) is presented. The evolution curves of temperature versus convective heat transfer coefficient have helped highlight the importance of pulse excitation and the depth in the material. The thermal impedance is studied from representations of Nyquist and Bode diagrams allowing characterizing the thermal behavior from thermistors. The evolution of the thermal impedance with the thermal capacity of the material is presented.

M. Dieng; I. Diagne; B. Fleur; A. Kane; M.L. Sow; G. Sissoko

2013-01-01

47

Manufacture of oriented board using mild steam treatment of plant fiber bundles  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the effects of mild steam treatment (0.1 MPa for 2 h) of natural bio-based fibers and orientation (0° and 90°) of those fibers in various fiberboards. Ramie bast, pineapple leaf, and sansevieria fiber bundles were used as materials. The composite fiberboards were prepared using phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin. To investigate the effect of mild steam treatment on wettability, contact angles of PF resin to the fiber were measured. The mechanical properties of the boards were examined as well as their dimensional stability. The contact angle data showed that mild steam treatment was effective in improving the wettability of fibers. Unioriented steam-treated boards showed better performance of internal bond (IB), moduli of rupture (MOR) and elasticity (MOE), thickness swelling (TS), and water absorption (WA) than other boards. Unioriented steam-treated sansevieria board with longitudinal fiber direction showed higher average values of MOR (403 MPa), MOE (39.2 GPa), and IB (1.33 MPa) and lower values of TS (5.15%) and WA (8.68%) than other boards. The differences in the mechanical properties and dimensional stability of boards were found mainly due to the differences in the ratios of fiber fraction of the boards to the density of the fiber bundles.

Munawar SasaSofyan; Umemura Kenji; Kawai Shuichi

2008-10-01

48

Manufacture of a weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold with excellent biocompatibility and space maintenance ability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although collagen scaffolds have been used for regenerative medicine, they have insufficient mechanical strength. We made a weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold from a collagen fiber suspension (physiological pH 7.4) through a process of freeze drying and denaturation with heat under low pressure (1 × 10(-1) Pa). Heat treatment formed cross-links between the collagen fibers, providing the scaffold with sufficient mechanical strength to maintain the space for tissue regeneration in vivo. The scaffold was embedded under the back skin of a rat, and biocompatibility and space maintenance ability were examined after 2 weeks. These were evaluated by using the ratio of foreign body giant cells and thickness of the residual scaffold. A weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold with moderate biocompatibility and space maintenance ability was made by freezing at -10 °C, followed by denaturation at 140 °C for 6 h. In addition, the direction of the collagen fibers in the scaffold was adjusted by cooling the suspension only from the bottom of the container. This process increased the ratio of cells that infiltrated into the scaffold. A weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold thus made can be used for tissue regeneration or delivery of cells or proteins to a target site.

Nakada A; Shigeno K; Sato T; Kobayashi T; Wakatsuki M; Uji M; Nakamura T

2013-08-01

49

Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

Diet - fiber; Roughage; Bulk ... Dietary fiber adds bulk to your diet. Because it makes you feel full faster, it can be helpful in controlling weight. Fiber aids digestion, helps prevent constipation , and is sometimes ...

50

Properties of SBS and sisal fiber composites: ecological material for shoe manufacturing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The worldwide trend toward using cheap, atoxic and durable materials from renewable resources contributes to sustainable development. Thus, the investigation of the potential use of vegetal fibers as reinforcing agent in polymeric composites has gained new significance. Sisal fiber has emerged as a reinforcing material for polymers used in automobile, footwear and civil industries. In this work, properties such as hardness, tensile strength and tear strength of polymer co (more) mposites composed by block copolymer styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and 5, 10 and 20% by weight of sisal fiber were evaluated. The influence of conventional polymer processing techniques such as single-screw and double-screw extrusion, as well as the addition of coupling agent on the composite mechanical performance was investigated. Also, the morphology and thermal stability of the composites were analyzed. The addition of 2 wt. (%) maleic anhydride as coupling agent between sisal fiber and SBS has improved the composite mechanical performance and the processing in a double-screw extruder has favored the sisal fiber distribution in the SBS matrix.

Verney, José Carlos Krause de; Lima, Martha Fogliato Santos; Lenz, Denise Maria

2008-12-01

51

Biocompatible porous hollow fiber and method of manufacture and use thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A biocompatible porous hollow fiber made of a polyolefine material and having a coating of biocompatible carbon material herein said coating is obtainable by a process comprising the following steps: introducing a preformed porous hollow fiber into an atmosphere of gaseous monomer vinylidene chloride (1,1 di-chloroethylene); inducing a graft-polymerisation reaction and grafting a uniform layer of polyvinylidene chloride on the polyolefine material forming said porous hollow fiber; and substantially eliminating and removing hydrogene chloride (dehydrochlorination reaction) from said polyvinylidene chloride in order to convert said polyvinylidene chloride layer into a coating of biocompatible carbon material. Preferably said graft-polymerisation reaction may be induced by means of an ionising radiation, especially by means of a gamma radiation. Preferably said substantial removal of hydrogene chloride may be performed by treating the coated hollow fiber with a hot concentrated aqueous ammonia solution. Preferably said dehydrochlorination reaction may be continued in order to reduce a residual chlorine content of the coating to less than 6% based on the chlorine content of the original polyvinylidene chloride layer. The thus obtained coated porous hollow fiber may be used as exchange materials, diaphragmas and/or semipermeable membranes within devices which will contact blood or plasma outside of the living body. Those devices include oxygenators, dialyzer apparatuses, dialyzer filter apparatuses, hemoconcentrator devices, plasma filter devices, blood filter devices, heat exchange devices within oxygenators, infusion membranes and similar exchange devices.

Frey Rainer H.; Sellin Lothar

52

Properties of SBS and sisal fiber composites: ecological material for shoe manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The worldwide trend toward using cheap, atoxic and durable materials from renewable resources contributes to sustainable development. Thus, the investigation of the potential use of vegetal fibers as reinforcing agent in polymeric composites has gained new significance. Sisal fiber has emerged as a reinforcing material for polymers used in automobile, footwear and civil industries. In this work, properties such as hardness, tensile strength and tear strength of polymer composites composed by block copolymer styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and 5, 10 and 20% by weight of sisal fiber were evaluated. The influence of conventional polymer processing techniques such as single-screw and double-screw extrusion, as well as the addition of coupling agent on the composite mechanical performance was investigated. Also, the morphology and thermal stability of the composites were analyzed. The addition of 2 wt. (%) maleic anhydride as coupling agent between sisal fiber and SBS has improved the composite mechanical performance and the processing in a double-screw extruder has favored the sisal fiber distribution in the SBS matrix.

José Carlos Krause de Verney; Martha Fogliato Santos Lima; Denise Maria Lenz

2008-01-01

53

A new US manufacturing capability of glass preforms for fiber optics in defense programs. Final project report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present project is a part of the program to develop ``A New US Manufacturing Capability of Fiber Optics in Defense Programs.`` The scope of the program extends beyond the limit of defense needs, impacting profoundly on important national issues such as, health industry vis-a-vis medical and insurance infrastructure as well as a great segment of commercial-industrial complex. At present, the glass preform -- critical raw material to produce the optical fiber, is 100% imported from Germany and Japan. Objectively, to create a domestic source, a cooperative project participated by Los Alamos and Polymicro began in the summer of 1991 to develop the cladding part of the glass preform. The goal was achieved by developing 0{center_dot}2NA preform, that was fabricated by Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD) of born and fluorine doped silica glass as cladding layer on a silica substrate tube and collapsing the tube on a solid silica rod as the core. The preform was finally drawn into 200 micron core optical fiber and delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Nath, D.K. [Polymicro Technologies, Inc., Phoenix, AZ (United States)

1992-06-01

54

Carbon fiber-reinforced carbon composite material and manufacturing method therefor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] For a composite material useful as heat shielding tiles for use in first walls of a thermonuclear reactor, a prefoam is formed by a large square rods formed by orienting carbon fibers in the axial direction into a cylindrical shape and arranging them in a matrix in longitudinal and lateral directions of a plate toward the direction of the thickness each at a predetermined distance, and thin square rods stacked in lattice-like manner between the large square rods. The prefoam is impregnated with a thermosetting resin or a pitch and carbonated by heating in an inactive atmosphere. The orientation ratio of the fibers in the direction of the plate thickness and fiber content can be increased to maintain the linearity of the fibers. High thermal conductivity can be provided in the direction of the plate thickness to maintain high thermal conductivity even under a high temperature thereby preventing reduction of the wall thickness due to erosion. The weaving step is simplified and the fabrication time and cost can be reduced. (N.H.)

1994-09-14

55

[Circulating immune complexes in workers in glass fiber-reinforced plastics manufacture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors examined 182 workers engaged in manufacturing of glass-reinforced plastics and revealed an increase of the level of circulating immune complexes and their content middle-molecular immune complexes. This makes it possible to suggest the pathogenetic role of circulating immune complexes in the development of allergic lesions in workers contacting with epoxide compounds.

Vitrishchak VIa; Frolov VM; Peresadin NA

1990-07-01

56

Oxidative Activation of Bagasse Fibers Surfaces in Medium Density Fiberboard Manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents the investigation of the effects of oxidant type (nitric acid and potassium dichromate), oxidant content (three different levels as 2, 4, and 6 percent) and urea- formaldehyde (UF) resin percentage (two levels as 5 and 7 percent) on mechanical and physical properties of interior grade medium density fiberboard made from bagasse fibers. Some panel properties were studied, such as modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) in bending, compression-shear strength (C.S sth.), water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) after 2- and 24-hour immersion in cold water. In addition, the results indicated the best values for WA and TS after 2- and 24-hour immersion, and C.S. sth. was discerned at 7 percent UF resin content, together with 6 percent nitric acid. Furthermore, the greatest values for MOR and MOE were related to 7 percent UF resin content together with 4 percent nitric acid.

Doosthoseini; Zarea Hosseinabadi; Moradpour

2013-01-01

57

Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 4.1 Intelligent Manufacturing of Hybrid Carbon-Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EXECUTIVE SUMARY In this subtask, the manufacturability of hybrid carbon-glass fiber-reinforced composite wind turbine blades using Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) was investigated. The objective of this investigation was to study the VARTM process and its parameters to manufacture cost-effective wind turbine blades with no defects (mainly eliminate dry spots and reduce manufacturing time). A 2.5-dimensional model and a 3-dimensional model were developed to simulate mold filling and part curing under different conditions. These conditions included isothermal and non-isothermal filling, curing of the part during and after filling, and placement of injection gates at different locations. Results from this investigation reveal that the process can be simulated and also that manufacturing parameters can be optimized to eliminate dry spot formation and reduce the manufacturing time. Using computer-based models is a cost-effective way to simulate manufacturing of wind turbine blades. The approach taken herein allows the design of the wind blade manufacturing processes without physically running trial-and-error experiments that are expensive and time-consuming; especially for larger blades needed for more demanding environmental conditions. This will benefit the wind energy industry by reducing initial design and manufacturing costs which can later be passed down to consumers and consequently make the wind energy industry more competitive.

Janet M Twomey, PhD

2010-04-30

58

Polyaniline-nanotube multifunctional fiber: capabilities toward the manufacturing of smart fabric  

Science.gov (United States)

Smart fabrics are those with electronic devices embedded in the material structure. Metallic fibres are not compatible with a comfortable fabric and flexible fibres with electronic capabilities are desired. Polyaniline (PANi) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) show potential for application in different electronic devices such as conductive yarn, sensor, actuator, battery, capacitor and diode. The development of fibres from these materials can be considered as potentially useful for the manufacturing of smart fabric which embedded non metallic electronic devices. This paper describes the influence of CNT addition on the electronic, mechanical of PANi-CNT composite fibre which was fabricated by a wet spinning process. PANi(EB)-nanotube (SWNT, DWNT)- dimethyl propylene urea (DMPU) composite spinning solution have been prepared by an ex-situ process. The size distribution of nanotubes has been characterized by zeta sizer. Furthermore the rheological study has been conducted for optimization of PANi/CNT weight ratio to produce solutions with suitable fluidity for spinning process. In spite of the great impact of nanotubes on the mechanical and electrical properties of PANi composite fibre, the structure of the composite is far from ideal and it can be proposed that by proper ex-situ and in-situ solution preparation and processing techniques further improvements in properties are possible.

Mottaghitalab, Vahid; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.

2004-02-01

59

Evaluating the impact of recycled fiber content on effluent recycling in newsprint manufacture.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the effect of using recycled fiber (RCF) in newsprint production on the effluent quality and its treatability using membrane operations for internal and external recycling and reuse. Increased chemical usage in RCF for deinking had significant impact on the silica and sodium content of the effluent which in turn limits the membrane's operation. Increasing the RCF content from 0% to 50% is estimated to increase the silica content from 4 to 119mgL(-1) and sodium content from 135 to 500mgL(-1). A process model was developed to calculate the impact of these excess chemicals on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and brine disposal for an integrated membrane plant design producing 4MLday(-1) of recycled water. As the ratio of RCF increased from 0% to 50% in the mill process, the operating pressure increased for nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Additionally, organics presence in the feed increased the NF operating pressure above the simulated value and reduced the silica removal efficiency by 15%. Incorporation of lime coagulation pretreatment was found to be essential to operate RO at high recoveries with relatively GHG emissions. Without pretreatment, as RCF content increased from 0% to 50%, RO recovery decreased from 80% to 22% and the expended GHG increased from 0.9 to 3.5kgCO2m(-3). Although the excess sodium concentration limits the brine disposal for irrigation purposes, a partial blending of the treated wastewater with other process streams resulted in the reduction of sodium absorption ratio by 20%. PMID:23668963

Negaresh, Ebrahim; Antony, Alice; Cox, Shane; Lucien, Frank P; Richardson, Desmond E; Leslie, Greg

2013-05-10

60

ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS LIGNIN DERIVED FROM CORN STOVER AS AN INTRINSTIC BINDER FOR BIO-COMPOSITES MANUFACTURE: EFFECT OF FIBER MOISTURE CONTENT AND PRESSING TEMPERATURE ON BOARDS’ PROPERTIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL) and cotton stalk fibers were prepared under various manufacturing conditions, and their physico-mechanical properties were evaluated. Full factorial experimental design was used to assess the effect of fiber moisture content and pressing temperature on boards’ properties. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg) of EHL. We found that both fiber moisture content and pressing temperature had significant effects on binderless fiberboards’ properties. High fiber moisture content and pressing temperature are suggested to contribute to the self-bonding improvement among fibers with lignin-rich surface mainly by thermal softening enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. In this experiment, the optimized pressing temperature applied in binderless fiberboard production should be as high as 190°C in accordance with the EHL Tg value of 189.4°C, and the fiber moisture content should be limited to less than 20% with a higher board density of 950 kg/m3 to avoid the delamination of boards during hot pressing.

Xiaoyan Zhou; Lijuan Tang; Weidong Zhang; Chenglong Lv; Fei Zheng; Rong Zhang; Guanben Du; Bijun Tang; Xueyuan Liu

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Electric power control system used in synthetic fiber manufacturing lines. Gosei sen'i seizo line yo denki seigyo system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes an electric power control system used in synthetic fiber manufacturing lines. Synthetic fiber making machines have their characteristic requirements in the specifications that require special functions to satisfy the requirements. The functions include the followings; because inverter operation must continue even during a momentary power failure, such a method is used widely that the inverter will not trip at the momentary power failure, and pick up the motor after power restoration to continue the operation; a method to use electrolytic capacitors for back-up may be used; a traverse device for thread winding has its speed varied as required, hence requiring an inverter that has traverse output frequency patterns; thread guarding requires a function to switch synchronism between an entrance inverter and an operating inverter; if a failure has occurred to a motor in a multi-drive system, a selective interruption system works effectively to continue normal operation of the motor; and in engineering the electric apparatuses in synthetic fiber manufacturing lines, it is necessary to conceive the whole line as one system. 6 figs.

Miyazaki, K. (Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

1994-06-30

62

Occupational exposures to styrene vapor in a manufacturing plant for fiber-reinforced composite wind turbine blades.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: A utility-scale wind turbine blade manufacturing plant requested assistance from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in controlling worker exposures to styrene at a plant that produced 37 and 42 m long fiber-reinforced wind turbine blades. The plant requested NIOSH assistance because previous air sampling conducted by the company indicated concerns about peak styrene concentrations when workers entered the confined space inside of the wind turbine blade. NIOSH researchers conducted two site visits and collected personal breathing zone and area air samples while workers performed the wind turbine blade manufacturing tasks of vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), gelcoating, glue wiping, and installing the safety platform. METHODS: All samples were collected during the course of normal employee work activities and analyzed for styrene using NIOSH Method 1501. All sampling was task based since full-shift sampling from a prior Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) compliance inspection did not show any exposures to styrene above the OSHA permissible exposure limit. During the initial NIOSH site visit, 67 personal breathing zone and 18 area air samples were collected while workers performed tasks of VARTM, gelcoating, glue wipe, and installation of a safety platform. After the initial site visit, the company made changes to the glue wipe task that eliminated the need for workers to enter the confined space inside of the wind turbine blade. During the follow-up site visit, 12 personal breathing zone and 8 area air samples were collected from workers performing the modified glue wipe task. RESULTS: During the initial site visit, the geometric means of the personal breathing zone styrene air samples were 1.8 p.p.m. (n = 21) for workers performing the VARTM task, 68 p.p.m. (n = 5) for workers installing a safety platform, and 340 p.p.m. (n = 14) for workers performing the glue wipe task, where n is the number of workers sampled for a given mean result. Gelcoating workers included job categories of millers, gelcoat machine operators, and gelcoaters. Geometric mean personal breathing zone styrene air samples were 150 p.p.m. (n = 6) for millers, 87 p.p.m. (n = 2) for the gelcoat machine operators, and 66 p.p.m. (n = 19) for gelcoaters. The geometric mean of the personal breathing zone styrene air samples from the glue wipe task measured during the follow-up site visit was 31 p.p.m. (n = 12). CONCLUSIONS: The closed molding VARTM process was very effective at controlling worker exposures to styrene. Personal breathing zone styrene air samples were reduced by an order of magnitude after changes were made to the glue wipe task. The company used chemical substitution to eliminate styrene exposure during the installation of the safety platform. Recommendations were provided to reduce styrene concentrations during gelcoating.

Hammond D; Garcia A; Feng HA

2011-07-01

63

Local design, testing and manufacturing of small mixed airfoil wind turbine blades of glass fiber reinforced plastics. Pt. 2: Manufacturing of the blade and rotor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind energy has attracted a greater deal of attention in recent years in Jordan as one of the possible alternative renewable energy resources. Almost all of the local research and development activities in this field were directed to explore, develop and optimally utilise wind energy systems. The time has come to establish a link between the local scientific (academic) work and local industries to produce a usable technology which will increase the local share in an inevitably emerging wind energy industry in Jordan. To achieve this goal, a well founded manufacturing base is required. In part I of this research, two airfoil sections were chosen and the rotor blade was designed as a combination of these airfoils. In this paper (part II), the blade and the blade rotor will be manufactured, tested and its performance examined. The rotor was manufactured of GRP composite material and then installed on a 15 kW grid connected, pitch controlled wind machine. The blade has also passed successfully all required tests and, when installed on a functional wind turbine, performed satisfactorily with a favorable power coefficient of 41.2%. (Author)

Habali, S.M. [Jordan Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Amman (Jordan); Saleh, I.A. [Royal Scientific Society, Renewable Energy Center, Amman (Jordan)

2000-07-01

64

Some features of the fiber-matrix reaction occurring during the manufacture of an aluminum-boron composite material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors study the early stages of the reaction between the components of an aluminum-boron composite material preceding the stage of vigorous bromide formation. They conclude that in the formation of the matrix-fiber reaction zone during the pressing of the fiber composite material, plastic deformation of the foil leads to rupture of the surface oxide films along the grain boundaries of the matrix alloy. A physiochemical reaction resulting in intermetallic compound phases can be induced by plastic deformation of the aluminum foil at low temperatures. The relative size of the reaction zone can be controlled by varying the grain size of the matrix.

Dautova, L.I.; Landa, E.M.

1985-06-01

65

Ultra-miniature all-glass Fabry-Pérot pressure sensor manufactured at the tip of a multimode optical fiber  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The design and fabrication of an ultra-miniature all-glass pressure sensor with a diameter of 125 m are presented. The sensor consists of a thin flexible silica membrane fused on a capillary tube section, which is assembledat the tip of a standard multimode fiber, thus forming a Fabry-Pérot air cavi...

Pinet, Eric; Cibula, Edvard; Ðonlagi?, Denis

66

75 FR 34943 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Para-Aramid Fibers and Yarns Manufactured in a...  

Science.gov (United States)

...that they produce yarn products made from DuPont Kevlar. DuPont supplies its Kevlar staple fiber to four major and six minor yarn...filament para-aramid yarns: DuPont TM which makes Kevlar[supreg], and the Teijin Group which makes...

2010-06-21

67

Recycling of Glass Fibers from Fiberglass Polyester Waste Composite for the Manufacture of Glass-Ceramic Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work presents the feasibility of reusing a glass fiber resulting from the thermolysis and gasification of waste composites to obtain glass-ceramic tiles. Polyester fiberglass (PFG) waste was treated at 550? for 3 h in a 9.6 dm3 thermolytic reactor. This process yielded an...

Felix Antonio López; Maria Isabel Martín; Irene García-Díaz; Olga Rodríguez; Francisco Jose Alguacil; Maximina Romero

68

Boron and/or silicon containing one directional carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite material and manufacturing method therefor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present invention concerns a material for first walls used in a thermonuclear reactor. In one directional carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materials, at least one of boron, silicon and compounds thereof having an average grain size of not greater than 10?m is incorporated homogeneously by from 2 to 45wt% as boron and/or silicon in a matrix. In addition, the volume content of the capacity of the carbon fibers is determined from 45 to 75%. This can provide heat conductivity and mechanical property which are satisfactory for a material of the first walls of a thermonuclear reactor and also provide high bending strength and low elasticity in 90deg direction. (T.M.)

1995-02-22

69

Recycling of Glass Fibers from Fiberglass Polyester Waste Composite for the Manufacture of Glass-Ceramic Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents the feasibility of reusing a glass fiber resulting from the thermolysis and gasification of waste composites to obtain glass-ceramic tiles. Polyester fiberglass (PFG) waste was treated at 550? for 3 h in a 9.6 dm3 thermolytic reactor. This process yielded an oil (?24 wt%), a gas (?8 wt%) and a solid residue (?68 wt%). After the polymer has been removed, the solid residue is heated in air to oxidize residual char and remove surface contamination. The cleaning fibers were converted into glass-ceramic tile. A mixture consisting of 95 wt% of this solid residue and 5% Na2O was melted at 1450? to obtain a glass frit. Powder glass samples (<63 ?m) was then sintered and crystallized at 1013?, leading to the formation of wollastonite-plagioclase glass-ceramic materials for architectural applications. Thermal stability and crystallization mechanism have been studied by Differential Thermal Analysis. Mineralogy analyses of the glass-ceramic materials were carried out using X-ray Diffraction.

Felix Antonio López; Maria Isabel Martín; Irene García-Díaz; Olga Rodríguez; Francisco Jose Alguacil; Maximina Romero

2012-01-01

70

Local design, testing and manufacturing of small mixed airfoil wind turbine blades of glass fiber reinforced plastics. Pt. 1: Design of the blade and root  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind energy has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years in Jordan as one of the possible alternative renewable energy resources. Almost of the local research and development activities in this field were directed to explore, develop, and optimal utilisation of energy systems. The time has come to establish a link between local scientific (academic) work and local industries to produce a usable technology which will increase the local share in an inevitably emerging wind energy industry in Jordan. To achieve this goal, a well founded manufacturing based is required. The most important component of a Wind Energy Converter is the rotor. The efficiency of a rotor is characterised by its profile (airfoil section) and the corresponding aerodynamic design. A selection procedure of airfoil section and the aerodynamic design of the blade for a small wind turbine are discussed and implemented in this paper (Part I). It is found that for small blades up to 5 m long, two different air foils mixed at the outer third of the span will be sufficient and demonstrated good strength and aerodynamic characteristics. As a composite material, the Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic was used in designing the rotor blade. This rotor was then installed on 15 kW grid-connected-pitch-controlled machine. A static proof load test indicated that this blade could withstand loads ten times the normal working thrust, and a field performance test showed that the rotor blade has a 41.2% measured average power coefficient. (Author)

Habali, S.M. [Jordan Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Amman (Jordan); Saleh, I.A. [Royal Scientific Society, Renewable Energy Center, Amman (Jordan)

2000-07-01

71

Using a Fiber Loop and Fiber Bragg Grating as a Fiber Optic Sensor to Simultaneously Measure Temperature and Displacement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to th...

Yao-Tang Chang; Chih-Ta Yen; Yue-Shiun Wu; Hsu-Chih Cheng

72

INCLUSION OF KAPOK SEED OIL IN THE DIET FOR GROWING OF THIN-TAILED SHEEP TO REDUCE CHOLESTEROL AND TO IMPROVE OMEGA-SIX FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF LAMB  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the influence of protected kapok seed oil (PKSO) supplementation in its combination with concentrate, in this case was rice bran (RB) on lipid content of thin tailed sheep received field grass as basal feed. A number of 24 heads of male thin-tailed sheep were used as experimental material. These sheep were divided into 8 treatment groups. There were two treatment factors, i.e. : PKSO supplementation (S) as factor I and RB supplementation (K) as factor II. Factor I consisted of 2 levels, i.e. 0% (S0) and 10% (S1), whereas factor II consist of 4 levels, i.e. 0% (K0), 15% (K1), 30% (K2) and 45% (K3), respectively, based on dry matter (DM) intake. Several variables were measured, namely content of intra muscular fat (IMF), iodine number of muscular fatty acid, content of meat cholesterol and omega 6 fatty acid (in this case linoleic acid). The collected data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance with factorial treatment pattern (2 x 4) in completely randomized design (CRD). Content of IMF in sheep supplemented with 0 and 15% KSO levels was not significantly different from those without kapok seed oil (KSO) supplementation at the same level of RB feeding (3.45 and 3.99% vs 3.01 and 3.75%). Supplementation of protected KSO in combination with 30 and 45% RP resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05) IMF content (4.75 and 5.93% vs 4.32 and 5.40%) and significantly decreased (P < 0.05) meat chollesterol content (62.46 and 65.26 mg/100 g vs 89.21 and 72.63 mg/100 g ) also significantly increased (P < 0.05) linoleic acid proportion (15.52 and 18.25% vs 3.68 and 4.04%) and iodine number (12.52 and 10.25 vs 4.09 and 4.98).

Widiyanto; M. Soejono; H. Hartadi; Z. Bachrudin; Surahmanto

2012-01-01

73

Design of optical fiber cables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cables that optical fibers are made into are discussed. Due to the fragile nature of optical fibers, the cables must supply protection from damage during manufacture, installation, and service. Common operating temperatures range from -55 to 155/sup 0/C, creating another critical demand on cables. Two specific designs are analyzed. Attention increments and fiber strength are topics of discussion.

Ramsay, M.M.; Russell, J.N.; Titchmarsh, J.G.

1982-01-01

74

Optical fibers for FTTH application  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper the specifics of FTTH (Fiber To The Home) networks in terms of requirements for optical fibers has been presented. Optical fiber samples used in FTTH applications acquired from the worldwide leading manufacturers were subjected to small diameter mandrel wraps tests. The detailed procedures of performed tests and the measurement results has been presented.

Guzowski, Bartlomiej; Tosik, Grzegorz; Lisik, Zbigniew; Bedyk, Michal; Kubiak, Andrzej

2013-07-01

75

Composite Ground Wire with Optical Fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composite ground wire with optical fiber (OPT-GW) designed with a tight fiber unit shows stable characteristics through manufacturing, installation, and operation. This paper explains the structure, accessories, and performance characteristics of OPT-...

C. R. Russ N. Misono A. Okazato T. Kobayashi

1986-01-01

76

Fibered Correspondence  

CERN Document Server

Base of fibered correspodence is arbitrary correspodence. Fibered correspodence is interesting when we consider relationship between different bundles. However composition of fibered correspodences may not always be defined. Reduced fibered correspodence is defined only between fibers over the same point of base. Reduced fibered correspodenc in bundle is called 2-ary fibered relation.

Kleyn, Aleks

2007-01-01

77

Optical fiber placement for crossover-free fiber optic gyros  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) coils have traditionally been produced by cylindrical winding techniques. Regardless of the type of cylindrical wind, standard or quadrupolar, the resulting coils contain fiber crossovers that degrade performance. In 1998, the U.S. Army patented a fiber coil configuration that essentially eliminated crossovers, was thermally symmetric, and allowed the use of inexpensive single-mode (SM) fiber. The crossover-free fiber optic gyro (CFOG) necessitated a paradigm shift in coil production methodology. The CFOG coil design was analyzed in depth to determine manufacturability. Design enhancements were made to enable automated high speed fabrication, resulting in the Improved Crossover-free Fiber Optic Gyro (ICFOG). A prototype Fiber Placement Machine (FPM) was designed and constructed to produce CFOG coils. The fiber placement concept was verified by producing test articles and complete coils.

Williams, Marty

2006-09-01

78

Manufacturing of Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites Used Al[sub 2] O[sub 3] Short Fiber and Al[sub 2] O[sub 3]-Ti C Composite Powder Synthesized by SHS Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metal matrix composites have been extensively studied because of their excellent characteristics for structural application. Al[sub 2] O[sub 3] and Si C have been used as a common reinforcement owing to their good mechanical properties. However the manufacturing cost of these ceramic reinforcement is expensive, so the use of the composites have been restricted to special purposes. In this study, we tested the application possibility as a reinforcement of Al[sub 2] O[sub 3]-Ti C powder synthesized by SHS(Self-propagation High-temperature Synthesis) process to Al alloy matrix composite. Also, Al[sub 2] O[sub 3] short fibers were added with the synthesized powders in order to apply to the Al matrix hybrid composites. Squeeze infiltration casting process was used to make the composite with 25 vol% of reinforcement. Microstructure and crystal structure were examined by SEM, OM and XRD, also the mechanical properties were studied by the compressive test and wear test. (author). 18 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Kim, D.H.; Maeng, D.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Won, C.W. (Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of))

1999-03-01

79

Manufacturing Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Manufacturing Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Manufacturing Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) focuses on developing methods and technologies that will assist manufacturers of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, as well as other renewable energy technologies, to scale up their manufacturing capabilities to volumes that meet DOE and industry targets. Specifically, the manufacturing activity is currently focused on developing and validating quality control techniques to assist manufacturers of low temperature and high temperature fuel cells in the transition from low to high volume production methods for cells and stacks. Capabilities include initial proof-of-concept studies through prototype system development and in-line validation. Existing diagnostic capabilities address a wide range of materials, including polymer films, carbon and catalyst coatings, carbon fiber papers and wovens, and multi-layer assemblies of these materials, as well as ceramic-based materials in pre- or post-fired forms. Work leading to the development of non-contact, non-destructive techniques to measure critical dimensional and functional properties of fuel cell and other materials, and validation of those techniques on the continuous processing line. This work will be supported by materials provided by our partners. Looking forward, the equipment in the laboratory is set up to be modified and extended to provide processing capabilities such as coating, casting, and deposition of functional layers, as well as associated processes such as drying or curing. In addition, continuous processes are used for components of organic and thin film photovoltaics (PV) as well as battery technologies, so synergies with these important areas will be explored.

2011-10-01

80

Fiber Reinforced Polymer Horseshoe  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of manufacturing custom and standard sized Fiber reinforced polymer horseshoe by utilizing vacuum molding. The specified horseshoe is produced from a mold rendered from a three dimension image, gathered by utilizing three dimensional scanning techniques, by casting a mold directly to the hoof, and or casting standard sized horseshoes. Standard sized horseshoes have set specified dimensions to which a mold can be produced from a polymer, metal, or composite. Horseshoes can be manufactured for a wide array of equine applications including horse racing, jumping, military, and law enforcement applications. Previously Fiber reinforced polymers have not been used in abrasion resistant applications, however this invention will use fiber reinforced polymers to both reduce weight of the horse shoe, and increase abrasion resistance in such a manner that cannot be met with conventional metal horseshoes.

BERGHORN CHRISTOPHER; MCGANN RYAN

 
 
 
 
81

Micro Manufacturing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance. If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management addresses these issues for products based on metal, polymers and ceramics.

Hansen, Hans NØrgaard

2003-01-01

82

Airclad fiber laser technology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems require specially designed fibers with large cores and good power handling capabilities - requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 ?m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350 W CW fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. Finally, we briefly touch upon the subject of photo darkening andits origin.

Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

2008-01-01

83

Fiber diffraction without fibers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Postprocessing of diffraction patterns of completely randomly oriented helical particles, as measured, for example, in so-called "diffract-and-destroy" experiments with an x-ray free electron laser can yield "fiber diffraction" patterns expected of fibrous bundles of the particles. This will allow "single-axis alignment" to be performed computationally, thus obviating the need to do this by experimental means such as forming fibers and laser or flow alignment. The structure of such particles may then be found by either iterative phasing methods or standard methods of fiber diffraction.

Poon HC; Schwander P; Uddin M; Saldin DK

2013-06-01

84

Digital manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

The applications for Rapid Prototyping have broadened to the point where the name no longer fits the industry. The name Digital Manufacturing is proposed for the creation of solid articles from computer data without part-specific tooling and minimal geometric restrictions. The current state of the industry is reviewed and applications are classified by material strength and process accuracy. Today designers can have a 3D Printer in their office to build models and prototypes as casually as they would use an office copier. Improved materials and processes are permitting digitally manufactured articles to be used for tooling and end-use applications.

Bredt, James F.

