WorldWideScience
1

Development Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Kapok Fiber Absorbent Using Irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hydrophobic characteristic of kapok fibers was changed to hydrophilic property after NaClO2, treatments which is able to break all phenolic units especially lignin. After NaClO2 treatment, NaIO4, applied to kapok fibers for opening hexagonal polysaccharide structure, this step led to produce carbonyl groups(>C=O) on kapok fibers. In the final step, NaClO2, treatments were performed again to provide carboxyl groups(-COOH) on kapok fibers. In addition, kapok fibers after all chemical treatments were retained hollow structure which was observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Kapok fibers which were obtained after chemical treatments would be a good heavy metal absorbent when these fibers applied less than in 10 mg/L standard solution. Moreover, these fibers were not detached heavy metals even added physical forces and used kapok fibers are able to reuse after detached heavy metals under pH 2-3. The degree of grafting increased as the irradiation dose increased, and are in the range 32% to 250% when the concentration of glycidyl methacrylate monomer was 50 vol. %. Based on this result, various functional groups are possible to be attached on kapok fibers used by radiation grafting technique.

Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Nho, Young Chang; Kang, Phil Hyun; Baek, Myung Hwa

2006-01-15

2

Superhydrophobicity determines the buoyancy performance of kapok fiber aggregates  

Science.gov (United States)

Superhydrophobicity is commonly regarded as a surface property that has important consequences for self-cleaning applications. Here we show interestingly that the superhydrophobicity is closely connected to the bulk buoyancy performance of kapok fiber aggregates, a natural material endowed with superhydrophobicity and extraordinary high porosity. First of all, we have determined the superhydrophobicity of a single kapok fiber, which can be ascribed to its micro-nano-binary structure (MNBS) and the thin hydrophobic paraffinic wax layer covered on the surface. Second, based on classic capillary and wicking theory, the buoyancy performance of the kapok fiber aggregates can be modeled and we demonstrate that their buoyancy performance is actually determined by the superhydrophobicity of individual kapok fibers. Our results also suggest an optimized density ˜0.015 g cm-3 for using kapok fiber aggregates as the lightest natural buoyancy.

Zhang, Xiaoyan; Fu, Wangyang; Duan, Chunting; Xiao, Hong; Shi, Meiwu; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian

2013-02-01

3

Coated kapok fiber for removal of spilled oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A low-cost and biodegradable oil absorbent based on kapok fiber was prepared. ? The polymer-coated kapok fiber showed higher oil sorption capacity. ? Coated kapok fiber can be reused and the absorbed oil can be easily recovered. ? Adsorption of oil is spontaneous and exothermic physisorption and chemisorption. -- Abstract: Based on raw kapok fiber, two kinds of oil absorbers with high sorption capacity were prepared by a facile solution–immersion process. The coated polymer with low surface energy and rough fiber surface play important role in the retention of oil. The as-prepared fiber can quickly absorb gasoline, diesel, soybean oil, and paraffin oil up to above 74.5%, 66.8%, 64.4% and 47.8% of oil sorption capacity of raw fiber, respectively. The absorbed oils can be easily recovered by a simple vacuum filtration and the recovered coated-fiber still can be used for several cycles without obvious loss in oil sorption capacity. The thermodynamic study indicates that the adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic, with complex physisorption and chemisorption. The results suggest that the coated fiber can be used as a low-cost alternative for the removal of oil spilled on water surface

4

Effect of jute and kapok fibers on properties of thermoplastic cassava starch composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? TPCS matrix was reinforced by the low (jute) and high (kapok) absorbency cellulosic fibers. ? Water absorption of the TPCS/jute and TPCS/kapok fiber composites decreases. ? Stress and Young’s modulus of the TPCS/jute and TPCS/kapok fiber composites increase. ? Thermal degradation temperature of the TPCS/kapok fiber composite decreases. - Abstract: Since mechanical properties and water uptake of biodegradable thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS) was still the main disadvantages for many applications. The TPCS matrix was, therefore, reinforced by two types of cellulosic fibers, i.e. jute or kapok fibers; classified as the low and high oil absorbency characteristics, respectively. The TPCS, plasticized by glycerol, was compounded by internal mixer and shaped by compression molding machine. It was found that water absorption of the TPCS/jute fiber and TPCS/kapok fiber composites was clearly reduced by the addition of the cellulosic fibers. Moreover, stress at maximum load and Young’s modulus of the composites increased significantly by the incorporation of both jute and kapok fibers. Thermal degradation temperature, determined from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), of the TPCS matrix increased by the addition of jute fibers; however, thermal degradation temperature decreased by the addition of kapok fibers. Functional group analysis and morphology of the TPCS/jute fiber and TPCS/kapok fiber composites were also examined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques

5

Study of oil sorption behavior of filled and structured fiber assemblies made from polypropylene, kapok and milkweed fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on oil sorption behavior of fiber assemblies made up of single natural and synthetic fibers as well as blend of natural and synthetic fibers when tested with high density oil and diesel oil. A series of filled fiber assemblies were prepared from 100% polypropylene, kapok, and milkweed fibers and another series of bonded structured fiber assemblies were prepared from a 70/30 blend of kapok and polypropylene fibers and a 70/30 blend of milkweed and polypropylene fibers. It was observed that the porosity of the fiber assemblies played a very important role in determining its oil sorption capacity. The polypropylene fiber assembly exhibited the highest sorption capacity (g/g) followed by the kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies at porosity milkweed fibers have intra fiber porosities of 0.81 and 0.83, respectively. All the fiber assemblies showed higher oil sorption capacity with the high density oil as compared to the diesel oil. As the kapok and milkweed fiber have low cellulose content, hence their slow degradation is an advantage in fresh and marine water applications. The good sorption capacity of kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies along with their bio-degradable nature offer great scope for structuring them into fiber assemblies with large porosity and uniform pores to have efficient oil sorbents. PMID:21146290

Rengasamy, R S; Das, Dipayan; Karan, C Praba

2011-02-15

6

Synthesis and Characterization of Kapok Fibers and its Composites  

OpenAIRE

Most of the developing countries are very rich in agricultural and natural fiber. Natural fibers are lignocellulosic in nature. These composites are gaining importance due to their non-carcinogenic and biodegradable in nature. The natural fiber reinforced composite are dominated over the conventional composites because of the main advantage of low cost. Polymeric materials reinforced with natural fibers provide advantages of high stiffness and strength to weight ratio as compared to conventio...

Dillip Kumar Bisoyi; John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan.; Ganesh Kumar Mani

2012-01-01

7

Sorption kinetics and mechanism of various oils into kapok assembly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sorption rates of kapok fibers on different oils, such as diesel, cooking oil, used motor oil, and motor oil, were quantitatively evaluated by using a wicking method. Kapok fibers absorbing different oils exhibited large differences in terms sorption coefficients. Microscopic observations of oil wetting on a single kapok showed that the four oils had varying wettability and adhesiveness to kapok, but that all of them penetrated into kapok lumens quickly because of the fiber's low surface energy, which was 40.64mN/m, and extreme hydrophobicity, with a water contact angle up to 151°. After treatment with chloroform, there were slight changes in oil absorbencies to kapok, but the sorption coefficients for the four oils increased markedly. SEM demonstrated that chloroform treatments caused the smooth surface of the kapok fibers to become highly roughened, with densely vertical grooves that provided more available surface and a larger driving force for oil sorption through the fiber assembly. PMID:25528222

Dong, Ting; Wang, Fumei; Xu, Guangbiao

2015-02-15

8

Manufactured Textile Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

The first conversion of naturally occurring fibers into threads strong enough to be looped into snares, knit to form nets, or woven into fabrics is lost in prehistory. Unlike stone weapons, such threads, cords, and fabrics—being organic in nature—have in most part disappeared, although in some dry caves traces remain. There is ample evidence to indicate that spindles used to assist in the twisting of fibers together had been developed long before the dawn of recorded history. In that spinning process, fibers such as wool were drawn out of a loose mass, perhaps held in a distaff, and made parallel by human fingers. (A maidservant so spins in Giotto's The Annunciation to Anne, ca. A.D. 1306, Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy.1) A rod (spindle), hooked to the lengthening thread, was rotated so that the fibers while so held were twisted together to form additional thread. The finished length then was wound by hand around the spindle, which, in becoming the core on which the finished product was accumulated, served the dual role of twisting and storing, and, in so doing, established a principle still in use today.

Gupta, Bhupender S.

9

Evaluation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.) as a natural hollow hydrophobic-oleophilic fibrous sorbent for oil spill cleanup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil sorption capacity and hydrophobic-oleophilic characteristics of an agricultural product, kapok (Ceiba pentandra), was thoroughly examined. The kapok fiber has a hollow structure with large lumen. Its performance was compared with that of a polypropylene (PP), a widely used commercial oil sorbent for oil spill cleanup. The oils investigated were diesel, hydraulic oil (AWS46), and engine oil (HD40). Reusability of the kapok after application to various oils was also evaluated. Both loose (at its natural state) and densely packed kapok assemblies were examined. Sorption capacities of the packed kapok assemblies were very much dependent on their packing densities. At 0.02gcm(-3), its oil sorption capacities were 36, 43 and 45gg(-1) for diesel, ASW46 and HD40, respectively. The values decreased to 7.9, 8.1 and 8.6gg(-1) at 0.09gcm(-3). Its sorption capacities for the three oils were significantly higher than those of PP. When the oil-saturated kapok assemblies were allowed to drain, they exhibited high oil retention ability, with less than 8% of the absorbed diesel and HD40, and 12% of the absorbed AWS46 lost even after 1h of dripping. When applied on oil-over-water baths, the kapok exhibited high selectivity for the oils over the water; almost all oils spilled could be removed with the kapok, leaving an invisible oil slick on water. After the 4th cycle of reuse, the reused kapok assembly only lost 30% of its virgin sorption capacity if packed at 0.02gcm(-3), and the loss in sorption capacity was much less at higher packing densities. The hydrophobic-oleophilic characteristics of the kapok fiber could be attributed to its waxy surface, while its large lumen contributed to its excellent oil absorbency and retention capacity. PMID:16839589

Lim, Teik-Thye; Huang, Xiaofeng

2007-01-01

10

Characterization of Local Insulators: Sawdust and Wool of Kapok  

OpenAIRE

The insulation has an important role in the thermal and acoustic applications in particular in theproduction of cold. Also within the framework of this study, we studied the sawdust and wool of kapok in orderto determine insulator best adapted to the manufacture of the cold rooms or the isothermal vats. The syntheticinsulators (polyurethane, polystyrene, glass wool or rock) are very effective, but their use especially burdensthe price with the systems carried out until now in the countries of...

Voumbo, M. L.

2010-01-01

11

Carbon fiber manufacturing via plasma technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The disclosed invention introduces a novel method of manufacturing carbon and/or graphite fibers that avoids the high costs associated with conventional carbonization processes. The method of the present invention avoids these costs by utilizing plasma technology in connection with electromagnetic radiation to produce carbon and/or graphite fibers from fully or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors. In general, the stabilized or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors are placed under slight tension, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, and carbonized using a plasma and electromagnetic radiation having a power input which is increased as the fibers become more carbonized and progress towards a final carbon or graphite product. In an additional step, the final carbon or graphite product may be surface treated with an oxygen-plasma treatment to enhance adhesion to matrix materials.

Paulauskas, Felix L. (Knoxville, TN); Yarborough, Kenneth D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

12

Effects of the Composition and the Preparation Methods on Oil Sorption Capacity of Recycled Rayon Waste-Kapok Mixtures (RRWK) Sorbent  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to investigate the utilization of a recycled rayon waste-kapok mixtures as an oil sorbent for the removal of diesel, motor oil and bunker C. The effects of the kapok fibers: rayon fibers ratio and the additional of sodium sulfate on RRWK sorbents properties were investigated through series of oil sorption tests. The ASTM 726-06 method was used to determine the oil sorption capacity of the sorbents under both static and dynamic conditions. The results showed the high ...

Sutha Khaodhiar; Supawan Tantayanon; Darathip Pejprom; Chaowalit Senanurakwarkul; Panadda Khongsricharoen

2013-01-01

13

Effects of the Composition and the Preparation Methods on Oil Sorption Capacity of Recycled Rayon Waste-Kapok Mixtures (RRWK Sorbent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the utilization of a recycled rayon waste-kapok mixtures as an oil sorbent for the removal of diesel, motor oil and bunker C. The effects of the kapok fibers: rayon fibers ratio and the additional of sodium sulfate on RRWK sorbents properties were investigated through series of oil sorption tests. The ASTM 726-06 method was used to determine the oil sorption capacity of the sorbents under both static and dynamic conditions. The results showed the high sorption capacity of the recycled rayon waste-kapok mixture for difference kinds of oil. Oil, which has a high viscosity, tends to have a higher oil sorption ratio. RRWK sorbents had higher oil sorption capacity than commercial polypropylene. The presence of kapok fibers in RRWK increases the hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of the sorbents while the presence of rayon fibers improves the strength of the sorbents. The additional of sodium sulfate during sorbent preparation increases the surface area and pore size of RRWK sorbent and thus improves the oil sorption capacity. It can be concluded that RRWK, which can be produced by utilizing industrial waste, is effective low cost, environmentally friendly oil sorbent with comparable performance to commercial products.

