Sample records for kapok fiber manufactured

  1. Development Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Kapok Fiber Absorbent Using Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrophobic characteristic of kapok fibers was changed to hydrophilic property after NaClO2, treatments which is able to break all phenolic units especially lignin. After NaClO2 treatment, NaIO4, applied to kapok fibers for opening hexagonal polysaccharide structure, this step led to produce carbonyl groups(>C=O) on kapok fibers. In the final step, NaClO2, treatments were performed again to provide carboxyl groups(-COOH) on kapok fibers. In addition, kapok fibers after all chemical treatments were retained hollow structure which was observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Kapok fibers which were obtained after chemical treatments would be a good heavy metal absorbent when these fibers applied less than in 10 mg/L standard solution. Moreover, these fibers were not detached heavy metals even added physical forces and used kapok fibers are able to reuse after detached heavy metals under pH 2-3. The degree of grafting increased as the irradiation dose increased, and are in the range 32% to 250% when the concentration of glycidyl methacrylate monomer was 50 vol. %. Based on this result, various functional groups are possible to be attached on kapok fibers used by radiation grafting technique

  2. Development Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Kapok Fiber Absorbent Using Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Nho, Young Chang; Kang, Phil Hyun; Baek, Myung Hwa


    The hydrophobic characteristic of kapok fibers was changed to hydrophilic property after NaClO2, treatments which is able to break all phenolic units especially lignin. After NaClO2 treatment, NaIO4, applied to kapok fibers for opening hexagonal polysaccharide structure, this step led to produce carbonyl groups(>C=O) on kapok fibers. In the final step, NaClO2, treatments were performed again to provide carboxyl groups(-COOH) on kapok fibers. In addition, kapok fibers after all chemical treatments were retained hollow structure which was observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Kapok fibers which were obtained after chemical treatments would be a good heavy metal absorbent when these fibers applied less than in 10 mg/L standard solution. Moreover, these fibers were not detached heavy metals even added physical forces and used kapok fibers are able to reuse after detached heavy metals under pH 2-3. The degree of grafting increased as the irradiation dose increased, and are in the range 32% to 250% when the concentration of glycidyl methacrylate monomer was 50 vol. %. Based on this result, various functional groups are possible to be attached on kapok fibers used by radiation grafting technique.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somporn Chaiarrekij,


    Full Text Available The potential use of kapok fiber for pulping and papermaking has been investigated. The kapok fibers were cooked using the optimal dosage of sodium hydroxide determined from the experiments. Then, the pulp was refined with two passes using a disc refiner and mixed with commercial hardwood pulp and/or softwood pulp at different blend ratios to make papers. It was found that addition of the kapok pulp to the mixed pulps improved the tensile and burst strengths of the sheets but decreased the tear resistance and elongation. Water repellency of the sheets prepared from the kapok pulp mixed with the commercial pulps was also improved. These results indicate that kapok fiber can be a quality pulp source for papermaking, especially for packaging paper requiring strength and water repellency.

  4. Coated kapok fiber for removal of spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A low-cost and biodegradable oil absorbent based on kapok fiber was prepared. ? The polymer-coated kapok fiber showed higher oil sorption capacity. ? Coated kapok fiber can be reused and the absorbed oil can be easily recovered. ? Adsorption of oil is spontaneous and exothermic physisorption and chemisorption. -- Abstract: Based on raw kapok fiber, two kinds of oil absorbers with high sorption capacity were prepared by a facile solution–immersion process. The coated polymer with low surface energy and rough fiber surface play important role in the retention of oil. The as-prepared fiber can quickly absorb gasoline, diesel, soybean oil, and paraffin oil up to above 74.5%, 66.8%, 64.4% and 47.8% of oil sorption capacity of raw fiber, respectively. The absorbed oils can be easily recovered by a simple vacuum filtration and the recovered coated-fiber still can be used for several cycles without obvious loss in oil sorption capacity. The thermodynamic study indicates that the adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic, with complex physisorption and chemisorption. The results suggest that the coated fiber can be used as a low-cost alternative for the removal of oil spilled on water surface

  5. Adsorption and adhesiveness of kapok fiber to different oils. (United States)

    Dong, Ting; Xu, Guangbiao; Wang, Fumei


    Adsorption and adhesiveness of single kapok to various oils, such as diesel, vegetable oil, used motor oil and motor oil were quantitatively evaluated by size and adhesive energy distribution of adsorbed oil droplets on fiber via drop-on-fiber micro-sorption experiments based on Carroll's theory of droplet morphology. Meanwhile, another micro polyester fiber was investigated as comparison. It was found that kapok fibers exihibited low surface energy of 40.64mN/m with highly hydrophobicity and oil wettability. It had high water contact angle up to 151°, adsorbing four oils with average droplet size varying from emulsified state(0.1-25?m) to dispersed state (25-100?m). The average adhesive energies of kapok to four oils were 3.78×10(-11)-9.40×10(-11)J, with the highest for vegetable oil. Compared with kapok, polyester fiber adsorbed a large number of smaller oil droplets with their average size within emulsified state for its large specific surface area contributed by micro-fine of the fiber, but showed bad adhesiveness to retain the adsorbed oils with average droplet adhesive energy among 1.49×10(-11)-2.27×10(-11)J due to its relative higher surface energy of 59.15mN/m. It is more suitable to be used as filter for secondary fine filtration under low inflow rate. PMID:25913676

  6. Effect of jute and kapok fibers on properties of thermoplastic cassava starch composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? TPCS matrix was reinforced by the low (jute) and high (kapok) absorbency cellulosic fibers. ? Water absorption of the TPCS/jute and TPCS/kapok fiber composites decreases. ? Stress and Young’s modulus of the TPCS/jute and TPCS/kapok fiber composites increase. ? Thermal degradation temperature of the TPCS/kapok fiber composite decreases. - Abstract: Since mechanical properties and water uptake of biodegradable thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS) was still the main disadvantages for many applications. The TPCS matrix was, therefore, reinforced by two types of cellulosic fibers, i.e. jute or kapok fibers; classified as the low and high oil absorbency characteristics, respectively. The TPCS, plasticized by glycerol, was compounded by internal mixer and shaped by compression molding machine. It was found that water absorption of the TPCS/jute fiber and TPCS/kapok fiber composites was clearly reduced by the addition of the cellulosic fibers. Moreover, stress at maximum load and Young’s modulus of the composites increased significantly by the incorporation of both jute and kapok fibers. Thermal degradation temperature, determined from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), of the TPCS matrix increased by the addition of jute fibers; however, thermal degradation temperature decreased by the addition of kapok fibers. Functional group analysis and morphology of the TPCS/jute fiber and TPCS/kapok fiber composites were also examined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques

  7. Study of oil sorption behavior of filled and structured fiber assemblies made from polypropylene, kapok and milkweed fibers. (United States)

    Rengasamy, R S; Das, Dipayan; Karan, C Praba


    This article reports on oil sorption behavior of fiber assemblies made up of single natural and synthetic fibers as well as blend of natural and synthetic fibers when tested with high density oil and diesel oil. A series of filled fiber assemblies were prepared from 100% polypropylene, kapok, and milkweed fibers and another series of bonded structured fiber assemblies were prepared from a 70/30 blend of kapok and polypropylene fibers and a 70/30 blend of milkweed and polypropylene fibers. It was observed that the porosity of the fiber assemblies played a very important role in determining its oil sorption capacity. The polypropylene fiber assembly exhibited the highest sorption capacity (g/g) followed by the kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies at porosity milkweed fibers have intra fiber porosities of 0.81 and 0.83, respectively. All the fiber assemblies showed higher oil sorption capacity with the high density oil as compared to the diesel oil. As the kapok and milkweed fiber have low cellulose content, hence their slow degradation is an advantage in fresh and marine water applications. The good sorption capacity of kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies along with their bio-degradable nature offer great scope for structuring them into fiber assemblies with large porosity and uniform pores to have efficient oil sorbents. PMID:21146290

  8. [Kapok capsule formation and fiber development process in Yuanjiang dry-hot valley]. (United States)

    Zhao, Gao-juan; Ge, Luan; Ma, Huan-cheng; Yang, Jian-jun; Huang, Dong; Ping, Pan


    This study explored the capsule formation and fiber development process of kapok which is a tree in Yuanjiang dry-hot valleys (DHV) using the methods of paraffin section and scanning electron microscopy. The result showed that formation process of kapok capsule can be divided into four stages: the capsule formation within 5 days after anthesis (DAA), the capsule mass period from 5 to 35 DAA, the capsule dehydration period from 35 to 50 DAA, and the capsule bursting period after 50 DAA. The kapok fiber was developed via endocarp cells differentiation (0-2 DAA), swelling (2-5 DAA), bulging (5-10 DAA), fiber elongating (10-40 DAA), and divorcing from pericarp (40-50 DAA). During the development, the length and projection width of fiber increased as a power function, and their daily average growth rates reached .the maximums at 20 DAA. Fiber fresh mass substantially increased and then reduced, and the daily average growth rate reached the maximum in the period from 25 to 30 DAA. Fiber dry mass gradually increased and reached the maximum growth rate in the period from 20 to 25 DAA. The seed and fiber continually increased their mass after 30 DAA, but the pericarp mass declined with its dehydration and aging. Compared with cotton, it was easy to separate fiber from kapok capsule inner wall because of small adhesion power between kapok fiber and capsule inner wall. The period from 5 to 35 DAA was critical for the fiber development and growth. Therefore, water and fertilizer management should be concentrated at this stage. The capsule should be harvested at 50 DAA because the fiber began to divorce from the pericarp. PMID:25876393

  9. Modelling fiber drawing: Capillary manufacture


    Fitt, AD; PLEASE, CP; Furusawa, K.; Monro, TM


    Fiber drawing for capillary manufacture was presented. Microstructured fibers were produced by drawing a macroscopic preform into fiber using a drawing tower. The degree of hole closure was controlled by introducing a pressure difference between air inside and outside the capillary.

  10. Manufactured Textile Fibers (United States)

    Gupta, Bhupender S.

    The first conversion of naturally occurring fibers into threads strong enough to be looped into snares, knit to form nets, or woven into fabrics is lost in prehistory. Unlike stone weapons, such threads, cords, and fabrics—being organic in nature—have in most part disappeared, although in some dry caves traces remain. There is ample evidence to indicate that spindles used to assist in the twisting of fibers together had been developed long before the dawn of recorded history. In that spinning process, fibers such as wool were drawn out of a loose mass, perhaps held in a distaff, and made parallel by human fingers. (A maidservant so spins in Giotto's The Annunciation to Anne, ca. A.D. 1306, Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy.1) A rod (spindle), hooked to the lengthening thread, was rotated so that the fibers while so held were twisted together to form additional thread. The finished length then was wound by hand around the spindle, which, in becoming the core on which the finished product was accumulated, served the dual role of twisting and storing, and, in so doing, established a principle still in use today.

  11. Manufacturing of Smart Structures Using Fiber Placement Manufacturing Processes (United States)

    Thomas, Matthew M.; Glowasky, Robert A.; McIlroy, Bruce E.; Story, Todd A.


    Smart structures research and development, with the ultimate aim of rapid commercial and military production of these structures, are at the forefront of the Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost-Effective Structures (SPICES) program. As part of this ARPA-sponsored program, MDA-E is using fiber placement processes to manufacture integrated smart structure systems. These systems comprise advanced composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensors, shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators, and miniature accelerometers. Cost-effective approaches and solutions to smart material synthesis in the fiber-placement process, based upon integrated product development, are discussed herein.

  12. Carbon fiber manufacturing via plasma technology (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix L. (Knoxville, TN); Yarborough, Kenneth D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)


    The disclosed invention introduces a novel method of manufacturing carbon and/or graphite fibers that avoids the high costs associated with conventional carbonization processes. The method of the present invention avoids these costs by utilizing plasma technology in connection with electromagnetic radiation to produce carbon and/or graphite fibers from fully or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors. In general, the stabilized or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors are placed under slight tension, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, and carbonized using a plasma and electromagnetic radiation having a power input which is increased as the fibers become more carbonized and progress towards a final carbon or graphite product. In an additional step, the final carbon or graphite product may be surface treated with an oxygen-plasma treatment to enhance adhesion to matrix materials.

  13. Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders (United States)

    Tan, Seng; Zhou, Jian-guo


    Pitch-based nanocomposite carbon fibers were prepared with various percentages of carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and the fibers were used for manufacturing composite structures. Experimental results show that these nanocomposite carbon fibers exhibit improved structural and electrical conductivity properties as compared to unreinforced carbon fibers. Composite panels fabricated from these nanocomposite carbon fibers and an epoxy system also show the same properties transformed from the fibers. Single-fiber testing per ASTM C1557 standard indicates that the nanocomposite carbon fiber has a tensile modulus of 110% higher, and a tensile strength 17.7% times higher, than the conventional carbon fiber manufactured from pitch. Also, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber carbonized at 900 C was reduced from 4.8 to 2.2 ohm/cm. The manufacturing of the nanocomposite carbon fiber was based on an extrusion, non-solvent process. The precursor fibers were then carbonized and graphitized. The resultant fibers are continuous.

  14. Effects of the Composition and the Preparation Methods on Oil Sorption Capacity of Recycled Rayon Waste-Kapok Mixtures (RRWK Sorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutha Khaodhiar


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the utilization of a recycled rayon waste-kapok mixtures as an oil sorbent for the removal of diesel, motor oil and bunker C. The effects of the kapok fibers: rayon fibers ratio and the additional of sodium sulfate on RRWK sorbents properties were investigated through series of oil sorption tests. The ASTM 726-06 method was used to determine the oil sorption capacity of the sorbents under both static and dynamic conditions. The results showed the high sorption capacity of the recycled rayon waste-kapok mixture for difference kinds of oil. Oil, which has a high viscosity, tends to have a higher oil sorption ratio. RRWK sorbents had higher oil sorption capacity than commercial polypropylene. The presence of kapok fibers in RRWK increases the hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of the sorbents while the presence of rayon fibers improves the strength of the sorbents. The additional of sodium sulfate during sorbent preparation increases the surface area and pore size of RRWK sorbent and thus improves the oil sorption capacity. It can be concluded that RRWK, which can be produced by utilizing industrial waste, is effective low cost, environmentally friendly oil sorbent with comparable performance to commercial products.

  15. 16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers. (United States)


    ...description of the fiber. (d) Rayon —A manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose, as well as manufactured fibers composed of regenerated cellulose in which substituents have replaced not more than 15% of the hydrogens of...

  16. Elaboration of the fiber optic image guide rods manufacturing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of the endoscope made by the use of a rigid fiber optic image guide rod have been presented. It has been worked out and manufactured the special optical glass with high contents of ZrO for the cores of the fiber optic rods 2 and multi rods. The consecutive technological operations of the ultrathin fiber optic image rods manufacturing have been developed. The lot of rods with 2 mm in diameter and 1000 mm in length has been manufactured. Their ability to high resolution image guiding has been investigated. The usefulness of the rods to design of the new generation of the needle fiber optic rod microendoscopes has been stated. (author). 12 refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Alternative use of deinking sludge as a source of fibers in fiber-cement manufacture


    Blanco Suárez, Ángeles; Negro Álvarez, Carlos Manuel; Fuente González, Elena de la; Sánchez, Luis Miguel


    The present paper, contributing to solving two different problems related both to the chemical industry and the environment, is a feasibility study on the utilization of the deinking sludge (the most important waste from papermaking) as a raw material for fiber-cement manufacture, in which asbestos has been recently replaced by other fibers because of the hazard it induces. The results obtained show that the use of deinking sludge as a source of cellulose in fiber-cement manufactu...

  18. Fiber-reinforced composites materials, manufacturing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, P K


    The newly expanded and revised edition of Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design presents the most up-to-date resource available on state-of-the-art composite materials. This book is unique in that it not only offers a current analysis of mechanics and properties, but also examines the latest advances in test methods, applications, manufacturing processes, and design aspects involving composites. This third edition presents thorough coverage of newly developed materials including nanocomposites. It also adds more emphasis on underlying theories, practical methods, and problem-solving skills employed in real-world applications of composite materials. Each chapter contains new examples drawn from diverse applications and additional problems to reinforce the practical relevance of key concepts. New in The Third Edition: Contains new sections on material substitution, cost analysis, nano- and natural fibers, fiber architecture, and carbon-carbon composites Provides a new chapter on poly...

  19. New Manufacturing Method for Paper filler and Fiber Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelle, Klaus


    The study compares commercial available filler products with a new developed â??Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Materialâ? and how main structural, optical and strength properties are affected by increasing the filler content of at least 5% over commercial values. The study consists of: (i) an overview of paper filler materials used in the paper production process, (ii) discusses the manufacturing technology of lime based filler materials for paper applications, (iii) gives an overview of new emerging paper filler technologies, (iv) discusses a filler evaluation of commercial available digital printing paper products, (v) reports from a detailed handsheet study and 12â? pilot plant paper machine trial runs with the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material, and (vi) evaluates and compares commercial filler products and the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material with a life cycle analyses that explains manufacturing, economic and environmental benefits as they are applied to uncoated digital printing papers.

  20. Effect of epoxy coatings on carbon fibers during manufacture of carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in oxygen and nitrogen during manufacture of the carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composites were measured using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. The effects of the change in oxygen and nitrogen on the strength of the carbon fibers were investigated and the results revealed that the change of the tensile strength with increasing heat curing temperature was attributed to the change in the surface flaws of the carbon fibers because the carbon fibers are sensitive to the surface flaws. The effect of the surface energy that was calculated using Kaelble's method on the strength of the carbon fibers was investigated. Furthermore, the surface roughness of the carbon fibers was measured using atom force microscopy. The change trend of roughness was reverse to that of the strength, which was because of the brittle fracture of the carbon fibers.

  1. 16 CFR 303.33 - Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured. (United States)


    ...2010-01-01 false Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.33 Country where textile fiber products are processed or...

  2. Short fiber-reinforced cementitious composites manufactured by extrusion technology (United States)

    Mu, Bin

    The use of short fibers in the cement-based composites is more preferable due to the simplicity and economic nature in fabrication. The short fiber-reinforced cementitious composite (SFRCC) manufactured by the extrusion method show a great improvement in both strength and toughness as compared to the fiber-reinforced composites made by traditional casting methods. This improvement can be attributed to the achievement of low porosity and good interfacial bond in SFRCC under high shear and compressive stress during the extrusion process. In the present study, products of cylinders, sheets, pipes and honeycomb panels incorporating various mineral admixtures such as slag, silica fume, and metakaolin have been manufactured by the extrusion technology. Two kinds of short fibers, ductile polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers and stronger but less ductile glass fibers, were used as the reinforcement in the products. After the specimens were extruded, tension, bending and impact tests were performed to study the mechanical properties of these products. The rheology test was performed for each mix to determine its viscoelastic properties. In addition, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) technology were employed to get an insight view of the mechanism. A freezing and thawing experiment (ASTM C666) was also carried to investigate the durability of the specimens. Based on these experimental results, the reinforcing behaviors of these two short fibers were investigated. The enhancing effects of silica fume and metakaolin on the extrudates were compared and discussed. Finally, the optimum amount of silica fume and slag was proposed. Since the key point for a successful extrusion is the properly designed rheology which controls both internal and external flow properties of extrudate, a nonlinear viscoelastic model was applied to investigate the rheological behavior of a movable fresh cementitious composite in an extruder channel. The velocity profile of the fresh cementitious composite and the relationship between pressure gradients and flow volume rates were obtained by the finite difference method. The hardened short fiber-reinforced extrudates were then studied by a micromechanics model based on the energy dissipation approach. The overall tension behaviors were predicted and the strain hardening response was discussed.

  3. Experimental investigation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil biodiesel as an alternate fuel for diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Kapok (C. pentandra) oil, an indigenous source, has been used to synthesis biodiesel. • A different method has been availed to extract oil from the kapok seeds. • Kapok methyl ester (KME) is tested for the first time in a diesel engine. • Brake thermal efficiency for B25 blend of KME is noticed to be 4% higher than diesel. • Combustion and emission results for B25 blend of KME are almost comparable to diesel. - Abstract: This manuscript explores the possibility of using kapok oil as a source for biodiesel production and experimentally investigate it, KME (kapok oil methyl ester), as a diesel engine fuel. Distinctly, this manuscript is novel on the basis of adopting a different approach in extracting oil from kapok seeds and testing of the produced KME in a diesel engine, perhaps for the first time. Accordingly, kapok oil, an indigenous source, has been extracted from kapok seeds through steam treatment process followed by crushing in an expeller, which has not been considered so far by researchers. Significantly, this method is chosen with the intent to extract oil for its use in diesel engine. Typically, KME is synthesized by trans-esterification process, and the properties of it, evaluated by ASTM standard methods, are in concordance with biodiesel standards. Having ensured the feasibility of its use in diesel engine, KME is tested in a single cylinder diesel engine to appraise the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the engine. The experimental investigation reveals that the thermal efficiency of the engine for B25 is superior to conventional diesel by 4%. In the same token, the emission and combustion results of lower blend of KME (B25), showed comparable results with diesel, making KME as one of the pertinent fuel for diesel engine

  4. Manufacturing of robust natural fiber preforms utilizing bacterial cellulose as binder. (United States)

    Lee, Koon-Yang; Shamsuddin, Siti Rosminah; Fortea-Verdejo, Marta; Bismarck, Alexander


    A novel method of manufacturing rigid and robust natural fiber preforms is presented here. This method is based on a papermaking process, whereby loose and short sisal fibers are dispersed into a water suspension containing bacterial cellulose. The fiber and nanocellulose suspension is then filtered (using vacuum or gravity) and the wet filter cake pressed to squeeze out any excess water, followed by a drying step. This will result in the hornification of the bacterial cellulose network, holding the loose natural fibers together. Our method is specially suited for the manufacturing of rigid and robust preforms of hydrophilic fibers. The porous and hydrophilic nature of such fibers results in significant water uptake, drawing in the bacterial cellulose dispersed in the suspension. The bacterial cellulose will then be filtered against the surface of these fibers, forming a bacterial cellulose coating. When the loose fiber-bacterial cellulose suspension is filtered and dried, the adjacent bacterial cellulose forms a network and hornified to hold the otherwise loose fibers together. The introduction of bacterial cellulose into the preform resulted in a significant increase of the mechanical properties of the fiber preforms. This can be attributed to the high stiffness and strength of the bacterial cellulose network. With this preform, renewable high performance hierarchical composites can also be manufactured by using conventional composite production methods, such as resin film infusion (RFI) or resin transfer molding (RTM). Here, we also describe the manufacturing of renewable hierarchical composites using double bag vacuum assisted resin infusion. PMID:24893649

  5. Strength degradation of SiC fiber during manufacture of titanium matrix composites by plasma spraying and hot pressing (United States)

    Baik, K. H.; Grant, P. S.


    Titanium matrix composites (TMCs) reinforced with Sigma 1140+ SiC fiber have been manufactured by a combination of low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS spray/wind) and simultaneous fiber winding, followed by vacuum hot pressing (VHP). Fiber damage during TMC manufacture has been evaluated by measuring fiber tensile strength after fiber extraction from the TMCs at various processing stages, followed by fitting of these data to a Weibull distribution function. The LPPS spray/wind processing caused a decrease in mean fiber strength and Weibull modulus in comparison with as-received fibers. A number of fiber surface flaws, primarily in the outer C layer of the fiber, formed as a result of mechanical impact of poorly melted particles from the plasma spray. Coarse feedstock powders promoted an increase in the population of fiber surface flaws, leading to significant reduction in fiber strength. The VHP consolidation promoted further development of fiber surface flaws by fiber bending and stress localization because of nonuniform matrix shrinkage, resulting in further degradation in fiber strength. In the extreme case of fibers touching, the stress concentration on the fibers was sufficient to cause fiber cracking. Fractographic studies revealed that low strength fibers failed by surface flaw induced failure and contained a large fracture mirror zone. Compared with the more widely investigated foil-fiber-foil route to manufacture TMCs, LPPS/VHP resulted in less degradation in fiber strength for Sigma 1140+ fiber. Preliminary results for Textron SCS-6 fiber indicated a much greater tolerance to LPPS/VHP damage.

  6. Strength degradation of SiC fiber during manufacture of titanium matrix composites by plasma spraying and hot pressing


    Baik, Kh; Grant, Ps


    Titanium matrix composites (TMCs) reinforced with Sigma 1140+ SiC fiber have been manufactured by a combination of low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS spray/wind) and simultaneous fiber winding, followed by vacuum hot pressing (VHP). Fiber damage during TMC manufacture has been evaluated by measuring fiber tensile strength after fiber extraction from the TMCs at various processing stages, followed by fitting of these data to a Weibull distribution function. The LPPS spray/wind processing cause...

  7. Manufacturing Of Robust Natural Fiber Preforms Utilizing Bacterial Cellulose as Binder


    Lee, Koon-yang; Shamsuddin, Siti Rosminah; Fortea-verdejo, Marta; Bismarck, Alexander


    A novel method of manufacturing rigid and robust natural fiber preforms is presented here. This method is based on a papermaking process, whereby loose and short sisal fibers are dispersed into a water suspension containing bacterial cellulose. The fiber and nanocellulose suspension is then filtered (using vacuum or gravity) and the wet filter cake pressed to squeeze out any excess water, followed by a drying step. This will result in the hornification of the bacterial cellulose network, hold...

  8. New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelle, Klaus [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry


    The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections. and it is important to understand the effect that new manufacturing methods of calcium carbonates have on the energy efficiency and paper production. Research conducted under this award showed that the new fiber filler composite material has the potential to increase the paper filler content by up to 5% without losing mechanical properties. Benefits of the technology can be summarized as follows for a 1% filler increase per metric ton of paper produced: (i) production cost savings over $12, (ii) Energy savings of 100,900 btu, (iii) CO{sub 2} emission savings of 33 lbs, and additional savings for wood preparation, pulping, recovery of 203593 btu with a 46lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per 1% filler increase. In addition the technology has the potential to save: (i) additional $3 per ton of bleached pulp produced, (ii) bleaching energy savings of 170,000 btu, (iii) bleaching CO{sub 2} emission savings of 39 lbs, and (iv) additional savings for replacing conventional bleaching chemicals with a sustainable bleaching chemical is estimated to be 900,000 btu with a 205 lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per ton of bleached pulp produced. All the above translates to a estimated annual savings for a 12% filler increase of 296 trillion buts? or 51 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) or 13.7% of the industries energy demand. This can lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 70% for the industry sector. CO{sub 2} emission of the industry at a 12% filler increase could be lowered by over 39 million tons annually. If the new technology could be implemented for bleaching process a total annual estimated energy savings potential of 64 trillion buts? or 11 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) equal to 3% of the paper industries energy demand could be realized. This could lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 60% for the industry. CO{sub 2} emissions could be lowered by over 7.4 million tons annually. It is estimated that an installed system could also yield a 75 to 100% return of investment (ROI) rate for the capital equipment that need to be installed for the fiber filler composite manufacturing process.

  9. Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex (United States)

    Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.


    Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

  10. Manufacturing study of nano-enhanced fiber reinforced polymeric composites (FRPCs) (United States)

    Hioe, Yunior

    Nano particles have shown the potential to improve the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced polymeric composites (FRPCs). Premixing nano particulate into the resin is a common approach to add nano particles into FRPC. However, well dispersed nanoparticles will greatly increase the resin viscosity and filtering of the nano particles is difficult to avoid. To solve these problems, a new method to pre-bind the nanoparticles onto the long fibers has been developed by our research group. To better understand the manufacturability of this new technique, processing study in the form of reinforcing fiber's compressibility and permeability of the porous medium has been studied.

  11. Review of factors affecting the release of water from cellulosic fibers during paper manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Heitmann


    Full Text Available The ease with which water is released from cellulosic fiber material during the manufacturing of paper can affect both the production rate and the consumption of energy during the manufacturing process. Important theoretical contributions to dewatering phenomena have been based on flow through packed beds of uniformly distributed fibers. Such descriptions are able to explain why resistance to dewatering increases as a function of the hydrodynamic surface area of fibers. More recent studies have demonstrated a critical role of finely divided matter. If the fines are unattached to fibers, then they tend to move freely through the fiber mat and plug channels in the paper web during the dewatering process. Dewatering also is affected by the deformability of cellulosic fibers and by whether the fibers easily slide past each other, thereby forming a dense mat. By emphasizing the role of fine matter, colloidal forces, and conformability of cellulosic materials, one can gain a more realistic understanding of strategies that papermakers use to enhance initial drainage and vacuum-induced dewatering.

  12. Highly Aligned Carbon Fiber in Polymer Composite Structures via Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio M [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL


    Additive manufacturing, diverging from traditional manufacturing techniques, such as casting and machining materials, can handle complex shapes with great design flexibility without the typical waste. Although this technique has been mainly used for rapid prototyping, interest is growing in using this method to directly manufacture actual parts of complex shape. To use 3D-printing additive manufacturing in wide spread applications, the technique and the feedstock materials require improvements to meet the mechanical requirements of load-bearing components. Thus, we investigated the short fiber (0.2 mm to 0.4 mm) reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites as a feedstock for 3D-printing in terms of their processibility, microstructure and mechanical performance; and also provided comparison with traditional compression molded composites. The tensile strength and modulus of 3D-printed samples increased ~115% and ~700%, respectively. 3D-printer yielded samples with very high fiber orientation in printing direction (up to 91.5 %), whereas, compression molding process yielded samples with significantly less fiber orientation. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships revealed that although the relatively high porosity is observed in the 3D-printed composites as compared to those produced by the conventional compression molding technique, they both exhibited comparable tensile strength and modulus. This phenomena is explained based on the changes in fiber orientation, dispersion and void formation.

  13. Studies on radiation resistance of fiber reinforced plastic composites featured by easiness of manufacturing, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation behavior of fiber reinforced plastic(FRP) composite materials manufactured by conventional lamination technology was studied by measuring various mechanical properties after irradiation and observing fracture surfaces by scanning electron microscopy. When bisphenol-A type epoxy was used as matrix material, the laminated composites degraded rapidly. This fact was ascribed to poor radiation resistance of the matrix resin. The radiation resistance varied depending on types of hardeners. Diaminodiphenylmethane(DDM) gave radiation resistance higher than diaminodiphenylsulfone(DDS). The dose that produced an incipient decrease in mechanical properties(threshold dose) was larger in case of carbon fiber reinforcement than glass fiber reinforcement. For example, the threshold dose was about 10 MGy in case of glass fiber reinforcement with epoxy matrix hardened by DDS, and about 30 MGy when hardened by DDM. While, it increased to about 60 MGy with the latter matrix when carbon fiber is used. From the results of scanning electron microscopic observation of fractured surfaces, the superior radiation resistance in case of carbon fiber reinforcement was found due to its stable bonding interface between fiber and matrix. When BT(bismaleimide-triazine) resin was used as matrix for glass fiber reinforcement, little influence of irradiation was observed in various mechanical properties at least up to 60 MGy, and three point flexural strength showed no change even up to 100 MGy. This stability was ascribed to the stability of both the matrix resin and the bonding interface. Interlaminar shear strength reflects radiation effects on FRP with highest sensitivity among various mechanical properties tested in this work. (author)

  14. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing and welding for 3D manufacturing (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Nie, Bai; Wan, Peng; Yang, Lih-Mei; Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian


    Due to the unique ultra-short pulse duration and high peak power, femtosecond (fs) laser has emerged as a powerful tool for many applications but has rarely been studied for 3D printing. In this paper, welding of both bulk and powder materials is demonstrated for the first time by using high energy and high repetition rate fs fiber lasers. It opens up new scenarios and opportunities for 3D printing with the following advantages - greater range of materials especially with high melting temperature, greater-than-ever level of precision (sub-micron) and less heat-affected-zone (HAZ). Mechanical properties (strength and hardness) and micro-structures (grain size) of the fabricated parts are investigated. For dissimilar materials bulk welding, good welding quality with over 210 MPa tensile strength is obtained. Also full melting of the micron-sized refractory powders with high melting temperature (above 3000 degree C) is achieved for the first time. 3D parts with shapes like ring and cube are fabricated. Not only does this study explore the feasibility of melting dissimilar and high melting temperature materials using fs lasers, but it also lays out a solid foundation for 3D printing of complex structure with designed compositions, microstructures and properties. This can greatly benefit the applications in automobile, aerospace and biomedical industries, by producing parts like nozzles, engines and miniaturized biomedical devices.

  15. Utilization of Non -oven Jute felt - A natural Fiber as a Substitution of Wood Veneer for Manufacture of Plywood


    Mr. S.C.Sahoo; Mr. Amitava Sil; Mr. P.K.Khatua


    In this study the suitability of using core veneer made from renewable natural fiber i.e. Non-oven jute felt, which is the second most widely used natural fiber for manufacturing of plywood was investigated to minimize the gap between demand and supply of wood veneer. The renewable natural hard jute fibre was impregnated with phenolic resin and was used for the manufacture of plywood. Plywood of 4 mm, 6 mm, 12 mm and 18 mm thick were manufactured by using phenolic resin impregnated jute felt ...

  16. Manufacturing scale-up of electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers containing tenofovir for vaginal drug delivery. (United States)

    Krogstad, Emily A; Woodrow, Kim A


    Electrospun fibers containing antiretroviral drugs have recently been investigated as a new dosage form for topical microbicides against HIV-1. However, little work has been done to evaluate the scalability of the fiber platform for pharmaceutical production of medical fabrics. Scalability and cost-effectiveness are essential criteria in developing fibers as a practical platform for use as a microbicide and for translation to clinical use. To address this critical gap in the development of fiber-based vaginal dosage forms, we assessed the scale-up potential of drug-eluting fibers delivering tenofovir (TFV), a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor and lead compound for topical HIV-1 chemoprophylaxis. Here we describe the process of free-surface electrospinning to scale up production of TFV fibers, and evaluate key attributes of the finished products such as fiber morphology, drug crystallinity, and drug loading and release kinetics. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing up to 60 wt% TFV was successfully electrospun into fibers using a nozzle-free production-scale electrospinning instrument. Actual TFV loading in fibers increased with increasing weight percent TFV in solution, and encapsulation efficiency was improved by maintaining TFV solubility and preventing drug sedimentation during batch processing. These results define important solution and processing parameters for scale-up production of TFV drug-eluting fibers by wire electrospinning, which may have significant implications for pharmaceutical manufacturing of fiber-based medical fabrics for clinical use. PMID:25169075

  17. Studies on radiation resistance of fiber reinforced plastic composites featured by easiness of manufacturing, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical properties of glass fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRP) irradiated at room temperature with electron beams were studied in order to characterize the radiation resistance. Mechanical properties were tested by flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) at room and low temperature, and flexural fatigue strength at room temperature. The GFRP used in the present study were manufactured trial with three kinds of epoxy matrices having excellent radiation resistance at room temperature and easiness of manufacturing. These composites prepared in selected curing condition were equipped with high flexural strength at low temperature, about two times at room temperature. GFRP composed of 4,4'-tetraglycidyl diamino diphenyl methane cured with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane showed the highest radiation resistance: the strength after irradiation up to 90 MGy were kept the initial value, that is, flexural strength of 1000 MPa at 77 K and ILSS of 70 MPa at 123 K. It was also confirmed that the flexural strength measured at 4.2 K were well agreed with the values tested at 77 K. On the effects of fiber-matrix bonding materials by using different kinds and/or amount of silane coupling agents, the pronounced difference were found in the degradation behavior but did not affect to the flexural strength of the GFRP. Flexural fatigue behavior showed rather well radiation degradation comparing with three point bending strength at room temperature. (author)


    Composite materials formed by impregnating a carbon or graphite fiber mat with plastic binders are being used increasingly in military, aerospace, sports and automotive applications. Carbon fibers are formed primarily from synthetic fibers carbonized in the absence of oxygen. Pos...

  19. Effect of Protected Kapok Seed Oil Supplementation on In Vitro Ruminal Lipid Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiyanto Widiyastuti


    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to study the influence of protected kapok seed oil (KSO supplementation on ruminal lipid status. Kapok seed oil (KSO, field grass (FG, Javanese Thin Tailed Sheep (JTTS sheep rumen fluid, were used as experimental material. There were two treatment factors, namely : KSO supplementation as factor I, and KSO protection (throughout formation of Ca- salt after lipolysis by KOH as factor II. Factor I consist of 4 supplementation levels, namely : 0% (S0; 5% (S1; 10% (S2, and 15% (S3, respectively, wheareas factor II consist of 5 protection levels, namely : 0% (P0; 25% (P1; 50% (P2; 75% (P3, and 100% (P4, repectivelly. Amount of 15 treatment combination were formed with control, namely without KSO supplementation and without protection (S0P0. The measured variables included : relative proportion of volatile fatty acids (VFAs, i.e. : acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. In addition, the iodine number (IN and relative proportion of long chain fatty acid (LCFA, i.e. : stearic acid and linoleic acid omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid were also measured. Collected data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance with factorial treatment pattern in completely randomized design. The result of this investigation showed that supplementation 10% or upper KSO without protection decreased asetis acid/propionic (A/P ratio. Ratio of A/P tend increased again with protected KSO supplementation, but on 10 and 15% supplementation levels still lower than control (1.47–2.99 vs 3.36. Protected KSO supplementation increased the relative proportion of linoleic acid and unsaturation rate of ruminal fatty acid (P<0,05 with the higher iodine number, a long with enhancing of supplementation level. Relative proportion of linoleic acid and iodine number (IN in S1P0, S2P0, S2P3, S2P4 and S3P4 treatment groups were : 17,65 and 10,32; 33,07% and 18,67; 42,29% and 41,95; 45,01% and 47,40; 45,17and 50,99%, respectively. (Animal Production 11(2: 122-128 (2009 Key Words: supplementation, kapok seed oil, ruminal lipid status

  20. Production Performance of Brahman Cross Steer Feed with Concentrate Containing Kapok Seed Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Soeprapto


    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the weight gain and meat physical quality of Brahman cross steer (BX fed with concentrate containing kapok seed meal (Ceiba pentandra. The research used 12 heads of two years age Brahman cross steer with body weight of 324 ± 11.29 kg. the steer were kept in individual barn and offered with concentrate containing three level of kapok seed meal. i.e: R1 (10%, R2 (20% and R3 (30%. A completely randomized design with four replications was employed. Elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum was fed along with concentrate in 20 : 80% ratio. A total amount of feed given to the cattle was 2.5 % of the body weight on the basis of dry matter and offered twice a day in the morning and the afternoon. Water was given ad libitum. Result showed that there was no significant different on daily gain and meat physical quality. Daily gain of R1, R2 and R3 was 0.73 kg, 0.84 kg, and 0.75 kg of respectively. There was significant different in carcass percentage i.e. 52.57, 50.84, and 48.58 for R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Physical quality of meat consisting of colour, pH, water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL and tenderness indicated non significant effect. The pH value of observed muscle in Longisinus dorsi (LD, semitendinosus (ST, and bicep femoris (BF, was 5.80 (R1 5.87(R2 and 5.81 (R3, meat colour score was 5.48 (R1, 5.58 (R2 and 5.59 (R3, water holding capacity % was 36.40 (R1, 39.66 (R2 and 34,09 (R3, and cooking loss (5 was 46.62, 44.17 and 46.19 for R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Result of meat tenderness (g/mm/second was 57.84 (R1, 56.05 (R2 and 59.41 (R3. In relation to price, feed consumption, and daily gain indicated that feed cost per gain was Rp. 2.991.50 (R1, Rp. 2.638.50 (R2, Rp. 2.965.25 (R3, and income over feed cost was Rp. 818.25 (R1, Rp. 1.238.95 (R2, and Rp. 855.80 (R3 respectively. The result showed that the use of 20% of Kapok Seed meal in concentrate (R2, although there was no significant effect, gives the most efficient result. (Animal Production 7(3: 189-193 (2005 Key Words : Brahman Cross Steer, Body Weight, Meat Quality, Kapok Seed Meal.

  1. Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K.G. Wirawan


    Full Text Available Availability of fossil fuels in the world decrease gradually due to excessive fuel exploitation. This situations push researcher to look for alternative fuels as a source of renewable energy, one of them is kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil. The aim this study was to know the behavior of laminar burning velocity, secondary Bunsen flame with open tip, cellular and triple flame. Premixed combustion of kapok seed oil was studied experimentally on perforated burner with equivalence ratio (? varied from 0.30 until 1.07. The results showed that combustion of glycerol requires a large amount of air so that laminar burning velocity (SL is the highest at very lean mixture (? =0.36 in the form of individual Bunsen flame on each of the perforated plate hole. Perforated and secondary Bunsen flame both reached maximum SL similar with that of ethanol and higher than that of hexadecane. Slight increase of ? decreases drastically SL of perforated and secondary Bunsen flame. When the mixture was enriched, secondary Bunsen and perforated flame disappears, and then the flame becomes Bunsen flame with open tip and triple flame (? = 0.62 to 1.07. Flame was getting stable until the mixture above the stoichiometry. Being isolated from ambient air, the SL of perforated flame, as well as secondary Bunsen flame, becomes equal with non-isolated flame. This shows the decreasing trend of laminar burning velocity while ? is increasing. When the mixture was enriched island (? = 0.44 to 0.48 and petal (? = 0.53 to 0.62 cellular flame take place. Flame becomes more unstable when the mixture was changed toward stoichiometry.

  2. Manufacturing (United States)

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project


    The manufacture of products requires massive amounts of energy. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the energy needs of the manufacturing community. Students explore three ways that manufacturing uses energy and the importance of fossil fuels to the manufacturing sector. A replacement for fossil fuels is suggested. An article on manufacturing soft drink cans is accessible from a sidebar. A link to a PBS NewsHour article on communities that benefit from excess electric power is provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  3. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites (United States)

    Weeks, Jr., Joseph K. (Salt Lake City, UT); Gensse, Chantal (Salt Lake City, UT)


    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials.