2000-11-01

85

Fiber alignment using electric fields in novel processing of aligned discontinuous fiber composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Micro-mechanics models predict that the elastic properties of discontinuous fiber composites approach those of continuous fiber composites when the length of the reinforcements far exceeds the critical fiber length and when the fibers are aligned in the direction of the applied stress. Short fiber composites are typically limited to low performance applications due to the problems in processing long fibers at high volume fractions with controlled fiber orientation. To overcome this performance limitation, a novel approach has been developed where the advances in polymer powder processing of composites is coupled with the phenomenon of fiber alignment in electro-magnetic fields to process aligned discontinuous fiber composites. Starting with fibers of lengths greater than critical fiber length, the Aligned Discontinuous Fiber (ADF) composite process in its general form consists of three unit operations: controlling fiber alignment using electric fields in air; dry polymer powder impregnation of fibers; and compression molding of the flexible aligned discontinuous fiber mat into a composite. This dry, solvent free approach offers tremendous scope for fast fiber alignment in air, resulting in a rapid manufacturing technique for high performance, micro-structure controlled, short fiber composites with a high degree of automation. In this brief communication, the parameters that affect the orientation of fibers in electric fields in the ADF process are reported.

Vyakarnam, M.N. [Johnson & Johnson Corporate Biomaterials Center, Somerville, NJ (United States); Drzal, L.T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1996-12-31

86

Coated metal fiber coalescing cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cell is described for coalescing oil droplets dispersed in a water emulsion including an elongated perforated tube core into which the emulsion is injected, layers of oleophilic plastic covered metal mat wound about the core through which the emulsion is forced to pass, the fibers of the metal mat being covered by oleophilic plastic such as vinyl, acrylic, polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, the metal being in the form of layers of expanded metal or metal fibers, either aluminum or stainless steel. In manufacturing the cell a helix wound wire is formed around the cylindrical plastic coated metal to retain it in place and resist pressure drop of fluid flowing through the metal fibers. In addition, the preferred arrangement includes the use of an outer sleeve formed of a mat of fibrous material such as polyester fibers, acrylic fibers, modacrylic fibers and mixtures thereof.

Rutz, W.D.; Swain, R.J.

1980-12-23

87

Automated fiber pigtailing machine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

1999-01-05

88

Automated fiber pigtailing machine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

Strand, Oliver T. (Castro Valley, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

1999-01-01

89

Changes of propagation light in optical fiber submicron wires  

Science.gov (United States)

At the moment technology allows to miniaturize measurement system to several micrometers. Application of an optical fiber taper in such system needs to manufacture a new one with diameters below single micrometers which is very difficult and expensive. Another way to obtain this level of diameters is the process of tapering from the existing fibers. In the paper, experimental results of propagation light from a supercontinnum sources of the wavelength generates the wavelength of 350-2000 nm, in different optical fiber submicron wires made from tapers manufactured from single mode fibers are presented. Biconical optical fibers' tapers were manufactured in low pressure gas burner technique. There are presented spectral characteristics of a propagated beam. For the test, there was manufactured an optical fiber submicron wires with a different length of waist region with a diameter near one micrometer. We put to the test a taper made from a standard telecommunication fiber SMF-28 with a cutoff wavelength equal to 1260.

Stasiewicz, K. A.; ?ukowski, A.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.

2013-05-01

90

Manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This biobliography brings together the documentation on the research and development of sensors used in automated manufacturing. It includes works from the major industrial countries. The emphasis is on vision sensor since this has been the predominant trend in research in the last 10 years. Contents: Non-contract sensors. Contact sensors. General vision sensors and tactile sensor technology. Operational application of sensors. Authors index.

Gomersall, A.

1984-01-01

91

Chrysotile asbestos exposure in the manufacturing of thermal insulating boards.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure to asbestos fibers has been extensively studied in milling, mining of asbestos fibers, and in industries manufacturing asbestos-cement sheets, pipes, etc. However, very few studies have been reported in asbestos textiles, brake lining workers, and insulation products. In the present investigation, chrysotile exposure monitoring was carried out in a small thermal insulating boards manufacturing facility. Twenty-eight samples were analyzed from various locations like feeding of raw materials, weighing, pressing, machine grinding, and hand finishing of final products. Twenty-five percent of the samples were found to be above ACGIH TLV of 0.1 fibers per milliliter. However, mean fiber concentrations were found to be lower than 0.1 fibers per milliliter, except for the process of feeding of raw materials where the mean fiber concentration was 0.1087+/-0.0631 fibers per milliliter.

Bhagia LJ; Vyas JB; Shaikh MI; Dodia SL

2010-08-01

92

Chrysotile asbestos exposure in the manufacturing of thermal insulating boards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to asbestos fibers has been extensively studied in milling, mining of asbestos fibers, and in industries manufacturing asbestos-cement sheets, pipes, etc. However, very few studies have been reported in asbestos textiles, brake lining workers, and insulation products. In the present investigation, chrysotile exposure monitoring was carried out in a small thermal insulating boards manufacturing facility. Twenty-eight samples were analyzed from various locations like feeding of raw materials, weighing, pressing, machine grinding, and hand finishing of final products. Twenty-five percent of the samples were found to be above ACGIH TLV of 0.1 fibers per milliliter. However, mean fiber concentrations were found to be lower than 0.1 fibers per milliliter, except for the process of feeding of raw materials where the mean fiber concentration was 0.1087+/-0.0631 fibers per milliliter. PMID:19626449

Bhagia, L J; Vyas, J B; Shaikh, M I; Dodia, S L

2009-07-22

93

Manufactured fuel article  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A manufactured fuel article is described, comprising: (a) an inner core of a primary fuel element; and (b) a combustible covering layer, the composition of the covering layer differing substantially from the composition of the primary fuel element and comprising (i) about 50% to about 90% by weight of a thermoplastic composition comprising wax and a polymer, the ratio of wax/-polymer being between about 0.7/1 and 3/1, and (ii) about 50% to about 10% by weight pulp fiber, the wax comprising about 20% to about 50% by weight of the overall composition of the covering layer, the covering layer and the primary fuel element being in interfacial contact about a majority of the area of facing surfaces thereof.

Fay, J.E. III; Gierke, C.J.

1989-03-07

94

Fundamentals of fiber bonding in thermally point-bonded nonwovens  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal point bonding (TPB) uses heat and pressure to bond a web of fibers at discrete points imparting strength to the manufactured fabric. This process significantly reduces the strength and elongation of the bridging fibers between bond points while strengthening the web. Single fiber experiments were performed with four structurally different polypropylene fibers to analyze the inter-relationships between fiber structure, fiber properties and bonding process. Two fiber types had a low birefringence sheath or surface layer while the remaining had uniform birefringence profiles through their thickness. Bonds were formed between isolated pairs of fibers by subjecting the fibers to a calendering process and simulating TPB process conditions. The dependence of bond strength on bonding temperature and on the type of fiber used was evaluated. Fiber strengths before and after bonding were measured and compared to understand the effect of bonding on fiber strength. Additionally, bonded fiber strength was compared to the strength of single fibers which had experienced the same process conditions as the bonded pairs. This comparison estimated the effect of mechanical damage from pressing fibers together with steel rolls while creating bonds in TPB. Interfiber bond strength increased with bonding temperature for all fiber types. Fiber strength decreased with increasing bonding temperature for all fiber types except for one type of low birefringent sheath fibers. Fiber strength degradation was unavoidable at temperatures required for successful bonding. Mechanical damage from compression of fibers between rolls was an insignificant factor in this strength loss. Thermal damage during bonding was the sole significant contributor to fiber strength degradation. Fibers with low birefringence skins formed strong bonds with minimal fiber strength loss and were superior to fibers without such surface layers in TPB performance. A simple model to predict the behavior of a two-bond fabric strip was developed and it demonstrated the negative effect of inhomogeneous straining of fibers arising from the commonly used diamond bond shape and pervasive fiber-to-fiber elongation variability on fabric strength.

Chidambaram, Aparna

95

Manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

Blaedel, K L

1998-01-01

96

Intelligenta Materialsystem och Strukturer. Del 3. Tillverkning av Epoxi/Kolfiberlaminat med Inbaeddade Optiska Fibrer foer Anvaendning som Sensorer (Intelligent Materials Systems and Structures. Part 3. Manufacture of Epoxy/Carbon Fibre Laminates with Embedded Optical Fibres to Be Used as Sensors).  

Science.gov (United States)

Epoxy/carbon fiber laminates with embedded optical fibers have been manufactured in order to investigate the influence of the optical fiber on the laminate structure and the functionality of the embedded optical fiber. Methods to connect the embedded opti...

M. Danilsons O. Dickman K. Lindersson

1992-01-01

97

Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

2008-01-01

98

Method of manufacturing fibrous hemostatic bandages  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of manufacturing a sturdy and pliable fibrous hemostatic dressing by making fibers that maximally expose surface area per unit weight of active ingredients as a means for aiding in the clot forming process and as a means of minimizing waste of active ingredients. The method uses a rotating object to spin off a liquid biocompatible fiber precursor, which is added at its center. Fibers formed then deposit on a collector located at a distance from the rotating object creating a fiber layer on the collector. An electrical potential difference is maintained between the rotating disk and the collector. Then, a liquid procoagulation species is introduced at the center of the rotating disk such that it spins off the rotating disk and coats the fibers.

Larsen, Gustavo; Spretz, Ruben; Velarde-Ortiz, Raffet

2012-09-04

99

Spectral response of scintillating fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The spectral response of PHT-0044 (blue) and BCF-20 (green) scintillating fibers was measured as a function of wavelength using a UV LED. It was observed that significant spectral strength from the PHT-0044 fibers was missing compared to manufacturer's specifications at the origin of the source, shifting the peak value of the spectrum to significantly higher values in wavelength. In contrast, the corresponding shift for the BCF-20 fibers was minimal. The mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior are discussed herein. Moreover, the attenuation length for each fiber type was extracted and studied as a function of wavelength. Finally, the measured fiber spectra were convolved with the wavelength response from a typical bi-alkali photomultiplier as well as a green-sensitive silicon photomultiplier and compared.

Papandreou, Z. [Department of Physics, University of Regina, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2 (Canada)], E-mail: zisis@uregina.ca; Leverington, B.D.; Lolos, G.J. [Department of Physics, University of Regina, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2 (Canada)

2008-11-11

100

Spectral response of scintillating fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spectral response of PHT-0044 (blue) and BCF-20 (green) scintillating fibers was measured as a function of wavelength using a UV LED. It was observed that significant spectral strength from the PHT-0044 fibers was missing compared to manufacturer's specifications at the origin of the source, shifting the peak value of the spectrum to significantly higher values in wavelength. In contrast, the corresponding shift for the BCF-20 fibers was minimal. The mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior are discussed herein. Moreover, the attenuation length for each fiber type was extracted and studied as a function of wavelength. Finally, the measured fiber spectra were convolved with the wavelength response from a typical bi-alkali photomultiplier as well as a green-sensitive silicon photomultiplier and compared.

2008-11-11

 
 
 
 
101

ANALYSIS OF FLAX AND COTTON FIBER FABRIC BLENDS AND RECYCLED POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITES  

Science.gov (United States)

MANUFACTURING COMPOSITIES WITH POLYMERS AND NATURAL FIBERS HAS TRADITIONALLY BEEN PERFORMED USING CHOPPED FIBERS OR A NONWOVEN MAT FOR REINFORCEMENT. FIBERS FROM FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM L.) ARE STIFF AND STRONG AND CAN BE PROCESSED INTO A YARN AND THEN MANUFACTURED INTO A FABRIC FOR COMPOSITE FOR...

102

Mechanical Reliability of Optical Fiber in Combined Continuous Draw and Proof Testing Process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fiber manufacturing has traditionally had three different process phases: Preform Manufacturing, Fiber Draw and Proof Testing. This thesis focuses on combining draw process and proof testing, which requires catching the fiber end after break at full production speed without disturbing the draw p...

Turunen, Harri

103

Fiber Protection?  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Fiber Protection? HealthDay March 29, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dietary Fiber Stroke Transcript Stroke is the fourth leading cause ...

104

Carbon fiber resin matrix interphase: effect of carbon fiber surface treatment on composite performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Carbon fibers are supplied by various manufacturers with a predetermined level of surface treatment and matrix compatible sizings. Surface treatment of the carbon fiber increases the active oxygen content, the polarity and the total free surface energy of the fiber surface. This study is directed toward determining the effect of varying carbon fiber surface treatment on the composite performance of thermoset matrix resins. The effect of varying fiber surface treatment on performance of a promising proprietary sizing is also presented. 6 references, 11 figures

1985-01-01

105

Carbon fiber resin matrix interphase: effect of carbon fiber surface treatment on composite performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carbon fibers are supplied by various manufacturers with a predetermined level of surface treatment and matrix compatible sizings. Surface treatment of the carbon fiber increases the active oxygen content, the polarity and the total free surface energy of the fiber surface. This study is directed toward determining the effect of varying carbon fiber surface treatment on the composite performance of thermoset matrix resins. The effect of varying fiber surface treatment on performance of a promising proprietary sizing is also presented. 6 references, 11 figures.

Lehmann, S.; Megerdigian, C.; Papalia, R.

1985-04-01

106

V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

2012-10-01

107

Mode conversion in hybrid optical fiber coupler  

Science.gov (United States)

Designing of all in-line fiber optic systems with a supercontinuum light source gives some issues. The use of a standard single mode fiber (SMF) as an input do not secure single mode transmission in full wavelength range. In the paper, the experimental results of the tested hybrid fiber optic coupler were presented. It was manufactured by fusing a standard single mode fiber (SMF28) and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process is based on the standard fused biconical taper technique. Two types of large mode area fibers (LMA8 and LAM10 NKT Photonics) with different air holes arrangements were used as the photonic crystal fiber. Spectral characteristics within the range of 800 nm - 1700 nm were presented. All process was optimized to obtain a mode conversion between SMF and PCF and to reach a single mode transmission in the PCF output of the coupler.

Stasiewicz, Karol A.; Marc, P.; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

2012-05-01

108

An overview of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFRTP) are a class of injection molding materials that extend the physical property envelope of thermoplastics polymers. These materials are manufactured by pulling continuous fiber tows through a thermoplastic polymer melt in a specialized processing die. The strands are subsequently cooled and chopped into pellets of equal length. LFRTP materials are available in virtually every common thermoplastic resin with glass, aramid, stainless steel, or carbon fiber reinforcement at levels up to 60% by weight. Unlike short fiber reinforced thermoplastics manufactured by conventional screw compounding processes, LFRTP exhibit simultaneous improvements in both flexural modulus and impact resistance. Improvements in load transfer, creep resistance at elevated temperatures, and dimensional stability can also be attributed to the long fiber network formed in the molded part. This unique combination of properties makes LFRTP the material of choice for replacement of metal structural assemblies in many automotive, industrial, consumer and recreational applications.

Bockstedt, R.J.; Skarlupka, R.J. [Polymer Composites Inc., Winona, MN (United States)

1995-12-01

109

Composites in manufacturing - Case studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The papers presented in this volume focus on 19 cases of applied technology in composites design and manufacturing, all of them dealing with specific products. Topics covered include design using composite in aerospace, innovative materials and processing, tooling, fasteners and adhesives, finishing, repair, specialty applications of composites, and applications in the automotive industry. Papers are presented on the filament winding of isogrid fuselage structures; design and use of aramid fiber in aircraft structures; resin transfer molding of a complex composite aircraft structure; and field repair of an advanced helicopter vertical fin structure.

Strong, A.B. (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States))

1991-01-01

110

Fiber Optics  

Science.gov (United States)

SFGate: SBC and Microsofthttp://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2004/06/23/MNGVR7AI711.DTLSBC Communications Inc.http://www.sbc.com/gen/press-room?pid=5838How Stuff Works: How Fiber Optics Workhttp://electronics.howstuffworks.com/fiber-optic.htmFiber Optic Reference Guide: A Brief Historyhttp://www.fiber-optics.info/fiber-history.htmPC World: Has Your Broadband Had Its Fiber?http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,117684,00.aspTelephony Onlinehttp://telephonyonline.com/ar/telecom_breaking_meg_barrier/index.htmThis article from SFGate reports on the recent negotiations between SBC and Microsoft (1) and the implications of the new technology for Internet and television access. This website from SBC (2) provides video footage and background information on their initiative called Project Lightspeed. This initiative is based largely on fiber technology, which is described further on this website from How Stuff Works (3). This website (4) provides a brief history of fiber optics technology along with links to sections on the applications of fiber optics and more basics on transmission. This article from PC World (5) discusses how fiber optics became a viable option. This article from Telephony Online 6)reviews some of the challenges that remain.

111

77 FR 69435 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status and Partial Approval of Manufacturing Authority; Toho Tenax...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Approval of Manufacturing Authority; Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Oxidized Polyacrylonitrile...manufacturing and distribution facilities of Toho Tenax America, Inc. (TTA), located in Rockwood...fiber for export at the facilities of Toho Tenax America, Inc., located in...

2012-11-19

112

NON-TOBACCO MOIST SNUFF COMPOSITION AND A METHOD FOR ITS MANUFACTURE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A non-tobacco snuff composition for oral use including at least one type of plant fibers with a high dietary fiber content, wherein the fiber dietary content in the composition is 15-90 w/w % based on the dry weight of the composition and a method for manufacturing the non-tobacco snuff composition.

ESSEN TOMAS; BRANNBERG TOBIAS; NORSTROM HERMAN

113

Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

Snyder, Mark

1991-01-01

114

Formulation for and method of producing a fiber fortified foodstuff  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for manufacturing a fiber fortified foodstuff that includes preparing the foodstuff and then topically applying supplemental fiber. In particular, puffed snack products are prepared by mixing cereal with a fiber premix and sufficient moisture to form an extrudable dough base. The dough base is cooked in a cooking extruder and then extruded to form a wet puff which is dried and then coated with an oil slurry. A flavor premix which includes supplemental dietary fiber, particularly a soluble fiber, is topically applied to the oil coated dry puff to form a fiber fortified, puffed snack product.

ALEXANDER KAREN L; STALEY DAVID S; BEDNARZ PARI

115

Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

116

Scintillating optical fibers for fine-grained hodoscopes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fast detectors with fine spatial resolution will be needed to exploit high event rates at ISABELLE. Scintillating optical fibers for fine grained hodoscopes have been developed by the authors. A commercial manufacturer of optical fibers has drawn and clad PVT scintillator. Detection efficiencies greater than 99% have been achieved for a 1 mm fiber with a PMT over lengths up to 60 cm. Small diameter PMT's and avalanche photodiodes have been tested with the fibers. Further improvements are sought for the fiber and for the APD's sensitivity and coupling efficiency with the fiber.

Borenstein, S.R.; Strand, R.C.

1981-01-01

117

Status of fiber lasers study of on ytterbium doped fiber laser and laser spectroscopy of doped fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work shows all the advantages and drawbacks of the rare-earth-doped fiber lasers and fiber optical amplifiers, pointing out their potential use for instrumentation and optical fiber sensor technology. The theory of light propagation in optical fibers is presented in order to understand the manufacturing methods. A comparative study of preform surface and concentration analysis is performed. The gain behaviour is also thoroughly examined. A synthesis of all technological parameters of the fiber laser is then established and all technologies of the constituting integrated components are reviewed and compared. The experimental techniques mainly involve: site selective excitation tunability, cooperative luminescence, oxidation state changes induced by gamma irradiation, ytterbium-doped mono-mode continuous wave tunable three-level fiber laser. (TEC). 622 refs., 176 figs

1994-01-01

118

SILICON BIOSENSOR AND MANUFACTURING METHOD THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A silicon biosensor and a manufacturing method thereof is provided, the silicon biosensor includes: a light source performing self emissiona light detector generating a photoelectric current corresponding to an amount of incident light an optical fiber transmitting the light from the light source to the light detector and a micro fluidic channel adjusting an optical transmission rate of the optical fiber according to an antibody-antigen reaction when the antibody-antigen reaction occurs. The silicon biosensor can be easily integrated or bonded with a silicon electronic device, so that it is possible to manufacturethe biosensor with a low price, under mass production.

HUH CHUL; KIM KYUNG HYUN; HONG JONG CHEOL; KO HYUN SUNG; KIM WAN JOONG; SUNG GUN YONG; PARK SEON HEE

119

Manufacture and analysis of multilayer woven preforms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multilayer woven preforms were manufactured from high-tenacity, continuous multifilament polyester yarn and HTA carbon yarn. Orthogonal fiber architectures were constructed with a variety of binder thread configurations and yarn densities. The effect of the binder thread arrangement upon the as-woven preform architecture was examined. The preforms were then consolidated using liquid moulding techniques and the effect of the consolidation pressure upon the fiber architecture was investigated. Modeling of the preform architecture in its as-woven state is progressing and preliminary results are presented in this paper.

Bannister, M.K.; Herszberg, I.; Coman, F.; Raper, H.; Curiskis, J. [Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (Australia)

1994-12-31

120

Cement composites reinforced by short curaua fibers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The development of an eco-friendly material that could reduce CO² emission and that could aggregate value to a natural fiber, setting man at the countryside and raising the income of populations from poor regions is a challenge. Lignocellulosic fibers are cheap and are a readily available reinforcement, requiring only a low degree of industrialization for their processing. The main drawback of using cement composites reinforced with lignocellulosic fibers is that the fib (more) ers can be mineralized inside the alkaline environment. In this work, Portland cement was partially replaced by metakaolinite in order to produce a matrix free from calcium hydroxide, avoiding thus the problem of fiber mineralization. Cement composites reinforced with 2, 4 and 6% of short curaua fibers, were manufactured. The composites were submitted to four pointing bending tests in order to determine their mechanical behavior. The results obtained were compared with those found for cement composites reinforced with sisal fibers.

d'Almeida, A.; Toledo Filho, R.; Melo Filho, J.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had amounts of bonded and physisorbed sizing similar to what has been presented in literature. An estimated sizing thickness was found to be approximately 100 nm. It is indicated that an epoxy-resin containing film former and a polyethylene oxide lubricant are present, yet no silanes or other sizing components were identified in the extractant.

Petersen, Helga NØrgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro

2013-01-01

122

Effect of aging on optical characteristics of full-spectrum fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

The availability of the E-band with full spectrum fiber is possible by a new fiber manufacturing process. This increased bandwidth let the full spectrum fiber superior choice for metropolitan and access optical networks. In optical fiber application, the hydrogen aging effect is important factor in the long-term reliability of an optical fiber. In this work, we report a test results for hydrogen aging effect of full spectrum fiber. The attenuations of the fibers are varying even in a hydrogen-free environment after aging test. It is also found that so small bending of full spectrum fiber in hydrogen aging test chamber cause significant variations in optical characteristics.

Fang, Yih; Wu, Chia-Hsien; Hsieh, Lai-Ming; Lin, Sheng-Fwu; Tsai, Fwu-Yuan

2005-01-01

123

Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams  

Science.gov (United States)

Long fibers are generally preferred for reinforcing foams for performance reasons. However, uniform dispersion is difficult to achieve because they must be mixed with liquid resin prior to foam expansion. New approaches aiming to overcome such problem have been developed at USC's Composites Center. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams with long fibers (over 6 mm in length) manufactured at USC's Composites Center have achieved promising mechanical properties and demonstrated lower density relative to conventional composite foams. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were synthesized from thermosetting polymeric microspheres (amino and phenolic microspheres), as well as thermoplastic PVC heat expandable microspheres (HEMs). Carbon and/or aramid fibers were used to reinforce the syntactic foams. Basic mechanical properties, including shear, tensile, and compression, were measured in syntactic foams and fiber-reinforced syntactic foams. Microstructure and crack propagation behavior were investigated by scanning electron microscope and light microscopy. Failure mechanisms and reinforcing mechanisms of fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were also analyzed. As expected, additions of fiber reinforcements to foams enhanced both tensile and shear properties. However, only limited enhancement in compression properties was observed, and fiber reinforcement was of limited benefit in this regard. Therefore, a hybrid foam design was explored and evaluated in an attempt to enhance compression properties. HEMs were blended with glass microspheres to produce hybrid foams, and hybrid foams were subsequently reinforced with continuous aramid fibers to produce fiber-reinforced hybrid foams. Mechanical properties of these foams were evaluated. Findings indicated that the production of hybrid foams was an effective way to enhance the compressive properties of syntactic foams, while the addition of fiber reinforcements enhanced the shear and tensile performance of syntactic foams. Another approach to produce ultralight sandwich core materials was explored in which towpreg (fiber bundles impregnated with resin) were configured to produce 3D pyramidal truss structures. The composite truss structures were subsequently filled with foam to improve resistance to buckling. Mechanical properties of the foam-filled truss structures were measured and contrasted with analytical predictions based on simple truss theory. Results indicated that combination of foams and carbon fiber truss structures had synergistic effects that enhanced the capacity to carry compressive and shear loads.

Huang, Yi-Jen

124

Radiation resistance characteristics of image fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of optical fibers and image fibers to the maintenance and inspection systems for nuclear power plants is actively investigated. Multi-picture elements and small size are required for image fibers because the resolution, flexibility and environmental endurance as well as transmittance are required for them. The authors acknowledged the dependence of the radiation resistance characteristics of image fibers on their core diameter by experiment and considered the cause. Pure quartz core, doped clad image fibers, whose core diameter/image fiber outside diameter ratio was the same, were selected, but their outside diameter was changed to 1.3, 1.4 and 1.8 mm. Their transmission loss increase was measured at 0.7 ?m wavelength, 1.2 x 105 R/h dose rate, and the number of picture elements being 12,000. As the outside diamter was larger, the increase of loss by irradiation was smaller. Since image fiber materials and manufacturing conditions also seemed to be the causes, three elemental fibers with different core diameter were fabricated into a single image fiber (three-section fiber) to make the material and manufacturing condition same, and this image fiber was irradiated at 1.2 x 105 R/h up to total 8.6 x 106 R. The change of transmittance or the deterioration was smaller in the larger core diameter fiber. The transmission loss was calculated numerically based on the past theoretical analysis. In comparison of the calculated results with the experimental results, the dependence of radiation characteristics on core diameter seemed to be mainly caused by the increase of loss in the clad due to ?-ray irradiation. (Wakatsuki, Y).

1984-01-01

125

Fabrication of carbon nanotubes/carbon fiber hybrid fiber in industrial scale by sizing process  

Science.gov (United States)

We disclosed an easy and efficient method for fabrication of carbon nanotube (CNT)/carbon fiber (CF) hybrid fiber in industrial scale. It was achieved by sizing CF tow with a sizing agent containing CNTs. To get better dispersion in the sizing agent, CNT was functioned by the chemical modification with an amine monomer. The hybrid fiber showed a uniform distribution of CNT on the surface of CF. Interfacial shear strength of CF reinforced epoxy composite was significantly improved by integrating CNTs at the interface. Such a facile method in preparing CNT/CF hybrid fiber provides great commercial potential for CF manufacturer.

Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Shu; Hao, Lifeng; Yang, Fan; Jiao, Weicheng; Li, Xiaoqin; Wang, Rongguo

2013-11-01

126

Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements.

Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.; Farmer, J.P. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-04-01

127

Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements

1995-01-01

128

Composite-material mechanics - properties of planar-random fiber composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is primarily a literature review of over ten dozen papers on the methodology for predicting elastic stiffnesses, tensile strength, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity of planar-random fiber composites from the reinforcement geometry and appropriate properties of the constituent materials. Particular attention is devoted to the effects of fiber volume fraction, fiber curvature, fiber length, and fiber orientation, since variations in these properties can be introduced during the manufacturing process. 147 references.

Bert, C.W.; Kline, R.A.

1985-07-01

129

METHOD FOR MEASURING CARBON FIBER EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon fibers are highly conductive, lightweight and of small dimensions. When released as emissions from production, manufacturing, processing and disposal sources they may become airborne and disperse over wide areas. If they settle onto electronic or electrical components they...

130

Inter-comparison of unrelated fiber evidence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The foreign textile fibers recovered from one item of evidence from each of 20 unrelated crimes in three categories (bank robbery, kidnapping, and homicide) were cross-compared. The items of evidence were scraped to remove the trace evidence and a sample of the collected fibers was examined using a standard scheme of analysis. The fibers were examined with light microscopy (including polarized light microscopy), fluorescence microscopy, and microspectrophotometry. The fibers were divided into natural and manufactured groups and then categorized by color and generic (polymer) class. Cross-comparing all 2083 fibers resulted in 2,168,403 comparisons, after removing duplicate (same fiber) comparisons. Colorless and denim fibers were excluded from this study. No two fibers were found to exhibit the same microscopic characteristics and analytical properties. Therefore, it is rare to find two unrelated items that have foreign fibers that are analytically indistinguishable. These results corroborate other population studies conducted in Europe and target fiber studies conducted both in the US and in Europe.

Houck MM

2003-08-01

131

Chemical Modification Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Coir Fiber  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Natural fiber has a vital role as a reinforcing agent due to its renewable, low cost, biodegradable, less abrasive and eco-friendly nature. Whereas synthetic fibers like glass, boron, carbon, metallic, ceramic and inorganic fibers are expensive and not eco-friendly. Coir is one of the natural fibers easily available in Bangladesh and cheap. It is derived from the husk of the coconut (Cocos nucifera). Coir has one of the highest concentrations of lignin, which makes it stronger. In recent years, wide range of research has been carried out on fiber reinforced polymer composites [4-13].The aim of the present research is to characterize brown single coir fiber for manufacturing polymer composites reinforced with characterized fibers. Adhesion between the fiber and polymer is one of factors affecting the strength of manufactured composites. In order to increase the adhesion, the coir fiber was chemically treated separately in single stage (with Cr2(SO4)3•12(H2O)) and double stages (with CrSO4 and NaHCO3). Both the raw and treated fibers were characterized by tensile testing, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, scanning electron microscopic analysis. The result showed that the Young’s modulus increased, while tensile strength and strain to failure decreased with increase in span length. Tensile properties of chemically treated coir fiber was found higher than raw coir fiber, while the double stage treated coir fiber had better mechanical properties compared to the single stage treated coir fiber. Scanning electron micrographs showed rougher surface in case of the raw coir fiber. The surface was found clean and smooth in case of the treated coir fiber. Thus the performance of coir fiber composites in industrial application can be improved by chemical treatment.

Samia Sultana Mir; Syed M. N. Hasan; Md. J. Hossain; Mahbub Hasan

2012-01-01

132

Testing procedure for the single fiber fragmentation test  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report describes the details of the single fiber fragmentation test as conducted at the materials research department (AFM) at Risø. The equipment and specimen manufacture is described in detail. Furthermore, examples of results interpretation aregiven. For the experiments in this report, specimens with one E-glass fiber placed inside an epoxy or polyester matrix were used. Elongating the specimens with a mini tensile tester, which was placed under a microscope, leads to fiber fragmentations.Different bonding strengths between fiber and matrix result in differences in the critical fracture length for the fiber and fracture characteristics.

Feih, S.; Wonsyld, K.

2004-01-01

133

Establishing a Testing Procedure for the Single Fiber Fragmentation Test  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report describes the details of the single fiber fragmentation test as conducted at the materials research department (AFM) at Risø. The equipment and specimen manufacture is described in detail. Furthermore, examples of results interpretation are given. For the experiments in this report, specimens with one E-glass fiber placed inside an epoxy or polyester matrix were used. Elongating the specimens with a mini tensile tester, which was placed under a microscope, leads to fiber fragmentations. Different bonding strengths between fiber and matrix result in differences in the critical fracture length for the fiber and fracture characteristics.

Feih, Stefanie; Wonsyld, Karen

2004-01-01

134

Carbon Fiber Production from a Kraft Hardwood Lignin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lignin is a renewable resource material that is being evaluated for the low cost production of carbon fiber for automotive and other applications. Solvent extraction of a commercial hardwood lignin product yielded a purified lignin free of the contaminants typical of lignins derived from the Kraft chemical pulping of wood. The purified lignin was highly melt-spinnable into fibers, from which carbon fiber was subsequently produced. The lignin has been evaluated in terms of its rheological properties, fiber melt spinning ability, and potential for manufacture of low cost carbon fiber without the need for plasticizing agents or chemical modifications.

Baker, Darren A [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL

2008-01-01

135

Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

We designed, manufactured and characterized two birefringent microstructured fibers that feature a 5-fold increase in polarimetric sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure compared to the earlier reported values for microstructured fibers. We demonstrate a good agreement between the finite element simulations and the experimental values for the polarimetric sensitivity to pressure and to temperature. The sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure has a negative sign and exceeds -43 rad/MPa x m at 1.55 microm for both fibers. In combination with the very low sensitivity to temperature, this makes our fibers the candidates of choice for the development of microstructured fiber based hydrostatic pressure measurement systems. PMID:20639996

Martynkien, Tadeusz; Statkiewicz-Barabach, Gabriela; Olszewski, Jacek; Wojcik, Jan; Mergo, Pawe?; Geernaert, Thomas; Sonnenfeld, Camille; Anuszkiewicz, Alicja; Szczurowski, Marcin K; Tarnowski, Karol; Makara, Mariusz; Skorupski, Krzysztof; Klimek, Jacek; Poturaj, Krzysztof; Urbanczyk, Waclaw; Nasilowski, Tomasz; Berghmans, Francis; Thienpont, Hugo

2010-07-01

136

Superbroadband fluorescence fiber fabricated with granulated oxides.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate a single-core multiply doped fiber that, when pumped with a single pump source of approximately 800 nm, emits a more than two-octaves-spanning fluorescence spectrum ranging from 365 to 2300 nm. The fiber preform is manufactured from granulated oxides, and the core is doped with five different rare earths. At a pump power of 250 mW the total emitted power is 34 microW; given a core diameter of 6.5 microm and a numerical aperture of 0.1, the radiance exceeds 3 kW sr(-1) cm(-2). We also demonstrate direct diode pumping of the fiber. PMID:18483508

Di Labio, Loredana; Lüthy, Willy; Romano, Valerio; Sandoz, Frédéric; Feurer, Thomas

2008-05-15

137

A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described.

Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

1995-07-01

138

Fiber Optics Technician. Curriculum Research Project. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

|A study examined the role of technicians in the fiber optics industry and determined those elements that should be included in a comprehensive curriculum to prepare fiber optics technicians for employment in the Texas labor market. First the current literature, including the ERIC database and equipment manufacturers' journals were reviewed. After…

Whittington, Herschel K.

139

Effects of radiation on the bandwidth of graded index fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of gamma radiation on the bandwidth of graded index fibers of four different manufacturers is measured at about 840 and 1,300 nm wavelength. Increase as well as decrease is observed, depending on fiber type and wavelength. Differential mode attenuation and mode delay measurements, as well as examination of light emission distribution at the fiber endface before and after irradiation are performed to explain the results.

1996-01-01

140

Role of oiling agent in the manufacture of petroleum mesophase pitch based carbon fiber and its improvement. Picchi kei tanso sen'i seizo ji ni okeru shusokuzai no yakuwari to kairyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When spinning the pitch which is an insulating material, due to passing through along the nozzle bese wall very rapidly, a static electricity is charged by the friction. In the multi-spinning which is adopted for a high productivity, therefore, a bundle of the filaments swells by the electrostatic repulsion between the filaments each other, and consequently the end breakages occur often when winding unless some countermeasures are taken. In order to prevent the static electric charge, and to increase the density of a bundle of filaments, the oiling agent is used. In this study, as for 3 kinds of oiling agent the commercial silicon-based oil agents were suspended in the water, their bundle density increasing mechanism and role were investigated. Although the static electricity can be removed even in case of using the water only, an excessive increase of density can occur because of the hydrophobicity of the pitch, and as a result, the fusion of filaments is induced. The silicon oil was added in order to prevent the excessive increase of density. Although the phenyl silicon oil based oiling agent was the most effective out of 3 kinds of silicon oil to prevent the excessive increase of density and to suppress the exothermic action at the non fusion case, but, the carbon fiber strength was considerably decreased. However, by adding the ethanol, it could be prevented. 9 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Mochida, I.; Sakanishi, A. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Material Study); Oyama, T. (Koa Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

High-fiber foods  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fiber - self-care ... Fiber is a substance found in plants. Dietary fiber -- the kind you eat -- is found in fruits, vegetables, and grains. Your body cannot digest fiber, so it passes through your intestines quickly.

142

Soluble vs. insoluble fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

Insoluble vs. soluble fiber; Fiber - soluble vs. insoluble ... There are two different types of fiber -- soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. ...

143

Interphase properties of carbon fiber-vinyl ester composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decline in price of carbon fibers gives an economic incentive to reconsider the use of these reinforcements in markets previously deemed too expensive, such as the automotive industry. Additionally, it would be advantageous if carbon fibers could be immediately used with polymers and manufacturing methods currently used for the production of fiberglass composites, and thus minimize development and startup costs. Of particular interest is the use of carbon fibers in vinyl esters manufactured by resin transfer molding, a leading manufacturing technology for the production of large and complex shaped composite parts. However, carbon fiber-vinyl ester composites have inferior mechanical properties as a result of poor bonding between fiber and matrix. The objective of this program was to evaluate the physical and chemical mechanisms currently thought responsible for adhesion in order to improve the performance of carbon fiber-vinyl ester composites. The effect of carbon fiber surface treatment on fiber chemistry and topography was evaluated to uncover the fundamental mechanisms governing carbon fiber to vinyl ester adhesion.

Rich, M.J.; Weitzsacker, C.W.; Xie, M.; Corbin, S.; Drzal, L.T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1997-12-31

144

Uso de harina de cotiledón de algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) como fuente de proteína y fibra dietética en la elaboración de galletas y hojuelas fritas/ Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los aminoácidos limitantes en la proteína de algarrobo chileno son isoleucina, treonina y metionina/cisteina. La mezcla de cereales y leguminosas, permite mejorar el balance aminoacídico, ya que las leguminosas tienen más lisina y los cereales son más ricos en aminoácidos azufrados. Debido al interés nutricional del cotiledón de algarrobo, se evaluó la incorporación de harina de cotiledón de algarrobo (HCA) en la elaboración de ?snack? dulces y salados. Se p (more) repararon galletas dulces y hojuelas fritas saladas con 0%, 10% y 20% de HCA. En las harinas se determinó, color, granulometría, humedad, composición proximal, lisina disponible, fibra dietética total, soluble e insoluble. A las galletas y hojuelas se les determinaron las mismas características físicas y químicas (excepto granulometría) que las harinas; además se determinó actividad de agua, peso y dimensiones y se calculó el aporte calórico. Se evaluó la calidad y aceptabilidad sensorial de ambos productos. Destaca el alto contenido de proteínas, lípidos, cenizas, fibra cruda (63,6; 10,2; 4,3 y 4,2 g/100g bms, respectivamente), lisina disponible (62,4 mg/g proteína) y fibra dietética total (24,2 g/100g bms) de la HCA. Tanto en las galletas como en las hojuelas con HCA, aumenta significativamente el contenido de proteínas, lípidos, cenizas, fibra cruda, lisina disponible (desde 15,5 a 19,3 y de 20,3 a 29,6 mg lisina/g proteína, respectivamente) y fibra dietética total (de 1,39 a 2,80 y de 1,60 a 5,60 g/100g bms, respectivamente). Todos los tratamientos de galletas fueron igualmente aceptados (?me gusta mucho?); las hojuelas, con 10% de HCA presentaron la mayor aceptabilidad (?me gusta medianamente?). Se puede concluir que la incorporación de HCA en la elaboración de galletas y hojuelas fritas aumenta el aporte de lisina disponible, su contenido de proteínas y fibra dietética, mejorando la relación fibra soluble/ insoluble, sin afectar sus características físicas ni la aceptabilidad sensorial. Abstract in english Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean ?algarrobo? are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of ?algarrobo? cotyledons, the use of ?algarrobo cotyledon? flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF wer (more) e prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted (?I like it very much?); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance (?I like it?). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance.

Escobar, Berta; Estévez A, Ana María; Fuentes G, Carolina; Venegas F, Daniela

2009-06-01

145

Uso de harina de cotiledón de algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) como fuente de proteína y fibra dietética en la elaboración de galletas y hojuelas fritas Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los aminoácidos limitantes en la proteína de algarrobo chileno son isoleucina, treonina y metionina/cisteina. La mezcla de cereales y leguminosas, permite mejorar el balance aminoacídico, ya que las leguminosas tienen más lisina y los cereales son más ricos en aminoácidos azufrados. Debido al interés nutricional del cotiledón de algarrobo, se evaluó la incorporación de harina de cotiledón de algarrobo (HCA) en la elaboración de “snack” dulces y salados. Se prepararon galletas dulces y hojuelas fritas saladas con 0%, 10% y 20% de HCA. En las harinas se determinó, color, granulometría, humedad, composición proximal, lisina disponible, fibra dietética total, soluble e insoluble. A las galletas y hojuelas se les determinaron las mismas características físicas y químicas (excepto granulometría) que las harinas; además se determinó actividad de agua, peso y dimensiones y se calculó el aporte calórico. Se evaluó la calidad y aceptabilidad sensorial de ambos productos. Destaca el alto contenido de proteínas, lípidos, cenizas, fibra cruda (63,6; 10,2; 4,3 y 4,2 g/100g bms, respectivamente), lisina disponible (62,4 mg/g proteína) y fibra dietética total (24,2 g/100g bms) de la HCA. Tanto en las galletas como en las hojuelas con HCA, aumenta significativamente el contenido de proteínas, lípidos, cenizas, fibra cruda, lisina disponible (desde 15,5 a 19,3 y de 20,3 a 29,6 mg lisina/g proteína, respectivamente) y fibra dietética total (de 1,39 a 2,80 y de 1,60 a 5,60 g/100g bms, respectivamente). Todos los tratamientos de galletas fueron igualmente aceptados (“me gusta mucho”); las hojuelas, con 10% de HCA presentaron la mayor aceptabilidad (“me gusta medianamente”). Se puede concluir que la incorporación de HCA en la elaboración de galletas y hojuelas fritas aumenta el aporte de lisina disponible, su contenido de proteínas y fibra dietética, mejorando la relación fibra soluble/ insoluble, sin afectar sus características físicas ni la aceptabilidad sensorial.Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean “algarrobo” are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of “algarrobo” cotyledons, the use of “algarrobo cotyledon” flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted (“I like it very much”); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance (“I like it”). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance.

Berta Escobar; Ana María Estévez A; Carolina Fuentes G; Daniela Venegas F

2009-01-01

146

Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the glycocluster controlled biological molecule synthesizing under the industrial and scientific technology research and development theme [university collaborated type]. Bio-fiber manufacturing technology of glycocluster utilizing type; 1999 nendo glycocluster seigyo seitai bunshi gosei gijutsu seika hokokusho (glycocluster riyogata bio sen'i seizo gijutsu)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1999 on development of the technology to manufacture glycocluster controlled biological molecules, particularly bio-fibers. It was made clear for the first time that the method for synthesizing glycoside and sugar chain using solid ultra-strong acid can be a new method for polysaccharide synthesis (polycondensation reaction) which is extremely simple and versatile as a result of using the solid ultra-strong acid. It can also be applied to general glycoside synthesis. In glycopeptide synthesis of the regular sequence type using high-functional condensation reaction, such a condensation agent as diphenyl phosphoryl azide was found effective in polymerization reaction without protection of glycopeptide, which has been impossible conventionally, and was found to have high versatility as a method for synthesizing mucin glycoproteins widely distributed naturally. In simplified synthesis of physiologically active glycopeptide, notice was given to tyrosine which is not glycosylated in the natural world, even though having hydroxyl groups in side chains as in serine and threonine. A method was established to introduce sugar chains into this hydroxyl group. This method exhibits power also in the synthesis of physiologically active glycopeptide of non-natural type. The paper describes also the comprehensive survey. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

147

Characterization of fiber optic cables under large tensile loads  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fiber optic cables designed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have to withstand an unusually harsh environment. Cables have been manufactured under a 6 year old DOE specification that has been slightly modified as the cable requirements are better understood. In order to better understand the cable properties a unique capability has been established at the NTS. Instrumentation has been developed to characterize the transmission properties of 1 km of fiber optic cable placed under a controlled tensile load up to 1500 lbs. The properties measured are cable tension, cable elongation, induced attenuation, attenuation vs. location, fiber strain, bandwidth, and ambient temperature. Preforming these measurements on cables from the two qualified NTS fiber optic cable manufacturers, Siecor and Andrew Corp., led to a new set of specifications. The relevant new and old specifications will be reported along with the characterization techniques and results on cables manufactured under the old specification.

Ogle, J.W.; Looney, L.D.

1984-01-01

148

Twisted and braided fiber-optic sensors in smart structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fiber-optic based smart structures have recently become the subject of intense study in university and industrial research laboratories. A smart structure can monitor itself throughout its lifetime and provide an accurate estimate of its integrity. The sensors in smart structures must therefore be able to detect even small changes in the operating environment (like stress, temperature, chemical reaction, etc.). This paper pertains to the sensing of strain using embedded twisted and braided fibers which have a much greater sensitivity to changes in applied stress than normal fibers as a result of enhanced microbending. In addition, step-index multimode fibers were used in this research program because the ease of manufacture and lower cost of these fibers (compared to the more commonly used graded index fibers) can be significant and deciding factors in many applications. Results obtained from the experimental program confirm the concept and potential of the fibers used in this study for use in smart structures.

Mutalik, V.G.; Srinivasan, A.V.; Canistraro, H.; Roychoudhuri, C. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Hodge, M.

1994-12-31

149

Optical characterization of some modern "eco-friendly" fibers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fibers that are termed "eco-friendly" or "biodegradable" by manufacturers are increasingly being used in textile products such as apparel and carpeting to appeal to the ever more environmentally aware public. As such, these modern fibers are expected to begin showing up more often in forensic casework, and it is important that the forensic examiner recognize them. This study employed polarized light microscopy (PLM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to characterize selected fibers of azlon, polylactic acid (PLA), cellulose composites of alginate or chitin, and bamboo (viscose rayon). Fiber cross-sections, refractive indices, melting points, solubilities, and FTIR measurements were conducted. Results indicate that the azlons and PLA fibers are easily distinguishable from other textile fibers by their optical and chemical properties. The cellulose composites show only small differences in comparison with other cellulose-based fibers, while bamboo viscose rayon is indistinguishable from normal viscose rayon.

Brinsko KM

2010-07-01

150

Fiber Lasers V : Technology, Systems, and Applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems require specially designed fibers with large cores and good power handling capabilities – requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 ?m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350 W CW fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. Finally, we briefly touch upon the subject of photo darkening andits origin.

Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

2008-01-01

151

Permeability characterization of stitched carbon fiber preforms by fiber optic sensors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The in-plane and through thickness permeability of unidirectional stitched carbon fiber preforms have been determined through vacuum infusion tests. The impregnation of various dry preforms with different stitching characteristics has been monitored by fiber optic sensors that have been stitched together with the dry tow to manufacture the dry preform. The experimental infusion times have been fitted by a numerical procedure based on Finite Element (FE) processing simulations. A good agreement between the numerical and experimental infusion times has been found demonstrating the potentiality of the fiber sensor system as suitable tool to evaluate impregnation times and permeability characteristics.

V. Antonucci; M. Esposito; M. R. Ricciardi; M. Raffone; M. Zarrelli; M. Giordano

2011-01-01

152

Advanced stabilization of PAN fibers for fabrication of carbon fibers by e-beam irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, the carbon fiber industry has been growing rapidly to meet the demand from efferent industries such as aerospace, military, turbine blades, light weight cylinders and pressure vessels. Generally, carbon fibers are manufactured by a controlled pyrolysis of stabilized precursor fiber such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the stabilization step, the linear PAN molecules are first converted to cyclic structure. However, cyclization is a very complicated process and there are still differences of opinion on the reaction mechanisms. Photo-induced crosslinking and stabilization of PAN via ion beam, X-ray, gamma ray and UV irradiation has been reported in the literature. However, the process required a long stabilization time. In this work, a new and highly effective method of pretreatment PAN precursor fiber was described. The effect of the e-beam on the stabilization process of the fibers was investigated using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement

2012-01-01

153

Fluoride glass microstructured optical fiber with large mode area and mid-infrared transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate the first fluorozirconate microstructured fiber for use in the mid-infrared. The fiber preform was manufactured via extrusion of a 200 g billet through a complex graphite die. The fiber exhibits large mode area of 6,600 microm(2), loss of 3 dB/m at 4 microm and only marginal excess loss relative to a corresponding unstructured fiber. PMID:19037452

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Foo, Tze-Cheung; Moore, Roger C; Zhang, Wenqi; Li, Yahua; Monro, Tanya M; Hemming, Alexander; Lancaster, David G

2008-12-01

154

Effect of Fiber Surface Structure on Absorption Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carbon fibers with different surface structures were obtained through changing the treatment intensities in the process of electrochemical oxidation, and then oxidized carbon fibers were used as reinforcements to manufacture carbon fiber/epoxy composites. The relationship between fiber surface structure and the moisture absorption of carbon fiber/epoxy composites after hygrothermal aging treatment was studied. Results show that a significant increase happen to the surface activity of carbon fiber after electrochemical oxidation, and there is also a large extent of elevation in the relative content of oxygen-containing functional groups especially –OH group which increases from 18.62% to 34.84%. The moisture absorption mechanism of carbon fiber/epoxy composites varies with the change of hygrothermal aging conditions. Temperature is considered to be a leading factor in the moisture absorption process. Results also indicate that the higher the surface activity of carbon fiber, the greater composite materials get the equilibrium moisture content. There is an obvious decline in the ILSS values of carbon fiber/epoxy composites with the increase of moisture uptake content.

QIAN Xin, ZHI Jian-Hai, WANG Xue-Fei, ZHANG Yong-Gang, YANG Jian-Xing

2013-01-01

155

Fiber optics and their applications in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Naturally, technical innovation and advanced technology give large impact also to the technical field of atomic energy, and the examples are the introduction of computers and optical information transmission and processing technology into atomic energy facilities. Combined with the development of radiation-resistant optical fibers, the optical information technology has been introduced into all aspects of atomic energy field. The information transmission using optical fibers is advantageous because of wide band, small loss, the immunity to crosstalk and electromagnetic induction effects, small size and low price. The structure of optical fibers, the transmission loss in optical fibers, the manufacturing method for optical fibers, the coating structure for optical fibers, optical cable structure, the new optical fibers developed recently such as optical fiber image guides, constant polarization fibers and infrared fibers, the merits of using optical fibers for signal transmission, atomic energy facilities and image transmission, the present status of the research on radiation-resistant fibers, and the application to nuclear power stations, reprocessing plants, FBRs, fusion reactors and others are described. (Kako, I.)

1985-01-01

156

A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described. A novel adsorbent carbon composite material has been developed comprising carbon fibers and a binder. The material, called carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), was developed through a joint research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER).

Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

1995-06-01

157

Melt-spun shaped fibers with enhanced surface effects: fiber fabrication, characterization and application to woven scaffolds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Scaffolds with a high surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA:V) are advantageous with regard to the attachment and proliferation of cells in the field of tissue engineering. This paper reports on the development of novel melt-spun fibers with a high SA:V, which enhanced the surface effects of a fiber-based scaffold while maintaining its mechanical strength. The cross-section of the fibers was altered to a non-circular shape, producing a higher SA:V for a similar cross-sectional area. To obtain fibers with non-circular cross-sectional shape, or shaped fibers, three different types of metal spinnerets were fabricated for the melt-spinning process, each with circular, triangular or cruciform capillaries, using deep X-ray lithography followed by nickel electroforming. Using these spinnerets, circular and shaped fibers were manufactured with biodegradable polyester, polycaprolactone. The SA:V increase in the shaped fibers was experimentally investigated under different processing conditions. Tensile tests on the fibers and indentation tests on the woven fiber scaffolds were performed. The tested fibers and scaffolds exhibited similar mechanical characteristics, due to the similar cross-sectional area of the fibers. The degradation of the shaped fibers was notably faster than that of circular fibers, because of the enlarged surface area of the shaped fibers. The woven scaffolds composed of the shaped fibers significantly increased the proliferation of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells. This approach to increase the SA:V in shaped fibers could be useful for the fabrication of programmable, biodegradable fiber-based scaffolds in tissue engineering.

Park SJ; Lee BK; Na MH; Kim DS

2013-08-01

158

Bolus and manufacturing process  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for manufacturing a bolus, wherein the method comprises the steps of:- introducing a densifier and a binder into a mould vibrating the contents of the mould, which comprise the densifier and the binder, and solidifying the contents of the mould so as to form a bolus. The invention also relates to a bolus of bolus composition manufactured according to the aforementioned process.

BENNISON JAMES JOHN DR

159

Welding in boiler manufacturing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New welding processes, introduced lately in boiler manufacturing, are described. Fundamentally new technology and equipment for the production of membrane heating surfaces are pointed out. New welding materials (low-silicon fluxes FVT-1, FVT-4) are mentioned. Basic problems of welding in boiler manufacture are enumerated

1985-01-01

160

Manufacturing knowledge management strategy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The study sought to understand the components of knowledge management strategy from the perspective of staff in UK manufacturing organisations. To analyse this topic we took an empirical approach and collaborated with two manufacturing organisations. Our main finding centres on the ...

 
 
 
 
161

[Biotechnology and vaccine manufacture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Modern biotechnology offers great possibilities for the large-scale manufacture of effective, safe and inexpensive vaccines. Improvements can also be expected in the manufacture of traditional vaccines, and there would appear to be prospect of producing vaccines against (tropical) parasitic disease for the first time. Close cooperation between university centres, research institutes and industry is essential to the development of biotechnology.

Ruitenberg EJ; van Wezel AL

1984-10-01

162

Surface analysis of plasma grafted carbon fiber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The surface characteristics of carbon fibers were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wetting measurements. The surface of carbon fiber was modified by means of plasma graft silsesquioxane. The oxygen/carbon and silicon/carbon ratio increased rapidly after treatments. Fitting the C 1s, O 1s, and Si 2p spectra demonstrated that new photopeaks were emerged, which were indicated C-Si, Si-O groups, respectively. The degree of surface roughness and the wettability of carbon fiber surface were both increased by plasma graft silsesquioxane. The results may shed some light on the design of the appropriate surface structure, which could react with resin, and the manufacture of the carbon fiber reinforced composites

2006-12-30

163

Surface analysis of plasma grafted carbon fiber  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The surface characteristics of carbon fibers were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wetting measurements. The surface of carbon fiber was modified by means of plasma graft silsesquioxane. The oxygen/carbon and silicon/carbon ratio increased rapidly after treatments. Fitting the C 1s, O 1s, and Si 2p spectra demonstrated that new photopeaks were emerged, which were indicated C-Si, Si-O groups, respectively. The degree of surface roughness and the wettability of carbon fiber surface were both increased by plasma graft silsesquioxane. The results may shed some light on the design of the appropriate surface structure, which could react with resin, and the manufacture of the carbon fiber reinforced composites.

Zhang Xuezhong [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 410, Harbin 150001 (China); Huang Yudong [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 410, Harbin 150001 (China)]. E-mail: huangyd@hit.edu.cn; Wang Tianyu [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 410, Harbin 150001 (China)

2006-12-30

164

Photonic Bandgap Fibers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility.

Barkou, Stig Eigil; Broeng, Jes

1999-01-01

165

Python fiber optic seal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sandia National Laboratories has developed a high security fiber optic seal that incorporates tamper resistance features that are not available in commercial fiber optic seals. The Python Seal is a passive fiber optic loop seal designed to give indication...

K. Ystesund J. Bartberger C. Brusseau P. Fleming K. Insch

1993-01-01

166

Fiber and Your Child  

Science.gov (United States)

... help prevent diabetes and heart disease. Figuring Out Fiber Listed on food labels under total carbohydrates, dietary ... 26 grams of fiber a day. Continue Adding Fiber to Your Family's Diet Here are some creative, ...

167

Continuous fiber ceramic composites for energy related applications. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy has established the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program to develop technology for the manufacture of CFCC`s for use in industrial applications where a reduction in energy usage or emissions could be realized. As part of this program, the Dow Chemical Company explored the manufacture of a fiber reinforced/self reinforced silicon nitride for use in industrial chemical processing. In Dow`s program, CFCC manufacturing technology was developed around traditional, cost effective, tape casting routes. Formulations were developed and coupled with unique processing procedures which enabled the manufacture of tubular green laminates of the dimension needed for the application. An evaluation of the effect of various fibers and fiber coatings on the properties of a fiber reinforced composites was also conducted. Results indicated that fiber coatings could provide composites exhibiting non-catastrophic failure and substantially improved toughness. However, an evaluation of these materials in industrial process environments showed that the material system chosen by Dow did not provide the required performance improvements to make replacement of current metallic components with CFCC components economically viable.

NONE

1998-04-07

168

Fabrication and characterization of special microstructured fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) as a novel type of light guiding media typically combine structural elements with very different chemical and optical behavior, e.g. silica - air, silica - high refractive index glasses. The applicative potential is very manifold: devices for telecommunication, nonlinear optics, sensing devices, fiber based gas lasers, etc. We report about preparation and characterization of selected total internal reflection (TIR) guiding MOFs: Air Clad Fiber, Suspended Core Fiber and heavy metal oxide (HMO) glass core MOFs. We fabricated Air Clad Fibers with extreme air fraction. The bridge width of about 0.13 ?m corresponds to a numerical aperture (NA) of about 0.6. Suspended core fibers for evanescent sensing were prepared by pressurized drawing of arrangements of three and four capillaries. By inflating the cavities the NA was increased up to 0.68. Material combined MOFs were prepared for nonlinear application (e.g. supercontinuum generation) with lanthanum aluminum silicate glass core. Thermochemical and optical behaviors of high nonlinear core glass candidates were investigated for alumina concentration up to 20 mol% and lanthanum oxide concentration up to 24 mol% in silica matrix. The manufactured HMO glass core MOF with a La2O3 concentration of 10 mol% shows a similar background loss level like the unstructured HMO glass fiber about 1 dB/m.

Kobelke, J.; Schuster, K.; Schwuchow, A.; Litzkendorf, D.; Spittel, R.; Kirchhof, J.; Bartelt, H.

2011-05-01

169

Additive Manufacturing Instructional Videos  

Science.gov (United States)

These two instructional videos from RapidTech, the National Center for Rapid Technologies, show types of additive manufacturing processes. The first video is 6:12 in length and describes "The 3D Printer Revolution" by explaining what 3D printing is, its advantages, and how it may drastically change manufacturing. The second video is 1:30 in length and titled "Manufacturing in Motion: First Survey on the 3D Printing Community." The video presents the results from survey questions in graph form.

2013-06-14

170

Strong fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This program was directed to a new and generic approach to the development of new materials with novel and interesting properties, and to the precision fabrication of these materials in one and two-dimensional forms. Advanced deposition processes and microfabrication technology were used to produce fibers and grids of metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and mixtures of controlled composition and structure, and with new and interesting mechanical and physical properties. Deposition processes included electron beam evaporation, co-deposition of mixtures by dual electron beam evaporation, thermal evaporation, sputtering of a single element or compound, sputtering of a single element in a gaseous atmosphere to produce compounds, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD), and selective tungsten chemical vapor deposition (W-CVD). The approach was to use the deposition processes in coordination with patterns generated by optical lithography to produce fibers with transverse dimensions in the micron range, and lengths from less than a millimeter to several centimeters. The approach is also applicable to the production of two-dimensional grids and particulates of controlled sizes and geometries.

Li, Che-Yu.

1991-03-01

171

Forming of fiber reinforced thermoplastic sheets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of fiber reinforced thermoplastic (FRTP) sheets has added a new dimension to the manufacturing industry. The ability of the thermoplastic matrix to soften and melt with the application of heat allows secondary processing of these composites. The material can be formed into components using conventional sheet metal forming processes with necessary modification. Ideally this opens the way for low cycle-time, non-labor intensive manufacturing processes. However, before there can be any wide scale application of the fiber reinforced sheet material, a better understanding is required regarding the formability of these reinforced sheets and the parameters influencing their forming characteristics. In sheet metal industry the term formability is described as the ease of forming and can be judged by various factors which may vary with the needs of a particular manufacturer. It is not always easy to prejudge formability as in many instances the actual sheet forming mechanism is quite complex. However, often a reasonable understanding of the process characteristics can be obtained through some relatively simple laboratory experiments. The present paper describes the results of a series of such tests namely hemispherical dome forming, cup drawing and vee bending using mainly polypropylene/glass fiber composite sheets with various fiber architecture, forming temperature and speed. Grid strain analysis has been applied to measure the magnitudes and directions of the principal strains and how they are influenced by fiber orientation. A kinematic approach has been shown to theoretically predict the deformation pattern with reasonable accuracy. Some salient features such as fiber buckling, sheet wrinkling, springback have been discussed in the context of forming process variables.

Bhattacharyya, D.; Burt, C.R.; Martin, T.A. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-12-31

172

77 FR 56811 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...Secretary of Commerce on matters relating to the competitiveness of the manufacturing sector and to provide regular communication between Government and the manufacturing sector. The Manufacturing and Services division of the International Trade...

2012-09-14

173

Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development of a spider silk-manufacturing process is of great interest. However, there are serious problems with natural manufacturing through spider farming, and standard recombinant protein production platforms have provided limited progress due to their inability to assemble spider silk proteins into fibers. Thus, we used piggyBac vectors to create transgenic silkworms encoding chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins. The silk fibers produced by these animals were composite materials that included chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins integrated in an extremely stable manner. Furthermore, these composite fibers were, on average, tougher than the parental silkworm silk fibers and as tough as native dragline spider silk fibers. These results demonstrate that silkworms can be engineered to manufacture composite silk fibers containing stably integrated spider silk protein sequences, which significantly improve the overall mechanical properties of the parental silkworm silk fibers.

Teulé F; Miao YG; Sohn BH; Kim YS; Hull JJ; Fraser MJ Jr; Lewis RV; Jarvis DL

2012-01-01

174

Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a spider silk-manufacturing process is of great interest. However, there are serious problems with natural manufacturing through spider farming, and standard recombinant protein production platforms have provided limited progress due to their inability to assemble spider silk proteins into fibers. Thus, we used piggyBac vectors to create transgenic silkworms encoding chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins. The silk fibers produced by these animals were composite materials that included chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins integrated in an extremely stable manner. Furthermore, these composite fibers were, on average, tougher than the parental silkworm silk fibers and as tough as native dragline spider silk fibers. These results demonstrate that silkworms can be engineered to manufacture composite silk fibers containing stably integrated spider silk protein sequences, which significantly improve the overall mechanical properties of the parental silkworm silk fibers. PMID:22215590

Teulé, Florence; Miao, Yun-Gen; Sohn, Bong-Hee; Kim, Young-Soo; Hull, J Joe; Fraser, Malcolm J; Lewis, Randolph V; Jarvis, Donald L

2012-01-03

175

Manufacture of triaminotrinitrobenzene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Process studies were made on the preparation of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), an explosive of unusual insensitivity and high thermal stability. Reaction conditions and procedures were determined that allowed its practical manufacture in batch reactors on a 200-kg scale.

Benziger, T.M.

1981-01-01

176

Manufacturing high temperature thermocouples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Emphasis is put upon the main difficulties encountered in manufacturing high temperature thermocouples. Solutions found for welding are presented with some results concerning the cleaning process used for the tubes

1974-12-12

177

Lean Manufacturing Engineering Certification  

Science.gov (United States)

This website from Best Practice Research features online business training courses including lean manufacturing and six sigma certification training courses. The courses are available for purchase and may be taken online.

2012-12-10

178

Method of making a continuous ceramic fiber composite hot gas filter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A ceramic fiber composite structure particularly suitable for use as a hot gas cleanup ceramic fiber composite filter and method of making same from ceramic composite material has a structure which provides for increased strength and toughness in high temperature environments. The ceramic fiber composite structure or filter is made by a process in which a continuous ceramic fiber is intimately surrounded by discontinuous chopped ceramic fibers during manufacture to produce a ceramic fiber composite preform which is then bonded using various ceramic binders. The ceramic fiber composite preform is then fired to create a bond phase at the fiber contact points. Parameters such as fiber tension, spacing, and the relative proportions of the continuous ceramic fiber and chopped ceramic fibers can be varied as the continuous ceramic fiber and chopped ceramic fiber are simultaneously formed on the porous vacuum mandrel to obtain a desired distribution of the continuous ceramic fiber and the chopped ceramic fiber in the ceramic fiber composite structure or filter.

Hill, Charles A. (Lynchburg, VA); Wagner, Richard A. (Lynchburg, VA); Komoroski, Ronald G. (Lynchburg, VA); Gunter, Greg A. (Lynchburg, VA); Barringer, Eric A. (Lynchburg, VA); Goettler, Richard W. (Lynchburg, VA)

1999-01-01

179

Influence of tapering process on changes of optical fiber refractive index distribution along a structure  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations of internal structure changes along an optical fiber during the manufacture of biconical taper have been described. Basing on the constant volume theory, classification of biconical structures manufactured on a special set-up is presented and discussed. The interferometric tomography method has been used for determination of 3D geometry and refractive index distribution in manufactured optical fiber tapers. The experiments provide detailed information on external (diameter of cladding) as well as internal (core diameter and refractive index profile) changes along the taper region. The results have been discussed in relation to the parameters of the manufacturing process.

Stasiewicz, K. A.; Krajewski, R.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.; Kujawi?ska, M.; ?wi??o, R.

2010-03-01

180

1997 Economic Census Manufacturing, Industry Series: Ice Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

This data from the US Department of Commerce Census Bureau constitutes the one of the first in a series of several hundred reports on individual industries in the manufacturing sector from the 1997 Economic Census. According to the 1997 Economic Census Manufacturing, Industry Series on Ice Manufacturing, Texas expended the most on ice manufacturing in 1997.

 
 
 
 
181

New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections and it is important to understand the effect that different types of calcium carbonates have on the paper properties made of 100% eucalyptus pulp. The current study is focused on selecting the most suitable market available calcium carbonate for the production of uncoated Eucalyptus digital printing paper, targeting a potential filler increase of 5% above the currently used filler content. We made hand sheets using 13 different varieties of widely used calcium carbonates [Nine samples of PCC (two rhombic and seven scalenohedral, covering a wide particle size range from 1.2 {micro}m to 2.9 {micro}m), and four samples of GCC (three anionic and one cationic, with a particle size range from 0.7 {micro}m to 1.5 {micro}m)] available in the market followed by a 12� pilot plant paper machine run. The detailed analysis on the main structural, optical and strength properties of the hand sheets found that the most suitable calcium carbonate for uncoated Eucalyptus digital printing paper production is scalenohedral PCC, with a particle size of 1.9 {micro}m for its positive effects on thickness, stiffness, brightness and opacity of paper.

Doelle, Klaus

2011-06-26

182

Carbon fiber as a component of thermoplastic material for mine blower blades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Use of plastics reinforced with carbon fiber is discussed for the manufacturing of blades for blowers used in coal mine ventilation. Carbon fiber is manufactured in Poland according to technology developed by the Polish Academy of Sciences. Manufacturing consists of two stages: fiber oxidation at 493 to 513 K combined with fiber tension, and carbonization in inert atmosphere at 1273 to 1373 K. Carbon fiber is from 2 to 15 cm long (without finish) and contains 80% carbon. Physical and mechanical properties of the Polish-made carbon fiber are compared to those of carbon fiber produced in the FRG, Japan, the USA, and the UK. Manufacturing blower blades using 7 types of 28-SAM plastic reinforced with fiberglass is discussed. Fiberglass content in the composite ranges from 26.04% to 28%, content of Tarnamid T-27 (polyamide) is from 52.07% to 56%, content of combustion inhibitors ranges from 14.89% to 16.0%, and carbon fiber content ranges from 0 to 7%. Polyamide reinforced with fiberglass and with carbon fiber is thermally stabilized at 403 to 473 K. Physical and mechanical properties of reinforced polyamide depending on mixture composition, processing conditions and thermal stabilization are shown in 7 diagrams. 12 references.