Sutha Khaodhiar

2013-06-01

14

16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for fibers falling within this category. (3) A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a polychloroprene or a copolymer of chloroprene in which at least 35 percent by weight of the fiber-forming substance is...

2010-01-01

15

Fiber-reinforced composites materials, manufacturing, and design  

CERN Document Server

The newly expanded and revised edition of Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design presents the most up-to-date resource available on state-of-the-art composite materials. This book is unique in that it not only offers a current analysis of mechanics and properties, but also examines the latest advances in test methods, applications, manufacturing processes, and design aspects involving composites. This third edition presents thorough coverage of newly developed materials including nanocomposites. It also adds more emphasis on underlying theories, practical methods, and problem-solving skills employed in real-world applications of composite materials. Each chapter contains new examples drawn from diverse applications and additional problems to reinforce the practical relevance of key concepts. New in The Third Edition: Contains new sections on material substitution, cost analysis, nano- and natural fibers, fiber architecture, and carbon-carbon composites Provides a new chapter on poly...

Mallick, P K

2007-01-01

16

New Manufacturing Method for Paper filler and Fiber Material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study compares commercial available filler products with a new developed â??Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Materialâ? and how main structural, optical and strength properties are affected by increasing the filler content of at least 5% over commercial values. The study consists of: (i) an overview of paper filler materials used in the paper production process, (ii) discusses the manufacturing technology of lime based filler materials for paper applications, (iii) gives an overview of new emerging paper filler technologies, (iv) discusses a filler evaluation of commercial available digital printing paper products, (v) reports from a detailed handsheet study and 12â? pilot plant paper machine trial runs with the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material, and (vi) evaluates and compares commercial filler products and the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material with a life cycle analyses that explains manufacturing, economic and environmental benefits as they are applied to uncoated digital printing papers.

Doelle, Klaus

2011-11-22

17

Effect of epoxy coatings on carbon fibers during manufacture of carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The changes in oxygen and nitrogen during manufacture of the carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composites were measured using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. The effects of the change in oxygen and nitrogen on the strength of the carbon fibers were investigated and the results revealed that the change of the tensile strength with increasing heat curing temperature was attributed to the change in the surface flaws of the carbon fibers because the carbon fibers are sensitive to the surface flaws. The effect of the surface energy that was calculated using Kaelble's method on the strength of the carbon fibers was investigated. Furthermore, the surface roughness of the carbon fibers was measured using atom force microscopy. The change trend of roughness was reverse to that of the strength, which was because of the brittle fracture of the carbon fibers.

18

EB manufacturing of polymer-fiber composite vehicle structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment of curable monomeric and polymeric systems by energetic electrons offers a high speed, low-temperature, continuous method for the large scale manufacture of vehicle structures. Based on modern EB sources, the process is proven to be extremely reliable, rugged, and easily integrated into continuous production schemes. Unlike other radiation curing techniques, the EB process uses no radioactive materials and neither the processing area, or product become radioactive. This paper describes on-going work to develop and commercialize an EB process for the manufacture of thick (e.g., 5 cm) polymer-fiber composite structures

19

Short fiber-reinforced cementitious composites manufactured by extrusion technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of short fibers in the cement-based composites is more preferable due to the simplicity and economic nature in fabrication. The short fiber-reinforced cementitious composite (SFRCC) manufactured by the extrusion method show a great improvement in both strength and toughness as compared to the fiber-reinforced composites made by traditional casting methods. This improvement can be attributed to the achievement of low porosity and good interfacial bond in SFRCC under high shear and compressive stress during the extrusion process. In the present study, products of cylinders, sheets, pipes and honeycomb panels incorporating various mineral admixtures such as slag, silica fume, and metakaolin have been manufactured by the extrusion technology. Two kinds of short fibers, ductile polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers and stronger but less ductile glass fibers, were used as the reinforcement in the products. After the specimens were extruded, tension, bending and impact tests were performed to study the mechanical properties of these products. The rheology test was performed for each mix to determine its viscoelastic properties. In addition, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) technology were employed to get an insight view of the mechanism. A freezing and thawing experiment (ASTM C666) was also carried to investigate the durability of the specimens. Based on these experimental results, the reinforcing behaviors of these two short fibers were investigated. The enhancing effects of silica fume and metakaolin on the extrudates were compared and discussed. Finally, the optimum amount of silica fume and slag was proposed. Since the key point for a successful extrusion is the properly designed rheology which controls both internal and external flow properties of extrudate, a nonlinear viscoelastic model was applied to investigate the rheological behavior of a movable fresh cementitious composite in an extruder channel. The velocity profile of the fresh cementitious composite and the relationship between pressure gradients and flow volume rates were obtained by the finite difference method. The hardened short fiber-reinforced extrudates were then studied by a micromechanics model based on the energy dissipation approach. The overall tension behaviors were predicted and the strain hardening response was discussed.

Mu, Bin

20

16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...fiber-forming substance is a long-chain synthetic polyamide in which less than 85...to two aromatic rings. (j) Rubber. A manufactured fiber in which...substance is comprised of natural or synthetic rubber, including the following...

2010-01-01

21

Influence of Fiber Manufacturing Tolerances on the Spectral Response of a Bend Loss Based All-fiber Edge Filter  

OpenAIRE

It is shown that manufacturing tolerances of the fiber parameters bend radius and NA significantly influence the fiber bend loss performance and spectral response of a fiber-based edge filter. A theoretical model, validated by experimental results, is used to determine the changes in key spectral parameters for an edge filter, resulting from changes within their manufacturing tolerance range, for both the bend radius and NA. Finally is shown that bend-radius tuning during fabrication of such ...

Wang, Pengfei; Farrell, Gerald; Semenova, Yuliya; Rajan, Ginu

2008-01-01

22

Manufacturing of robust natural fiber preforms utilizing bacterial cellulose as binder.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel method of manufacturing rigid and robust natural fiber preforms is presented here. This method is based on a papermaking process, whereby loose and short sisal fibers are dispersed into a water suspension containing bacterial cellulose. The fiber and nanocellulose suspension is then filtered (using vacuum or gravity) and the wet filter cake pressed to squeeze out any excess water, followed by a drying step. This will result in the hornification of the bacterial cellulose network, holding the loose natural fibers together. Our method is specially suited for the manufacturing of rigid and robust preforms of hydrophilic fibers. The porous and hydrophilic nature of such fibers results in significant water uptake, drawing in the bacterial cellulose dispersed in the suspension. The bacterial cellulose will then be filtered against the surface of these fibers, forming a bacterial cellulose coating. When the loose fiber-bacterial cellulose suspension is filtered and dried, the adjacent bacterial cellulose forms a network and hornified to hold the otherwise loose fibers together. The introduction of bacterial cellulose into the preform resulted in a significant increase of the mechanical properties of the fiber preforms. This can be attributed to the high stiffness and strength of the bacterial cellulose network. With this preform, renewable high performance hierarchical composites can also be manufactured by using conventional composite production methods, such as resin film infusion (RFI) or resin transfer molding (RTM). Here, we also describe the manufacturing of renewable hierarchical composites using double bag vacuum assisted resin infusion. PMID:24893649

Lee, Koon-Yang; Shamsuddin, Siti Rosminah; Fortea-Verdejo, Marta; Bismarck, Alexander

2014-01-01

23

Experimental investigation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil biodiesel as an alternate fuel for diesel engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Kapok (C. pentandra) oil, an indigenous source, has been used to synthesis biodiesel. • A different method has been availed to extract oil from the kapok seeds. • Kapok methyl ester (KME) is tested for the first time in a diesel engine. • Brake thermal efficiency for B25 blend of KME is noticed to be 4% higher than diesel. • Combustion and emission results for B25 blend of KME are almost comparable to diesel. - Abstract: This manuscript explores the possibility of using kapok oil as a source for biodiesel production and experimentally investigate it, KME (kapok oil methyl ester), as a diesel engine fuel. Distinctly, this manuscript is novel on the basis of adopting a different approach in extracting oil from kapok seeds and testing of the produced KME in a diesel engine, perhaps for the first time. Accordingly, kapok oil, an indigenous source, has been extracted from kapok seeds through steam treatment process followed by crushing in an expeller, which has not been considered so far by researchers. Significantly, this method is chosen with the intent to extract oil for its use in diesel engine. Typically, KME is synthesized by trans-esterification process, and the properties of it, evaluated by ASTM standard methods, are in concordance with biodiesel standards. Having ensured the feasibility of its use in diesel engine, KME is tested in a single cylinder diesel engine to appraise the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the engine. The experimental investigation reveals that the thermal efficiency of the engine for B25 is superior to conventional diesel by 4%. In the same token, the emission and combustion results of lower blend of KME (B25), showed comparable results with diesel, making KME as one of the pertinent fuel for diesel engine

24

Manufacturing Of Robust Natural Fiber Preforms Utilizing Bacterial Cellulose as Binder  

OpenAIRE

A novel method of manufacturing rigid and robust natural fiber preforms is presented here. This method is based on a papermaking process, whereby loose and short sisal fibers are dispersed into a water suspension containing bacterial cellulose. The fiber and nanocellulose suspension is then filtered (using vacuum or gravity) and the wet filter cake pressed to squeeze out any excess water, followed by a drying step. This will result in the hornification of the bacterial cellulose network, hold...

Lee, Koon-yang; Shamsuddin, Siti Rosminah; Fortea-verdejo, Marta; Bismarck, Alexander

2014-01-01

25

Fiber reinforced composite material and method of manufacturing the same  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mother material resin is impregnated to a base material comprising an assembly of continuous fibers, and then the mother material resin is cured. The mother material resin contains a main agent comprising diglycidylether of bisphenol A alone or together with tetrafunctional-type epoxy resin. The mother resin further contains a curing agent comprising diaminodiphenylmethane alone or a mixture thereof with methaphenylene diamine, and a reactive diluent for an epoxy resin. The continuous fibers are preferably comprise glass fibers, carbon fibers or aromatic polyamidetype fibers. As the tetrafunctional-type epoxy resin, tetraglycidylamino-diphenyl methane is preferable. As the reactive diluent for epoxy resin, a styrene oxide, glycidylmethacrylate or the like is preferable. Thus, a composite material capable of keeping high strength at a circumstance to be exposed to radiation rays can be obtained. (I.N.)

26

Manufacture of a 2D optical fiber array coupler with micrometer precision for laser radar applications  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the manufacture of a 2D-fiber array coupler using UV-LIGA technology for the precise positioning of a two-dimensional (2D) optical fiber array. The precision of the alignment of the eight-by-eight fiber array was demonstrated to be less than 2??m. The average concentricity error of the fibers to the positioning holes of the array coupler had a minimum and maximum error of 1.7?µm and 6.5??m, respectively. The 2D fiber array coupler can fulfill the coupling and transmission requirements of 2D light spots for laser radar applications. The method developed here can easily be extended to the manufacture of larger arrays.

Chen, H.; Yu, W.; Wang, T.; Li, H.; Shen, H.; Li, H.; Yao, Y.; Y Desmulliez, M. P.

2015-01-01

27

Chemical characterization of fibers from herbaceous plants commonly used for manufacturing of high quality paper pulps  

OpenAIRE

The present work aims at the chemical characterization of several non-woody fibers from herbaceous plants used for manufacturing high quality paper pulps, with especial emphasis in the composition of lignin and lipophilic compounds. Among the fibers studied are bast fibers from flax, hemp, kenaf and jute and leaf fibers from abaca and sisal. Flax and hemp showed the lowest lignin content (< 5%). However, they present a very low lignin S/G ratio (0.3 and 0.6, respectively) that makes them diff...

Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del; Rodri?guez, Isabel Mari?a; Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana

2006-01-01

28

77 FR 73978 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN, Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...TTA), located in Rockwood, Tennessee, with authority to manufacture carbon fiber for export and oxidized polyacrylonitrile fiber (Board Order 1868, 77 FR 69435, 11/19/2012). Board Order 1868 did not include authority to...

2012-12-12

29

Production Performance of Brahman Cross Steer Feed with Concentrate Containing Kapok Seed Meal  

OpenAIRE

The research was conducted to investigate the weight gain and meat physical quality of Brahman cross steer (BX) fed with concentrate containing kapok seed meal (Ceiba pentandra). The research used 12 heads of two years age Brahman cross steer with body weight of 324 ± 11.29 kg. the steer were kept in individual barn and offered with concentrate containing three level of kapok seed meal. i.e: R1 (10%), R2 (20%) and R3 (30%). A completely randomized design with four replications was employed. ...

Soeprapto, H.

2005-01-01

30

Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex  

Science.gov (United States)

Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.