  4. Microbubble enhanced ozonation process for advanced treatment of wastewater produced in acrylic fiber manufacturing industry. (United States)

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Qunhui; Zhang, Tao; Shi, Zhining; Tian, Yanli; Shi, Shanshan; Smale, Nicholas; Wang, Juan


    This work investigated microbubble-ozonation for the treatment of a refractory wet-spun acrylic fiber wastewater in comparison to macrobubble-ozonation. CODcr, NH3-N, and UV254 of the wastewater were removed by 42%, 21%, and 42%, respectively in the microbubble-ozonation, being 25%, 9%, and 35% higher than the removal rates achieved by macrobubble-ozonation at the same ozone dose. The microbubbles (with average diameter of 45?m) had a high concentration of 3.9×10(5) counts/mL at a gas flow rate of 0.5L/min. The gas holdup, total ozone mass-transfer coefficient, and average ozone utilization efficiency in the microbubble-ozonation were 6.6, 2.2, and 1.5 times higher than those of the macrobubble-ozonation. Greater generation of hydroxyl radicals and a higher zeta potential of the bubbles were also observed in the microbubble ozonation process. The biodegradability of the wastewater was also significantly improved by microbubble-ozonation, which was ascribed to the enhanced degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and the many other bio-refractory organic compounds in the wastewater. Microbubble-ozonation can thus be a more effective treatment process than traditional macrobubble-ozonation for refractory wastewater produced by the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry. PMID:25681716

  5. Microbubble enhanced ozonation process for advanced treatment of wastewater produced in acrylic fiber manufacturing industry

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Tianlong


    This work investigated microbubble-ozonation for the treatment of a refractory wet-spun acrylic fiber wastewater in comparison to macrobubble-ozonation. CODcr, NH3-N, and UV254 of the wastewater were removed by 42%, 21%, and 42%, respectively in the microbubble-ozonation, being 25%, 9%, and 35% higher than the removal rates achieved by macrobubble-ozonation at the same ozone dose. The microbubbles (with average diameter of 45?m) had a high concentration of 3.9×105 counts/mL at a gas flow rate of 0.5L/min. The gas holdup, total ozone mass-transfer coefficient, and average ozone utilization efficiency in the microbubble-ozonation were 6.6, 2.2, and 1.5 times higher than those of the macrobubble-ozonation. Greater generation of hydroxyl radicals and a higher zeta potential of the bubbles were also observed in the microbubble ozonation process. The biodegradability of the wastewater was also significantly improved by microbubble-ozonation, which was ascribed to the enhanced degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and the many other bio-refractory organic compounds in the wastewater. Microbubble-ozonation can thus be a more effective treatment process than traditional macrobubble-ozonation for refractory wastewater produced by the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry.

  6. Three-phase Coupling of Air, Droplets and Fibers for the Spray Molding Manufacturing Process of Polyurethane-Fiber-Reinforced Composites (United States)

    Diffo, P.; Wulf, P.; Breuer, M.


    In the present paper the authors present a multiphase flow simulation model of the interaction of a droplet-laden air flow with flexible fibers. This highly complex flow is occurring during a manufacturing process of fiber reinforced polyurethane based composites, where the liquid plastic polyurethane (PUR) is sprayed with air assistance in a tool form or on a substrate. Simultaneously chopped fibers are laterally inserted in the polyurethane-air spray cone for wetting before the entire mixture deposits on the substrate, where it starts curing. This investigation aims to compute the statistical fiber orientation and density distribution in the final composite, which will help modeling its anisotropic material properties. It is presumed that the final position and orientation of a fiber on a substrate results from its dynamics and coupled interactions with air, PUR-droplets and other fibers within the spray cone. Therefore, we present a new approach simplifying the multiply coupled interaction of the three phases. In this paper a model of the process is built, that computes the transient, 4-way-coupled behavior of the air-liquid droplets mixture with the CFD code ANSYS Fluent and the 1-way-air- and 1-way-droplet-coupled dynamics of the fibers with an extra code called FIDYST. Two approaches for the coupling of fibers with the air-droplets-mixture are presented: One considers the mixture as a pseudo-fluid ("homogenization"), the other computes a force for each of the phases separately, wherein the average momentum transfer for the fiber-droplet collision is estimated based on the probability of local collision events.

  7. Reduction of harmful emissions from a diesel engine fueled by kapok methyl ester using combined coating and SNCR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermal barrier coating was accomplished by coating the engine components with PSZ. • Under-utilized kapok oil biodiesel was used as renewable fuel in a coated engine. • The BTE of the engine was improved by 9% with reduced BSFC. • CO, HC and smoke were reduced by 40%, 35.3% and 21.4%, respectively. • After implementing SCR assembly, the NOX emission was decreased by 13.4%. - Abstract: This research work has been formulated to reduce the stinging effect of NOX emission on atmospheric environment from a coated diesel engine fueled by biodiesel. As such, in the current study, we attempted to harness the renewable source of energy from in-edible kapok oil, which is normally under-utilized despite being a viable feedstock for biodiesel synthesis. Notably, steam treatment process followed by crushing of the kapok seeds in a mechanical expeller was done to extract large quantities of kapok oil for the application of diesel engine, which is quite distinct of a method adopted herein. The conventional trans-esterification process was availed to synthesize KME (kapok methyl ester) and the physical and thermal properties of it were estimated by ASTM standard methods. Subsequently, two blends of KME with diesel such as B25 (KME – 25% and diesel – 75%) and B50 (KME – 50% and diesel – 50%) were prepared and tested in a single cylinder diesel engine with thermal barrier coating. To help realize the coating process, PSZ (partially stabilized zirconia), a pertinent coating material in respect of its poor thermal conductivity and better durability, has been chosen as the coating material to be applied on engine components by plasma spray coating technique. As an outcome of the coating study, B50 was found to show improved BTE (brake thermal efficiency) than that in an uncoated engine, with notable decrease in major emissions such as HC (hydrocarbon), CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke. However, due to reduction in heat losses and increase in in-cylinder temperature, the NOX (oxides of nitrogen) emission was expected to be increased in a coated diesel engine. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOX emission, urea based SNCR system was incorporated in the exhaust pipe and by which, NOX emission was reduced

  8. Influence of the manufacturing process on the radiation sensitivity of fluorine-doped silica-based optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we analyze the origins of the observed differences between the radiation sensitivities of fluorine-doped optical fibers made with different fabrication processes. We used several experimental techniques, coupling in situ radiation-induced absorption measurements with post mortem confocal microscopy luminescence measurements. Our data showed that the silica intrinsic defects are generated both from precursor sites and from strained regular Si-O-Si linkages. Our work also provides evidence for the preponderant role of the chlorine in determining the optical losses at about 3.5 eV. The results show that the manufacturing process of these fibers strongly affects their radiation response. (authors)

  9. Utilization of Non -oven Jute felt - A natural Fiber as a Substitution of Wood Veneer for Manufacture of Plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. S.C.Sahoo


    Full Text Available In this study the suitability of using core veneer made from renewable natural fiber i.e. Non-oven jute felt, which is the second most widely used natural fiber for manufacturing of plywood was investigated to minimize the gap between demand and supply of wood veneer. The renewable natural hard jute fibre was impregnated with phenolic resin and was used for the manufacture of plywood. Plywood of 4 mm, 6 mm, 12 mm and 18 mm thick were manufactured by using phenolic resin impregnated jute felt having thickness 16mm of 1850 GSM (approx. as a core in place of the natural wood veneer. From the study, it can be inferred that PF Resin impregnated Non oven jute felt as a natural fibre can suitably replace the wooden glue core veneer to manufacture ply board up to 80% as an alternative substitute of wood. The physico-mechanical properties such as surface roughness, moisture content, density, water absorption, swelling, compressive strength, tensile strength, static bending strength, glue shear strength, of the plywood manufactured by using jute felt as core veneer with different resin dilution have been studied. Data revels that most of the physico-mechanical properties of the plywood showed satisfactory results meeting the requirement of different grades of plywood tested as per IS: 1734 - 1983. The accelerated study of the glued core after impregnation with jute felt have been carried out for three months before plywood manufacture after storing it in proper temperature and humidity. The data revealed that there is no appreciable change in bond quality and mechanical properties of the plyboard manufactured after storing the veneer up to 30 days. The study concluded that wood substituted jute composites could be an ideal solution with ever depleting forest reserves where utilization of renewable resources will be beneficiary for plywood industries to meet the challenges during scarcity of veneer by reducing the cost of imported veneer.

  10. Ultra-miniature all-glass Fabry-Pérot pressure sensor manufactured at the tip of a multimode optical fiber


    Pinet, Eric; Cibula, Edvard; Ðonlagi?, Denis


    The design and fabrication of an ultra-miniature all-glass pressure sensor with a diameter of 125 m are presented. The sensor consists of a thin flexible silica membrane fused on a capillary tube section, which is assembledat the tip of a standard multimode fiber, thus forming a Fabry-Pérot air cavity whose length depends on applied pressure. Controlled polishing steps including on-line tuning of the diaphragm thickness during the manufacturing process achieve good repeatability and high sens...

  11. Implementing Machining of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites to Manufacturing Courses in 2 Year and 4 Year Programs (United States)

    Flaman, Michael

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites offer very high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. As a result, the aerospace industry is making a major effort to incorporate an increasing number of composite materials into various components and structures. However, machining of FRP composites is one of the most difficult and least understood areas in manufacturing technology. Thus, it is necessary to include machining and tool regimes of FRP composites into manufacturing curricula, especially at schools in regions of the country where significant aerospace industry exist. This new topic has been applied into various programs such as Machine Manufacturing Technology Program at Portland Community College (PCC) and Mechanical Engineering Program at Washington State University Vancouver (WSUV). This report focuses on all aspects of these newly developed course materials including course content and student feedback.

  12. Product stewardship and science: safe manufacture and use of fiber glass. (United States)

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Anderson, Robert; Bernstein, David M; Bunn, William B; Chase, Gerald A; Jankousky, Angela Libby; Marsh, Gary M; McClellan, Roger O


    This paper describes a proactive product stewardship program for glass fibers. That effort included epidemiological studies of workers, establishment of stringent workplace exposure limits, liaison with customers on safe use of products and, most importantly, a research program to evaluate the safety of existing glass fiber products and guide development of new even safer products. Chronic inhalation exposure bioassays were conducted with rodents and hamsters. Amosite and crocidolite asbestos produced respiratory tract cancers as did exposure to "biopersistent" synthetic vitreous fibers. "less biopersistent" glass fibers did not cause respiratory tract cancers. Corollary studies demonstrated the role of slow fiber dissolution rates and biopersistence in cancer induction. These results guided development of safer glass fiber products and have been used in Europe to regulate fibers and by IARC and NTP in classifying fibers. IARC concluded special purpose fibers and refractory ceramic fibers are "possibly carcinogenic to humans" and insulation glass wool, continuous glass filament, rock wool and slag wool are "not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to human." The NTP's 12th report on carcinogens lists "Certain Glass Wool Fibers (Inhalable)" as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." "Certain" in the descriptor refers to "biopersistent" glass fibers and excludes "less biopersistent" glass fibers. PMID:22266014

  13. Development of extrusion processing technology for manufacture of fine-celled plastic/wood-fiber composite foams (United States)

    Rizvi, Ghaus Muhammad

    The main benefits of incorporating wood-fibers in plastics are the increased stiffness and lowered cost of the resulting composites. However, these improvements are usually accompanied by loss in the ductility and impact resistance of the composites. These shortcomings can be significantly improved by effectively foaming and incorporating a fine-cell structure in the composites. This thesis presents the development of the processing methodology for the manufacture of fine-celled plastic/wood-fiber composite (PWC) foams and focuses on the elucidation of the fundamental foaming mechanisms and the related issues involved. The volatiles evolved from the wood-fiber during extrusion processing play a dominant role in the foaming process, and can lead to gross deterioration of cell structure unless proper strategies are adopted to limit their contribution to foaming. Thermal analysis of wood-fibers (from pine wood) revealed that apart from moisture, a substantial part of the volatile emissions were evolved from the 'extractives', and hence can contribute to the foaming process as a blowing agent. A tandem extrusion system was developed which could effectively control the volatile wood-fiber emissions, and produce fine-celled PWC foams having the desired density and cell morphology. A series of critical experiments were performed to develop a suitable methodology for controlling the foam density and cell morphology. Fundamental foaming mechanisms for different foaming conditions are proposed.

  14. Manufacturing and Mechanical Testing of a New Functionally Graded Fiber Reinforced Cement Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A functionally graded (FG) material system is employed to make fiber use more efficient in a fiber reinforced cement composite (FRCC). This preliminary study demonstrates beam elements that were functionally graded fiber reinforced cement composite (FGFRCC) with four layers, each with a different fiber volume ratio. Fiber volume ratio was graded in accordance with its potential contribution to the mechanical load-bearing capacity so as to reduce the overall fiber volume ratio while preserving the flexural strength and ductility of the beam. Extrusion was used to produce single homogeneous layers of constant fiber volume ratio. The FRCC layers with different fiber volume ratios were stacked according to a desired configuration and then pressed to make an integrated FGFRCC. Flexural tests were carried out to characterize the mechanical behavior, and the results were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the designed fiber distribution. Compared with homogeneous FRCC with the same overall fiber volume fraction, the FGFRCC exhibited about 50% higher strength and comparable ductility

  15. CNT reinforced epoxy foamed and electrospun nano-fiber interlayer systems for manufacturing lighter and stronger featherweight(TM) composites (United States)

    Drakonakis, Vasileios M.

    Multiple works have been performed in improving carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites especially in terms of strength so delamination, which is the major defect in laminated composites, is prevented. Nevertheless, there is not much focus on improving conventional CFRP systems in terms of weight especially when these are used in primary structures. This work questions whether lighter and at the same time stronger CFRP composites can be manufactured in order to replace conventional CFRP systems in major applications. Under this perspective, this study demonstrates that inducing controlled porosity may offer a systemic approach for manufacturing light weight carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) matrix composites. Additionally, towards this scope, this work has focused on analyzing and describing the related matrix systems utilizing mostly classic viscoelastic theory. An in-depth characterization of the thermosetting matrix systems viscoelasticity kinetics as well as of the impregnation process towards its improvement in terms of lower cost is explored. Overall, this work makes an effort to establish the fundamentals for creating the next generation of light weight structural composites, the featherweight composites, by introducing porosity through several controlled reinforcements in a systemic and reproducible manner at the macro- micro- and nano- scales in the interlayer. By extensively describing the matrix system and the manufacturing processes and focusing on analytically testing the interlayer reinforcement systems, it is expected that featherweight CFRP will achieve lighter weight and at the same time higher mechanical properties.

  16. Optimization of catalyst-free production of biodiesel from Ceiba pentandra (kapok) oil with high free fatty acid contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalyst-free biodiesel production from non-edible Ceiba pentandra (kapok) oil via supercritical methanol transesterification was demonstrated in this work. The supercritical transesterification experiments were performed in a batch reactor at temperatures of 250–350 °C, pressures of 10–18 MPa, reaction times of 120–600 s, and methanol to oil molar ratios of 15:1–35:1. Response surface methodology (RSM) and four-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were applied for the design and optimization of the experiments with respect to temperature, pressure, reaction time, and molar ratio of methanol to oil simultaneously. The response (i.e., FAME yield) was fitted by a quadratic polynomial regression model using least square analysis in a five-level-four-factor central composite design (CCD). The optimum conditions were found as follows: methanol to oil molar ratio of 30:1, temperature of 322 °C, pressure of 16.7 MPa, and reaction time of 476 s with FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) yield of 95.5%. The significance of the reaction parameters toward FAME yield was in the order of methanol to oil molar ratio > reaction time > pressure > temperature. - Highlights: • Transesterification of non-edible kapok oil into biodiesel via a non-catalytic route. • Methanol to oil molar ratio, temperature, pressure, and reaction time were optimized. • Experimental design in a five-level-four-factor central composite design. • Application of quadratic polynomial model for fitting the response (FAME yield)

  17. Cryogenic fiber optic temperature sensor and method of manufacturing the same (United States)

    Kochergin, Vladimir (Inventor)


    This invention teaches the fiber optic sensors temperature sensors for cryogenic temperature range with improved sensitivity and resolution, and method of making said sensors. In more detail, the present invention is related to enhancement of temperature sensitivity of fiber optic temperature sensors at cryogenic temperatures by utilizing nanomaterials with a thermal expansion coefficient that is smaller than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber but larger in absolute value than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber at least over a range of temperatures.

  18. A new US manufacturing capability of glass preforms for fiber optics in defense programs. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, D.K. [Polymicro Technologies, Inc., Phoenix, AZ (United States)


    The present project is a part of the program to develop ``A New US Manufacturing Capability of Fiber Optics in Defense Programs.`` The scope of the program extends beyond the limit of defense needs, impacting profoundly on important national issues such as, health industry vis-a-vis medical and insurance infrastructure as well as a great segment of commercial-industrial complex. At present, the glass preform -- critical raw material to produce the optical fiber, is 100% imported from Germany and Japan. Objectively, to create a domestic source, a cooperative project participated by Los Alamos and Polymicro began in the summer of 1991 to develop the cladding part of the glass preform. The goal was achieved by developing 0{center_dot}2NA preform, that was fabricated by Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD) of born and fluorine doped silica glass as cladding layer on a silica substrate tube and collapsing the tube on a solid silica rod as the core. The preform was finally drawn into 200 micron core optical fiber and delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  19. Large-Scale Manufacturing of Bulk Metallic Glass Sheets and Fiber Metal Laminates Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Liquidmetal Technologies (LMT) and the University of Southern California (USC)'s M.C. Gill Composites Center team up to develop manufacturing processes for...

  20. Processing conditions and properties of continuous fiber reinforced GF/PP thermoplastic matrix composites manufactured from different pre-impregnated materials


    Nunes, J. P.; Silva, J. F; Novo, Paulo; Marques, A.T.


    The aim of the present work was to study and compare the processing conditions and final mechanical properties of continuous glass-fiber reinforced polypropylene composites (GF/PP) manufactured by using available thermoplastic preimpregnated materials produced by different methods.To assess the quality of the three different GF/PP pre-impregnated materials, final manufactured composite parts were submitted to mechanical testing and microscopy analysis. The obtained properties were compared be...

  1. Study of the Equivalent Electrical Capacity of a Thermal Insulating Kapok-plaster Material in Frequency Dynamic Regime Established

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Korka Diallo


    Full Text Available The study of heat transfer in frequency dynamic regime established helped define the thermal impedance of the material. The material is a plane wall composed of kapok-plaster with thickness of 0.01 m and a thermal conductivity 0.1 W/mK. The thermal behavior of the studied material is highlighted by showing the influences of heat transfer coefficients and external excitation pulse. L'evolution de la capacity equivalent intérêt Donnée en fonction de la pulsation excitatrice Extérieure. The evolution of the equivalent capacitance is given as a function of the external excitation pulse; the influences of the depth of the material, his diffusivity and heat exchange coefficients are shown.

  2. Carcass Characteristics of Kacang Goats Fed Ration Containing MH-1 Variety of Kapok Seed Meal (Ceiba pentandra, GAERTN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hidjaz


    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the carcass characteristics of Kacang goats fed ration containing kapok seed meal (KSM as a component of the concentrate. The experiment was conducted in two stages. The first stage was to find out the best variety of kapok that will be used in the second experiment; the second stage was to determine the benefits of KSM on carcass characteristics. Twenty-five, 8 months old Kacang goats with initial body weight of 11.71±1.08 kg, were used in this experiment. The animals were housed individually based on completely randomized design (CRD with 5 treatments and 5 replications. The rations were based on forage:concentrate ratio of 50:50 dry matter basis. The ration contained concentrates, with increasing levels of KSM, i.e.: R0 (napier grass + concentrate: rice bran, coconut cake, corn, urea + 0% KSM; R5 (R0 + KSM 5%; R10 (R0 + KSM 10%; R15 (R0 + KSM 15%; and R20 (R0 + KSM 20%. Drinking water was provided ad libitum. The result of first stage showed that KSM variety of MH-1 would be used as a component of the concentrate on the second experiment. The increasing level of KSM in the rations had significant effect (P<0.05 on physical characteristics of the carcass, such as dressing percentage (44.35%, carcass length (54.006 cm, fleshing index (130.59 g/cm, plumpness of leg (87.48%, loin eye area (5.06 cm2, and percentage of carcass meat (64.69%. It is concluded that MH-1 variety of KSM can be used as a feed component up to 20 % in the goat ration.

  3. Seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures and process for their manufacture (United States)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (inventor); Bush, Harold G. (inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (inventor)


    A metallic outer sleeve is provided which is capable of enveloping a hollow metallic inner member having continuous reinforcing fibers attached to the distal end thereof. The inner member is then introduced into outer sleeve until inner member is completely enveloped by outer sleeve. A liquid matrix member is then injected into space between inner member and outer sleeve. A pressurized heat transfer medium is flowed through the inside of inner member, thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. The novelty of this invention resides in the development of a efficient method of producing seamless metal clad fiber reinforced organic matrix composite structures.

  4. Carbon fiber-reinforced carbon composite material and manufacturing method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a composite material useful as heat shielding tiles for use in first walls of a thermonuclear reactor, a prefoam is formed by a large square rods formed by orienting carbon fibers in the axial direction into a cylindrical shape and arranging them in a matrix in longitudinal and lateral directions of a plate toward the direction of the thickness each at a predetermined distance, and thin square rods stacked in lattice-like manner between the large square rods. The prefoam is impregnated with a thermosetting resin or a pitch and carbonated by heating in an inactive atmosphere. The orientation ratio of the fibers in the direction of the plate thickness and fiber content can be increased to maintain the linearity of the fibers. High thermal conductivity can be provided in the direction of the plate thickness to maintain high thermal conductivity even under a high temperature thereby preventing reduction of the wall thickness due to erosion. The weaving step is simplified and the fabrication time and cost can be reduced. (N.H.)

  5. Study of Heat Transfer in a Kapok Material from the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient and the Excitation Pulse of Solicitations External Climatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dieng


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize thermal insulating local material, kapok, from a study in 3 dimensions in Cartesian coordinate and in dynamic frequency regime. From a study a 3 dimensional the heat transfer through a material made of wool kapok (thermal conductivity: &lambda = 0,035 W/m/K; density: &rho = 12, 35 kg/m3; thermal diffusivity: &alpha = 17, 1.10-7 m2 /s is presented. The evolution curves of temperature versus convective heat transfer coefficient have helped highlight the importance of pulse excitation and the depth in the material. The thermal impedance is studied from representations of Nyquist and Bode diagrams allowing characterizing the thermal behavior from thermistors. The evolution of the thermal impedance with the thermal capacity of the material is presented.

  6. Fiber (United States)

    ... barley, nuts, seeds, beans, lentils, peas, and some fruits and vegetables. Research has shown that soluble fiber lowers cholesterol, which can help prevent heart disease. Insoluble fiber is found in foods such as ...

  7. Chemical composition of jute (Corchorus capsularis) fibers used for paper pulp manufacturing


    Río Andrade, José Carlos del; Marques, Gisela; Rencoret, Jorge; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Martínez Ferrer, Ángel Tomás; Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana


    The lipid and lignin composition of jute fibers has been characterized. The most predominant lipophilic compounds were high molecular weight ester waxes (24% of total extract), followed by free fatty acids (17%), free fatty alcohols (17%) and ?-hydroxyfatty acids (14%). Additionally, significant amounts of alkanes (6%), ?-hydroxyfatty acids (6%), sterols (6%), steroid and triterpenoids ketones (3%) and steryl glycosides (1%) were also identified. The lignin was first analyzed “in situ” ...

  8. Studies on radiation resistance of fiber reinforced plastic composites featured by easiness of manufacturing, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various mechanical properties were examined at room temperature and at 123 or 77 K on five kinds of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) irradiated with electron beams. Dynamic viscoelastic properties and fractography by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were also measured in order to clarify degradation behavior. Considerable decrease in interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) at room temperature was observed above the absorbed dose of 60 MGy, while three-point bending strength showed no change even up to 100 MGy. On the other hand, the three-point bending strength and the ILSS at 123 K or 77 K strikingly decreased with increasing absorbed dose. The fractography reveals that debonding of glass fiber and matrix resin or the degradation of silane coupling agents plays an important role in the strength reduction at low temperature. These findings suggest that the interface between matrix and fiber loses its bondability at low temperature after electron beam irradiation, although high bond strength still remeins at room temperature. (author)

  9. Manufacture of Green-Composite Sandwich Structures with Basalt Fiber and Bioepoxy Resin


    J. Andrés; Garc Amp Xed A-manrique, J. A.; Hoto, R.; Torres, J. P.


    Nowadays, there is a growing interest for the use and development of materials synthesized from renewable sources in the polymer composites manufacturing industry; this applies for both matrix and reinforcement components. In the present research, a novel basalt fibre reinforced (BFR) bioepoxy green composite is proposed as an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional petroleum-derived composites. In addition, this material system was combined with cork as core material for the fabr...

  10. The Addition of Oat Fiber and Natural Alternative Sweeteners in the Manufacture of Plain Yogurt


    Fernández García, Estrella; Traylor, Sandra; McGregor, John U.


    Calorie-reduced yogurts that were fortified with 1.32% oat fiber were prepared from lactosehydrolyzed milk, alone and supplemented with 2 and 4% sucrose or with 1.6, 3.6, and 5.5% fructose. Treated samples were compared with unsweetened yogurt and with yogurts sweetened with 2, 4, and 6% sucrose. Addition of 5.5% fructose increased fermentation time by 60%, slowing down the production of lactic, pyruvic, acetic, and propionic acids and the consumption of hippuric an...

  11. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 4.1 Intelligent Manufacturing of Hybrid Carbon-Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janet M Twomey, PhD


    EXECUTIVE SUMARY In this subtask, the manufacturability of hybrid carbon-glass fiber-reinforced composite wind turbine blades using Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) was investigated. The objective of this investigation was to study the VARTM process and its parameters to manufacture cost-effective wind turbine blades with no defects (mainly eliminate dry spots and reduce manufacturing time). A 2.5-dimensional model and a 3-dimensional model were developed to simulate mold filling and part curing under different conditions. These conditions included isothermal and non-isothermal filling, curing of the part during and after filling, and placement of injection gates at different locations. Results from this investigation reveal that the process can be simulated and also that manufacturing parameters can be optimized to eliminate dry spot formation and reduce the manufacturing time. Using computer-based models is a cost-effective way to simulate manufacturing of wind turbine blades. The approach taken herein allows the design of the wind blade manufacturing processes without physically running trial-and-error experiments that are expensive and time-consuming; especially for larger blades needed for more demanding environmental conditions. This will benefit the wind energy industry by reducing initial design and manufacturing costs which can later be passed down to consumers and consequently make the wind energy industry more competitive.

  12. Process for the manufacture of seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures (United States)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (inventor); Bush, Harold G. (inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (inventor)


    A process for producing seamless metal-clad composite structures includes providing a hollow, metallic inner member and an outer sleeve to surround the inner member and define an inner space therebetween. A plurality of continuous reinforcing fibers is attached to the distal end of the outside diameter of the inner member, and the inner member is then introduced, distal end first, into one end of the outer sleeve. The inner member is then moved, distal end first, into the outer sleeve until the inner member is completely enveloped by the outer sleeve. A liquid matrix material is then injected into the space containing the reinforcing fibers between the inner member and the outer sleeve. Next a pressurized heat transfer medium is passed through the inner member to cure the liquid matrix material. Finally, the wall thickness of both the inner member and the outer sleeve are reduced to desired dimensions by chemical etching, which adjusts the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to a desired value.

  13. [Results of test-bed and clinical trials of DIP-03-02 dialyzers manufactured by the West German firm Frezenius using polysulfone hollow fibers]. (United States)

    Baeva, L B; Poz, Ia L; Levitski?, E R; Pronchenko, I A; Tse?tlina, E A; Leonova, L N; Mirakova, E V


    The authors provide the results of the clinical trial of the dialyzers DIP-03-02 manufactured by the USSR in cooperation with the FRG (Frezenius Company). In accordance with clearances of low-, medium- and high-molecular compounds as well as with the ultrafiltration characteristics, DIP-03-02 are similar to the modern capillary dialyzers from hollow fibers on the basis of cellulose membranes with an analogous surface. During manufacture of the dialyzers DIP-03-02, the polysulfone membrane possessing low permeability for liquid was obtained for the first time. The tentative data on biocompatibility (the complement activation test) are positive. PMID:2215175

  14. Biodiesel Production from Kapok (Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil using Naturally Alkaline Catalyst as an Effort of Green Energy and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Handayani


    Full Text Available Nowadays, energy that used to serve all the needs of community, mainly generated from fossil (conventional energy. Terrace in energy consumption is not balanced with adequate fossil fuel reserves and will be totally depleted in the near future. Indonesian Government through a Presidential Decree No. 5 year 2006 mandates an increased capacity in renewable energy production from 5 percent to 15 percent in 2025. C. pentandra seed oil has feasibility as a sustainable biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia. The aim of this paper was to investigate biodiesel production from ceiba petandra seed oil using naturally potassium hydroxide catalyst. Research designs are based on factorial design with 2 levels and 3 independent variables (temperature, reaction time and molar ratio of methanol to oil. According to data calculation, the most influential single variable is molar ratio of methanol to oil. Characterization of biodiesel products meet all the qualifications standardized by SNI 04-7182-2006. Keywords: biodiesel, kapok seed oil, c. pentandra, green technology

  15. Polyaniline-nanotube multifunctional fiber: capabilities toward the manufacturing of smart fabric (United States)

    Mottaghitalab, Vahid; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.


    Smart fabrics are those with electronic devices embedded in the material structure. Metallic fibres are not compatible with a comfortable fabric and flexible fibres with electronic capabilities are desired. Polyaniline (PANi) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) show potential for application in different electronic devices such as conductive yarn, sensor, actuator, battery, capacitor and diode. The development of fibres from these materials can be considered as potentially useful for the manufacturing of smart fabric which embedded non metallic electronic devices. This paper describes the influence of CNT addition on the electronic, mechanical of PANi-CNT composite fibre which was fabricated by a wet spinning process. PANi(EB)-nanotube (SWNT, DWNT)- dimethyl propylene urea (DMPU) composite spinning solution have been prepared by an ex-situ process. The size distribution of nanotubes has been characterized by zeta sizer. Furthermore the rheological study has been conducted for optimization of PANi/CNT weight ratio to produce solutions with suitable fluidity for spinning process. In spite of the great impact of nanotubes on the mechanical and electrical properties of PANi composite fibre, the structure of the composite is far from ideal and it can be proposed that by proper ex-situ and in-situ solution preparation and processing techniques further improvements in properties are possible.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanben Du


    Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL and cotton stalk fibers were prepared under various manufacturing conditions, and their physico-mechanical properties were evaluated. Full factorial experimental design was used to assess the effect of fiber moisture content and pressing temperature on boards’ properties. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg of EHL. We found that both fiber moisture content and pressing temperature had significant effects on binderless fiberboards’ properties. High fiber moisture content and pressing temperature are suggested to contribute to the self-bonding improvement among fibers with lignin-rich surface mainly by thermal softening enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. In this experiment, the optimized pressing temperature applied in binderless fiberboard production should be as high as 190°C in accordance with the EHL Tg value of 189.4°C, and the fiber moisture content should be limited to less than 20% with a higher board density of 950 kg/m3 to avoid the delamination of boards during hot pressing.

  17. Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural fibers have been used to reinforce materials for over 3,000 years. More recently they have been employed in combination with plastics. Many types of natural fi fibers have been investigated for use in plastics including Flax, hemp, jute, straw, wood fiber, rice husks, wheat, barley, oats, rye, cane (sugar and bamboo), grass reeds, kenaf, ramie, oil palm empty fruit bunch, sisal, coir, water hyacinth, pennywort, kapok, paper-mulberry, raphia, banana fiber, pineapple leaf fiber and papyrus. Natural fibers have the advantage that they are renewable resources and have marketing appeal. The Asian markets have been using natural fibers for many years e.g., jute is a common reinforcement in India. Natural fibers are increasingly used in automotive and packaging materials. Pakistan is an agricultural country and it is the main stay of Pakistan's economy. Thousands of tons of different crops are produced but most of their wastes do not have any useful utilization. Agricultural wastes include wheat husk, rice husk, and their straw, hemp fiber and shells of various dry fruits. These agricultural wastes can be used to prepare fiber reinforced polymer composites for commercial use. This report examines the different types of fibers available and the current status of research. Many references to the latest work on properties, processing and application have been cited in this review. (author)

  18. Chemical characterization of lignin and lipid fractions in industrial hemp bast fibers used for manufacturing high-quality paper pulps


    Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana; Rodríguez García, María Isabel; Río Andrade, José Carlos del


    The chemical composition of lignin and lipids of bast fibers from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) used for high-quality paper pulp production was studied. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) of fibers showed a lignin with a p-hydroxyphenyl:guaiacyl:syringyl unit (H: G:S) molar proportion of 13:53:34 (S/G ratio of 0.64). p-Hydroxycinnamic acids, namely, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, were found in only trace amounts. Among the lipids, the main compounds identified by ...

  19. Boron and/or silicon containing one directional carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite material and manufacturing method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a material for first walls used in a thermonuclear reactor. In one directional carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materials, at least one of boron, silicon and compounds thereof having an average grain size of not greater than 10?m is incorporated homogeneously by from 2 to 45wt% as boron and/or silicon in a matrix. In addition, the volume content of the capacity of the carbon fibers is determined from 45 to 75%. This can provide heat conductivity and mechanical property which are satisfactory for a material of the first walls of a thermonuclear reactor and also provide high bending strength and low elasticity in 90deg direction. (T.M.)

  20. Chemical characterization of pitch deposits produced in the manufacturing of high-quality paper pulps from hemp fibers


    Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana; Río Andrade, José Carlos del


    The composition of pitch deposits occurring in pulp sheets and mill circuits during soda/anthraquinone pulping and elemental chlorine-free pulp bleaching of bast fibers of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) has been studied. Pitch deposits were extracted with acetone, and the extracts analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acetone extracts (15-25% of pitch deposits) were constituted by the defoamers used at the mill and by lipophilic extractives f...

  1. Carbon-fiber technology (United States)

    Hansen, C. F.; Parker, J. A.


    The state of the art of PAN based carbon fiber manufacture and the science of fiber behavior is surveyed. A review is given of the stabilization by oxidation and the subsequent carbonization of fibers, of the apparent structure of fibers deduced from scanning electron microscopy, from X-ray scattering, and from similarities with soft carbons, and of the known relations between fiber properties and heat treatment temperature. A simplified model is invoked to explain the electrical properties of fibers and recent quantum chemical calculations on atomic clusters are used to elucidate some aspects of fiber conductivity. Some effects of intercalation and oxidative modification of finished fibers are summarized.

  2. Recycling of Glass Fibers from Fiberglass Polyester Waste Composite for the Manufacture of Glass-Ceramic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximina Romero


    Full Text Available This work presents the feasibility of reusing a glass fiber resulting from the thermolysis and gasification of waste composites to obtain glass-ceramic tiles. Polyester fiberglass (PFG waste was treated at 550? for 3 h in a 9.6 dm3 thermolytic reactor. This process yielded an oil (?24 wt%, a gas (?8 wt% and a solid residue (?68 wt%. After the polymer has been removed, the solid residue is heated in air to oxidize residual char and remove surface contamination. The cleaning fibers were converted into glass-ceramic tile. A mixture consisting of 95 wt% of this solid residue and 5% Na2O was melted at 1450? to obtain a glass frit. Powder glass samples (<63 ?m was then sintered and crystallized at 1013?, leading to the formation of wollastonite-plagioclase glass-ceramic materials for architectural applications. Thermal stability and crystallization mechanism have been studied by Differential Thermal Analysis. Mineralogy analyses of the glass-ceramic materials were carried out using X-ray Diffraction.

  3. Carbon fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Soo-Jin


    This book contains eight chapters that discuss the manufacturing methods, surface treatment, composite interfaces, microstructure-property relationships with underlying fundamental physical and mechanical principles, and applications of carbon fibers and their composites.Recently, carbon-based materials have received much attention for their many potential applications. The carbon fibers are very strong, stiff, and lightweight, enabling the carbon materials to deliver improved performance in several applications such as aerospace, sports, automotive, wind energy, oil and gas, infrastructure,

  4. Fiber Singular Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Volyar


    Full Text Available The present review is devoted to the optical vortex behavior both in free space and optical fibers. The processes of the vortex transformations in perturbed optical fibers are analyzed on the base of the operator of the spin – orbit interaction in order to forecast the possible ways of manufacturing the vortex preserving fibers and their applications in supersensitive optical devices.

  5. Fiber Singular Optics


    Volyar, A. V.


    The present review is devoted to the optical vortex behavior both in free space and optical fibers. The processes of the vortex transformations in perturbed optical fibers are analyzed on the base of the operator of the spin – orbit interaction in order to forecast the possible ways of manufacturing the vortex preserving fibers and their applications in supersensitive optical devices.

  6. Low cost heat-and-pull rig for manufacturing adiabatic optical fiber tapers / Sistema de bajo costo para fabricar fibras ópticas adelgazadas adiabáticas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yamile, Cardona Maya; Nelson, Gómez Cardona; Pedro Ignacio, Torres Trujillo.


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se reporta la fabricación de fibras ópticas adelgazadas que cumplen con el criterio de adiabaticidad, para lo cual se implementó un sistema de calor-tracción de bajo costo. Nuestra configuración se basa en la técnica de la flama que se mueve en zigzag, para esto se utilizó una micro [...] antorcha de gas portátil de bajo costo y fácil de usar. Este sistema no requiere un control electrónico para la tasa de flujo del gas, lo que hace de nuestro sistema una alternativa atractiva, de bajo costo y trivial de implementar. La viabilidad de dicha fuente de calor se demuestra con la fabricación de fibras ópticas adelgazadas de pérdida de transmisión muy baja ( Abstract in english In this paper we report the fabrication of adiabatic tapered optical fibers using a low cost heat-and-pull rig. Our setup is based on the flame-brushing technique moving in zigzag, where an inexpensive and simple portable gas micro-torch is used as heating device. Since this method does not require [...] an electronic system to control the gas flow rate, makes out taper rig an attractive alternative, low-cost, and trivial to implement. The feasibility of such a heat source is shown with the manufacture of low-loss tapers (

  7. Manufacturing Success (United States)

    Reese, Susan


    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that manufacturing output in America…

  8. Why Manufacturing? (United States)

    This web page from the Florida Advanced Technological Education Center for Manufacturing (FLATE) will help students and educators looking at domestic manufacturing. The page highlights products manufactured in the state of Florida including food, beverages, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, metals, plastics, electronic devices and more. A video on the variety of items manufactured in the state of Florida is available in both English and Spanish.

  9. Using a Fiber Loop and Fiber Bragg Grating as a Fiber Optic Sensor to Simultaneously Measure Temperature and Displacement


    Hsu-Chih Cheng; Yue-Shiun Wu; Chih-Ta Yen; Yao-Tang Chang


    This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to the module, and, consequently, the center wavelength displacement of FBG was limited by only the effects of temperature change. Displacement and temperature were determined by measuring changes in th...

  10. Manufacturing Systems (United States)

    S Wallace


    Objective 7:05 - Students will develop an awareness of the designed World through : Describing a manufacturing system; listing and describing the basic type of manufacturing; defining production and manufacturing enterprise;defining AGV, CAD, CIM, CAM, CNC, production tooling, automation, and material processes. Day 1: Introduction/Background Objective Preassessment: Use a KWL chart to assess your students prior knowledge. This will also help you deal with any misconceptions regarding manufacturing system. Students will use the curriculum companion PowerPoint and Objective 7.05 Outline to develop an awarness of: Define manufacturing List and describe the basic types of Manufacturing Student ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bachrudin


    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the influence of protected kapok seed oil (PKSO supplementation in its combination with concentrate, in this case was rice bran (RB on lipid content of thin tailed sheep received field grass as basal feed. A number of 24 heads of male thin-tailed sheep were used as experimental material. These sheep were divided into 8 treatment groups. There were two treatment factors, i.e. : PKSO supplementation (S as factor I and RB supplementation (K as factor II. Factor I consisted of 2 levels, i.e. 0% (S0 and 10% (S1, whereas factor II consist of 4 levels, i.e. 0% (K0, 15% (K1, 30% (K2 and 45% (K3, respectively, based on dry matter (DM intake. Several variables were measured, namely content of intra muscular fat (IMF, iodine number of muscular fatty acid, content of meat cholesterol and omega 6 fatty acid (in this case linoleic acid. The collected data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance with factorial treatment pattern (2 x 4 in completely randomized design (CRD. Content of IMF in sheep supplemented with 0 and 15% KSO levels was not significantly different from those without kapok seed oil (KSO supplementation at the same level of RB feeding (3.45 and 3.99% vs 3.01 and 3.75%. Supplementation of protected KSO in combination with 30 and 45% RP resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 IMF content (4.75 and 5.93% vs 4.32 and 5.40% and significantly decreased (P < 0.05 meat chollesterol content (62.46 and 65.26 mg/100 g vs 89.21 and 72.63 mg/100 g also significantly increased (P < 0.05 linoleic acid proportion (15.52 and 18.25% vs 3.68 and 4.04% and iodine number (12.52 and 10.25 vs 4.09 and 4.98.

  12. Lean Manufacturing (United States)

    For instructors looking for a basic outline of what lean manufacturing is, this website provides the information in a brief, easy to read format. Students will learn about the history of lean manufacturing, the basic goals of lean manufacturing and key processes involved. An interesting section at the end of the webpage asks students to take a lean manufacturing viewpoint in regards to their own lives, considering areas like overproduction, waiting, inventory and overprocessing.

  13. Manufacturing simulators


    Kruger, P.S. (Paul Stephanus), 1944-; Schutte, C.S.L.


    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Simulation modelling has been identified as one of the most powerful techniques available for the analysis and design of complex manufacturing systems. A number of manufacturing simulators have been designed in an effort to make it easier to use the simulation approach in the manufacturing environment. This paper will attempt to describe and ~valuate the characteristics of some of the available manufacturing simulators as well as possible ways to alleviate some of t...

  14. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David


    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  15. Green insulation: hemp fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.

  16. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Hulle


    Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

  17. Development of a new doping principle for manufacturing of rare earth ion activated silica preforms for optical fibers and study of their spectroscopic properties (United States)

    Shubochkin, Roman Leonidovich

    A new doping principle for the fabrication of optical waveguides has been proposed and developed. The principle involves the use of a "building block" approach, when a doping precursor, which includes some or all chemical elements necessary for the formation of an optical waveguide, also contains optically active rare earth ions that are spatially organized in a desired manner on a molecular level. This research has been concerned with the use of precursors that potentially have large minimum distances between rare earth ions in order to increase resulting minimum distances in the final glass made from such precursors and therefore decrease the rate of cooperative energy transfers between rare earth ions leading to quenching of luminescence. Aluminosilicate molecular sieves, zeolites X and Y, with rare earth loading levels not exceeding 16 ions per unit cell in the network of small cages have been proposed and investigated as "building block", large minimum distance precursors for the fabrication of silica optical fibers. Zeolite derived optical preforms and fibers with ultra-high rare earth concentrations up to 1.2 · 1021 ion/cm 3 have been fabricated for the first time using methods developed in this work. A new acid-free low-water neutral pH sol-gel process has been developed for the deposition of sol-gel films containing zeolite powders. Luminescent properties of neodymium doped zeolite derived preforms have been studied as a function of the total rare earth concentration and levels of rare earth loading of zeolites. Luminescent properties of zeolite-doped sol-gel films at various stages of vitrification have also been studied to evaluate rare earth ion quantum yield and the ion arrangement at different fabrication stages. It has been demonstrated that the lifetime of the Nd3+ metastable level in dehydrated unsintered zeolite-doped sol-gel films strongly increases when zeolite loading becomes less than 16 neodymium ions per unit cell in the network of small pores in both zeolite X and Y. It has also been determined that zeolites with rare earth loading levels between 12 and 25 ions per unit cell allow fabrication of optical preforms with luminescent properties comparable to those obtained by other known approaches.