Czaplicka-Kolarz, K.

1984-01-01

183

Rayleigh fiber optics gyroscope  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel kind of fiber-optic gyroscope based on Rayleigh backscattering in a fiber-ring resonator is presented in this letter. Information on the rotation rate is obtained from the composed response of the fiber ring to an optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) instrument. The developed model based...

Kung, A.; Budin, J.; Thévenaz, L.; Robert, P. A.

184

Characterization of fiber optic cables under large tensile loads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Fiber optic cables designed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have to withstand an unusually harsh environment. Cables have been manufactured under a 6 year old DOE specification that has been slightly modified as the cable requirements are better understood. In order to better understand the cable properties a unique capability has been established at the NTS. Instrumentation has been developed to characterize the transmission properties of 1 km of fiber optic cable placed under a controlled tensile load up to 1500 lbs. The properties measured are cable tension, cable elongation, induced attenuation, attenuation vs. location, fiber strain, bandwidth, and ambient temperature. Preforming these measurements on cables from the two qualified NTS fiber optic cable manufacturers, Siecor and Andrew Corp., led to a new set of specifications

1984-01-01

185

Influence of fiber type, fiber mat orientation, and process time on the properties of a wood fiber/polymer composite  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A rapid press consolidation technique was used to produce composites from two types of air-laid wood fiber mat, incorporating either mechanically refined or bleached chemi-thermomechanically refined Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] and a bicomponent polymer fiber. The manufacturing technique involved pre-compression, contact heating to the process temperature under vacuum and then rapid transfer to the press for consolidation and cooling. Composites were tested to determine response to water or water vapor, porosity, fiber volume fraction and tensile properties. The composites absorbed water rapidly and showed changes in thickness with fluctuations in relative humidity. Porosity was higher in composites containing mechanically refined (MDF) fibers than in composites containing bleached chemi-thermomechanically refined (CTMP) fibers. Tensile test results suggessted that fiber wetting by the polymer matrix had been maximized within a five-minute heating time. Results also indicated that had been maximizedwithin a five-minute heating time. Results also indicated that porosity was not the key determinant of tensile properties in the composites.

Plackett, David; Torgilsson, R.

2002-01-01

186

Fiber optic connector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled.

Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenior City, TN)

1996-01-01

187

Optimized manufacturable porous materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM/S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization. The distribution of the material in the unit cell is optimized according to a given objective (e.g. maximum bulk modulus or minimum Poisson’s ratio) and some given constraints (e.g. isotropy) using topology optimization. The manufacturability is achieved using various filtering techniques together with a stochastic approach, where the mean performance of several slightly different designs is optimized. In most cases this assures a minimum length scale for the intermediate design, and thereby manufacturability is achieved. Furthermore, the study will look at how "negative" aspects of the manufacturing method can be exploited to achieve exotic material properties. An example of this is how the SLM/S causes softer regions in the structure due to insufficient heating of the metal powder. If the goal is to design a material, which to some degree is compliant, such as negative Poisson’s ratio material, softer regions are desirable. Another example is closedcell materials, e.g. maximum bulk modulus material, where the cells will be filled by metal powder if manufactured using SLM/S. This is considered as a drawback, because it makes the structure heavier. However, it also drastically increases the damping ratio of the structure, which is beneficial in many applications.

Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

188

Establishing a low-power fiber optic cable facility. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The capability for the manufacture of fiber optic cables for low- energy applications was established at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division. The processes for mounting the most common optic connectors were developed and characterized.

Belarde, E.

1994-05-01

189

Broadband emission from a multicore fiber fabricated with granulated oxides.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate a multicore multidopant fiber which, when pumped with a single pump source around approximately 800 nm, emits a more than one octave-spanning fluorescence spectrum ranging from 925 to 2300 nm. The fiber preform is manufactured from granulated oxides and the individual cores are doped with five different rare earths, i.e., Nd3+, Yb3+, Er3+, Ho3+, and Tm3+. PMID:18382589

Di Labio, Loredana; Lüthy, Willy; Romano, Valerio; Sandoz, Frédéric; Feurer, Thomas

2008-04-01

190

Clad fiber capacitor and method of making same  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A clad capacitor and method of manufacture includes assembling a preform comprising a ductile, electrically conductive fiber; a ductile, electrically insulating cladding positioned on the fiber; and a ductile, electrically conductive sleeve positioned over the cladding. One or more preforms are then bundled, heated and drawn along a longitudinal axis to decrease the diameter of the ductile components of the preform and fuse the preform into a unitized strand.

Tuncer, Enis

2012-12-11

191

Fiber optic monitoring device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information.

Samborsky, James K. (605 Groves Blvd., N. Augusta, SC 29841)

1993-01-01

192

Wood versus plant fibers: Similarities and differences in composite applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The work on cellulose fiber composites is typically strictly divided into two separated research fields depending on the fiber origin, that is, from wood and from annual plants, representing the two different industries of forest and agriculture, respectively. The present paper evaluates in parallel wood fibers and plant fibers to highlight their similarities and differences regarding their use as reinforcement in composites and to enable mutual transfer of knowledge and technology between the two research fields. The paper gives an introduction to the morphology, chemistry, and ultrastructure of the fibers, the modeling of the mechanical properties of the fibers, the fiber preforms available for manufacturing of composites, the typical mechanical properties of the composites, the modeling of the mechanical properties with focus on composites having a random fiber orientation and a non-negligible porosity content, and finally, the moisture sensitivity of the composites. The performance of wood and plant fibercomposites is compared to the synthetic glass and carbon fibers conventionally used for composites, and advantages and disadvantages of the different fibers are discussed. © 2013 Bo Madsen and E. Kristofer Gamstedt.

Madsen, Bo; Gamstedt, E. Kristofer

2013-01-01

193

An innovative wood-fiber composite incorporating nonwoven textile technologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article is the first to describe a process of manufacturing engineered wood composites that combine two nonwoven textile technologies: bicomponent fiber and needle punching. Hardwood fiber was blended with 10 percent urea formaldehyde and formed into mats. The mats were sandwiched with polypropylene/polyester bicomponent fibers and then needle punched. Needle punching was done by means of barbed needles that oscillated in a vertical direction with regard to the surface of the fiber mat. The barbed needles mechanically interlaced the bicomponent web to the wood-fiber mat and pulled some of the polymer fibers through the thickness direction of the mat. During hot pressing, the polypropylene sheath of the bicomponent fiber flowed, bonded with adjacent wood fibers, and coalesced with the sheath of the adjacent bicomponent fibers. The mats were pressed until the urea formaldehyde was fully cured. Bending and tensile properties of the needle-punched wood composite were assessed and compared with medium-density fiberboard (MDF). An average increase in storage modulus of 40 percent was observed for the 640-kg/[m.sup.3] panels and 48 percent for the 550-kg/[m.sup.3] panels. A mean longitudinal tensile modulus of 923 MPa was measured for the laminate panels. This is an improvement in tensile modulus of elasticity of almost 34 percent over the wood-fiber core material.

Van Dyk Herman; Peralta Perry; Peszlen Ilona; Banks-Lee Pam

2009-11-01

194

Novel optical fibers for Brillouin-based distributed sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical fiber sensors utilizing Brillouin scattering rely on the principle that the Brillouin frequency shift is a function of the local temperature or strain. Conventional optical fibers, such as standard telecommunications single-mode fibers, have been successfully used in these applications, and most typically in the time domain, such as with BOTDR. Such conventional fibers however are susceptible simultaneously to both temperature and strain, requiring either at least two fibers or specialized cabling to distinguish the effects of a local stress from those of a local change in temperature. Recently, methods utilizing fibers possessing at least two Brillouin frequency shifts, each with different temperature or strain coefficients have been proposed. However, realizing such fibers is challenging, requiring fibers with regions of very different compositions, all of which must have substantial overlap with the optical field, posing significant manufacturing challenges. We present several new specialty optical fibers based on novel and unconventional fabrication techniques with significant potential for use in distributed fiber sensor systems. First, we describe a class of fibers fabricated from materials whose Brillouin frequency shifts are immune to either temperature or strain, with a demonstration of the former using fiber derived from sapphire crystal, and modeling and measurements predicting the latter. The `Brillouin-athermal' fiber enables the measurement of a local strain, independent of the local temperature. Second, we describe and demonstrate a novel group of longitudinally graded (chirped) fibers enabling easily-implemented frequency-domain systems; affording the potential to simplify and reduce the cost of Brillouin-based distributed sensors.

Dragic, Peter D.; Ballato, John; Morris, Stephanie; Evert, Alex; Rice, Robert R.; Hawkins, Thomas

2013-05-01

195

Scintillator manufacture at Fermilab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A decade of research into plastic scintillation materials at Fermilab is reviewed. Early work with plastic optical fiber fabrication is revisited and recent experiments with large-scale commercial methods for production of bulk scintillator are discussed. Costs for various forms of scintillator are examined and new development goals including cost reduction methods and quality improvement techniques are suggested.

Mellott, K.; Bross, A.; Pla-Dalmau, A.

1998-08-01

196

Method of manufacturing battery plate groups  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described of manufacturing battery plate groups which comprises (a) providing a pliable, smooth, continuous glass fiber mat which has a predetermined thickness, (b) providing a pair of plastic rotors which are aligned in parallel, the rotors including circumferential surfaces and equal numbers of projections extending outwardly from their circumferential surfaces a distance of between 0.7 mm and 2mm, (c) spacing the rotors apart such that a clearance is provided between the projections on one rotor and the circumferential surface of the other rotor which is between 1/3 and 1/2 the predetermined thickness of the glass fiber mat, (d) rotating both the rotors such that the projections from one rotor are displaced by half a pitch from the projections from the other rotor, (e) passing the glass fiber mat between the rotors such that the projections thereon form alternately-directed folding habits therein at regular intervals along its length and to provide interconnected separator portions which are aligned in an accordion-like fashion, (f) providing an alternating series of positive and negative battery plates on only one side of the interconnected separator portions, and (g) sequentially inserting the positive and negative battery plates between adjacent separator portions.

Marui, T.; Uwani, T.

1986-08-12

197

X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF YB3+-DOPED OPTICAL FIBERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optical fibers doped with Ytterbium-3+ have become increasingly common in fiber lasers and amplifiers. Yb-doped fibers provide the capability to produce high power and short pulses at specific wavelengths, resulting in highly effective gain media. However, little is known about the local structure, distribution, and chemical coordination of Yb3+ in the fibers. This information is necessary to improve the manufacturing process and optical qualities of the fibers. Five fibers doped with Yb3+ were studied using Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), in addition to Yb3+ mapping. The Yb3+ distribution in each fiber core was mapped with 2D and 1D intensity scans, which measured X-ray fluorescence over the scan areas. Two of the five fibers examined showed highly irregular Yb3+ distributions in the core center. In four of the five fibers Yb3+ was detected outside of the given fiber core dimensions, suggesting possible Yb3+ diffusion from the core, manufacturing error, or both. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis has so far proven inconclusive, but did show that the fibers had differing EXAFS spectra. The Yb3+ distribution mapping proved highly useful, but additional modeling and examination of fiber preforms must be conducted to improve XAS analysis, which has been shown to have great potential for the study of similar optical fi bers.

Citron, Robert; Kropf, A.J.

2008-01-01

198

ATS materials/manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Materials/Manufacturing Technology subelement is a part of the base technology portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program. The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from national laboratories and universities. The projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. Work is currently ongoing on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), the scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technologies, materials characterization, and technology information exchange. This paper presents highlights of the activities during the past year. 12 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

Karnitz, M.A.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K. [and others

1997-11-01

199

Advanced Integrated Manufacturing Center  

Science.gov (United States)

A 15,000 sq. ft. state of the art model factory is the centerpiece of the Advanced Integrated Manufacturing (AIM) Center, which offers workforce development, production support, and process improvement services for local industry. In addition to the factory, which companies may utilize for their production needs, the AIM Center also offers Lean Manufacturing workshops (on-site or at the AIM Center). Other workshops, such as CNC programming, CAD/CAM training, injection molding, safety, project management, setup reduction/quick change, value stream mapping, 5S/visual controls, work place organization, lean office, workflow improvement, simulation modeling for workflow, and quality assurance, are also available.

Dilley, David

2009-11-02

200

Computer integrated manufacture  

Science.gov (United States)

An evaluation is made of features and performance characteristics for the CAD/CAM systems designated 'Electricad', 'CADAM', 'Systrid' and 'Euclid'. These systems have demonstrated time scale savings for product lines, as well as faster response to customers, greater work throughput, and significantly higher factory automation. These existing systems are compared with the next-generation, 'computer-integrated manufacturing' concept, which incorporates 'group technology' (GT). GT recognizes the similarities in the design and manufacture of discrete parts, rapidly retrieves existing pertinent practices data from the industrial data base, and attempts to achieve the economies of scale associated with mass production in a batch-production environment.

Trebley, D. W.

 
 
 
 
201

NOODLE MANUFACTURING DEVICE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A noodle manufacturing device is provided to increase income by a display effect by automatically putting noodle into a cooker. CONSTITUTION: A noodle manufacturing device comprises a motor, a feed hopper(14), and a rotary shaft(6). An extrusion unit extrudes dough to the outlet of a kneading container. A dough discharging unit is combined with the end of the rotary shaft. A cutting blade is installed in order to be adjacent to an inner plate and an outer plate. The dough discharging unit is comprised of an inner plate and an outer plate.

CHOI BYUNG KWON; JI SUK BU

202

MANUFACTURING METHOD OF GERMANIUM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A manufacturing method of organic germanium is provided to reduce production costs and improve use safety of organic germanium having various functions including reduction of sleeping time, induction of deep sleeping, improvement of natural curing ability and immune response control by using a microorganism. The manufacturing method of organic germanium comprises the steps of: adding Bacillus sp. SSA3(KCTC 8488) isolated from the traditional soy sauce into activate memory water which has an repeated unit represented by the formula(1), contains F^2+ or F^3+, stores organisms and preserve memories of vitamins and enzymes culturing the microorganism adding inorganic germanium into the cultured medium and re-culturing the microorganism.

KIM KYONG MI; OH HUN IL

203

Laser in manufacturing  

CERN Multimedia

Generally a laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) is defined as "a device which uses a quantum mechanical effect, stimulated emission, to generate a coherent beam of light from a lasing medium of controlled purity, size, and shape". Laser material processing represents a great number of methods, which are rapidly growing in current and different industrial applications as new alternatives to traditional manufacturing processes. Nowadays, the use of lasers in manufacturing is an emerging area with a wide variety of applications, for example, in electronics, molds an

Davim, J Paulo

2013-01-01

204

Manufacturing of burnt chamotte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Lepolsup(R) plant at Sarcal's works in Oriolles, France for manufacturing burnt chamotte from kaolinite raw clay is described. The working plan, clay extraction and preparation, and the chamotte burning process are described in detail. The plant has been so conceived that a wide range of high-quality products can be manufactured, with a high degree of homogeneity and a low energy consumption rate. To cover the thermal energy requirement for burning the chamotte by the Lepolsup(R) process, not only heavy oil, but also petrol coke and/or wood scraps are used. The plant is characterised by high availability and low maintenance costs. (author).

Defour, M.L.; Klenner, H.J.

1985-10-01

205

Boiler tube manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In boiler tube manufacture it is necessary to pay special attention to the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and freedom from defects of the product. These properties are affected by both composition and production methods. The production route for boiler tubes at SANDVIK is described. The merits of pilgering and drawing as cold working methods are discussed. A tube mill especially designed for making PWR steam generator tubing is described. Finally the importance of a well developed quality control system for successful tube manufacture is stressed. (author)

1974-09-25

206

Simplified sensor design for temperature-strain discrimination using fiber Bragg gratings embedded in laminated composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Several easy-to-manufacture designs based on a pair of Fiber Bragg Gratings structure embedded in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) have been explored. These smart composites can be used for strain and temperature discrimination. A Finite Elements Analysis and Matlab software were used to study the mechanical responses and its optical behaviors. The results exhibited different sensitivity and using a matrix method it is possible to compensate the thermal drift in a real application keeping a simple manufacture process.

Rodriguez-Cobo, L.; Marques, A. T.; Lopez-Higuera, J. M.; Santos, J. L.; Frazão, O.

2013-05-01

207

Photonic bandgap confinement in an all-solid tellurite-glass photonic crystal fiber.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report on the fabrication and optical assessment of an all-solid tellurite-glass photonic bandgap fiber. The manufacturing process via a preform drawing approach and the fiber characterization procedures are described and discussed. The fiber exhibits some minor morphological deformations that do not prevent the observation of optical confinement within the fiber by bandgap effects. The experimental fiber attenuation spectrum displays clear bandgap confinement regions whose positions are confirmed by modeling the guiding properties of the ideal geometry using a plane-wave expansion method. The model identifies the bound modes of the structure and provides confirmation of experimentally observed mode field profiles.

Lousteau J; Scarpignato G; Athanasiou GS; Mura E; Boetti N; Olivero M; Benson T; Sewell P; Abrate S; Milanese D

2012-12-01

208

Photonic bandgap confinement in an all-solid tellurite-glass photonic crystal fiber.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the fabrication and optical assessment of an all-solid tellurite-glass photonic bandgap fiber. The manufacturing process via a preform drawing approach and the fiber characterization procedures are described and discussed. The fiber exhibits some minor morphological deformations that do not prevent the observation of optical confinement within the fiber by bandgap effects. The experimental fiber attenuation spectrum displays clear bandgap confinement regions whose positions are confirmed by modeling the guiding properties of the ideal geometry using a plane-wave expansion method. The model identifies the bound modes of the structure and provides confirmation of experimentally observed mode field profiles. PMID:23202091

Lousteau, Joris; Scarpignato, Gerardo; Athanasiou, Giorgos S; Mura, Emanuele; Boetti, Nadia; Olivero, Massimo; Benson, Trevor; Sewell, Phillip; Abrate, Silvio; Milanese, Daniel

2012-12-01

209

Potato fiber as a dietary fiber source in dog foods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Potato fiber (PF), a co-product of potato starch manufacture, was evaluated as a potential novel fiber source in dog food. Potato fiber contained 55% total dietary fiber, 29% starch, 4% crude protein, and 2% acid-hydrolyzed fat. The PF substrate was evaluated for chemical composition, in vitro digestion and fermentation characteristics, and in vivo responses. For the in vitro hydrolytic-enzymatic digestion and fermentation experiment, raw and cooked PF substrates were first subjected to hydrolytic-enzymatic digestion to determine OM disappearance, then fermented using dog fecal inoculum. Fermentation characteristics were then measured at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. For the in vivo experiment, 10 female mixed breed dogs (6.13 ± 0.17 yr; 22 ± 2.1 kg) were provided 5 diets with graded concentrations (0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, or 6%) of PF in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design. Dogs were acclimated to the test diet for 10 d followed by 4 d of total fecal collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected to measure fecal pH and fermentation end-products. In vitro digestion revealed that raw and cooked PF were 32.3 and 27.9% digested enzymatically, while in vitro fermentation showed that PF was fermentable through 9 h. Raw PF had greater (P < 0.05) acetate, propionate, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations at the 12-h time point compared with cooked PF. The in vivo experiment showed no differences in apparent total tract DM, OM, CP, acid-hydrolyzed fat, or energy digestibility of diets containing graded concentrations of PF. However, total dietary fiber digestibility exhibited a linear increase (P < 0.01) with increasing PF concentrations in the diet. Overall, linear increases (P < 0.01) were observed for all individual and total SCFA, with a concomitant linear decrease (P < 0.01) in fecal pH with increasing dietary PF. Fecal protein catabolite concentrations were low or undetectable, with the exception of spermidine, which exhibited a linear increase with increasing concentrations of PF. These findings indicated that inclusion of PF elicited favorable fermentation characteristics without negatively affecting nutrient digestibility or stool characteristics, indicating that PF could be a functional dietary fiber source in dog foods.

Panasevich MR; Serao MC; de Godoy MR; Swanson KS; Guérin-Deremaux L; Lynch GL; Wils D; Fahey GC Jr; Dilger RN

2013-09-01

210

Nuclear fuel manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technologies used to manufacture nuclear fuel from uranium ore are outlined, with particular reference to the light water reactor fuel cycle. Capital and operating cost estimates for the processing stages are given, and the relevance to a developing uranium industry in Australia is discussed

1980-09-18

211

Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1997-02-18

212

NTC thermistor manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Consumer demands for enhanced microprocessor control in automotive and appliance products have resulted in an increasing need for temperature sensors. The Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) thermistor still appears to be the overwhelming choice to support that need when considering sensitivity, design, and cost. A review of NTC thermistor manufacturing along with a critique of processing problem areas is presented.

Horsey, R.S. [Keystone Carbon Company, St. Marys, PA (United States)

1995-12-01

213

Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific goal of this program is to define manufacturing methods that will allow single crystal technology to be applied to complex-cored airfoils components for power generation applications. Tasks addressed include: alloy melt practice to reduce the sulfur content; improvement of casting process; core materials design; and grain orientation control.

Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

214

Teamwork In Modern Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center uses the example of a business (Featherlite Luxury Coaches) to demonstrate careers in manufacturing. The presentation focuses on how teams are assembled and how each team accomplishes given tasks to support the overall goals of the business.

2011-02-11

215

Manufacturing & Electronics Hourly Pay  

Science.gov (United States)

This sheet from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center highlights hourly wages for individuals working in the manufacturing and electronics industries. The information may serve to motivate students to obtain education beyond high school for use in these industries.

2011-01-24

216

Cladding tube manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report 'Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding.' Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs.

Hahn, R. [Kraftwerk Union AG, Mulheim (Germany); Jeong, Y.H.; Baek, B.J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, B.K.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1999-04-01

217

Decay time and light yield measurements for plastic scintillating fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have studied light production and propagation in three different samples of plastic scintillating fibers manufactured by Kyowa Gas Co.: SCSF-81, SCSF-38 and SCSF-38 with a quenching additive. The emission time distribution is described phenomenologically by a fast two-step scintillation process and an additional slow component, the time constants of which are determined. The light yield from the fibers is measured as a function of distance for the two light components which propagate by total internal reflection from the core-clad interface and from the clad-air interface. We obtain the absolute light yield and attenuation lengths for the different fibers. (orig.)

1990-07-01

218

Decay time and light yield measurements for plastic scintillating fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have studied light production and propagation in three different samples of plastic scintillating fibers manufactured by Kyowa Gas Co.: SCSF-81, SCSF-38 and SCSF-38 with a quenching additive. The emission time distribution is described phenomenologically by a fast two-step scintillation process and an additional slow component, the time constants of which are determined. The light yield from the fibers is measured as a function of distance for the two light components which propagate by total internal reflection from the core-clad interface and from the clad-air interface. We obtain the absolute light yield and attenuation lengths for the different fibers. (orig.).

Hawkes, C.M.; Kuhlen, M.; Milliken, B.; Stroynowski, R.; Wicklung, E. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA)); Shimizu, T.; Shinji, O. (Kuraray Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1990-07-01

219

Antimicrobial properties of copper-coated electroconductive polyester fibers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three synthetic copper-coated EURO-static fibers (PET--polyester, PA--polyamide, and PAC--polyacrylamide) manufactured by EUROPA Corporation S.C., Poland, were tested as potential antimicrobial agents. The inhibitory properties of the fibers were examined using different microorganisms as follows: i. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25293, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 reference strains, ii. 8 strains of S. aureus (4 MRSA and 4 MSSA) and 5 strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from infected wounds, and iii. fungal pathogen Scopulariopsis sp. isolated from onychomycosis case. The results of experiments have evidenced that polyester (PET) copper-coated EURO-static fibers inhibit the growth of all the strains used.

Grzybowski J; Trafny EA

1999-01-01

220

Fiber optic ring network  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An optical fiber cable distribution architecture and a ring interface are described. The unique synergism of the ring configuration coupled with a widespread optical fiber cable facility are explored. The ring interface adapts a token passing network of work-stations from coaxial cable to 50 micron core, telecommunications type, fiber optic cable. The optical fiber cable links a series of communications centers to as many as 288 optical fibers. The loop distribution of optical fibers forms the backbone for a 6.7 km ring operating at 6 to 12 Mbps.

Gossage, S.A.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Performance and safety of holmium: YAG laser optical fibers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lower-pole ureteronephroscopy requires transmission of holmium:YAG energy along a deflected fiber. Current ureteroscopes are capable of high degrees of deflection, which may stress laser fibers beyond safe limits during lower-pole use. We hypothesized that optical fiber and safety measures differ among manufacturers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Small (200-273-microm) and medium-diameter (300-400-microm) Ho:YAG fibers were tested in a straight and 180 degrees bent configuration. Energy transmission was measured by an energy detector. Fiber durability was assessed by firing the laser in sequentially tighter bending diameters. The fibers were bent to 180 degrees with a diameter of 6 cm and run at 200- to 4000-mJ pulse energy to determine the minimum energy required to fracture the fiber. The bending diameter was decreased by 1-cm increments and testing repeated until a bending diameter of 1 cm was reached. The maximum deflection of the ACMI DUR-8E ureteroscope with each fiber in the working channel was recorded. The flow rate through the working channel of the DUR-8E was measured for each fiber. RESULTS: The mean energy transmission differed among fibers (P < 0.001). The Lumenis SL 200 and the InnovaQuartz 400 were the best small and medium-diameter fibers, respectively, in resisting thermal breakdown (P < 0.01). The Dornier Lightguide Super 200 fractured repeatedly at a bend diameter of 2 cm and with the lowest energy (200 mJ). The other small fibers fractured only at a bend diameter of 1 cm. The Sharplan 200 and InnovaQuartz Sureflex 273T were the most flexible fibers, the Lumenis SL 365 the least. The flow rate was inversely proportional to four times the power of the diameter of the fiber. CONCLUSIONS: Optical performance and safety differ among fibers. Fibers transmit various amounts of energy to their cladding when bent. During lower-pole nephroscopy with the fiber deflected, there is a risk of fiber fracture from thermal breakdown and laser-energy transmission to the endoscope. Some available laser fibers carry a risk of ureteroscope damage.

Knudsen BE; Glickman RD; Stallman KJ; Maswadi S; Chew BH; Beiko DT; Denstedt JD; Teichman JM

2005-11-01

222

Experimental Investigation-Natural Fiber Braided Sleeve for Pneumatic Artificial Muscles Actuation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) as an actuator to create pulling force and bulges mimicking a human muscle contraction. Currently, the method used to manufacture the PAMs is by braiding with artificial fibers. Natural fiber braided PAMs are rarely available for the usage in prosthesis. The nove...

T. Nagarajan; S. Krishnan; Victor Amirtham; Ahmad Majdi Abdul-Raniand; T.V.V.L.N. Rao

223

Compact and robust fiber optic components using integrated optics with silica waveguides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With flame hydrolysis deposition (FHD) and photolithography & dry etching, integrated silica waveguide circuits are mass produced on planar substrates. Based on this technology, compact and reliable integrated fiber optic devices are manufactured to further span the use of fiber optics in communication.

Sun, C.J.; Sumida, S. [Photonic Integration Research, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-01

224

PZ Fiber Loss Measurements at LLNL and Plan to Confirm Results at CEA/Thomson  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this paper is to confirm the slow-axis loss of less than 0.1 dB/m for the PZ fiber manufactured for LLNL by 3M and to provide samples of the fiber to CEA/Thomson that will permit them to readily verify this result.

Bass, I.L.

2000-04-17

225

Radiation curing of composites for vehicle component and vehicle manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Some traditional uses of metals in vehicle component and vehicle manufacture, such as steel (specific gravity 7.8) or aluminum (specific gravity 2.7), can be replaced by carbon-fiber composites (specific gravity 1.6) to provide significant weight savings while maintaining structural integrity. The aerospace and aircraft industries have adopted this approach. The auto or motor vehicle industries have explored the use of composites, but have been reluctant to widely adopt this technology because of concerns over manufacturing processes. A typical steel auto body weighing ? 750 kilos would weigh only ? 155 kilos if replaced with carbon-fiber composites. Structural members, as the vehicle chassis, could also be fabricated out of carbon-fiber composites. With only 20% of the body weight, smaller, lower horse-power and more fuel efficient engines could be used to power such vehicles. Commercial aircraft manufacturers that have adopted carbon-fiber structures in lieu of aluminum (a 40% weight savings) estimate a 20% savings in fuel costs for large planes. These are still made with conventional materials being used for motors, tires, interiors, and the like. A fuel efficient auto now running at ? 10 kilometers/liter would more than double its fuel efficiency given the nearly 80% weight savings attainable by use of carbon-fiber composites just for the vehicle body. As with aircraft, conventional systems for propulsion (motors), braking, tires and interiors could still be used. Radiation curing can simplify the manufacture of carbon-fiber composite vehicle components. Highly penetrating X-rays derived from high current, high energy electron beam (EB) accelerators can be used to cure structural composites while they are constrained within inexpensive molds; thus reducing cure cycles, eliminating heat transfer concerns and concerns over potentially hazardous emissions during the curing process. Since X-rays can penetrate mold walls, the curing process is quite versatile, enabling diverse components with varying designs to be cured using a common X-ray source or multiple parts of the same design could be cured at once. Since the energy output of an EB unit can be tightly controlled, EB processing itself can be used to produce 'B' staged fiber-reinforced composite materials for sheet molding (SMC) and prepregs. Such materials can significantly reduce the time-to-cure should alternative energy sources or even subsequent X-ray curing be used. In the EB mode, SMC materials can be made in excess of 100 meters/minute. The matrix systems are proprietary formulations based on common radiation responsive materials used in a variety of radiation curing applications. (author)

2009-01-01

226

INDENOISOQUINOLINONE DERIVATIVES, MANUFACTURING METHOD AND MEDICAL USE THEREOF.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Indenoisoquinolinone derivatives (I), the manufacturing method and the medical use thereof, which belong to pharmaceutical chemistry and organic chemistry field, are disclosed. These compounds can be used for treating several medical symptoms related to postmenopausal syndrome, uterine fibers deterioration and aortic smooth muscle cells proliferation, especially ER-(+) depend breast cancer. Meanwhile, these compounds can also be used for treating glioma and lung cancer, and have inhibiting effect on tumor metastasis.

XIANG HUA; WANG TIANLIN; XIAO HONG; YOU QIDONG; YAO YAO; LI XIAOBO; LIAO QINGJIANG

227

Dedicated high performance liquefied fiber for false tooth repair  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a false tooth repair special high-performance liquefied fiber. Since most of present material used as fixing material in the tooth repair is metal, which has lower stressing resistance, easy broken (the stressing resistance value of super-strong fiber is 15 times of metallic steel wire in the same size) and the metal color will replace the white of tooth, with hard operation of processing and manufacturing. The invention is a super-strong fiber woven material which has been processed with soakage via photochemical solidification binder. The invention can solve most defections of present metal material used in tooth repair. And said high-performance liquefied fiber is mainly used to produce the super-strong fiber fixing hidden false tooth (SíñF hidden false tooth).

SU HAO

228

Lunar preform manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

229

Economic Census 1997: Manufacturing, Industry Series. Cement Manufacturing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is about the U.S. industry which consists of establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing portland, natural, masonry, pozzalanic, and other hydraulic cements. Cement manufacturing establishments may calcine earths or mine, quarry, manufac...

1999-01-01

230

Ceramic fiber reinforced filter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

Stinton, David P. (Knoxville, TN); McLaughlin, Jerry C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lowden, Richard A. (Powell, TN)

1991-01-01

231

Steel fiber reinforced concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

2005-01-01

232

Fiber optics in adverse environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations

1982-01-01

233

1997 Economic Census Manufacturing, Industry Series: Plastics Bottle Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

This data from the US Department of Commerce Census Bureau constitutes the one of the first in a series of several hundred reports on individual industries in the manufacturing sector from the 1997 Economic Census. The 1997 Economic Census Manufacturing, Industry Series on Plastics Bottle Manufacturing reports that California, Illinois, and Ohio accounted for a third of the $6.4 billion worth of 1997 goods shipped by the nation's plastics bottle manufacturers.

234

Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter  

Science.gov (United States)

A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

1983-06-30

235

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Kids 'n Fiber Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates ... and Healthy Diets Getting kids to eat the fiber they need can be a challenge. Join FDA ...

236

COMPOST MANUFACTURING APPARATUS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: An apparatus for manufacturing compost is provided to mass-produce compost with the high quality by automatically supplying excrements into food wastes, sawdust, rice hulls, or sesame dredges and stirring the materials. CONSTITUTION: An apparatus for manufacturing compost includes a lower frame part(2), an upper frame part(10), a bucket assembly part(20), a rotary treatment part(30), an excrements spraying part(40), and a controlling part. The bucket assembly part includes a bucket unit(23) and a circulating part(24). The bucket unit includes a plurality of buckets(21) and a bucket driving part(22). The buckets pump compost from one side of a compost bath and drop the compost into another side of the compost bath. The circulating part transfers the bucket unit. The excrements spraying part sprays excrements from an excrements bath(61) to the rotary treatment part.

HA JAE SUNG

237

Solar cell manufacture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for manufacturing solar cells from a silicon wafer having a p-n junction therein and front and back contacts thereon is disclosed. The improvement comprises washing said wafer with a buffered hydrofluoric acid solution having a ph of from about 3.5 to about 5 and containing from about 2 to about 10 weight percent hydrofluoric acid based on the total weight of the solution.