1993-02-01

31

Presence of Tungsten-Containing Fibers in Tungsten Refining and Manufacturing Processes  

OpenAIRE

In tungsten refining and manufacturing processes, a series of tungsten oxides are typically formed as intermediates in the production of tungsten powder. The present study was conducted to characterize airborne tungsten-containing fiber dimensions, elemental composition and concentrations in the US tungsten refining and manufacturing industry. During the course of normal employee work activities, seven personal breathing zone and 62 area air samples were collected and analyzed using National ...

Mckernan, John L.; Toraason, Mark A.; Fernback, Joseph E.; Petersen, Martin R.

2009-01-01

32

Size Classification of Chopped Carbon Fibers in the Composite Materials Manufacturing  

OpenAIRE

Information synthesis of the learning decision support system for automation of the chopped carbon fibers size control used for the matrix filling within the manufacturing of composite materials based on polytetrafluoroethylene is considered. To improve the reliability of recognition learning algorithm with the optimization of the precision control is proposed.

Dovbysh, ?. S.; Budnik, ?. F.; Andriienko, N. ?.

2010-01-01

33

Size Classification of Chopped Carbon Fibers in the Composite Materials Manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information synthesis of the learning decision support system for automation of the chopped carbon fibers size control used for the matrix filling within the manufacturing of composite materials based on polytetrafluoroethylene is considered. To improve the reliability of recognition learning algorithm with the optimization of the precision control is proposed.

?.S. Dovbysh

2010-01-01

34

Design and Manufacturing of Tow-Steered Composite Shells Using Fiber Placement  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced composite shells that may offer the potential to improve the structural performance of future aircraft fuselage structures were developed under this joint NASA-industry collaborative effort. Two cylindrical shells with tailored, tow-steered layups and continuously varying fiber angle orientations were designed and built at the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing - Louisiana Partnership. The shells were fabricated from unidirectional IM7/8552 graphite-epoxy pre-preg slit tape material fiber-placed on a constant-diameter mandrel. Each shell had the same nominal 8-ply [plus or minus 45/plus or minus Theta]s layup, where the nominal fiber angle in the tow-steered plies varied continuously from 10 degrees along the crown to 45 degrees on each side, then back to 10 degrees on the keel. One shell was fabricated with all 24 tows placed during each pass of the fiber placement machine, resulting in many tow overlaps on the shell surface. The fiber placement machine's individual tow cut/restart capability was also used to manufacture a second shell with tow drops and a more uniform laminate thickness. This paper presents an overview of the detailed design and manufacturing processes for these shells, and discusses issues encountered during their fabrication and post-cure evaluation. Future plans for structural testing and analyses of the shells are also discussed.

Wu, K. Chauncey; Tatting, Brian F.; Smith, Brett H.; Stevens, Randy S.; Occhipiniti, Gina P.; Swift, Jonathan B.; Achary, David C.; Thornburgh, Robert P.

2009-01-01

35

Studies on radiation resistance of fiber reinforced plastic composites featured by easiness of manufacturing, 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Degradation behavior of fiber reinforced plastic(FRP) composite materials manufactured by conventional lamination technology was studied by measuring various mechanical properties after irradiation and observing fracture surfaces by scanning electron microscopy. When bisphenol-A type epoxy was used as matrix material, the laminated composites degraded rapidly. This fact was ascribed to poor radiation resistance of the matrix resin. The radiation resistance varied depending on types of hardeners. Diaminodiphenylmethane(DDM) gave radiation resistance higher than diaminodiphenylsulfone(DDS). The dose that produced an incipient decrease in mechanical properties(threshold dose) was larger in case of carbon fiber reinforcement than glass fiber reinforcement. For example, the threshold dose was about 10 MGy in case of glass fiber reinforcement with epoxy matrix hardened by DDS, and about 30 MGy when hardened by DDM. While, it increased to about 60 MGy with the latter matrix when carbon fiber is used. From the results of scanning electron microscopic observation of fractured surfaces, the superior radiation resistance in case of carbon fiber reinforcement was found due to its stable bonding interface between fiber and matrix. When BT(bismaleimide-triazine) resin was used as matrix for glass fiber reinforcement, little influence of irradiation was observed in various mechanical properties at least up to 60 MGy, and three point flexural strength showed no change even up to 100 MGy. This stability was ascribed to the stability of both the matrix resin and the bonding interface. Interlaminar shear strength reflects radiation effects on FRP with highest sensitivity among various mechanical properties tested in this work. (author)

36

Studies on radiation resistance of fiber reinforced plastic composites featured by easiness of manufacturing, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mechanical properties of glass fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRP) irradiated at room temperature with electron beams were studied in order to characterize the radiation resistance. Mechanical properties were tested by flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) at room and low temperature, and flexural fatigue strength at room temperature. The GFRP used in the present study were manufactured trial with three kinds of epoxy matrices having excellent radiation resistance at room temperature and easiness of manufacturing. These composites prepared in selected curing condition were equipped with high flexural strength at low temperature, about two times at room temperature. GFRP composed of 4,4'-tetraglycidyl diamino diphenyl methane cured with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane showed the highest radiation resistance: the strength after irradiation up to 90 MGy were kept the initial value, that is, flexural strength of 1000 MPa at 77 K and ILSS of 70 MPa at 123 K. It was also confirmed that the flexural strength measured at 4.2 K were well agreed with the values tested at 77 K. On the effects of fiber-matrix bonding materials by using different kinds and/or amount of silane coupling agents, the pronounced difference were found in the degradation behavior but did not affect to the flexural strength of the GFRP. Flexural fatigue behavior showed rather well radiation degradation comparing with three point bending strength at room temperature. (author)

37

Electrocoagulation pretreatment of wet-spun acrylic fibers manufacturing wastewater to improve its biodegradability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrocoagulation (EC) process was used to pretreat wastewater from the manufacture of wet-spun acrylic fibers, and the effects of varying the operating parameters, including the electrode area/wastewater volume (A/V) ratio, current density, interelectrode distance and pH, on the EC treatment process were investigated. About 44% of the total organic carbon was removed using the optimal conditions in a 100 min procedure. The optimal conditions were a current density of 35.7 mA cm(-2), an A/V ratio of 0.28 cm(-1), a pH of 5, and an interelectrode distance of 0.8 cm. The biodegradability of the contaminants in the treated water was improved by the EC treatment (using the optimal conditions), increasing the five-day biological oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratio to 0.35, which could improve the effectiveness of subsequent biological treatments. The improvement in the biodegradability of the contaminants in the wastewater was attributed to the removal and degradation of aromatic organic compounds, straight-chain paraffins, and other organic compounds, which we identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The EC process was proven to be an effective alternative pretreatment for wastewater from the manufacture of wet-spun acrylic fibers, prior to biological treatments. PMID:24813666

Gong, Chenhao; Zhang, Zhongguo; Li, Haitao; Li, Duo; Wu, Baichun; Sun, Yuwei; Cheng, Yanjun

2014-06-15

38

Manufacturing scale-up of electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers containing tenofovir for vaginal drug delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrospun fibers containing antiretroviral drugs have recently been investigated as a new dosage form for topical microbicides against HIV-1. However, little work has been done to evaluate the scalability of the fiber platform for pharmaceutical production of medical fabrics. Scalability and cost-effectiveness are essential criteria in developing fibers as a practical platform for use as a microbicide and for translation to clinical use. To address this critical gap in the development of fiber-based vaginal dosage forms, we assessed the scale-up potential of drug-eluting fibers delivering tenofovir (TFV), a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor and lead compound for topical HIV-1 chemoprophylaxis. Here we describe the process of free-surface electrospinning to scale up production of TFV fibers, and evaluate key attributes of the finished products such as fiber morphology, drug crystallinity, and drug loading and release kinetics. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing up to 60 wt% TFV was successfully electrospun into fibers using a nozzle-free production-scale electrospinning instrument. Actual TFV loading in fibers increased with increasing weight percent TFV in solution, and encapsulation efficiency was improved by maintaining TFV solubility and preventing drug sedimentation during batch processing. These results define important solution and processing parameters for scale-up production of TFV drug-eluting fibers by wire electrospinning, which may have significant implications for pharmaceutical manufacturing of fiber-based medical fabrics for clinical use. PMID:25169075

Krogstad, Emily A; Woodrow, Kim A

2014-11-20

39

Carcass Characteristics of Kacang Goats Fed Ration Containing MH-1 Variety of Kapok Seed Meal (Ceiba pentandra, GAERTN.)  

OpenAIRE

This research aimed to study the carcass characteristics of Kacang goats fed ration containing kapok seed meal (KSM) as a component of the concentrate. The experiment was conducted in two stages. The first stage was to find out the best variety of kapok that will be used in the second experiment; the second stage was to determine the benefits of KSM on carcass characteristics. Twenty-five, 8 months old Kacang goats with initial body weight of 11.71±1.08 kg, were used in this experiment. The ...

Hidjaz, T.; Djuarnani, N.

2014-01-01

40

Design optimization, manufacture and response measurements for fast-neutron radiography converters made of scintillator and wavelength-shifting fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to improve the image quality of fast neutron radiography, a converter made of scintillator and wavelength-shifting fibers has been developed. The appropriate parameters of the converter such as fibers arrangement, distance between fibers are optimized theoretically, and manufacture of the converter are also optimized. Fast neutron radiography experiments by 14 MeV neutrons are used to test this converter and kinds of traditional converters. The experiments' results matched the calculations. The novel converter's resolution is better than 1 mm and the light output is high.

Li, Hang; Wu, Yang; Cao, Chao; Huo, Heyong; Tang, Bin

2014-10-01

41

Neural network-based control for the fiber placement composite manufacturing process  

Science.gov (United States)

At McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), an artificial neural network-based control system has been developed and implemented to control laser heating for the fiber placement composite manufacturing process. This neurocontroller learns the inverse model of the process on-line to provide performance that improves with experience and exceeds that of conventional feedback control techniques. When untrained, the control system behaves as a proportional-integral (PI) controller. However, after learning from experience, the neural network feedforward control module provides control signals that greatly improve temperature tracking performance. Faster convergence to new temperature set points and reduced temperature deviation due to changing feed rate have been demonstrated on the machine. A cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) network is used for inverse modeling because of its rapid learning performance. This control system is implemented in an IBM-compatible 386 PC with an A/D board interface to the machine.

Lichtenwalner, P. F.

1993-10-01

42

Neural network-based control for the fiber placement composite manufacturing process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), an artificial neural network-based control system has been developed and implemented to control laser heating for the fiber placement composite manufacturing process. This neurocontroller learns the inverse model of the process on-line to provide performance that improves with experience and excess that of conventional feedback control techniques. When untrained, the control system behaves as a proportional-integral (PI) controller. However, after learning from experience, the neural network feedforward control module provides control signals that greatly improve temperature tracking performance. Faster convergence to new temperature set points and reduced temperature deviation due to changing feed rate have been demonstrated on the machine. A cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) network is used for inverse modeling because of its rapid learning performance. This control system is implemented in an IBM-compatible 386 PC with an A/D board interface to the machine.

Lichtenwalner, P.F. (Intelligent Systems Development, St. Louis, MO (United States). McDonnell Douglas Aerospace)

1993-10-01

43

Chemical composition and nutritive value of kapok seed meal for broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Mechanically extracted kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seed meal (KSM) contained 324 g crude protein, 97 g ether extract, 289 g fibre, 94 g ash, 128 g available carbohydrates, 3-8 g calcium, 11 g phosphorus, 10.4 g cyclopropenoid fatty acids and 15 g tannins per kg. 2. In a 4 x 2 factorial experiment, KSM was incorporated in broiler starter and finisher feeds at 0, 30, 60 and 90 g/kg, replacing sunflower meal (SFM) w/w; without and with multi-enzyme supplementation. 3. No significant differences were noticed between treatments in body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency, mortality or carcase yields. 4. Multi-enzyme (amylase, endoxylanase, hemicellulase, beta-glucanase, pectinase, phytase and protease) supplementation did not improve the growth performance of broilers fed on the KSM diets. PMID:12964636

Narahari, D; Asha Rajini, R

2003-07-01

44

Production Performance of Brahman Cross Steer Feed with Concentrate Containing Kapok Seed Meal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the weight gain and meat physical quality of Brahman cross steer (BX fed with concentrate containing kapok seed meal (Ceiba pentandra. The research used 12 heads of two years age Brahman cross steer with body weight of 324 ± 11.29 kg. the steer were kept in individual barn and offered with concentrate containing three level of kapok seed meal. i.e: R1 (10%, R2 (20% and R3 (30%. A completely randomized design with four replications was employed. Elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum was fed along with concentrate in 20 : 80% ratio. A total amount of feed given to the cattle was 2.5 % of the body weight on the basis of dry matter and offered twice a day in the morning and the afternoon. Water was given ad libitum. Result showed that there was no significant different on daily gain and meat physical quality. Daily gain of R1, R2 and R3 was 0.73 kg, 0.84 kg, and 0.75 kg of respectively. There was significant different in carcass percentage i.e. 52.57, 50.84, and 48.58 for R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Physical quality of meat consisting of colour, pH, water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL and tenderness indicated non significant effect. The pH value of observed muscle in Longisinus dorsi (LD, semitendinosus (ST, and bicep femoris (BF, was 5.80 (R1 5.87(R2 and 5.81 (R3, meat colour score was 5.48 (R1, 5.58 (R2 and 5.59 (R3, water holding capacity % was 36.40 (R1, 39.66 (R2 and 34,09 (R3, and cooking loss (5 was 46.62, 44.17 and 46.19 for R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Result of meat tenderness (g/mm/second was 57.84 (R1, 56.05 (R2 and 59.41 (R3. In relation to price, feed consumption, and daily gain indicated that feed cost per gain was Rp. 2.991.50 (R1, Rp. 2.638.50 (R2, Rp. 2.965.25 (R3, and income over feed cost was Rp. 818.25 (R1, Rp. 1.238.95 (R2, and Rp. 855.80 (R3 respectively. The result showed that the use of 20% of Kapok Seed meal in concentrate (R2, although there was no significant effect, gives the most efficient result. (Animal Production 7(3: 189-193 (2005 Key Words : Brahman Cross Steer, Body Weight, Meat Quality, Kapok Seed Meal.