  18. 77 FR 69435 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status and Partial Approval of Manufacturing Authority; Toho Tenax... (United States)


    ...special-purpose subzones for manufacturing activity when existing...OPF) and carbon fiber manufacturing and distribution facilities of Toho Tenax...activity related to the manufacturing and distribution of OPF and of 24K...

  19. Manufacturing Careers (United States)

    This resource, created by Technology and Innovation in Manufacturing Education (TIME Center), examines the many career paths in manufacturing. These include design and development, production and quality assurance, inventory and distribution, health, safety, and environment, as well as installation, maintenance, and repair. Links to websites with relevant information are included such as "Stanford University - How Everyday Things Are Made by the Alliance for Innovative Manufacturing" and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  20. Manufacturing Engineering (United States)

    Manufacturing Engineering is a monthly publication of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers. It is targeted primarily at manufacturing professionals, but it can also be of use to anyone with an interest in the field. This Web site posts between six and ten in-depth articles from each issue of the magazine. Examples of some topics that have been addressed in past issues include turbomachining processes, computer-aided design and manufacturing, and robotic assembly. The online archive maintains all previous monthly postings back to January 2000.

  1. Study of fiber optics standardization, reliability, and applications (United States)


    The use of fiber optics in space applications is investigated. Manufacturers and users detailed the problems they were having with the use or manufacture of fiber optic components. The general consensus of all the companies/agencies interviewed is that fiber optics is a maturing technology and will definitely have a place in future NASA system designs. The use of fiber optics was found to have two main advantages - weight savings and increased bandwidth.

  2. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  3. Airclad fiber laser technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin


    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last 5 years. Many of the traditional manufacturers of gas and solid-state lasers are now pursuing the fiber-based systems, which are displacing the conventional technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems require reliable fibers with large cores, stable mode quality, and good power handling capabilities-requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 100 m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to megawatt power levels. Furthermore, we describe the novel airclad-based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350 W cw fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  4. MEGARA optical manufacturing process (United States)

    Carrasco, E.; Páez, G.; Granados, F.; Percino, E.; Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Avilés, J. L.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Cedazo, R.


    MEGARA is the future visible integral-field and multi-object spectrograph for the GTC 10.4-m telescope located in La Palma. INAOE is a member of the MEGARA Consortium and it is in charge of the Optics Manufacturing work package. MEGARA passed the Optics Detailed Design Review in May 2013, and the blanks of the main optics have been already ordered and their manufacturing is in progress. Except for the optical fibers and microlenses, the complete MEGARA optical system will be manufactured in Mexico, shared between the workshops of INAOE and CIO. This includes a field lens, a 5-lenses collimator, a 7-lenses camera and a complete set of volume phase holographic gratings with 36 flat windows and 24 prisms, being all these elements very large and complex. Additionally, the optical tests and the complete assembly of the camera and collimator subsystems will be carried out in Mexico. Here we describe the current status of the optics manufacturing process.

  5. Manufacturing Planning (United States)

    King, John

    Manufacturing Planning is a lesson plan that introduces the knowledge and skills necessary to organize and plan a manufacturing project. Use of actual planning charts provides direct carryover to the work floor. After completing this module, students should be able to access and use a variety of resources (human, equipment, tools, plans, vendors and materials) to plan and complete projects according to process and time requirements. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at

  6. Computing fibers: A novel fiber for intelligent fabrics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, F.; Wegmann, M.; Graule, T. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Mathewson, A.; Healy, T.; Donnelly, J. [National Microelectronic Research Center (NMRC), Cork (Ireland); Ullsperger, A.; Hartmann, W. [Klaus Steilmann Institut, D-44866 Bochum (Germany); Papadas, C. [ISD, GR-815233 Athens (Greece)


    This communication describes a possible path for transition from a wearable computer to a fiber computer in which digital processing power is integrated directly into textiles via circuits on individual fibers. Three different classes of computing fiber substrate (active, passive, and intermediate) are discussed and some technologies for their manufacture are reviewed. It is shown here that with two of these techniques it is possible to develop new substrates for the semiconductor industry. Using an silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process, polycrystalline silicon fibers with a length of 42 mm have been successfully produced at NMRC in Ireland. These fibers are 35 {mu}m wide and 1 {mu}m thick. Silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) endless fibers (subsequently cut in to 20 cm lengths) have also been produced by extrusion. After sintering, this method yielded polycrystalline SiC fibers and pure amorphous SiO{sub 2} glass fibers. For many future applications, fiber computing appears to be a possible key to success. The computing power offered by such fibers may be combined with additional in- and output functions by weaving fiber-based sensors and piezoelectric materials into textiles. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans NØrgaard


    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance. If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management addresses these issues for products based on metal, polymers and ceramics.

  8. Design of Natural Fiber Composites Chemical Container Using Resin Flow Simulation of VARTML Process


    Changduk Kong; Hyunbum Park; Haseung Lee; Jounghwan Lee


    In this study, an investigation on mechanical properties of flax natural fiber composite is performed as a precedent study on the design of eco-friendly structure using flax natural fiber composite. The Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding-Light (VARTML) manufacturing method is adopted for manufacturing the flax fiber composite panel. The VARTML is a manufacturing process that the resin is injected into the dry layered –up fibers enclosed by a rigid mold tool under vacuum. In this work, t...

  9. Manufacturing pop (United States)

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project


    What is energy's role in the manufacturing of a soft drink can? This article, part of a series about the future of energy, describes the many energy-laden steps needed to make pop cans. Students read about the steps of aluminum can manufacture, beginning with removing the aluminum from ore within the ground. Three sets of thought-provoking questions afford students opportunities to reflect on what they've read. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  10. Polymer fiber waveguides for terahertz radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian


    Terahertz radiation offers many exciting applications noticeably in spectroscopy and it is showing promising results in imaging, mainly for security applications. In this project the study of using structured polymer fibers for THz waveguiding is presented. The inspiration for the THz fiber is taken from microstructured polymer optical fibers (mPOFs) used at optical wavelengths for sensing and communication. The fibers investigated can be divided into two groups, the solid core fibers and the hollow core fibers. The solid core fibers offer the broadest bandwidth with the best dispersion profile, while the hollow core fibers hold the promise for lowest loss but at the cost of lower bandwidth. In both cases the fabrication and characterization of the fibers is presented. The fibers are also investigated numerically and the numerical results are held up against the experimental results. The polymer material with lowest loss is Topas and all the solid core fibers are manufactured using this material. The polymer PMMA however has higher refractive index along with higher loss, and this higher refractive index is utilized to achieve a large bandwidth hollow core fiber with a low air-fill fraction. Finally, an example of an application is presented in the form of a broadband 3-dB directional fiber coupler. The device is numerically investigated and designed in such a way that it is manufacturable.

  11. Optimization of Course Locations in Fiber-Placed Panels for General Fiber Angle Distributions


    Blom, Adriana W.; Abdalla, Mostafa M.; Gu?rdal, Zafer


    Abstract Fiber-reinforced composites are usually designed using constant fiber orientation in each ply. In certain cases, however, a varying fiber angle might be favorable for structural performance. This possibility can be fully utilized using tow placement technology. Because of the fiber angle variation, tow-placed courses may overlap and ply thickness will build up on the surface. This thickness build-up affects manufacturing time, structural response, and surface quality of th...

  12. Parameter optimization of fusion splicing of photonic crystal fibers and conventional fibers to increase strength (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxi; Zhang, Zuchen; Song, Jingming; Wu, Chunxiao; Song, Ningfang


    A splicing parameter optimization method to increase the tensile strength of splicing joint between photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and conventional fiber is demonstrated. Based on the splicing recipes provided by splicer or fiber manufacturers, the optimal values of some major splicing parameters are obtained in sequence, and a conspicuous improvement in the mechanical strength of splicing joints between PCFs and conventional fibers is validated through experiments.

  13. Fabrication of a fiber-based microcavity with spherical concave fiber tips (United States)

    Kunert, D. M. B.; Meyrath, T. P.; Giessen, H.


    A straightforward method for manufacturing concave fiber ends with optical quality surfaces is presented. This method allows for the indention of bare cleaved fiber ends of single-mode Bi2O3 fibers by way of conventional heating and subsequent contact with ultra-smooth sinter metal spheres. The resulting high quality surfaces show promise for microcavity experiments. Results for a simple plano-concave cavity composed of a single indented fiber and a plane mirror are presented.

  14. Next Generation Manufacturing Manufacturing 2030


    Westkämper, Engelbert


    The presentation describes actual topics of discussion within the research initiative Manufuture. It starts with an overview on the strategic Research Agenda and megatrends with impact on manufacturing. New Business Models, Dematerialisation of Products, Knowledge based Manufacturing Engineering as well as the Green Factory are among the addressed topics. The presentation closes with results of an internet based consultation that identified volume production as prime focus of interest for sta...

  15. 75 FR 9638 - Safety Advisory Notice: Use of Composite Cargo Tanks Manufactured Under DOT Special Permits (United States)


    ...Use of Composite Cargo Tanks Manufactured Under DOT Special...manufacture or use composite cargo tank motor vehicles authorized...transported in the cargo tank is compatible with the materials...specification for composite cargo tanks, such as fiber...

  16. Manufacturing requirements (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Obara, Clifford J.; Martin, Glen L.; Domack, Christopher S.


    In recent years, natural laminar flow (NLF) has been proven to be achievable on modern smooth airframe surfaces over a range of cruise flight conditions representative of most current business and commuter aircraft. Published waviness and boundary layer transition measurements on several modern metal and composite airframes have demonstrated the fact that achievable surface waviness is readily compatible with laminar flow requirements. Currently, the principal challenge to the manufacture of NLF-compatible surfaces is two-dimensional roughness in the form of steps and gaps at structural joints. Results of recent NASA investigations on manufacturing tolerances for NLF surfaces, including results of a flight experiment are given. Based on recent research, recommendations are given for conservative manufacturing tolerances for waviness and shaped steps.

  17. Using a Fiber Loop and Fiber Bragg Grating as a Fiber Optic Sensor to Simultaneously Measure Temperature and Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu-Chih Cheng


    Full Text Available This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to the module, and, consequently, the center wavelength displacement of FBG was limited by only the effects of temperature change. Displacement and temperature were determined by measuring changes in the transmission of optical power and shifts in Bragg wavelength. This study provides a simple and economical method to measure displacement and temperature simultaneously.

  18. Simulating Fiber Aggregation in Shear Flow with Dissipative Particle Dynamics (United States)

    Stimatze, Justin; Egolf, David; Urbach, Jeffrey


    We have developed a mesoscale simulation of fiber aggregation using LAMMPS and its implementation of dissipative particle dynamics. Fiber-fiber interactions are approximated by combinations of standard pairwise forces, allowing exploration of multiple interaction-influenced fiber behaviors such as aggregation and bundling. We determine viscosity, stresses, fluid velocity field, and fiber forces while simulating the evolution of a model fiber system in shear flow. Preliminary simulations supported by AFOSR HPC resources have demonstrated several aggregate types dependent on system parameters. Explorations of fiber interaction mechanisms and parameters may enable greater insight into processes such as nanocomposite material manufacturing and silk fibrillation.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Heat-treated Carbon Fibers (United States)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Patel, Bhavesh; Koenig, John; Cuneo, Jaques; Neveux, Michael G.; Demos, Chrystoph G.


    Carbon fibers are selected for ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are based on their as-fabricated properties or on "that is what we have always done" technical culture while citing cost and availability when there are others with similar cost and availability. However, the information is not available for proper selection of carbon fibers since heat-treated properties are not known for the fibers on the market currently. Heat-treating changes the fiber's properties. Therefore, an effort was undertaken to establish fiber properties on 19 different types of fibers from six different manufactures for both PAN and pitch fibers. Heat-treating has been done at three different temperatures.

  20. Porous-core honeycomb bandgap THz fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.


    In this Letter we propose a novel (to our knowledge) porous-core honeycomb bandgap design. The holes of the porous core are the same size as the holes in the surrounding cladding, thereby giving the proposed fiber important manufacturing benefits. The fiber is shown to have a 0:35-THz-wide fundamental bandgap centered at 1:05 THz. The calculated minimum loss of the fiber is 0:25 dB=cm.

  1. Photonic liquid crystal fiber intermodal interferometer


    Poudereux Sánchez, David; Corredera Guillén, Pedro; Otón Martínez, Eva; Otón Sánchez, José Manuel; Quintana Arregui, Patxi Xabier


    In this work, we present a novel interferometer based on liquid crystal and photonic crystal fiber technology. The objective of this project is the development of a tunable (switchable) modal (Mach-Zehnder) interferometer for optical communications or sensing. This interferometer has been manufactured splicing a short portion (between 15 and 30 mm) of photonic crystal fiber with two single mode fiber pigtails. The study shows a high sensitivity of the interferometer to the polarization of the...

  2. Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigueing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

  3. Manufacturing land


    Doheny, Gavin


    Manufacturing productive land is the basis for this thesis document. The document is split into five related sections each displaying an emphasis on manipulation of ground in a productive manner over time. O rganising land deals with a study based on a farm in Derryleigh, Newport, Co. Tipperary and explores through case study the changing nature of productivity of ground/farmland and the resultant dwellings and sheds which become an extension of such the landscap...

  4. Manufacturing Today


    Kelly, Susan


    Curated by Cristina Ricupero and Will Bradley 'Manufacturing Today' is conceived as a five year research project and exhibition based in Norway but created, in collaboration between art academies in Norway, Finland, Lithuania and the UK. This research is publicly manifested in formal workshop sessions, a symposium, a publication, an exhibition and a series of commissions, all in an effort to address the question of how art and art education might resist instrumentalisation by the art mark...

  5. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John


    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  6. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse


    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  7. 78 FR 16247 - Approval for Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 203, SGL Automotive Carbon... (United States)


    ...Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 203, SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber...manufacturing authority on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, within FTZ 203-Site...FTZ 203-Site 3, on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, as described...

  8. Photovoltaic fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optoelectronically active optical fiber is demonstrated in this work. This fiber consists of dye sensitized solar cell (DSC) structure deposited on claddingless optical fiber. Both silica and plastic optical fibers are used as a substrate. Such a fiber converts light modes propagating in the modified cladding into electrical signal. DSC structure consisting of ZnO:Al transparent current collector layer, TiO2 photoelectrode sensitized with ruthenium dye, gelatinized iodine electrolyte, and carbon-based counter electrode was deposited layer by layer on top of the optical fiber. Current density-voltage curves of photovoltaic (PV) fibers of different diameters are presented. Maximum obtained short circuit current, Isc, was 26 nA/cm2 and maximum open circuit voltage, Voc, was 0.44 V. The fabrication issues and applications of the PV fiber are discussed in the article

  9. Manufacturing network evolution : a manufacturing plant perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami


    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing plant affects the other plants in the same network by altering their strategic roles, which leads to the subsequent transformation of the manufacturing network. Originality/value – A review of the existing literature investigated different elements of a manufacturing network independently. In this paper, the complex phenomenon of a manufacturing network evolution is observed by combining the analysis of a manufacturing plant and network level. The historical trajectories of manufacturing networks that are presented in the case studies are examined in order to understand and determine the future shape of the networks. This study will help industrial managers make more knowledgeable decisions regarding manufacturing network management.

  10. Cement composites reinforced by short curaua fibers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., d' Almeida; R., Toledo Filho; J., Melo Filho.

    Full Text Available The development of an eco-friendly material that could reduce CO² emission and that could aggregate value to a natural fiber, setting man at the countryside and raising the income of populations from poor regions is a challenge. Lignocellulosic fibers are cheap and are a readily available reinforcem [...] ent, requiring only a low degree of industrialization for their processing. The main drawback of using cement composites reinforced with lignocellulosic fibers is that the fibers can be mineralized inside the alkaline environment. In this work, Portland cement was partially replaced by metakaolinite in order to produce a matrix free from calcium hydroxide, avoiding thus the problem of fiber mineralization. Cement composites reinforced with 2, 4 and 6% of short curaua fibers, were manufactured. The composites were submitted to four pointing bending tests in order to determine their mechanical behavior. The results obtained were compared with those found for cement composites reinforced with sisal fibers.

  11. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Manufacturing (United States)

    Wilden, K. S.; Harris, C. G.; Flynn, B. W.; Gessel, M. G.; Scholz, D. B.; Stawski, S.; Winston, V.


    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program is to develop the technology required for cost-and weight-efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements, and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of stringer-stiffened and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant-section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements cocured to skin structures. Significant process development efforts included AFP, braiding, RTM, autoclave cure, and core blanket fabrication for both sandwich and stiffened-skin structure. Outer-mold-line and inner-mold-line tooling was developed for sandwich structures and stiffened-skin structure. The effect of design details, process control and tool design on repeatable, dimensionally stable, structure for low cost barrel assembly was assessed. Subcomponent panels representative of crown, keel, and side quadrant panels were fabricated to assess scale-up effects and manufacturing anomalies for full-scale structures. Manufacturing database including time studies, part quality, and manufacturing plans were generated to support the development of designs and analytical models to access cost, structural performance, and dimensional tolerance.

  12. Mechanical reliability of optical fiber in combined continuous draw and proof testing process


    Turunen, Harri


    The fiber manufacturing has traditionally had three different process phases: Preform Manufacturing, Fiber Draw and Proof Testing. This thesis focuses on combining draw process and proof testing, which requires catching the fiber end after break at full production speed without disturbing the draw process. Proof testing means applying a specified tensile load to continuous lengths of optical fiber. The tensile load is applied for as short time as possible, yet sufficiently long to ensure ...

  13. Quantitative risk assessment of durable glass fibers. (United States)

    Fayerweather, William E; Eastes, Walter; Cereghini, Francesco; Hadley, John G


    This article presents a quantitative risk assessment for the theoretical lifetime cancer risk from the manufacture and use of relatively durable synthetic glass fibers. More specifically, we estimate levels of exposure to respirable fibers or fiberlike structures of E-glass and C-glass that, assuming a working lifetime exposure, pose a theoretical lifetime cancer risk of not more than 1 per 100,000. For comparability with other risk assessments we define these levels as nonsignificant exposures. Nonsignificant exposure levels are estimated from (a) the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) chronic rat inhalation bioassay of durable E-glass microfibers, and (b) the Research Consulting Company (RCC) chronic inhalation bioassay of durable refractory ceramic fibers (RCF). Best estimates of nonsignificant E-glass exposure exceed 0.05-0.13 fibers (or shards) per cubic centimeter (cm3) when calculated from the multistage nonthreshold model. Best estimates of nonsignificant C-glass exposure exceed 0.27-0.6 fibers/cm3. Estimates of nonsignificant exposure increase markedly for E- and C-glass when non-linear models are applied and rapidly exceed 1 fiber/cm3. Controlling durable fiber exposures to an 8-h time-weighted average of 0.05 fibers/cm3 will assure that the additional theoretical lifetime risk from working lifetime exposures to these durable fibers or shards is kept below the 1 per 100,000 level. Measured airborne exposures to respirable, durable glass fibers (or shards) in glass fiber manufacturing and fabrication operations were compared with the nonsignificant exposure estimates described. Sampling results for B-sized respirable E-glass fibers at facilities that manufacture or fabricate small-diameter continuous-filament products, from those that manufacture respirable E-glass shards from PERG (process to efficiently recycle glass), from milled fiber operations, and from respirable C-glass shards from Flakeglass operations indicate very low median exposures of 0, 0.0002, 0.007, 0.008, and 0.0025 fibers (or shards)/cm3, respectively using the NIOSH 7400 Method ("B" rules). Durable glass fiber exposures for various applications must be well characterized to ensure that they are kept below nonsignificant levels (e.g., 0.05 fibers/cm3) as defined in this risk assessment. PMID:12119068

  14. Scintillating optical fibers for fine-grained hodoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast detectors with fine spatial resolution will be needed to exploit high event rates at ISABELLE. Scintillating optical fibers for fine grained hodoscopes have been developed by the authors. A commercial manufacturer of optical fibers has drawn and clad PVT scintillator. Detection efficiencies greater than 99% have been achieved for a 1 mm fiber with a PMT over lengths up to 60 cm. Small diameter PMT's and avalanche photodiodes have been tested with the fibers. Further improvements are sought for the fiber and for the APD's sensitivity and coupling efficiency with the fiber

  15. Fiber Optics (United States)

    SFGate: SBC and Microsoft Communications Inc. Stuff Works: How Fiber Optics Work Optic Reference Guide: A Brief History World: Has Your Broadband Had Its Fiber?,aid,117684,00.aspTelephony Online article from SFGate reports on the recent negotiations between SBC and Microsoft (1) and the implications of the new technology for Internet and television access. This website from SBC (2) provides video footage and background information on their initiative called Project Lightspeed. This initiative is based largely on fiber technology, which is described further on this website from How Stuff Works (3). This website (4) provides a brief history of fiber optics technology along with links to sections on the applications of fiber optics and more basics on transmission. This article from PC World (5) discusses how fiber optics became a viable option. This article from Telephony Online 6)reviews some of the challenges that remain.

  16. Status of fiber lasers study of on ytterbium doped fiber laser and laser spectroscopy of doped fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows all the advantages and drawbacks of the rare-earth-doped fiber lasers and fiber optical amplifiers, pointing out their potential use for instrumentation and optical fiber sensor technology. The theory of light propagation in optical fibers is presented in order to understand the manufacturing methods. A comparative study of preform surface and concentration analysis is performed. The gain behaviour is also thoroughly examined. A synthesis of all technological parameters of the fiber laser is then established and all technologies of the constituting integrated components are reviewed and compared. The experimental techniques mainly involve: site selective excitation tunability, cooperative luminescence, oxidation state changes induced by gamma irradiation, ytterbium-doped mono-mode continuous wave tunable three-level fiber laser. (TEC). 622 refs., 176 figs

  17. Manufacturing Engineering Skills (United States)

    Loughrey, Joe

    Manufacturing Engineering Skills provides an assessment of what the key manufacturing skills along with skill gaps are in the marketplace. Joe Loughrey is president and chief operating officer of Cummins Inc. and chairman of The Manufacturing Institute, the research and education arm of the National Association of Manufacturers. Additionally, Manufacturing Engineering Skills was shared by Mike Mohlar and by Roger Lang at an SME mfg executive roundtable in 2005 to provide clarity and encouragement about careers in manufacturing.

  18. Modelling manufacturing systems capability


    Holmström, Patrik


    Any way of making the manufacturing industry more efficient is always of great interest due to the contribution of manufacturing to the society. A major asset within manufacturing is information about manufacturing systems, as a base when making decisions. The most essential information within manufac-turing industry would be the manufacturing systems capability information. That information would include information about the resource, used process and produced product. Although important, m...

  19. Tribology in Manufacturing Technology

    CERN Document Server


    The present book aims to provide research advances on tribology in manufacturing technology for modern industry. This book can be used as a research book for final undergraduate engineering course (for example, mechanical, manufacturing, materials, etc) or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. Also, this book can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and tribology researchers, mechanical, mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineers, professionals in related industries with manufacturing and tribology.

  20. Superconducting fiber (United States)

    Homa, D.; Liang, Y.; Pickrell, G.


    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a lead core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a melt-draw technique and maintained overall diameters ranging from 200-900 ?m and core diameters of 100-800 ?m. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 4 K. The superconducting fiber paves the way for applications in power transmission, magnetic sensing, and fundamental studies in the fields of electromagnetism.

  1. Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga NØrgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro


    Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had amounts of bonded and physisorbed sizing similar to what has been presented in literature. An estimated sizing thickness was found to be approximately 100 nm. It is indicated that an epoxy-resin containing film former and a polyethylene oxide lubricant are present, yet no silanes or other sizing components were identified in the extractant.

  2. Introduction to Manufacturing (United States)

    Introduction to Manufacturing provides an overview of basic manufacturing processes and career opportunities within manufacturing. Students will participate in a manufacturing simulation in which they will analyze the manufacturing process for a product and redesign the process to incorporate a teaming approach. After completing this module, students should be able to analyze and execute a manufacturing process, identify problems in the process, and redesign the process for improvement during a simulated manufacturing line. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at

  3. Effect of fiber content on the mechanical properties of glass fiber-phenolic matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass fiber-Phenolic matrix composite is used for the manufacturing of parts related to aerospace and electronic industry due to its high strength, dimensional stability and excellent electrical insulation properties. The evaluation of this composite material is necessary prior to make components/articles of new designs. In the present work, Thermosetting Phenolic plastic was reinforced with E-glass fiber, in different fiber-to-resin ratios to produce composites of different compositions. Mechanical properties of these composite materials were evaluated with reference to the effect of fiber content variation in phenolic resin. (author)

  4. Effect of fiber content on the properties of glass fiber-phenolic matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass fiber-Phenolic matrix composite is used for the manufacturing of parts /components related to electronic and aerospace industry due to its high strength, dimensional stability and excellent electrical insulation properties. The evaluation of this composite material is necessary prior to make parts/components of new designs. In the present research, thermosetting phenolic plastic was reinforced with E-glass fiber in different fiber-to-resin ratios to produce composites of different compositions. Mechanical and electrical properties of these composite materials were evaluated with reference to the effect of fiber content variation in phenolic resin. (author)

  5. Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements

  6. Servitization in Norwegian Manufacturing


    Fiksdal, Ida; Kathuria, Karan Kumar


    Norwegian manufacturers are experiencing increasing competition from manufactures based in developing countries with substantially lower production costs. This increased competition forces manufacturers to differentiate and add more value to their offerings, in order to stay competitive. Servitization represents a strategy for Norwegian manufacturers to do so by expanding their business model to include services and ultimately provide solutions. Despite the evolvement of different servitizati...

  7. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation (United States)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato


    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey's equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29th International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160?, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.

  8. Ultrasound fiber guides and sensor applications (United States)

    Safaai-Jazi, A.


    An overview of ultrasound fiber guides, their transmission properties, and their applications in sensing is presented. Ultrasound fiber guides are structures similar to optical fibers that are used for transmission of acoustic waves. They consist of a core region surrounded by a cladding layer to help confine the wave to the core. Ultrasound fiber guides may be fabricated with glass materials such as pure and doped fused silica, using fiber optics manufacturing technology. The underlying principles of fiber optic sensing in many cases are also applicable to ultrasound fiber guides, hence the potential applications of these waveguides in sensing and health monitoring of infrastructures. Propagation properties of ultrasound fiber guides are reviewed. Attention is focused on guides with small differences between the parameters of the core and cladding, often a necessary requirement for single-mode operation. Various types of guided modes including flexural, torsional, and radial modes are discussed. These modes are predominantly shear type. Ultrasound fiber guides also support another group of modes with complex propagation constants, which are referred to as leaky longitudinal modes. These modes lose power as propagate along the guide through radiation. Similarities and differences between optical and ultrasound modes in fiber guides are addressed.

  9. Manufacturing Strategy, Capabilities and Performance


    Hallgren, Mattias


    This dissertation addresses the topic of manufacturing strategy, especially the manufacturing capabilities and operational performance of manufacturing plants. Manufacturing strategy research aims at providing a structured decision making approach to improve the economics of manufacturing and to make companies more competitive. The overall objective of this thesis is to investigate how manufacturing companies make use of different manufacturing practices or bundles of manufacturing practices ...

  10. Carbon fibers from SRC pitch (United States)

    Greskovich, Eugene J. (Allentown, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)


    This invention relates to an improved method of manufacturing carbon fibers from a coal derived pitch. The improvement resides in the use of a solvent refined coal which has been hydrotreated and subjected to solvent extraction whereby the hetero atom content in the resulting product is less than 4.0% by weight and the softening point is between about F.

  11. Physico-mechanical properties of chemically treated palm and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene composites. (United States)

    Haque, Md Mominul; Hasan, Mahbub; Islam, Md Saiful; Ali, Md Ershad


    In this work, palm and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene bio-composites were manufactured using a single extruder and injection molding machine. Raw palm and coir were chemically treated with benzene diazonium salt to increase their compatibility with the polypropylene matrix. Both raw and treated palm and coir fiber at five level of fiber loading (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 wt.%) was utilized during composite manufacturing. Microstructural analysis and mechanical tests were conducted. Comparison has been made between the properties of the palm and coir fiber composites. Treated fiber reinforced specimens yielded better mechanical properties compared to the raw composites, while coir fiber composites had better mechanical properties than palm fiber ones. Based on fiber loading, 30% fiber reinforced composites had the optimum set of mechanical properties. PMID:19477124

  12. Fiber Optics Technician. Curriculum Research Project. Final Report. (United States)

    Whittington, Herschel K.

    A study examined the role of technicians in the fiber optics industry and determined those elements that should be included in a comprehensive curriculum to prepare fiber optics technicians for employment in the Texas labor market. First the current literature, including the ERIC database and equipment manufacturers' journals were reviewed. After…

  13. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Manufacturing Initiative Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA supports the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO). Hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) the AMNPO is...

  14. Design of Natural Fiber Composites Chemical Container Using Resin Flow Simulation of VARTML Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changduk Kong


    Full Text Available In this study, an investigation on mechanical properties of flax natural fiber composite is performed as a precedent study on the design of eco-friendly structure using flax natural fiber composite. The Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding-Light (VARTML manufacturing method is adopted for manufacturing the flax fiber composite panel. The VARTML is a manufacturing process that the resin is injected into the dry layered –up fibers enclosed by a rigid mold tool under vacuum. In this work, the resin flow analysis of VARTM manufacturing method is performed. A series of flax composite panels are manufactured, and several kinds of specimens cut out from the panels are tested to obtain mechanical performance data. Based on this, structural design of chemical storage tank for agricultural vehicle was performed using flax/vinyl ester. After structural design and analysis, the resin flow analysis of VARTM manufacturing method was performed

  15. Manufacturing Extension Partnership Source for Manufacturers (United States)

    Located within the United States Commerce Department, the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) consists of not-for-profit centers whose "sole purpose is to provide small and medium sized manufacturers with the services they need to succeed." On their site, they provide access to a number of resources that support supply chain integration and also provide access to information about technology that will increase productivity. First-time visitors may wish to begin by looking over the "Success Stories" area, which tells about those manufacturers that have created useful partnerships through the program. Visitors who might be studying these types of manufacturers may wish to look at the "Economic Indicators" area of the site and the "Tools" section, which contain a number of e-business tools designed for these types of manufacturers. Additionally, visitors can also use an interactive map to find their local MEP Center.

  16. Automotive Manufacturing Scholarships (United States)

    This page from the Consortium for Alabama Regional Center for Automotive Manufacturing (CARCAM) provides some information about scholarships in automotive manufacturing. The highlighted scholarship is only open to Alabama residents, but the page provides links to other scholarship opportunities.

  17. Optimization of fiber shapes in biocomposites (United States)

    Zhou, Yan

    Fibers can be used to improve the mechanical properties of acrylic bone cement. However, debonding of the fibers from the matrix due to the poor fiber/matrix interface is a major failure mechanism for such reinforcements. Optimization of the fiber shape can improve load transfer between the fibers and the matrix, thereby providing improved overall mechanical performance. The goals of this study include: (1) Develop an analytical model to evaluate the effects of fiber end geometry on the pullout load and stress distribution; (2) Determine the optimal fiber morphology for maximum stress transfer in composites using optimization and finite element modeling; (3) Fabricate the fibers with optimal morphology determined by the previous step; (4) Manufacture composites reinforced with the optimized fibers and demonstrate improved mechanical properties experimentally. Analytical solutions were derived to predict the effects of the enlarged end shape on the pullout load and stress distribution. It is shown that the shape of the enlarged end has a significant influence on the stress distribution of the short fiber. A procedure for structural shape optimization of short fibers was developed. The effects of the interfacial bond and fiber orientation were investigated to obtain the optimal fiber shape. The general optimal fiber shape is a variable diameter fiber (VDF). Due to the mechanical interlock, the VDF can both bridge matrix cracks effectively and improve the composite mechanical properties. Ceramic VDFs were successfully fabricated. Static and fatigue tests were carried out on the VDF reinforced composites. Conventional straight fiber (CSF) reinforced bone cement was also tested for comparison purposes. Results demonstrated that both the stiffness and the fatigue life of VDF reinforced bone cement are significantly improved compared with the unreinforced cement. Also, the fatigue life of VDF reinforced bone cement was significantly longer than that of CSF reinforced cement. This study shows the feasibility of a novel fiber (VDFs) technology for reinforced polymers. This fiber family significantly improves the fatigue life of bone cement at a very high level of reliability. VDFs could potentially avoid implant loosening due to the mantle fracture of bone cement and delay the need for revision surgery.

  18. Rapid Manufactured Textiles


    Bingham, Guy; Hague, Richard; Tuck, Christopher John; Long, Andrew; Crookston, Jonathan Josiah; Sherburn, Martin


    Abstract Rapid Manufacturing (RM) is increasingly becoming a viable manufacturing process due to dramatic advantages that are achievable in the area of design complexity. Through the exploration of the design freedom afforded by RM, this paper introduces the concept and novel research area of RM textiles. The paper highlights the design and manufacturing possibilities applied to textiles when considering additive manufacturing techniques, the current limitations of conventional Com...

  19. Safety in Manufacturing (United States)

    Safety in Manufacturing provides participants with an understanding of the critical nature of safety in manufacturing and of the individual's role in providing for a safe manufacturing environment. After completing this module, students should be able to evaluate the degree of hazard in a given scenario and recommend appropriate corrective action. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at

  20. What is Manufacturing? (United States)

    This PowerPoint presentation from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center provides an introduction to general manufacturing. The material focuses on manufacturing that is Florida based, but would be useful for students in other regions as well. The presentation demonstrates the manufacturing cycle (innovate, design, fabricate, test, market, distribute) and shows student the pathway they may take to a career in manufacturing.

  1. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber (United States)

    Insoluble vs. soluble fiber; Fiber - soluble vs. insoluble ... There are two different types of fiber -- soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. ...

  2. Desktop manufacturing using diode lasers (United States)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar


    Semiconductor laser diodes, while not yet ready to replace YAG and CO2 lasers from heavy duty machining, are already capable of carrying out a number of manufacturing jobs that require a power density of 100 kw/cm2 or less, and CW power of 100 Watt or less. We present results of cutting cellulose materials, marking plastics, soldering electronic circuit boards, surface (transformation) hardening, chemical vapor phase deposition (by gas breakdown) using fiber coupled CW lasers at 810 nm (60 Watts) and 980 nm (25 Watts). We also present the results of sintering metal powders under different conditions to improve density and hardness, demonstrating that diodes can do an excellent job in solid free-form development (or rapid prototyping).

  3. Workforce Development for Manufacturing (United States)

    Bernard, Rosalie


    In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…



    Irina T?r?boan??


    Bico fibers include bicomponent and biconstituent fibers.Bicomponent fibers are synthetic fibers made from two polymers of different chemical and physical structure.They are produced by common melt-drawing processes similar to conventional synthetic fibers.[1]. The biconstituent fiber consists of a continuous matrix of one polymer in which a different fiber-forming polymer is dispersed as a second distinct discontinuous phase; it as mix-polymer fiber or fascicular microfiber because the micro...

  5. Controlling Fiber Morphology in Simultaneous Centrifugal Spinning and Photopolymerization (United States)

    Fang, Yichen; Dulaney, Austin; Ellison, Christopher


    Current synthetic fiber manufacturing technologies use either solvent or heat to transform a solid preformed polymer into a liquid before applying a force to draw the liquid into fiber. While the use of solvent poses concerns regarding process safety and environmental impact, the use of heat may also lead to polymer degradation and excessive energy consumption. To address these critical challenges, here we present an alternative fiber manufacturing method that encompasses extruding a monomer solution through an orifice, drawing it using centrifugal Forcespinning and polymerizing the monomer jet into solid fiber in flight using UV initiated thiol-ene chemistry. This method not only negates the use of both heat and solvent, but also produces fibers that are highly crosslinked, mechanically robust, and thermally stable. In this process, the balance between curing kinetics, fiber flight time, and solution viscoelasticity is essential. Studies were conducted to quantitatively investigate the effect of these factors on fiber formation and morphology. An operating diagram was developed to show how the intricate interplay of these factors led to the formation of smooth fibers and other undesirable fiber defects, such as beads-on-string, fused fibers, and droplets.

  6. Manufacturing Planning Guide (United States)

    Waid, Michael


    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  7. Polymer microstructured fibers by one-step extrusion (United States)

    Mignanelli, M.; Wani, K.; Ballato, J.; Foulger, S.; Brown, P.


    For the first time to our knowledge, polymer-based microstructured fibers with complex cross-sections are directly produced via melt extrusion. Two principal types of fibers were fabricated: a microstructured fiber of a single polymer with a hexagonal array of air holes and a bicomponent fiber consisting of approximately 60 coaxial rings. From the latter, strong visible iridescence was observed and is shown to exhibit a mechanochromic response. This approach, the mainstay of the textile trade for decades, offers a means of continuous high-volume low-cost manufacturing of polymer (and conceivably soft-glass) fibers. For example, in the present effort, 128 coaxially microstructured fibers were fabricated simultaneously at rates exceeding 1200 m/min from industrially mainstream polymers. This approach offers an important step forward towards commoditizing microstructured fibers and open new doors for optical engineering in fashion, marking/identification, and numerous military applications.

  8. Uso de harina de cotiledón de algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) como fuente de proteína y fibra dietética en la elaboración de galletas y hojuelas fritas / Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Berta, Escobar; Ana María, Estévez A; Carolina, Fuentes G; Daniela, Venegas F.


    Full Text Available Los aminoácidos limitantes en la proteína de algarrobo chileno son isoleucina, treonina y metionina/cisteina. La mezcla de cereales y leguminosas, permite mejorar el balance aminoacídico, ya que las leguminosas tienen más lisina y los cereales son más ricos en aminoácidos azufrados. Debido al interé [...] s nutricional del cotiledón de algarrobo, se evaluó la incorporación de harina de cotiledón de algarrobo (HCA) en la elaboración de “snack” dulces y salados. Se prepararon galletas dulces y hojuelas fritas saladas con 0%, 10% y 20% de HCA. En las harinas se determinó, color, granulometría, humedad, composición proximal, lisina disponible, fibra dietética total, soluble e insoluble. A las galletas y hojuelas se les determinaron las mismas características físicas y químicas (excepto granulometría) que las harinas; además se determinó actividad de agua, peso y dimensiones y se calculó el aporte calórico. Se evaluó la calidad y aceptabilidad sensorial de ambos productos. Destaca el alto contenido de proteínas, lípidos, cenizas, fibra cruda (63,6; 10,2; 4,3 y 4,2 g/100g bms, respectivamente), lisina disponible (62,4 mg/g proteína) y fibra dietética total (24,2 g/100g bms) de la HCA. Tanto en las galletas como en las hojuelas con HCA, aumenta significativamente el contenido de proteínas, lípidos, cenizas, fibra cruda, lisina disponible (desde 15,5 a 19,3 y de 20,3 a 29,6 mg lisina/g proteína, respectivamente) y fibra dietética total (de 1,39 a 2,80 y de 1,60 a 5,60 g/100g bms, respectivamente). Todos los tratamientos de galletas fueron igualmente aceptados (“me gusta mucho”); las hojuelas, con 10% de HCA presentaron la mayor aceptabilidad (“me gusta medianamente”). Se puede concluir que la incorporación de HCA en la elaboración de galletas y hojuelas fritas aumenta el aporte de lisina disponible, su contenido de proteínas y fibra dietética, mejorando la relación fibra soluble/ insoluble, sin afectar sus características físicas ni la aceptabilidad sensorial. Abstract in english Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean “algarrobo” are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of “algarrob [...] o” cotyledons, the use of “algarrobo cotyledon” flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted (“I like it very much”); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance (“I like it”). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance.

  9. 77 FR 75972 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, Tennessee, Toho Tenax America, Inc., Subzone 148C (Carbon Fiber... (United States)


    ...Tennessee, Toho Tenax America, Inc., Subzone 148C (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Authority); Extension of Comment Period on New...preliminary recommendation not to authorize TTA to manufacture carbon fiber for the U.S. market at this time, is being extended to...

  10. Measurement of spontaneous Brillouin scattering in optical fiber with a fiber Bragg grating Sagnac loop (United States)

    Ou, Zhonghua; Zhang, Lixun; Dai, Zhiyong; Liu, Yongzhi


    A novel method for direct optical detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering in optical fiber by using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) Sagnac loop is introduced. The transmission character as an optical filter of FBG Sagnac loop is investigated theoretically. The filter which is based on an asymmetric grating Sagnac loop is manufactured and used in the measurement of spontaneous Brillouin scattering sensing system, and the separation of backscattered spontaneous Brillouin from Rayleigh is achieved effectively. It is demonstrated that the fiber grating Sagnac loop filter can be applied in the distributed sensing system based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering.

  11. Fiber Lasers V : Technology, Systems, and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin


    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems require specially designed fibers with large cores and good power handling capabilities – requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 ?m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350 W CW fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. Finally, we briefly touch upon the subject of photo darkening andits origin.

  12. General Tips Concerning What Has Been Learned About Cotton Processing in Traditional Textile Manufacturing (United States)

    This article, under the following sub-headings, briefly describes a few important practical tips involving processing of cotton in traditional textile manufacturing: (1)Bale Selection and Fiber Mixing, (2) Fiber Opening and Cleaning, (3) Carding, (4) Drawing, (5) Combing (if necessary), (6) Roving, ...

  13. A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.


    A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described. A novel adsorbent carbon composite material has been developed comprising carbon fibers and a binder. The material, called carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), was developed through a joint research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER).

  14. Fiber optics and their applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally, technical innovation and advanced technology give large impact also to the technical field of atomic energy, and the examples are the introduction of computers and optical information transmission and processing technology into atomic energy facilities. Combined with the development of radiation-resistant optical fibers, the optical information technology has been introduced into all aspects of atomic energy field. The information transmission using optical fibers is advantageous because of wide band, small loss, the immunity to crosstalk and electromagnetic induction effects, small size and low price. The structure of optical fibers, the transmission loss in optical fibers, the manufacturing method for optical fibers, the coating structure for optical fibers, optical cable structure, the new optical fibers developed recently such as optical fiber image guides, constant polarization fibers and infrared fibers, the merits of using optical fibers for signal transmission, atomic energy facilities and image transmission, the present status of the research on radiation-resistant fibers, and the application to nuclear power stations, reprocessing plants, FBRs, fusion reactors and others are described. (Kako, I.)