Gay, C.F.

1980-04-15

238

Gene Chip Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene chips, also called DNA microarrays, have a broad range of applications in current research, including enabling researchers to measure the activity of thousands of genes simultaneously. Dr. Eric Lander describes the process used to manufacture gene chips. Also, this video is 1 minutes and 56 seconds in length, and available in MOV (9 MB) and WMV (11 MB). All Genomics videos are located at: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/genomics/video.html

Howard Hughes Medical Institute (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)

2008-04-11

239

Advanced Fibers for Composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews high performance fibers used in the production of textile composites. Techniques used to produce preform using these fibers are discussed. The properties of fibers such as kevlar, spectra, glass, carbon and ceramic are presented. The paper also discusses densification or consolidation techniques used to produce composites from each fiber. Finally, the paper compares the properties of Carbon/Epoxy composites with that of 6061 aluminum. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

1994-01-01

240

Fiber Laser Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

This pdf from OP-TEC, the National Center for Optics and Photonics Education, addresses basic concepts underlying the operation of fiber lasers. This free 19 page document supplements the fiber laser material presented in an Elements of Photonics Course by provided a more current and detailed description of how lasers operate. This course covers an introduction to fiber laser application, established laser types, advantages of fiber lasers, application in materials processing, and other applications.

2012-12-04

 
 
 
 
241

Fiber Optics Basics  

Science.gov (United States)

This pdf from OP-TEC, the National Center for Optics and Photonics Education, addresses basic concepts underlying the operation of fiber lasers. This free 26 page document supplements the fiber laser material presented in an Elements of Photonics Course by provided a more current and detailed description of how lasers operate. This course covers basic laser operations, basic structure of fiber lasers, pulsing methods, output characteristics of fiber lasers, and advanced structures.

2012-12-04

242

Scintillating fiber tracking techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current status of the field of scintillating fiber detection and tracking is briefly reviewed, and avenues for further work are suggested. Attention is given to the core material, cladding material, and extra-mural absorber to be used in the scintillating fibers, as well as to the properties of attenuation length, radiation resistance, and fiber profile. Some examples are given of successful recording of tracks and interactions. Current developments are mentioned in relation to plastic and glass fibers and liquid capillaries. (LEW)

Ruchti, R.

1986-02-01

243

Measurements at 351 nm of temporal dispersion in fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1. Temporal dispersion at 351-nm was measured in the following: a 35-m bundle of 19 each 50-µm-core fibers, a companion 35-m single fiber, a 100-µm-core single fiber (at 4 lengths), and a 50-µm-core single fiber (two samples, 7 lengths). The 50-µm-core fiber was from preform #24; the 100-µm-core fiber was a prototype version having a thick cladding. All of the fibers were developed and manufactured at the Vavilov State Optical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia. 2. Dispersion measurements were made by propagating a 20-ps 351-nm pulse through the fiber under test and recording the output on an S20 streak camera. The width of the pulse transmitted by the fiber was compared to that of a fraction of the pulse that had propagated over an air path. Values of dispersion were calculated as, D = {radical}(F² - A²) , where F and A are the full widths at half maximum (FWHM) for, respectively, the fiber-path and the air-path streaks. 3. In each of the experiments, the measured dispersion increased with counts in the streak record, which in principle, are proportional to intensity in the fiber. Measured values of dispersion ranged from about 0.6 to 1.0 ps/m for the single fibers. 4. The measured FWHMs of both the fiber-path pulse and the air-path pulse increased with increase in counts in the streak record. The rate of broadening was greatest for the fiber-path pulse, and the broadening of that pulse was the primary cause for the dependence of dispersion on counts in the streak record. Pulse broadening with increase in counts is symptomatic of camera saturation, but it is difficult to understand why saturation should have effected the fiber-path pulses more strongly. 5. There were spatial anomalies in the streak records of the output pulses from some of the fibers. Emission by the bundle of a "doubled" pulse is a primary example. In streaks recorded at about 800 counts, the total duration for the pair of pulses was about 100 ps. The maxima of the pulses occurred in different columns of the streak, so there was a relative spatial or angular offset between the two pulses. Pulses with extended tails were observed in each streak that was recorded at about 400 counts. 6. We frequently had difficulty obtaining adequate transmittance through 50-mm single fibers. Some of our problems probably were related to inexperience in cleaving this particular fiber.

Griffith, R; Milam, D; Sell, W; Thompson, C

1998-11-04

244

77 FR 66179 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...matters relating to the competitiveness of the U.S. manufacturing sector and to provide a forum for regular communication between Government and the manufacturing sector. DATES: All applications must be received by the Office of...

2012-11-02

245

77 FR 69794 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...matters relating to the competitiveness of the U.S. manufacturing sector and to provide a forum for regular communication between Government and the manufacturing sector. ADDRESSES: Please submit application information via email to...

2012-11-21

246

Dermatitis in rubber manufacturing industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review describes the history of rubber technology and the manufacturing techniques used in rubber manufacturing industries. The important aspects of the acquisition of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis within the industry are presented for the reader.

White, I.R.

1988-01-01

247

Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

Tesar, A.

1995-12-01

248

Fuel manufacturing and utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO2, MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

2005-01-01

249

Fiber optic coupled optical sensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

Fleming, Kevin J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

250

Resonant filtered fiber amplifiers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present our recent result on utilizing resonant/bandgap fiber designs to achieve high performance ytterbium doped fiber amplifers for achieving diffraction limited beam quality in large mode area fibers, robust bending performance and gain shaping for long wavelength operation of yb-doped amplifiers.

Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko

2013-01-01

251

Tracking with scintillating fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The parametric performance of scintillating fiber tracking elements is reviewed and compared with recent measurements. Topics include performance of scintillation materials, single-clad and multiclad fiber waveguide structures, optical splicing, and photosensors. A brief description of fiber trackers utilized in several experiments is provided, and an extended bibliography is included for detailed reference. (orig.).

Ruchti, R. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

1995-11-01

252

Two Products Manufacturer’s Production Decisions with Carbon Constraint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a manufacture which produces both ordinary products and green products in a monopoly market, and investigate his production decisions with carbon constraint. Firstly, we derive the manufacturer’s optimal production and maximum profit without carbon constraint. Then, we discuss the optimal production and maximum profit with carbon constraint in different situation. The results indicate that manufacturer’s optimal production and maximum profit with carbon constraint are less than them without carbon constraint, optimal production is an increasing function with carbon constraint.

Li LU; Xu CHEN

2013-01-01

253

Out of Bounds Additive Manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing (AM) system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

Holshouser, Chris [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Newell, Clint [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Palas, Sid [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Rowe, John C [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL

2013-01-01

254

Bend-optimized optical fiber with S+C+L bands for FTTH applications  

Science.gov (United States)

A multi-clad waveguide, which provide more bandwidth for WDM with S+C+L bands, is illustrated in this study. The bending loss is optimized for the FTTH applications. The fiber is manufactured by PCVD process; the test results are identical with the theoretic calculation. This fiber has nearly flat dispersion from 1460 nm to 1625 nm. The MFD at 1310 nm and 1550 nm are 8.2 and 9.4 ?m, respectively. Bending loss is less than 0.1 dB/Turn at a bending radius of 7.5 mm. With low-water-peak manufacture technologies, the fiber is suitable for FTTH applications.

Cheng, Yu; Han, Qingrong; Maran, Jean-Noel

2008-12-01

255

MONITORING TECHNIQUES FOR CARBON FIBER EMISSIONS: EVALUATION A  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was carried out of methods and techniques applicable to the detection and monitoring of carbon fibers as they are emitted in processes involving their manufacture or their use. The specific activities of these programs were: (a) to perform a detailed literature s...

256

Experimental research on matching planar emission sources to optical fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are given from experimental research on matching semiconductor planar emission sources to multimode optical fibers; these results confirm the validity of the theoretical approach and the assumptions made in the calculation. Various types of matching components are examined; the optimum design, both in terms of parameters and in terms of manufacturing technology, are selected.

Guliaev, U.V.; Kurnosov, V.D.; Potapov, V.T.; Sokolovskii, A.A.

1980-01-01

257

Elastoplastic damage micromechanics for elliptical fiber composites with progressive partial fiber debonding and thermal residual stresses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Incorporating the interfacial damage and thermal residual stresses, an elasto-plastic damage formulation is proposed to predict the overall transverse mechanical behavior of continuous elliptical-fiber reinforced ductile matrix composites within the framework of micromechanics and homogenization. Based on the concept of equivalent inclusion and taking the progressive interfacial debonding angle into consideration, partially debonded fibers are replaced by equivalent orthotropic, perfectly bonded fibers. Three interfacial damage modes are considered. The Weibull's probabilistic function is adopted to describe the varying probability of progressive partial fiber debonding. The effective elastic moduli of four-phase composites, composed of a ductile matrix and randomly located yet unidirectionally aligned fibers are derived by a micromechanical formulation. Thermal residual stresses are taken into account through the concept of thermal eigenstrain to investigate the effects of the manufacturing processinduced residual stresses. Employing the micromechanical approximation, the overall stress-strain responses and the effective yield function are formulated with the thermal eigenstrain. When comparing with the available experimental data, significant effects of thermal residual stresses are discussed. Moreover, the effects of the interfacial strengths and the cross- sectional shapes of fibers on the mechanical behaviors of composites are systematically investigated.

Ju J.W.; Yanase K.

2008-01-01

258

Development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have initiated a three phase investigation of the development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer usable lifetimes. This report presents the results of the first phase of the study, performed from Aug. 1989 through Feb. 1991, which shows that significant energy saving are possible through the use of high temperature insulating fibers that better retain their efficient insulating properties during the service lifetime of the fibers. The remaining phases of this program include the pilot scale development and then full scale production feasibility development and evaluation of enhanced high temperature refractory insulting fibers. This first proof of principle phase of the program presents a summary of the current use patterns of refractory fibers, a laboratory evaluation of the high temperature performance characteristics of selected typical refractory fibers and an analysis of the potential energy savings through the use of enhanced refractory fibers. The current use patterns of refractory fibers span a wide range of industries and high temperature furnaces within those industries. The majority of high temperature fiber applications are in furnaces operating between 2000 and 26000{degrees}F. The fibers used in furnaces operating within this range provide attractive thermal resistance and low thermal storage at reasonable cost. A series of heat treatment studies performed for this phase of the program has shown that the refractory fibers, as initially manufactured, have attractive thermal conductivities for high temperature applications but the fibers go through rapid devitrification and subsequent crystal growth upon high temperature exposure. Development of improved fibers, maintaining the favorable characteristics of the existing as-manufactured fibers, could save between 1 and 4% of the energy consumed in high temperature furnaces using refractory fibers.

Martin, P.C.; DePoorter, G.L.; Munoz, D.R.

1991-02-01

259

NATURAL FIBER FOLDING POT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A fiber pot, made of a combination of coconut fiber and natural latex rubber, is described that is able to be folded and compressed. Folding and compression of the fiber pots allows more pots to be placed within a shipping container thereby reducing shipping costs by approximately 75%. Because the folding fiber pots are made of coconut fiber and a natural latex rubber, they are 100% biodegradable and horticultural products contained within do not need to be removed prior to planting. This eliminates the root shock that horticultural products normally experience when planted in a different soil.

TOYAMA WAYNE THOMAS; SURIYAMPOLA YOHAN

260

Fiber coating method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A coating is applied to reinforcing fibers arranged into a tow by coaxially aligning the tow with an adjacent separation layer and winding or wrapping the tow and separation layer onto a support structure in an interleaved manner so that the separation layer separates a wrap of the tow from an adjacent wrap of the tow. A coating can then be uniformly applied to the reinforcing fibers without defects caused by fiber tow to fiber tow contact. The separation layer can be a carbon fiber veil.

Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY)

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Photonic crystal fiber coupler.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fiber couplers made with photonic crystal fibers (PCF) are reported. Two types of PCF were fabricated by means of stacking a group of silica tubes around a silica rod and drawing them. The fiber couplers were made by use of the fused biconical tapered method. With a fiber that had five hexagonally stacked layers of air holes, a 33/67 coupling ratio was obtained, and with a one-layer four-hole fiber, a 48/52 coupling ratio was obtained. The fabrication processes and the characteristics of the PCFs and the PCF couplers are presented.

Lee BH; Eom JB; Kim J; Moon DS; Paek UC; Yang GH

2002-05-01

262

Fiber optic monitoring device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention is comprised of a device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information.

Samborsky, J.K.

1992-12-31

263

TENCEL / LENZING FIBER, A NEW FIBER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tencel is a new fiber made in a process that is similar to the creation of rayon. As with rayon, cellulose, primarily from wood pulp, is used to make the fiber. Whether this creates a natural product is open to discussion. The process involves dissolving wood pulp with a solvent which unlike the process for rayon orcupra, is a relatively non-toxic amine. The dissolved pulp is then forced through tiny holes called spinnerettes creating long, smooth, lusterous fibers much like silk in appearance and drape. It can be dyed to deep color.When spuning tencel fiber it is quite luscious. It has that wonderful silken sheen. One knows that no silk worms died to produce it. It can be very slippery to spin so it is not a beginner's fiber, but anyone ready for silk can handle it with ease. Many spinners have a great enthusiasm for this new fiber. You get the benefits of silk at halfthe price. However, to dye you will have to use a procion type dye for cellulose rather than the acid dyes one can use on a protein fiber like natural silk

Porav Viorica

2012-01-01

264

Digestion of kiwifruit fiber.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dietary fiber affects the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, it is generally believed that fiber largely escapes digestion in the human small intestine and is therefore mainly a substrate for microbial fermentation in the hindgut. Kiwifruit is a food naturally high in dietary fiber, yet the impact of dietary kiwifruit on nutrient availability has not been reported. The digestion of kiwifruit has been investigated but only in in vitro digestion studies. With its naturally high nonstarch polysaccharide content, it would be expected that kiwifruit would possess the characteristics of a good source of fiber for nutrition and health. Kiwifruit contains soluble and nonsoluble fiber components, both of which would be expected to affect the physical attributes of digesta as it transits the gastrointestinal tract. This chapter summarizes fiber digestion in general and current knowledge of kiwifruit fiber digestion in the gastrointestinal tract.

Henare SJ; Rutherfurd SM

2013-01-01

265

Hair and fiber stacker  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A fiber stacking or aligning apparatus is described. In an embodiment, the apparatus includes a first component and a second component. The first component is configured to permit the introduction of a plurality of fibers into an opening that defines a through hole through the first component. The second component is rotatably coupled to the first component, wherein the second component is configured to permit the introduction of the plurality of fibers that have passed through the through hole into an area in the second component that includes an alignment surface which limits the travel of the plurality of fibers so as to align the plurality of fibers, wherein the second component is further configured to be rotated away from the aligned plurality of fibers to expose the aligned plurality of fibers without disturbing them.

NICOSIA JOHN

266

PIEZOELECTRIC POLYMER FIBERS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Piezoelectric fibers include a polypeptide wherein molecules of the polypeptide have electric dipole moments that are aligned such that the piezoelectric fiber provides a piezoelectric effect at an operating temperature. A piezoelectric component provides a plurality of piezoelectric fibers, each comprising an organic polymer. A method of producing piezoelectric fibers includes electrospinning a polymer solution to form a fiber and winding the fiber onto a rotating target in which the rotating target is electrically grounded. An acoustic sensor includes a plurality acoustic transducers, wherein the plurality of acoustic transducers are structured and arranged to detect a corresponding plurality of vector components of an acoustic signal, and at least one of the plurality of acoustic transducers comprises a piezoelectric fiber.

YU MICHAEL; FARRAR DAWNIELLE; MOON WONKYU; WEST JAMES; LEE SANGKYU

267

Fiber optic vibration sensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

Dooley, Joseph B. (Harriman, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Tobin, Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN)

1995-01-01

268

Fiber Accelerating Structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the options for future particle accelerators are photonic band gap (PBG) fiber accelerators. PBG fibers are specially designed optical fibers that use lasers to excite an electric field that is used to accelerate electrons. To improve PBG accelerators, the basic parameters of the fiber were tested to maximize defect size and acceleration. Using the program CUDOS, several accelerating modes were found that maximized these parameters for several wavelengths. The design of multiple defects, similar to having closely bound fibers, was studied to find possible coupling or the change of modes. The amount of coupling was found to be dependent on distance separated. For certain distances accelerating coupled modes were found and examined. In addition, several non-periodic fiber structures were examined using CUDOS. The non-periodic fibers produced several interesting results and promised more modes given time to study them in more detail.

Hammond, Andrew P.; /Reed Coll. /SLAC

2010-08-25

269

Fiber draw synthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis of a high-melting temperature semiconductor in a low-temperature fiber drawing process is demonstrated, substantially expanding the set of materials that can be incorporated into fibers. Reagents in the solid state are arranged in proximate domains within a fiber preform. The preform is fluidized at elevated temperatures and drawn into fiber, reducing the lateral dimensions and bringing the domains into intimate contact to enable chemical reaction. A polymer preform containing a thin layer of selenium contacted by tin–zinc wires is drawn to yield electrically contacted crystalline ZnSe domains of sub-100-nm scales. The in situ synthesized compound semiconductor becomes the basis for an electronic heterostructure diode of arbitrary length in the fiber. The ability to synthesize materials within fibers while precisely controlling their geometry and electrical connectivity at submicron scales presents new opportunities for increasing the complexity and functionality of fiber structures.

Orf, Nicholas D.; Shapira, Ofer; Sorin, Fabien; Danto, Sylvain; Baldo, Marc A.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Fink, Yoel

2011-01-01

270

Fiber draw synthesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The synthesis of a high-melting temperature semiconductor in a low-temperature fiber drawing process is demonstrated, substantially expanding the set of materials that can be incorporated into fibers. Reagents in the solid state are arranged in proximate domains within a fiber preform. The preform is fluidized at elevated temperatures and drawn into fiber, reducing the lateral dimensions and bringing the domains into intimate contact to enable chemical reaction. A polymer preform containing a thin layer of selenium contacted by tin?zinc wires is drawn to yield electrically contacted crystalline ZnSe domains of sub-100-nm scales. The in situ synthesized compound semiconductor becomes the basis for an electronic heterostructure diode of arbitrary length in the fiber. The ability to synthesize materials within fibers while precisely controlling their geometry and electrical connectivity at submicron scales presents new opportunities for increasing the complexity and functionality of fiber structures.

Orf ND; Shapira O; Sorin F; Danto S; Baldo MA; Joannopoulos JD; Fink Y

2011-03-01

271

Virtual Manufacturing and Its Implications  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents news problems linked to the increasing use of virtual spaces in the building of newtypes of manufacturing what is currently called Virtual Manufacturing (VM). VM has manyconsequences in the activity of industrial companies whatever be size, economic sector or geographicalarea. Particular attention is paid on virtual spaces, manufacturing and collaboration, skills matrix andmanufacturability, the CAD and Virtual Prototyping case and, finally, the virtual partnerships orenterprise as a new type of organization.1 DefinitionVM can be defined as an integrated, synthetic manufacturing environment exercised toenhance all levels of decision and control. The vision of Virtual Manufacturing is toprovide a capability to "Manufacture in the Computer". That means, VM will providea modelling and simulation environment so powerful that the fabrication/assembly ofany product, including the associated manufacturing processes, can be simulated in thecomputer. It is then...

Mlissa Saadoun; Victor Sandoval; Grande Voie Des Vignes

272

Concepts in syngas manufacture  

CERN Document Server

This book provides a general overview of syngas technologies as well as an in-depth analysis of the steam reforming process. Syngas is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon oxides which can be made from hydrocarbons, coal and biomass. It is an important intermediate in the chemical industry for manufacture of ammonia, methanol and other petrochemicals as well as hydrogen for refineries and fuel cells. Syngas is playing a growing role in the energy sector, because it can be converted into a number of important energy carriers and fuels. Syngas catalysis creates new options and flexibility in the com

Rostrup-Nielsen, Jens

2011-01-01

273

Method of manufacturing whisky  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Grain spirit is obtained by the distillation of "wash" in the manufacture of whisky, and it is very important that the spirit should be of constant quality with regard to its taste and smell. One of the most common causes of significant departure from such constant quality is the presence in the spirt of "B" compound which is 2-methyl-3(methyldithio) furan and which imparts a burnt odour to the spirit. This problem is overcome by introducing oxygen into the wash by providing a compressed air supply to the feed pipe (12) to a rectifier (16) of a Coffey still (18). The incidence of "B" compound is thereafter found to be insignificant.

EBBUTT LESLIE IAN KERR; MACLEAN ROBERT NORMAN; BROWN JOHN HENDERSON

274

Manufactured soil screening test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this technical note is to provide a screening test that can be used to evaluate the potential for manufacturing artificial soil using dredged material, cellulose waste materials (e.g., yard waste compost, sawdust, wastepaper), and biosolids (e.g., N-Viro-reconditioned sewage sludge, BIONSOIL-reconstituted cow manure). This procedure will allow the most productive blend of any dredged material (uncontaminated or contaminated), cellulose, and biosolids to be determined and recommended for use in an environmentally productive and beneficial manner.

NONE

1999-05-01

275

Energy Absorption in Chopped Carbon Fiber Compression Molded Composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In passenger vehicles the ability to absorb energy due to impact and be survivable for the occupant is called the ''crashworthiness'' of the structure. To identify and quantify the energy absorbing mechanisms in candidate automotive composite materials, test methodologies were developed for conducting progressive crush tests on composite plate specimens. The test method development and experimental set-up focused on isolating the damage modes associated with the frond formation that occurs in dynamic testing of composite tubes. Quasi-static progressive crush tests were performed on composite plates manufactured from chopped carbon fiber with an epoxy resin system using compression molding techniques. The carbon fiber was Toray T700 and the epoxy resin was YLA RS-35. The effect of various material and test parameters on energy absorption was evaluated by varying the following parameters during testing: fiber volume fraction, fiber length, fiber tow size, specimen width, profile radius, and profile constraint condition. It was demonstrated during testing that the use of a roller constraint directed the crushing process and the load deflection curves were similar to progressive crushing of tubes. Of all the parameters evaluated, the fiber length appeared to be the most critical material parameter, with shorter fibers having a higher specific energy absorption than longer fibers. The combination of material parameters that yielded the highest energy absorbing material was identified

2001-01-01

276

Guidelines and standards for fiber optic sensors: Quo vadis?  

Science.gov (United States)

Standardization activities for fiber optic sensors are increasingly discussed in the scientific as well as users community. Although numerous standards for the characterization of fiber optic components have been available for years, guidelines or extensive standards for use of fiber optic sensors are still 'in statu nascendi'. Not only fiber sensor users are interested in getting guidelines and technical recommendations, manufacturers are also interested in getting technical standards for validation and specification. Development of standards for fiber optic sensors will be intrinsically very complex and thus different from standards for optical fibers and their components. They have to cover different physical mechanisms due to different sensor principles for a multitude of measurands, application fields, and types. The paper gives, first, a survey of recent international activities in this field. It will propose, second, a possible structure for fiber optic sensor characterization standards as well as a structure for guidelines needed for the most frequent practical applications. Special standardization issues to be included in discussion also concern: * choice and design aspects for sensors for mechanical quantities (particularly strain and deformation) * consideration of possible environmental and measurement-relevant circumstances on-site * proof test conditions * requirements on application techniques to bring the sensor system into service appropriately. The discussion in European and worldwide committees on fiber optic sensors that already exist or recently have started should cover all mentioned standardization aspects. Some problems with the establishing of manpower that is fully available for this extensive work are discussed.

Habel, Wolfgang R.

2006-04-01

277

77 FR 75972 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, Tennessee, Toho Tenax America, Inc., Subzone 148C (Carbon Fiber...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Foreign-Trade Zone 148--Knoxville, Tennessee, Toho Tenax America, Inc., Subzone 148C (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing...Evidence The comment period on new evidence provided by Toho Tenax America, Inc. (TTA), in response to the examiner's...

2012-12-26

278

INTEGRATED AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING SUPPLY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Traditionally, the impact of supply planning strategies on plant traffic is rarely considered. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS) that will assist automotive manufacturers to analyse the effect of supply planning decisions on plant traffic during the supply planning phase of their logistics planning process. In essence, this DSS consists of a Supply Medium Decision Support Tool (SMDST) (an interactive MS-Excel model with Visual Basic interfacing) and a traffic flow simulation model tool (using eMPlant simulation software).AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskaffingsbeplanning en verkeersvloeibeplanning is belangrike aktiwiteite in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf wêreldwyd. Tradisioneel word die uitwerking van verskaffings-beplanningsstrategië op aanlegverkeer selde in ag geneem. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van ’n Besluitnemings Ondersteuningstelsel (DSS) wat motorvervaardigers sal ondersteun in die analise van die effek van verskaffingsbeplanningbesluite op aanlegverkeer tydens die verskaffingsbeplanningsfase van hulle logistieke beplanningsproses. Hierdie DSS bestaan hoofsaaklik uit ’n Verskaffings-vervoermiddel Besluitnemingshulpmiddel (SMDST) (’n interaktiewe MS-Excel model met “Visual Basic” koppelling) asook ’n simulasiemodel van verkeersvloei (met eM-Plant simulasiesagteware).

P.J.S. Van Dyk; J.J. Strasheim; C. de W. Van Schoor

2012-01-01

279

Magnet cable manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cable is the heart of a superconducting accelerator magnet. Since the initial development of the Rutherford Cable more than twenty years ago, many improvements in manufacturing techniques have increased the current carrying capacity. When the Tevatron cable was specified fifteen years ago the current carrying capacity was 1800 A/mm{sup 2} at a field of 5.3T. During the intervening years it has been increased to 3000 A/mm{sup 2}. These improvements were due to refinements in the fabrication of the strands and the formation of the cable from the strands. The metallurgists were able to impart significant gains in performance by improving the homogeneity of the conductor. The engineers and technicians who designed and built the modern cabling machines made an enormous contribution by significantly reducing the degradation of wire performance that occurs when the wire was cabled. The fact that these gains were made while increasing the speed of cabling is one of the technological advances that made accelerators like the SSC possible. This article describes the cabling machines that were built to manufacture the cable for the full scale SSC prototype magnets and the low beta quadrupoles for the Fermilab Tevatron. This article also presents a compendium of the knowledge that was gained in the struggle to make high performance cable to exacting dimensional standards and at the throughput needed for the SSC. The material is an important part of the technology transfer from the Department of energy Laboratories to Industry.

Royet, J.

1990-10-01

280

MANUFACTURING METHOD OF GERMANIUM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A manufacturing method of organic germanium having useful functions to human body including sleeping time reduction, deep sleeping induction, natural healing power improvement and immunomodulation is provided to improve economical efficiency of production and use safety of organic germanium by using Bacillus sp. and active memory water. A manufacturing method of germanium comprises the steps of: solubilizing alpha-tocopherol with at least one material selected from sweet potato sugar fatty acid ester, ethanol and propylene glycol mixing the tocopherol solution with coenzyme, and dispersing and pulverizing the mixture adding FeCl2.4H2O and FeCl3.6H2O into the mixture adding mineral elements into the mixture adding purified water into the mixture and treating it with UV(ultraviolet) rays aerating and maturing the mixture solution inoculating Bacillus sp. SSA3(KACC 8488) into the mixture culturing the microorganism for 24 hours adding inorganic germanium into the mixture and culturing the microorganism.

KIM KYONG MI; OH HUN IL

 
 
 
 
281

Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach by comparison with the full numerical simulations. Finally, we discuss possible sources of instability that are due to resonances in the device.

Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev

2000-01-01

282

ANTIBACTERIAL AND DEODORANT FIBER, FIBER FORMED ARTICLE, AND FIBER PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is provided an antibacterial and deodorant fiber that exhibits excellent inhibition of bacterial growth, is capable of responding to a wide variety of odorants, does not discolor easily, and can maintain stable performance. An antibacterial and deodorant fiber characterized in that a fiber treatment agent comprising at least a component (A), and a component (B) and/or a component (C) below are attached thereto at 0.2 to 5 wt % of the total weight of the fiber, the fiber treatment agent containing 20 to 80 wt % of the component (A), and 80 to 20 wt % of the component (B) and/or the component (C): (A) at least one plant extract, said plant being at least one selected from the group consisting of tea leaves, aloe, bamboo, bamboo grass, Japanese butterbur (Petasites japonica), loofa (Luffa cylindrica), horsetail (Equisetum arvense), Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps), geranium (Geranium nepalense var. thunbergii), persimmon, and grapefruit (B) at least one nonionic surfactant selected from the group consisting of an alkylene oxide adduct type nonionic surfactant and a polyhydric alcohol type nonionic surfactant (C) at least one anionic surfactant selected from the group consisting of a carboxylic acid salt, sulfonic acid salt, sulfuric acid ester salt, and phosphoric acid ester salt.

SAKAMOTO KAZUYUKI

283

WHAT HAPPENS TO CELLULOSIC FIBERS DURING PAPERMAKING AND RECYCLING? A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Both reversible and irreversible changes take place as cellulosic fibers are manufactured into paper products one or more times. This review considers both physical and chemical changes. It is proposed that by understanding these changes one can make better use of cellulosic fibers at various stages of their life cycles, achieving a broad range of paper performance characteristics. Some of the changes that occur as a result of recycling are inherent to the fibers themselves. Other changes may result from the presence of various contaminants associated with the fibers as a result of manufacturing processes and uses. The former category includes an expected loss of swelling ability and decreased wet-flexibility, especially after kraft fibers are dried. The latter category includes effects of inks, de-inking agents, stickies, and additives used during previous cycles of papermaking.

Martin A. Hubbe; Richard A. Venditti; Orlando J. Rojas

2007-01-01

284

Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

Nicole E. Zander

2013-01-01

285

Bast fiber production line  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a bast fiber production line, which comprises devices based on processes such as fiber arrangement, degumming, fiber distribution and washing, rinsing to softness, drying, oiling soft fibers, permeating and curing, stretch breaking and carding, and combing management. A degumming device comprises a mechanical deguming device, a biological degumming device and a high-temperature boiling and rinsing degumming device, and the devices are unique a yarn hanging rack is that a hollow post is communicated with a plurality of hollow beams and the hollow beams are provided with a plurality of hanging rods provided with a plurality of holes laterally a fiber distribution and washing device is provided with a plurality of spaced beaters and fiber distribution rollers, and water is sprayed on the upper part a soft fiber oiling device performs extrusion and rubbing and oil is sprayed on the upper and lower parts respectively the stretch breaking and carding is carried out by a drawing roller set and a breaking roller set which differentially rotates and pressurize at the same time and the combing management is carried out by circular combs and top combs, a pulling trolley performs pulling, and the density of gill bars are gradually increased and the fineness of the fill bars are gradually decreased along the rotating direction. The bast fiber production line changes the traditional spinning device, and improves the production efficiency and long fiber yield and the produced bast fibers have stable quality and are convenient to process in subsequent procedures.

MEIJUN QIU; CHAO GAO; MINGZHAI GAO; XINMIN HAO; MINZHU NING; GUOJUN ZHANG

286

Adhesion between thermoplastic polymer particles and carbon and glass fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High performance composites consist of polymer matrices reinforced with continuous fibers. Polymer powders can be coated and fused onto the fibers by various techniques to produce these composites. One such technique consists of spreading the fibers with an air banding jet, and then running the fibers through a fluidized bed of the powder. The fluidizing air is typically charged, imparting a charge to the powder particles. The fibers are grounded which leads to an attraction between the particles and the fibers. The particle-coated fibers then go through a tunnel oven, sintering the particles onto the fibers, leaving a flexible {open_quotes}tow-preg{close_quotes} which can then be processed into a preform for manufacture into a final part. To develop an initial understanding of the powder coating process, the adhesion of uncharged particles and fibers was studied. Contact mechanics predicts that the adhesion force between uncharged particles depends on the mutual (or equivalent) radius of curvature between the contacting objects, as well as their surface energies. For the materials of interest, the Derjaguin approximation is appropriate and is applied. PEEK (poly ether ether ketone) and PET (poly ethylene terephthalate) particles, cryogenically ground to nominal diameters of 10 to 100 {mu}m were brought into contact with themselves, with E-glass fibers (nominal diameter of 20 {mu}m), carbon fibers (nominal diameter of 8 {mu}m), and glass microscope slides using an AFM. Adhesion forces were measured and compared to predictions using Derjaguin`s approximation. SEM micrographs were used to determine the scale of the radii of curvature of contacting sites.

Colton, J.S. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-12-31

287

Offshoring and Small U.S. Manufacturers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small manufacturers are critical to the health and dynamism of U.S. manufacturing. In 2003, manufacturers with fewer than 500 employees accounted for 99 percent of all manufacturing firms and for 43 percent of all manufacturing jobs. Small manufacturers p...

2008-01-01

288

All-fiber, long-active-length Fabry-Perot strain sensor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a high-sensitivity, all-silica, all-fiber Fabry-Perot strain-sensor. The proposed sensor provides a long active length, arbitrary length of Fabry-Perot cavity, and low intrinsic temperature sensitivity. The sensor was micro-machined from purposely-developed sensor-forming fiber that is etched and directly spliced to the lead-in fiber. This manufacturing process has good potential for cost-effective, high-volume production. Its measurement range of over 3000 µ?, and strain-resolution better than 1 µ? were demonstrated by the application of a commercial, multimode fiber-based signal processor.