H Soeprapto

2005-11-01

45

Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Availability of fossil fuels in the world decrease gradually due to excessive fuel exploitation. This situations push researcher to look for alternative fuels as a source of renewable energy, one of them is kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil. The aim this study was to know the behavior of laminar burning velocity, secondary Bunsen flame with open tip, cellular and triple flame. Premixed combustion of kapok seed oil was studied experimentally on perforated burner with equivalence ratio (? varied from 0.30 until 1.07. The results showed that combustion of glycerol requires a large amount of air so that laminar burning velocity (SL is the highest at very lean mixture (? =0.36 in the form of individual Bunsen flame on each of the perforated plate hole. Perforated and secondary Bunsen flame both reached maximum SL similar with that of ethanol and higher than that of hexadecane. Slight increase of ? decreases drastically SL of perforated and secondary Bunsen flame. When the mixture was enriched, secondary Bunsen and perforated flame disappears, and then the flame becomes Bunsen flame with open tip and triple flame (? = 0.62 to 1.07. Flame was getting stable until the mixture above the stoichiometry. Being isolated from ambient air, the SL of perforated flame, as well as secondary Bunsen flame, becomes equal with non-isolated flame. This shows the decreasing trend of laminar burning velocity while ? is increasing. When the mixture was enriched island (? = 0.44 to 0.48 and petal (? = 0.53 to 0.62 cellular flame take place. Flame becomes more unstable when the mixture was changed toward stoichiometry.

I.K.G. Wirawan

2014-07-01

46

Utilization of Non -oven Jute felt - A natural Fiber as a Substitution of Wood Veneer for Manufacture of Plywood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the suitability of using core veneer made from renewable natural fiber i.e. Non-oven jute felt, which is the second most widely used natural fiber for manufacturing of plywood was investigated to minimize the gap between demand and supply of wood veneer. The renewable natural hard jute fibre was impregnated with phenolic resin and was used for the manufacture of plywood. Plywood of 4 mm, 6 mm, 12 mm and 18 mm thick were manufactured by using phenolic resin impregnated jute felt having thickness 16mm of 1850 GSM (approx. as a core in place of the natural wood veneer. From the study, it can be inferred that PF Resin impregnated Non oven jute felt as a natural fibre can suitably replace the wooden glue core veneer to manufacture ply board up to 80% as an alternative substitute of wood. The physico-mechanical properties such as surface roughness, moisture content, density, water absorption, swelling, compressive strength, tensile strength, static bending strength, glue shear strength, of the plywood manufactured by using jute felt as core veneer with different resin dilution have been studied. Data revels that most of the physico-mechanical properties of the plywood showed satisfactory results meeting the requirement of different grades of plywood tested as per IS: 1734 - 1983. The accelerated study of the glued core after impregnation with jute felt have been carried out for three months before plywood manufacture after storing it in proper temperature and humidity. The data revealed that there is no appreciable change in bond quality and mechanical properties of the plyboard manufactured after storing the veneer up to 30 days. The study concluded that wood substituted jute composites could be an ideal solution with ever depleting forest reserves where utilization of renewable resources will be beneficiary for plywood industries to meet the challenges during scarcity of veneer by reducing the cost of imported veneer.

Mr. S.C.Sahoo

2012-04-01

47

Product stewardship and science: safe manufacture and use of fiber glass.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a proactive product stewardship program for glass fibers. That effort included epidemiological studies of workers, establishment of stringent workplace exposure limits, liaison with customers on safe use of products and, most importantly, a research program to evaluate the safety of existing glass fiber products and guide development of new even safer products. Chronic inhalation exposure bioassays were conducted with rodents and hamsters. Amosite and crocidolite asbestos produced respiratory tract cancers as did exposure to "biopersistent" synthetic vitreous fibers. "less biopersistent" glass fibers did not cause respiratory tract cancers. Corollary studies demonstrated the role of slow fiber dissolution rates and biopersistence in cancer induction. These results guided development of safer glass fiber products and have been used in Europe to regulate fibers and by IARC and NTP in classifying fibers. IARC concluded special purpose fibers and refractory ceramic fibers are "possibly carcinogenic to humans" and insulation glass wool, continuous glass filament, rock wool and slag wool are "not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to human." The NTP's 12th report on carcinogens lists "Certain Glass Wool Fibers (Inhalable)" as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." "Certain" in the descriptor refers to "biopersistent" glass fibers and excludes "less biopersistent" glass fibers. PMID:22266014

Hesterberg, Thomas W; Anderson, Robert; Bernstein, David M; Bunn, William B; Chase, Gerald A; Jankousky, Angela Libby; Marsh, Gary M; McClellan, Roger O

2012-03-01

48

Chemical composition of abaca (Musa textilis) leaf fibers used for manufacturing of high quality paper pulps  

OpenAIRE

The chemical composition of leaf fibers of abaca (Musa textilis), which are commonly used for high-quality paper pulp production, was thoroughly studied. The results revealed that the lignin content was 13.2 % of the total fiber. The analysis of abaca fibers by Pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) released predominantly compounds arising from lignin and p-hydroxycinnamic acids, with high amounts of 4-vinylphenol. The latter compound was demonstrated to arise fr...

Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del; Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana

2006-01-01

49

CNT reinforced epoxy foamed and electrospun nano-fiber interlayer systems for manufacturing lighter and stronger featherweight(TM) composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple works have been performed in improving carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites especially in terms of strength so delamination, which is the major defect in laminated composites, is prevented. Nevertheless, there is not much focus on improving conventional CFRP systems in terms of weight especially when these are used in primary structures. This work questions whether lighter and at the same time stronger CFRP composites can be manufactured in order to replace conventional CFRP systems in major applications. Under this perspective, this study demonstrates that inducing controlled porosity may offer a systemic approach for manufacturing light weight carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) matrix composites. Additionally, towards this scope, this work has focused on analyzing and describing the related matrix systems utilizing mostly classic viscoelastic theory. An in-depth characterization of the thermosetting matrix systems viscoelasticity kinetics as well as of the impregnation process towards its improvement in terms of lower cost is explored. Overall, this work makes an effort to establish the fundamentals for creating the next generation of light weight structural composites, the featherweight composites, by introducing porosity through several controlled reinforcements in a systemic and reproducible manner at the macro- micro- and nano- scales in the interlayer. By extensively describing the matrix system and the manufacturing processes and focusing on analytically testing the interlayer reinforcement systems, it is expected that featherweight CFRP will achieve lighter weight and at the same time higher mechanical properties.

Drakonakis, Vasileios M.

50

Cryogenic fiber optic temperature sensor and method of manufacturing the same  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention teaches the fiber optic sensors temperature sensors for cryogenic temperature range with improved sensitivity and resolution, and method of making said sensors. In more detail, the present invention is related to enhancement of temperature sensitivity of fiber optic temperature sensors at cryogenic temperatures by utilizing nanomaterials with a thermal expansion coefficient that is smaller than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber but larger in absolute value than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber at least over a range of temperatures.

Kochergin, Vladimir (Inventor)

2012-01-01

51

16 CFR 303.33 - Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Country where textile fiber products are processed or...IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.33 Country where textile fiber products are processed or...be labeled with the name of the country where such imported product was processed...

2010-01-01

52

Manufacture of a weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold with excellent biocompatibility and space maintenance ability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although collagen scaffolds have been used for regenerative medicine, they have insufficient mechanical strength. We made a weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold from a collagen fiber suspension (physiological pH 7.4) through a process of freeze drying and denaturation with heat under low pressure (1 × 10?1 Pa). Heat treatment formed cross-links between the collagen fibers, providing the scaffold with sufficient mechanical strength to maintain the space for tissue regeneration in vivo. The scaffold was embedded under the back skin of a rat, and biocompatibility and space maintenance ability were examined after 2 weeks. These were evaluated by using the ratio of foreign body giant cells and thickness of the residual scaffold. A weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold with moderate biocompatibility and space maintenance ability was made by freezing at ?10 °C, followed by denaturation at 140 °C for 6 h. In addition, the direction of the collagen fibers in the scaffold was adjusted by cooling the suspension only from the bottom of the container. This process increased the ratio of cells that infiltrated into the scaffold. A weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold thus made can be used for tissue regeneration or delivery of cells or proteins to a target site. (paper)

53

Chemical composition of abaca (Musa textilis) leaf fibers used for manufacturing of high quality paper pulps.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of leaf fibers of abaca (Musa textilis), which are commonly used for high-quality paper pulp production, was thoroughly studied. The results revealed that the lignin content was 13.2% of the total fiber. The analysis of abaca fibers by pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) released predominantly compounds arising from lignin and p-hydroxycinnamic acids, with high amounts of 4-vinylphenol. The latter compound was demonstrated to arise from p-coumaric acid by pyrolysis of abaca fibers in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which released high amounts of p-coumaric acid (as the methyl derivative). Products from p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) propanoid units, with a predominance of the latter (H:G:S molar ratio of 1.5:1:4.9), were also released after Py-GC/MS of abaca fibers. Sinapyl and coniferyl acetates, which are thought to be lignin monomer precursors, were also found in abaca. The extractives content of the abaca fiber (0.4%) was low, and the most predominant compounds were free sterols (24% of total extract) and fatty acids (24% of total extract). Additionally, significant amounts of steroid ketones (10%), triglycerides (6%), omega-hydroxyfatty acids (6%), monoglycerides (4%), fatty alcohols (4%), and a series of p-hydroxycinnamyl (p-coumaric and ferulic acids) esterified with long chain alcohols and omega-hydroxyfatty acids were also found, together with minor amounts of steroid hydrocarbons, diglycerides, alpha-hydroxyfatty acids, sterol esters, and sterol glycosides. PMID:16787004

del Río, José C; Gutiérrez, Ana

2006-06-28

54

Carbon fiber-reinforced carbon composite material and manufacturing method therefor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For a composite material useful as heat shielding tiles for use in first walls of a thermonuclear reactor, a prefoam is formed by a large square rods formed by orienting carbon fibers in the axial direction into a cylindrical shape and arranging them in a matrix in longitudinal and lateral directions of a plate toward the direction of the thickness each at a predetermined distance, and thin square rods stacked in lattice-like manner between the large square rods. The prefoam is impregnated with a thermosetting resin or a pitch and carbonated by heating in an inactive atmosphere. The orientation ratio of the fibers in the direction of the plate thickness and fiber content can be increased to maintain the linearity of the fibers. High thermal conductivity can be provided in the direction of the plate thickness to maintain high thermal conductivity even under a high temperature thereby preventing reduction of the wall thickness due to erosion. The weaving step is simplified and the fabrication time and cost can be reduced. (N.H.)

55

16 CFR 303.33 - Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured.  

Science.gov (United States)

...REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER...a kind or species of product. Variant spellings which clearly indicate the English name of...are acceptable. (f) Nothing in this rule shall be construed as limiting in...

2010-01-01

56

Optimization of catalyst-free production of biodiesel from Ceiba pentandra (kapok) oil with high free fatty acid contents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Catalyst-free biodiesel production from non-edible Ceiba pentandra (kapok) oil via supercritical methanol transesterification was demonstrated in this work. The supercritical transesterification experiments were performed in a batch reactor at temperatures of 250–350 °C, pressures of 10–18 MPa, reaction times of 120–600 s, and methanol to oil molar ratios of 15:1–35:1. Response surface methodology (RSM) and four-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were applied for the design and optimization of the experiments with respect to temperature, pressure, reaction time, and molar ratio of methanol to oil simultaneously. The response (i.e., FAME yield) was fitted by a quadratic polynomial regression model using least square analysis in a five-level-four-factor central composite design (CCD). The optimum conditions were found as follows: methanol to oil molar ratio of 30:1, temperature of 322 °C, pressure of 16.7 MPa, and reaction time of 476 s with FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) yield of 95.5%. The significance of the reaction parameters toward FAME yield was in the order of methanol to oil molar ratio > reaction time > pressure > temperature. - Highlights: • Transesterification of non-edible kapok oil into biodiesel via a non-catalytic route. • Methanol to oil molar ratio, temperature, pressure, and reaction time were optimized. • Experimental design in a five-level-four-factor central composite design. • Application of quadratic polynomial model for fitting the response (FAME yield)

57

Influence of manufacturing parameters and temperature on the radiation sensivity of fiber Bragg gratings  

OpenAIRE

For the first time the radiation sensitivity of Bragg gratings was investigated as a function of hydrogen loading pressure before and fiber tension during grating inscription, of the recoating procedure, and of the grating temperature. At -50°C the radiation-induced Bragg wavelength shift was about two times higher than at room temperature. This should be considered when selecting Bragg gratings e.g., for certain space applications.