  15. Designing the Structure of Carbon Fibers for Optimal Mechanical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Vautard, Frederic [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL


    Carbon fiber manufacturing follows generic processing steps: formation of thermoplastic fibers, stabilization, and carbonization. The final structures and end properties of the carbon fiber can differ significantly depending on the precursor chemistry and the associated processing sciences. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and mesophase pitch are the predominant precursors used in the production of carbon fibers. PAN-based carbon fibers consist of nanocrystalline graphitic domains typically 1.5 5 nm in size surrounded by amorphous carbon; in contrast, pitch-based carbon fibers are 10 50 nm crystallites with the graphitic (002) planes mostly aligned parallel to the fiber axis. It has been seen that the skin core structure of PAN-based carbon fibers plays a significant role in their mechanical properties. Designing a more homogenous carbon fiber microstructure by controlling the starting polymer and process parameters results in a different set of tensile strengths and elastic moduli. In this study the microstructural defect distribution (0.1 200 nm), measured by small-angle X-ray scattering, was shown to be directly related to the tensile strength of the carbon fibers. Here the formation of carbon structures from various polymer precursors is reviewed. Such a comprehensive understanding offers the opportunity to design carbon fiber microstructures with improved properties and to ultimately create new types of carbon fibers from alternative precursors at reduced cost.

  16. Effect of Fiber Surface Structure on Absorption Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAN Xin, ZHI Jian-Hai, WANG Xue-Fei, ZHANG Yong-Gang, YANG Jian-Xing


    Full Text Available Carbon fibers with different surface structures were obtained through changing the treatment intensities in the process of electrochemical oxidation, and then oxidized carbon fibers were used as reinforcements to manufacture carbon fiber/epoxy composites. The relationship between fiber surface structure and the moisture absorption of carbon fiber/epoxy composites after hygrothermal aging treatment was studied. Results show that a significant increase happen to the surface activity of carbon fiber after electrochemical oxidation, and there is also a large extent of elevation in the relative content of oxygen-containing functional groups especially –OH group which increases from 18.62% to 34.84%. The moisture absorption mechanism of carbon fiber/epoxy composites varies with the change of hygrothermal aging conditions. Temperature is considered to be a leading factor in the moisture absorption process. Results also indicate that the higher the surface activity of carbon fiber, the greater composite materials get the equilibrium moisture content. There is an obvious decline in the ILSS values of carbon fiber/epoxy composites with the increase of moisture uptake content.

  17. Thermophysical ESEM Characterization of Carbon Fibers (United States)

    Sue, Jiwoong; Ochoa, Ozden O.; Effinger, Michael R.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)


    Coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of carbon fibers create residual stresses in aggressive manufacturing and service environments. In this effort, environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) is used for in situ observations of a carbon fiber cross-section up to 1000 C in order to evaluate the much neglected transverse CTE. The perimeter of fiber cross-section is calculated with the Scion image processing program from images that were taken at every 100 C increments. CTE values are calculated by linear regression of the strain data based on the perimeter changes. Furthermore, through SEM, WDS and TEM observations, we are in the process of bringing an interactive rationale between CTE, crystallinity and surface roughness of carbon fibers.

  18. Advanced Manufacturing Discovery Program (United States)

    This is a 3:15 minute video on YouTube. It shows a set of high school students assigned to a manufacturing project that is very much like a real industry situation. A diverse mix of students work on developing a hovercraft. Their skills and backgrounds include: 3D CAD, engineering, manufacturing, marketing, math, sciences, business, communications, arts, and electronics. They learn how to work together to create a finished product while discovering the many opportunities available in manufacturing.

  19. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation


    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell


    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  20. Manufacturing knowledge management strategy


    Shaw, Duncan; Edwards, John


    Abstract The study sought to understand the components of knowledge management strategy from the perspective of staff in UK manufacturing organisations. To analyse this topic we took an empirical approach and collaborated with two manufacturing organisations. Our main finding centres on the key components of a knowledge management strategy, and the relationships between it and manufacturing strategy and corporate strategy. Other findings include: the nature of knowledge in manufact...

  1. Cloud agile manufacturing


    Maciá Pérez, Francisco; Berná Martínez, José Vicente; Marcos Jorquera, Diego; Lorenzo Fonseca, Iren; Ferrándiz Colmeiro, Antonio


    This paper proposes a new manufacturing paradigm, we call Cloud Agile Manufacturing, and whose principal objective is to offer industrial production systems as a service. Thus users can access any functionality available in the cloud of manufacturing (process design, production, management, business integration, factories virtualization, etc.) without knowledge — or at least without having to be experts — in managing the required resources. The proposal takes advantage of many of the bene...

  2. Optimizing Belt Conveyor Manufacturing


    Chen, Honghong


    This final year project was carried out at a Chinese company, Chaohu Machinery Manufacturing Co, Ltd, which produces all kinds of conveying equipments for all walks of life. Chaohu Machinery Manufacturing Co, Ltd was established in 1990, and is located in Anhui Province, the southern part of China. The purpose of this project was to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the basic production process theory of manufacturing belt conveyors. The project focuses on choosing the right conveyor b...

  3. What Constrains Indian Manufacturing?


    Gupta, Poonam; Hasan, Rana; Kumar, Utsav


    India has undertaken extensive reforms in its manufacturing sector in the last two decades. However, an acceleration of growth in manufacturing, and a concomitant increase in employment, has eluded India. What might be holding the sector back? Using Annual Survey of Industries data at the 3-digit level, and difference in differences estimates, this paper finds that the postreform performance of the manufacturing sector is heterogeneous across industries. In particular, industries that were de...

  4. Continuous fiber ceramic composites for energy related applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Department of Energy has established the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program to develop technology for the manufacture of CFCC`s for use in industrial applications where a reduction in energy usage or emissions could be realized. As part of this program, the Dow Chemical Company explored the manufacture of a fiber reinforced/self reinforced silicon nitride for use in industrial chemical processing. In Dow`s program, CFCC manufacturing technology was developed around traditional, cost effective, tape casting routes. Formulations were developed and coupled with unique processing procedures which enabled the manufacture of tubular green laminates of the dimension needed for the application. An evaluation of the effect of various fibers and fiber coatings on the properties of a fiber reinforced composites was also conducted. Results indicated that fiber coatings could provide composites exhibiting non-catastrophic failure and substantially improved toughness. However, an evaluation of these materials in industrial process environments showed that the material system chosen by Dow did not provide the required performance improvements to make replacement of current metallic components with CFCC components economically viable.

  5. The application of ALD process on special fiber (United States)

    Wei, Guangyuan; Zhang, Ru; Lang, Peilin


    The film thickness and the composition of the fiber can be controlled by ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition) process at atomic level. Therefore, a special fiber with the structure of alternating deposition of doped Nano-semiconductor materials (such as PbS, InP etc.) and SiO2 can be manufactured by ALD process. In a word, this would not only change the manufacturing technology of fiber, but also greatly changed the structure of fiber. In this paper the Band-gap energy and absorption wavelength is calculated for different nano-particle size by the influence of Quantum Size Effect. Considering the 1550 nm wavelength used widely in optical communication, the particle size is calculated, which is used in a simulated structure of the special fiber. Then Based on the simulation of the distribution of optical field, we draw a conclusion that the light field intensity in the special fiber is lower than the single fiber. Therefore, a high-power pumping light should be added if the special fiber is used as amplifying fiber.

  6. Manufacturing Field Trip (United States)

    Alston, Michele

    Manufacturing Field Trip is a lesson plan which helps students gain a realistic picture of employment within the manufacturing sector when visiting the manufacturing plant of an MTAG industry partner. After completing this module, students should be able to describe the qualifications required by, as well as the daily functions and work environment offered by various positions within the company visited. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at

  7. Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory (United States)

    The Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory (MEL) is a division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Its function is to work with companies and perform research to improve manufacturing performance. Because of its broad scope, MEL has five divisions -- Precision Engineering, Manufacturing Metrology, Intelligent Systems, Manufacturing Systems Integration, and Fabrication Technology. The laboratory's homepage offers descriptions, research project information, conference and workshop times, and photo and movie galleries from various projects. There is also a link to an Engineering Metrology Toolbox used to "solve real problems in dimensional measurement."

  8. Optical fiber devices in space environmental conditions (United States)

    Shimodaira, K.; matsuoka, T.; Miyaji, Y.; Murata, K.; Koyama, Y.; Shimizu, M.

    The mechanical, temperature, out-gas and irradiation characteristics of optical fiber cords, light emitting diodes, opto-electronic receptacles and other optical fiber devices were tested to evaluate the performance in the space environmental conditions. The result indicated the good durability of these devices in general, but several problems were also pointed out and were examined afterward for the improvement. The out-gas and the temperature (-55- + 150°C) characteristics of the optical fiber cord were improved in trial manufacturing. The improved LED receptacles showed output variation of less than 0.06 dB at 0.87 × 10 6 rad (Si) of ? irradiation and ±0.5 dB for -55- + 150°C temperature cycling when compensating the temperature variation of the light emitting diodes. The weight and the power consumption were estimated for the future space-borne fiber optic data bus system, and 56% of weight reduction was estimated comparing to the conventional wire system. Through the environmental test and the trial manufacturing, the application of optical fiber devices to the space-borne equipment was evaluated to be feasible when properly improved.

  9. Additive Versus Subtractive Manufacturing (United States)

    For manufacturing students learning the basics, this page from SnoCAMP would be a useful addition to in-class instruction. The webpage combines photographs of examples with descriptive text. This would be a good introduction for students learning the basics about manufacturing.

  10. Improving Project Manufacturing Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpivaara Ville


    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop firms’ project manufacturing coordination. The development will be made by centralizing the manufacturing information flows in one system. To be able to centralize information, a deep user need assessment is required. After user needs have been identified, the existing system will be developed to match these needs. The theoretical background is achieved through exploring the literature of project manufacturing, development project success factors and different frameworks and tools for development project execution. The focus of this research is rather in customer need assessment than in system’s technical expertise. To ensure the deep understanding of customer needs this study is executed by action research method. As a result of this research the information system for project manufacturing coordination was developed to respond revealed needs of the stakeholders. The new system improves the quality of the manufacturing information, eliminates waste in manufacturing coordination processes and offers a better visibility to the project manufacturing. Hence it provides a solid base for the further development of project manufacturing.

  11. Modern manufacturing engineering

    CERN Document Server


    This book covers recent research and trends in Manufacturing Engineering. The chapters emphasize different aspects of the transformation from materials to products. It provides the reader with fundamental materials treatments and the integration of processes. Concepts such as green and lean manufacturing are also covered in this book.

  12. Automotive Manufacturing Employment (United States)

    This page from the Consortium for Alabama Regional Center for Automotive Manufacturing (CARCAM) provides a number of links to the websites of automotive manufacturers and suppliers. The list focuses on locations in the Southern United States, and it would be useful for students in this region looking for employment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat J. Saleh


    Full Text Available Inpresent work tubular –shaped fiber reinforced composites were manufactured byusing two types of resins ( Epoxy and unsaturated polyester and separatelyreinforced with glass, carbon and kevlar-49 fibers (filament and woven roving,hybrid reinforcement composites of these fibers were also prepared. The fiberswere wet wound on a mandrel using a purposely designed winding machine,developed by modifying an ordinary lathe, in winding angle of 55° for filament. A creep test was made of either the fulltube or specimens taken from it. Creep was found to increase upon reinforcementin accordance to the rule of mixture and mainly decided by the type of singleor hybridized fibers. The creep behavior, showed that the observed strain tendsto appear much faster at higher temperature as compared with that exhibited atroom temperate. The creep rate also found to be depending on fiber type, matrixtype, and the fiber /matrix bonding. The creep energy calculated fromexperimental observations was found to exhibit highest value for hybridizedreinforcement.

  14. Aerospace Manufacturing Education (AME) (United States)

    The NSF funded Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project's mission is to "develop and disseminate curricula modules to enhance manufacturing technician and engineering programs in higher education with relevant aerospace manufacturing examples." The project is developing curricula modules to prepare manufacturing technology practitioners for the aerospace industry and increase the number of interested candidates for aerospace manufacturing jobs. Curricula modules are being developed and used by two-year colleges for student education and by industry for in-house training of employees. Visitors will find the downloadable curriculum modules (after a quick and free registration form) on the left side of the homepage, as well as further info about the project, its partners, and advisors.

  15. Whole Grains and Fiber (United States)

    ... Program Requirements Fit-Friendly Resources Whole Grains and Fiber Updated:May 15,2015 Any food made from ... grains. Does not contain partially hydrogenated oils. Dietary Fiber Dietary fiber is the term for several materials ...

  16. Flexible Manufacturing Systems: What's in It for the Manufacturer. (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. R.; Peckman, Donald C.


    The authors define the Flexible Manufacturing System and outline its history. They describe what the processing time includes and provide advantages and disadvantages of Flexible Manufacturing Systems compared to conventional manufacturing. (CH)

  17. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites (United States)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness losses) during wet/dry cycling. SCMs have been found to be effective in mitigating composite degradation through several processes, including a reduction in the calcium hydroxide content, stabilization of monosulfate by maintaining pore solution pH, and a decrease in ettringite reprecipitation accomplished by increased binding of aluminum in calcium aluminate phases and calcium in the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phase.

  18. Establishing a low-power fiber optic cable facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belarde, E.


    The capability for the manufacture of fiber optic cables for low- energy applications was established at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division. The processes for mounting the most common optic connectors were developed and characterized.

  19. Pressure sensitivity analysis of fiber Bragg grating sensors (United States)

    Mrad, Nezih; Sridharan, Vasant; Kazemi, Alex


    Recent development in fiber optic sensing technology has mainly focused on discrete sensing, particularly, sensing systems with potential multiplexing and multi-parameter capabilities. Bragg grating fiber optic sensors have emerged as the non-disputed champion for multiplexing and simultaneous multi-parameter sensing for emerging high value structural components, advanced processing and manufacturing capabilities and increased critical infrastructure resilience applications. Although the number of potential applications for this sensing technology is large and spans the domains of medicine, manufacturing, aerospace, and public safety; critical issues such as fatigue life, sensitivity, accuracy, embeddability, material/sensor interface integrity, and universal demodulation systems still need to be addressed. The purpose of this paper is to primarily evaluate Commercial-Of-The-Shelf (COTS) Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors' sensitivity to pressure, often neglected in several applications. The COTS fiber sensitivity to pressure is further evaluated for two types of coatings (Polyimide and Acrylate), and different arrangements (arrayed and single).

  20. Advanced manufacturing technology in China

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fei-Yue


    Drawing framework for socio-economic development in China, this volume focuses on long-range plans for technological accomplishments in the field of advanced manufacturing. Topics include green transformation resources and manufacturing processes, intelligent manufacturing, and more.

  1. 75 FR 80040 - Manufacturing Council (United States)


    ...The Council's membership reflects the diversity of American manufacturing by representing...sector will be considered, based on the diversity of the manufacturing industry currently...encouraging applicants from the high-tech or bio-tech manufacturing sectors....

  2. 76 FR 33244 - Manufacturing Council (United States)


    ...Council's membership shall reflect the diversity of American manufacturing by representing...medium-sized enterprises. Based on the diversity of the manufacturing industry currently...encouraging applicants from the high-tech or bio-tech manufacturing and alternative...

  3. 77 FR 2275 - Manufacturing Council (United States)


    ...Council's membership shall reflect the diversity of American manufacturing by representing...medium-sized enterprises. Based on the diversity of the manufacturing industry currently...encouraging applicants from the high-tech or bio-tech manufacturing and alternative...

  4. Novel folding device for manufacturing aerospace composite structures (United States)

    Tewfic, Tarik; Sarhadi, M.


    A new manufacturing methodology, termed shape-inclusive lay-up has been applied that allows the generation of three-dimensional preforms for the resin transfer molding (RTM) process. A flexible novel folding device for forming dry fabrics including non-crimp fabric (NCF) preform is designed and integrated with a Material Delivery System (MDS) into a robotic cell for manufacturing dry fiber composite aerospace components. The paper describes detailed design, implementation and operational performance of a prototype device. The proposed folding device has been implemented and tested by manufacturing a range of reinforcement structure preforms (C,T,J and I reinforcement preforms), normally used in aerostructure applications. A key advantage of the proposed device is its flexibility. The system is capable of manufacturing a wide range of components of various sizes without the need for reconfiguration.

  5. Characterisation of pulsed Carbon fiber illuminators for FIR instrument calibration


    Henrot-versille, S.; Cizeron, R.; Couchot, F.


    We manufactured pulsed illuminators emitting in the far infrared for the Planck-HFI bolometric instrument ground calibrations. Specific measurements have been conducted on these light sources, based on Carbon fibers, to understand and predict their properties. We present a modelisation of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity and the calorific capacitance of the fibers. A comparison between simulations and bolometer data is given, that shows the coherence of...

  6. Time for a forum on terms used for textile fibers


    Zawistoski, P. S.


    The advances in manufactured fibers and textiles have garnered interest and excitement of textile artists and consumers alike for a myriad of reasons, including health, environmental, and fashion. The chemical and molecular nature of these advances, however leads to confusion and misunderstanding of the new fibers in the materials. This is exacerbated by the current climate of distrust for chemical words and desire for "green" products and the unregulated (mis)information and marketing on the...

  7. Fiber optic sensor for bidirectional air flow measurement in low-velocity process streams (United States)

    Lee, Jiann-Rong; Marcus, Michael A.; Danisch, Lee A.


    This talk describes the development and evaluation of bi- directional fiber-optic based low airflow sensors for use in solvent containing elevated temperature manufacturing process environments. The sensors developed are based on Measureand Inc. cantilever beam optical fiber bend sensors. Customized paddles are added to match sensor output to the range of airflows under investigation. This talk discuses the sensor requirements, sensors' design, calibration, manufacturing process installation and testing process worthy prototypes in an elevated temperature solvent containing environment.

  8. Resource Conservative Manufacturing : New Generation of Manufacturing


    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad


    The question of resource scarcity and emerging pressure of environmentallegislations have put the manufacturing industry with a new challenge. On theone side, there is a huge population that demands a large quantity ofcommodities, on the other side, these demands have to be met by minimumresources and with permissible pollution that the earth’s ecosystem can handle.In this situation, technologic breakthrough that can offer alternative resourceshas become essential. Unfortunately, breakthrou...

  9. GEM detector conductor manufacturing experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N.N.; Pace, J.R.; Reardon, P.J.; Richied, D.E. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Camille, R.J.; Marston, P.G.; Smith, B.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center; Deis, G.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bohanan, J.S.; Gertsen, J.H. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others


    Feasibility studies and manufacturing experience on the GEM Magnet superconductor are presented, including all components - NbTi strand, cable, conduit manufacture, cable pulling, and aluminum sheath application.

  10. Advanced fiber optic face plate quality detector design (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Su, Liping; Zhao, Jingxia


    A fiber optic face plate is defined by a plurality of fibers of transparent material that are fused and compressed together to transmit an image from one end to another end. Fiber optic face plates exhibit utility in the image intensifiers, cathoderay tubes, and other media displays. In this paper, the design of an advanced fiber optic face plate quality detector is presented. Modern optoelectronic imaging techniques are being used to form fiber optic plate transmission images that are suitable for analyzing the quality parameters of fiber optic face plate. The diffusing light from a halogen lamp is condensed by condenser lens then through a fiber optic face plate, a set of lenses are used to magnify the transmission image, a computer controls a long linear CCD to scan the transmission image, a data grabber captures the CCD's output data and the computer transforms the data into frame image for further analysis. Digital image processing techniques are adopted to analyze the transmission image to obtain the required quality parameters. The image analysis software combines the API that a company provided and programed API is used to acquire the quality parameter that a relevant criteria required. With the long linear CCD scanning and image analysis being computerized, it accomplishes the detection of quality parameters of fiber optic face plates automaticly. The detector can replace the manual detection method and can be widely used for the quality detection of fiber optic face plate. Manufacturers of fiber optic face plates can benefit from the detector for quality control.

  11. Wood versus plant fibers: Similarities and differences in composite applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Gamstedt, E. Kristofer


    The work on cellulose fiber composites is typically strictly divided into two separated research fields depending on the fiber origin, that is, from wood and from annual plants, representing the two different industries of forest and agriculture, respectively. The present paper evaluates in parallel wood fibers and plant fibers to highlight their similarities and differences regarding their use as reinforcement in composites and to enable mutual transfer of knowledge and technology between the two research fields. The paper gives an introduction to the morphology, chemistry, and ultrastructure of the fibers, the modeling of the mechanical properties of the fibers, the fiber preforms available for manufacturing of composites, the typical mechanical properties of the composites, the modeling of the mechanical properties with focus on composites having a random fiber orientation and a non-negligible porosity content, and finally, the moisture sensitivity of the composites. The performance of wood and plant fibercomposites is compared to the synthetic glass and carbon fibers conventionally used for composites, and advantages and disadvantages of the different fibers are discussed. © 2013 Bo Madsen and E. Kristofer Gamstedt.

  12. Radiation oxidation and subsequent thermal curing of polyacrylonitrile fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were exposed to gamma-ray irradiation at room temperature under vacuum, air and oxygen to investigate the radiation oxidation effects on PAN fibers. Radiation-induced oxidation degradation and crosslinking was evaluated by measuring the gel fraction. It was found that radiation oxidation took place mainly on the fiber surface due to the limited penetration of oxygen into PAN fibers from the surface, and the oxidation thickness increased with the oxygen pressure. Chain scission was dominant in the oxidized area, and crosslinking occurred in the inner part of the fibers. However, the oxidized regions of the fibers can be converted to gel via crosslinking by thermal curing at 160 °C in a N2 atmosphere. Higher extents of radiation oxidation degradation led to a greater increase in the gel fraction. These results suggest that the radiation treatment of PAN fibers prior to thermal oxidation may be useful for manufacturing carbon fibers. - Highlights: • PAN fiber was irradiated in the presence of oxygen to induce oxidation at room temperature. • Oxidation degradation occurred at the fiber surface. • Oxidation thickness increased with oxygen pressure. • The oxidized region can be converted to a gel by the thermal treatment

  13. Thermodynamic character of fiber array visible to infrared image transducer (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Li, Zhuo; Li, Ping


    A technique of fiber array structure of visible to infrared image transducer for infrared imaging control and guide was discussed. Be different from the normal fiber array, the structure here is micro-fabricated on quartz glass covered with visible absorb member in front of the fiber. The fiber array structure works in vacuum and cooling chamber. The 3D model of fiber array structure for finite element analysis based on the secondary radiation was established. The material parameter, including density, specific heat and thermal conductivity, and the structure size including section size, length of fiber array transducer for temperature and time character were studied. The simulation results show that the thermal conductivity and length of fiber array are key parameters for transducer's property, and the optimized parameters for fiber array structure transducer were given. The fiber array structure of visible to infrared image transducer has the advantage of higher spatial and temperature resolution, and less manufacture cost. The optimized parameter for fiber array visible to infrared image transducer can reach the frequency of 100Hz and higher temperature of 250°C in case of increasing impulse power which can be used as infrared scene projector in hardware-in-the-loop simulation experiment.

  14. Manufacturing high temperature thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emphasis is put upon the main difficulties encountered in manufacturing high temperature thermocouples. Solutions found for welding are presented with some results concerning the cleaning process used for the tubes

  15. Many Manufactured Nanosats Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To achieve the capability to affordably produce scores of nano-spacecraft for envisioned constellation missions, a new manufacturing process is needed to reduce the...

  16. Lean Manufacturing Engineering Certification (United States)

    This website from Best Practice Research features online business training courses including lean manufacturing and six sigma certification training courses. The courses are available for purchase and may be taken online.

  17. Manufacturing parabolic mirrors

    CERN Multimedia


    The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)

  18. Review of Manufacturing Intelligence


    Stokey, Richard


    "Manufacturing Intelligence (Addison Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1988, 352 pages, $43.25, ISBN 0-201-13576-0) by Paul Kenneth Wright and David Alan Bourne develops principles for the design of intelligent machine tools.

  19. Manufacturing of laboratory equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design of an automatic machine to manufacture components as well as an automatic system for assembly were developed. The designs and system developed are as follows: a) Designs of automatic tack welder in the process of CANDU fuel fabrication. b) Cam design for plug manufacturing lathe. c) Design, mold and fabrication of tool machine for the components of CANDU fuel bundle. d) Service another division

  20. Manufacturing on the Move


    Cebula, Richard


    This paper evaluates a study by Robert Crandall that empirically examines the shift in manufacturing employment and output from the so-called “Rust Belt” states – the states from Wisconsin to New York – to the South and West [the “Sun Belt”]. Crandall finds that differences in labor market conditions – in the degree of unionization and wage rates – provide the principal explanation of this growth of manufacturing employment and output in the West and South. He also provided ...

  1. Institute for Molecular Manufacturing (United States)

    The Institute for Molecular Manufacturing (IMM) conducts and supports research on molecular systems engineering and molecular manufacturing (molecular nanotechnology, or MNT). The website provides information on the IMM research projects. Also posted here are IMM's "guidelines for research and development practices that will minimize risk from accidental misuse or from abuse of molecular nanotechnology." Some article preprints are also available to download free of charge.

  2. Manufacturing technology acquisition


    Mallon, Michael John


    This thesis concerns the acquisition of newly developed production equipment in factories. Types of Manufacturing Technology Acquisition (MTA) can range from in-house development through to outright purchase from a supplier. MTA projects often fail because the new equipment fails to perform well enough or the expected financial benefits are not achieved. The purpose of this research has been to find out how to select the right manufacturing technology acquisition projects, a...

  3. Manufacturing and economic development


    Szirmai, Adam


    This paper examines the theoretical and empirical evidence for the hypothesis that manufacturing is the main engine of growth in developing countries. The paper opens with an overview of the main arguments supporting the engine of growth hypothesis and then examines each of these arguments using a mix of statistical analysis of secondary data and secondary literature. The paper concludes that manufacturing will continue to be important in accelerating growth and achieving catch-up in developi...

  4. NASA's National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (United States)

    Vickers, John


    NASA has designated the Principal Center Assignment to the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for implementation of the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM). NCAM is NASA s leading resource for the aerospace manufacturing research, development, and innovation needs that are critical to the goals of the Agency. Through this initiative NCAM s people work together with government, industry, and academia to ensure the technology base and national infrastructure are available to develop innovative manufacturing technologies with broad application to NASA Enterprise programs, and U.S. industry. Educational enhancements are ever-present within the NCAM focus to promote research, to inspire participation and to support education and training in manufacturing. Many important accomplishments took place during 2002. Through NCAM, NASA was among five federal agencies involved in manufacturing research and development (R&D) to launch a major effort to exchange information and cooperate directly to enhance the payoffs from federal investments. The Government Agencies Technology Exchange in Manufacturing (GATE-M) is the only active effort to specifically and comprehensively address manufacturing R&D across the federal government. Participating agencies include the departments of Commerce (represented by the National Institute of Standards and Technology), Defense, and Energy, as well as the National Science Foundation and NASA. MSFC s ongoing partnership with the State of Louisiana, the University of New Orleans, and Lockheed Martin Corporation at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) progressed significantly. Major capital investments were initiated for world-class equipment additions including a universal friction stir welding system, composite fiber placement machine, five-axis machining center, and ten-axis laser ultrasonic nondestructive test system. The NCAM consortium of five universities led by University of New Orleans with Mississippi State University, Tennessee Technological University, Texas A&M University, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University provided wide-ranging engineering research, new degree/curriculum programs, and a web-based lecture series. NCAM has fostered an important presence and leadership role within the national manufacturing community. Its progressive influence can be seen in government, industry and academia, and in national associations, professional organizations, conferences, workshops, and forums.

  5. 1997 Economic Census Manufacturing, Industry Series: Ice Manufacturing (United States)

    This data from the US Department of Commerce Census Bureau constitutes the one of the first in a series of several hundred reports on individual industries in the manufacturing sector from the 1997 Economic Census. According to the 1997 Economic Census Manufacturing, Industry Series on Ice Manufacturing, Texas expended the most on ice manufacturing in 1997.

  6. Manufacturing strategy issues in selected Indian manufacturing industry


    Mahender Singh; P.C.Basak; Rajbir Singh


    This paper presents some findings of Indian manufacturing sectors viz. automobile (especially two-wheeler), tractor and general manufacturing industry. Various manufacturing strategy issues such as competitive priorities, improvement activities, and performance measures, have been identified and assessed in Indian context. Sector wise comparison of competitive priorities, improvement activities i.e. advanced manufacturing technology (AMT), integrated information systems (IIS), and advanced ma...

  7. Fibered F-Algebra


    Kleyn, Aleks


    The concept of F-algebra and its representation can be extended to an arbitrary bundle. We define operations of fibered F-algebra in fiber. The paper presents the representation theory of of fibered F-algebra as well as a comparison of representation of F-algebra and of representation of fibered F-algebra.

  8. Photonic crystal fibers


    Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard


    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field.

  9. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P


    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field.

  10. Advanced specialty fiber designs for fiber lasers (United States)

    Dong, Liang; McKay, Hugh A.; Thomas, B. K.; Fu, Libin; Suzuki, Shigeru; Ohta, Michiharu; Marcinkeivicius, Andrius


    Progress in advanced specialty fibers is the foundation to further breakthroughs in fiber lasers. Recently, we have been working to advance several areas of developments in specialty fibers and would like to review these efforts here. The first topic is in the further development of all-glass large core leakage channel fibers (LCF) for robust and practical solutions for power scaling. The second area is the development of wide band air-core fibers with an innovative square lattice cladding and the demonstration of a factor of two improvements in bandgap over conventional hexagonal lattice. These air-core fibers are critical for fiber delivery solution of both CW and pulsed fiber lasers in the future. The last topic is a new development in design and simulation of SBS gains in optical fibers by incorporating leaky acoustic modes. These leaky acoustic modes have been mostly overlooked so far. It is essential that they are considered in SBS simulations in fibers, because they are normal solutions to the acoustic waveguide equations and have similar loss to guided acoustic modes where the acoustic mode loss is dominated by material loss. This leads to much improved resolution of SBS gain spectrum in fibers and to new design insights to the limit of SBS suppression based on anti-guide acoustic waveguide designs.

  11. Fiber Optics Physics and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschke, Fedor


    Telephone, telefax, email and internet -- the key ingredient of the inner workings is the conduit: the line which is designed to carry massive amounts of data at breakneck speed. In their data-carrying capacity optical fiber lines beat other technologies (copper cable, microwave beacons, satellite links) hands down, at least in the long haul. This book tells you all you want to know about optical fibers: Their structure, their light-guiding mechanism, their material and manufacture, their use. Several effects tend to degrade the signal as it travels down the fiber: they are spelled out in detail. Nonlinear processes are given due consideration for a twofold reason: On the one hand they are fundamentally different from the more familiar processes in electrical cable. On the other hand, they form the basis of particularly interesting and innovative applications, provided they are understood well enough. A case in point is the use of so-called solitons, i.e. special pulses of light which have the wonderful prope...

  12. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes (United States)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.


    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  13. Ultraviolet-extended flat supercontinuum generation in cascaded photonic crystal fiber tapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascaded photonic crystal fiber (PCF) tapers in a monolithic fiber obtained by post-processing techniques such as hole inflation and tapering have been manufactured. An ultraviolet-extended supercontinuum (SC) generation down to 352 nm wavelength pumped at 1064 nm in cascading PCF tapers has been obtained. High spectral flatness (5 dB) has been achieved in the entire visible window. (letter)

  14. Pitch for Direct spinning into carbon fibers derived from a coal distillate feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pitch suitable for carbon fiber manufacture features a pitch having a weight content of between 80 and 100 percent toluene insolubles. The pitch is derived from a deasphaltenated fraction of a feedstock. The pitch is characterized as being relatively free of impurities and ash. The pitch can be spun directly into carbon fibers

  15. Two Products Manufacturer’s Production Decisions with Carbon Constraint


    Lu, Li; Chen, Xu


    In this paper, we consider a manufacture which produces both ordinary products and green products in a monopoly market, and investigate his production decisions with carbon constraint. Firstly, we derive the manufacturer’s optimal production and maximum profit without carbon constraint. Then, we discuss the optimal production and maximum profit with carbon constraint in different situation. The results indicate that manufacturer’s optimal production and maximum profit with carbon constrai...

  16. Manufacturing Renaissance: Return of manufacturing to western countries


    Kianian, Babak; Larsson, Tobias; Tavassoli, Mohammad


    Manufacturing Renaissance, i.e. return of manufacturing to west, has been recently observed. This paper analyzes the patterns observed within each of the four main drivers behind this new phenomenon and delves more deeply into the driver that centers on the new manufacturing technologies such as Additive Manufacturing (AM) and 3D Printing. Next, this paper will make the case that the location of manufacturing will be in west, relying on the established theory that has ...

  17. Evaluation on Decomposition granularity of Manufacturing Task in Manufacturing Grid


    Jihong Wang; Chaoyong Zhang; Yong Yin


    Task decomposition is on of the most important activities for manufacturing task planning in Manufacturing Grid. Many achievements in the methods to decompose manufacturing tasks have been obtained. But as for the decomposition granularity, the study and research are rare. Referring to the principle of “strong cohesion and weak coupling” in the software engineering field, the decomposition model of manufacturing task is built up, in which a manufacturing task is decomposed into different ...

  18. Access Control for Manufacturing Process in Networked Manufacturing Environment


    Ke Zhou; Bingyin Ren; Gang Wang; Min Lv


    The deficiencies of current access control techniques in solving the problems of manufacturing process access conflict in networked manufacturing environment were analyzed. An information model of manufacturing process was con-structed, and a case XML Schema of manufacturing task model was given. Based on the characteristic analysis of the access control for the information model, an improved access control model of manufacturing process was constructed, and the access control model based on ...

  19. Alumina fiber strength improvement (United States)

    Pepper, R. T.; Nelson, D. C.


    The effective fiber strength of alumina fibers in an aluminum composite was increased to 173,000 psi. A high temperature heat treatment, combined with a glassy carbon surface coating, was used to prevent degradation and improve fiber tensile strength. Attempts to achieve chemical strengthening of the alumina fiber by chromium oxide and boron oxide coatings proved unsuccessful. A major problem encountered on the program was the low and inconsistent strength of the Dupont Fiber FP used for the investigation.

  20. Single Fiber Star Couplers. [optical waveguides for spacecraft communication (United States)

    Asawa, C. K.


    An ion exchange process was developed and used in the fabrication of state-of-the-art planar star couplers for distribution of optical radiation between optical fibers. An 8 x 8 planar transmission star coupler was packaged for evaluation purposes with sixteen fiber connectors and sixteen pigtails. Likewise a transmission star coupler and an eight-port reflection star coupler with eight-fiber ribbons rigidly attached to these couplers, and a planar coupler with silicon guides and a parallel channel guide with pigtails were also fabricated. Optical measurements of the transmission star couplers are included with a description of the manufacturing process.

  1. Reconfigurable manufacturing system: an overview


    Malhotra V.; Raj T.; Arora A.


    This paper presents the review of Reconfigurable manufacturing system. That aims at achievingcost effective and rapid system changes needed, by incorporating principle of modularity, integrability andscalability as this new manufacturing system. Reconfigurable manufacturing system promises customizedflexibility in a short time, while the other manufacturing system provides generalized flexibility designed foranticipation variations.This paper shows the definition and background of reconfigura...

  2. Information modeling of manufacturing processes


    Nielssen, Johan


    The innovation process is an important process for our primemotor of welfare, manufacturing. During this process, theprerequisites for manufacturing are set. To set the bestpossible prerequisites consideration about products,manufacturing processes, and manufacturing resources must bemade concurrently, which also means involving several differentdisciplines in a collaborative effort. As a consequence of involving different disciplines, thecommunication of engineering information may be hinder...

  3. Effects of wood fiber surface chemistry on strength of wood-plastic composites (United States)

    Migneault, Sébastien; Koubaa, Ahmed; Perré, Patrick; Riedl, Bernard


    Because wood-plastic composites (WPC) strength relies on fiber-matrix interaction at fiber surface, it is likely that fiber surface chemistry plays an important role in WPC strength development. The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between fiber surface chemical characteristics and WPC mechanical properties. Different fibers were selected and characterized for surface chemical characteristics using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). WPC samples were manufactured at 40% fiber content and with six different fibers. High density polyethylene was used as matrix and maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibility agent. WPC samples were tested for mechanical properties and fiber-matrix interface was observed with scanning electron microscope. It was found WPC strength decreases as the amount of unoxidized carbon (assigned to lignin and extractives) measured with XPS on fiber surface increases. In the opposite case, WPC strength increases with increasing level of oxidized carbon (assigned to carbohydrates) on fiber surface. The same conclusions were found with FTIR where WPC strength decreases as lignin peaks intensity increases. Esterification reaction of fibers with MAPE occurs on polar sites of carbohydrates, such as hydroxyls (Osbnd H). Thus, fibers with carbohydrates-rich surface, such as cellulose pulp, produced stronger WPC samples. Other factors such as mechanical interlocking and fiber morphology interfered with the effects of fiber surface chemistry.

  4. Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy (United States)

    Scott, Nicholas J.; Cilip, Christopher M.; Fried, Nathaniel M.


    Complications during laser lithotripsy include optical fiber bending failure resulting in endoscope damage and low irrigation rates leading to poor visibility. Both problems are related to fiber diameter and limited by the Holmium:YAG laser (? = 2120 nm) multimode beam profile. This study exploits the Thulium fiber laser (? = 1908 nm) beam profile for higher power transmission through smaller fibers. Thulium fiber laser radiation with 1-ms pulse duration, pulse rates of 10-30 Hz, and 70-?m-diameter spot was coupled into silica fibers with 100, 150, and 200 ?m core diameters. Fiber transmission, bending, and endoscope irrigation tests were performed. Damage thresholds for 100, 150, 200 ?m fibers averaged 40 W, 60 W, and > 80 W. Irrigation rates measured 35, 26, and 15 ml/min for no fiber, 100, and 200 ?m fibers. Thulium fiber laser energy of 70-mJ delivered at 20 Hz through a 100 ?m fiber resulted in vaporization and fragmentation rates of 10 and 60 mg/min for uric acid stones. The Thulium fiber laser beam profile provides higher laser power through smaller fibers than the Ho:YAG laser, potentially reducing fiber failure and endoscope damage and allowing greater irrigation rates for improved visibility.

  5. Kinetic Study of Resin-Curing on Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Resin Composites by Microwave Irradiation


    Daisuke Shimamoto; Yusuke Imai, Yuji Hotta


    Microwave processing has great potential for improving composite manufacturing such as reduction of curing time, energy requirements and operational costs. In this paper, the effects of microwave irradiation for resin-curing of carbon fiber/epoxy resin composite that was composed of discontinuous carbon fibers of 130 ?m or 3 mm were investigated. The mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy resin composite cured by microwave irradiation for 20 min at 120°C were ...

  6. Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN


    Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo; Choyu Otani; Heitor Aguiar Polidoro; Satika Otani


    Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF) which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carboni...

  7. Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Cissus quadrangularis root. (United States)

    Indran, S; Raj, R Edwin; Sreenivasan, V S


    Fiber reinforced polymer composites are replacing many metallic structures due to its high specific strength and modulus. However commonly used man-made E-glass fibers are hazardous for health and carcinogenic by nature. Comprehensive characterization of Cissus quadrangularis root fiber such as anatomical study, chemical analysis, physical analysis, FTIR, XRD, SEM analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis are done. The results are very encouraging for its application in fiber industries, composite manufacturing, etc. Due to its light weight and the presence of high cellulose content (77.17%) with very little wax (0.14%) provide high specific strength and good bonding properties. The flaky honeycomb outer surface and low microfibril angle revealed through electron microscopy contributes for its high modulus. The thermo gravimetric analysis indicates better thermal stability of the fiber up to 230°C, which is well within the polymerization process temperature. PMID:24906775

  8. Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Cissus quadrangularis stem. (United States)

    Indran, S; Raj, R Edwin


    Polymer composite has contributed tremendously for energy efficient technologies in automotive and aero industries. Environmental and health concerns related to the carcinogenic nature of artificial fiber in polymer composite needs a retrofit. Eco friendly natural cellulosic fiber extract from the stem of Cissus quadrangularis plant is extensively characterized to consider as a viable alternative for man-made hazardous fibers. Anatomical study, chemical analysis, physical analysis, FTIR, XRD, SEM analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis were done to establish the certainty of using them as reinforcement fiber. Its light weight and the presence of high cellulose content (82.73%) with very little wax (0.18%) provide high specific strength and good bonding properties in composite manufacturing. The flaky honeycomb outer surface revealed through electron microscopy contributes for high modulus in CQ stem fiber and thermo gravimetric analysis ensures thermal stability up to 270 °C, which is within the polymerization process temperature. PMID:25498651

  9. Utilization of Faraday Mirror in Fiber Optic Current Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fiala


    Full Text Available Fiber optic sensors dispose of some advantages in the field of electrical current and magnetic field measurement, like large bandwidth, linearity, light transmission possibilities. Unfortunately, they suffer from some parasitic phenomena. The crucial issue is the presence of induced and latent linear birefringence, which is imposed by the fiber manufacture imperfections as well as mechanical stress by fiber bending. In order to the linear birefringence compensation a promising method was chosen for pulsed current sensor design. The method employs orthogonal polarization conjugation by the back direction propagation of the light wave in the fiber. The Jones calculus analysis presents its propriety. An experimental fiber optic current sensor has been designed and realized. The advantage of the proposed method was proved considering to the sensitivity improvement.

  10. A fiber-optic hydrophone with an acoustic filter (United States)

    Wang, Zefeng; Hu, Yongming; Meng, Zhou; Ni, Ming; Luo, Hong


    A novel Michelson interferometric fiber-optic hydrophone with a mechanical anti-aliasing acoustic filter, which consists of a two-hole cylindrical Helmholtz resonator, has been manufactured and tested. Experimental results show that this new fiber-optic hydrophone has a function of acoustic low-pass filtering. The low frequency sensitivity, as determined by the fiber interferometer and the sensing mandrel, is about -159dB re 1rad/?Pa. The frequency response has a break point near 1200Hz and a measured roll-off of 50dB/octave. The fiber-optic hydrophone is a prototype device for a class of sensors that used to eliminate aliasing in the future sonar systems. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such a fiber-optic hydrophone has been reported.

  11. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM/S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization. The distribution of the material in the unit cell is optimized according to a given objective (e.g. maximum bulk modulus or minimum Poisson’s ratio) and some given constraints (e.g. isotropy) using topology optimization. The manufacturability is achieved using various filtering techniques together with a stochastic approach, where the mean performance of several slightly different designs is optimized. In most cases this assures a minimum length scale for the intermediate design, and thereby manufacturability is achieved. Furthermore, the study will look at how "negative" aspects of the manufacturing method can be exploited to achieve exotic material properties. An example of this is how the SLM/S causes softer regions in the structure due to insufficient heating of the metal powder. If the goal is to design a material, which to some degree is compliant, such as negative Poisson’s ratio material, softer regions are desirable. Another example is closedcell materials, e.g. maximum bulk modulus material, where the cells will be filled by metal powder if manufactured using SLM/S. This is considered as a drawback, because it makes the structure heavier. However, it also drastically increases the damping ratio of the structure, which is beneficial in many applications.

  12. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell


    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  13. Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight structures has enormous potential for space vehicles applications as the reduction of weight from metallic structures add to vehicle performance, reduce...