Pevec S; Donlagic D

2011-08-01

289

Fiber-optic strain gauge with attached ends and unattached microbend section  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A strain gauge is made of an optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. The permanent microbends cause a reduction in the fiber's optical transmission, but, when the gauge is attached to a substrate that is subsequently strained, the amplitude of the deformations will diminish and the optical transmission through the fiber will increase. An apparatus and process for manufacturing these microbends into the optical fiber through a heat-set process is employed; this apparatus and process includes a testing and calibration system.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

290

Carbon fiber; Kabon ffuaiba  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

History of the carbon fiber developments is explained, and the present state of carbon fibers in the industries of space, aerial and transportation, sports goods, construction and architecture field is outlined, as well as the progress in the 21st century is viewed., Methane gas absorbing system, in which methane gas is absorbed in the carbon fiber pores and discharged by heating conducting electricity through carbon fiber, may be applied to automobile fuel supplying system. Water purification using carbon fibers is investigated, in which fungi or bacteria are fixed on bundles of carbon fiber immersed in the bypass water of rivers or lakes and water is purified by decomposition of ammonia or sticking of algae and sludge. (NEDO)

Yasuda, E.

2000-01-01

291

Polymer optical fiber fuse  

CERN Multimedia

Although high-transmission-capacity optical fibers are in demand, the problem of the fiber fuse phenomenon needs to be resolved to prevent the destruction of fibers. As polymer optical fibers become more prevalent, clarifying their fuse properties has become important. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a fuse propagation velocity of 21.9 mm/s, which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude slower than that in standard silica fibers. The achieved threshold power density and proportionality constant between the propagation velocity and the power density are respectively 1/186 of and 16.8 times the values for silica fibers. An oscillatory continuous curve instead of periodic voids is formed after the passage of the fuse. An easy fuse termination method is presented herein, along with its potential plasma applications.

Mizuno, Yosuke; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro

2013-01-01

292

Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

293

Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficiency and effectiveness of the gas turbine engine is directly related to the turbine inlet temperatures. The ability to increase these temperatures has occurred as a result of improvements in materials, design, and processing techniques. A generic sequence indicating the relationship of these factors to temperature capability is schematically shown in Figure 1 for aircraft engine and land based engine materials. A basic contribution that is not captured by the Figure is the significant improvement in process and manufacturing capability that has accompanied each of these innovations. It is this capability that has allowed the designs and innovations to be applied on a high volume, cost effective scale in the aircraft gas turbine market.

Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

1995-10-01

294

Custom eyeglass manufacturing method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A Custom Eyeglass Manufacturing Method includes a wavefront measuring device with a plurality of cameras directed at a patient's face. The resulting images are processed by a computer to determine the location of pupils, center of pupils, pupil distance, width of face, ear location, distance of corneal apex from the wavefront measuring device, distance from ear to corneal apex, and other desired parameters necessary to quantify a patient's face for custom eyeglass fittings. Moldings may be applied to patient's nose, temples, and ears in order to construct a pair of eyeglasses that fix perfectly on patient's head. Additionally, a test frame may be used in combination with the wavefront measuring device in order to allow computer to find some of the areas automatically.Lastly, registration markers may be applied to either the test frame, the moldings, or both in order to further aide the computer in locating desired parameters.

DREHER ANDREAS W

295

Custom eyeglass manufacturing method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A Custom Eyeglass Manufacturing Method includes a wavefront measuring device with a plurality of cameras directed at a patient's face. The resulting images are processed by a computer to determine the location of pupils, center of pupils, pupil distance, width of face, ear location, distance of corneal apex from the wavefront measuring device, distance from ear to corneal apex, and other desired parameters necessary to quantify a patient's face for custom eyeglass fittings. Moldings may be applied to patient's nose, temples, and ears in order to construct a pair of eyeglasses that fix perfectly on patient's head. Additionally, a test frame may be used in combination with the wavefront measuring device in order to allow computer to find some of the areas automatically. Lastly, registration markers may be applied to either the test frame, the moldings, or both in order to further aide the computer in locating desired parameters.

DREHER ANDREAS W

296

Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

297

Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing (ECM)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kansas City Plant (KCP) is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) as the Kansas City Division of Allied-Signal Inc. The KCP produces and procures non-nuclear electrical, electronic, electromechanical, plastic, and metal components for nuclear weapons. Environmental goals at the KCP are to clean up, maintain, and operate the governmental facilities in the most environmentally advantageous manner consistent with regulations. New environmental technologies that are developed by the design laboratories and the KCP are incorporated into the DOE manufacturing facilities, and information is shared with the outside industry through meetings, publications, and seminars. This booklet presents current projects on solvent waste streams, polymer waste streams, plating waste streams, and miscellaneous waste stream minimization projects. (GHH)

1991-09-01

298

Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing (ECM)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Kansas City Plant (KCP) is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) as the Kansas City Division of Allied-Signal Inc. The KCP produces and procures non-nuclear electrical, electronic, electromechanical, plastic, and metal components for nuclear weapons. Environmental goals at the KCP are to clean up, maintain, and operate the governmental facilities in the most environmentally advantageous manner consistent with regulations. New environmental technologies that are developed by the design laboratories and the KCP are incorporated into the DOE manufacturing facilities, and information is shared with the outside industry through meetings, publications, and seminars. This booklet presents current projects on solvent waste streams, polymer waste streams, plating waste streams, and miscellaneous waste stream minimization projects

1991-01-01

299

Thin film manufacturing equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Invention relates with a plasma CVD unit for the manufacture of thin film of alpha-Si, wherein a mesh electrode is arranged movable in the plural number of reaction chambers. In the plasma CVD method, plasma-decomposed product adheres on the substrate and the thin film, causing damages. A mesh electrode is inserted between cathode and anode electrodes to prevent it, but this weakens the shielding effect of the charged particles if the decomposed product accumulates on the mash electrode. To meet this problem, the reaction chamber was divided in layers p, i, andn, and amesh electrode and anode were arranged to move to and fro between the chambers. In addition, a chamber for cleaning was placed between the reaction chambers of i and p layers; pure raw material gas is introduced into the chambers, and the mesh electrode is cleaned by accummulating alpha-Si on the mesh electrode by plasma CVD reaction. (4 figs, 1 tab)

Shiki, Hisashi; Fukui, Keitaro; Matsumura, Mitsuo

1987-07-09

300

Manufacturing of microglass separators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microglass separators have been used since the inception of the absorbed glass valve regulated technology. This separator, made from 100% microfiberglass, is manufactured on specialty paper machines. Production of this demanding specialty paper requires tight tolerances for physical and performance properties. Proper selection of raw materials (microglass), equipment and tight process variables are keys to producing a world class product. These products were jointly developed by Hollingsworth and Vose and the US Naval Department during the late 40`s. Improvements in product consistency and formulation have been made throughout the history of this technology. These changes evolved as the needs and requirements were realized through continuing industry research. This paper gives a brief explanation of how the product is made, specifies useful tests to determine product consistency and highlights some new ways to package the current product.

Zguris, G.C. [Hollingsworth and Vose Co., West Groton, MA (United States)

1996-11-01

 
 
 
 
301

Low-temperature hermetic sealing of optical fiber components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for manufacturing low-temperature hermetically sealed optical fi components is provided. The method comprises the steps of: inserting an optical fiber into a housing, the optical fiber having a glass core, a glass cladding and a protective buffer layer disposed around the core and cladding; heating the housing to a predetermined temperature, the predetermined temperature being below a melting point for the protective buffer layer and above a melting point of a solder; placing the solder in communication with the heated housing to allow the solder to form an eutectic and thereby fill a gap between the interior of the housing and the optical fiber; and cooling the housing to allow the solder to form a hermetic compression seal between the housing and the optical fiber.

Kramer, Daniel P. (Centerville, OH)

1996-10-22

302

Fiber composite flywheel rim  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A flywheel 2 comprising a hub 4 having at least one radially projecting disc 6, an annular rim 14 secured to said disc and providing a surface circumferential to said hub, a first plurality of resin-impregnated fibers 22 wound about said rim congruent to said surface, and a shell 26 enclosing said first plurality of fibers and formed by a second plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim tangentially to said surface.

Davis, Donald E. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Ingham, Kenneth T. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1987-01-01

303

Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

1994-12-01

304

Installation of 66kV XLPE power-optical fiber composite submarine cable and water pipe for the Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The manufacturing and the installation of the optical fiber composite submarine cable and water pipe for the Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway were completed in 1993. It was the Japanese longest 66kV XLPE power-optical fiber composite submarine cable and the first application of optical fiber composite submarine water pipe composed of two hollow galvanized steel armor wires inserted with optical fiber to monitor and control of construction sites. This paper describes the application and development of the hollow steel armor wire with optical fiber ribbon and the features of construction and installation of the optical fiber composite submarine cable and water pipe.

Nakamura, Y.; Kuroshima, T.; Takeuchi, M. [Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway Co. (Japan); Sanpei, T.; Suzuki, S.; Ishikura, S.; Inoue, H.; Uematsu, T. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan)

1995-07-01

305

Fabrication and measurements of plastic scintillating fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixty kilometers of plastic scintillating fibers, 1 mm in diameter, have been manufactured using a preform/tube technology. The fibers consist of a polystyrene core surrounded by a polymethylmethacrylate cladding. The fabrication method is described and evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. A great effort has been made in order to measure the optical properties of the polymer at the different steps of the production. The global process efficiency is not more than 40% due to the yield of the polymerization process. Using a ternary blue scintillator, the mean light yield for a minimum ionizing particle, passing through a 1 mm diameter fiber at a distance of 1 m, is 5.4±0.6 photoelectrons. The mean attenuation length fitted between 0.5 and 2.0 m is 1.9±0.2 m. Some specific experiments that give independent measurements of core and interface losses are also reported. The principal cause of light loss is due to the lack of transparency of the polystyrene which leads to a spectral shift in fiber emission. This absorption already appears in the preform rods indicating that the purification and the polymerization process are of great importance. The attenuation length related to core losses is measured at the level of 3 m. The interface losses are about 10-5-10-4 per reflection leading to an equivalent attenuation length of 7 m.

1999-01-01

306

Oriented Fiber Filter Media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

R. Bharadwaj; A. Patel, S. Chokdeepanich, Ph.D.; G.G. Chase, Ph.D.

2008-01-01

307

Wireless technology for integrated manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the ground breaking work in Oak Ridge facilities that now leads us to the brink of the wireless revolution in manufacturing. The focus is on solving tough technological problems necessary for success and addressing the critical issues of throughput, security, reliability, and robustness in applying wireless technology to manufacturing processes. Innovative solutions to these problems are highlighted through detailed designs and testbed implementations that demonstrate key concepts. The DOE-Oak Ridge complex represented by the Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technologies (ORCMT) continues to develop these technologies and will continue to focus on solving tough manufacturing problems.

Manges, W.W.; Allgood, G.O.; Shourbaji, A.A.

1996-08-01

308

Removal of interfering substances in mechanical pulp manufacturing - EKY 09  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Complete text of publication follows: Ahlstrom Machinery and UPM-Kymmene started a research project about two years ago in order to develop a concept, which could with improved efficiency remove interfering substances from mechanical pulp used for paper manufacturing, and decrease fiber losses that take place with present washing systems. As a result paper machine runnability will improve as well as the quality of the end product. The existing process conditions will be utilised and the water consumption will not increase. The interfering substances of pulp are being transferred to filtrate by washing the pulp in the optimum location of the pulp manufacturing process. To minimize the fiber losses fibers are recovered from the filtrate of the washer and returned back to the process. Fiberfree filtrate is further being handled in order to separate interfering substances from the filtrate, which could be returned back to the process. This Hot Washing concept has been tested for a year so far and results are promising.

Matula, J.; Savolainen, P. [Ahlstrom Machinery Corporation, PM Approach Systems, Karhula (Finland)

1999-07-01

309

Durable fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In order to produce thin precast elements, a self-compacting concrete was prepared. When manufacturing these elements, homogenously dispersed steel fibers instead of ordinary steel-reinforcing mesh were added to the concrete mixture at a dosage of 10% by mass of cement. An adequate concrete strength class was achieved with a water to cement ratio of 0.40. Compression and flexure tests were carried out to assess the safety of these thin concrete elements. Moreover, serviceability aspects were taken into consideration. Firstly, drying shrinkage tests were carried out in order to evaluate the contribution of steel fibers in counteracting the high concrete strains due to a low aggregate-cement ratio. Secondly, the resistance to freezing and thawing cycles was investigated on concrete specimens in some cases superficially treated with a hydrophobic agent. Lastly, both carbonation and chloride penetration tests were carried out to assess durability behavior of this concrete mixture

2004-01-01

310

Analysis of coatings on glass fiber reinforcements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The coatings applied by their manufacturers on several commercially available glass fiber reinforcements were analyzed for their amounts ('loadings', determined by solvent extraction and pyrolysis), and composition (determined by IR and proton NMR spectroscopies). The loadings were found to range from 0.54 to 4.22 wt pct, with the least amounts on rovings intended for filament winding and weaving, and the highest amounts on random mats. The major components of the solvent-extracted coatings could be sorted into three classes of coating systems, with each system consisting of two major components, designated as the 'unreacted resin' and the 'lubricant'. Hot water attacked the chloroform-extracted glass fibers with varying degrees of severity, which may correlate with coupling agent's integrity. 29 references.

Drumm, C.A.; Ulicny, J.C.

1989-02-01

311

Method for manufacturing arabinoxylan  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Making a water-soluble arabinoxylan from wheat flour comprises (a) producing a flour-water suspension (b) maintaining the suspension for 3-10 minutes (c) diluting the suspension with circulating water (101) (d) decanting the flour-water suspension (e) separating the head water (108) (f) recycling the heavy fraction (106) (g) adding alpha -amylase to light fraction (h) dextrinizing light fraction (i) storing the hydrolyzate (j) centrifuging the sediments (k) grinding and drying the sediments (l) sterilizing the hydrolyzate (m) saccharifying the hydrolyzate and (n) ultrafiltering. Preparing a water-soluble arabinoxylan from wheat flour comprises: (a) producing a flour-water suspension (b) maintaining the suspension for a rest period of 3-10 minutes (c) diluting the flour-water suspension with circulating water (101) (d) decanting the flour-water suspension by a three-phase decanter (105) in a centrifugal field (e) separating the resulting head water (108) in a further centrifugal field (f) recycling the heavy fraction (106) obtained in the further centrifugal field in the starch extraction cycle (g) adding alpha -amylase to the light fraction obtained in the further centrifugal field (h) dextrinizing the light fraction with a jet-cooker (120) (i) storing the hydrolyzate with flocculation and sedimentation in a reaction vessel for 0.3-13 hours at a pH of 1-10 (j) centrifuging the sediments (k) grinding and drying the sediments (l) sterilizing the cleared hydrolyzate (m) saccharifying the sterilized, cooled and dextrinated hydrolyzate in a stirred reactor using glucoamylase with simultaneous proteolysis with a mixture of an alkaline and a neutral protease (n) ultrafiltering the hydrolyzate by a multistage ultrafiltration, where a permeate and a retentate are obtained and the retentate volume is no more than a fifth of the initial volume (o) evaporating the permeate until a concentration of 50-90% dry substance is reached (p) evaporating the retentate until a concentration of 20-50% dry matter is reached (q) recycling the two evaporation condensate in the starch process (r) precipitating the evaporated retentate to an ethanol concentration of 60-80 mass% in a cycle that is operated in semi-batch procedure, where the ethanol is formed by a stirred reactor containing 94-99 vol.% of ethanol at 5-70[deg] C, additionally by a high speed rotor-stator-mixer, and an addition possibility of concentrated retentate in a bypass inlet of the rotor-stator mixer is under vacuum conditions (s) filtering and washing the filter cake with 94-99 vol.% of ethanol and subsequent drying and grinding and (t) reconditioning and recycling the ethanol used for washing. Independent claims are included for: (1) a protein containing feedstuff, obtained as ground and dried filter cake in step (k), where the protein content is 15-50 (preferably 35)% of the dry matter and (2) a water-soluble dietary fiber concentrate comprising arabinoxylan and arabinogalactan, as main components, where the end product has a total dietary fiber content of 50-80% of dry matter, and the water-soluble dietary fiber concentrate has a polymerization degree of 100-140 carbohydrate building blocks.

ROICK THOMAS DR

312

Access Control for Manufacturing Process in Networked Manufacturing Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The deficiencies of current access control techniques in solving the problems of manufacturing process access conflict in networked manufacturing environment were analyzed. An information model of manufacturing process was con-structed, and a case XML Schema of manufacturing task model was given. Based on the characteristic analysis of the access control for the information model, an improved access control model of manufacturing process was constructed, and the access control model based on manufacture tasks, roles and time limits and the relationships among the ele-ments were defined. The implementation mechanisms for access control model were analyzed, in which the access case matching strategy based on manufacture tasks and time limits, the authorization assignment mechanism based on manufacture tasks, roles, correlation degrees and time limits, XML based access control for transaction security and integrity were included. And the two-level detection architecture of transaction conflict was designed to find the con-flicts both in application and in the database. Finally the prototype system was developed based on these principles. Feasibility and effectiveness of the method were verified by an enterprise application.

Ke Zhou; Min Lv; Gang Wang; Bingyin Ren

2009-01-01

313

Improving the Value Chain of Biofuel Manufacturing Operations by Enhancing Coproduct Transportation and Logistics  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofuels, including corn-based ethanol, can partially meet the increasing demand for transportation fuels. The production of ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased; so too has the quantity of manufacturing coproducts. These nonfermentable residues (i.e., proteins, fibers, oils) are sold as...

314

Real-time prediction of structural and optical properties of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers during fabrication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We formulate a simple model based on mass conservation to accurately predict the structural parameters of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers from knowledge of the second stage preforms from which they are drawn. We show that combining this model with precalculated property maps can allow real-time prediction of the optical properties of manufactured fibers.

Fokoua EN; Petrovich MN; Baddela NK; Wheeler NV; Hayes JR; Poletti F; Richardson DJ

2013-05-01

315

Bragg Grating Based Sensors in Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers: Accelerometers and Microphones  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With the growing interest towards fiber Bragg grating sensors and the growing ability in manufacturing polymer optical fibers, the development of polymer fiber Bragg sensors has catched the attention of industries with the goal of developing high performance sensors. This thesis presents the development of fiber sensors based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings. The whole process from the preform to the device is discussed and reported. A presentation on the fiber drawing technique used is given. Issues encountered when working with polymer fibers and solutions concerning fiber cleaving and gluing of polymer to silica fibers are discussed. The realization of gratings in polymer fibers is shown with two different techniques: the UV phase mask technique and the direct writing technique reported here for the first time for polymer fibers. Realization of gratings in PMMA step index fibers and in microstructured fibers made of PMMA and TOPAS is reported. The gratings have been written at both 1550 nm, to take advantage of components made for telecommunications, and 850 nm, to exploit the lower loss of polymers and the fast acquisition electronics at this wavelength. A technique for writing multiplexed gratings is shown and temperature compensation of strain sensors, by using two adjacent gratings, is demonstrated. Humidity insensitivity in a strain sensor based on a TOPAS fiber is also shown. In order to investigate the possibility of using viscoelastic materials, such as polymers, in dynamic sensors, dynamic mechanical characterization of polymer fibers was made and it is presented. The investigated and produced fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured polymer optical bers were used to produce optical accelerometers. The accelerometers and their characterization are reported. Finally the realization of an optical microphone based on polymer ber Bragg gratings is reported.

Stefani, Alessio

2011-01-01

316

NOVEL USE OF WASTE KERATIN AND COTTON LINTER FIBERS FOR PROTOTYPE TISSUE PAPERS AND THEIR EVALUATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corporate environmental sustainability calls for sustainable product manufacturing with less creation of waste material or increased reuse of waste materials. One example is the use of keratin fiber from the poultry industry and cotton linter from the textile industry for paper and tissue manufacturing. In this paper, the feasibility of using these waste fibers to make paper was demonstrated in handsheets. The properties of these handsheets were compared to the properties of handsheets made with standard bleached eucalyptus tropical hardwood fibers. A blend of cotton linter and keratin fibers at 80/20 and 60/40 ratios showed a 59% and 73% improvement in sheet bulk, respectively, compared to eucalyptus handsheets. Similarly, air permeability of the cotton / keratin fiber handsheets improved 414% and 336%, respectively, versus the eucalyptus. However, the tensile index of the cotton and keratin fiber blends was lower than the eucalyptus sheets. There was no remarkable difference in water absorbency up to 20% keratin fiber. Above 20% of keratin fibers the water absorbency started to decrease, which is likely attributable to the hydrophobic nature of the protein-based keratin fiber.

Bo Shi; Tom G. Shannon; Ellen Pelky

2010-01-01

317

Manufacturing strategy issues in selected Indian manufacturing industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents some findings of Indian manufacturing sectors viz. automobile (especially two-wheeler), tractor and general manufacturing industry. Various manufacturing strategy issues such as competitive priorities, improvement activities, and performance measures, have been identified and assessed in Indian context. Sector wise comparison of competitive priorities, improvement activities i.e. advanced manufacturing technology (AMT), integrated information systems (IIS), and advanced management systems (AMS), and performance measure, is provided. Our results showed that most of the Indian companies are still emphasizing on quality. However, automobile sector has set to compete globally with high innovation rate, faster new product development, and continuous improvement. It is also observed that Indian companies are investing more in AMS as compared to IIS and AMT. Manufacturing competence index is also computed for each sector.

Mahender Singh; P.C. Basak; Rajbir Singh

2013-01-01

318

Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) engineers John Zimmerman and Tom Bender directed separate projects within this CRADA. This Project Accomplishments Summary contains their reports independently. Zimmerman: In 1998 Honeywell FM&T partnered with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Cooperative Business Management Program to pilot the Supply Chain Integration Planning Prototype (SCIP). At the time, FM&T was developing an enterprise-wide supply chain management prototype called the Integrated Programmatic Scheduling System (IPSS) to improve the DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) supply chain. In the CRADA partnership, FM&T provided the IPSS technical and business infrastructure as a test bed for SCIP technology, and this would provide FM&T the opportunity to evaluate SCIP as the central schedule engine and decision support tool for IPSS. FM&T agreed to do the bulk of the work for piloting SCIP. In support of that aim, DAMA needed specific DOE Defense Programs opportunities to prove the value of its supply chain architecture and tools. In this partnership, FM&T teamed with Sandia National Labs (SNL), Division 6534, the other DAMA partner and developer of SCIP. FM&T tested SCIP in 1998 and 1999. Testing ended in 1999 when DAMA CRADA funding for FM&T ceased. Before entering the partnership, FM&T discovered that the DAMA SCIP technology had an array of applications in strategic, tactical, and operational planning and scheduling. At the time, FM&T planned to improve its supply chain performance by modernizing the NWC-wide planning and scheduling business processes and tools. The modernization took the form of a distributed client-server planning and scheduling system (IPSS) for planners and schedulers to use throughout the NWC on desktops through an off-the-shelf WEB browser. The planning and scheduling process within the NWC then, and today, is a labor-intensive paper-based method that plans and schedules more than 8,000 shipped parts per month based on more than 50 manually-created document types. The fact that DAMA and FM&T desired to move from paper-based manual architectures to digitally based computer architectures gave further incentive for the partnership to grow. FM&T's greatest strength was its knowledge of NWC-wide scheduling and planning with its role as the NWC leader in manufacturing logistics. DAMA's asset was its new knowledge gained in the research and development of advanced architectures and tools for supply chain management in the textiles industry. These complimentary strengths allowed the two parties to provide both the context and the tools for the pilot. Bender: Honeywell FM&T participated in a four-site supply chain project, also referred to as an Inter-Enterprise Pipeline Evaluation. The MSAD project was selected because it involves four NWC sites: FM&T, Pantex, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). FM&T had previously participated with Los Alamos National Laboratory in FY98 to model a two-site supply chain project, between FM&T and LANL. Evaluation of a Supply Chain Methodology is a subset of the DAMA project for the AMTEX consortium. LANL organization TSA-7, Enterprise Modeling and Simulation, has been involved in AMTEX and DAMA through development of process models and simulations for LANL, the NWC, and others. The FY 1998 and this FY 1999 projects directly involved collaboration between Honeywell and the Enterprise Modeling and Simulation (TSA-7) and Detonation Science and Technology (DX1) organizations at LANL.

Bender, T.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.

2001-02-07

319

Review of fiber methods and applicability to fortified foods and supplements: choosing the correct method and interpreting results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fiber is known to be an important part of our nutrition and has many positive health benefits, including weight management and maintaining heart health. In recent years, a number of new ingredients have been manufactured or isolated that are being used to increase the health benefits of a product. Some are used as prebiotics that stimulate the growth of the beneficial bacteria in the gut, or are used as replacements for sugars, starch, or fat in manufactured foods. Fiber supplements have also been produced that can be taken to provide additional fiber to the diet. The term "fiber" does not relate to a single analyte or entity, but instead relates to a multitude of components. This adds to the complexity of analytical testing as there are a number of AOAC International and AACC International official methods which have been validated and can be used. Although methods have been developed for specific fiber ingredients, a number of methods have also been developed to capture just "fiber". These "fiber" methods will capture differing degrees of the different fiber ingredients, so knowledge of the fiber sources is critical. The net result is that a variety of testing approaches may be used, but caution must be exercised in order to ensure that the total fiber result is accurately determined. A critical review of available fiber methodology and possible testing approaches is presented, along with how to accurately interpret and understand results.

Zielinski G; Rozema B

2013-05-01

320

ECM (Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing) newsletter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ECM Newsletter is published at Sandia National Laboratories to disseminate information obtained from research and development programs and demonstration, testing, and evaluation projects at research facilities on environmentally conscious manufacturing processes. This issue covers the topics of Life Cycle Assessment, etching processes for Kovar, cleaning of plutonium surfaces, non- chromate conversion coatings for aluminum,, and circuit board manufacturing.

1992-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

A comparison of single use and reusable small core sized holmium:YAG laser fibers: Is there a difference in the risk of fiber failure?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tests the hypothesis that repeat steam sterilization will result in an increase in the rate of holmium:YAG laser fiber failure during bench testing in a series of commercially available single use and reusable small core sized (200-272 ?m) holmium:YAG laser fibers. Single use and reusable small core-sized holmium laser fibers were tested. Single use fibers included the Dornier Lightguide Super 200, Dornier DUR Laser Fiber Single Use, Optical Integrity Scopesafe 272, IQinc. LLF200TG-D and LLF273TG-D, Boston Scientific AccuFlex 200 and AccuFlex 273, and Lumenis Slimline EZ 200. Reusable fibers included the Dornier DUR Laser Fiber Reusable, Lumenis Slimline 200, Sharplan 200, Laser Peripherals RBLF-200, IQinc. LFT273NT, and Convergent Optiview SMH1020F. A Lumenis VersaPulse 100 watt and a PowerSuite 20 watt holmium:YAG lasers were used. Fibers were bent to 180 degrees at a diameter of 1.5 cm. The laser was fired at 1.5J, 10Hz for 30 minutes or until fiber fracture. Reusable fibers were sterilized for a total of twenty cycles using the manufacturers' specifications and retested after every five completed cycles. No fiber fractured with bending alone. Two of three Dornier Super 200 single use fibers fractured repeatedly within several laser pulses. The Laser Peripherals RBLF-200 fiber fractured during initial but not repeat testing. One of three reusable Dornier DUR Laser Fibers failed during testing after the twentieth steam sterilization cycle. Five of five Boston Scientific Accuflex 200 failed at the SMA connector and did not couple well with the Lumenis Powersuite laser. The test hypothesis was not supported.

Knudsen, Bodo E.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Teichman, Joel M.

2006-03-01

322

Corn and fiber refining  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant materials such as corn kernels which contain starch and fiber comprising cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin are refined. The starch, cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin are converted to sugars which are then fermented to ethanol. Additional sources of starch and fiber are optionally added to the refining process to further increase the yield of ethanol.

LANGHAUSER LEON H

323

Fiber Optic Acoustic Sensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

This patent application relates to an optical fiber acoustical sensor for detecting sound waves in a fluid medium. An optical fiber coil through which a light beam is transmitted is placed in a fluid medium. A sound wave propagating through the fluid medi...

J. A. Bucaro E. F. Carome H. D. Dardy

1978-01-01

324

FLAX FIBER IN TEXTILES  

Science.gov (United States)

REFINED, SHORT STAPLE FLAX FIBER CAN BE BLENDED WITH COTTON AND SPUN ON DRY SYSTEMS THAT ARE PREVALENT IN THE U.S. RESEARCH IS REQUIRED TO OPTIMIZE THE FIBER PROPERTIES AND THE PROCESSING SYSTEMS TO MORE EFFICIENTLY BLEND FLAX WITH COTTON. INCLUSION OF FLAX WITH COTTON PROVIDES YARN AND FABRIC PROPE...

325

Intelligent modelling in manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Modeling of production systems is very important and makes optimization of complicated relation in production system possible. The purpose of this paper is introducing artificial techniques, like Genetic Algorithms in modeling and optimization of job shop scheduling in production environment and in programming of CNC machine tools.Design/methodology/approach: Conventional methods are not suitable for solving such complicated problems. Therefore Artificial Intelligent method was used. We apply Genetic Algorithm method. Genetic Algorithms are computation methods owing their power in particular to autonomous mechanisms in biological evolution, such as selection, “survival of the fittest” (competition), and recombination.Findings: In example solutions are developed for an optimization problem of job shop scheduling by natural selection. Thus no explicit knowledge was required about how to create a good solution: the evolutionary algorithm itself implicitly builds up knowledge about good solutions, and autonomously absorbs knowledge. CNC machining time was significant shorter by using GA method for NC programming.Research limitations/implications: The system was developed for PC and tested in simulation process. It needs to be tested more in detail in the real manufacturing environment.Practical implications: It is suitable for small and medium-sized companies. Human errors are avoid or at lover level. It is important for engineers in job – shops.Originality/value: The present paper is a contribution to more intelligent systems in production environment. It used genetic based methods to solve engineering problem.

J. Balic; F. Cus

2007-01-01

326

STUDY ON BICO FIBERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bico fibers include bicomponent and biconstituent fibers.Bicomponent fibers are synthetic fibers made from two polymers of different chemical and physical structure.They are produced by common melt-drawing processes similar to conventional synthetic fibers.[1]. The biconstituent fiber consists of a continuous matrix of one polymer in which a different fiber-forming polymer is dispersed as a second distinct discontinuous phase; it as mix-polymer fiber or fascicular microfiber because the microfibers are connected to each other and can’t function independently from each other.[2]. Among bicomponent fibers, the bicomponent microfiber is different from the core-sheath type of bicomponent fiber.In theory bico fibers can be made from many polymers but in fact, they are made frequently from CoPET/PA because of cost factors. The core-sheath bico fiber, including such varieties as PE/PP, PE/PET and CoPET/PET are used as bonding fibers for hygiene and medical nonwovens.A cross-sectional morphology of bicomponent fibers can be classified into four main types:”core-sheath”,”side-by-side”,”pie-wedge” and “islands in the sea”. The core-sheath and side-by-side bicomponent fibres are the basic structures of bicomponent fibres.Methods for the preparation of more complex bicomponent nanofibres such as island-in-the-sea and pie-wedges have yet to be developed. This four basic configurations can be adapted in function of the desired fibre or yarn properties.It is for exemple possible to limit the number of islands to produce conductive yarns. On the other hand it is possible to provide a hole in the pie-wedge configuration to split the filaments even more easily. The newly created bicomponent fibre have new properties and can be applied in many new applications.Bicomponent fibres are actually being applied in the production of : microfibres (hygiene), non-wovens, antimicrobial textiles, elastic fibres, conductive fibres and composites.

Irina T?r?boan??

2013-01-01

327

Investigation of the photosensitivity, temperature sustainability and fluorescence characteristics of several Er-doped photosensitive fibers  

CERN Multimedia

Three different types of Er doped photosensitive fibers, germanium/erbium (Ge/Er) fiber, tin/germanium/erbium fiber (Sn/Er) and antimony/germanium/erbium fiber (Sb/Er) have been manufactured and studied for use in optical sensor systems. Their characteristics of photosensitivity, the temperature sustainability of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written into these fibers and the fluorescence emission from the Er dopant were investigated and compared. It has been shown in this work that these fibers all show a satisfactory degree of photosensitivity to enable the fabrication of FBGs and a significant level of fluorescence emission within the 1550 nm band for sensor use. The high temperature sustainability of the FBGs written into these fibers was investigated and seen to be quite significant at temperatures as high as 850 ^{\\circ}C, in particular for the Sn/Er and Sb/Er fibers. A fiber laser using the Sb/Er fiber as the gain medium was demonstrated, giving evidence of the strong fluorescence emission from the Er do...

Shen, Y H; Mandal, J; Sun, T; Grattan, K T V; Wade, S A; Collins, Stephen F; Baxter, Gregory W; Dussardier, Bernard; Monnom, Gérard; 10.1016/j.optcom.2004.04.004

2011-01-01

328

Fiber optic hydrophone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Davis, Donald T. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

329

Fluorescent fiber diagnostics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

Toeppen, John S. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

330

FIBERBOARD MANUFACTURED WITHOUT RESIN USING THE FENTON REACTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Resin-free fiberboards were manufactured using industrial fiber from Pinus radiata activated by an oxidative treatment using the Fenton reaction (H(2)0(2)/ Fe(II)). A multivariate analysis was used to study the effect of fiber moisture content (MC), press temperature (T), and the H(2)0(2)/Fe(II) ratio on the board internal bond strength (IB). Using response surface methodology, a set of máximum IB conditions was obtained. Validation of these conditions which included 25% (more) MC, 170°C press temperature and a H(2)0(2)/Fe(II) relation of 25 produced an optimal board with an IB strength of 0.888 MPa. Without the addition of sizing agents or other additives, the dimensional stability properties were 16% of thickness swell and 40% of the water absorption of control boards.