Henschel, H.; Ho?ffgen, S.; Kuhnhenn, J.; Weinand, U.

2010-01-01

58

Oxidative Activation of Bagasse Fibers Surfaces in Medium Density Fiberboard Manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents the investigation of the effects of oxidant type (nitric acid and potassium dichromate, oxidant content (three different levels as 2, 4, and 6 percent and urea- formaldehyde (UF resin percentage (two levels as 5 and 7 percent on mechanical and physical properties of interior grade medium density fiberboard made from bagasse fibers. Some panel properties were studied, such as modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE in bending, compression-shear strength (C.S sth., water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS after 2- and 24-hour immersion in cold water. In addition, the results indicated the best values for WA and TS after 2- and 24-hour immersion, and C.S. sth. was discerned at 7 percent UF resin content, together with 6 percent nitric acid. Furthermore, the greatest values for MOR and MOE were related to 7 percent UF resin content together with 4 percent nitric acid.

Doosthoseini

2013-09-01

59

Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 4.1 Intelligent Manufacturing of Hybrid Carbon-Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EXECUTIVE SUMARY In this subtask, the manufacturability of hybrid carbon-glass fiber-reinforced composite wind turbine blades using Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) was investigated. The objective of this investigation was to study the VARTM process and its parameters to manufacture cost-effective wind turbine blades with no defects (mainly eliminate dry spots and reduce manufacturing time). A 2.5-dimensional model and a 3-dimensional model were developed to simulate mold filling and part curing under different conditions. These conditions included isothermal and non-isothermal filling, curing of the part during and after filling, and placement of injection gates at different locations. Results from this investigation reveal that the process can be simulated and also that manufacturing parameters can be optimized to eliminate dry spot formation and reduce the manufacturing time. Using computer-based models is a cost-effective way to simulate manufacturing of wind turbine blades. The approach taken herein allows the design of the wind blade manufacturing processes without physically running trial-and-error experiments that are expensive and time-consuming; especially for larger blades needed for more demanding environmental conditions. This will benefit the wind energy industry by reducing initial design and manufacturing costs which can later be passed down to consumers and consequently make the wind energy industry more competitive.

Janet M Twomey, PhD

2010-04-30

60

Carcass Characteristics of Kacang Goats Fed Ration Containing MH-1 Variety of Kapok Seed Meal (Ceiba pentandra, GAERTN.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aimed to study the carcass characteristics of Kacang goats fed ration containing kapok seed meal (KSM as a component of the concentrate. The experiment was conducted in two stages. The first stage was to find out the best variety of kapok that will be used in the second experiment; the second stage was to determine the benefits of KSM on carcass characteristics. Twenty-five, 8 months old Kacang goats with initial body weight of 11.71±1.08 kg, were used in this experiment. The animals were housed individually based on completely randomized design (CRD with 5 treatments and 5 replications. The rations were based on forage:concentrate ratio of 50:50 dry matter basis. The ration contained concentrates, with increasing levels of KSM, i.e.: R0 (napier grass + concentrate: rice bran, coconut cake, corn, urea + 0% KSM; R5 (R0 + KSM 5%; R10 (R0 + KSM 10%; R15 (R0 + KSM 15%; and R20 (R0 + KSM 20%. Drinking water was provided ad libitum. The result of first stage showed that KSM variety of MH-1 would be used as a component of the concentrate on the second experiment. The increasing level of KSM in the rations had significant effect (P<0.05 on physical characteristics of the carcass, such as dressing percentage (44.35%, carcass length (54.006 cm, fleshing index (130.59 g/cm, plumpness of leg (87.48%, loin eye area (5.06 cm2, and percentage of carcass meat (64.69%. It is concluded that MH-1 variety of KSM can be used as a feed component up to 20 % in the goat ration.

T. Hidjaz

2014-04-01

61

Study of Heat Transfer in a Kapok Material from the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient and the Excitation Pulse of Solicitations External Climatic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize thermal insulating local material, kapok, from a study in 3 dimensions in Cartesian coordinate and in dynamic frequency regime. From a study a 3 dimensional the heat transfer through a material made of wool kapok (thermal conductivity: &lambda = 0,035 W/m/K; density: &rho = 12, 35 kg/m3; thermal diffusivity: &alpha = 17, 1.10-7 m2 /s is presented. The evolution curves of temperature versus convective heat transfer coefficient have helped highlight the importance of pulse excitation and the depth in the material. The thermal impedance is studied from representations of Nyquist and Bode diagrams allowing characterizing the thermal behavior from thermistors. The evolution of the thermal impedance with the thermal capacity of the material is presented.

M. Dieng

2013-02-01

62

ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS LIGNIN DERIVED FROM CORN STOVER AS AN INTRINSTIC BINDER FOR BIO-COMPOSITES MANUFACTURE: EFFECT OF FIBER MOISTURE CONTENT AND PRESSING TEMPERATURE ON BOARDS’ PROPERTIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL and cotton stalk fibers were prepared under various manufacturing conditions, and their physico-mechanical properties were evaluated. Full factorial experimental design was used to assess the effect of fiber moisture content and pressing temperature on boards’ properties. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg of EHL. We found that both fiber moisture content and pressing temperature had significant effects on binderless fiberboards’ properties. High fiber moisture content and pressing temperature are suggested to contribute to the self-bonding improvement among fibers with lignin-rich surface mainly by thermal softening enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. In this experiment, the optimized pressing temperature applied in binderless fiberboard production should be as high as 190°C in accordance with the EHL Tg value of 189.4°C, and the fiber moisture content should be limited to less than 20% with a higher board density of 950 kg/m3 to avoid the delamination of boards during hot pressing.

Guanben Du

2011-02-01

63

Evaluation of the chemical composition of different non-woody plant fibers used for pulp and paper manufacturing  

OpenAIRE

The chemical composition of several non-woody plant fibers (bast fibers from flax, hemp, kenaf, jute; leaf fibers from sisal, abaca and curaua; and giant reed), which are used as raw materials for pulp and papermaking, has been evaluated. Particular attention was paid to the composition of the lipophilic compounds and the structure of the lignin polymer since they are important components of the fiber that strongly influence the pulping and bleaching performances.

Marques, Gisela; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana; Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del

2010-01-01

64

Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural fibers have been used to reinforce materials for over 3,000 years. More recently they have been employed in combination with plastics. Many types of natural fi fibers have been investigated for use in plastics including Flax, hemp, jute, straw, wood fiber, rice husks, wheat, barley, oats, rye, cane (sugar and bamboo), grass reeds, kenaf, ramie, oil palm empty fruit bunch, sisal, coir, water hyacinth, pennywort, kapok, paper-mulberry, raphia, banana fiber, pineapple leaf fiber and papyrus. Natural fibers have the advantage that they are renewable resources and have marketing appeal. The Asian markets have been using natural fibers for many years e.g., jute is a common reinforcement in India. Natural fibers are increasingly used in automotive and packaging materials. Pakistan is an agricultural country and it is the main stay of Pakistan's economy. Thousands of tons of different crops are produced but most of their wastes do not have any useful utilization. Agricultural wastes include wheat husk, rice husk, and their straw, hemp fiber and shells of various dry fruits. These agricultural wastes can be used to prepare fiber reinforced polymer composites for commercial use. This report examines the different types of fibers available and the current status of research. Many references to the latest work on properties, processing and application have been cited in this review. (author)

65

Biodiesel Production from Kapok (Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil using Naturally Alkaline Catalyst as an Effort of Green Energy and Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, energy that used to serve all the needs of community, mainly generated from fossil (conventional energy. Terrace in energy consumption is not balanced with adequate fossil fuel reserves and will be totally depleted in the near future. Indonesian Government through a Presidential Decree No. 5 year 2006 mandates an increased capacity in renewable energy production from 5 percent to 15 percent in 2025. C. pentandra seed oil has feasibility as a sustainable biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia. The aim of this paper was to investigate biodiesel production from ceiba petandra seed oil using naturally potassium hydroxide catalyst. Research designs are based on factorial design with 2 levels and 3 independent variables (temperature, reaction time and molar ratio of methanol to oil. According to data calculation, the most influential single variable is molar ratio of methanol to oil. Characterization of biodiesel products meet all the qualifications standardized by SNI 04-7182-2006. Keywords: biodiesel, kapok seed oil, c. pentandra, green technology

N.A. Handayani

2013-10-01

66

Chemical characterization of lignin and lipid fractions in kenaf bast fibers used for manufacturing high-quality papers  

OpenAIRE

The chemical composition of lignin and lipids of bast fibers from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) used for high-quality paper pulp production was studied. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) of fibers showed a lignin with high syringyl:guaiacyl ratio (5.4) and minor amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units. Simultaneously, sinapyl and coniferyl acetates were also identified, indicating that this lignin is partially acetylated. p-Hydroxycinnamic acids were only found in trace amounts...

Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana; Rodri?guez Garci?a, Mari?a Isabel; Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del

2004-01-01

67

75 FR 34943 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Para-Aramid Fibers and Yarns Manufactured in a...  

Science.gov (United States)

...that they produce yarn products made from DuPont Kevlar. DuPont supplies its Kevlar staple fiber to four major and six minor yarn...filament para-aramid yarns: DuPont TM which makes Kevlar[supreg], and the Teijin Group which makes...

2010-06-21

68

77 FR 69435 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status and Partial Approval of Manufacturing Authority; Toho Tenax...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Manufacturing Authority; Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Oxidized Polyacrylonitrile Fiber and Carbon Fiber), Rockwood, TN Pursuant to its...establish a special-purpose subzone at the oxidized polyacrylonitrile fiber (OPF) and carbon fiber manufacturing and...

2012-11-19

69

76 FR 30908 - Foreign-Trade Zone 203-Moses Lake, Washington, Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, SGL...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Washington, Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber...FTZ) 203, requesting authority on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC (SGL) to manufacture carbon fiber under FTZ...

2011-05-27

70

Low cost heat-and-pull rig for manufacturing adiabatic optical fiber tapers / Sistema de bajo costo para fabricar fibras ópticas adelgazadas adiabáticas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se reporta la fabricación de fibras ópticas adelgazadas que cumplen con el criterio de adiabaticidad, para lo cual se implementó un sistema de calor-tracción de bajo costo. Nuestra configuración se basa en la técnica de la flama que se mueve en zigzag, para esto se utilizó una micro [...] antorcha de gas portátil de bajo costo y fácil de usar. Este sistema no requiere un control electrónico para la tasa de flujo del gas, lo que hace de nuestro sistema una alternativa atractiva, de bajo costo y trivial de implementar. La viabilidad de dicha fuente de calor se demuestra con la fabricación de fibras ópticas adelgazadas de pérdida de transmisión muy baja ( Abstract in english In this paper we report the fabrication of adiabatic tapered optical fibers using a low cost heat-and-pull rig. Our setup is based on the flame-brushing technique moving in zigzag, where an inexpensive and simple portable gas micro-torch is used as heating device. Since this method does not require [...] an electronic system to control the gas flow rate, makes out taper rig an attractive alternative, low-cost, and trivial to implement. The feasibility of such a heat source is shown with the manufacture of low-loss tapers (

Yamile, Cardona Maya; Nelson, Gómez Cardona; Pedro Ignacio, Torres Trujillo.

2014-03-01

71

Airclad fiber laser technology  

OpenAIRE

High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last 5 years. Many of the traditional manufacturers of gas and solid-state lasers are now pursuing the fiber-based systems, which are displacing the conventional technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems require reliable fibers with large cores, stable mode quality, and good power handling capabilities-requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through ma...

Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes; Noordegraaf, Danny; Maack, Martin D.; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko; Nikolajsen, Thomas; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; Sørensen, Mads Hoy; Denninger, Mark; Jakobsen, Christian; Simonsen, Harald R.

2011-01-01

72

Miniature spinning enzyme-retted flax fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Fibers from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are stiff and strong and can be blended with other short staple fibers, such as cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. or Gossypium hirsutum L.), processed into a yarn and then manufactured into a fabric. Manufacturing yarns with natural flax fibers has traditional...

73

Lean Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

For instructors looking for a basic outline of what lean manufacturing is, this website provides the information in a brief, easy to read format. Students will learn about the history of lean manufacturing, the basic goals of lean manufacturing and key processes involved. An interesting section at the end of the webpage asks students to take a lean manufacturing viewpoint in regards to their own lives, considering areas like overproduction, waiting, inventory and overprocessing.