  14. Computational Techniques in Manufacturing Technology


    J. Mádl; ?ermák, J.; M. Vrabec


    Manufacturing processes are complex and therefore difficult to plan by software. The present state in computational techniques in manufacturing technology as well as software applications at the Department of Manufacturing Technology of CTU in Prague are discussed in this article. Computational techniques may help to solve many manufacturing problems as such programs in the field of process planning have been developed. However, due to the complexity of manufacturing processes, complete plann...

  15. Manufacturing of lasers for DWDM systems (United States)

    Campbell, Kevin T.; Robertson, Alexander J., Jr.; Wetzel, Steven J.


    The evolution of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) has allowed service provides a convenient and cost effective method to dramatically increase transmission capacity over existing and new fiber network systems. As the demand for bandwidth continues to increase, systems designers are responding by increasing both the number of channels and the data rates. This trend has placed considerable pressure on many of the underlying system components. One component that has been particularly challenged by this trend is the manufacture of semiconductor lasers. This paper reviews the technical and logistical challenges faced in the high volume manufacture of lasers to support DWDM systems. As the product portfolio continues to expand, precise execution and team work among multiple organizations is required to assure reliable shipping performance. Production scheduling and manufacturing operations must work closely to continuously re-prioritize the work in process in response to constantly changing channel demand and yield fluctuations. Wavelength prediction models must be developed that correlate in-process parameters to final device wavelength. These models are then applied to both in-process specification targeting and inventory management. Once the in-process specifications are properly targeted, the challenge moves to the fabrication processes, where processes are pushed to the limits of their control. Underpinning the entire effort must be an information management system in which parametric data is collected, wavelength prediction models are executed, and work in process inventory is controlled with respect to the final output volume and wavelength distribution.

  16. Robust Manufacturing Control

    CERN Document Server


    This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...

  17. Radiation curing of composites for vehicle component and vehicle manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some traditional uses of metals in vehicle component and vehicle manufacture, such as steel (specific gravity 7.8) or aluminum (specific gravity 2.7), can be replaced by carbon-fiber composites (specific gravity 1.6) to provide significant weight savings while maintaining structural integrity. The aerospace and aircraft industries have adopted this approach. The auto or motor vehicle industries have explored the use of composites, but have been reluctant to widely adopt this technology because of concerns over manufacturing processes. A typical steel auto body weighing ? 750 kilos would weigh only ? 155 kilos if replaced with carbon-fiber composites. Structural members, as the vehicle chassis, could also be fabricated out of carbon-fiber composites. With only 20% of the body weight, smaller, lower horse-power and more fuel efficient engines could be used to power such vehicles. Commercial aircraft manufacturers that have adopted carbon-fiber structures in lieu of aluminum (a 40% weight savings) estimate a 20% savings in fuel costs for large planes. These are still made with conventional materials being used for motors, tires, interiors, and the like. A fuel efficient auto now running at ? 10 kilometers/liter would more than double its fuel efficiency given the nearly 80% weight savings attainable by use of carbon-fiber composites just for the vehicle body. As with aircraft, conventional systems for propulsion (motors), braking, tires and interiors could still be, tires and interiors could still be used. Radiation curing can simplify the manufacture of carbon-fiber composite vehicle components. Highly penetrating X-rays derived from high current, high energy electron beam (EB) accelerators can be used to cure structural composites while they are constrained within inexpensive molds; thus reducing cure cycles, eliminating heat transfer concerns and concerns over potentially hazardous emissions during the curing process. Since X-rays can penetrate mold walls, the curing process is quite versatile, enabling diverse components with varying designs to be cured using a common X-ray source or multiple parts of the same design could be cured at once. Since the energy output of an EB unit can be tightly controlled, EB processing itself can be used to produce 'B' staged fiber-reinforced composite materials for sheet molding (SMC) and prepregs. Such materials can significantly reduce the time-to-cure should alternative energy sources or even subsequent X-ray curing be used. In the EB mode, SMC materials can be made in excess of 100 meters/minute. The matrix systems are proprietary formulations based on common radiation responsive materials used in a variety of radiation curing applications. (author)

  18. Flexibility in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From its inception Exxon Nuclear has produced both BWR and PWR fuels. This is reflected in a product line that, to date, includes over 20 fuel designs. These range from 6x6 design at one end of the spectrum to the recently introduced 17x17 design. The benefits offered include close tailoring of the fuel design to match the customer's requirements, and the ability to rapidly introduce product changes, such as the axial blanket design, with a minimal impact on manufacturing. This flexibility places a number of demands on the manufacturing organization. Close interfaces must be established, and maintained, between the marketing, product design, manufacturing, purchasing and quality organizations, and the information flows must be immediate and accurate. Production schedules must be well planned and must be maintained or revised to reflect changing circumstances. Finally, the manufacturing facilities must be designed to allow rapid switchover between product designs with minor tooling changes and/or rerouting of product flows to alternate work stations. Among the tools used to manage the flow of information and to maintain the tight integration necessary between the various manufacturing, engineering and quality organizations is a commercially available, computerized planning and tracking system, AMAPS. A real-time production data collection system has been designed which gathers data from each production work station for use by the shop floor control module of AMAPS. Acche shop floor control module of AMAPS. Accuracy of input to the system is improved through extensive use of bar codes to gather information on the product as it moves through and between work stations. This computerized preparation of material tracing has an impact on direct manufacturing records, quality control records, nuclear material records and accounting and inventory records. This is of benefit to both Exxon Nuclear and its customers

  19. Laser-bonding of long fiber thermoplastic composites for structural assemblies (United States)

    Knapp, Wolfgang; Clement, S.; Franz, C.; Oumarou, M.; Renard, J.

    The use of laser light for bonding of long fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (LFTPC) offers new possibilities to overcome the constraints of conventional joining technologies. Laser specific transmission welding procedures are known in manufacturing of short fiber thermoplastic composites. The technical basics of the joining process and an outline of some material inherent characteristics using long glass fiber reinforced composites with PA resin are discussed. The technical feasibility and the mechanical characterization of laser bonded LFTPC are demonstrated. The results show that the laser provides an alternative joining technique and offers new perspectives to assemble structural components emerging in industrial manufacturing.

  20. Advanced Integrated Manufacturing Center (United States)

    Dilley, David

    A 15,000 sq. ft. state of the art model factory is the centerpiece of the Advanced Integrated Manufacturing (AIM) Center, which offers workforce development, production support, and process improvement services for local industry. In addition to the factory, which companies may utilize for their production needs, the AIM Center also offers Lean Manufacturing workshops (on-site or at the AIM Center). Other workshops, such as CNC programming, CAD/CAM training, injection molding, safety, project management, setup reduction/quick change, value stream mapping, 5S/visual controls, work place organization, lean office, workflow improvement, simulation modeling for workflow, and quality assurance, are also available.

  1. Laser in manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo


    Generally a laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) is defined as "a device which uses a quantum mechanical effect, stimulated emission, to generate a coherent beam of light from a lasing medium of controlled purity, size, and shape". Laser material processing represents a great number of methods, which are rapidly growing in current and different industrial applications as new alternatives to traditional manufacturing processes. Nowadays, the use of lasers in manufacturing is an emerging area with a wide variety of applications, for example, in electronics, molds an

  2. Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (United States)

    Composed of thirteen vehicle manufacturers, the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers is an advocacy group for the automobile industry with special focuses on vehicle safety and the environment. Its Web site is loaded with information about emerging technologies, fuel facts, and safety data. One outstanding resource is the Driver Focus Guidelines report, found in the Vehicle Safety section. This report, released last month, discusses the best practices of "driver interactions with future in-vehicle information and communications systems" such as cellular phones and navigation systems. There are many other features on the site, like detailed descriptions of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid and fully electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles.

  3. Energy consumption in manufacturing (United States)

    Schmid, S. R.


    Energy sources, in the form of coal, oil, natural gas, solar or nuclear power, are global commodities, and as demand is projected to rise in the coming decades, so will costs. As such, an understanding of the energy needs of manufacturing processes and the ability to reduce the energy and carbon footprints are essential for sustainability reasons. Energy source effects are quantified in a number of measures. Models of energy needs by manufacturing processes are then examined, along with models incorporating the use of ancillary equipment such as pumps, filters, blowers, lighting, etc. Finally, the successful application of the tribological principles to influence energy consumption is discussed.

  4. Array fiber welding on micro optical glass substrates for chip-to-fiber coupling (United States)

    Schröder, Henning; Neitz, Marcel; Brusberg, Lars; Queiser, Marco; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Lang, K.-D.


    High bandwidth parallel optical transceivers are highly demanded for optical interconnects in data centers and in high performance computing. Such transceivers are composed of VCSEL- and photodiode components which have to be fiber coupled, and the appropriate driving and amplifying circuitry. For high density fiber optical connectors lens arrays for improved coupling efficiency have to be used. We propose an advantageous adhesive free method to interconnect optical fibers with such kind of lens arrays. Common approaches using adhesive bonding have high challenges in terms of yield, reliability and optical performance. We introduce our novel fiber welding approach for joining directly fused silica fibers on borosilicate glass substrates with integrated micro optics, e.g. lenses and lens arrays. It is a thermal process with a precise heat input by CO2-laser processing, which is combinable with sequential passive or active alignment of each single fiber to the substrate causing flexibility and highest coupling efficiencies. Since the fiber is accessed only from one side, a two dimensional high-density fiber array can be realized. The manufacturing time of such an interconnection is very short. Due to the adhesive free interface high power transmission is enabled and the occurrence of polymer caused misalignment and degradation are prevented. The paper presents current results in thin glass-based opto-electronic packaging. In particular our laboratory setup for array fiber welding and experimental results of such connections will be discussed and compared to UV-adhesive joining. Also further investigation, for example optical characterization and reliability tests are included. Finally a machine concept, which is under development, will be discussed.

  5. Fundamentals of Digital Manufacturing Science

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zude; Chen, Dejun


    The manufacturing industry will reap significant benefits from encouraging the development of digital manufacturing science and technology. Digital Manufacturing Science uses theorems, illustrations and tables to introduce the definition, theory architecture, main content, and key technologies of digital manufacturing science. Readers will be able to develop an in-depth understanding of the emergence and the development, the theoretical background, and the techniques and methods of digital manufacturing science. Furthermore, they will also be able to use the basic theories and key technologies described in Digital Manufacturing Science to solve practical engineering problems in modern manufacturing processes. Digital Manufacturing Science is aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students, academic researchers and researchers in the manufacturing industry. It allows readers to integrate the theories and technologies described with their own research works, and to propose new ideas and new methods to...

  6. Qualification and Lessons Learned with Space Flight Fiber Optic Components (United States)

    Ott, Melanie


    This presentation covers lessons learned during the design, development, manufacturing and qualification of space flight fiber optic components. Changes at NASA, including short-term projects and decreased budgets have brought about changes to vendors and parts. Most photonics for NASA needs are now commercial off the shelf (COTS) products. The COTS Tecnology Assurance approach for space flight and qualification plans are outlined.

  7. Three-Axis Distributed Fiber Optic Strain Measurement in 3D Woven Composite Structures (United States)

    Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David


    Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading. Keywords: fiber optic, distributed strain sensing, Rayleigh scatter, optical frequency domain reflectometry

  8. Fiber laser performance in industrial applications (United States)

    McCulloch, S.; Hassey, A.; Harrison, P.


    Fiber lasers are competing with the traditional CO2 Laser, Plasma, Water Jet and Press Punch technology. This paper concentrates on the drivers behind the progress that fiber lasers have made in the thin metal cutting and welding market. Thin metal cutting in this case is defined as below 4mm and the dominant technology has been the Press Punch for higher quality, large volume components and Plasma for lower quality, small quantities. Up until the fiber lasers were commercially available many machine manufacturers were deterred from incorporating lasers due to the technical barriers posed by the lasers available at that time. In particular fiber laser requires no maintenance does not necessitate a beam path to be aligned and kept free of contaminant so have encouraged many traditionally non-laser machine builders to integrate fiber sources into a variety of applications and push the performance envelope. All of the components to build a fibre laser cutting or welding system are now available "off-the shelf" which is even allowing end users to design and build their own systems directly in production environments.

  9. Neutron imaging of fiber-reinforced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass-fiber-reinforced plastic laminates used for the insulation of Toroidal Field (TF) magnet-coils and fiber-reinforced silicon carbide ceramic composites used as structural material for the self-cooled Pb-17Li blanket module are attractive candidate materials for fusion reactors because of their high performance under extreme conditions. Porosity, which depends on the manufacturing process, and swelling of fiber-reinforced materials due to the high flux of radiation are the main problems. The aim of this study is to describe the experimental procedures of different imaging methods, and also to decide the most efficient imaging method for the investigations of the complex microstructure of fiber-reinforced materials. In this work, the fiber-reinforced composites were inspected with neutron and X-ray radiographies at ATI-Vienna and also at PSI-Villigen. A contrast enhancement at the edges can be achieved by means of phase contrast neutron radiography (NR), which is based on the wave properties of neutrons and arises from the neutron refraction (rather than attenuation). Elements having different refractive index within a sample cause a phase shift between coherent neutron waves. The degree of coherence can be determined by means of the coherence pattern caused by the sample, when a point source (pinhole) is used and the distance between source and sample is varied

  10. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  11. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter (United States)

    Stinton, David P. (Knoxville, TN); McLaughlin, Jerry C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lowden, Richard A. (Powell, TN)


    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  12. Manufacturing & Electronics Hourly Pay (United States)

    This sheet from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center highlights hourly wages for individuals working in the manufacturing and electronics industries. The information may serve to motivate students to obtain education beyond high school for use in these industries.

  13. Nuclear fuel manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technologies used to manufacture nuclear fuel from uranium ore are outlined, with particular reference to the light water reactor fuel cycle. Capital and operating cost estimates for the processing stages are given, and the relevance to a developing uranium industry in Australia is discussed

  14. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding. Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs

  15. Teamwork In Modern Manufacturing (United States)

    This presentation from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center uses the example of a business (Featherlite Luxury Coaches) to demonstrate careers in manufacturing. The presentation focuses on how teams are assembled and how each team accomplishes given tasks to support the overall goals of the business.

  16. Control of Manufacturing Processes (United States)

    Boning, Duane S.

    This course features a complete set of lecture notes and problem sets with solutions. The objective of this subject is to understand the nature of manufacturing process variation and the methods for its control. The key concepts of these lessons are: statistical process control, process optimization and in-process feedback control.

  17. Improvement of physico-mechanical properties of coir-polypropylene biocomposites by fiber chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Coir-polypropylene biocomposites were manufactured using hot press technique. • OH groups in raw coir cellulose were converted to OH?Cr groups during treatment. • SEM indicates improved interfacial adhesion between coir and PP upon treatment. • Chemically treated composites yielded the best set of mechanical properties. - Abstract: In preparing polymer–matrix composites, natural fibers are widely used as “reinforcing agents” because of their biodegradable characteristic. In present research, coir fiber reinforced polypropylene biocomposites were manufactured using hot press method. In order to increase the compatibility between the coir fiber and polypropylene matrix, raw coir fiber was chemically treated with basic chromium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate salt in acidic media. Both raw and treated coir at different fiber loading (10, 15 and 20 wt%) were utilized during composite manufacturing. During chemical treatment, hydrophilic –OH groups in the raw coir cellulose were converted to hydrophobic –OH?Cr groups. Microstructural analysis and mechanical tests were conducted. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicates improvement in interfacial adhesion between the coir and polypropylene matrix upon treatment. Chemically treated specimens yielded the best set of mechanical properties. On the basis of fiber loading, 20% fiber reinforced composites had the optimum set of mechanical properties among all composites manufactured

  18. Elastoplastic damage micromechanics for elliptical fiber composites with progressive partial fiber debonding and thermal residual stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju J.W.


    Full Text Available Incorporating the interfacial damage and thermal residual stresses, an elasto-plastic damage formulation is proposed to predict the overall transverse mechanical behavior of continuous elliptical-fiber reinforced ductile matrix composites within the framework of micromechanics and homogenization. Based on the concept of equivalent inclusion and taking the progressive interfacial debonding angle into consideration, partially debonded fibers are replaced by equivalent orthotropic, perfectly bonded fibers. Three interfacial damage modes are considered. The Weibull's probabilistic function is adopted to describe the varying probability of progressive partial fiber debonding. The effective elastic moduli of four-phase composites, composed of a ductile matrix and randomly located yet unidirectionally aligned fibers are derived by a micromechanical formulation. Thermal residual stresses are taken into account through the concept of thermal eigenstrain to investigate the effects of the manufacturing processinduced residual stresses. Employing the micromechanical approximation, the overall stress-strain responses and the effective yield function are formulated with the thermal eigenstrain. When comparing with the available experimental data, significant effects of thermal residual stresses are discussed. Moreover, the effects of the interfacial strengths and the cross- sectional shapes of fibers on the mechanical behaviors of composites are systematically investigated.

  19. Historic trends in manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manufacturing accounts for more of the world's energy use - around 40% of final energy - than any other major sector. In the OECD countries, its share of final energy use declined from about 35% to 30% between 1973 and 1988 due to rising consumption in other sectors and decline in manufacturing. It plays a more important role outside the OECD countries, however, accounting for approximately 40% of energy use in the Soviet Union, 60% in China, and 35-45% in other LDCs. At a global level, it is difficult to separate manufacturing from total industrial energy use, but trends in the latter give a reasonably good picture of those in manufacturing, since the latter dominates industrial activity and energy use. The other main industrial activities - mining and construction - account for 10-20% of total industrial energy use in the OECD countries, about 20% in the former East Bloc, and around 20-25% in the LDCs. Total OECD industrial energy use has fluctuated since the early 1970s, but was less in 1988 than in 1973. In the LDCs and former East Bloc, growth has been more steady, though the growth trend for the latter has levelled off since 1988. Decrease in the relative importance of energy-intensive industries within the manufacturing sector contributed to a decline in energy use in the OECD countries. Much more important, however, were decreases in the energy intensities of the various industry groups that comprise the sector. In the Former East Bloc, there seems to have bee Former East Bloc, there seems to have been relatively little structural change or change in intensities. There is evidence that energy intensities have declined in a number of LDCs. 21 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter (United States)

    Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.


    A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

  1. Fiber Optics Technology. (United States)

    Burns, William E.


    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  2. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance


    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  3. 1997 Economic Census Manufacturing, Industry Series: Plastics Bottle Manufacturing (United States)

    This data from the US Department of Commerce Census Bureau constitutes the one of the first in a series of several hundred reports on individual industries in the manufacturing sector from the 1997 Economic Census. The 1997 Economic Census Manufacturing, Industry Series on Plastics Bottle Manufacturing reports that California, Illinois, and Ohio accounted for a third of the $6.4 billion worth of 1997 goods shipped by the nation's plastics bottle manufacturers.

  4. Manufacturing of JT-60, a plasma feasibility experiment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma feasibility experiment device JT-60, a large nuclear fusion system, is now being constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The JT-60 tokamak machine corresponding to reactor core is now being manufactured by Hitachi, Ltd. Since the components are subjected to strain, heat stresses and sudden repeated loads due to heavy current and strong magnetic fields, the structures are complicated but dimensional accuracy must be highly precise. To meet such requirements, computer analysis has been performed and extensive experiments have been conducted on various trial components during the designing stages. Moreover, new materials, new manufacturing techniques and up-to-date inspection techniques are being employed in the manufacturing processes. Various kinds of computers and displays have been employed in the design of the control system. Moreover, an optical fiber signal transmission system was also adopted. The control system design followed hierarchy construction and control system dispersion technology. (author)

  5. Fiber Optics Basics (United States)

    This pdf from OP-TEC, the National Center for Optics and Photonics Education, addresses basic concepts underlying the operation of fiber lasers. This free 26 page document supplements the fiber laser material presented in an Elements of Photonics Course by provided a more current and detailed description of how lasers operate. This course covers basic laser operations, basic structure of fiber lasers, pulsing methods, output characteristics of fiber lasers, and advanced structures.

  6. Fiber Laser Applications (United States)

    This pdf from OP-TEC, the National Center for Optics and Photonics Education, addresses basic concepts underlying the operation of fiber lasers. This free 19 page document supplements the fiber laser material presented in an Elements of Photonics Course by provided a more current and detailed description of how lasers operate. This course covers an introduction to fiber laser application, established laser types, advantages of fiber lasers, application in materials processing, and other applications.

  7. Rayleigh fiber optics gyroscope


    Kung, A.; Budin, J.; The?venaz, Luc; Robert, P. A.


    A novel kind of fiber-optic gyroscope based on Rayleigh backscattering in a fiber-ring resonator is presented in this letter. Information on the rotation rate is obtained from the composed response of the fiber ring to an optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) instrument. The developed model based on the coherence properties of the Rayleigh scattering yields a polarization-insensitive and low-cost gyroscope

  8. Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Reported here are the results of tests of the 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT).

  9. Double-fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometry optical fiber liquid level sensor (United States)

    Tong, Bin; Li, Min; Li, Yulin


    This paper presents a liquid level sensor with a double-fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity and a diaphragm serving as the sensing element. The end surfaces of the two fibers that integrated in a ferrule serve as the front surfaces of the F-P cavities, and the diaphragm (one of the standard components of a manometer) as the rear surface. The random difference in position between the two fiber ends makes a phase difference between the two F-P interferometers, and is used to interpret the direction of the pattern shifts with the variation of the F-P cavity length, which leads to a much lower technological requirement for the cavity manufacture and a more stable sensor. A prototype is fabricated to demonstrate the design, and the experimental results show a system accuracy of 1/2 fringe, refer to a height-resolution of 1mm.

  10. Advanced Engineering Fibers. (United States)

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.


    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  11. Resonant filtered fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko


    In this paper we present our recent result on utilizing resonant/bandgap fiber designs to achieve high performance ytterbium doped fiber amplifers for achieving diffraction limited beam quality in large mode area fibers, robust bending performance and gain shaping for long wavelength operation of yb-doped amplifiers.

  12. Ways to Boost Fiber (United States)

    ... healthy range. Natural Sources of Fiber Eating the skin or peel of fruits and vegetables provides a greater dose of fiber, which is found naturally in these sources. Fiber is also found in beans and lentils, whole grains, nuts and seeds. Typically, the more ...

  13. Fundamentals of fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Mikirtychev, Valerii (Vartan)


    This book covers the fundamental aspects of fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers, and includes a wide range of material from laser physics fundamentals to state-of-the-art topics in this rapidly growing field of quantum electronics. Emphasis is placed on the nonlinear processes taking place in fiber lasers and amplifiers, their similarities, differences to, and their advantages over other solid-state lasers. The reader will learn basic principles of solid-state physics and optical spectroscopy of laser active centers in fibers, main operational laser regimes, and practical recommendations and suggestions on fiber laser research, laser applications, and laser product development. The book will be useful for students, researchers, and professionals who work with lasers, in the optical communications, chemical and biological industries, etc.

  14. 16 CFR 1500.91 - Determinations regarding lead content for certain materials or products under section 101 of the... (United States)


    ...of: (i) Natural fibers (dyed or undyed) including, but not limited to, cotton, kapok, flax, linen, jute, ramie, hemp, kenaf, bamboo, coir, sisal, silk, wool (sheep), alpaca, llama, goat (mohair, cashmere), rabbit (angora),...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.449 - Definitions applicable to this subpart. (United States)


    ...area involved, and the record of the industry or business with respect to explosions...grain products, pulverized sugar and cocoa, dried egg and milk powders, pulverized...henequen, istle, jute, hemp, tow, cocoa fiber, oakum, baled waste kapok,...

  16. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server


    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  17. ?80?m polarization-maintaining fiber coupler for fiber optic gyroscope (United States)

    Pang, Lu; Li, Rui-chen; Huang, Bang-cai; Ning, Ding


    The polarization-maintaining fiber coupler (PMFC) is a kind of optical coupler manufactured with polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF). It is the pivotal device to realizing the linearly polarized light coupling, the dispersion of light as well as the multiplying. It is one of the core components of the high-precision fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) and fiber optic hydrophone. This paper reports a kind of thin-diameter PMFC (cladding diameter is 80?m), which is developed to adapt to the FOG's miniaturization. The difference between the thin-diameter PMFC (?80?m) and conventional PMFC (?125?m) in the manufacture technology has been compared. The key technologies of developing the thin-diameter PMFC (?80?m), such as "No tension fused taper", "On-line adjusting main axes of the PMF", "High stability package" and so on, has been discussed. In addition, it also has been carried on some Mechanical and environmental tests. The test results show that the thin-diameter PMFC can satisfy the requirements of the miniature FOG.

  18. Radiation curing of composites for vehicle component and vehicle manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some ordinary uses of metals in vehicle components and vehicle manufacture, such as steel (specific gravity 7.8) or aluminum (specific gravity 2.7), can be replaced by carbon fiber composites (specific gravity 1.6) to provide significant weight savings while still maintaining structural integrity. The aircraft and aerospace industries have adopted this concept. The motor vehicle industry is using composite materials for some nonstructural components in automobiles, but have been reluctant to widely adopt this technology because of concerns about thermal curing times and other issues in high-volume manufacturing processes. A typical steel auto body weighing ?750 kilograms would weigh only ?155 kilograms if replaced with carbon fiber composites. Structural members, such as the vehicle chassis and body frame, could also be made out of carbon fiber composites. With only 20% of the typical body weight, smaller, lighter, less powerful and more fuel efficient engines could be used in such vehicles. Commercial aircraft manufacturers have adopted large carbon fiber structures in lieu of aluminum for a 40% weight reduction and estimate a 20% savings in fuel costs for large planes. These aircraft still use conventional materials for motors, tires and interior components. The fuel efficiency of an automobile could be doubled with an 80% weight reduction. As with aircraft, conventional motors, tires and interior components could be used in automobiles. Radiation curing can sim automobiles. Radiation curing can simplify the manufacture of carbon fiber composites. Penetrating X-rays generated with high-energy, high-power electron beam (EB) accelerators can cure structural composites while they are constrained within inexpensive molds; thus reducing cure times, eliminating heat transfer concerns and potentially hazardous volatile emissions during the curing process. Since X-rays can penetrate mold walls, the curing process is quite versatile, enabling diverse components with varying designs to be cured using a common X-ray generator or multiple parts of the same design could be cured at the same time. Since the power output of an EB accelerator can be tightly controlled, EB processing can be used to produce 'B' staged, fiber-reinforced composite materials for sheet molding compounds (SMC) and prepregs. Such materials can significantly reduce the time-to-cure should alternative energy sources or subsequent X-ray curing be used. In the EB mode, SMC materials can be made at more than 100 meters per minute. The polymeric matrix systems are proprietary formulations based on common radiation responsive materials which are used in a variety of radiation curing applications. (author)

  19. Lunar preform manufacturing (United States)

    Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

    A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.





    A high-quality manufacturing system should be capable to meet the company goals. Moreover, it is essential for any organization that its manufacturing system should be aligned with company’s strategy. There is always a potential for improvement in components of manufacturing systems but it is also essential to identify theparticular areas of the components that need improvement. In this paper, we have discussed the most appropriate criterion for good manufacturing systems with the help of a...

  1. Additive Manufacturing for Large Products


    Leirvåg, Roar Nelissen


    This thesis researches the possibility and feasibility of applying additive manufacturing technology in the manufacturing of propellers. The thesis concerns the production at the foundry Oshaug Metall AS. Their products consist of propellers and other large products cast in Nickel-Aluminium Bronze. This report looks at three approaches and applications for additive manufacturing at the foundry. These are additively manufactured pattern, sand mold and end metal parts. The available \\emph{State...

  2. Fuzzy logic and manufacturing science (United States)

    Bosacchi, Bruno


    This paper discusses the potential of fuzzy logic for manufacturing science. After a general introduction of manufacturing science as a complex systems to which Zadeh's Incompatibitlity Principle applies, the paper presents a bird's eye view of fuzzy logic applications to operational and engineering aspects of manufacturing science, and, in particular, to reliability studies.

  3. Roof Coatings Manufacturers Association (United States)

    Created by the Roof Coatings Manufacturers Association, a trade association which represents manufacturers of cold-applied coatings and cements used in the roofing industry, this site provides users with a useful assortment of materials as well as some basic information about the association itself. The easy to navigate site offers users an overview that details some specifics on cold applied roof coatings including a brief history, the types of coatings available and the product's advantages. A list of organizational links, articles and technical bulletins provide more in depth information on topics related to application of roof coatings, weather related concerns, fire ratings, white coatings and much more. A news and events page and a supplier�s directory are valuable additions to this useful site.

  4. Technology for Manufacturing Efficiency (United States)


    The Ground Processing Scheduling System (GPSS) was developed by Ames Research Center, Kennedy Space Center and divisions of the Lockheed Company to maintain the scheduling for preparing a Space Shuttle Orbiter for a mission. Red Pepper Software Company, now part of PeopleSoft, Inc., commercialized the software as their ResponseAgent product line. The software enables users to monitor manufacturing variables, report issues and develop solutions to existing problems.

  5. Flexible manufacturing field trial


    Cruz, Nuno; Gomes, Ricardo


    Within the European project R-Fieldbus (, an industrial manufacturing field trial was developed. This field trial was conceived as a demonstration test bed for the technologies developed during the project. Because the R-Fieldbus field trial included prototype hardware devices, the purpose of this equipment changed and since the conclusion of the project, several new technologies also emerged, therefore an update of the field trial was requi...

  6. Procyclical Productivity in Manufacturing




    We study the cyclical behavior of labor productivity in eighty industries of the Chilean manufacturing sector in the 1979-2001 period. We find that labor productivity at the sector-level is procyclical but it is a-cyclical when using aggregate data. We provide an analytical and empirical explanation for this divergence. We also use an econometric model to quantify the determinants of productivity. The results indicate that technology shocks account for one half of productivity growth, thus su...

  7. Manufacturing and automation


    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto


    The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken a...

  8. Manufacturing employment cycle


    Claro, Sebastián


    The paper demonstrates that two relatively unknown features of the employment cycle in U.S. manufacturing industries can provide a clue to understanding the role of sectorial shocks in the evolution of aggregate employment. First, interindustry wage differentials rise in expansions and fall in contractions. Second, periods of increasing aggregate employment are associated with relatively good price and productivity shocks to capital-intensive sectors. The paper presents a simple general-equil...

  9. Smart PWB manufacturing technologies


    Löher, T.; Neumann, A.; Pahl, B.; Reich, H; Ostmann, A.


    The inherent functionality of a printed wiring board (PWB) can be dramatically increased by embedding electronic components into the board. For resistors, capacitors and inductors, technological turnkey solutions are offered by major manufacturers and novel technologies are also under development. A further boost of functionality will be accomplished by the integration of active chips into the board. Two approaches for chip integration into the board will be discussed in detail: the chip in p...

  10. Superconducting tin core fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Blacksburg, VA (United States)


    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  11. Multimaterial Acoustic Fibers (United States)

    Chocat, Noemie

    The emergence of multimaterial fibers that combine a multiplicity of solid materials with disparate electrical, optical, and mechanical properties into a single fiber presents new opportunities for extending fiber applications well beyond optical transmission. Fiber reflectors, thermal detectors, photodetectors, chemical sensors, surface-emitting fiber lasers, fiber diodes, and other functional fiber devices have been demonstrated with this approach. Yet, throughout this development and indeed the development of fibers in general, a key premise has remained unchanged : that fibers are essentially static devices incapable of controllably changing their properties at high frequencies. Unique opportunities would arise if a rapid, electrically-driven mechanism for changing fiber properties existed. A wide spectrum of hitherto passive fiber devices could at once become active with applications spanning electronics, mechanics, acoustics, and optics, with the benefits of large surface-area, structural robustness, and mechanical flexibility. This thesis addresses the challenges and opportunities associated with the realization of electromechanical transduction in fibers through the integration of internal piezoelectric and electrostrictive domains. The fundamental challenges related to the fabrication of piezoelectric devices in fiber form are analyzed from a materials perspective, and candidate materials and geometries are selected that are compatible with the thermal drawing process. The first realization of a thermally drawn piezoelectric fiber device is reported and its piezoelectric response is established over a wide range of frequencies. The acoustic properties of piezoelectric fiber devices are characterized and related to their mechanical and geometric properties. Collective effects in multi-fiber constructs are discussed and demonstrated by the realization of a linear phased array of piezoelectric fibers capable of acoustic beam steering. High strain actuation capabilities in a fiber are demonstrated based on the integration of a highly electrostrictive relaxor ferroelectric polymer. The potential of this approach to realize integrated microelectromechanical systems in fibers is illustrated by the fabrication of a hybrid fiber comprising an electrostrictive device and an adjacent Fabry-Perot optical filter. Amplitude modulation of the light reflected from the Fabry-Perot cavity is demonstrated through electric field induced tuning of the cavity resonance. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, -

  12. Superconducting tin core fiber (United States)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary


    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques.

  13. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  14. Fiber optic sensors (United States)

    Hesse, J.; Sohler, W.


    A survey of the developments in the field of fiber optics sensor technology is presented along with a discussion of the advantages of optical measuring instruments as compared with electronic sensors. The two primary types of fiber optics sensors, specifically those with multiwave fibers and those with monowave fibers, are described. Examples of each major sensor type are presented and discussed. Multiwave detectors include external and internal fiber optics sensors. Among the monowave detectors are Mach-Zender interferometers, Michelson interferometers, Sagnac interferometers (optical gyroscopes), waveguide resonators, and polarimeter sensors. Integrated optical sensors and their application in spectroscopy are briefly discussed.

  15. Fiber optic plenum cable (United States)

    Angeles, Purita; Kurt, Jeffrey


    Fiber optic plenum cables use fluorocarbon jackets to provide the low smoke and flame characteristics required to be classified as plenum cables. Compared with more commonly used optical cable jackets, fluorocarbon jackets have less creep resistance and potentially higher shrinkback. Consequently, the establishment of satisfactory plenum cables required both specialized modeling and experimental cable testing. This paper describes theoretical modelling of the change in attenuation of a plenum fiber optic cable as a function of temperature range. The temperature test results of one and two fiber plenum cables and single fiber connectorized assemblies show the models to be useful tools in rationally developing fiber optic plenum cable.

  16. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.


    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  17. Scheduling MEMS manufacturing (United States)

    Tay, Francis E.; Lee, Loo H.; Wang, Lixin


    This paper focuses on the production scheduling in MEMS manufacturing. The whole MEMS production process can be broken into 3 sub-processes, i.e., the front-end process, the wafer cap process and the back-end process. Every wafer processed by the front end process needs to be bonded with a wafer cap that are manufactured by the wafer cap process, and then it will be sent to the back-end process. Therefore how to synchronize the release of wafers into the front end as well as the wafer cap process becomes an important topic. An ineffective coordination will create larger WHIP and longer cycle time. In this paper, four different synchronization rules are developed and they are evaluated together with seven dispatching rules. The performance measures considered are cycle time, throughput rate and WHIP. A visual interactive simulation model is constructed to imitate the production line. The simulation results indicate that the synchronization rules have more significant impact than the dispatching rules on the performance of MEMS manufacturing.

  18. Safe food manufacturing. (United States)

    Shapiro, A; Mercier, C


    Food safety is a growing preoccupation of the health authorities and the major food companies in any European country. All the aspects of food manufacturing, from the raw materials until the product is consumed have to insure they are innoxious to human health, eliminate any harmful effects related either to food handling or consumption in domestic or common eating places, as well as protect, as much as possible, our environment. Thus, the food manufacturer has to examine step-by-step the security of the agro-cultures, their composition, but also the possible residues of pollutants and contaminants, or chemicals used to protect them against various pests and determine the possible loss or retention of these substances during technological processes. Animal raw materials should not contain veterinary drug residues or an abnormal amount of some components that result from inadequate feeding. Care should be taken to ensure the security of foods manufactured by biotechnology processes. The organisms and the whole processes used in food biotechnologies should eliminate any impurities. Any minor food ingredients, such as food additives, are under a permanent revision from the point of view of their safety. The industry reacts immediately if any justification requires that a particular food additive should not be used. In other words all the raw materials must conform to their specifications. Technological processes must create a food with an adequate microbiological quality, e.g. free of pathogens and their toxic metabolites. Any danger of microbiological contamination or accidental pollution, such as mechanical particles, chemical substances, etc. should be eliminated. The particular role of food packaging is crucial, since this is a barrier to protect the food against further parasites or microbial contamination and preserve the food from alterations due to enzymatic reactions that require particular oxygen and water activity conditions. The packaging should also protect against possible criminal damage. In addition, the material of packaging should not allow micro-migration to the food. It should be inert against its food content. Another aspect of food packaging that has to be taken into account is its recovery and recyclability. Finally, the food manufacturer has to ensure that the nutritional value of the product does not diminish through its shelf-life. The consumer should be advised about the effects of culinary practices since some of them, such as deep frying or grilling under certain circumstances, may create undesirable substances potentially harmful to human health. The food manufacturing in the context of the environment protection requires a separate issue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8202696

  19. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review (United States)

    Frazier, William E.


    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  20. All-solid microstructured fiber with flat normal chromatic dispersion. (United States)

    Martynkien, Tadeusz; Pysz, Dariusz; St?pie?, Ryszard; Buczy?ski, Ryszard


    We present a new approach for the development of all-solid microstructured fiber with flat all-normal dispersion in the broadband range of 1550-2500 nm. The use of two soft glasses gives additional degrees of freedom in the design of microstructured fibers. As a result, we have designed and developed a fiber optimized for supercontinuum generation with 1550 nm pulsed lasers in the all-normal dispersion regime within an infrared range, beyond the fused silica glass limit. The measurement of the chromatic dispersion of the manufactured fibers was performed with a white light interferometric method in the spectral range 900-1650 nm. We demonstrate very good agreement between the full vector finite element simulations and the measurement results. PMID:24978988

  1. Tensile Strength of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Plastic by Fiber Orientation and Fiber Content Variations (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Hyoung-Seok; Lee, Dong-Gi

    For unidirectional composite material, there is a theoretical mixture rule equation to calculate the strength of composite from properties of matrix and fiber content. However, the equation for tensile strength with the fiber content and the fiber orientation is not available. Therefore, this study was investigated what affect fiber content and fiber orientation have on the strength of composites. Glass fiber-reinforced plastic by changing fiber orientation and fiber content was made. Tensile strength of 0° direction of composites increased being proportional fiber content and fiber orientation function as change from isotropy (J=0) to anisotropy (J=1). But, tensile strength of 90° direction by separation of fiber filament decreased when tensile load is imposed for width direction of reinforcement fiber length direction. In this study, empirical equation to estimate tensile strength out of fiber orientation and fiber content was proposed.

  2. NICE3: Dyebath reuse in carpet manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, P.


    Fact sheet on an analysis system for dyebath processes in the carpet manufacturing industry written for the NICE3 Program. The Georgia Institute of Technology (G.I.T.) has developed an effective automated dyebath analysis and reuse system that improves the energy, environmental, and economic performance of dyehouse batch operations. The new system enables dyeing solutions to be accurately monitored and adjusted for reuse. According to industry estimates, 160 pounds of water are used to produce each pound of textile product. The current wasteful batch dyeing process requires all water and residual chemicals, as well as the energy required to heat the mixture for dyeing, to be dumped after one application. Spent dyebaths can only be reused after they are sampled, analyzed, and reconstituted, a process requiring labor and expertise that are unavailable in the dyehouses. Therefore, successful commercial reuse depends on an automated analysis system that precisely analyzes dyebath samples in real-time and provides for reconstitution and reuse. If fully implemented throughout the carpet industry, this innovation is expected to reduce energy consumption by 3.6 trillion Btu/year. Waste and cost savings will also be substantial. Though this project was developed for nylon carpet dyeing, the technology holds promise for widespread implementation in carpet manufacturing. In addition, it offers several opportunities involving other textile products, fiber types, dye classes, and dyeing equipment.

  3. Effect of reinforced fiber on morphology of Si phases in Al2O3/AI-Si alloy composite


    Liu, Zheng; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhu, Yinglu


    Alumina/aluminum-silicon alloy composite is manufactured by squeeze casting. The effect of the reinforcement on the morphology of the silicon phase in aluminum-silicon alloy is studied. The results indicate that an alumina fiber can serve as propitious sites for the heterogeneous nucleation of the silicon phase, and the primary silicon in the composite can nucleate on the surface of the fiber. The fiber in the composite can trigger twin during the coupled growth of the aluminum-silicon eutect...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Shi


    Full Text Available Corporate environmental sustainability calls for sustainable product manufacturing with less creation of waste material or increased reuse of waste materials. One example is the use of keratin fiber from the poultry industry and cotton linter from the textile industry for paper and tissue manufacturing. In this paper, the feasibility of using these waste fibers to make paper was demonstrated in handsheets. The properties of these handsheets were compared to the properties of handsheets made with standard bleached eucalyptus tropical hardwood fibers. A blend of cotton linter and keratin fibers at 80/20 and 60/40 ratios showed a 59% and 73% improvement in sheet bulk, respectively, compared to eucalyptus handsheets. Similarly, air permeability of the cotton / keratin fiber handsheets improved 414% and 336%, respectively, versus the eucalyptus. However, the tensile index of the cotton and keratin fiber blends was lower than the eucalyptus sheets. There was no remarkable difference in water absorbency up to 20% keratin fiber. Above 20% of keratin fibers the water absorbency started to decrease, which is likely attributable to the hydrophobic nature of the protein-based keratin fiber.

  5. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander


    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  6. Coatings for Graphite Fibers (United States)

    Galasso, F. S.; Scola, D. A.; Veltri, R. D.


    Several approaches for applying high resistance coatings continuously to graphite yarn were investigated. Two of the most promising approaches involved (1) chemically vapor depositing (CVD) SiC coatings on the surface of the fiber followed by oxidation, and (2) drawing the graphite yarn through an organo-silicone solution followed by heat treatments. In both methods, coated fibers were obtained which exhibited increased electrical resistances over untreated fibers and which were not degraded. This work was conducted in a previous program. In this program, the continuous CVD SiC coating process used on HTS fiber was extended to the coating of HMS, Celion 6000, Celion 12000 and T-300 graphite fiber. Electrical resistances three order of magnitude greater than the uncoated fiber were measured with no significant degradation of the fiber strength. Graphite fibers coated with CVD Si3N4 and BN had resistances greater than 10(exp 6) ohm/cm. Lower pyrolysis temperatures were used in preparing the silica-like coatings also resulting in resistances as high as three orders of magnitude higher than the uncoated fiber. The epoxy matrix composites prepared using these coated fibers had low shear strengths indicating that the coatings were weak.