RIQUELME-VALDÉS, JUAN; RAMÍREZ, ESTEBAN; CONTRERAS, DAVID; FREER, JUANITA; RODRÍGUEZ, JAIME

2008-12-01

331

FIBERBOARD MANUFACTURED WITHOUT RESIN USING THE FENTON REACTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resin-free fiberboards were manufactured using industrial fiber from Pinus radiata activated by an oxidative treatment using the Fenton reaction (H(2)0(2)/ Fe(II)). A multivariate analysis was used to study the effect of fiber moisture content (MC), press temperature (T), and the H(2)0(2)/Fe(II) ratio on the board internal bond strength (IB). Using response surface methodology, a set of máximum IB conditions was obtained. Validation of these conditions which included 25% MC, 170°C press temperature and a H(2)0(2)/Fe(II) relation of 25 produced an optimal board with an IB strength of 0.888 MPa. Without the addition of sizing agents or other additives, the dimensional stability properties were 16% of thickness swell and 40% of the water absorption of control boards.

JUAN RIQUELME-VALDÉS; ESTEBAN RAMÍREZ; DAVID CONTRERAS; JUANITA FREER; JAIME RODRÍGUEZ

2008-01-01

332

Grafting on polyester fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Acrylic acid (AA) and acrylonitrile (AN) were used to carry out grafting on polyester (PE) fibers using the techniques of initiation by ?-radiation as well as benzoyl peroxide. Extent of grafting depended upon the time, concentration of the initiator, and the monomer as well as on the irradiation dose. AA grafted fibers were rendered more hydrophilic than AN grafted fibers for equivalent amount of grafts. Considerable improvement in dyeability of the PE fibers was possible through grafting. About 50 percent to 100 percent improvement with disperse dyes was observed in case of PE fibers containing 22.4 percent and 9.0 percent graft of AA and AN, respectively. Intense fast dyeing with direct and basic (cationic) dyes was also possible, and the dye content was proportional to the extent of graft introduced in the fiber. The CN groups were reduced to NH2 groups in the AN graft on the fiber. With the increased amount of AA graft, the maxima in the zeta potential curve shifted toward higher acidic pH as greater amounts of alkali were utilized by the --COOH groups in the graft. In this respect, CN groups were less sensitive due to their lesser polarity as compared to the carboxylic groups. Surface charge density (S.C.D.) studies showed that the effective surface area of the fiber decreased with the increase in the amount of graft. Surface conductivity (S.C.) studies revealed that with increase in the number of polar groups (--COOH) on the surface of the fiber, the S.C. increased with the increase in the amount of AA graft. In case of AN grafts, the reduction in effective surface area of the fiber played a more important role than the contribution by the CN groups to surface conductivity. (U.S.)

1975-01-01

333

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF) which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo; Choyu Otani; Heitor Aguiar Polidoro; Satika Otani

2012-01-01

334

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF) which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo; Choyu Otani; Heitor Aguiar Polidoro; Satika Otani

2013-01-01

335

Treatment and characterization of fiber licuri for synthesis of polymeric composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Natural fibers are materials of increasing use of polymeric composites, due to several advantageous properties compared to synthetic fibers: low cost, density, toxicity and excellent biodegradability. Licuri fiber is widely used in the manufacture of handicrafts, with a wide range of possible applications. Before this, characterize the properties of the fiber is of great interest economic, technological and social. This study characterized the fibers in nature, which were washed with water, treated with 5% H2SO4 or 5% NaOH. Techniques were used FTIR, DSC, TGA and XRD, as well as analysis of surface reactivity of the acid and base. All treatments altered the surface of licuri, exposing reactive sites. It was observed that sodium hydroxide licuri changed significantly, as expected. These results are very significant for the recovery of a natural fiber (licuri), abundant in poor regions of the country. (author)

2010-01-01

336

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF) which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formatio (more) n. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Otani, Choyu; Polidoro, Heitor Aguiar; Otani, Satika

2013-02-01

337

Effect of polyimide interphase on impact and fatigue properties of PEEK/carbon fiber composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a growing interest in carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites. Aqueous suspension prepregging is a new prepregging technique which provides a method for manufacturing PEEK/carbon fiber composites. This method also allows systematic variance of the properties of the interphase region between the carbon fiber and the bulk matrix. It has been found that this interphase region has a effect on dynamic mechanical properties. Notched fatigue testing and impact testing have been used to illustrate the effect of this interphase region. Notched fatigue testing is sensitive to the strength of the fiber-matrix bond. Through these mechanical tests it has been shown that PEEK composites made with a BisP-BTDA binder have a stronger fiber-matrix bond than a reference composite made from APC-2. PEEK composites made with a LaRC TPI binder also have a stronger fiber-matrix bond than APC-2.

Davis, R.M.; Gardner, S.H.; Gonzalez, A. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

338

Characterization of Optical Fiber Strength Under Applied Tensile Stress and Bending Stress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various types of tensile testing and bend radius tests were conducted on silica core/silica cladding optical fiber of different diameters with different protective buffer coatings, fabricated by different fiber manufacturers. The tensile tests were conducted to determine not only the average fiber strengths at failure, but also the distribution in fracture strengths, as well as the influence of buffer coating on fracture strength. The times-to-failure of fiber subjected to constant applied bending stresses of various magnitudes were measured to provide a database from which failure times of 20 years or more, and the corresponding minimum bend radius, could be extrapolated in a statistically meaningful way. The overall study was done to provide an understanding of optical fiber strength in tensile loading and in applied bending stress as related to applications of optical fiber in various potential coizfgurations for weapons and enhanced surveillance campaigns.

P.E. Klingsporn

2011-08-01

339

Fiber-optical systems in physical experiment technique. Part 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of fiber-optic systems (FOS) application in modern physical experiment automatization systems mainly oriented to functional monitoring electrophysical installations (EPI), beams, plasma, targets diagnostics as well as experiment environment investigation is considering. Questions of the FOS functioning in high and low pressure; high and cryogenic temperature; pulsed, SHF and radiational fields, high potentials are discussed. Attention is attached to designing, manufacturing and servicing FOS, their metrological support. There are functioning concepts of FOS, and modern component base: fiber and optical cabels, connectors, and couplers, spectral devices, optical sources and photodetectors, transmitter and receiver devices. 191 refs.; 19 figs.; 9 tabs.

1989-01-01

340

Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

King, Kenneth L.; Dean, Rashe A.; Akbar, Shahzad; Kouzes, Richard T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2010-08-10

 
 
 
 
341

Structure-property-processing relationships in Kevlar fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Molecular simulations are carried out to elucidate the differences in the properties of the commercial fibers Kevlar 29, Kevlar 49 and Kevlar 149, which are manufactured under different processing conditions, and are composed of poly(p-phenylene teraphthalamide) (PPTA). In going from Kevlar 29 to Kevlar 49 to Kevlar 149, the axial Young`s modulus increases significantly and the torsion modulus decreases significantly, while the compressive strength stays roughly the same. Previous investigators have shown that the increase in the Young`s modulus arises from increased axial orientation. The present paper addresses the torsion modulus and compressive strength of the fibers.

Lacks, D.J. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

1996-12-31

342

Ultrashort pulsed fiber laser welding and sealing of transparent materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, methods of welding and sealing optically transparent materials using an ultrashort pulsed (USP) fiber laser are demonstrated which overcome the limit of small area welding of optical materials. First, the interaction of USP fiber laser radiation inside glass was studied and single line welding results with different laser parameters were investigated. Then multiline scanning was used to obtain successful area bonding. Finally, complete four-edge sealing of fused silica substrates with a USP laser was demonstrated and the hermetic seal was confirmed by water immersion test. This laser microwelding technique can be extended to various applications in the semiconductor industry and precision optic manufacturing.

Huang H; Yang LM; Liu J

2012-05-01

343

Ultrashort pulsed fiber laser welding and sealing of transparent materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, methods of welding and sealing optically transparent materials using an ultrashort pulsed (USP) fiber laser are demonstrated which overcome the limit of small area welding of optical materials. First, the interaction of USP fiber laser radiation inside glass was studied and single line welding results with different laser parameters were investigated. Then multiline scanning was used to obtain successful area bonding. Finally, complete four-edge sealing of fused silica substrates with a USP laser was demonstrated and the hermetic seal was confirmed by water immersion test. This laser microwelding technique can be extended to various applications in the semiconductor industry and precision optic manufacturing. PMID:22614601

Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Liu, Jian

2012-05-20

344

Characterisation of pulsed Carbon fiber illuminators for FIR instrument calibration  

CERN Multimedia

We manufactured pulsed illuminators emitting in the far infrared for the Planck-HFI bolometric instrument ground calibrations. Specific measurements have been conducted on these light sources, based on Carbon fibers, to understand and predict their properties. We present a modelisation of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity and the calorific capacitance of the fibers. A comparison between simulations and bolometer data is given, that shows the coherence of our model. Their small time constants, their stability and their emission spectrum pointing in the submm range make these illuminators a very usefull tool for calibrating FIR instruments.

Henrot-Versillé, S; Couchot, F

2007-01-01

345

Evaluation of 24 holmium:YAG laser optical fibers for flexible ureteroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Prior study has shown that holmium:YAG laser fiber performance differs among manufacturers. We determined the performance and threshold for failure of 24 commercially available holmium:YAG laser fibers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single use and reusable fibers were tested in small (150 to 300 microm) and medium (300 to 400 microm) core diameter sizes. All fibers were evaluated for flexibility, failure threshold and true fiber diameter. Flexibility was measured by maximally deflecting a Stryker U-500 ureteroscope with the fiber in the working channel. The diameter of each fiber was measured by a digital micrometer. The failure threshold was assessed by bending the fibers to 180 degrees, beginning with a radius of 1.25 cm. A VersaPulse 100 W holmium:YAG laser was operated at 1.2 J and 10 Hz for 1 minute or until fiber fracture. The bend radius was decreased in 0.25 cm increments and testing was repeated until a minimum bend radius of 0.5 cm was attained or until the fiber failed. RESULTS: Of the small core fibers the SureFlex LLF-150 and LLF-273, OptiLite SMH1020F and Dornier LG Super 270 had the highest threshold for failure. The Accuflex 200 had the lowest failure threshold failing at the largest bend radius (1.75 cm). Of the medium core fibers the SureFlex LLF-365, Accuflex 365 and Lumenis SL 365 had the highest failure threshold, while the Dornier LG 400 and Lumenis EZ SL 365 were the lowest. The reusable Lumenis 365 fiber had a higher failure threshold than the single use Lumenis 365 fiber. CONCLUSIONS: Commercially available holmium:YAG laser fibers differ significantly in their performance characteristics.

Mues AC; Teichman JM; Knudsen BE

2009-07-01

346

Beryllium Manufacturing Processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61 cm high), may be cut or machined into parts or be thermomechanically processed to develop the desired microstructure, properties, and shapes. Vacuum hot-isostatic pressing and cold-isostatic pressing (CIP) followed by sintering and possibly by a final HIP'ing (CIP/Sinter/HIP) are important in their use for the production of near net-shaped parts. For the same starting powder, a HIP'ed product will have less anisotropy than that obtained for a VHP'ed product. A schematic presentation illustrating the difference between VHP'ing and HIP'ing is shown in Figure I-1. The types of powders and the various beryllium grades produced from the consolidated powders and their ambient-temperature mechanical properties were presented in the consolidation report referred to above. Elevated-temperature properties and the effect of processing variables on mechanical properties are described in the mechanical properties report. Beryllium can also be deposited as coatings as well as freestanding forms. The microstructure, properties, and various methods used that are related to the deposition of beryllium are discussed in the report on beryllium coatings.

Goldberg, A

2006-06-30

347

Manufacturing strategy and manufacturing control system performance for companies manufacturing complex engineer to order products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes work which has been undertaken with a number of companies to determine an appropriate manufacturing strategy and also to establish the performance of the systems for manufacturing control. The companies were all involved in the engineer or make to order sector and designed and manufactured capital goods. The companies were first classified using a range of criteria to establish their competitive position within their markets. Individual products and other activities were then considered and appropriate manufacturing strategies developed. The existing strategic position was assessed with respect to the current market position and the changes required to bring the existing capabilities to a new competitive position were determined. The process described above demonstrated that the companies faced severe requirements with regard to the need for effective and efficient systems of manufacturing control. The existing control systems were therefore investigated and their difficulties assessed. The paper describes the techniques and approached employed and the results obtained.

Braiden, P.M.; Sitoh, P.J.; Hicks, C.; Earl, C.F. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

348

Manufacturing method of acetic acid; Sakusan no seizoho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The acetic acid is made to be the organic chemistry base product, and a demand of the world has exceeded the 5.5 million tons/year. Or, the application is widely utilized as chemicals raw material such as vinyl acetate, solvent, and acetyl cellulose as reaction solvent and reagent. It has gone over to the field of diversity such as food, medicine, dye, coating material, fiber, plastic, and photograph in the last application tip. In the inside, it is used as a reaction solvent for the terephthalic acid manufacturing of polyester raw material. (NEDO)

Sato, E. [Showa Denko Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1999-11-01

349

Fiber reinforcement of investment cast parts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For 3 years now the Foundry-Institute (Giesserei-Institut) of the Aachen Institute of Technology has worked on the development of a new, low-cost production process for longfiber-reinforced light alloy components. The process baseline is oriented on the precision casting process in its investment casting mode, also known as lost wax process. The investment casting process is well known as a typical near-net-shape process for the manufacture of high-quality cast components, predominantly for applications in the aerospace industry (structured components, turbine blades and parts etc.) and enjoys significant growth rates during the last decades. After preliminary studies on the modification of single process substeps R & D work concentrated on the final-shape production of Al-components (Al-alloys A356, A357, 201 etc.) reinforced with long ceramic fibers. Both SiC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based fibers of several producers were used. Main interest focuses on techniques for a selective reinforcement of main stress sections. Without using conventional sintered preforms the fibers are infiltrated with molten metal under a support pressure of less than 1 MPa. Combined with a new developed wax pattern technique test specimens with a nearly homogeneous fiber distribution were produced. In addition, even reactive matrix alloys did not lead to destructive interface reactions. In most cases sufficient bonding between fibers and matrix could be observed. Following to these positive tendencies a considerable improvement of mechanical properties could be measured for longfiber reinforced Al-alloys. Both tensile strength and elastic modulus could be increased up to 100% compared with the unreinforced matrix alloy. Latest work concentrated on the production of small representative components for potential applications.

Nolte, M.; Neussl, E.; Schaedlich-Stubenrauch, J.; Sahm, P.R. [Aachen Institute of Technology (Germany)

1993-12-31

350

Fiber optic spanner  

Science.gov (United States)

Rotation is a fundamental function in nano/biotechnology and is being useful in a host of applications such as pumping of fluid flow in microfluidic channels for transport of micro/nano samples. Further, controlled rotation of single cell or microscopic object is useful for tomographic imaging. Though conventional microscope objective based laser spanners (based on transfer of spin or orbital angular momentum) have been used in the past, they are limited by the short working distance of the microscope objective. Here, we demonstrate development of a fiber optic spanner for rotation of microscopic objects using single-mode fiber optics. Fiber-optic trapping and simultaneous rotation of pin-wheel structure around axis perpendicular to fiber-optic axis was achieved using the fiber optic spanner. By adjusting the laser beam power, rotation speed of the trapped object and thus the microfluidic flow could be controlled. Since this method does not require special optical or structural properties of the sample to be rotated, three-dimensional rotation of a spherical cell could also be controlled. Further, using the fiber optic spanner, array of red blood cells could be assembled and actuated to generate vortex motion. Fiber optical trapping and spinning will enable physical and spectroscopic analysis of microscopic objects in solution and also find potential applications in lab- on-a-chip devices.

Black, Bryan; Mohanty, Samarendra

2011-10-01

351

Fiber optic hydrogen sensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

1991-01-01

352

Fiber optic hydrogen sensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer.

Buchanan, Bruce R. (1985 Willis, Batesburg, SC 29006); Prather, William S. (2419 Dickey Rd., Augusta, GA 30906)

1992-01-01

353

RESPONSIVE MANUFACTURING AND INVENTORY CONTROL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A medical device production and supply information management system to enable just-in-time inventory control, to thereby reduce inventory at all points in the product manufacturing distribution/delivery chain. The system is implemented using a preferably Web-enabled information network and data communication with a programmer. The programmer provides access to product information, specification and related data for implanted medical devices from which build-to-order or build-to-replenish commands are issued to the manufacturing center. The system is interactive within the information management system that is integrally and seamlessly connected with patients, hospitals, sales offices and related consumption hubs, including manufacturing facilities.

CAMPBELL Christopher J.; CLARK Larry G.; FABIAN Willa M.; MCMENIMEN James L.; RUBLE Barbara K.; THOMPSON David L.

354

Thermistors - fundamentals and manufacturing issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ceramic oxides find widespread application as thermistors because of their well-known stability and excellent sensitivity to temperature. Fundamentals and manufacturing issues of two types of ceramic thermistors are discussed. In the first section, fundamentals that characterize NTC thermistors based on Ni-doped Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel and PTC thermistors, based on semiconducting BaTiO{sub 3} are presented. The second section deals with manufacturing issues related to reproducible industrial fabrication of thermistors. Emphasis is placed on the use of novel methods of synthesis which can overcome difficulties associated with reproducible manufacture.

Amarakoon, V.R.W.; LaCourse, B.C.; Hernandez, O. [New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred Univ., NY (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

355

Molded optics design and manufacture  

CERN Multimedia

While several available texts discuss molded plastic optics, none provide information on all classes of molded optics. Filling this gap, Molded Optics: Design and Manufacture presents detailed descriptions of molded plastic, glass, and infrared optics. Since an understanding of the manufacturing process is necessary to develop cost-effective, producible designs, the book extensively covers various manufacturing methods, design guidelines, trade-offs, best practices, and testing of critical parameters. It also discusses topics that often arise when designing systems with molded optics, such as

Schaub, Michael

2007-01-01

356

Grafting onto polyformaldehyde fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Acrylic acid (AA), acrylonitrile (AN), and acrylamide (AM) were grafted onto polyformaldehyde (PF) fibers employing ?-ray irradiation as well as benzoyl peroxide initiation. The nature of the graft copolymer obtained from a given monomer was dependent on the type of method used for the grafting reactions. This was reflected in the various characteristics of the grafted PF fibers such as moisture regain and dyeability to disperse, direct, basic, and acid dyes. The extent of grafting was dependent on time, concentration of the initiator, concentration of monomer, and irradiation dose. The grafting reaction with all the three monomers and both methods of grafting studied followed first-order kinetics. The rate constant values for grafting with AA, AN, and AM were 0.493, 0.576, and 0.420 hr-1, respectively for the irradiation method and 0.385, 0.385, and 0.346 hr-1, respectively, for the benzoyl peroxide initiation technique. The increase in the moisture regain was directly proportional to the amount of graft in the fiber. Acrylic acid grafted PF fibers were rendered hydrophilic to the highest extent (7.9 percent M.R. for 42 percent graft), while AM-grafted fibers were rendered so to the lowest extent (7.23 percent M.R. for 76.5 percent graft). The AA-grafted PF fibers gave a six- to sevenfold increase in disperse dye content when the irradiation method was followed and a four- to fivefold improvement when the chemical method was used during the grafting reaction. The AA- and AN-grafted PF fibers could be dyed in intense deep shades with cationic dyes. Similarly, AM-grafted substrates gave bright deep shades with acid dyes. Infrared studies, used to analyze the grafted PF fibers, indicated the presence of --COOH, --CN, and --NH2 groups introduced in the fiber structure as a result of grafting with AA, AN, and AM. 2 tables, 14 figures

1978-01-01

357

All-glass optical fibers derived from sapphire  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing power levels and novel applications are demanding from fibers performance capabilities that have, to date, not been realized. One such example arises from the nascent push towards the 10-kW power threshold for narrow linewidth fiber lasers designed for applications including coherently-phased laser arrays and spectroscopic lidars. It is well-known that Brillouin scattering still restricts continued power scaling in these systems, despite several recent advances in acoustic-wave Brillouin management. Accordingly, novel fibers possessing a Brillouin gain coefficient 10 dB or more less than previously demonstrated would be of great practical benefit if they comprise novel materials in simple geometries and are manufactured using industry-accepted methods. Introducing a new and effective approach to the management of Brillouin scattering, we present on all-glass optical fibers derived from silica-clad sapphire with alumina concentrations up to 55 mole percent; considerably greater than conventionally possible enabling the design of optical fiber possessing a series of essential properties. Markedly, a Brillouin gain coefficient of 3.1 × 10-13 m/W was measured for a fiber with an average alumina concentration of 54 mole percent. This value is nearly 100 times lower than standard commercial single-mode fiber and is likely the lowest ever specified value. This reduction in Brillouin gain is enabled by a number of key material properties of the alumina-silica system, amazingly even leading to a predicted, but not yet demonstrated, composition with zero Brillouin gain. Optical fiber materials with these and other crucial properties will be discussed in the context high energy fiber laser systems.

Dragic, Peter D.; Hawkins, Thomas; Foy, Paul; Morris, Stephanie; Ballato, John

2013-02-01

358

Optical fiber hydrogen sensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new type of hydrogen sensor is reported in which an optical fiber is used as the sensing element. The fiber is coated with palladium which expands on exposure to hydrogen. This changes the effective optical path length of the fiber, which is detected by interferometric techniques. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated the effect and suggest a high sensitivity and a wide dynamic range for this kind of sensor. The experimental results are compared to calculated optical path length changes. Application of this kind of sensor to the detection of other chemicals appears feasible.

Butler, M.A.

1984-11-15

359

QUARTZ FIBER ELECTROSCOPES  

Science.gov (United States)

An instrument carried unobtrusively about the person such as in a finger ring to indicate when that person has been exposed to an unusual radiation hazard is described. A metallized quartz fiber is electrically charged to indicate a full scale reading on an etched glass background. The quartz fiber and the scale may be viewed through a magnifying lens for ease of reading. Incident radiation will ionize gaseous particles in the sealed structure thereby allowing the charge to leak off the quartz fiber with its resulting movement across the scale proportionally indicating the radiation exposure.

Henderson, R.P.

1957-09-17

360

Optical fiber spectrophotometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method called 'Two Arm's Photo out and Electricity Send-back' is introduced. UV-365 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer has been reequipped by this way with 5 meters long optical fiber. Another method called 'One Arm's Photo out and Photo Send-back' is also introduced. ?19 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer has been reequipped by this way with 10 meters long optical fiber. Optical fiber spectrophotometer can work as its main set. So it is particularly applicable to radio activity work

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Random Fiber Laser  

CERN Multimedia

We investigate the effects of two dimensional confinement on the lasing properties of a classical random laser system operating in the incoherent feedback (diffusive) regime. A suspension of 250nm rutile (TiO2) particles in a Rhodamine 6G solution was inserted into the hollow core of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) generating the first random fiber laser and a novel quasi-one-dimensional RL geometry. Comparison with similar systems in bulk format shows that the random fiber laser presents an efficiency that is at least two orders of magnitude higher.

de Matos, Christiano J S; Brito-Silva, Antônio M; Gámez, M A Martinez; Gomes, Anderson S L; de Araújo, Cid B

2007-01-01

362

Fiber Optic Cables  

Science.gov (United States)

This brief interactive activity, by the Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty, is an easy-to-use introduction to fiber optic cables and their uses. Students are able to reveal each section at their leisure as they click through the helpful illustrations and animations on fiber optic cable components, LEDâÂÂs, multi-mode and single-mode cables, and cable connectors. Three review questions wrap up the slide show to test knowledge gained. This would be a great resource for teachers to help introduce the topic to students, or for students to have a comprehensive overview of fiber optic cables.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-28

363

Fiber Digestion in Mammals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal models are viewed to understand the major types of fiber digestion. Faunivores, omnivores and granivores differ in their amounts of fiber digestion. These differences are partially due to the morphology of the gut and opportunities in abundance and Sacristy of food stuffs. The funivore model is the anteater, who utilizes autoenszymes to deal with the chitin in the diet. The frugivor model is the bat, who has to deal with cellulose and seeds. The herbivore model is the rabbit, who must consume large amounts of dietary fiber as dose the grazer. Adaptions vary in gut and selection

J. Caroline; M.S. Gross; Diana-Marie Spillman

2003-01-01

364

Fiber optic communication links  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fiber optics is a new, emerging technology which offers relief from many of the problems which limited past communications links. Its inherent noise immunity and high bandwidth open the door for new designs with greater capabilities. Being a new technology, certain problems can be encountered in specifying and installing a fiber optic link. A general fiber optic system is discussed with emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages. It is not intended to be technical in nature, but a general discussion. Finally, a general purpose prototype Sandia communications link is presented.

Meyer, R. H.

1980-01-01

365

Fiber-Reinforced Composite Foam  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-phase method for making fiber-reinforced compositions was developed to achieve uniform fiber dispersion in a composite matrix. The first phase involved mixing together water, fibers, and a portion of a fiber dispersant to form a viscous composition. The high viscosity imparted by the dispersa...

366

Low-residue fiber diet  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber diet - low-residue; Low-fiber diet ... When you are on a low residue fiber diet, you will eat low-fiber foods that are easy for your body to digest. Eating these foods may slow down your bowel ...

367

Polarization effects in aerial fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Different aerial fiber polarization effects are investigated and discussed. The state of polarization time drift is explored in different fibers. Polarization mode dispersion and polarization dependent loss time variations are reported. Fiber galloping and aerial fiber system impact issues are discussed.

Waddy, David S.; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

2005-01-01

368

Optical Absorption in Commercial Single Mode Optical Fibers in a High Energy Physics Radiation Field  

CERN Document Server

This paper reports on the radiation induced attenuation of light at 1310 nm and 1550 nm in 12 commercially available single mode (SM) optical fibers. The fiber samples are exposed to gamma rays from a 60Co source and to a high energy physics radiation field. The attenuation is studied as a function of total dose, dose rate, light power and temperature. Radiation hard fibers from one manufacturer show an extraordinary low attenuation for light at 1310 nm that does not exceed 5 dB/km even after a total dose of 1 MGy. 2500 km of this type of fiber have been produced by the manufacturer and quality assurance measurements of the production batches are presently ongoing.

Wijnands, T; Kuhnhenn, J; Hoeffgen, S K; Weinand, U

2008-01-01

369

Responsive manufacturing and inventory control  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A medical device production and supply information management system for just-in-time inventory control at the manufacturing facility, vendor stocks, material/product tracking, distribution and shipping management, to thereby reduce inventory at all points in the product manufacturing distribution/delivery chain. The system is implemented using a preferably Web-enabled information network and data communication with a programmer. The programmer provides access to product information, specification and related data for implanted medical devices from which build-to-order or build-to-replenish commands are issued to the manufacturing center. The system is interactive within the information management system that is integrally and seamlessly connected with patients, hospitals, sales offices and related consumption hubs, including manufacturing facilities.

MCMENIMEN JAMES L; CAMPBELL CHRISTOPHER J; RUBLE BARBARA K; FABIAN WILLA M; CLARK LARRY G; THOMPSON DAVID L

370

Manufacturing method of organic whiskers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manufacturing method of organic whiskers is achieved by adding, desirably, hardening agent and/or polymerization promoter to polymeric organic low molecular compound or its composition, then in vacuum, irradiating energy ray. The synthesis of epoxy resins is discussed

1986-01-01

371

Wireless technology for integrated manufacturing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the ground breaking work in Oak Ridge facilities that now leads us to the brink of the wireless revolution in manufacturing. The focus is on solving tough technological problems necessary for success and addressing the critical issues...

W. W. Manges G. O. Allgood A. A. Shourbaji

1996-01-01

372

Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Solar Collector Manufacturing Activity 1990 report prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents summary and detailed data provided by domestic manufacturers on shipments of solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the period 1974 through 1990. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the period 1982 through 1990. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1990.

373

Manufacturers use of business services  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarized findings from a Colorado and Utah survey of manufacturing and business service establishments which provided information on the use of business services among different types of firms in this interior region of the United States. The paper provides information which helps to shed light on various areas of inquiry on the relationship between manufacturers and producer services, but certainly calls for additional investigation. Most of the findings are consistent with those found by studies in other areas. Manufacturers are not a major source of sales for business service firms and the availability of business services is not cited as an important location consideration for manufacturers. Given the strong mining and agricultural sectors in these states, the fact that so little trade was with the primary sector may have been surprising. However, most of the responses in the surveys were from the urban areas of Denver and Salt Lake City. One of the hypotheses in the literature, as defined by Perry and Goe, concerns whether the growth in business services and the decline in manufacturing employment is a result of the trend toward the use of contracted services by manufacturers. The aggregate results of the study do not provide much evidence to support the proposition that this occurs. However, the results show that the larger firms internalize certain specialized business services more so than the smaller firms. The greater use company-provided legal services by the larger manufacturers is a case in point. This finding is consistent with Scott`s finding in the printed circuits industry in which larger establishments provided more functions internally than did the smaller establishments. In the case of engineering, architectural, and business management services it appears that many smaller manufacturers do not use such services at all, but that the larger establishments have more needs for professional services.

Calzonetti, F. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Allison, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1992-12-31

374

Basalt Fiber Based Filters  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Development of Highly Effective Filtering Systems on the Basis of a Super-Thin Basalt Fiber for Radioactive Aerosols Purification and Creation of a Work Cycle for Filters Manufacturig with the Purpose of Their Operation at the Nuclear Power Plants

375

Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb (electromagnetic) and Cu (hadron) absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters, for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles (1 degree--7 degree). The 7 ? deep hadron tower contained 2.8% by volume 1.5 mm diameter core clear plastic fibers. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.8% and 7.2% of 1 mm diameter core quartz fibers as the active Cerenkov sampling medium. The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response, pulse shapes and angular studies are presented

1993-11-06

376

Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb (electromagnetic) and Cu (hadron) absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters, for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles (1[degree]--7[degree]). The 7 [lambda] deep hadron tower contained 2.8% by volume 1.5 mm diameter core clear plastic fibers. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.8% and 7.2% of 1 mm diameter core quartz fibers as the active Cerenkov sampling medium. The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response, pulse shapes and angular studies are presented.

Arrington, K.; Kefford, D.; Kennedy, J.; Pisani, R.; Sanzeni, C.; Segall, K.; Wall, D.; Winn, D.R. (Fairfield Univ., CT (United States)); Carey, R.; Dye, S.; Miller, J.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W. (Boston Univ., MA (United States)); Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Savin, A.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1994-08-01

377

Nanostructured fibers via electrospinning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Structured polymer fibers with diameters down to tens of nanometers are of interest for applications in filters, in composite reinforcement, or as templates for the preparation of functional nanotubes. (orig.)

Bognitzki, M.; Czado, W.; Frese, T.; Schaper, A.; Hellwig, M.; Steinhart, M.; Greiner, A.; Wendorff, J.H. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physical Chemistry; Marburg Univ. (Germany). Materials Science Center

2001-01-05

378

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Kids 'n Fiber Search the Consumer ...

379

Radiation Damage of Quartz Fibers  

CERN Multimedia

Quartz fibers are used in high energy physics experiments as the active medium in high radiation area calorimetry. Quartz fibers are also used in the transmission of optical signals. Even though quartz does not damage by moderate amounts of irradiation, the clad of the fibers and the protective coating ( buffer) do damage reducing light transmission. Various types of quartz fibers have been irradiated and measured for light transmission. The most radiation hard quartz fibers are those with quartz clad and aluminum buffer.

Hagopian, V

1999-01-01

380

Radiation damage of quartz fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quartz fibers are used in high energy physics experiments as the active medium in high radiation area calorimetry. Quartz fibers are also used in the transmission of optical signals. Even though quartz does not damage by moderate amounts of irradiation, the clad of the fibers and the protective coating (buffer) do damage reducing light transmission. Various types of quartz fibers have been irradiated and measured for light transmission. The most radiation hard quartz fibers are those with quartz clad and aluminum buffer.

Hagopian, Vasken

1999-08-01

 
 
 
 
381

Neuroanatomic Fiber Orientation Maps (FOMs)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new neuroanatomic method is described which allows to map the orientation of central nervous fibers in gross histological sections. Polarised light is used to calculate the angle of inclination and direction of the fibers in each pixel. Serial fiber orientation maps (FOMs) can be aligned and 3D reconstructed. This volume allows to identify and segment the major fiber tracts. The feasible goal is a human central nervous fiber atlas.

Axer, Hubertus; Jantzen, Jan

2002-01-01

382

Fiber alignment apparatus and method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Warren, Mial Evans (Albuquerque, NM); Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe (Albuquerque, NM); Word, V., James Cole (Albuqueruqe, NM)

1997-01-01

383

Man-made respirable-sized organic fibers: what do we know about their toxicological profiles?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Man-made organic fibers (MMOFs) have been manufactured for over 50 years. Until recently, there have been few concerns raised regarding the safety of organic fiber dusts. This is due, in large part, to the perception that the dimensions of most, if not all, of these products were too large to be inhaled into the distal lungs of workers, i.e., were considered to be nonrespirable. A brief review of some of the issues related to organic fiber toxicology is presented herein. Some of the organic fiber-types used in commerce are identified and some fundamental tenets of fiber toxicology are discussed. In addition, the European Union, in their recent consideration for banning chrysotile asbestos fibers, evaluated some organic fiber substitutes and compared them to the hazards of asbestos. A brief review of their conclusions is described below. Finally, the results of some recent studies assessing the mechanisms of biodegradability of para-aramid respirable-sized, fiber-shaped particulates (RFP) are presented. Para-aramid (p-aramid) RFP are the most extensively-studied respirable organic fiber-type and RFP is the new term which describes respirable-sized organic fibers (ECETOC, 1996) (1). The results of these studies provide clues regarding the mechanism(s) of p-aramid RFP shortening in the lungs of exposed animals, and may be relevant for humans.