2013-07-29

74

Manufacturing Interfaces  

OpenAIRE

The paper identifies the changing needs and requirements with respect to the interfacing of manufacturing functions. It considers the manufacturing system, its components and their relationships from the technological and logistic point of view, against the background of concurrent engineering. Design- and manufacturing features are considered to become the basic elements for both internal and external communication between manufacturing functions. The increasing level of automation on the sh...

Houten, F. J. A. M.

1992-01-01

75

Study of a three-stage fluidized bed process treating acrylic synthetic-fiber manufacturing wastewater containing high-strength nitrogenous compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is one of the major synthetic fibers commonly used in the mass production of clothing. The chemical synthesis of PAN is carried out by polymerization of the acrylonitrile (AN) monomers with co-monomers such as vinyl acetate, methyl acrylate and cyclohexyl acrylate. Using water quality analysis of the PAN wastewater, high concentration of organic nitrogen was found and the TKN/COD ratios achieved were 0.15-0.26, indicating the complicated biodegradation characteristics for the PAN wastewater. In order to enhance biodegradation of nitrogenous compounds in PAN wastewater, a combined three-stage process of thermophilic anaerobic/anoxic denitrification/aerobic nitrification fluidized bed reactors was employed. The results indicated that the concentration of effluent in the three-stage process of OD and organic nitrogen was 175 mg/L and 13 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, molecular biotechnology was applied to study the microbial population in the thermophilic anaerobic fluidized bed reactor. From the results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, the diversity of PAN-degrading bacteria would change in different volumetric loading. Furthermore, the bacteria communities in the thermophilic anaerobic fluidized bed reactor were also studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Alpha and delta-Proteobacteria were dominant in the bacteria population, and some high G+C content bacteria and Clostridium could be characterized in this system. PMID:15137414

Cheng, S S; Chen, Y N; Wu, K L; Chuang, H P; Chen, S D

2004-01-01

76

Fibered Correspondence  

CERN Document Server

Base of fibered correspodence is arbitrary correspodence. Fibered correspodence is interesting when we consider relationship between different bundles. However composition of fibered correspodences may not always be defined. Reduced fibered correspodence is defined only between fibers over the same point of base. Reduced fibered correspodenc in bundle is called 2-ary fibered relation.

Kleyn, Aleks

2007-01-01

77

Manufacturing technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

NONE

1995-09-01

78

MEGARA optical manufacturing process  

Science.gov (United States)

MEGARA is the future visible integral-field and multi-object spectrograph for the GTC 10.4-m telescope located in La Palma. INAOE is a member of the MEGARA Consortium and it is in charge of the Optics Manufacturing work package. MEGARA passed the Optics Detailed Design Review in May 2013, and the blanks of the main optics have been already ordered and their manufacturing is in progress. Except for the optical fibers and microlenses, the complete MEGARA optical system will be manufactured in Mexico, shared between the workshops of INAOE and CIO. This includes a field lens, a 5-lenses collimator, a 7-lenses camera and a complete set of volume phase holographic gratings with 36 flat windows and 24 prisms, being all these elements very large and complex. Additionally, the optical tests and the complete assembly of the camera and collimator subsystems will be carried out in Mexico. Here we describe the current status of the optics manufacturing process.

Carrasco, E.; Páez, G.; Granados, F.; Percino, E.; Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Avilés, J. L.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Cedazo, R.

2014-07-01

79

Micro Manufacturing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance. If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management addresses these issues for products based on metal, polymers and ceramics.

Hansen, Hans NØrgaard

2003-01-01

80

Airclad fiber laser technology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last 5 years. Many of the traditional manufacturers of gas and solid-state lasers are now pursuing the fiber-based systems, which are displacing the conventional technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems require reliable fibers with large cores, stable mode quality, and good power handling capabilities-requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 100 m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to megawatt power levels. Furthermore, we describe the novel airclad-based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350 W cw fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

2011-01-01

81

Next Generation Manufacturing Manufacturing 2030  

OpenAIRE

The presentation describes actual topics of discussion within the research initiative Manufuture. It starts with an overview on the strategic Research Agenda and megatrends with impact on manufacturing. New Business Models, Dematerialisation of Products, Knowledge based Manufacturing Engineering as well as the Green Factory are among the addressed topics. The presentation closes with results of an internet based consultation that identified volume production as prime focus of interest for sta...

Westka?mper, Engelbert

2011-01-01

82

Numerical and experimental investigation of fiber drawing process  

OpenAIRE

The manufacturing process of glass fibers used for the reinforcement of composite material consists in drawing liquid glass at high temperature into fibers. This process is very complex and sensitive to numerous disturbances that can cause the breaking of the forming fibers. Breaks have a strong negative impact on the process efficiency. It is thus very important to understand the mechanisms of fiber breaking in order to optimize the manufacturing process. As a first step towards elucidating ...

Chouffart, Quentin; Simon, Philippe; Terrapon, Vincent

2013-01-01

83

Manufacturing requirements  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, natural laminar flow (NLF) has been proven to be achievable on modern smooth airframe surfaces over a range of cruise flight conditions representative of most current business and commuter aircraft. Published waviness and boundary layer transition measurements on several modern metal and composite airframes have demonstrated the fact that achievable surface waviness is readily compatible with laminar flow requirements. Currently, the principal challenge to the manufacture of NLF-compatible surfaces is two-dimensional roughness in the form of steps and gaps at structural joints. Results of recent NASA investigations on manufacturing tolerances for NLF surfaces, including results of a flight experiment are given. Based on recent research, recommendations are given for conservative manufacturing tolerances for waviness and shaped steps.

Holmes, Bruce J.; Obara, Clifford J.; Martin, Glen L.; Domack, Christopher S.

1986-01-01

84

Design of Natural Fiber Composites Chemical Container Using Resin Flow Simulation of VARTML Process  

OpenAIRE

In this study, an investigation on mechanical properties of flax natural fiber composite is performed as a precedent study on the design of eco-friendly structure using flax natural fiber composite. The Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding-Light (VARTML) manufacturing method is adopted for manufacturing the flax fiber composite panel. The VARTML is a manufacturing process that the resin is injected into the dry layered –up fibers enclosed by a rigid mold tool under vacuum. In this work, t...

Changduk Kong; Hyunbum Park; Haseung Lee; Jounghwan Lee

2014-01-01

85

Green Manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

Patten, John

2013-12-31

86

Photosensitivity, chemical composition gratings and optical fiber based components  

OpenAIRE

The different topics of this thesis include high-temperaturestable fiber Bragg gratings, photosensitivity and fiber basedcomponents. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are wavelength dispersiverefractive index structures manufactured through UV exposure ofoptical fibers. Their applications range from WDM filters,dispersion compensators and fiber laser resonators fortelecommunication applications to different types of point ordistributed sensors for a variety of applications. One aim of this thesis ha...

Fokine, Michael

2002-01-01

87

78 FR 16247 - Approval for Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 203, SGL Automotive Carbon...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 203, SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon...export-only manufacturing authority on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, within...procedures within FTZ 203-Site 3, on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, as...

2013-03-14

88

Manufacturing technology  

Science.gov (United States)

This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high-voltage varistors. A selective laser sintering process automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves the performance of a photoresist stripper (a simulation on a Cray supercomputer reveals the path of a uniform plasma). Improved mathematical models will help make the dream of low-cost ceramic composites come true.

Leonard, J. A.; Floyd, H. L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

1993-08-01

89

ANALYSIS OF FLAX AND COTTON FIBER FABRIC BLENDS AND RECYCLED POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITES  

Science.gov (United States)

MANUFACTURING COMPOSITIES WITH POLYMERS AND NATURAL FIBERS HAS TRADITIONALLY BEEN PERFORMED USING CHOPPED FIBERS OR A NONWOVEN MAT FOR REINFORCEMENT. FIBERS FROM FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM L.) ARE STIFF AND STRONG AND CAN BE PROCESSED INTO A YARN AND THEN MANUFACTURED INTO A FABRIC FOR COMPOSITE FOR...

90

Manufacturing network evolution : a manufacturing plant perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing plant affects the other plants in the same network by altering their strategic roles, which leads to the subsequent transformation of the manufacturing network. Originality/value – A review of the existing literature investigated different elements of a manufacturing network independently. In this paper, the complex phenomenon of a manufacturing network evolution is observed by combining the analysis of a manufacturing plant and network level. The historical trajectories of manufacturing networks that are presented in the case studies are examined in order to understand and determine the future shape of the networks. This study will help industrial managers make more knowledgeable decisions regarding manufacturing network management.

Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami

2011-01-01

91

Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigueing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

92

Spectral response of scintillating fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spectral response of PHT-0044 (blue) and BCF-20 (green) scintillating fibers was measured as a function of wavelength using a UV LED. It was observed that significant spectral strength from the PHT-0044 fibers was missing compared to manufacturer's specifications at the origin of the source, shifting the peak value of the spectrum to significantly higher values in wavelength. In contrast, the corresponding shift for the BCF-20 fibers was minimal. The mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior are discussed herein. Moreover, the attenuation length for each fiber type was extracted and studied as a function of wavelength. Finally, the measured fiber spectra were convolved with the wavelength response from a typical bi-alkali photomultiplier as well as a green-sensitive silicon photomultiplier and compared.

93

Fiber optic combiner and duplicator  

Science.gov (United States)

The investigation of the possible development of two optical devices, one to take two images as inputs and to present their arithmetic sum as a single output, the other to take one image as input and present two identical images as outputs is described. Significant engineering time was invested in establishing precision fiber optics drawing capabilities, real time monitoring of the fiber size and exact measuring of fiber optics ribbons. Various assembly procedures and tooling designs were investigated and prototype models were built and evaluated that established technical assurance that the device was feasible and could be fabricated. Although the interleaver specification in its entirety was not achieved, the techniques developed in the course of the program improved the quality of images transmitted by fiber optic arrays by at least an order of magnitude. These techniques are already being applied to the manufacture of precise fiber optic components.

1979-01-01

94

V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

2012-10-01

95

FLAX FIBERS  

Science.gov (United States)

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a versatile plant, supplying both fiber and seed for industrial uses. The long, strong fibers processed for linen are prized for comfort and appearance in textiles, while shorter fibers are used in textile blends and for specialty paper, reinforced composites, and a...

96

A method of manufacturing a separator for dry cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is patented for manufacturing a separator for dry cells. The separator is manufactured from a .5-30% aqueous solution of a dry substance. The dry substance consists of 60-90% polyvinyl alcohol, .240% polyethylene glycol, and .1-20% metallic oxide (titanium oxide or zirconium dioxide). The foundation of this cell is manufactured from either a woven or nonwoven artificial fiber. The solvent is removed from the composition by a dryer.

Lukacs, J.; Horvath, P.; Kadar, E.; Kulcsar, S.

1980-04-30

97

Carbon fiber resin matrix interphase: effect of carbon fiber surface treatment on composite performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon fibers are supplied by various manufacturers with a predetermined level of surface treatment and matrix compatible sizings. Surface treatment of the carbon fiber increases the active oxygen content, the polarity and the total free surface energy of the fiber surface. This study is directed toward determining the effect of varying carbon fiber surface treatment on the composite performance of thermoset matrix resins. The effect of varying fiber surface treatment on performance of a promising proprietary sizing is also presented. 6 references, 11 figures

98

Embedded sensors in layered manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Layered Manufacturing can be applied to build ``smart'' parts with sensors, integrated circuits, and actuators placed within the component. Embedded sensors can be used to gain data for validating or improving designs during the prototype stage or to obtain information on the performance and structural integrity of components in service. Techniques for embedding fiber optic sensors in metals, polymers, and ceramics have been investigated. Embedding optical fibers into metals is especially challenging because engineering alloys tend to exhibit high melting temperatures. In the present research an embedding sequence was developed capable of embedding fiber sensors into parts made of metal alloys with high melting temperatures. Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors were selected as the most promising sensor candidate. The embedded FBG sensors were characterized for temperature and strain measurements. The embedded FBG sensors in nickel and stainless steel provided high sensitivity, good accuracy, and high temperature capacity for temperature measurements. Temperature sensitivity approximately 100% higher than that of bare FBGs was demonstrated. For strain measurements, the sensors embedded in metal and polyurethane yielded high sensitivity, accuracy, and linearity. The sensitivity of the embedded FBGs was in good agreement with that of bare FBGs. Moreover, a decoupling technique for embedded FBG sensors was developed to separate temperature and strain effects. The embedded FBG sensors were used to monitor the accumulation of residual stresses during the laser- assisted Layered Manufacturing, to measure the strain field in layered materials, to measure pressure, and to monitor temperature and strain simultaneously. New techniques have been developed for temperature and strain measurements of rotating components with FBG sensors embedded or attached to the surface. Tunable laser diodes were incorporated into the sensing system for monitoring the Bragg grating wavelength, and thus the temperature or strain was determined. The non-contact sensing system provides a new sensing tool that is superior to slip rings. Moreover, the new techniques provide a new health monitoring methodology for rotating structures, especially those exposed to hostile environments, such as blades in gas turbine engines. For laser-assisted Layered Manufacturing, residual stresses caused by the temperature gradient and material property mismatches result in part inaccuracy, warpage, or even delamination. Thus, material issues have been investigated, and a new class of metal matrix composites of INVAR and TiC were designed and fabricated. The materials can reduce deformation caused by residual stresses and improve mechanical properties significantly compared to other materials used in Layered Manufacturing.