  7. Bragg Grating Based Sensors in Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers: Accelerometers and Microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio


    With the growing interest towards fiber Bragg grating sensors and the growing ability in manufacturing polymer optical fibers, the development of polymer fiber Bragg sensors has catched the attention of industries with the goal of developing high performance sensors. This thesis presents the development of fiber sensors based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings. The whole process from the preform to the device is discussed and reported. A presentation on the fiber drawing technique used is given. Issues encountered when working with polymer fibers and solutions concerning fiber cleaving and gluing of polymer to silica fibers are discussed. The realization of gratings in polymer fibers is shown with two different techniques: the UV phase mask technique and the direct writing technique reported here for the first time for polymer fibers. Realization of gratings in PMMA step index fibers and in microstructured fibers made of PMMA and TOPAS is reported. The gratings have been written at both 1550 nm, to take advantage of components made for telecommunications, and 850 nm, to exploit the lower loss of polymers and the fast acquisition electronics at this wavelength. A technique for writing multiplexed gratings is shown and temperature compensation of strain sensors, by using two adjacent gratings, is demonstrated. Humidity insensitivity in a strain sensor based on a TOPAS fiber is also shown. In order to investigate the possibility of using viscoelastic materials, such as polymers, in dynamic sensors, dynamic mechanical characterization of polymer fibers was made and it is presented. The investigated and produced fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured polymer optical bers were used to produce optical accelerometers. The accelerometers and their characterization are reported. Finally the realization of an optical microphone based on polymer ber Bragg gratings is reported.

  8. Durable fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to produce thin precast elements, a self-compacting concrete was prepared. When manufacturing these elements, homogenously dispersed steel fibers instead of ordinary steel-reinforcing mesh were added to the concrete mixture at a dosage of 10% by mass of cement. An adequate concrete strength class was achieved with a water to cement ratio of 0.40. Compression and flexure tests were carried out to assess the safety of these thin concrete elements. Moreover, serviceability aspects were taken into consideration. Firstly, drying shrinkage tests were carried out in order to evaluate the contribution of steel fibers in counteracting the high concrete strains due to a low aggregate-cement ratio. Secondly, the resistance to freezing and thawing cycles was investigated on concrete specimens in some cases superficially treated with a hydrophobic agent. Lastly, both carbonation and chloride penetration tests were carried out to assess durability behavior of this concrete mixture

  9. Fiber composite materials with integrated piezoceramic plates (United States)

    Krajenski, Volker; Mook, Gerhard; Wierach, Peter; Hanselka, Holger


    In contrast to conventional lightweight material like aluminum or titanium, fiber composites offer the possibility to integrate functional elements directly into the material. Thus, multifunctional materials are developed which have the ability to serve more than the load-carrying function. As there is extensive work on the field of integration of thin piezoceramic platse and foils into carbon fiber reinforced polymeres, this will be focused on in this paper. First, the design of an active carbon fiber composite with integrated piezoceramic is shown. Different fiber layups and connecting methods to supply the piezoceramic are discussed. A sophisticated processing technology for active composite materials, the so-called DP-RTM (Differential Pressure - Resin Transfer Moulding), is presented. Various damage mechanisms may reduce or even destroy the sensing and actuaing capabilities of the piezoceramic material. Therefore the capability of high resolution non-destructive methods to evaluate manufacturing defects as well as defects resulting from mechanical overload is presented. Finally two applications are discussed in more detail to demonstrate the potential of the active composite material. Representing static applications an active composite plate is shown which has an infinite bending stiffness up to a certain load. A second active composite plate is used for active noise control.

  10. Natural Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Composites as Engineered Structural Materials (United States)

    Dittenber, David B.

    The objective of this work was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP)'s ability to act as a structural material. As a chemical treatment, aligned kenaf fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide (alkalization) in different concentrations and durations and then manufactured into kenaf fiber / vinyl ester composite plates. Single fiber tensile properties and composite flexural properties, both in dry and saturated environments, were assessed. Based on ASTM standard testing, a comparison of flexural, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical properties was also made between an untreated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a chemically treated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a glass fiber reinforced composite, and oriented strand board (OSB). The mechanical properties were evaluated for dry samples, samples immersed in water for 50 hours, and samples immersed in water until saturation (~2700 hours). Since NFRPs are more vulnerable to environmental effects than synthetic fiber composites, a series of weathering and environmental tests were conducted on the kenaf fiber composites. The environmental conditions studied include real-time outdoor weathering, elevated temperatures, immersion in different pH solutions, and UV exposure. In all of these tests, degradation was found to be more pronounced in the NFRPs than in the glass FRPs; however, in nearly every case the degradation was less than 50% of the flexural strength or stiffness. Using a method of overlapping and meshing discontinuous fiber ends, large mats of fiber bundles were manufactured into composite facesheets for structural insulated panels (SIPs). The polyisocyanurate foam cores proved to be poorly matched to the strength and stiffness of the NFRP facesheets, leading to premature core shear or delamination failures in both flexure and compressive testing. The NFRPs were found to match well with the theoretical stiffness prediction methods of classical lamination theory, finite element method, and Castigliano's method in unidirectional tension and compression, but are less accurate for the more bond-dependent flexural and shear properties. With the acknowledged NFRP matrix bonding issues, the over-prediction of these theoretical models indicates that the flexural stiffness of the kenaf composite may be increased by up to 40% if a better bond between the fiber and matrix can be obtained. The sustainability of NFRPs was examined from two perspectives: environmental and socioeconomic. While the kenaf fibers themselves possess excellent sustainability characteristics, costing less while possessing a lesser environmental impact than the glass fibers, the vinyl ester resin used in the composites is environmentally hazardous and inflated the cost and embodied energy of the composite SIPs. Consistent throughout all the designs was a correlation between the respective costs of the raw materials and the respective environmental impacts. The socioeconomic study looked at the sustainability of natural fiber reinforced composite materials as housing materials in developing countries. A literature study on the country of Bangladesh, where the fibers in this study were grown, showed that the jute and kenaf market would benefit from the introduction of a value-added product like natural fiber composites. The high rate of homeless and inadequately housed in Bangladesh, as well as in the US and throughout the rest of the world, could be somewhat alleviated if a new, affordable, and durable material were introduced. While this study found that natural fiber composites possess sufficient mechanical properties to be adopted as primary structural members, the two major remaining hurdles needing to be overcome before natural fiber composites can be adopted as housing materials are the cost and sustainability of the resin system and the moisture resistance/durability of the fibers. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. General Tips of What Little This Author has Learned of Cotton Processing in Traditional Textile Manufacturing (United States)

    This article, under the following sub-headings, only lists a few very important tips that the author has experienced in his career involving processing of cotton in the traditional textile manufacturing: (1) Fiber Opening and Cleaning (2) Carding (3) Drawing (4) Combing, if necessary (5) Roving (6)...

  12. Nonwovens manufacturing technologies and cotton’s realistic scope in nonwovens (United States)

    Cotton commodity continues to be under pressure from its low and depressed prices for decades, geo and political factors, competition with manufactured fibers, and, very importantly, its gradual decline in consumption by the U.S. domestic mills. In fact, the current domestic consumption of virgin co...

  13. Improving the Value Chain of Biofuel Manufacturing Operations by Enhancing Coproduct Transportation and Logistics (United States)

    Biofuels, including corn-based ethanol, can partially meet the increasing demand for transportation fuels. The production of ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased; so too has the quantity of manufacturing coproducts. These nonfermentable residues (i.e., proteins, fibers, oils) are sold as...

  14. Cloud manufacturing distributed computing technologies for global and sustainable manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Mehnen, Jörn


    Global networks, which are the primary pillars of the modern manufacturing industry and supply chains, can only cope with the new challenges, requirements and demands when supported by new computing and Internet-based technologies. Cloud Manufacturing: Distributed Computing Technologies for Global and Sustainable Manufacturing introduces a new paradigm for scalable service-oriented sustainable and globally distributed manufacturing systems.   The eleven chapters in this book provide an updated overview of the latest technological development and applications in relevant research areas.  Following an introduction to the essential features of Cloud Computing, chapters cover a range of methods and applications such as the factors that actually affect adoption of the Cloud Computing technology in manufacturing companies and new geometrical simplification method to stream 3-Dimensional design and manufacturing data via the Internet. This is further supported case studies and real life data for Waste Electrical ...

  15. Review of fiber methods and applicability to fortified foods and supplements: choosing the correct method and interpreting results. (United States)

    Zielinski, Garrett; Rozema, Brent


    Fiber is known to be an important part of our nutrition and has many positive health benefits, including weight management and maintaining heart health. In recent years, a number of new ingredients have been manufactured or isolated that are being used to increase the health benefits of a product. Some are used as prebiotics that stimulate the growth of the beneficial bacteria in the gut, or are used as replacements for sugars, starch, or fat in manufactured foods. Fiber supplements have also been produced that can be taken to provide additional fiber to the diet. The term "fiber" does not relate to a single analyte or entity, but instead relates to a multitude of components. This adds to the complexity of analytical testing as there are a number of AOAC International and AACC International official methods which have been validated and can be used. Although methods have been developed for specific fiber ingredients, a number of methods have also been developed to capture just "fiber". These "fiber" methods will capture differing degrees of the different fiber ingredients, so knowledge of the fiber sources is critical. The net result is that a variety of testing approaches may be used, but caution must be exercised in order to ensure that the total fiber result is accurately determined. A critical review of available fiber methodology and possible testing approaches is presented, along with how to accurately interpret and understand results. PMID:23377113

  16. Single Mode Coupler Manufacturing (United States)

    Corke, M.; Kale, M.; Keur, M.; Kopera, P.; Shaklee, K.; Sweeney, K.


    Until recently, single mode couplers were laboratory curiosities. Now, however, several companies offer high quality couplers as commercial products. Improvements in coupler manufacturing have been made, on a regular basis, to the point where 50% couplers with less than 0.5 dB loss are routinely available. Generally, these couplers are fabricated by hand, a, process which is inefficient, in terms of the consistency of the couplers fabricated and extremely labor intensive, thereby limiting total output. In this paper, we discuss an automated single mode coupler facility. This assembly system has the advantages of high yield, reproducible coupling ratio and loss values, and high volume output.

  17. Careers in Manufacturing (United States)

    Jacobi, Linda

    This learning activity from The Mechatronics Education Centerâ??s Project SHINE widens studentsâ?? understanding of the manufacturing industry, including learning about specific jobs in industry. Through researching a specific business (the example used is in the health care industry), students will begin to more deeply understand products and services offered by the company, a general profile of the company, skills required for various jobs and more. The activity is designed as a 14-21 day unit, intended for use as a long-term class project.


    Short-fiber reinforced composites are made from keratin fibers and polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP). The keratin fibers are obtained from poultry feathers. It is shown that PE and PP are reinforced by the keratin fibers. There is good compatibility between the polymer and fiber without th...

  19. Improved Methods for Production Manufacturing Processes in Environmentally Benign Manufacturing


    Yan-Yan Wang; Bai-He Gu; Ze-Kun Mu; Xian-Chun Tan; Can Yang


    How to design a production process with low carbon emissions and low environmental impact as well as high manufacturing performance is a key factor in the success of low-carbon production. It is important to address concerns about climate change for the large carbon emission source manufacturing industries because of their high energy consumption and environmental impact during the manufacturing stage of the production life cycle. In this paper, methodology for determining a production proces...

  20. Experimental research on fiber Bragg grating hydrophone (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Niu, Wencheng; Xiao, ChunXian; Kai, Guiyun; Dong, Xiaoyi


    The FBG being used as the basic sensor unit, a hydrophone sensor has been designed and manufactured. Its principle and relevant experimental result are introduced. By using the matched fiber grating demodulation technique, dynamic signal measurement with high sensitivity is realized. The frequency range of the FBG-based hydrophone is 10~3kHz with a dynamic range is 60dB. Due to the characters of FBG itself, the measure of multiple-points underwater signal can be realized conveniently by using WDM and TDM techniques.

  1. Polymer optical fiber fuse

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro


    Although high-transmission-capacity optical fibers are in demand, the problem of the fiber fuse phenomenon needs to be resolved to prevent the destruction of fibers. As polymer optical fibers become more prevalent, clarifying their fuse properties has become important. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a fuse propagation velocity of 21.9 mm/s, which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude slower than that in standard silica fibers. The achieved threshold power density and proportionality constant between the propagation velocity and the power density are respectively 1/186 of and 16.8 times the values for silica fibers. An oscillatory continuous curve instead of periodic voids is formed after the passage of the fuse. An easy fuse termination method is presented herein, along with its potential plasma applications.

  2. Fiber optic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transmission of information via optical fiber became more attractive due its advantageous characteristics in relation to the radio waves or metallic wires. Beside the applications in data-communication, the optic fibers have presented great benefit in the area of sensors and industrial controls, including the nuclear area. However, a major problem in the application of optical fibers in nuclear environments is the presence of ionizing radiation. When optical fibers are exposed to radiation field, color center are formed in the optical core or cladding and its can degrade the transmission. In this work it is presented the theoretical basis for color centers formation in optical fibers and the results attained in an exploratory experiment to measure the attenuation in a multimode optic fiber using a gamma ray source. (author)

  3. Fiber-Reinforced Reactive Nano-Epoxy Composites (United States)

    Zhong, Wei-Hong


    An ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene/ matrix interface based on the fabrication of a reactive nano-epoxy matrix with lower surface energy has been improved. Enhanced mechanical properties versus pure epoxy on a three-point bend test include: strength (25 percent), modulus (20 percent), and toughness (30 percent). Increased thermal properties include higher Tg (glass transition temperature) and stable CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion). Improved processability for manufacturing composites includes faster wetting rates on macro-fiber surfaces, lower viscosity, better resin infusion rates, and improved rheological properties. Improved interfacial adhesion properties with Spectra fibers by pullout tests include initial debonding force of 35 percent, a maximum pullout force of 25 percent, and energy to debond at 65 percent. Improved mechanical properties of Spectra fiber composites (tensile) aging resistance properties include hygrothermal effects. With this innovation, high-performance composites have been created, including carbon fibers/nano-epoxy, glass fibers/nano-epoxy, aramid fibers/ nano-epoxy, and ultra-high-molecularweight polyethylene fiber (UHMWPE).

  4. Fuel pellet manufacturing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present invention, the crystal grain size of an oxide fuel pellet is increased to form a deposited secondary phase in a crystal grain boundary. That is, powders of an mixed oxide containing Gd2O3 are molded under pressure, then sintered to manufacture fuel pellets. In this case, a sintering agent comprising CaO and Al2O3 is added and mixed to uranium dioxide or the mixed oxide. They are applied with dust core molding to manufacture green pellets, followed by a decreasing step. They are sintered at a temperature of 1500 to 1800degC. With such procedures, the sintering agent forms eutectic material in a single liquid phase. Then, the surface reaction between nuclear fuel powders is promoted by a liquid phase sintering mechanism to aid the growth of crystal grains. Further, the growth of the crystal grains increases the dispersion distance of the FP gases to the crystal grain boundary, to decrease the FP gas releasing rate from the pellet. (I.S.)

  5. New mold manufacturing techniques (United States)

    Hall, Chris; Tricard, Marc; Murakoshi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Kuriyama, Kunitaka; Yoko, Hiroyoshi


    Typically, optical molds have been made from silicon carbide (SiC) or tungsten carbide (WC). Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) polishing results of SiC and WC molds will be reviewed. Impressive figure corrections have been demonstrated on both types of materials. The roughness performance of CVD-SiC, WC and binderless WC will be compared. However, the hardness and polycrystalline nature of these materials make them difficult to manufacture. In this paper we report positive initial results using an alternate mold material, glassy carbon. Test samples have been ground, pre-polished and finish polished to a 38 nm surface figure peak-to-valley (PV) and a 6 Å rms surface roughness, with improved cycle times versus SiC and WC. Glassy carbon is a promising mold material candidate as an amorphous material of lower hardness. The lower hardness leads to more effective diamond grinding process and results in a better surface rms roughness following MRF. After reviewing key material properties of glassy carbon material, this paper will describe some collaborative activities between Toshiba Machine Co., Ltd. and QED Technologies (QED) to manufacture representative examples of glassy carbon. Details of the grinding, pre-polishing and final polishing process will be provided along with the resultant metrology results after key steps. Molding experiments based on these developments will also be presented.

  6. Fiber optic micro accelerometer (United States)

    Swierkowski, Steve P.


    An accelerometer includes a wafer, a proof mass integrated into the wafer, at least one spring member connected to the proof mass, and an optical fiber. A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially reflective surface on the proof mass and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. The two partially reflective surfaces are used to detect movement of the proof mass through the optical fiber, using an optical detection system.

  7. Fiber optics in SHIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHIVA is a twenty arm laser which is controlled with a network of fifty computers, interconnected with digital fiber optic links. Three different fiber optic systems employed on the Shiva laser will be described. Two of the systems are for digital communications, one at 9600 baud and the other at 1 megabaud. The third system uses fiber optics to distribute diagnostic triggers with subnanosecond jitter

  8. Natural fiber reinforced concrete


    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Jalali, Said


    The construction industry is responsible for the depletion of large amounts of non-renewable resources. This activity generates not only millions of tons of mineral wastes but also carbon dioxide gas emissions. More building materials based on renewable resources such as vegetable fibers are needed. This chapter discusses the utilization of natural fibers for concrete reinforcement. It includes fiber characteristics, properties and the description of the treatments that improve their perfo...

  9. Multimaterial fiber sensors


    Sorin, Fabien; Fink, Yoel


    Recent discoveries have enabled the integration of metals, insulators and semiconductors structures into extended length of polymer fibers. This has heralded a novel path and platform towards sensing of different physical quantities such as temperature, chemicals, acoustic waves, and optical signals. The challenges and opportunities associated with this new class of fiber devices will be presented. In particular, we will discuss the materials and fabrication approach of multimaterial fibers. ...

  10. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  11. Developing engineering model Cobra fiber positioners for the Subaru Telescope's prime focus spectrometer (United States)

    Fisher, Charles; Morantz, Chaz; Braun, David; Seiffert, Michael; Aghazarian, Hrand; Partos, Eamon; King, Matthew; Hovland, Larry E.; Schwochert, Mark; Kaluzny, Joel; Capocasale, Christopher; Houck, Andrew; Gross, Johannes; Reiley, Daniel; Mao, Peter; Riddle, Reed; Bui, Khanh; Henderson, David; Haran, Todd; Culhane, Robert; Piazza, Daniele; Walkama, Eric


    The Cobra fiber positioner is being developed by the California Institute of Technology (CIT) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) instrument that will be installed at the Subaru Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. PFS is a fiber fed multi-object spectrometer that uses an array of Cobra fiber positioners to rapidly reconfigure 2394 optical fibers at the prime focus of the Subaru Telescope that are capable of positioning a fiber to within 5?m of a specified target location. A single Cobra fiber positioner measures 7.7mm in diameter and is 115mm tall. The Cobra fiber positioner uses two piezo-electric rotary motors to move a fiber optic anywhere in a 9.5mm diameter patrol area. In preparation for full-scale production of 2550 Cobra positioners an Engineering Model (EM) version was developed, built and tested to validate the design, reduce manufacturing costs, and improve system reliability. The EM leveraged the previously developed prototype versions of the Cobra fiber positioner. The requirements, design, assembly techniques, development testing, design qualification and performance evaluation of EM Cobra fiber positioners are described here. Also discussed is the use of the EM build and test campaign to validate the plans for full-scale production of 2550 Cobra fiber positioners scheduled to begin in late-2014.

  12. Fiber-diffraction Interferometer using Coherent Fiber Optic Taper


    Kihm, Hagyong; Lee, Yun-woo


    We present a fiber-diffraction interferometer using a coherent fiber optic taper for optical testing in an uncontrolled environment. We use a coherent fiber optic taper and a single-mode fiber having thermally-expanded core. Part of the measurement wave coming from a test target is condensed through a fiber optic taper and spatially filtered from a single-mode fiber to be reference wave. Vibration of the cavity between the target and the interferometer probe is common to bot...

  13. Advanced Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project (United States)

    Anderson, John

    The Aerospace manufacturing industry segment is facing problems of a "graying" workforce. In addition they face the challenges of increasing productivity and integrating new materials accentuating the need to attract new engineers to the manufacturing workplace. This paper describes a project funded by the National Science Foundation to examine the changing needs of the aerospace manufacturing industries, and to develop curricula materials to address those needs. These materials will be in the public domain and fit into existing engineering and manufacturing technology programs. The project is a joint venture between El Camino College, Wichita Area Technical College, Oregon Institute of Technology and Purdue University, and is supported by the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, The Boeing Company, Northrop Grumman Corp., Bell Helicopter, Lockheed Martin Corp., and other leading aerospace companies. The first phase of this project involved conducting interviews with new manufacturing engineers and their mangers, and results of these interviews are included.

  14. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  15. Manufacturing Simulation For Industrial Projects (United States)

    Nutter, Paul

    Manufacturing simulation is a major component of the technology program at this university, and has provided opportunities for numerous industrial projects. This software application is being used extensively by many major corporations to model, analyze, and optimize complex manufacturing operations, including Boeing, Lockheed-Martin, Daimler-Chrysler and Toyota.Companies are utilizing these advanced 3D digital manufacturing tools as a component of their product life-cycle management to optimize and continuously improve the manufacturing processes. In many cases simulations are mandatory prior to implementation of any significant new operation, project or process. Manufacturing technologists and engineers need to be familiar with these modern tools and their applications, and to understand when and how to effectively utilize them. At our university these applications are being taught under the title of virtual simulation (VS). This paper explains how VS has been integrated into our curriculum, and has been used to establish effective partnerships with major manufacturing companies

  16. Continuous fiber coating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CVD system for coating continuous fiber tows and monofilaments was designed, fabricated, and successfully operated. The vertical CVD furnace is of the hot wall type which permits coating of electrically insulating or conducting fibers. A supply spool of as-received fiber is used to feed fiber into the bottom of the furnace, through the reactor, and onto a second, motorized spool affixed to the top of the coater. Experience in depositing YBa2Cu3Ox, BN, and SiC coatings is described

  17. Treatment and characterization of fiber licuri for synthesis of polymeric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural fibers are materials of increasing use of polymeric composites, due to several advantageous properties compared to synthetic fibers: low cost, density, toxicity and excellent biodegradability. Licuri fiber is widely used in the manufacture of handicrafts, with a wide range of possible applications. Before this, characterize the properties of the fiber is of great interest economic, technological and social. This study characterized the fibers in nature, which were washed with water, treated with 5% H2SO4 or 5% NaOH. Techniques were used FTIR, DSC, TGA and XRD, as well as analysis of surface reactivity of the acid and base. All treatments altered the surface of licuri, exposing reactive sites. It was observed that sodium hydroxide licuri changed significantly, as expected. These results are very significant for the recovery of a natural fiber (licuri), abundant in poor regions of the country. (author)

  18. Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo


    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN. In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

  19. Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo


    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN. In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

  20. Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jossano Saldanha, Marcuzzo; Choyu, Otani; Heitor Aguiar, Polidoro; Satika, Otani.


    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF) which receive an additional activation process and [...] can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

  1. A manufacturing cell controller architecture


    Quintas, António; Leitão, Paulo


    Worldwide competition among enterprises has lead to new needs in the area of manufacturing to answer for price, quality and delivery time. The improvement of productivity and flexibility in manufacturing systems by the introduction of new concepts and technologies, and by the appropriate integration of the different resources, may constitute a key factor for the solution towards the success. This paper describes the specification and implementation of a Manufacturing Cell Controller integrate...

  2. The evolution of manufacturing SPECIES


    Baldwin, James Scott; Rose-Anderssen, Christen; Ridgway, Keith; Böttinger, Fabian; Michen, Marcus; Agyapong-Kodua, Kwabena; Brencsics, Ivan; Nemeth, Istvan; Krain, Roland


    This research aims to develop hierarchical and cladistic classifications of manufacturing system evolution, incorporating evolving and interacting product, process and production system features. The objectives then are to systematically organise manufacturing systems and their characteristics in classifications Forty-six candidate species of manufacturing systems have been identified and organised in a 4th generation hierarchical classification with 14 'genera', 6 'families' 3 'orders' and 1...

  3. Manufacturing productivity, deindustrialization, and reindustrialization


    Tregenna, Fiona


    In considering pathways to industrialization in the twenty-first century, cognisance needs to be taken of the fact that many countries have actually been deindustrializing. This paper analyses deindustrialization experiences internationally, by decomposing changes in the level and share of manufacturing employment. The results indicate that in most countries the decline in manufacturing employment is associated mainly with rising labour productivity in manufacturing. Reindustrialization is li...

  4. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  5. Ultrashort pulsed fiber laser welding and sealing of transparent materials. (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Liu, Jian


    In this paper, methods of welding and sealing optically transparent materials using an ultrashort pulsed (USP) fiber laser are demonstrated which overcome the limit of small area welding of optical materials. First, the interaction of USP fiber laser radiation inside glass was studied and single line welding results with different laser parameters were investigated. Then multiline scanning was used to obtain successful area bonding. Finally, complete four-edge sealing of fused silica substrates with a USP laser was demonstrated and the hermetic seal was confirmed by water immersion test. This laser microwelding technique can be extended to various applications in the semiconductor industry and precision optic manufacturing. PMID:22614601


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bizet


    Full Text Available The microstructure of a unidirectional glass-fiber composite material is described seeking especially for the influence of the stitching perpendicular to the reinforcement. Serial cuts are performed through the composite and the microstructure is quantified using global parameters and linear morphological analysis. A key result is that the stitching induces variations in fibers spacing within the yarns and in the matrix volume between the yarns. This can affect noticeably the flow of the resin during the manufacturing process and also the mechanical properties of the composite.

  7. Characterisation of pulsed Carbon fiber illuminators for FIR instrument calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Henrot-Versillé, S; Couchot, F


    We manufactured pulsed illuminators emitting in the far infrared for the Planck-HFI bolometric instrument ground calibrations. Specific measurements have been conducted on these light sources, based on Carbon fibers, to understand and predict their properties. We present a modelisation of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity and the calorific capacitance of the fibers. A comparison between simulations and bolometer data is given, that shows the coherence of our model. Their small time constants, their stability and their emission spectrum pointing in the submm range make these illuminators a very usefull tool for calibrating FIR instruments.

  8. Mechanical integrity of dye-sensitized photovoltaic fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramier, J.; Plummer, C.J.G.; Leterrier, Y.; Maanson, J.-A.E. [Laboratoire de Technologie des Composites et Polymeres (LTC), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) Station 12, CH 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Eckert, B.; Gaudiana, R. [KONARKA Technologies AG, 116 John Street, Lowell, MA 01852 (United States)


    The development of photovoltaic (PV) devices based on dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2}-coated Ti fibers has opened up exciting possibilities for novel PV textile applications. The cohesion and adhesion of the TiO{sub 2} layer are identified as crucial factors in maintaining PV efficiency during textile manufacture and weaving operations. The present work describes a systematic investigation of the corresponding damage mechanisms and their influence on the overall PV fiber performance during mechanical deformation. The results confirm that with proper control of the tension of the weft and in the warp, high PV efficiency woven textures are feasible using this technology. (author)

  9. Fiber-optical systems in physical experiment technique. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of fiber-optic systems (FOS) application in modern physical experiment automatization systems mainly oriented to functional monitoring electrophysical installations (EPI), beams, plasma, targets diagnostics as well as experiment environment investigation is considering. Questions of the FOS functioning in high and low pressure; high and cryogenic temperature; pulsed, SHF and radiational fields, high potentials are discussed. Attention is attached to designing, manufacturing and servicing FOS, their metrological support. There are functioning concepts of FOS, and modern component base: fiber and optical cabels, connectors, and couplers, spectral devices, optical sources and photodetectors, transmitter and receiver devices. 191 refs.; 19 figs.; 9 tabs

  10. Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

  11. Time for a forum on terms used for textile fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawistoski, P. S.


    Full Text Available The advances in manufactured fibers and textiles have garnered interest and excitement of textile artists and consumers alike for a myriad of reasons, including health, environmental, and fashion. The chemical and molecular nature of these advances, however leads to confusion and misunderstanding of the new fibers in the materials. This is exacerbated by the current climate of distrust for chemical words and desire for "green" products and the unregulated (misinformation and marketing on the web. Textile artists, consumers, and the clothing and household textile industry need clear names and labels to identify the materials they are using.

  12. Technology of Manufacturing Enzyme Preparations

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Development and Optimization of Technological Processes for Manufacturing Enzyme Preparations, Including Alpha-Amylase, Glucoamylase, Cellulase, Xylanase, Pectate Lyase, Beta-Galactosidase, Lipase, Phytase

  13. The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food Sensory Characteristics and Palatability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Koppel


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine (a the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition, guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%, sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size, and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size. The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods manufactured with inclusion of different fibers.

  14. Access Control for Manufacturing Process in Networked Manufacturing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhou


    Full Text Available The deficiencies of current access control techniques in solving the problems of manufacturing process access conflict in networked manufacturing environment were analyzed. An information model of manufacturing process was con-structed, and a case XML Schema of manufacturing task model was given. Based on the characteristic analysis of the access control for the information model, an improved access control model of manufacturing process was constructed, and the access control model based on manufacture tasks, roles and time limits and the relationships among the ele-ments were defined. The implementation mechanisms for access control model were analyzed, in which the access case matching strategy based on manufacture tasks and time limits, the authorization assignment mechanism based on manufacture tasks, roles, correlation degrees and time limits, XML based access control for transaction security and integrity were included. And the two-level detection architecture of transaction conflict was designed to find the con-flicts both in application and in the database. Finally the prototype system was developed based on these principles. Feasibility and effectiveness of the method were verified by an enterprise application.

  15. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria (United States)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  16. Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)


    The efficiency and effectiveness of the gas turbine engine is directly related to the turbine inlet temperatures. The ability to increase these temperatures has occurred as a result of improvements in materials, design, and processing techniques. A generic sequence indicating the relationship of these factors to temperature capability is schematically shown in Figure 1 for aircraft engine and land based engine materials. A basic contribution that is not captured by the Figure is the significant improvement in process and manufacturing capability that has accompanied each of these innovations. It is this capability that has allowed the designs and innovations to be applied on a high volume, cost effective scale in the aircraft gas turbine market.

  17. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne


    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  18. Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing (ECM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kansas City Plant (KCP) is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) as the Kansas City Division of Allied-Signal Inc. The KCP produces and procures non-nuclear electrical, electronic, electromechanical, plastic, and metal components for nuclear weapons. Environmental goals at the KCP are to clean up, maintain, and operate the governmental facilities in the most environmentally advantageous manner consistent with regulations. New environmental technologies that are developed by the design laboratories and the KCP are incorporated into the DOE manufacturing facilities, and information is shared with the outside industry through meetings, publications, and seminars. This booklet presents current projects on solvent waste streams, polymer waste streams, plating waste streams, and miscellaneous waste stream minimization projects

  19. Manufacturing strategy issues in selected Indian manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahender Singh


    Full Text Available This paper presents some findings of Indian manufacturing sectors viz. automobile (especially two-wheeler, tractor and general manufacturing industry. Various manufacturing strategy issues such as competitive priorities, improvement activities, and performance measures, have been identified and assessed in Indian context. Sector wise comparison of competitive priorities, improvement activities i.e. advanced manufacturing technology (AMT, integrated information systems (IIS, and advanced management systems (AMS, and performance measure, is provided. Our results showed that most of the Indian companies are still emphasizing on quality. However, automobile sector has set to compete globally with high innovation rate, faster new product development, and continuous improvement. It is also observed that Indian companies are investing more in AMS as compared to IIS and AMT. Manufacturing competence index is also computed for each sector.

  20. Characteristics of wood-fiber plastic composites made of recycled materials. (United States)

    Ashori, Alireza; Nourbakhsh, Amir


    This study investigates the feasibility of using recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE), polypropylene (rPP) and old newspaper (rONP) fiber to manufacture experimental composite panels. The panels were made through air-forming and hot press. The effects of the fiber and coupling agent concentration on tensile, flexural, internal bond properties and water absorption and thickness swelling of wood-fiber plastic composites were studied. The use of maleated polypropylene as coupling agent improved the compatibility between the fiber and both plastic matrices and mechanical properties of the resultant composites compared well with those of non-coupled ones. Based on the findings in this work, it appears that recycled materials can be used to manufacture value-added panels without having any significant adverse influence on board properties. It was also found that composites with rHDPE provided moderately superior properties, compared with rPP samples. PMID:19168343

  1. Optical Absorption in Commercial Single Mode Optical Fibers in a High Energy Physics Radiation Field

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, T; Kuhnhenn, J; Hoeffgen, S K; Weinand, U


    This paper reports on the radiation induced attenuation of light at 1310 nm and 1550 nm in 12 commercially available single mode (SM) optical fibers. The fiber samples are exposed to gamma rays from a 60Co source and to a high energy physics radiation field. The attenuation is studied as a function of total dose, dose rate, light power and temperature. Radiation hard fibers from one manufacturer show an extraordinary low attenuation for light at 1310 nm that does not exceed 5 dB/km even after a total dose of 1 MGy. 2500 km of this type of fiber have been produced by the manufacturer and quality assurance measurements of the production batches are presently ongoing.

  2. High Fiber Diet (Beyond the Basics) (United States)

    ... vegetables, is available in the table ( table 1 ). Breakfast cereals can be a good source of fiber. ... article HIGH-FIBER DIET OVERVIEW WHAT IS FIBER? BENEFITS OF A HIGH-FIBER DIET HOW MUCH FIBER ...


    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)



    Full Text Available Resin-free fiberboards were manufactured using industrial fiber from Pinus radiata activated by an oxidative treatment using the Fenton reaction (H(2)0(2)/ Fe(II)). A multivariate analysis was used to study the effect of fiber moisture content (MC), press temperature (T), and the H(2)0(2)/Fe(II) rat [...] io on the board internal bond strength (IB). Using response surface methodology, a set of máximum IB conditions was obtained. Validation of these conditions which included 25% MC, 170°C press temperature and a H(2)0(2)/Fe(II) relation of 25 produced an optimal board with an IB strength of 0.888 MPa. Without the addition of sizing agents or other additives, the dimensional stability properties were 16% of thickness swell and 40% of the water absorption of control boards.

  4. Influence of the lamination process on the plastic optical fiber sensors embedded in composite materials (United States)

    Lesiak, Piotr; SzelÄ g, Mateusz; Awietjan, Stefan; Kuczkowski, Micha?; Ertman, S?awomir; Budaszewski, Daniel; Doma?ski, Andrzej; Woli?ski, Tomasz


    Silica-based HB fibers have severe limitations due to their coating layers while embedded into a composite: the hard coating layer easily transmits radial stress to the sensing fiber and changes its birefringence. Two coating layers - hard and soft - attached to the HB fiber do not influence fiber birefringence since the second (soft) layer can easily absorb any lateral force. On the other hand, a soft coating does not provide any proper transmission of the longitudinal strain. Additionally, fused-silica fibers have an upper strain limit of approximately 2% strain. In highly loaded engineering structures structural monitoring strain is becoming increasingly important. Hence, soft polymer materials used in the manufacturing process of highly birefringent microstructured polymer optical fibers (mPOFs) can solve this limitation. In this paper we present interactions between a composite material and mPOFs during the manufacturing process. The lamination process can dramatically change the group birefringence of the mPOFs. Measurements for fiber embedded in composite materials and fiber in free space were made and compared. A simple explanation of these differences is presented at the end of the paper.

  5. Fabrication of 1-3 piezo-composites using new micro PZT fibers (United States)

    Chen, Caifeng; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Xiaoning; Luo, Ying; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Han, Xiaoli; Liao, Jinjin


    This paper presents a novel fabrication method of PZT micro-fibers using activated carbon template with the aim of manufacturing PZT/epoxy 1-3 composites. Porous carbon was first prepared by chemical activation technology. The pore diameter formed in an activated carbon template is of several microns and lengths are up to several millimeters. These pores provide a basic platform to grow PZT fibers inside. Then the carbon template is removed at high calcination temperatures to form PZT micro-fibers. Subsequently, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed to analyze the process of removing the template as temperature changing. For manufacturing 1-3 piezo-composites, the PZT fibers were carefully aligned in one direction and infiltrated by epoxy resin. Based on the observation from X-ray diffraction (XRD) the fibers show a pure pervoskite phase at low sintering temperature of 950°C. The fibers embedded orderly in the epoxy matrix are smoothly distributed and straightened which were observed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The diameter of fibers is around several microns with the length up to a few millimeters, matching well with pores in the template. The new micro-fiber composite material can be potentially used in a sensor with high directivity in structural health monitoring.

  6. Multimode optical fiber (United States)

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre


    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  7. Diamond fiber field emitters (United States)

    Blanchet-Fincher, Graciela B. (Wilmington, DE); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Devlin, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Eaton, David F. (Wilmington, DE); Silzars, Aris K. (Landenburg, PA); Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM)


    A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode formed of at least one diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon composite fiber, said composite fiber having a non-diamond core and a diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon coating on said non-diamond core, and electronic devices employing such a field emission electron emitter.

  8. Fibers of tropicalization


    Payne, Sam


    We use functoriality of tropicalization and the geometry of projections of subvarieties of tori to show that the fibers of the tropicalization map are dense in the Zariski topology. For subvarieties of tori over fields of generalized power series, points in each tropical fiber are obtained "constructively" using Kedlaya's transfinite version of Newton's method.

  9. MEGARA fiber bundles (United States)

    Pérez-Calpena, A.; García-Vargas, María. Luisa; Arrillaga, X.; Gil de Paz, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Martínez-Delgado, I.; Carrera, M. A.; Gallego, J.; Carrasco, E.; Sánchez-Moreno, F. M.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.


    MEGARA (Multi Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is the future optical Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) for the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC). MEGARA has three different fiber bundles, the Large Central Bundle covering 12.5 arcsec x 11.3 arcsec on sky, the Small Compact Bundle, of 8.5 arcsec x 6.7 arcsec, and a Fiber MOS positioner system that is able to place up to 100 mini-bundles with 7 fibers each in MOS configuration within a 3.5 arcmin x 3.5 arcmin FOV. The MEGARA focal plane subsystems are located at one of the GTC Folded Cassegrain focal stations. A field lens provides a telecentric focal plane, where the fibers are located. Micro-lenses arrays couple the telescope beam to the collimator focal ratio at the entrance of the fibers. Finally, the fibers, organized in bundles conducted the light from the focal plane to the pseudo-slit plates at the entrance of the MEGARA spectrograph, which shall be located at one of the Nasmyth platforms. This article also summarizes the prototypes already done and describes the set-up that shall be used to integrate fibers and micro-lens and characterize the fiber bundles.

  10. Electrooptic polymer voltage sensor and method of manufacture thereof (United States)

    Gottsche, Allan (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor)


    An optical voltage sensor utilizing an electrooptic polymer is disclosed for application to electric power distribution systems. The sensor, which can be manufactured at low cost in accordance with a disclosed method, measures voltages across a greater range than prior art sensors. The electrooptic polymer, which replaces the optical crystal used in prior art sensors, is sandwiched directly between two high voltage electrodes. Voltage is measured by fiber optical means, and no voltage division is required. The sample of electrooptic polymer is fabricated in a special mold and later mounted in a sensor housing. Alternatively, mold and sensor housing may be identical. The sensor housing is made out of a machinable polymeric material and is equipped with two opposing optical windows. The optical windows are mounted in the bottom of machined holes in the wall of the mold. These holes provide for mounting of the polarizing optical components and for mounting of the fiber optic connectors. One connecting fiber is equipped with a light emitting diode as a light source. Another connecting fiber is equipped with a photodiode as a detector.

  11. Static and dynamic mechanical properties of alkali treated unidirectional continuous Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fiber/jute fiber reinforced hybrid polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • New type of hybrid composite with Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fibers (PPLSF) and jute. • Composites fabricated with continuous, unidirectional fibers. • Alkali treatment and hybridizing jute imparted good static and dynamic properties. • Properties are comparable with well know natural/glass fiber composites. • New hybrid composite can be an alternative in place of synthetic fiber composites. - Abstract: Alkali treated continuous Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fiber (PPLSF) and jute fibers were used as reinforcement in unsaturated polyester matrix and their static and dynamic mechanical properties were evaluated. Continuous PPLSF and jute fibers were aligned unidirectionally in bi-layer arrangement and the hybrid composites were fabricated by compression molding process. Positive hybrid effect was observed for the composites due to hybridization. Increasing jute fiber loading showed a considerable increase in tensile and flexural properties of the hybrid composites as compared to treated PPLSF composites. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) of the fractured surfaces showed the nature of fiber/matrix interface. The impact strength of the hybrid composites were observed to be less compared to pure PPLSF composites. Addition of jute fibers to PPLSF and alkali treatment of the fibers has enhanced the storage and loss modulus of the hybrid composites. A positive shift of Tan ? peaks to higher temperature and reduction in the peak height of the composites was also observed. The composites with higher jute loading showed maximum damping behavior. Overall the hybridization was found to be efficient showing increased static and dynamic mechanical properties. A comparative study of properties of this hybrid composite with other hybrids made out of using natural/glass fibers is elaborated. Hybridization of alkali treated jute and PPLSF has resulted in enhanced properties which are comparable with other natural/glass fiber composites thus increasing the scope of application in manufacturing of light weight automotive parts

  12. Fiber optic hydrophone (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Davis, Donald T. (Livermore, CA)


    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

  13. Fiber optic hydrophone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmenko, P.J.; Davis, D.T.


    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is disclosed. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optical fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends. 2 figures.

  14. Remote optical fiber dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical fibers offer a unique capability for remote monitoring of radiation in difficult-to-access and/or hazardous locations. Optical fiber sensors can be located in radiation hazardous areas and optically interrogated from a safe distance. A variety of remote optical fiber radiation dosimetry methods have been developed. All of the methods take advantage of some form of radiation-induced change in the optical properties of materials such as: radiation-induced darkening due to defect formation in glasses, luminescence from native defects or radiation-induced defects, or population of metastable charge trapping centers. Optical attenuation techniques are used to measure radiation-induced darkening in fibers. Luminescence techniques include the direct measurement of scintillation or optical excitation of radiation-induced luminescent defects. Optical fiber radiation dosimeters have also been constructed using charge trapping materials that exhibit thermoluminescence or optically stimulated luminescence (OSL)

  15. Compound droplets on fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Weyer, Floriane; Hötzer, Johannes; Berghoff, Marco; Dreesen, Laurent; Nestler, Britta; Vandewalle, Nicolas


    Droplets on fibers have been extensively studied in the recent years. Although the equilibrium shapes of simple droplets on fibers are well established, the situation becomes more complex for compound fluidic systems. Through experimental and numerical investigations, we show herein that compound droplets can be formed on fibers and that they adopt specific geometries. We focus on the various contact lines formed at the meeting of the different phases and we study their equilibrium state. It appears that, depending on the surface tensions, the triple contact lines can remain separate or merge together and form quadruple lines. The nature of the contact lines influences the behavior of the compound droplets on fibers. Indeed, both experimental and numerical results show that, during the detachment process, depending on whether the contact lines are triple or quadruple, the characteristic length is the inner droplet radius or the fiber radius.

  16. Training for New Manufacturing Technologies. (United States)

    Jacobs, James


    Examines the effects of computer-based manufacturing technologies on employment opportunities and job skills. Describes the establishment of the Industrial Technology Institute in Michigan to develop and utilize advanced manufacturing technologies, and the institute's relationship to the state's community colleges. Reviews lessons learned from…

  17. Cable manufacturing: meeting the demand


    F. C. Eloff


    The demand of a cable manufacturer’s current product is increasing and a new product is about to be introduced. Resulting in a big rise in the demand. With the current setup the production will not meet the demand. Thus the most efficient and cost effective way to meet this demand must be found.