Warheit DB; Reed KL; Webb TR

2001-04-01

384

Evaluation of exposure to the airborne asbestos in an automobile brake and clutch manufacturing industry in Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

About 2000 tons of chrysotile is used annually to produce friction materials in Islamic Republic of Iran. Approximately, 3000 workers are exposed to the asbestos fibers in the different processes of brake and clutch manufacturing. In the current study, asbestos fiber concentrations during brake and clutch manufacture were measured. This study also evaluated the fiber size and morphology distribution according to the Asbestos International Association (AIA) for standardization analytical method for asbestos. The airborne asbestos fiber concentrations and its chemical composition of 92 personal samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX). Personal monitoring of fiber levels demonstrated counts that ranged from 0.31 to 1.3 PCM f/ml (15.5-51.5 SEM f/ml). Geometric means of the asbestos concentrations were 1.3 PCM f/ml (51.5 SEM f/ml) and 0.86 PCM f/ml (42.1 SEM f/ml) according to the brake weighting and mixing and clutch mixing process, respectively. The geometrical mean concentrations were 0.63 PCM f/ml (31 SEM f/ml), which is considerably higher than threshold limit value (TLV) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) which is 0.1f/ml. The SEM data demonstrate that the fibrous particles consisted, approximately, of chrysotile (50%), tremolite (30%), and actinolite (20%). Based on these findings, the 50% of airborne fibers inhaled by the workers were amphiboles asbestos with fibers equal and greater than 5 microm in length and 0.2 microm in diameter, and thus not included in the PCM-based fiber counts. Therefore, it might be expected that workers who worked in the brake and clutch manufacture will suffer from negative health effects of exposing to the amphibole asbestos fibers.

Kakooei H; Marioryad H

2010-03-01

385

Evaluation of exposure to the airborne asbestos in an automobile brake and clutch manufacturing industry in Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

About 2000 tons of chrysotile is used annually to produce friction materials in Islamic Republic of Iran. Approximately, 3000 workers are exposed to the asbestos fibers in the different processes of brake and clutch manufacturing. In the current study, asbestos fiber concentrations during brake and clutch manufacture were measured. This study also evaluated the fiber size and morphology distribution according to the Asbestos International Association (AIA) for standardization analytical method for asbestos. The airborne asbestos fiber concentrations and its chemical composition of 92 personal samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX). Personal monitoring of fiber levels demonstrated counts that ranged from 0.31 to 1.3 PCM f/ml (15.5-51.5 SEM f/ml). Geometric means of the asbestos concentrations were 1.3 PCM f/ml (51.5 SEM f/ml) and 0.86 PCM f/ml (42.1 SEM f/ml) according to the brake weighting and mixing and clutch mixing process, respectively. The geometrical mean concentrations were 0.63 PCM f/ml (31 SEM f/ml), which is considerably higher than threshold limit value (TLV) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) which is 0.1f/ml. The SEM data demonstrate that the fibrous particles consisted, approximately, of chrysotile (50%), tremolite (30%), and actinolite (20%). Based on these findings, the 50% of airborne fibers inhaled by the workers were amphiboles asbestos with fibers equal and greater than 5 microm in length and 0.2 microm in diameter, and thus not included in the PCM-based fiber counts. Therefore, it might be expected that workers who worked in the brake and clutch manufacture will suffer from negative health effects of exposing to the amphibole asbestos fibers. PMID:19818821

Kakooei, Hossein; Marioryad, Hossein

2009-10-08

386

Textile Pressure Sensor Made of Flexible Plastic Optical Fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we report the successful development of pressure sensitive textile prototypes based on flexible optical fibers technology. Our approach is based on thermoplastic silicone fibers, which can be integrated into woven textiles. As soon as pressure at a certain area of the textile is applied to these fibers they change their cross section reversibly, due to their elastomeric character, and a simultaneous change in transmitted light intensity can be detected. We have successfully manufactured two different woven samples with fibers of 0.51 and 0.98 mm diameter in warp and weft direction, forming a pressure sensitive matrix. Determining their physical behavior when a force is applied shows that pressure measurements are feasible. Their usable working range is between 0 and 30 N. Small drifts in the range of 0.2 to 4.6%, over 25 load cycles, could be measured. Finally, a sensor array of 2 x 2 optical fibers was tested for sensitivity, spatial resolution and light coupling between fibers at intersections.

Markus Rothmaier; Minh Phi Luong; Frank Clemens

2008-01-01

387

Mode profiling of optical fibers at high laser powers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes the development of a measuring equipment capable of analysing the beam profile at high optical powers emitted by delivery fibers used in manufacturing processes. Together with the optical delivery system, the output beam quality from the delivery fiber and the shape of the focused spot can be determined. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating wire being swept though the laser beam, while the reflected signal is recorded [1]. By changing the incident angle of the rotating rod from 0° to 360° in relation to the fiber, the full profile of the laser beam is obtained. Choosing a highly reflective rod material and a sufficiently high rotation speed, these measurements can be done with high laser powers, without any additional optical elements between the fiber and analyzer. The performance of the analyzer was evaluated by coupling laser light into different fibers, and measuring the output beam profiles. Fibers with different core diameters and different surface qualities were tested.

Nielsen, Peter CarØe; Pedersen, David Bue

2008-01-01

388

Fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to develop the radiation sensor, which is composed of a scintillator, an optical fiber bundle and a light measuring device to detect the tritium in real-time. In this study, we have fabricated fiber-optic radiation sensors using inorganic scintillators and plastic optical fiber bundles. Each scintillator interacts with electron or beta ray and generates 455–550 nm wavelength of scintillation photons. An optical fiber bundle is usually made of plastic or glass, which is used to guide the light signal from a scintillating probe to light measuring device. For the purpose of selecting the best scintillator with a high efficiency, fiber-optic sensors manufactured using three kinds of inorganic scintillator such as Gd2O2S:Tb, Y3Al5O12:Ce and CsI:Tl, and they are tested with a metal hydride type of tritium source. In addition, the scintillation photons are measured as a function of distance between a fiber-optic sensor and source. Finally, we have measured the amounts of scintillation photon with different activities of tritium source and compared the measured results with those obtained using a surface activity monitor.

Jang, K. W.; Cho, D. H.; Yoo, W. J.; Seo, J. K.; Heo, J. Y.; Park, J.-Y.; Lee, B.

2011-10-01

389

Dark Soliton Fiber Laser  

CERN Document Server

We report on the experimental observation of stable dark solitons in an all normal dispersion fiber laser. We found experimentally that dark soliton formation is a generic feature of the fiber laser under strong continuous wave (CW) emission. However, only under appropriate pump strength and negative cavity feedback, stable single or multiple dark soliton could be achieved. Furthermore, we show that the features of the observed dark solitons could be well understood based on the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE).

Zhang, H; Zhao, L M; Wu, X

2009-01-01

390

Fiber optic detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

1990-12-31

391

Raman Fiber Lasers  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) as a means of amplifying signals in telecommunication systems has been demonstrated since 1976 [1]. Yet despite its advantages over erbium-doped fiber, Raman amplification was not used in the first generation of deployed optically amplified systems. One of the principal reasons for this was the lack of reliable high-power pump sources needed for Raman amplification. It was in this environment that the cascaded Raman fiber laser (RFL) was invented.

Headley, C.; Mermelstein, M.; Bouteiller, J.-C.

392

Bragg gratings in multi-mode fiber optics for wavelength calibration of GAIA and RAVE spectra  

CERN Document Server

We propose a new technique, the use of FBGs (fiber Bragg gratings), for accurate, easy and low cost wavelength calibration of GAIA, RAVE and follow-ups spectra at local Observatories. FBGs mark the spectra with absorption lines, freely defined in number and position during the fibers manufacturing. The process goes in parallel with the science exposure and through the same optical train and path, thus ensuring the maximum return in wavelength calibration accuracy. Plans to manufacture and test FBGs for the CaII/Paschen region are underway at the Astronomical Observatory of Padova.

Pernechele, C

2002-01-01

393

Manufacture of dissolving pulps from cornstalk by novel method coupling steam explosion and mechanical carding fractionation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to solve the inhomogeneity of cornstalk as fiber material to manufacture dissolving pulp, a novel method of steam explosion coupling mechanical carding was put forward to fractionate cornstalk long fiber for the production of cornstalk dissolving pulp. The fractionated long fiber had homogeneous structure and low hemicellulose and ash content. The fiber cell content was up to 85% in area, and the hemicellulose and ash content was 8.34% and 1.10% respectively. The ?-cellulose content of cornstalk dissolving pulps was up to 93.10-97.10%, the viscosity was 14.37-23.96 mPas, and the yields of cornstalk dissolving pulps were from 10.11% to 12.44%. In addition, the fractionated short fiber was to be hydrolyzed by enzyme to build sugar platform. The constructed method of steam explosion coupling mechanical carding achieved the fractionation of cornstalk into long fiber and short fiber cleanly and effectively, and provided a new way for cornstalk integrated refinery.

Wang N; Chen HZ

2013-07-01

394

Manufacture of dissolving pulps from cornstalk by novel method coupling steam explosion and mechanical carding fractionation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to solve the inhomogeneity of cornstalk as fiber material to manufacture dissolving pulp, a novel method of steam explosion coupling mechanical carding was put forward to fractionate cornstalk long fiber for the production of cornstalk dissolving pulp. The fractionated long fiber had homogeneous structure and low hemicellulose and ash content. The fiber cell content was up to 85% in area, and the hemicellulose and ash content was 8.34% and 1.10% respectively. The ?-cellulose content of cornstalk dissolving pulps was up to 93.10-97.10%, the viscosity was 14.37-23.96 mPas, and the yields of cornstalk dissolving pulps were from 10.11% to 12.44%. In addition, the fractionated short fiber was to be hydrolyzed by enzyme to build sugar platform. The constructed method of steam explosion coupling mechanical carding achieved the fractionation of cornstalk into long fiber and short fiber cleanly and effectively, and provided a new way for cornstalk integrated refinery. PMID:23644071

Wang, Ning; Chen, Hong-Zhang

2013-04-12

395

The potential of direct nanoparticle deposition for the next generation of optical fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber lasers offer substantial advantages compared to conventional solid-state lasers due to their high efficiency, compact size, diffraction-limited beam quality, tunability, and facile thermal management. A number of important applications require high peak powers and pulse energies, which has generated great interest in Yb-doped, large-modearea (LMA) fibers. Liekki has pioneered a new manufacturing technology for rare-earth-doped fibers, Direct Nanoparticle Deposition (DND), that is capable of producing fibers uniquely well suited to power scaling. Conventional fiber fabrication methods are characterized by poor process accuracy and flexibility due to the large particle sizes and relatively small number of deposition layers (2-10). In contrast, DND provides independent control of the composition of hundreds of layers that make up the core, thereby allowing previously unattainable precision, accuracy, and uniformity in the index and rare-earth-dopant profiles. DND allows the simultaneous use of both gasphase and liquid precursors, providing unprecedented flexibility in the glass composition. Furthermore, DND enables fabrication of fibers with extremely high rare-earth concentrations, which minimizes the required fiber length and correspondingly raises the threshold power for nonlinear processes. Finally, the single-step, direct-deposition process makes manufacturing of fibers rapid and cost-effective, even for fibers with large core diameters or sophisticated geometries and dopant distributions. DND fibers have shown high conversion efficiency (low clustering), low photodarkening, and high damage threshold. DND thus promises to revolutionize the use of fiber lasers in applications previously restricted to bulk, solid-state lasers and to enable new applications of high-power lasers.

Tammela, Simo; Söderlund, Mikko; Koponen, Joona; Philippov, Valery; Stenius, Per

2006-03-01

396

Thickness optimization of fiber reinforced laminated composites using the discrete material optimization method  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This work concerns a novel large-scale multi-material topology optimization method for simultaneous determination of the optimum variable integer thickness and fiber orientation throughout laminate structures with fixed outer geometries while adhering to certain manufacturing constraints. The conceptual combinatorial/integer problem is relaxed to a continuous problem and solved on basis of the so-called Discrete Material Optimization method, explicitly including the manufacturing constraints as linear constraints.

SØrensen, SØren NØrgaard; Lund, Erik

2012-01-01

397

Carbon stripper foils held in place with carbon fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) currently under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is planned to initially utilize carbon stripper foils having areal densities approximately 260 ?g/cm2. The projected design requires that each foil be supported by only one fixed edge. For stability of the foil, additional support is to be provided by carbon fibers. The feasibility of manufacturing and shipping such mounted carbon foils produced by arc evaporation was studied using two prototypes. Production of the foils is described. Fibers were chosen for satisfactory mechanical strength consistent with minimal interference with the SNS beam. Mounting of the fibers, and packaging of the assemblies for shipping are described. Ten completed assemblies were shipped to SNS for further testing. Preliminary evaluation of the survivability of the foils in the SNS foil changer is described

2008-06-01

398

Glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes for evoked potential recordings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Current methods for recording field potentials with tungsten electrodes make it virtually impossible to use the same recording electrode also as a lesioning electrode, for example for histological confirmation of the recorded site, because the lesioning procedure usually wears off the tungsten tip. Therefore, the electrode would have to be replaced after each lesioning procedure, which is a very high cost solution to the problem. We present here a low cost, easy to make, (more) high quality glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrode that shows resistive, signal/noise and electrochemical coupling advantages over tungsten electrodes. Also, currently used carbon fiber microelectrodes often show problems with electrical continuity, especially regarding electrochemical applications using a carbon-powder/resin mixture, with consequent low performance, besides the inconvenience of handling such a mixture. We propose here a new method for manufacturing glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes with several advantages when recording intracerebral field potentials

Moraes, M.F.D.; Garcia-Cairasco, N.

1997-11-01

399

Glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes for evoked potential recordings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current methods for recording field potentials with tungsten electrodes make it virtually impossible to use the same recording electrode also as a lesioning electrode, for example for histological confirmation of the recorded site, because the lesioning procedure usually wears off the tungsten tip. Therefore, the electrode would have to be replaced after each lesioning procedure, which is a very high cost solution to the problem. We present here a low cost, easy to make, high quality glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrode that shows resistive, signal/noise and electrochemical coupling advantages over tungsten electrodes. Also, currently used carbon fiber microelectrodes often show problems with electrical continuity, especially regarding electrochemical applications using a carbon-powder/resin mixture, with consequent low performance, besides the inconvenience of handling such a mixture. We propose here a new method for manufacturing glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes with several advantages when recording intracerebral field potentials

M.F.D. Moraes; N. Garcia-Cairasco

1997-01-01

400

Modal characterization of fiber-to-fiber coupling processes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a detailed experimental investigation of a fiber-to-fiber coupling process by characterizing the mode content at the output of the system. In our experiment a single-mode fiber is transversally scanned with respect to a multimode fiber, revealing position-dependent higher-order mode excitation. The outlined measurement system can be used for automated optimization of fundamental mode content and beam quality. Additionally, our approach characterizes the modal transmission properties of the multimode waveguide in its present state and is hence of high relevance for the conception of transport fibers and fiber laser systems.

Flamm D; Hou KC; Gelszinnis P; Schulze C; Schröter S; Duparré M

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
401

Toward high performance graphene fibers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two-dimensional graphene and graphene-based materials have attracted tremendous interest, hence much attention has been drawn to exploring and applying their exceptional characteristics and properties. Integration of graphene sheets into macroscopic fibers is a very important way for their application and has received increasing interest. In this study, neat and macroscopic graphene fibers were continuously spun from graphene oxide (GO) suspensions followed by chemical reduction. By varying wet-spinning conditions, a series of graphene fibers were prepared, then, the structural features, mechanical and electrical performances of the fibers were investigated. We found the orientation of graphene sheets, the interaction between inter-fiber graphene sheets and the defects in the fibers have a pronounced effect on the properties of the fibers. Graphene fibers with excellent mechanical and electrical properties will yield great advances in high-tech applications. These findings provide guidance for the future production of high performance graphene fibers.

Chen L; He Y; Chai S; Qiang H; Chen F; Fu Q

2013-07-01

402

Longitudinally graded optical fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Described herein, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, are results on optical fibers possessing significant compositional gradations along its length due to longitudinal control of the core glass composition. More specifically, MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers were fabricated that exhibited a gradient of up to about 0.55 weight % GeO2 per meter. These gradients are about 1900 times greater than previously reported fibers possessing longitudinal changes in composition. The refractive index difference is shown to change by about 0.001, representing a numerical aperture change of about 10%, over a fiber length of less than 20 m. The lowest attenuation measured from the present longitudinally-graded fiber (LGF) was 82 dB/km at a wavelength of 1550 nm, though this is shown to result from extrinsic process-induced factors and could be reduced with further optimization. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectrum from the LGF exhibited a 4.4 dB increase in the spectral width, and thus reduction in Brillouin gain, relative to a standard commercial single mode fiber, over a fiber length of only 17 m. The method employed is very straight-forward and provides for a wide variety of longitudinal refractive index and acoustic velocity profiles, as well as core shapes, which could be especially valuable for SBS suppression in high-energy laser systems. Next generation analogs, with longitudinally-graded compositional profiles that are very reasonable to fabricate, are shown computationally to be more effective at suppressing SBS than present alternatives, such as externally-applied temperature or strain gradients.

Evert, A.; James, A.; Hawkins, T.; Foy, P.; Dong, L.; Stolen, R.; Ballato, J.; Dragic, P.; Rice, R.

2013-03-01

403

Responsive manufacturing and inventory control  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A medical device production and supply information management system synchronous with manufacturing, planning and scheduling, product consumption forecast and component purchase to enable just-in-time inventory control at the manufacturing facility, vendor stocks, material/product tracking, distribution and shipping management, to thereby reduce inventory at all points in the product manufacturing distribution/delivery chain. The system is implemented using a preferably Web-enabled information network and data communication with a programmer. The programmer provides access to product information, specification and related data for implanted medical devices from which build-to-order or build-to-replenish commands are issued to the manufacturing center.The system is interactive within the information management system that is integrally and seamlessly connected with patients, hospitals, sales offices and related consumption hubs, including manufacturing facilities. One aspect of the present invention includes a data base containing the information management system, that may download all pertinent software relative to the implanted device to an automated manufacturing line. Procedurally, the database is examined to determined if there are any custom specifications required for the build-to-replenish or build-to-order. In the event there are custom requirements, the database retrieves any custom software which is then downloaded into the device's firmware, during the build-to-replenish or build-to-order.A standard data set will include the device type, model number, serial number, name of the implanting physician, the name of the sales representative and the name of the implanting institution. A customized data set may include, for example, specific functions and/or features, a patient warning alarm, a voice alert in the patient's own language, customized shipping parameters, shipping labels, patient's name and identification number, scheduled date of implant, and/or the location where the implant is to take place, as well as a sufficient inventory management system level. All this data, when received, will automatically initiate a build-to-order replenishment to match and replace the customized device implanted at that institution.Once an order is made, the manufacturing data base will determine whether all components are required to complete the order available at the factory site located nearest the implanting institution. In the event components are not available, the manufacturing database issues an order to the component supplier. In this manner, the invention enables management of inventory levels of medical devices through the interacting information management system by timely and accurately sharing information across the various hubs, thereby ensuring manufacturing efficiency and cost control throughout the chain of production and supply.

MCMENIMEN JAMES L; CAMPBELL CHRISTOPHER J; RUBLE BARBARA K; FABIAN WILLA M; CLARK LARRY G; THOMPSON DAVID L

404

Hollow fiber shape alters solute clearances in high flux hemodialyzers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mass transfer properties of hemodialyzers containing hollow fiber membranes are known to be influenced by membrane chemical composition, surface area, and pore size; however, the effects of hollow fiber shape (or configuration) and packing density within the dialyzer housing have not been well characterized. We determined, both in vitro and ex vivo (clinical), solute clearances and mass transfer-area coefficients (KoA) for high flux dialyzers containing polysulfone hollow fibers of identical chemical composition but different shapes. Hemoflow F80A (1.8 m2 of membrane surface area) dialyzers contained hollow fibers with a conventional shape, but Optiflux F180A (1.8 m2), F200A (2.0 m2), and F200NR (2.0 m2) dialyzers contained hollow fibers with a wavy shape. Clearances and KoA values determined in vitro for urea and creatinine increased with increasing dialysate flow rate and were higher for Optiflux F180A and F200A dialyzers than for Hemoflow F80A dialyzers. In vitro clearances for lysozyme and myoglobin were also higher for Optiflux F180A and F200A dialyzers than for Hemoflow F80A dialyzers, suggesting that a wavy hollow fiber shape increases mass transfer by increasing effective membrane surface area, conceivably by altering dialysate flow patterns. Urea clearances and KoA values determined ex vivo were higher for Optiflux F200NR dialyzers than for Hemoflow F80A dialyzers, confirming that the in vitro results are applicable to clinical hemodialysis. These increases in mass transfer efficiency for dialyzers containing hollow fibers with a wavy shape are consistent with improved mass transfer within the dialysate compartment as evidenced by the manufacturer-reported dialysate pressure-flow relationships. We conclude that the mass transfer characteristics of high flux dialyzers can be altered by the shape of the hollow fibers. PMID:12558312

Leypoldt, John K; Cheung, Alfred K; Chirananthavat, Thanit; Gilson, Janice F; Kamerath, Craig D; Deeter, R Barry

405

Hollow fiber shape alters solute clearances in high flux hemodialyzers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mass transfer properties of hemodialyzers containing hollow fiber membranes are known to be influenced by membrane chemical composition, surface area, and pore size; however, the effects of hollow fiber shape (or configuration) and packing density within the dialyzer housing have not been well characterized. We determined, both in vitro and ex vivo (clinical), solute clearances and mass transfer-area coefficients (KoA) for high flux dialyzers containing polysulfone hollow fibers of identical chemical composition but different shapes. Hemoflow F80A (1.8 m2 of membrane surface area) dialyzers contained hollow fibers with a conventional shape, but Optiflux F180A (1.8 m2), F200A (2.0 m2), and F200NR (2.0 m2) dialyzers contained hollow fibers with a wavy shape. Clearances and KoA values determined in vitro for urea and creatinine increased with increasing dialysate flow rate and were higher for Optiflux F180A and F200A dialyzers than for Hemoflow F80A dialyzers. In vitro clearances for lysozyme and myoglobin were also higher for Optiflux F180A and F200A dialyzers than for Hemoflow F80A dialyzers, suggesting that a wavy hollow fiber shape increases mass transfer by increasing effective membrane surface area, conceivably by altering dialysate flow patterns. Urea clearances and KoA values determined ex vivo were higher for Optiflux F200NR dialyzers than for Hemoflow F80A dialyzers, confirming that the in vitro results are applicable to clinical hemodialysis. These increases in mass transfer efficiency for dialyzers containing hollow fibers with a wavy shape are consistent with improved mass transfer within the dialysate compartment as evidenced by the manufacturer-reported dialysate pressure-flow relationships. We conclude that the mass transfer characteristics of high flux dialyzers can be altered by the shape of the hollow fibers.

Leypoldt JK; Cheung AK; Chirananthavat T; Gilson JF; Kamerath CD; Deeter RB

2003-01-01

406

High-brightness fiber-coupled single emitter arrays  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercial high power fiber coupled diode lasers reach power levels of 200W from a 0.2mm fiber, NA=0.2. 2D fiber coupled single emitter (SE) arrays are described delivering 500W from a 0.2mm fiber. The beam quality of standard 90?m single emitter (SE) is 6mm*mrad (slow axis) and 0.7mm*mrad (fast axis) including errors from fast axis lensing. 3 SEs (24) can be arranged in slow axis (fast axis) to fill the aperture for coupling into a 0.2mm fiber, NA=0.2. For high efficiency, beam shaping optics are avoided. A lens array for slow axis collimation and a focusing optic complete the fiber coupled module. 44 SEs' are arranged as a 2D array, polarization multiplexed and coupled into a 0.2mm fiber, NA=0.2. 62% optical to optical and 75% coupling efficiency are achieved, close to the modeled coupling efficiency of 80%. Alignment tolerances in the system do account for additional losses. Precise manufacturing processes are essential. The SEs on submounts are soldered in one reflow process to a common heatsink and FAC-lensing station automatically aligns the lens based on image processing ensuring minimum total lensing errors (focusing and pointing) of each SE to <15% of total spot size. Tighter tolerances during SE mounting, improved fast axis collimation and a redesigned coupling optic will increase the coupling efficiency to 80% resulting in 410W linear polarized output from the 0.2mm fiber, NA=0.2. Polarization (800W) and dense wavelength multiplexing (1.4kW) open the door to kilowatt level.

Heinemann, Stefan; Regaard, Boris; Schmidt, Torsten; Lewis, Ben

2009-02-01

407

Responsive manufacturing and inventory control  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A medical device production and supply information management system synchronous with manufacturing, planning and scheduling, product consumption forecast, and component purchase to enable just-in-time inventory control at the manufacturing facility, vendor stocks, material/product tracking, distribution and shipping management to thereby reduce inventory at all points in the product manufacturing, distribution/delivery chain. The system is implemented using a preferably Web enabled information network and data communications with a programmer. The programmer provides access to product information, specification and related data for implanted medical devices from which build-to-order and build-to-replenish commands are issued to the manufacturing center.The system is interactive within the consumption management system that is integrally and seamlessly connected with patients, hospitals, sales offices and related information hubs including manufacturing facilities. The invention enables management of inventory levels of medical devices through the interactive information management system by accurately accounting for inventory stored in sales offices, distributors and sales representatives, as well as implanting institutions to ensure that all centers have appropriate and adequate stock that is replaced on just-in-time basis under the build-to-replenish scheme.

MCMENIMEN JAMES L; CAMPBELL CHRISTOPHER J; RUBLE BARBARA K; FABIAN WILLA M; CLARK LARRY G; THOMPSON DAVID L

408

RESPONSIVE MANUFACTURING AND INVENTORY CONTROL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A medical device production and supply information management system synchronous with manufacturing, planning and scheduling, product consumption forecast, and component purchase to enable just-in-time inventory control at the manufacturing facility, vendor stocks, material/product tracking, distribution and shipping management to thereby reduce inventory at all points in the product manufacturing, distribution/delivery chain. The system is implemented using a preferably Web enabled information network and data communications with a programmer. The programmer provides access to product information, specification and related data for implanted medical devices from which build-to-order and build-to-replenish commands are issued to the manufacturing center. The system is interactive within the consumption management system that is integrally and seamlessly connected with patients, hospitals, sales offices and related information hubs including manufacturing facilities. The invention enables management of inventory levels of medical devices through the interactive information management system by accurately accounting for inventory stored in sales offices, distributors and sales representatives, as well as implanting institutions to ensure that all centers have appropriate and adequate stock that is replaced on just-in-time basis under the build-to-replenish scheme.

MCMENIMEN James L.; CAMPBELL Christopher J.; RUBLE Barbara K.; FABIAN Willa M.; CLARK Larry G.; THOMPSON David L.

409

Photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes subcontracted research by the Chronar Corporation, prepared by Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc. (APS) for Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Development project. Amorphous silicon is chosen as the PV technology that Chronar Corporation and APS believe offers the greatest potential for manufacturing improvements, which, in turn, will result in significant cost reductions and performance improvements in photovoltaic products. The APS Eureka'' facility was chosen as the manufacturing system that can offer the possibility of achieving these production enhancements. The relationship of the Eureka'' facility to Chronar's batch'' plants is discussed. Five key areas are also identified that could meet the objectives of manufacturing potential that could lead to improved performance, reduced manufacturing costs, and significantly increased production. The projected long-term potential benefits of these areas are discussed, as well as problems that may impede the achievement of the hoped-for developments. A significant number of the problems discussed are of a generic nature and could be of general interest to the industry. The final section of this document addresses the cost and time estimates for achieving the solutions to the problems discussed earlier. Emphasis is placed on the number, type, and cost of the human resources required for the project.

1992-10-01

410

Numerical implementation of constitutive material law for simulating the kinkband formation in fiber composites  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Finite element models with a constitutive material behavior that represents the non-linear response of fiber composites are used to simulate the compressive failure mechanism i.e. kinkband formation. A constitutive material law in framework of micromechanical modeling containing comprehensive constitutive equations for the constituent materials is adopted to model the non-linear behavior of the unidirectional layered materials. This material law is implemented as UMAT user subroutine in ABAQUS/Standard to study kinkband formation. The methodology provides a procedure to investigate the kinkband formation due to fiber misalignment for various complex structures having voids and material discontinuities that occur normally during the manufacture of these unidirectional fiber composites.

Veluri, Badrinath; Jensen, Henrik Myhre

2011-01-01

411

Microlens for coupling a semiconductor laser to a single-mode fiber  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simple conical microlenses are fabricated on the end of a vapor-axial-deposition single-mode fiber to increase the coupling efficiency between the laser diode and the single-mode fiber. The lowest coupling loss, 3 dB, has been achieved by using a 1.3-..mu..m InGaAsP buried-heterostructure laser diode and a single-mode fiber. Experimental results on coupling efficiency and the loss penalty due to lateral misalignment are also reported. This conical lens is easy to manufacture and reproduce.

Ghafoori-shiraz, H.; Asano, T.

1986-08-01

412

Broadband photonic crystal fiber coupler with polarization selection of coupling ratio  

Science.gov (United States)

In the paper a new broadband photonic crystal fiber coupler is presented. The proper application of the biconical taper technology has been used for manufacturing the coupler without air holes collapse in LMA10 fiber (NKT Photonics Crystal). This coupler, operates in the weakly coupling condition, protects coupling operation in range from 900 nm to 1700 nm. The coupling ratio between output arms is depending on wavelength and can be tuning by selection the proper input state of polarization. It gives opportunity to use the broadband crystal fiber coupler in many applications in which it is necessary to tune a coupling between output arms during the measurement.

Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.; Stasiewicz, Karol A.; Mar?, Pawe?; Szyma?ski, Micha?

2010-09-01

413

Ply-based Optimization of Laminated Composite Shell Structures under Manufacturing Constraints  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This work concerns a new ply-based parameterization for performing simultaneous material selection and topology optimization of fiber reinforced laminated composite structures while ensuring that a series of different manufacturing constraints are fulfilled. The material selection can either be performed on the basis of different materials, and/or consist of discrete selection of the same orthotropic material with different orientations of the fibers. The problem considered is the optimization of a general laminated composite shell structure with respect to maximum stiffness (minimum compliance) with an additional constraint on the maximum allowable amount mass.

SØrensen, Rene; Lund, Erik

2012-01-01

414

Towards Measuring Investment in Flexible Foundry Manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manufacturing flexibility is an important instrument to ensure the success of manufacturing systems in the modern day competitive and uncertain environment. The major hindrance in integrating flexibility into decision making process is that it is difficult to measure and be compared to future indefinable manufacturing scenarios. This paper presents a methodical concept utilizing real options to evaluate flexible foundry manufacturing system.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-01-01

415

Carbon fiber electrometer for dosimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electrometer for conventional pocket radiation dosimeters is disclosed in which the moving element of the electrometer is a carbon fiber. The fiber is spun from polyacrylonitrile homopolymer yarn and has a diameter of approximately 7 microns before carbonization. The polyacrylonitrile homopolymer fiber is conventionally preoxidized at approximately 2700C before conventional carbonization at approximately 12000C. The resulting working fiber has a round cross sectional diameter of approximately 4 microns and a modulus of elasticity of approximately 15,000,000 psi. The fiber is mounted in a conventionally loop shaped electrometer frame by crimping the ends of the fiber into tabs on the frame. 2 claims, 5 figures

1976-01-01

416

Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

Lyons, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM); Looney, Larry D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01

417

Low-cost automated fiber pigtailing machine. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this 2-year ARPA-funded project was to design and build 3 low-cost machines to perform sub-micron alignment and attachments of single-mode fibers to different OE devices. These Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machines (AFPMs) are intended to be compatible with a manufacturing environment and have a modular design for maximum flexibility and standardization of parts. Machine vision enables the AFPM to perform sufficient alignment to couple light for maximization. This work was a collaboration among Uniphase Telecommunications Products (formerly United Technologies Photonics, UTP), Ortel, Newport/Klinger, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Manufacturing Institute (MIT), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). UTP and Ortel are the industrial partners for whom two of the AFPMs were built. MIT and LLNL made up the design and assembly team of the project, while Newport/Klinger was a potential manufacturer of the AFPM and provided guidance to ensure that the design of the AFPM is marketable and compatible with a manufacturing environment. The AFPM for UTP pigtails LiNbO{sub 3} waveguide devices and the AFPM for Ortel pigtails photodiodes. Both of these machines contain proprietary information, so the third AFPM, residing at LLNL, pigtails a non-proprietary waveguide device for demonstrations to US industry and further development.

Strand, O.T.

1996-01-01

418

Multibeam fiber laser cutting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber-laser cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single mode fiber laser power. Burr free cuts in 1 mm steel and aluminum and in 1 and 2 mm AISI 304 stainless steel is demonstrated over a wide range of cutting rates. The industrial realization of this approach is foreseen to be performed by either beam patterning by diffractive optical elements or multibeam fiber laser arrangements. (C) 2009 Laser Institute of America.

Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt

2009-01-01

419

Manufacture technology of instant trepang  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a manufacture technology of an instant food, in particular to a manufacture technology of instant trepangs. The manufacture technology is realized by the steps of raw material preprocessing, water boiling, salt soaking, draining, freezing, selection, packaging, and the like. The invention has the effects that fresh trepangs processed by a rapid freezing technique have the following advantages that: the original taste of the trepangs is greatly retained the original nutritive value of the trepangs can be well preserved the trepangs are hygienic and safe and are rapidly frozen and stored under a low-temperature condition, and bacteria causing deterioration or food poisoning can not grow, so that any preservative is not needed, and the sanitation and the safety of the trepangs can be ensured the trepangs are convenient and fast to eat, can be eaten after opening bags and the heating, and does not need to be cleaned again.

LEI ZHAO

420

MANUFACTURING METHOD FOR BIO METHAN  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for manufacturing a bio methane is provided to produce organic ingredient without complex facilities and massively obtain methane fermented bacteria. A method for manufacturing a bio methane comprises: a step of producing an organic ingredient to organic acid which is food source of methane fermentation bacteria and a step of mixing the organic acid and methane fermentation bacteria in