Li, Xiaochun

99

Composites in manufacturing - Case studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The papers presented in this volume focus on 19 cases of applied technology in composites design and manufacturing, all of them dealing with specific products. Topics covered include design using composite in aerospace, innovative materials and processing, tooling, fasteners and adhesives, finishing, repair, specialty applications of composites, and applications in the automotive industry. Papers are presented on the filament winding of isogrid fuselage structures; design and use of aramid fiber in aircraft structures; resin transfer molding of a complex composite aircraft structure; and field repair of an advanced helicopter vertical fin structure.

Strong, A.B. (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States))

1991-01-01

100

Tribology in Manufacturing Technology  

CERN Document Server

The present book aims to provide research advances on tribology in manufacturing technology for modern industry. This book can be used as a research book for final undergraduate engineering course (for example, mechanical, manufacturing, materials, etc) or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. Also, this book can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and tribology researchers, mechanical, mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineers, professionals in related industries with manufacturing and tribology.

2013-01-01

101

Scintillating optical fibers for fine-grained hodoscopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fast detectors with fine spatial resolution will be needed to exploit high event rates at ISABELLE. Scintillating optical fibers for fine grained hodoscopes have been developed by the authors. A commercial manufacturer of optical fibers has drawn and clad PVT scintillator. Detection efficiencies greater than 99% have been achieved for a 1 mm fiber with a PMT over lengths up to 60 cm. Small diameter PMT's and avalanche photodiodes have been tested with the fibers. Further improvements are sought for the fiber and for the APD's sensitivity and coupling efficiency with the fiber

102

High performance fibers. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A two and a half year ONR/ARPA funded program to develop a low cost process for manufacture of a high strength/high modulus sigma/E boron nitride (BN) fiber was initiated on 7/1/90 and ended on 12/31/92. The preparation of high sigma/E BN fibers had been demonstrated in the late 1960's by the PI using a batch nitriding of B2O3 fiber with NH3 followed by stress graphitization at approx. 2000 deg C. Such fibers displayed values comparable to PAN based carbon fibers but the mechanicals were variable most likely because of redeposition of volatiles at 2000 deg C. In addition, the cost of the fibers was very high due to the need for many hours of nitriding necessary to convert the B2O3 fibers. The use of batch nitriding negated two possible cost advantages of this concept, namely, the ease of drawing very fine, multi-filament yarn of B2O3 and more importantly the very low cost of the starting materials.

Economy, J.

1994-01-01

103

Status of fiber lasers study of on ytterbium doped fiber laser and laser spectroscopy of doped fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work shows all the advantages and drawbacks of the rare-earth-doped fiber lasers and fiber optical amplifiers, pointing out their potential use for instrumentation and optical fiber sensor technology. The theory of light propagation in optical fibers is presented in order to understand the manufacturing methods. A comparative study of preform surface and concentration analysis is performed. The gain behaviour is also thoroughly examined. A synthesis of all technological parameters of the fiber laser is then established and all technologies of the constituting integrated components are reviewed and compared. The experimental techniques mainly involve: site selective excitation tunability, cooperative luminescence, oxidation state changes induced by gamma irradiation, ytterbium-doped mono-mode continuous wave tunable three-level fiber laser. (TEC). 622 refs., 176 figs

104

Heliostat manufacturing analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of a manufacturing cost analysis of heliostats are presented. The two primary objectives are: (1) providing a base for uniform cost analysis, and (2) providing facility and manufacturing cost estimates for planning purposes in the development of a heliostat industry. The manufacturing analysis provides materials, labor, equipment, and facility costs for each step in the manufacturing process. Detailed procedures are presented for cost estimates. These include estimating worksheets for each component of the manufacturing costs.

Drumheller, K.

1978-10-01

105

Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had amounts of bonded and physisorbed sizing similar to what has been presented in literature. An estimated sizing thickness was found to be approximately 100 nm. It is indicated that an epoxy-resin containing film former and a polyethylene oxide lubricant are present, yet no silanes or other sizing components were identified in the extractant.

Petersen, Helga NØrgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro

2013-01-01

106

Effect of fiber content on the mechanical properties of glass fiber-phenolic matrix composite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glass fiber-Phenolic matrix composite is used for the manufacturing of parts related to aerospace and electronic industry due to its high strength, dimensional stability and excellent electrical insulation properties. The evaluation of this composite material is necessary prior to make components/articles of new designs. In the present work, Thermosetting Phenolic plastic was reinforced with E-glass fiber, in different fiber-to-resin ratios to produce composites of different compositions. Mechanical properties of these composite materials were evaluated with reference to the effect of fiber content variation in phenolic resin. (author)

107

Effect of fiber content on the properties of glass fiber-phenolic matrix composite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glass fiber-Phenolic matrix composite is used for the manufacturing of parts /components related to electronic and aerospace industry due to its high strength, dimensional stability and excellent electrical insulation properties. The evaluation of this composite material is necessary prior to make parts/components of new designs. In the present research, thermosetting phenolic plastic was reinforced with E-glass fiber in different fiber-to-resin ratios to produce composites of different compositions. Mechanical and electrical properties of these composite materials were evaluated with reference to the effect of fiber content variation in phenolic resin. (author)

108

Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements

109

Photonic bandgap confinement in an all-solid tellurite glass photonic crystal fiber  

OpenAIRE

We report on the fabrication and optical assessment of an all-solid tellurite-glass photonic bandgap fiber. The manufacturing process via a preform drawing approach and the fiber characterization procedures are described and discussed. The fiber exhibits some minor morphological deformations that do not prevent the observation of optical confinement within the fiber by bandgap effects. The experimental fiber attenuation spectrum displays clear bandgap confinement regions whose positions are c...

Boetti, Nadia Giovanna; Lousteau, Joris; Mura, Emanuele; Scarpignato, Gerardo Cristian; Milanese, Daniel

2012-01-01

110

Manufacturing Extension Partnership Source for Manufacturers  

Science.gov (United States)

Located within the United States Commerce Department, the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) consists of not-for-profit centers whose "sole purpose is to provide small and medium sized manufacturers with the services they need to succeed." On their site, they provide access to a number of resources that support supply chain integration and also provide access to information about technology that will increase productivity. First-time visitors may wish to begin by looking over the "Success Stories" area, which tells about those manufacturers that have created useful partnerships through the program. Visitors who might be studying these types of manufacturers may wish to look at the "Economic Indicators" area of the site and the "Tools" section, which contain a number of e-business tools designed for these types of manufacturers. Additionally, visitors can also use an interactive map to find their local MEP Center.

111

Crystallization of compound plastic optical fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Melt-spinning processes are often used to manufacture optical, textile, electrically conducting and reinforced fibers. This paper proposed a single-phase two-dimensional model of the spinning of compound plastic optical fibers that used a Newtonian rheology modified by the degrees of crystallization and molecular orientation. The model accounted for temperature through an effective dynamic viscosity, and the molecular orientation of the liquid crystalline polymer through an orientation parameter that depended on the velocity field. For slender fibers, an asymptotic procedure based on the slenderness ratio showed that the temperature was uniform across the compound fiber provided that the Biot number was in the order of the fourth power of the slenderness ratio and the leading-order equations for the fiber's geometry and axial velocity component, temperature, molecular orientation and crystallization were one-dimensional. This paper also proposed a two-dimensional model based on the leading-order equations for the fiber's geometry and velocity for slender fibers. This model provided the two-dimensional fields of temperature, molecular orientation and degree of crystallization and indicated that for moderate Biot numbers, the temperature distribution across the fiber was not uniform and a thermal boundary layer was formed on the outer surface of the compound fiber. The study showed that the crystallization of the compound fiber affected primarily by thermal effects rather than by flow-induced effects. 17 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

Ramos, J.I.; Blanco-Rodriguez, F.J. [Malaga Univ., Malaga (Spain). School of Engineering

2010-07-01

112

Carbon fibers from SRC pitch  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention relates to an improved method of manufacturing carbon fibers from a coal derived pitch. The improvement resides in the use of a solvent refined coal which has been hydrotreated and subjected to solvent extraction whereby the hetero atom content in the resulting product is less than 4.0% by weight and the softening point is between about 100.degree.-250.degree. F.

Greskovich, Eugene J. (Allentown, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1981-01-01

113

Manufacturing Processes and Engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

This website, created by Jonathan S. Colton of the Georgia Institute of Technology, contains class notes for a senior-level course on manufacturing processes and engineering. This site contains assignments, solutions, course requirements, syllabi, quizzes, and manufacturing videos.

Colton, Jonathan S.

2009-12-29

114

Chemical Modification Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Coir Fiber  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Natural fiber has a vital role as a reinforcing agent due to its renewable, low cost, biodegradable, less abrasive and eco-friendly nature. Whereas synthetic fibers like glass, boron, carbon, metallic, ceramic and inorganic fibers are expensive and not eco-friendly. Coir is one of the natural fibers easily available in Bangladesh and cheap. It is derived from the husk of the coconut (Cocos nucifera. Coir has one of the highest concentrations of lignin, which makes it stronger. In recent years, wide range of research has been carried out on fiber reinforced polymer composites [4-13].The aim of the present research is to characterize brown single coir fiber for manufacturing polymer composites reinforced with characterized fibers. Adhesion between the fiber and polymer is one of factors affecting the strength of manufactured composites. In order to increase the adhesion, the coir fiber was chemically treated separately in single stage (with Cr2(SO43•12(H2O and double stages (with CrSO4 and NaHCO3. Both the raw and treated fibers were characterized by tensile testing, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic analysis, scanning electron microscopic analysis. The result showed that the Young’s modulus increased, while tensile strength and strain to failure decreased with increase in span length. Tensile properties of chemically treated coir fiber was found higher than raw coir fiber, while the double stage treated coir fiber had better mechanical properties compared to the single stage treated coir fiber. Scanning electron micrographs showed rougher surface in case of the raw coir fiber. The surface was found clean and smooth in case of the treated coir fiber. Thus the performance of coir fiber composites in industrial application can be improved by chemical treatment.

Samia Sultana Mir

2012-04-01

115

Manufacturing in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report compares the manufacturing strategies, practices, performances and improvement activities of 39 companies that are representative for the Danish assembly industry with those of 804 companies from 19 other countries. The data supporting this report were collected in 2013 and concern: • Manufacturing strategies pursued and implemented between 2010 and 2012. • Performance improvements achieved during that period. • Actual manufacturing practices and performances as well as competitive priorities in 2012. • Manufacturing strategies pursued for the years 2010-2012.

Hansen, Johannes; Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth

2014-01-01

116

Datacommunication With Low Cost Plastic Fiber Optic Components  

Science.gov (United States)

Cost has been the barrier to using fiber optic links in low datarate, short haul applications of less than 5 Mbaud and up to 150 meters. New fiber optic links using plastic (acrylic) fiber, however provide a cost effective alternative to coaxial cable and twisted wire pairs in such applications. The large core fibers with a diameter of 1 mm do not require the tight alignment tolerances needed in glass- or plastic clad silica fibers for reasonable light coupling at the source and detector interfaces. Looser alignment tolerances also let manufacturers package transmitters and receivers in plastic housings, thus lowering component costs.

Wiesner, Werner

1987-09-01

117

Birefringence in optical fibers formed by proton implantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Birefringence can be induced in silica-based optical fibers by ion implantation. In the present research, protons were implanted in single-mode optical fibers with two different energies, one being the energy with which the protons can just reach the center of the optical fiber core and the other being a slightly lower energy. The degree of birefringence was evaluated by measuring reflection spectra of Bragg gratings formed at the proton-implanted region of the optical fibers. The results confirmed that birefringence is induced by unidirectional densification along the projected range of protons formed in the fiber core and by densification of the fiber cladding. The induced birefringence reached three to ten times higher than that of a conventional birefringent fiber. The birefringence caused by ion implantation can be a versatile tool for manufacturing various optical fiber devices

118

Radiation oxidation and subsequent thermal curing of polyacrylonitrile fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were exposed to gamma-ray irradiation at room temperature under vacuum, air and oxygen to investigate the radiation oxidation effects on PAN fibers. Radiation-induced oxidation degradation and crosslinking was evaluated by measuring the gel fraction. It was found that radiation oxidation took place mainly on the fiber surface due to the limited penetration of oxygen into PAN fibers from the surface, and the oxidation thickness increased with the oxygen pressure. Chain scission was dominant in the oxidized area, and crosslinking occurred in the inner part of the fibers. However, the oxidized regions of the fibers can be converted to gel via crosslinking by thermal curing at 160 °C in a N2 atmosphere. Higher extents of radiation oxidation degradation led to a greater increase in the gel fraction. These results suggest that the radiation treatment of PAN fibers prior to thermal oxidation may be useful for manufacturing carbon fibers.