  18. Product Development in Agile Manufacturing


    R.V.Mahajan1 , P.R.Bodade


    With the rapidly intensifying market competition, shortening product lifecycles and increased customer demands, industrialists worldwide are developing newer production methodologies and business strategies to remain in competition. Lean and agile are the business strategies gaining preference these days. Normally, these strategies concentrate on various activities occurring inside and outside of the enterprise. Up gradation from traditional manufacturing to agile manufacturing is generally a...

  19. Developing Gradient Metal Alloys through Radial Deposition Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Roberts, Scott; Otis, Richard; Kolodziejska, Joanna; Dillon, R. Peter; Suh, Jong-Ook; Shapiro, Andrew A.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Borgonia, John-Paul


    Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has dramatically expanded in the last several years, owing to the paradigm shift that the process provides over conventional manufacturing. Although the vast majority of recent work in AM has focused on three-dimensional printing in polymers, AM techniques for fabricating metal alloys have been available for more than a decade. Here, laser deposition (LD) is used to fabricate multifunctional metal alloys that have a strategically graded composition to alter their mechanical and physical properties. Using the technique in combination with rotational deposition enables fabrication of compositional gradients radially from the center of a sample. A roadmap for developing gradient alloys is presented that uses multi-component phase diagrams as maps for composition selection so as to avoid unwanted phases. Practical applications for the new technology are demonstrated in low-coefficient of thermal expansion radially graded metal inserts for carbon-fiber spacecraft panels.

  20. Developing gradient metal alloys through radial deposition additive manufacturing. (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C; Roberts, Scott; Otis, Richard; Kolodziejska, Joanna; Dillon, R Peter; Suh, Jong-ook; Shapiro, Andrew A; Liu, Zi-Kui; Borgonia, John-Paul


    Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has dramatically expanded in the last several years, owing to the paradigm shift that the process provides over conventional manufacturing. Although the vast majority of recent work in AM has focused on three-dimensional printing in polymers, AM techniques for fabricating metal alloys have been available for more than a decade. Here, laser deposition (LD) is used to fabricate multifunctional metal alloys that have a strategically graded composition to alter their mechanical and physical properties. Using the technique in combination with rotational deposition enables fabrication of compositional gradients radially from the center of a sample. A roadmap for developing gradient alloys is presented that uses multi-component phase diagrams as maps for composition selection so as to avoid unwanted phases. Practical applications for the new technology are demonstrated in low-coefficient of thermal expansion radially graded metal inserts for carbon-fiber spacecraft panels. PMID:24942329

  1. Fiber laser pumping devices based on directional coupling via fused silica ridge waveguide arrays (United States)

    Weigand, B.; Dautermann, C.; Theobald, C.; Wolff, S.; L'huillier, J. A.


    A new transversal pumping scheme of fiber lasers based on the optimized manufacturing of an array of large scale ridge waveguides in fused silica is presented. Moreover their application as directional couplers interacting with a double clad optical active fiber for laser application is discussed. Conventional broad area emitters without slow axis collimation (SAC) can be used to couple light (wavelength ?p = 976 nm) into the waveguide array.

  2. Micromechanical modeling of the progressive failure in short glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastics


    Kammoun, Slim


    Thermoplastics reinforced with short glass fibers are increasingly used in many industrial applications due to their attractive mechanical properties, rapid processing and relatively low manufacturing cost. Injection molding is a widely used process for the production of reinforced parts with complex shapes. However, the concentration and the orientation of the fibers vary from one point to the other. This induces a strong heterogeneity throughout the material, making the prediction of its be...

  3. Characterization of Limulus amoebocyte lysate-reactive material from hollow-fiber dialyzers.


    Pearson, F. C.; Bohon, J.; Lee, W.; Bruszer, G.; Sagona, M.; Jakubowski, G.; Dawe, R.; Morrison, D.; Dinarello, C.


    Hollow-fiber hemodialyzers containing cellulose-based membranes have been shown to produce positive results with the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test. This study was undertaken to determine whether endotoxin was causing the reaction. Rinses from 45 parallel-plate and hollow-fiber dialyzers from eight different manufacturers were tested before and after treatment with cellulase, using three lysates and four Limulus amoebocyte lysate methods. In addition, four in vitro cellular methods--human leu...

  4. Persistence of tungsten oxide particle/fiber mixtures in artificial human lung fluids


    Stefaniak Aleksandr B


    Abstract Background During the manufacture of tungsten metal for non-sag wire, tungsten oxide powders are produced as intermediates and can be in the form of tungsten trioxide (WO3) or tungsten blue oxides (TBOs). TBOs contain fiber-shaped tungsten sub-oxide particles of respirable or thoracic size. The aim of this research was to investigate whether fiber-containing TBOs had prolonged biodurability in artificial lung fluids compared to tungsten metal or WO3 and therefore potentially could po...

  5. Mechanical and morphological characterizations of carbon fiber fabric reinforced epoxy composites used in aeronautical field


    Jane Maria Faulstich de Paiva; Alexandre De Nadai dos Santos; Mirabel Cerqueira Rezende


    Carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRC) have been used in aeronautical industry in the manufacture of different aircraft components that must attend tight mechanical requirements. This paper shows a study involving mechanical (flexural, shear, tensile and compressive tests) and morphological characterizations of four different laminates based on 2 epoxy resin systems (8552TM and F584TM) and 2 carbon fiber fabric reinforcements (Plain Weave (PW) and Eight Harness Satin (8HS)). All laminates ...

  6. Collaborative Network Learning in Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Hock Quik


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the antecedents of collaborative networked learning (CNL, to develop an integrative CNL framework and to bridge the gap between theory and praxis in manufacturing. It provides a holistic perspective of CNL within the complexity of the manufacturing environment, including empirical investigation using survey questionnaires. The findings and discussions draw upon socio-technical systems (STS theory, and present the theoretical context and interpretations through the lens of manufacturing employees. Results of the study show the existence of significant positive influences of organizational support, promotive interactions, positive interdependence, internal-external learning, perceived effectiveness and perceived usefulness of CNL among manufacturing employees. The study offers a basis for empirical validity for measuring CNL in organizational learning, knowledge and information sharing in manufacturing.

  7. Virtual Manufacturing Techniques Designed and Applied to Manufacturing Activities in the Manufacturing Integration and Technology Branch (United States)

    Shearrow, Charles A.


    One of the identified goals of EM3 is to implement virtual manufacturing by the time the year 2000 has ended. To realize this goal of a true virtual manufacturing enterprise the initial development of a machinability database and the infrastructure must be completed. This will consist of the containment of the existing EM-NET problems and developing machine, tooling, and common materials databases. To integrate the virtual manufacturing enterprise with normal day to day operations the development of a parallel virtual manufacturing machinability database, virtual manufacturing database, virtual manufacturing paradigm, implementation/integration procedure, and testable verification models must be constructed. Common and virtual machinability databases will include the four distinct areas of machine tools, available tooling, common machine tool loads, and a materials database. The machine tools database will include the machine envelope, special machine attachments, tooling capacity, location within NASA-JSC or with a contractor, and availability/scheduling. The tooling database will include available standard tooling, custom in-house tooling, tool properties, and availability. The common materials database will include materials thickness ranges, strengths, types, and their availability. The virtual manufacturing databases will consist of virtual machines and virtual tooling directly related to the common and machinability databases. The items to be completed are the design and construction of the machinability databases, virtual manufacturing paradigm for NASA-JSC, implementation timeline, VNC model of one bridge mill and troubleshoot existing software and hardware problems with EN4NET. The final step of this virtual manufacturing project will be to integrate other production sites into the databases bringing JSC's EM3 into a position of becoming a clearing house for NASA's digital manufacturing needs creating a true virtual manufacturing enterprise.

  8. Cesium removal in freshwater using potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate-impregnated fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate compounds (KCo-HCFe's) were impregnated onto a 6-nylon fiber by radiation-induced graft polymerization and subsequent chemical modifications. First, dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate was graft-polymerized onto the nylon fiber. Second, hexacyanoferrate ions were bound to graft chains via an anion-exchange interaction. Third, KCo-HCFe's were formed on the nylon fiber via the precipitation reaction of hexacyanoferrate ions with cobalt ions in the presence of potassium chloride. The resulting KCo-HCFe-impregnated fiber had an impregnation percentage of the fiber for KCo-HCFe's of 7%. The cesium concentration in 10 ppm cesium chloride solution with the immersion of this fiber decreased to 0.6 ppm within 60 min at a ratio of liquid volume (10 mL) to fiber mass (0.1 g). The fiber was fabricated into a braid with a length of 100 cm and a diameter of 8 cm for practical use at sites contaminated with cesium. - Highlights: • Dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate was grafted onto a 6-nylon fiber. • Potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate compounds were precipitated onto the grafted fibers. • With increasing KCl concentration, the rate of cesium removal from cesium chloride solution increased. • To achieve the practical use, we established the manufacturing equipment on a scale of 100 kg

  9. Determination of mechanical properties of intra-layer abaca–jute–glass fiber reinforced composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Composites are fabricated with jute and abaca fibers. • Fibers are arranged in different orientations. • Effects of varying proportions of fibers are studied. • Investigation on mechanical properties is done. • Failure morphology analysis is done using SEM. - Abstract: Composites made with natural fibers are finding applications in a wide variety of engineering fields due to their low cost and eco-friendly nature. This paper deals with the fabrication and evaluation of hybrid natural fiber composite using jute and abaca fibers along with glass fibers. Each composite is made up of five layers with three layers of jute and abaca enclosed by two layers of glass fibers. The composites are manufactured with three different fiber orientations and the compositions are varied in three different proportions. The fabricated composite samples are tested to investigate their various mechanical properties. From the test results, it is observed that fiber orientation plays a vital role in determining the mechanical properties of the composite. Morphological analysis is done using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

  10. Study of Maleic Anhydride Grafted Polypropylene Effect on Resin Impregnated Bamboo Fiber Polypropylene Composit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibeop Nam


    Full Text Available Previously, Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA and phenolic resin were used for resin impregnated bamboo fiber reinforced PP composites which was manufactures for resin impregnated bamboo fiber with polypropylene (PP. Resin impregnation method can show improvement on tensile strength of fiber. However, to reduce the contact surface area and low inter-facial shear strength (IFSS between impregnated resin and matrix, using 40% weight fraction of bamboo fiber in PP matrix, PVA impregnated composites with mean flexural and tensile strength 10% higher than untreated composites were produced butphenolic resin impregnated fiber reinforced composition’s mechanical properties were decreased. In this study maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP was used to increase interfacial shear strength between resin impregnated fiber and PP. With 10% MAPP, IFSS between resin impregnated fiber and PP increased more than 100% and reinforced composites. MAPP with untreated, phenolic resin and PVA impregnated cases showed similar mechanical properties. Yet in water absorption test, the PVA treatment with bamboo/PP composites increased water absorption ratio. But with 10% MAPP, matrix PP water absorption ratio decreased like phenolic resin impregnated fiber reinforced composites. 10% MAPP with resin impregnated bamboo fiber reinforced PP composites can improve IFSS, mechanical properties of composite and can decrease water absorption PVA resin impregnated bamboo fiber reinforced composites.

  11. Research on fabrication of helical-core fiber based on the coordinates of the centroid (United States)

    Geng, Tao; Xue, Renfeng; Yang, Wenlei; Geng, Shixin; Liu, Zhaojun; Ye, Tian


    Helical core optical fiber is used to achieve high power fiber laser output and polarization state control, and it has become a hot issue of current research due to its unique characteristics of chiral medium. The key difficult point is critical concentric alignment between the actual rotational center and the optical fiber core in helical core fiber manufacturing process. This paper proposed a new alignment method based on the coordinates of centroid. That is, injecting light to the main and sub fiber core which is fixed on the rotating clamping apparatus, acquiring two coordinates of the energy center in output field spot image with the help of the microscopic imaging system by using the squared weighted centroid method. X-axis is defined as the two fiber core connection direction, which perpendicular direction is Y-axis, and the origin is the center of main fiber core, so the correspondence between the main fiber core XY coordinate system and the rotating clamping apparatus X0Y0 coordinate system is available. Main fiber core rotation center coordinates X'Y' can be obtained by fitting, and the X0Y0 adjustment of clamping apparatus can be also acquired by coordinate transformation. Experimentally measured eccentricity error can be controlled around 8?m, which achieved concentricity precise adjustment. The experimental device has advantages of small size, stable performance, high positioning accuracy, and this method overcomes the key technical difficulties of the helical core optical fiber preparation.

  12. Dry sliding wear behaviour of Cu based composite materials reinforced with alumina fibers


    Naplocha, K.; Granat, K.; Kaczmar, J. W.


    Purpose: Parameters for new manufacturing route of Cu casting reinforced with alumina fibers were elaborated. There was observed improvement of hardness and wear properties of composite materials comparing to the unreinforced copper and this indicates for the proper applied process parameters.Design/methodology/approach: Manufacturing of composite materials involves two stages, preparation of porous preforms and next their infiltration with molten Cu. Preforms exhibits semioriented arrangemen...

  13. Transmission of laser light through fiber optic connectors (United States)

    Gajda, Jerzy K.


    The connections of the telecommunications tract elements have a significant influence on the quality of the information transmission. In the essay reasons and an analysis of the losses in fiber optic connectors are introduced. The case of fiber optic connectors: PC type and with a surface enlargement are emphasized. Different types of fiber sleeve connectors are discussed. These optical connectors can be divided according to following criteria: structure (ST, FC, Sc, E-2000, F-3000, LC, MT-RJ, MU, etc.) types of applied ferrules (monolithic, with multiple elements) technology of production (standard, Light Crimp - AMP, Hot Melt - 3MCrimp Lok - 3M, Universal Com Lite - Siecor) and tuning. Moreover the quality of DWDM fiber optic connectors, which have high functional density and an impact on the light polarization is touched on. The results of measurements of transmission parameters and of mechanical resistance on vibration, folding of the cable in the fiber, strikes on hard surfaces, multiple connection and disconnecting, pulling out of a cable from the connectors and climate conditions are discussed. The results of the measurements listed above with additional interferometric tests of ferrule head constitute the main factor of the fiber connectors quality analysis. Furthermore, the up to date results of the compatibility analysis of the connectors manufactured by different producers are mentioned and a future development in the field is forecasted.

  14. An update on monitoring moisture ingression with fiber optic sensors (United States)

    Trego, Angela


    Newly developed advanced aircraft structures are utilizing composite technology for improving stiffness, strength and weight properties. Such structures are commonly found in inaccessible regions where current NDE techniques are limited. The development of low profile, distributed, embeddable, real-time, optical fiber sensors capable of detecting the onset of composite failure in aircraft structures would eliminate a significant portion of related maintenance costs. Notable composite failures that are difficult to assess include delaminations and moisture ingression issues. Optical fiber-based sensors add the inherent advantages of being lightweight, low profile, immune to EMI, resistant to harsh environments, and highly sensitive to a variety of physical and chemical measurements. Optical fiber-based sensors can also be embedded directly into the composite part during manufacturing and co-cured. This creates a monitoring system that has little impact on the properties of the final part while providing significant benefits. Fiber optics embedded in composite honeycomb panels were fabricated and tested using ground - air - ground thermal cycles to determine moisture ingression monitoring capabilities of the sensors. Two different types of moisture sensing fiber optics were measured. One type of installed moisture sensor is based off of a Bragg grating system, while the other moisture sensor is based off of a long period grating system. Presented herein is a comparison of the two different types of fiber optic sensors that monitored the moisture ingression in honeycomb panels.

  15. Fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to develop the radiation sensor, which is composed of a scintillator, an optical fiber bundle and a light measuring device to detect the tritium in real-time. In this study, we have fabricated fiber-optic radiation sensors using inorganic scintillators and plastic optical fiber bundles. Each scintillator interacts with electron or beta ray and generates 455-550 nm wavelength of scintillation photons. An optical fiber bundle is usually made of plastic or glass, which is used to guide the light signal from a scintillating probe to light measuring device. For the purpose of selecting the best scintillator with a high efficiency, fiber-optic sensors manufactured using three kinds of inorganic scintillator such as Gd2O2S:Tb, Y3Al5O12:Ce and CsI:Tl, and they are tested with a metal hydride type of tritium source. In addition, the scintillation photons are measured as a function of distance between a fiber-optic sensor and source. Finally, we have measured the amounts of scintillation photon with different activities of tritium source and compared the measured results with those obtained using a surface activity monitor.

  16. Fiber Pulling Apparatus (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Sue; Adcock, Leonard


    The fiber optics industry has grown into a multi-billion marketplace that will continue to grow into the 21st century. Optical fiber communications is currently dominated by silica glass technology. Successful efforts to improve upon the low loss transmission characteristics of silica fibers have propelled the technology into the forefront of the communications industry. However, reaching the theoretical transmission capability of silica fiber through improved processing has still left a few application areas in which other fiber systems can provide an influential role due to specific characteristics of high theoretical transmission in the 2 - 3 micron wavelength region. One of the other major materials used for optical fibers is the systems based upon Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass (HMFG). Commercial interest is driven primarily by the potential for low loss repeaterless infrared fibers. An example of the major communications marketplace which would benefit from the long distance repeaterless capability of infrared fibers is the submarine cables which link the continents. When considering commercial interests, optical fiber systems provide a healthy industrial position which continues to expand. Major investments in the systems used for optical fiber communications have continued to increase each year and are predicted to continue well into the next century. Estimates of 8.5% compounded annually are predicted through 1999 for the North American market and 1 1 % worldwide. The growth for the optical fiber cable itself is expected to continue between 44 and 50 per cent of the optical fiber communications budget through 1999. The total budget in 1999 world-wide is expected to be in the neighborhood of $9 billion. Another survey predicts that long haul telecommunications represents 15% of a world-wide fiber optics market in 1998. The actual amount allotted to cable was not specified. However, another market research had predicted that the cable costs alone represents more than 50% of the total budget each year through 1998. A newly emerging activity is the commercial development of doped optical fibers which can be pumped by laser diodes to provide amplification of the communication signals. This technology is newly emerging and will be developed for commercial interests in the United States by Galileo Electro-optical Incorporated in Sturbridge, MA on a license from British Telecom. Long repeaterless communication links provide the biggest stimulus for this technology. As an example of the of the revenues involved in the optical fiber communications 3 industry, the current trade journal lists that for the fiscal years, 1991 - 1994, 185 separate undersea links were established. In addition, another 105 links are planned through 1998. The distribution of revenues involved in the undersea installations is roughly $8.5 billion through 1993 and another $13 billion planned through 1998. A large portion of the future activity (34%) is planned for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Region. Other examples of the commercial utility of optical fiber networks is given in a recent scientific symposium in which the outlook for HMFG infrared fiber was determined to be very bright.Another area of interest lies in the use of fiber optics for laser surgery delivery systems.

  17. Process simulations for manufacturing of thick composites (United States)

    Kempner, Evan A.

    The availability of manufacturing simulations for composites can significantly reduce the costs associated with process development. Simulations provide a tool for evaluating the effect of processing conditions on the quality of parts produced without requiring numerous experiments. This is especially significant in parts that have troublesome features such as large thickness. The development of simulations for thick walled composites has been approached by examining the mechanics of resin flow and fiber deformation during processing, applying these evaluations to develop simulations, and evaluating the simulation with experimental results. A unified analysis is developed to describe the three-dimensional resin flow and fiber preform deformation during processing regardless of the manufacturing process used. It is shown how the generic governing evaluations in the unified analysis can be applied to autoclave molding, compression molding, pultrusion, filament winding, and resin transfer molding. A comparison is provided with earlier models derived individually for these processes. The evaluations described for autoclave curing were used to produce a one-dimensional cure simulation for autoclave curing of thick composites. The simulation consists of an analysis for heat transfer and resin flow in the composite as well as bleeder plies used to absorb resin removed from the part. Experiments were performed in a hot press to approximate curing in an autoclave. Graphite/epoxy laminates of 3 cm and 5 cm thickness were cured while monitoring temperatures at several points inside the laminate and thickness. The simulation predicted temperatures fairly closely, but difficulties were encountered in correlation of thickness results. This simulation was also used to study the effects of prepreg aging on processing of thick composites. An investigation was also performed on filament winding with prepreg tow. Cylinders were wound of approximately 12 mm thickness with pressure gages at the mandrel-composite interface. Cylinders were hoop wound with tensions ranging from 13-34 N. An analytical model was developed to calculate change in stress due to relaxation during winding. Although compressive circumferential stresses occurred throughout each of the cylinders, the magnitude was fairly low.

  18. Proceedings of the international conference on specialty glass and optical fiber: materials, technology and devices - book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present conference on Specialty Glass and Optical Fiber (ICGF-2011) was organized during 4-6 August, 2011 as a part of Institute's year long Diamond Jubilee celebration.The development and commercialization of specialty glasses and optical fibers has become a rightful index of a country's progress in today's competitive global scenario. The conference covers topics on modeling, manufacturing and processing of glass with novel design and composition as well as specialty optical fiber and technologies, papers on innovative, cutting-edge topics in the fields of specialty glass and optical fiber foregrounding the recent technical advances. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  19. Effect of reinforced fiber on morphology of Si phases in Al2O3/AI-Si alloy composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng LIU


    Full Text Available Alumina/aluminum-silicon alloy composite is manufactured by squeeze casting. The effect of the reinforcement on the morphology of the silicon phase in aluminum-silicon alloy is studied. The results indicate that an alumina fiber can serve as propitious sites for the heterogeneous nucleation of the silicon phase, and the primary silicon in the composite can nucleate on the surface of the fiber. The fiber in the composite can trigger twin during the coupled growth of the aluminum-silicon eutectic and lead to modification of the eutectic silicon near the fiber.

  20. Interactions between contacting fibers (United States)

    Petrich, Michael P.; Koch, Donald L.


    To investigate the nature of the forces involved in mechanical contact between fibers in a fluid, the interaction between a polymeric fiber settling under the influence of gravity and a fixed strand of the same material was observed. Initially after impact, the sedimenting fiber rotated about a fixed point. When the fiber came sufficiently close to vertical alignment so that the tangential component of gravity overcame the static friction, it slid along the surface of the fixed strand. The orientation of the fiber and its velocity were measured as a function of time, and compared to a simple model. The static coefficient of friction was found to be 0.38±0.06, in good agreement with published values. However, the velocity of the fiber after the onset of sliding was slower than that predicted by a theory incorporating friction and smooth cylinder lubrication, and an additional velocity-dependent resistance was required to model the fiber's sliding motion. A possible source of this resistance is the coupling of normal and tangential lubrication forces as roughness elements are forced to lift past each other.

  1. Fiber Bragg gratings (United States)

    Othonos, Andreas


    Since the discovery of photosensitivity in optical fibers there has been great interest in the fabrication of Bragg gratings within the core of a fiber. The ability to inscribe intracore Bragg gratings in these photosensitive fibers has revolutionized the field of telecommunications and optical fiber based sensor technology. Over the last few years, the number of researchers investigating fundamental, as well as application aspects of these gratings has increased dramatically. This article reviews the technology of Bragg gratings in optical fibers. It introduces the phenomenon of photosensitivity in optical fibers, examines the properties of Bragg gratings, and presents some of the important developments in devices and applications. The most common fabrication techniques (interferometric, phase mask, and point by point) are examined in detail with reference to the advantages and the disadvantages in utilizing them for inscribing Bragg gratings. Reflectivity, bandwidth, temperature, and strain sensitivity of the Bragg reflectors are examined and novel and special Bragg grating structures such as chirped gratings, blazed gratings, phase-shifted gratings, and superimposed multiple gratings are discussed. A formalism for calculating the spectral response of Bragg grating structures is described. Finally, devices and applications for telecommunication and fiber-optic sensors are described, and the impact of this technology on the future of the above areas is discussed.

  2. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor (United States)

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.


    Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

  3. Intelligent modelling in manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Balic


    Full Text Available Purpose: Modeling of production systems is very important and makes optimization of complicated relation in production system possible. The purpose of this paper is introducing artificial techniques, like Genetic Algorithms in modeling and optimization of job shop scheduling in production environment and in programming of CNC machine tools.Design/methodology/approach: Conventional methods are not suitable for solving such complicated problems. Therefore Artificial Intelligent method was used. We apply Genetic Algorithm method. Genetic Algorithms are computation methods owing their power in particular to autonomous mechanisms in biological evolution, such as selection, “survival of the fittest” (competition, and recombination.Findings: In example solutions are developed for an optimization problem of job shop scheduling by natural selection. Thus no explicit knowledge was required about how to create a good solution: the evolutionary algorithm itself implicitly builds up knowledge about good solutions, and autonomously absorbs knowledge. CNC machining time was significant shorter by using GA method for NC programming.Research limitations/implications: The system was developed for PC and tested in simulation process. It needs to be tested more in detail in the real manufacturing environment.Practical implications: It is suitable for small and medium-sized companies. Human errors are avoid or at lover level. It is important for engineers in job – shops.Originality/value: The present paper is a contribution to more intelligent systems in production environment. It used genetic based methods to solve engineering problem.

  4. Precision manufacturing using LIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective is the fabrication of small high-precision parts using LIGA, which can be used in a variety of industrial applications. LIGA is a combination of deep x-ray lithography, electroplating, and replication processes that enables the fabrication of microstructures with vertical dimensions several millimeters high, lateral dimensions in the micrometer range, and submicron tolerances. On beamline 10.3.2, at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) has built an end station suitable for LIGA. The ALS is an excellent source of radiation for this application. The CXRO, in close collaboration with Sandia National Laboratory and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has developed the other essential process steps of mask making, resist development, x-ray exposure, and electroplating. This technology provides a powerful tool for mass production and miniaturization of mechanical systems into a dimensional regime not accessible by traditional manufacturing operations. We will present several applications that exploit the characteristics of the LIGA process: the fabrication of magnetic laminations for a high precision stepping motor; miniature octopole lens for advanced e-beam lithography; high-aspect-ratio x-ray collimating grids for astronomy; and microscopic tumblers for nuclear security. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Manufacturing methods for canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is focused upon the manufacturing of a large copper canister meant for encapsulation of nuclear waste. Tube making processes for high and low quantity production are reviewed as a background to the problem. 'Three-roll forming' is considered to be a possible method for forming the tube (longitudinal weld) of the canister. The strip material for the bending operation is produced by hot rolling. A rolling schedule is presented. The requirements of a fine grained microstructure of the copper material, free from voids is taken into serious account. The schedule is scrutinized with respect to roll contact pressures, force requirements and stress states in the centre of the workpiece, all of them gradually changing from one pass to another. 'Non-bite' rolling, is described as a method for improving the stress states. As an alternative way for making the tube, 'ring-forging' and 'ring-rolling' are discussed. The idea is to build the long tube by means of a series of rings which are joint by welding (circumferential welds). 'Impact extrusion', as a method for forming the bottom of the canister is analyzed by means of a commercial FEM-program. 9 refs, 32 figs

  6. Feasibility Study on Fiber-optic Radiation Sensor for Remote Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we fabricated a fiber-optic radiation sensor using an optical fiber and various scintillators. To select an adequate inorganic scintillator for the sensing probe of fiber-optic radiation sensor, 5 types of scintillators were evaluated. The spectra of gamma-rays emitted from a Na-22 radiation source were measured by using the manufactured sensors. As a result, the BGO was suitable for the sensing probe of fiber-optic radiation sensor due to its high scintillation output and exact photoelectric peak for the gamma-ray energy. The basic principle of radiation detection is to detect the signals caused by interactions between radiations and materials. There are various types of radiation detectors depending on types of radiation to be detected and physical quantities to be measured. As one of the radiation detectors, a fiber-optic radiation sensor using a scintillator and an optical fiber has two advantages such as no space restraint and remote sensing. Moreover, in nuclear environments, this kind of sensor has immunities for electromagnetic field, temperature, and pressure. Thus, the fiber-optic radiation sensor can be used in various fields including nondestructive inspection, radioactive waste management, nuclear safety, radiodiagnosis and radiation therapy. As a fundamental study of the fiber-optic radiation sensor for remote gamma-ray spectroscopy, in this study, we fabricated a fiber-optic radiation sensor using an optical fiber and various scintillators. To select an adequate inorganic scintillator for the sensing probe of fiber-optic radiation sensor, 5 types of scintillators were evaluated. The spectra of gamma-rays emitted from a Na-22 radiation source were measured by using the manufactured sensors

  7. FOA Lecture 3: Optical Fiber (United States)

    This is Lecture 3 in the FOA Series on fiber optics. This lecture covers optical fiber, how it works, the types of fiber, fiber specifications, and how it is made. Running time for the lecture is 10:39. Flash is required to view the video.

  8. Muscle Fiber Types and Training. (United States)

    Karp, Jason R.


    The specific types of fibers that make up individual muscles greatly influence how people will adapt to their training programs. This paper explains the complexities of skeletal muscles, focusing on types of muscle fibers (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), recruitment of muscle fibers to perform a motor task, and determining fiber type. Implications…

  9. 75 FR 71417 - Manufacturing Council Membership (United States)


    ...Council's membership shall reflect the diversity of American manufacturing by representing...medium-sized enterprises. Based on the diversity of the manufacturing industry currently...encouraging applicants from the high-tech or bio-tech manufacturing sectors....

  10. Full Scale Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: (1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, (2) Boron-lined proportional counters, (3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and (4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. Reported here are the results of tests of the full-scale 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT) and Saint Gobain, and is a follow-up report to an earlier one on a smaller prototype system.m.

  11. Fiber-optically sensorized composite wing (United States)

    Costa, Joannes M.; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Oblea, Levy; Patel, Rona; Sotoudeh, Vahid; Abouzeida, Essam; Quinones, Vladimir; Gowayed, Yasser; Soobramaney, Paul; Flowers, George


    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and light-weight, fiber-optic sensor based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) will find increasing application in aerospace structures ranging from aircraft wings to jet engine vanes. Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) has been developing multi-functional fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor systems including parallel processing FBG interrogators combined with advanced signal processing for SHM, structural state sensing and load monitoring applications. This paper reports work with Auburn University on embedding and testing FBG sensor arrays in a quarter scale model of a T38 composite wing. The wing was designed and manufactured using fabric reinforced polymer matrix composites. FBG sensors were embedded under the top layer of the composite. Their positions were chosen based on strain maps determined by finite element analysis. Static and dynamic testing confirmed expected response from the FBGs. The demonstrated technology has the potential to be further developed into an autonomous onboard system to perform load monitoring, SHM and Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of composite aerospace structures (wings and rotorcraft blades). This platform technology could also be applied to flight testing of morphing and aero-elastic control surfaces.

  12. Fiber Optic Cables (United States)

    Bartelt, Terry L. M.

    This brief interactive activity, by the Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty, is an easy-to-use introduction to fiber optic cables and their uses. Students are able to reveal each section at their leisure as they click through the helpful illustrations and animations on fiber optic cable components, LEDâ??s, multi-mode and single-mode cables, and cable connectors. Three review questions wrap up the slide show to test knowledge gained. This would be a great resource for teachers to help introduce the topic to students, or for students to have a comprehensive overview of fiber optic cables.

  13. Random Fiber Laser

    CERN Document Server

    de Matos, Christiano J S; Brito-Silva, Antônio M; Gámez, M A Martinez; Gomes, Anderson S L; de Araújo, Cid B


    We investigate the effects of two dimensional confinement on the lasing properties of a classical random laser system operating in the incoherent feedback (diffusive) regime. A suspension of 250nm rutile (TiO2) particles in a Rhodamine 6G solution was inserted into the hollow core of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) generating the first random fiber laser and a novel quasi-one-dimensional RL geometry. Comparison with similar systems in bulk format shows that the random fiber laser presents an efficiency that is at least two orders of magnitude higher.

  14. Robust fiber clustering of cerebral fiber bundles in white matter (United States)

    Yao, Xufeng; Wang, Yongxiong; Zhuang, Songlin


    Diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking (DTI-FT) has been widely accepted in the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases. During the rendering pipeline of specific fiber tracts, the image noise and low resolution of DTI would lead to false propagations. In this paper, we propose a robust fiber clustering (FC) approach to diminish false fibers from one fiber tract. Our algorithm consists of three steps. Firstly, the optimized fiber assignment continuous tracking (FACT) is implemented to reconstruct one fiber tract; and then each curved fiber in the fiber tract is mapped to a point by kernel principal component analysis (KPCA); finally, the point clouds of fiber tract are clustered by hierarchical clustering which could distinguish false fibers from true fibers in one tract. In our experiment, the corticospinal tract (CST) in one case of human data in vivo was used to validate our method. Our method showed reliable capability in decreasing the false fibers in one tract. In conclusion, our method could effectively optimize the visualization of fiber bundles and would help a lot in the field of fiber evaluation.

  15. Fiber bundle phase conjugate mirror (United States)

    Ward, Benjamin G.


    An improved method and apparatus for passively conjugating the phases of a distorted wavefronts resulting from optical phase mismatch between elements of a fiber laser array are disclosed. A method for passively conjugating a distorted wavefront comprises the steps of: multiplexing a plurality of probe fibers and a bundle pump fiber in a fiber bundle array; passing the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle array through a collimating lens and into one portion of a non-linear medium; passing the output from a pump collection fiber through a focusing lens and into another portion of the non-linear medium so that the output from the pump collection fiber mixes with the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle; adjusting one or more degrees of freedom of one or more of the fiber bundle array, the collimating lens, the focusing lens, the non-linear medium, or the pump collection fiber to produce a standing wave in the non-linear medium.

  16. Support given by the manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As regards German NPP, the purchaser has the control function and the manufacturer the role of a general planner binding together all supply lots. Therefore the manufacturer possesses a very broad and thorough detailed knowledge of the plant functioning and becomes a life-long important partner of the plant. Such partnership requires from the manufacturer to provide continuously available and economical services to the plant; he must work purposefully in a quality-conscious and innovative way. This is his vision, and he will comply with it over the whole service life of the plant. The importance of services is illustrated by a large number of examples. (orig./DG)

  17. Exploring manufacturing solutions for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Blichfeldt, Henrik

    This exploratory study provides an overview over current state of manufacturing solutions in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in region of Southern Denmark. Building on manufacturing paradigms, this paper reveals relevant aspects for the development and implementation of improving SMEs’ automation processes. The paper presents an embedded case study based on 10 low- and medium-tech Danish companies. Based on the development of production paradigms and the presented study, this research helps to understand key determinants and processes for SMEs’ exploration of future directions of manufacturing solutions, which are required to increase their competitiveness and assure sustainable growth.

  18. Micro manufacturing techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ruxu; Li, Zifu


    Micro/meso-scale manufacturing has been developed in research fields of machining, forming, materials and others, but its potential to industries are yet to be fully realized. The theme of the current volume was to build a bridge joining academic research and industrial needs in micro manufacturing. Among the 12 papers selected for publication are three keynote addresses onmicro and desktop factories for micro/meso-scale manufacturing applicationsand future visions, tissue cutting mechanics and applications for needlecore biopsy and guidance, and micro-texturing onto amorphous carbonmaterials

  19. Molded optics design and manufacture

    CERN Document Server

    Schaub, Michael


    While several available texts discuss molded plastic optics, none provide information on all classes of molded optics. Filling this gap, Molded Optics: Design and Manufacture presents detailed descriptions of molded plastic, glass, and infrared optics. Since an understanding of the manufacturing process is necessary to develop cost-effective, producible designs, the book extensively covers various manufacturing methods, design guidelines, trade-offs, best practices, and testing of critical parameters. It also discusses topics that often arise when designing systems with molded optics, such as

  20. Glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes for evoked potential recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes M.F.D.


    Full Text Available Current methods for recording field potentials with tungsten electrodes make it virtually impossible to use the same recording electrode also as a lesioning electrode, for example for histological confirmation of the recorded site, because the lesioning procedure usually wears off the tungsten tip. Therefore, the electrode would have to be replaced after each lesioning procedure, which is a very high cost solution to the problem. We present here a low cost, easy to make, high quality glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrode that shows resistive, signal/noise and electrochemical coupling advantages over tungsten electrodes. Also, currently used carbon fiber microelectrodes often show problems with electrical continuity, especially regarding electrochemical applications using a carbon-powder/resin mixture, with consequent low performance, besides the inconvenience of handling such a mixture. We propose here a new method for manufacturing glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes with several advantages when recording intracerebral field potentials

  1. Right- and left-handed twist in optical fibers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., Tentori; A., Garcia-Weidner.


    Full Text Available The effect of twist-induced variation of the output state of polarization on clockwise and counterclockwise torsion was measured in two standard optical fibers made by different manufacturers. It was found that standard fiber samples may exhibit a different twist-induced polarization performance for [...] right- and left-handed twists. In this work we compare the results obtained for two commercial fibers using linearly polarized input signals with azimuth angles between 0 and 150°, within the 1520-1570 nm spectral range. In all cases these results could be described using the same theoretical model. We demonstrate that the different behavior observed for right- and left-handed twists for one of the samples can be explained by the presence of a residual torsion.

  2. Modulational instability in dispersion-kicked optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Nodari, S Rota; Dujardin, G; Kudlinski, A; Mussot, A; Trillo, S; De Bièvre, S


    We study, both theoretically and experimentally, modulational instability in optical fibers that have a longitudinal evolution of their dispersion in the form of a Dirac delta comb. By means of Floquet theory, we obtain an exact expression for the position of the gain bands, and we provide simple analytical estimates of the gain and of the bandwidths of those sidebands. An experimental validation of those results has been realized in several microstructured fibers specifically manufactured for that purpose. The dispersion landscape of those fibers is a comb of Gaussian pulses having widths much shorter than the period, which therefore approximate the ideal Dirac comb. Experimental spontaneous MI spectra recorded under quasi continuous wave excitation are in good agreement with the theory and with numerical simulations based on the generalized nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation.

  3. The VIRMOS mask manufacturing tools: (b) Mask manufacturing and handling


    G. Conti; Chiappetti, L.; Mattaini, E.; MacCagni, D; Fevre, O. Le; Saisse, M.; Vettolani, G.


    We describe the VIRMOS Mask Manufacturing Unit (MMU) configuration, composed of two units:the Mask Manufacturing Machine (with its Control Unit) and the Mask Handling Unit (inclusive of Control Unit, Storage Cabinets and robot for loading of the Instrument Cabinets). For both VIMOS and NIRMOS instruments, on the basis of orders received by the Mask Preparation Software (see paper (a) in same proceedings), the function of the MMU is to perform an off-line mask cutting and ide...

  4. Process for Converting Waste Glass Fiber into Value Added Products, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, Raymond T.


    Nature of the Event: Technology demonstration. The project successfully met all of its technical objectives. Albacem has signed an exclusive licensing agreement with Vitro Minerals Inc., a specialty minerals company, to commercialize the Albacem technology (website: Location: The basic research for the project was conducted in Peoria, Illinois, and Atlanta, Georgia, with third-party laboratory verification carried out in Ontario, Canada. Pilot-scale trials (multi-ton) were conducted at a facility in South Carolina. Full-scale manufacturing facilities have been designed and are scheduled for construction by Vitro Minerals during 2006 at a location in the Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina tri-state area. The Technology: This technology consists of a process to eliminate solid wastes generated at glass fiber manufacturing facilities by converting them to value-added materials (VCAS Pozzolans) suitable for use in cement and concrete applications. This technology will help divert up to 250,000 tpy of discarded glass fiber manufacturing wastes into beneficial use applications in the concrete construction industry. This technology can also be used for processing glass fiber waste materials reclaimed from monofills at manufacturing facilities. The addition of take-back materials and reclamation from landfills can help supply over 500,000 tpy of glass fiber waste for processing into value added products. In the Albacem process, waste glass fiber is ground to a fine powder that effectively functions as a reactive pozzolanic admixture for use in portland ce¬ment-based building materials and products, such as concrete, mortars, terrazzo, tile, and grouts. Because the waste fiber from the glass manufacturing industry is vitreous, clean, and low in iron and alkalis, the resulting pozzolan is white in color and highly consistent in chemical composition. This white pozzolan, termed VCAS Pozzolan (for Vitreous Calcium-Alumino-Silicate). is especially suited for white concrete applications where it imparts desirable benefits such as increased long-term strength and improved long-term durability of concrete products. Two U.S. patents entitled have been issued to Albacem covering the technology. Third-party validation testing has confirmed that the pozzolanic product is an excellent, high performance material that conforms to a ASTM standards and improves the strength and durability of concrete. Currently, there are no known significant competing technologies to process glass fiber manufacturing by-products and con¬vert them into value-added products. Most glass fiber-forming and fabrication wastes continue to be disposed in landfills at significant costs and with associated negative environmental impact. It is estimated that in a typical glass fiber manufactur¬ing facility, 10-20% by weight of the processed glass material is sent for dis¬posal to a landfill. Today, supplementary ce¬menting materials or mineral admixtures are key to achieving strong and durable concrete. Recovered materials such as coal fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and silica fume are widely accepted and used in concrete all over the world, espe¬cially in the construction of “high performance” structures such as massive dams, bridges, subway tunnels, etc. These min¬eral admixtures are not suitable for white concrete and light-colored architectural concrete applications. Converting waste glass fibers into a high performance white pozzolan would allow white concrete producers to gain from the same durability benefits currently realized by gray concrete producers. Description of the Benefit: Albacem’s technology will enable the glass fiber industry to eliminate nearly 100% of its glass fiber produc¬tion waste streams by converting them into viable value-added products. With this technology, the glass industry can prevent the landfilling of about 250,000 tons of waste glass fiber annually. Glass manufacturers will realize improved production efficiency by reducing process costs through the elimination of solid was

  5. EDF's surveillance on fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF has 58 PWR reactors requiring an annual supply of approximately 2,300 fuel assemblies. The issues of safety and reliability are important concerning the fuel given the risk of generic manufacturing issues. Being a nuclear power operator, EDF is responsible for the safety of the fuel being used in their vessels. EDF is subject to a French law which requires in particular the surveillance of the manufacture of the components involved in safety. This law is in some way an opportunity. It permits the entities involved to have an influence on the quality of components supplied which is an important condition to exercise an operational responsibility. EDF has applied for 30 years surveillance of the manufacturing processes of suppliers of fuel assemblies and contracts have specific clauses in order to organize this surveillance. In order to focus the surveillance on important matters, critical characteristics of the fuel have been determined between EDF and the suppliers to ensure the safety requirements. Activities related to the manufacturing and having an influence on these characteristics are subject to the surveillance required by regulation authorities. In order to obtain fuel assemblies that fulfill the safety requirements, EDF considers that several aspects need to be treated correctly: - The clear and sufficient definition of the components that constitutes the assembly (technical file: drawings and specifications), a definition which takes into account as far efinition which takes into account as far as possible the critical characteristics. - The demonstration of the efficiency, in terms of results, of complex manufacturing or controls steps (equipment qualification) included in the global manufacturing process (efficiency which depends on parameters that need to be defined and determined). - The definition of manufacturing processes (manufacturing quality plan) and the demonstration of their efficiency (qualification of manufacturing processes) to produce components that meet safety requirements (efficiency which depends on parameters that need to be defined and determined). - The relevancy of the justifications of usability of non-conforming products, taking into account the fact that any manufacturing process can normally produce some from time to time. - The continuous improvement of the manufacturing processes which are in fact not always as robust as expected to segregate non-conforming products (abnormal manufacturing event). The first three aspects contribute to obtain in a complementary way components that meet all the safety requirements given the fact that those requirements sometimes cannot be guaranteed for economic reasons by means of direct controls but only indirectly by the fulfillment of specific parameters. EDF surveys consequently: - The definition of the requirements in the technical file. - The initial qualifications of complex equipment, and subsequently during the manufacturing, the compliance with the parameters that guarantee the validity of the results of this equipment. - The initial qualification of the manufacturing processes, and subsequently during the manufacturing, the compliance within the parameters that need to be applied in order for the components to meet the safety requirements. The fourth aspect strongly involves EDF, given its responsibility as operator. The justification of usability when they have an impact on safety cannot be handled unilaterally by a supplier. - EDF surveys that the justification of usability of non-conform products are submitted for validation when the non-conformity has an impact on safety. - EDF verifies the relevancy of those justifications. The last aspect deals with the feedback needed for the continuous improvement of the robustness of the manufacturing processes. EDF asks its suppliers to declare the abnormal manufacturing events detected at the plants given the fact that non-conform products may have been supplied without knowing. According to this: - EDF discuss and validate the corrective actions proposed by suppliers to secure their manuf

  6. Integrated flexible manufacturing program for manufacturing automation and rapid prototyping (United States)

    Brooks, S. L.; Brown, C. W.; King, M. S.; Simons, W. R.; Zimmerman, J. J.


    The Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Inc., as part of the Integrated Flexible Manufacturing Program (IFMP), is developing an integrated manufacturing environment. Several systems are being developed to produce standards and automation tools for specific activities within the manufacturing environment. The Advanced Manufacturing Development System (AMDS) is concentrating on information standards (STEP) and product data transfer; the Expert Cut Planner system (XCUT) is concentrating on machining operation process planning standards and automation capabilities; the Advanced Numerical Control system (ANC) is concentrating on NC data preparation standards and NC data generation tools; the Inspection Planning and Programming Expert system (IPPEX) is concentrating on inspection process planning, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection standards and CMM part program generation tools; and the Intelligent Scheduling and Planning System (ISAPS) is concentrating on planning and scheduling tools for a flexible manufacturing system environment. All of these projects are working together to address information exchange, standardization, and information sharing to support rapid prototyping in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) environment.

  7. A tapered distal fiber tip for thulium fiber laser lithotripsy (United States)

    Blackmon, Richard L.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.


    The Thulium fiber laser has recently been tested as a potential alternative to the Holmium:YAG laser for lithotripsy. This study explores use of a short taper for expanding the Thulium fiber laser beam at the distal tip of a small-core fiber. Thulium fiber laser radiation with a wavelength of 1908 nm, 10 Hz pulse rate, 70 mJ pulse energy, and 1-ms pulse duration was delivered through a 2-m-length fiber with 150-?m-input-end, 300-?m-output-end, and 5-mmlength taper, in contact with human uric acid (UA) and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones, ex vivo (n=10 each). Stone mass loss, stone crater depths, fiber transmission losses, fiber burn-back, irrigation rates, and deflection through a flexible ureteroscope were measured for the above tapered fiber and compared with conventional fibers. After delivery of 1800 pulses through the tapered fiber, mass loss measured 12.7 +/- 2.6 mg for UA and 7.2 +/- 0.8 mg COM stones, comparable to conventional 100-?m-core fibers (12.6 +/- 2.5 mg for UA and 6.8 +/- 1.7 mg for COM stones). No transmission losses or burn-back occurred for the tapered fiber after 36,000 pulses, while a conventional 150-?m fiber experienced significant tip degradation after only 1800 pulses. High irrigation rates were measured with the tapered fiber inserted through the working port of an ureteroscope, without hindering ureteroscope deflection, mimicking that of conventional 150 ìm fibers. The short tapered distal fiber tip allows expansion of the laser beam, resulting in decreased fiber tip damage compared to conventional small-core fibers, without compromising fiber bending, stone vaporization efficiency, or irrigation rates.

  8. 7 CFR 984.19 - Manufacturer. (United States)


    ...AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.19 Manufacturer. Manufacturer ...production of bakery goods, ice cream, candy, or other food products, except walnut...

  9. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A


    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61 cm high), may be cut or machined into parts or be thermomechanically processed to develop the desired microstructure, properties, and shapes. Vacuum hot-isostatic pressing and cold-isostatic pressing (CIP) followed by sintering and possibly by a final HIP'ing (CIP/Sinter/HIP) are important in their use for the production of near net-shaped parts. For the same starting powder, a HIP'ed product will have less anisotropy than that obtained for a VHP'ed product. A schematic presentation illustrating the difference between VHP'ing and HIP'ing is shown in Figure I-1. The types of powders and the various beryllium grades produced from the consolidated powders and their ambient-temperature mechanical properties were presented in the consolidation report referred to above. Elevated-temperature properties and the effect of processing variables on mechanical properties are described in the mechanical properties report. Beryllium can also be deposited as coatings as well as freestanding forms. The microstructure, properties, and various methods used that are related to the deposition of beryllium are discussed in the report on beryllium coatings.

  10. Study of SBS slow light based on nano-material doped fiber (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Lang, Pei-Lin; Zhang, Ru


    A novel optical fiber doped with nano material InP is manufactured by the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD). The slow light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in the optical fiber is studied. The results show that a time delay of ˜738 ps is obtained when the input Stokes pulse is 900 ps(FWHM) and the SBS gain is ˜15. It shows that a considerable time delay and an amplification of the input light can be achieved by this novel optical fiber.

  11. High-temperature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors (United States)

    Ding, Wenhui; Jiang, Yi; Gao, Ran; Liu, Yuewu


    A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based high-temperature fiber-optic sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor head is a Fabry-Perot cavity manufactured with a short section of endless single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM PCF). The interferometric spectrum of the Fabry-Perot interferometer is collected by a charge coupled device linear array based micro spectrometer. A high-resolution demodulation algorithm is used to interrogate the peak wavelengths. Experimental results show that the temperature range of 1200 °C and the temperature resolution of 1 °C are achieved.

  12. Numerical implementation of constitutive material law for simulating the kinkband formation in fiber composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veluri, Badrinath; Jensen, Henrik Myhre


    Finite element models with a constitutive material behavior that represents the non-linear response of fiber composites are used to simulate the compressive failure mechanism i.e. kinkband formation. A constitutive material law in framework of micromechanical modeling containing comprehensive constitutive equations for the constituent materials is adopted to model the non-linear behavior of the unidirectional layered materials. This material law is implemented as UMAT user subroutine in ABAQUS/Standard to study kinkband formation. The methodology provides a procedure to investigate the kinkband formation due to fiber misalignment for various complex structures having voids and material discontinuities that occur normally during the manufacture of these unidirectional fiber composites.

  13. Manufacture of dissolving pulps from cornstalk by novel method coupling steam explosion and mechanical carding fractionation. (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Chen, Hong-Zhang


    In order to solve the inhomogeneity of cornstalk as fiber material to manufacture dissolving pulp, a novel method of steam explosion coupling mechanical carding was put forward to fractionate cornstalk long fiber for the production of cornstalk dissolving pulp. The fractionated long fiber had homogeneous structure and low hemicellulose and ash content. The fiber cell content was up to 85% in area, and the hemicellulose and ash content was 8.34% and 1.10% respectively. The ?-cellulose content of cornstalk dissolving pulps was up to 93.10-97.10%, the viscosity was 14.37-23.96 mPas, and the yields of cornstalk dissolving pulps were from 10.11% to 12.44%. In addition, the fractionated short fiber was to be hydrolyzed by enzyme to build sugar platform. The constructed method of steam explosion coupling mechanical carding achieved the fractionation of cornstalk into long fiber and short fiber cleanly and effectively, and provided a new way for cornstalk integrated refinery. PMID:23644071

  14. Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Roger [University of Arizona


    The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors <1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants. During the first year a custom batch furnace was built to develop the method with high power radiative heating to simulate transfer of glass into a hot slumping zone in a production line. To preserve the original high polish of the float glass on both front and back surfaces, as required for a second surface mirror, the mold surface is machined to the required shape as grooves which intersect the glass at cusps, reducing the mold contact area to significantly less than 1%. The mold surface is gold-plated to reflect thermal radiation. Optical metrology of glass replicas made with the system has been carried out with a novel, custom-built test system. This test provides collimated, vertically-oriented parallel beams from a linear array of co-aligned lasers translated in a perpendicular direction across the reflector. Deviations of each reflected beam from the paraboloid focus give a direct measure of surface slope error. Key findings • A gravity sag method for large (2.5 m2) second surface glass solar reflectors has been developed and demonstrated to a uniquely high level of accuracy. Mirror surface slope accuracy of 0.65 mrad in one dimension, 0.85 mrad in 2 dimensions (point focus) has been demonstrated by commercial partner REhnu using this process. This accuracy exceeds by a factor of two current solar reflector accuracy. Our replicas meet the Sunshot accuracy objective of 2 mrad optical, which requires better than 1 mrad rms slope error. • Point-focus as well as line-focus mirrors have been demonstrated at 1.65 m x 1.65 m square – a unique capability. • The new process using simple molds is economical. The molds for the 1.65 m square reflectors are bent and machined steel plates on a counter-weighted flotation support. To minimize thermal coupling by radiative heat transfer, the mold surface is grooved and gilded. The molds are simple to manufacture, and have minimal thermal stresses and distortion in use. Lapping and bending techniques have been developed to obtain better than 1 mrad rms surface mold accuracy. Float glass is sagged into the molds by rapid radiative heating, using a custom high power (350 kW) furnace. The method of manufacture is well suited for small as well as large volume production, and as it requires little capital investment and no high technology, it could be used anywhere in the world to make solar concentrating reflectors. • A novel slope metrology method for full 1.65 aperture has been demonstrated, with 25 mm resolution across the face of the replicas. The method is null and therefore inherently accurate: it can easily be reproduced without high-tech equipment and does not need sophisticated calibration. We find by cross calibration with reference trough reflectors from RioGlass that our null-test laser system yields a measurement accuracy better than 0.4 mrad rms slope error. Our system is inexpensive and could have broad application for test

  15. Tapered GRIN fiber microsensor. (United States)

    Beltrán-Mejía, Felipe; Biazoli, Claudecir R; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B


    The sensitivity of an optical fiber microsensor based on inter-modal interference can be considerably improved by tapering a short extension of the multimode fiber. In the case of Graded Index fibers with a parabolic refractive index profile, a meridional ray exhibits a sinusoidal path. When these fibers are tapered, the period of the propagated beam decrease down-taper and increase up-taper. We take advantage of this modulation -along with the enhanced overlap between the evanescent field and the external medium- to substantially increase the sensitivity of these devices by tuning the sensor's maximum sensitivity wavelength. Moreover, the extension of this device is reduced by one order of magnitude, making it more propitious for reduced space applications. Numerical and experimental results demonstrate the success and feasibility of this approach. PMID:25606989

  16. Fiber based optofluidic biosensors (United States)

    Lismont, M.; Vandewalle, N.; Joris, B.; Dreesen, L.


    Medicinal diagnosis requires the development of innovative devices allowing the detection of small amounts of biological species. Among the large variety of available biosensors, the ones based on fluorescence phenomenon are really promising. Here, we show a prototype of the basic unit of a multi-sensing biosensor combining optics and microfluidics benefits. This unit makes use of two crossed optical fibers: the first fiber is used to carry small probe molecules droplets and excite fluorescence, while the second one is devoted to target molecules droplets transport and fluorescence detection. Within this scheme, the interaction takes place in each fiber node. The main benefits of this detection setup are the absence of fibers functionalization, the use of microliter volumes of target and probe species, their separation before interaction, and a better detection limit compared to cuvettes setups.

  17. Basalt Fiber Based Filters

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Development of Highly Effective Filtering Systems on the Basis of a Super-Thin Basalt Fiber for Radioactive Aerosols Purification and Creation of a Work Cycle for Filters Manufacturig with the Purpose of Their Operation at the Nuclear Power Plants

  18. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H


    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  19. Fiber Optics: No Illusion. (United States)

    American School and University, 1983


    A campus computer center at Hofstra University (New York) that holds 70 terminals for student use was first a gymnasium, then a language laboratory. Strands of fiber optics are used for the necessary wiring. (MLF)

  20. Fiber optic gas sensor (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)


    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  1. Acoustic fiber sensor arrays (United States)

    Digonnet, Michel J. F.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Hodgson, Craig W.; Kino, Gordon S.


    The acoustic fiber sensor arrays that have been developed over the past two decades for oil exploration and other applications can support hundreds of fiber hydrophones per fiber pair and exhibit exceptional properties, including shot-noise-limited sensitivities better than 1 ?rad/?Hz, high stability, and dynamic ranges well in excess of 130 dB. This article reviews the main configurations reported to date, which are based on ladder architectures utilizing either Mach-Zehnder or Sagnac interferometric sensors and time-domain multiplexing. The emphasis is placed on their principles, performance characteristics, and relative advantages regarding such key issues as signal fading, polarization-induced fading, frequency response, sensitivity, and the number of sensors that can be multiplexed on a given pair of fibers.

  2. Mortality of workers at acetylene production plants.


    Newhouse, M. L.; Matthews, G.; Sheikh, K.; Knight, K. L.; Oakes, D.; Sullivan, K. R.


    To reduce the risk of explosion oxyacetylene cylinders are filled with a spongy mass, acetone is added to saturate the mass, and acetylene is pumped into the cylinder. The first cylinders manufactured before 1936 used a kapok filling topped off with about 16 oz of crocidolite asbestos, with a metal gauze thimble inserted to reduce risk of flash back. Cylinders must be examined annually. The use of crocidolite ceased in 1972 and other fillings have been adopted since 1970; kapok cylinders now ...

  3. Hydroxyapatite fiber reinforced poly(alpha-hydroxy ester) foams for bone regeneration (United States)

    Thomson, R. C.; Yaszemski, M. J.; Powers, J. M.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)


    A process has been developed to manufacture biodegradable composite foams of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and hydroxyapatite short fibers for use in bone regeneration. The processing technique allows the manufacture of three-dimensional foam scaffolds and involves the formation of a composite material consisting of a porogen material (either gelatin microspheres or salt particles) and hydroxyapatite short fibers embedded in a PLGA matrix. After the porogen is leached out, an open-cell composite foam remains which has a pore size and morphology defined by the porogen. By changing the weight fraction of the leachable component it was possible to produce composite foams with controlled porosities ranging from 0.47 +/- 0.02 to 0.85 +/- 0.01 (n = 3). Up to a polymer:fiber ratio of 7:6, short hydroxyapatite fibers served to reinforce low-porosity PLGA foams manufactured using gelatin microspheres as a porogen. Foams with a compressive yield strength up to 2.82 +/- 0.63 MPa (n = 3) and a porosity of 0.47 +/- 0.02 (n = 3) were manufactured using a polymer:fiber weight ratio of 7:6. In contrast, high-porosity composite foams (up to 0.81 +/- 0.02, n = 3) suitable for cell seeding were not reinforced by the introduction of increasing quantities of hydroxyapatite short fibers. We were therefore able to manufacture high-porosity foams which may be seeded with cells but which have minimal compressive yield strength, or low porosity foams with enhanced osteoconductivity and compressive yield strength.

  4. Manufacturing method of organic whiskers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manufacturing method of organic whiskers is achieved by adding, desirably, hardening agent and/or polymerization promoter to polymeric organic low molecular compound or its composition, then in vacuum, irradiating energy ray. The synthesis of epoxy resins is discussed

  5. 77 FR 56811 - Manufacturing Council (United States)


    ...stakeholders to increase the global competitiveness of...candidate's proven experience in promoting, developing...and medium-sized enterprises. During the 2012-2014...any interest in and experience relevant to the work...manufacturing-related experience, including any...

  6. Benchmarking Developing Asia's Manufacturing Sector


    Felipe, Jesus; Estrada, Gemma


    This paper documents the transformation of developing Asia's manufacturing sector during the last three decades and benchmarks its share in GDP with respect to the international regression line by estimating a logistic regression.

  7. Electrospun amplified fiber optics


    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario


    A lot of research is focused on all-optical signal processing, aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for an efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods, involving high-temperature processes performed in highly pure environment, slow down the fabrication and make amplified components expensive with res...

  8. Fiber optic detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.


    This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

  9. Influence of moisture absorption on properties of fiber reinforced polyamide 6 composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; LØgstrup Andersen, Tom


    A state-of-the art study of thermoplastic polymer matrix materials for fiber composites has identified polyamide 6 (PA6) as a potential candidate thermoplastic polymer relevant for manufacturing large composite structures like wind turbine blades. The mechanical properties of PA6 are highly sensitive to moisture, and if PA6 is used as matrix material in a fiber composite, the properties of the fiber composite will depend on the moisture content of the material. At standard condition (23 °C and 50% RH) polyamide6 absorbs about 3 weight-% of water, whereas the PA6 material is dry right after manufacturing of components. In the current article, lamina properties of dry glass fiber/PA6 and conditioned (23 °C, 50% RH) glass fiber/PA6 are calculated for lamina with two different fiber content (45 and 50 vol.-%) by the use of classical micro mechanics. The matrix dominated properties like the shear stiffness, the shear strength and the stiffness and strength across the fiber direction are the ones which are mostly affected by the moisture content in the material.

  10. Treatment of Lignin Precursors to Improve their Suitability for Carbon Fibers: A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Ryan [GrafTech International Holdings Inc.; Naskar, Amit [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Gallego, Nidia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Dai, Xuliang [GrafTech International Holdings Inc.; Hausner, Andrew [GrafTech International Holdings Inc.


    Lignin has been investigated as a carbon fiber precursor since the 1960s. Although there have been a number of reports of successful lignin-based carbon fiber production at the lab scale, lignin-based carbon fibers are not currently commercially available. This review will highlight some of the known challenges, and also the reported methods for purifying and modifying lignin to improve it as a precursor. Lignin can come from different sources (e.g. hardwood, softwood, grasses) and extraction methods (e.g. organosolv, kraft), meaning that lignin can be found with a diversity of purity and structure. The implication of these conditions on lignin as carbon fiber precursor is not comprehensively known, especially as the lignin landscape is evolving. The work presented in this review will help guide the direction of a project between GrafTech and ORNL to develop lignin carbon fiber technology, as part of a cooperative agreement with the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office.

  11. Manufacturers' outsourcing to employment services


    Dey, Matthew; Houseman, Susan; Polivka, Anne


    We estimate the effects of manufacturers' use of employment services-comprised primarily of temporary help and professional employer organizations-on measured employment and labor productivity in manufacturing between 1989 and 2004. A major contribution of the paper is the construction of panel data on employment by occupation and industry from the Occupational Employment Statistics program. We use these data to document the dramatic rise of production and other manual occupations within the ...

  12. Trends in manufacturing execution systems


    Sauer, O.


    Today's manufacturing plants are equipped with heterogeneous software systems for different types of tasks, both manufacturing operations and factory planning. On the operating level software systems are neither yet integrated and thus support separate tasks such as production monitoring, sequence planning, work piece identification, maintenance order management, worker information and others. Nor are MES-systems parts of the integrated industrial engineering chain from mechanical engineering...

  13. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solar Collector Manufacturing Activity 1990 report prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents summary and detailed data provided by domestic manufacturers on shipments of solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the period 1974 through 1990. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the period 1982 through 1990. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1990



    R. Stopforth; Bright, G; S. Davrajh; Walker, A.


    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Communication between manufacturing robots and autonomous vehicles in the industrial environment is important, sinceinstructions and information are crucial for communication between the control station and the robot station. Information is required between different manufacturing robots for optimal performance and dedication to industrial tasks within the environment. Failures in communication could cause robots to be a safety hazard or to perform tasks that are no...

  15. Labor Dynamics in Chinese Manufacturing


    Rydbert, Erik


    During the process of globalization, China has gained a position as an extremely important player on the world economic stage. The country has become particularly famous as a hub for the global manufacturing industry, with a large quantity of cheap labor that produces low-cost products. However, there is now growing concern that the labor costs for China’s manufacturing workforce are growing rampantly. This could have obvious detrimental effects for Chinese exports, and foreshadow major res...

  16. Developing high performance manufacturing systems


    Karlsson, Anders


    The work detailed in this dissertation relates to thedevelopment of high performance manufacturing systems. Theperformance factor aimed for is especially flexibility, butthere is an intention of making the results adaptable to focuson performance factors of the readers or users choice. Thefocus of the presented research is not only to provide meansfor accomplishing manufacturing that can handle changes butalso to accomplish flexibility in another area. The resultsshould be applicable in many ...

  17. Mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers


    Boice, J.D.,Jr.; Marano, D. E.; Fryzek, J. P.; Sadler, C. J.; McLaughlin, J K


    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of cancer and other diseases among workers engaged in aircraft manufacturing and potentially exposed to compounds containing chromate, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and mixed solvents. METHODS: A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of workers employed for at least 1 year at a large aircraft manufacturing facility in California on or after 1 January 1960. The mortality experience of these workers was determined by examin...

  18. On Strategy and Manufacturing Flexibility


    Nilsson, Carl-Henric


    The era when customers bought what companies produced is long gone. The situation is now reversed and companies must produce what customers want; while the customers' preferences are, furthermore, becoming increasingly diverse. This has forced companies to adopt a new mode of thinking in order to survive. The strategy, by necessity, has become to manufacture flexibly. This thesis focuses on strategy and manufacturing flexibility. It includes a frame of reference and eight papers a...

  19. Carbon fiber modification (United States)

    Thompson, T. E.


    The effect of several chemical treatments on the electrical and mechanical properties of carbon fibers was investigated with an optimum goal of increasing the electrical resistivity by a factor of 1000 without appreciably changing the mechanical properties. It was possible to effect resistivity increases from 10 to 50 percent without adversely affecting the tensile strength or Young's modulus for T-300 and C-6000 PAN fibers by treatments with either AlCl3 or nitric acid mixtures. Larger increases in the resistivity were produced with pitch fibers treated with nitric acid mixtures. This treatment also produced a partial decomposition of the pitch fiber and deterioration of the mechanical properties. The rationale behind the approch was to immobilize the conductivity producing pi electrons in the microscopic aromatic structure of the carbon fibers without destroying the strength producing sigma bonds. The investigations indicate that certain chemical treatments can produce such results, but the total reduction in the electrical conductivity which was achieved was not large enough to impact on problems which might arise from the high conductivities of the fibers.

  20. Emergence of fiber supercapacitors. (United States)

    Yu, Dingshan; Qian, Qihui; Wei, Li; Jiang, Wenchao; Goh, Kunli; Wei, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Yuan


    Supercapacitors (SCs) are energy storage devices which have high power density and long cycle life. Conventional SCs have two-dimensional planar structures. As a new family of SCs, fiber SCs utilize one-dimensional cylindrically shaped fibers as electrodes. They have attracted significant interest since 2011 and have shown great application potential either as micro-scale devices to complement or even replace micro-batteries in miniaturized electronics and microelectromechanical systems or as macro-scale devices for wearable electronics or smart textiles. This tutorial review provides an essential introduction to this new field. We first introduce the basics of performance evaluation for fiber SCs as a foundation to understand different research approaches and the diverse performance metrics reported in the literature. Next, we summarize the current state-of-the-art progress in structure design and electrode fabrication of fiber SCs. This is followed by a discussion on the integration of multiple fiber SCs and the combination with other energy harvesting or storage devices. Last, we present our perspectives on the future development of fiber SCs and highlight key technical challenges with the hope of stimulating further research progress. PMID:25420877

  1. Electrospun amplified fiber optics. (United States)

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario


    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ?20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics. PMID:25710188

  2. Fiber optics for controls (United States)

    Seng, Gary T.


    The challenge of those involved in control-system hardware development is to accommodate an ever-increasing complexity in aircraft control, while limiting the size and weight of the components and improving system reliability. A technology that displays promise towards this end is the area of fiber optics for controls. The primary advantages of employing optical fibers, passive optical sensors, and optically controlled actuators are weight and volume reduction, immunity from electromagnetic effects, superior bandwidth capabilities, and freedom from short circuits and sparking contacts. Since 1975, NASA Lewis has performed in-house, contract, and grant research in fiber optic sensors, high-temperature electro-optic switches, and fly-by-light control-system architecture. Passive optical sensor development is an essential yet challenging area of work and has therefore received much attention during this period. A major effort to develop fly-by-light control-system technology, known as the Fiber-Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program, was initiated in 1985 as a cooperative effort between NASA and DOD. Phase 1 of FOCSI, completed in 1986, was aimed at the design of a fiber-optic integrated propulsion/flight control system. Phase 2, yet to be initiated, will provide subcomponent and system development, and a system engine test. In addition to a summary of the benefits of fiber optics, the FOCSI program, sensor advances, and future directions in the NASA Lewis program will be discussed.

  3. Study on basalt fiber parameters affecting fiber-reinforced mortar (United States)

    Orlov, A. A.; Chernykh, T. N.; Sashina, A. V.; Bogusevich, D. V.


    This article considers the effect of different dosages and diameters of basalt fibers on tensile strength increase during bending of fiberboard-reinforced mortar samples. The optimal dosages of fiber, providing maximum strength in bending are revealed. The durability of basalt fiber in an environment of cement, by means of microscopic analysis of samples of fibers and fiberboard-reinforced mortar long-term tests is examined. The article also compares the behavior of basalt fiber in the cement stone environment to a glass one and reveals that the basalt fiber is not subject to destruction.

  4. Hydrodynamic flow in capillary-channel fiber columns for liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Stanelle, Rayman D; Sander, Lane C; Marcus, R Kenneth


    The flow characteristics of capillary-channel polymer (C-CP) fiber liquid chromatographic (LC) columns have been investigated. The C-CP fibers are manufactured with eight longitudinal grooves (capillary channels) extending the length of the fibers. Three C-CP fiber examples were studied, with fiber dimensions ranging from approximately 35 microm to 65 microm, and capillary-channel dimensions ranging from approximately 6 microm to 35 microm. The influence of fiber packing density and column inner diameter on peak asymmetry, peak width, and run-to-run reproducibility have been studied for stainless steel LC columns packed with polyester (PET) and polypropylene (PP) C-CP fibers. The van Deemter A-term was evaluated as a function of fiber packing density (approximately 0.3 g/cm(3)-0.75 g/cm(3)) for columns of 4.6 mm inner diameter (i.d.) and at constant packing densities for 1.5 mm, 3.2 mm, 4.6 mm, and 7.7 mm i.d. columns. Although column diameter had little influence on the eluting peak widths, peak asymmetry increased with increasing column diameter. The A-terms for the C-CP fiber packed columns are somewhat larger than current commercial, microparticulate-packed columns, and means for improvement are discussed. Applications in the area of protein (macromolecule) separations appear the most promising at this stage of the system development. PMID:16194542

  5. Developing Engineering Model Cobra fiber positioners for the Subaru Telescope Prime Focus Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Charles; Braun, David; Seiffert, Michael; Aghazarian, Hrand; Partos, Eamon; King, Matthew; Hovland, Larry; Schwochert, Mark; Kaluzny, Joel; Capocasale, Christopher; Houck, Andrew; Gross, Johannes; Reiley, Dan; Mao, Peter; Riddle, Reed; Bui, Khanh; Henderson, David; Haran, Todd; Culhane, Rob; Piazza, Daniele; Walkama, Eric


    The Cobra fiber positioner is being developed by the California Institute of Technology (CIT) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) instrument that will be installed at the Subaru Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. PFS is a fiber fed multi-object spectrometer that uses an array of Cobra fiber positioners to rapidly reconfigure 2394 optical fibers at the prime focus of the Subaru Telescope that are capable of positioning a fiber to within 5um of a specified target location. A single Cobra fiber positioner measures 7.7mm in diameter and is 115mm tall. The Cobra fiber positioner uses two piezo-electric rotary motors to move a fiber optic anywhere in a 9.5mm diameter patrol area. In preparation for full-scale production of 2550 Cobra positioners an Engineering Model (EM) version was developed, built and tested to validate the design, reduce manufacturing costs, and improve system reliability. The EM leveraged the previously developed prototype versions of the Cobra fiber posi...

  6. Thermoplastic transfer molding of fiber-reinforced composites (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Hyuk

    Among the manufacturing methods for composite materials, resin transfer molding (RTM) process is considered to be one of most cost-effective and competitive methods for producing high performance composites with complex shapes. This process can be described simply as the fluxing of resin through the inlet of a mold and subsequent impregnation of the pre-placed preform inside the mold. The fiber wetting and process times are greatly affected by the resin viscosity. In addition, high fiber volume fraction and variable porosity of the preform makes fiber impregnation even more difficult. Improper fiber impregnation causes degradation of material properties and has been a major concern for RTM. Moreover, the production time becomes very long for large sized parts. RTM has been exclusively applied to the manufacture of thermoset-matrix composites, and not for the manufacture of thermoplastic-matrix composites because of the relatively high viscosity of thermoplastic resins. To achieve a fast process time and improved wetting quality, several process mechanisms inspired by RTM are proposed in the first section of this dissertation. These processes were studied with the interest of applying them to the manufacture of thermoplastic-matrix composites, thus utilizing the methods and advantages of RTM. In these processes, resin is fluxed directly onto the stacked preform and driven through fibers by mechanically enforced consolidation. This mechanical consolidation is achieved by segmenting and articulating the mold. The individual and successive motion of the segmented mold propagates the resin through the preform. Mold fill-up was simulated for this novel process and compared with the equivalent RTM process. In the second section, percolation of thermoplastic melts between two neighboring fibers was modeled with non-Newtonian parameters to understand the effects of thermoplastic rheology on overall infiltration. In contrast to Darcy's model based on a Newtonian fluid, the viscosity dependent on the shear-rate and the threshold-yield in thermoplastic melts was predicted. A relevant experiment was performed on glass preforms to investigate thermoplastic infiltration through the heterogeneous pore structure of such technologically important structural materials.

  7. Integrated Design for Manufacturing of Braided Preforms for Advanced Composites Part I: 2D Braiding (United States)

    Gao, Yan Tao; Ko, Frank K.; Hu, Hong


    This paper presents a 2D braiding design system for advanced textile structural composites was based on dynamic models. A software package to assist in the design of braided preform manufacturing has been developed. The package allows design parameters (machine speeds, fiber volume fraction, tightness factor, etc.) to be easily obtained and the relationships between said parameters to be demonstrated graphically. The fabirc geometry model (FGM) method was adopted to evaluate the mechanical properties of the composites. Experimental evidence demonstrates the success of the use of dynamic models in the design software for the manufacture of braided fabric preforms.

  8. Plastic packaging of VCSEL-based fiber optic transceivers for PCS fiber systems (United States)

    Ho, Flora; Lui, Ben; Hung, Vincent; Tong, Eric; Yau, Kin; Choi, Thomas; Egnisaban, Gomer; Mangente, Tony; Ng, Steven; Ng, Amy; Cheng, Sing; Cheung, Edwin; Wipiejewski, Torsten


    We have developed VCSEL based fiber optics transceivers for PCS fiber systems. The PCS fiber has a core diameter of 200?m. The relatively large diameter enables the usage of low cost optical connectors for the fiber link and provides wide alignment tolerances. The measured lateral and longitudinal 3dB coupling tolerances are +/-100?m and 500?m, respectively. The VCSEL is integrated with an electronics driver chip and some passive electronics components on a leadframe structure before plastic encapsulation. The hybrid integration on the leadframe enables batch processing to increase throughput and lower manufacturing cost. No full-hermetic sealing is required for the VCSEL chosen. The variation of optical output power is less than 0.2dB from -40°C to 105°C. Eye diagrams show wide open eyes at a data rate of 500Mbit/s at wide temperature range up to 105°C. The technology can go up to data rates in the Gbit/s range, but this is currently not required for the target applications. The module is reliable over 1000 temperature cycles from -40°C to 125°C. For the receiver side we developed high speed MSM photodetectors. The large area MSM photodetectors relax the coupling alignment tolerance to the core of the optical fiber for 80?m and 4000?m in lateral axis and longitudinal axis, respectively. The MSM photodetector is capable of data rates of 3.2Gb/s. At this high speed the sensitivity is better than -18dBm for the MSM photodetector co-packaged with a suitable transimpedance amplifier (TIA).

  9. Exploring manufacturing competencies of a two wheeler manufacturing unit (United States)

    Deep Singh, Chandan; Singh Khamba, Jaimal; Singh, Rajdeep; Singh, Navdeep


    The two wheeler industry of India is one of the most dependable industries as every person has at least a two wheeler with him, if not any four wheeler. Earlier there were scooters like Bajaj Chetak, Priya but with evolution of motorcycles like splendor, splendor+, etc. the scooter market started declining but with arrival of gearless scooters like Honda Activa, Scooty Pep, etc. the market place has become increasingly competitive in recent time and industries are facing tough test of improving products and thus market share. The competitiveness among industries is an important issue. Competency development is a vital tool to enhance the competitiveness of industries. Based, on aggregate performance of a firm, it comprehensively explores the varying importance of manufacturing competencies and drives of industrial competitiveness. Hence by, exploring the manufacturing competencies of a two wheeler industry, one can reflect the competitiveness of two wheeler manufacturing industry as a whole. This study presents various factors of manufacturing competencies affecting industrial competitiveness as the significance of these competencies is increasing day by day in two wheeler manufacturing industry.

  10. Natural Fiber Composites: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Matthew P.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Laddha, Sachin; Kafentzis, Tyler A.


    The need for renewable fiber reinforced composites has never been as prevalent as it currently is. Natural fibers offer both cost savings and a reduction in density when compared to glass fibers. Though the strength of natural fibers is not as great as glass, the specific properties are comparable. Currently natural fiber composites have two issues that need to be addressed: resin compatibility and water absorption. The following preliminary research has investigated the use of Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus, as a possible glass replacement in fiber reinforced composites.

  11. Nonlinear effects in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Mario F


    Cutting-edge coverage of nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers Nonlinear fiber optics is a specialized part of fiber optics dealing with optical nonlinearities and their applications. As fiber-optic communication systems have become more advanced and complex, the nonlinear effects in optical fibers have increased in importance, as they adversely affect system performance. Paradoxically, the same nonlinear phenomena also offer the promise of addressing the bandwidth bottleneck for signal processing for future ultra-high speed optical networks. Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fiber

  12. The Physics of Fiber Optics (United States)

    This module, produced by the Wind Technician TV project from Highland Community College, introduces students to the physics of fiber optics. The module consists of four lessons, which are titled: The physics of fiber optics, Fiber optic fundamentals part 1, Fiber optic fundamentals part 2 and Working with plastic fiber optical fiber. Each lesson has a video or animation to explain the concepts involved, and a skill check feature to assess learning and ensure student grasp the concepts before moving on. A PDF accompanies each lesson, with pertinent images and notes from the video or animation.

  13. Carbon fiber electrometer for dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrometer for conventional pocket radiation dosimeters is disclosed in which the moving element of the electrometer is a carbon fiber. The fiber is spun from polyacrylonitrile homopolymer yarn and has a diameter of approximately 7 microns before carbonization. The polyacrylonitrile homopolymer fiber is conventionally preoxidized at approximately 2700C before conventional carbonization at approximately 12000C. The resulting working fiber has a round cross sectional diameter of approximately 4 microns and a modulus of elasticity of approximately 15,000,000 psi. The fiber is mounted in a conventionally loop shaped electrometer frame by crimping the ends of the fiber into tabs on the frame. 2 claims, 5 figures

  14. Metal-Matrix Composites Prepared by Paper-Manufacturing Technology (United States)

    Wenzel, Claudia; Aneziris, Christos G.; Pranke, Katja


    In this work, metal-matrix composites were prepared via paper-manufacturing technology using metastable austenitic steel powder of type 16-7-3 (Cr-Mn-Ni in wt pct) and magnesia partially stabilized zirconia reinforcing particles. The influence of the process parameters on the paper web formation and the resulting properties of the MMCs were studied and solids retention of >90 wt pct was achieved. During filtration of the aqueous fiber-filler suspension, the steel particles were incorporated in the fiber network, and steel clusters were formed. Calendering had a positive influence on the porosity, bulk density, and tensile strength of the green paper sheets. Within this contribution, the debinding process for the metal-matrix paper sheets was in focus. A debinding rate of 0.5 K/min to 733 K (460 °C) with a dwell time of 90 minutes was sufficient to completely remove cellulose fibers. The sintered composites attained a tensile strength of up to 177 N/mm2 at a total porosity of 66 pct.

  15. Industrial kitchen equipment manufacturer’s responsibility consciousness: Turkey sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Zencir


    Full Text Available Responsibility consciousness is a characteristic property for business enterprises. It is relatively more difficult to determine responsibility consciousness in service businesses. Monitoring responsibility can be limited in tourism enterprises. In this study, industrial kitchen equipment which are used in food and beverage operations and are accepted as one of the tangible indicators are examined. First, qualitative research was conducted and content analysis was applied to 97 manufacturer's product catalogs. Subsequently, correspondence analysis was performed to determine the difference between the characteristics according to cities. Results showed that Ankara, ?stanbul and ?zmir differed from other cities. It is also interesting that manufacturers in Ankara were conscious about the environment. In conclusion, it was understood that three major cities manufacturers have responsibility. Besides, it was revealed that other cities should also pay attention to this issue.

  16. A novel microfluidic chip based on fiber sensor (United States)

    Su, Bo; Duan, Guoteng; Han, Xue


    We have fabricated a novel microfluidic chip based on fiber sensor with casting PDMS method. The optical fiber is used to transmit excitation light, so the diameter of the excitation beam is decreased to 93?m. In order to improve the coupling efficiency of the excitation light in the fiber, the optical fiber collimation device is used to couple beam. The microfluidic chip consists of multimode optical fiber, PDMS cover slab and PDMS base slab. The mould of cover slab is made through twice exposal, however the base slab is achieved using once exposal only. The depths of microfluidic channel and optical fiber channel in the PDMS cover slab are 50?m and 90?m, respectively, and the optical fiber channel in the PDMS base slab is only 40?m. This design can make the centers of the microfluidic channel and the fiber channel in the same point, so the microfluidic channel and the optical fiber can be aimed at easily. In addition, the size of microfluidic channel depth is near the size of light spot of optical fiber, so the detection sensitivity is improved without using the optical focusing system. The detection system of the microfluidic chip is manufactured and it composed of high voltage modules, darkroom, LED light source, photomultiplier and data acquisition circuit, moreover, the software of the detection system is developed. The high voltage modules with four 2kV are used to control the sample amount in the separation channel, so the sensitivity is improved. The microfluidic chip is placed in the darkroom to avoid the interference of external light. The high brightness blue light emitting diode (LED) is used as excitation light sources for inducing fluorescence detection through coupling the LED light into the optical fiber. The photomultiplier is used to amplify the fluorescence signals and the function of data acquisition circuit is data collection and data processing. Under the control of software, the experiment process can be implemented easily. As an application, the microfluidic chip is tested on the detection system for the separation experiment of FITC fluorescein and FITC-labeled amino acid. The experiments justify the feasibility of the chip.

  17. Opportunities and Challenges for Manufacturing Engineering (United States)

    Bee, Danny

    During the decades of the 1980s and 1990s, the development of undergraduate and graduate manufacturing engineering programs advanced and legitimized the manufacturing engineering discipline. With recent perceived loss of manufacturing production to oversees locations and the continued public perception of manufacturing being a dirty and non-technical career, all manufacturing related education programs have experienced difficulty in recruiting students to their programs. Additionally, manufacturing's increasingly technical methods, required innovativeness, and the emergence of advanced manufacturing technologies have necessitated continuous improvement of manufacturing engineering programs. Succumbing to these pressures, some undergraduate manufacturing engineering programs have even begun to close, despite the high demand for the graduates of these programs. This paper will examine strategies that the University of Wisconsin-Stout has deployed to keep its manufacturing engineering program one of the largest and most vibrant in the face of these challenges.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Tkachenko


    Full Text Available Problem statement. Theory of fiber reinforcement of concrete materials calls for the construction of appropriate mathematical models. The article describes the mathematical basis for calculating the density of intersections of reinforcing fibers in cross section of fiber concrete element as well as average cross sectional area of fibers.Results and conclusions. The problems of geometric probability are taken as the basis for con-struction of the model of reinforcing fiber distribution in concrete. The function of density of rein-forcing fiber distribution and formula for determining reinforcing fiber concentration in concrete are obtained. The functions and formulas obtained are valid for different geometrical characteris-tics of reinforcing fibers.The results obtained are presented in such form for the first time. At present, work on mathemati-cal planning of the experiment which will enable us to check the correctness of obtained theoreti-cal conclusions is underway.

  19. Status of fiber lasers study of on ytterbium doped fiber laser and laser spectroscopy of doped fibers; Etat de l`art des lasers a fibre, etude d`un laser a fibre dopee ytterbium et spectroscopie laser de fibres dopees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, S.


    This work shows all the advantages and drawbacks of the rare-earth-doped fiber lasers and fiber optical amplifiers, pointing out their potential use for instrumentation and optical fiber sensor technology. The theory of light propagation in optical fibers is presented in order to understand the manufacturing methods. A comparative study of preform surface and concentration analysis is performed. The gain behaviour is also thoroughly examined. A synthesis of all technological parameters of the fiber laser is then established and all technologies of the constituting integrated components are reviewed and compared. The experimental techniques mainly involve: site selective excitation tunability, cooperative luminescence, oxidation state changes induced by gamma irradiation, ytterbium-doped mono-mode continuous wave tunable three-level fiber laser. (TEC). 622 refs., 176 figs.

  20. Robust fiber optic sensors for process monitoring and control applications (United States)

    Marcus, Michael A.


    In the past decade a broad range of sensing applications have been reported utilizing optical-fiber-based sensors. These applications range from the measurement of a variety of physical parameters to the quantitative determination of chemical and biochemical species. The acceptance of many of these sensors by the process monitoring and control industry has not met manufacturer's expectations. This paper describes the special requirements and concerns which must be addressed in implementing fiber-optic sensors in process environments. Topics include sensor specificity and interferences, environmental constraints, long term stability, sensor calibration methods, sensing mechanisms, sensor system design for self-calibration, and performance characterization in process environments. Special requirements for single point and distributed fiber-optic sensing applications including temperature, pressure, strain, humidity, and chemical concentration are described. Methods are discussed for designing robust fiber-optic sensors which remain calibrated for extended periods of time. Also included is a discussion of self calibration methods for use in reflective mode intensity, analyte and distributed based fiber-optic sensors.