Liu, Weihua; Wang, Mouhua; Xing, Zhe; Wu, Guozhong

2014-01-01

119

Manufacturing Planning Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

Waid, Michael

2011-01-01

120

Radiation resistivity of quartz core fiber, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation resistance characteristics were evaluated for a multi-mode quartz core fiber in low temperature region together with photobleaching effect depending on the incident light power and dependency on the wavelength of measuring rays. This report describes the results of the abovementioned items and the next step study of trial manufacturing of a pure-quartz single-mode fiber for the employment of longer wavelength rays and greater capacity in light transmission communication system. Quartz core fiber specimens were irradiated by 60Co ?-ray source at -55 deg C to 80 deg C in a constant temperature bath and light transmission loss was determined under irradiation conditions. Low temperature characteristics were superior in an MRT (modified rod-in tube) pure quartz fiber prepared by the plasma method as compared to VAD quartz and Ge-GI fibers. The MRT fiber showed better quality than the Ge-GI fiber also in the photobleaching effect examination. As for the wavelength dependency, light transmission loss of the MRT fiber was less than that of the Ge-GI fiber. The MRT fiber also showed a superior quality in the wide range of irradiation temperatures. Based on the above-mentioned understandings, a pure-quartz single-mode fiber of both BF3-doped and F-doped cladding types were developed for longer wavelengths uses. The fibers could attain low light transmission loss of less than 1.0 dB/km at 1.30 ?m of wavelength. At the standpoint of radiation resistivity, the BF3-doped fiber was found superior. (Takagi, S.)

121

Fatigue of the Orthotropic Layer in Glass Fiber Reinforced Composites  

OpenAIRE

Abstract This thesis focused on the characterization of glass fiber reinforced composite materials and the determi-nation of their mechanical properties. The manufacture of glass fiber reinforced laminate materials was described and the basic methods of their static and fatigue testing were presented. Two types of glass fiber reinforced laminate specimens were fabricated by Ahlstrom Glassfibre in Mikkeli and applied in the static tests reported in this thesis. One of the specimen types ...

Ojamo, Tiina

2012-01-01

122

STUDY THE CREEP OF TUBULAR SHAPED FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES  

OpenAIRE

Inpresent work tubular –shaped fiber reinforced composites were manufactured byusing two types of resins ( Epoxy and unsaturated polyester) and separatelyreinforced with glass, carbon and kevlar-49 fibers (filament and woven roving),hybrid reinforcement composites of these fibers were also prepared. The fiberswere wet wound on a mandrel using a purposely designed winding machine,developed by modifying an ordinary lathe, in winding angle of 55° for filament. A creep test was made of either ...

Saleh, Najat J.; Abdul Razak, Adnan A.

2013-01-01

123

Spectral attenuation length of scintillating fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A double spectrometer allows the precise measurement of the spectral attenuation length of scintillating fibers. Exciting the fibers with a N2-laser at different points and measuring the wavelength dependent light intensity on both ends of the fiber simultaneously, enables a measurement of the attenuation length which is practically independent of systematic uncertainties. The experimental setup can additionally be used for the measurement of the relative light output. Six types of scintillating fibers from four manufacturers (Bicron, Kuraray, Pol.Hi.Tech, and Plastifo) were tested. For different fibers the wavelength dependent attenuation lengths were measured from 0.3 m up to 20 m with an accuracy as good as 1%. (orig.)

124

Design of Natural Fiber Composites Chemical Container Using Resin Flow Simulation of VARTML Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, an investigation on mechanical properties of flax natural fiber composite is performed as a precedent study on the design of eco-friendly structure using flax natural fiber composite. The Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding-Light (VARTML manufacturing method is adopted for manufacturing the flax fiber composite panel. The VARTML is a manufacturing process that the resin is injected into the dry layered –up fibers enclosed by a rigid mold tool under vacuum. In this work, the resin flow analysis of VARTM manufacturing method is performed. A series of flax composite panels are manufactured, and several kinds of specimens cut out from the panels are tested to obtain mechanical performance data. Based on this, structural design of chemical storage tank for agricultural vehicle was performed using flax/vinyl ester. After structural design and analysis, the resin flow analysis of VARTM manufacturing method was performed

Changduk Kong

2014-08-01

125

Ec-135 Fiber Optic Technology Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber optic technology offers many advantages for upgrading nuclear survivability in systems such as the Airborne Command Post EC-135 aircraft, including weight and cost savings, EMI and EMC immunity, high data rates. The greatest advantage seen for nuclear survivable systems, however, is that a fiber optic system's EMP hardness can be maintained more easily with the use of fiber optics than with shielded cables or other protective methods. TRW recently completed a study to determine the feasibility of using fiber optic technology in an EC-135 aircraft environment. Since this study was conducted for a USAF Logistics Command Agency, a feasible system had to be one which could be realistically priced by an integrating contractor. Thus, any fiber optic approach would have to be well developed before it could be considered feasible. During the course of the study problem areas were encountered which are associated with the readiness of the technology for use rather than with the technology itself. These included connectors, standards, fiber radiation resistance, busing, maintenance, and logistics. Because these problems areas have not been resolved, it was concluded that fiber optic technology, despite its advantages, is not ready for directed procurement (i.e., included as a requirement in a prime mission equipment specification). However, offers by a manufacturer to use fiber optic technology in lieu of conventional technology should be considered. This paper treats these problems in more detail, addresses the areas which need further development, and discusses the hardness maintenance advantages of using fiber optic technology.

Schultz, Jan R...; Hodges, Harry N.

1984-10-01

126

Kinetic Study of Resin-Curing on Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Resin Composites by Microwave Irradiation  

OpenAIRE

Microwave processing has great potential for improving composite manufacturing such as reduction of curing time, energy requirements and operational costs. In this paper, the effects of microwave irradiation for resin-curing of carbon fiber/epoxy resin composite that was composed of discontinuous carbon fibers of 130 ?m or 3 mm were investigated. The mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy resin comp...

Daisuke Shimamoto; Yusuke Imai, Yuji Hotta

2014-01-01

127

Uso de harina de cotiledón de algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) como fuente de proteína y fibra dietética en la elaboración de galletas y hojuelas fritas / Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los aminoácidos limitantes en la proteína de algarrobo chileno son isoleucina, treonina y metionina/cisteina. La mezcla de cereales y leguminosas, permite mejorar el balance aminoacídico, ya que las leguminosas tienen más lisina y los cereales son más ricos en aminoácidos azufrados. Debido al interé [...] s nutricional del cotiledón de algarrobo, se evaluó la incorporación de harina de cotiledón de algarrobo (HCA) en la elaboración de “snack” dulces y salados. Se prepararon galletas dulces y hojuelas fritas saladas con 0%, 10% y 20% de HCA. En las harinas se determinó, color, granulometría, humedad, composición proximal, lisina disponible, fibra dietética total, soluble e insoluble. A las galletas y hojuelas se les determinaron las mismas características físicas y químicas (excepto granulometría) que las harinas; además se determinó actividad de agua, peso y dimensiones y se calculó el aporte calórico. Se evaluó la calidad y aceptabilidad sensorial de ambos productos. Destaca el alto contenido de proteínas, lípidos, cenizas, fibra cruda (63,6; 10,2; 4,3 y 4,2 g/100g bms, respectivamente), lisina disponible (62,4 mg/g proteína) y fibra dietética total (24,2 g/100g bms) de la HCA. Tanto en las galletas como en las hojuelas con HCA, aumenta significativamente el contenido de proteínas, lípidos, cenizas, fibra cruda, lisina disponible (desde 15,5 a 19,3 y de 20,3 a 29,6 mg lisina/g proteína, respectivamente) y fibra dietética total (de 1,39 a 2,80 y de 1,60 a 5,60 g/100g bms, respectivamente). Todos los tratamientos de galletas fueron igualmente aceptados (“me gusta mucho”); las hojuelas, con 10% de HCA presentaron la mayor aceptabilidad (“me gusta medianamente”). Se puede concluir que la incorporación de HCA en la elaboración de galletas y hojuelas fritas aumenta el aporte de lisina disponible, su contenido de proteínas y fibra dietética, mejorando la relación fibra soluble/ insoluble, sin afectar sus características físicas ni la aceptabilidad sensorial. Abstract in english Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean “algarrobo” are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of “algarrob [...] o” cotyledons, the use of “algarrobo cotyledon” flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted (“I like it very much”); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance (“I like it”). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance.

Berta, Escobar; Ana María, Estévez A; Carolina, Fuentes G; Daniela, Venegas F.

2009-06-01

128

Design and development of thermoplastic composite manufacturing processes based on electrostatic powder spray impregnation  

OpenAIRE

This research encompasses the design and development of a versatile thermoplastic composite manufacturing process. This process was specifically designed to include all the stages of a complete composite manufacturing process, from the initial combination of the resin and fiber materials to the final part consolidation. A detailed apparatus was designed to spread continuous fibers, coat them with electrostatically charged polymer powder particles, and consolidate the resulting materials into ...

Duvall, Mark Stephen

1998-01-01

129

Fiber Scrambling for High Precision Spectrographs  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection of Earth-like exoplanets with the radial velocity method requires extreme Doppler precision and long-term stability in order to measure tiny reflex velocities in the host star. Recent planet searches have led to the detection of so called "super-Earths” (up to a few Earth masses) that induce radial velocity changes of about 1 m/s. However, the detection of true Earth analogs requires a precision of 10 cm/s. One of the largest factors limiting Doppler precision is variation in the Point Spread Function (PSF) from observation to observation due to changes in the illumination of the slit and spectrograph optics. Thus, this stability has become a focus of current instrumentation work. Fiber optics have been used since the 1980's to couple telescopes to high-precision spectrographs, initially for simpler mechanical design and control. However, fiber optics are also naturally efficient scramblers. Scrambling refers to a fiber's ability to produce an output beam independent of input. Our research is focused on characterizing the scrambling properties of several types of fibers, including circular, square and octagonal fibers. By measuring the intensity distribution after the fiber as a function of input beam position, we can simulate guiding errors that occur at an observatory. Through this, we can determine which fibers produce the most uniform outputs for the severest guiding errors, improving the PSF and allowing sub-m/s precision. However, extensive testing of fibers of supposedly identical core diameter, length and shape from the same manufacturer has revealed the "personality” of individual fibers. Personality describes differing intensity patterns for supposedly duplicate fibers illuminated identically. Here, we present our results on scrambling characterization as a function of fiber type, while studying individual fiber personality.

Kaplan, Zachary; Spronck, J. F. P.; Fischer, D.

2011-05-01

130

Integrated automotive manufacturing supply  

OpenAIRE

Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Supply planning directly influences the traffic within a manufacturing plant. The impact of supply planning strategies like Just-in-Time, Just-in-Sequence and Direct Supply on plant traffic is rarely considered, as supply and traffic flow planning are traditionally seen as separate activities. BMW SA and other automotive manufacturers are facing various specific problems relat...

Dyk, Petrus Jakobus Schoeman

2004-01-01

131

Optimizing Belt Conveyor Manufacturing  

OpenAIRE

This final year project was carried out at a Chinese company, Chaohu Machinery Manufacturing Co, Ltd, which produces all kinds of conveying equipments for all walks of life. Chaohu Machinery Manufacturing Co, Ltd was established in 1990, and is located in Anhui Province, the southern part of China. The purpose of this project was to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the basic production process theory of manufacturing belt conveyors. The project focuses on choosing the right conveyor b...

Chen, Honghong

2010-01-01

132

[Fusion implants of carbon fiber reinforced plastic].  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are used in the medical field when high mechanical strength, innovative design, and radiolucency (see spinal fusion implants) are needed. During the manufacturing process of the material CFRP carbon fibers are embedded into a resin matrix. This resin material could be thermoset (e.g., epoxy resin EPN/DDS) or thermoplastic (e.g., PEAK). CFRP is biocompatible, radiolucent, and has higher mechanical capabilities compared to other implant materials. This publication demonstrates the manufacturing process of fusion implants made of a thermoset matrix system using a fiber winding process. The material has been used clinically since 1994 for fusion implants of the cervical and lumbar spine. The results of the fusion systems CORNERSTONE-SR C (cervical) and UNION (lumbar) showed no implant-related complications. New implant systems made of this CFRP material are under investigation and are presented. PMID:12089794

Früh, H J; Liebetrau, A; Bertagnoli, R

2002-05-01

133

Orbital angular momentum in optical fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Internet data traffic capacity is rapidly reaching limits imposed by nonlinear effects of single mode fibers currently used in optical communications. Having almost exhausted available degrees of freedom to orthogonally multiplex data in optical fibers, researchers are now exploring the possibility of using the spatial dimension of fibers, via multicore and multimode fibers, to address the forthcoming capacity crunch. While multicore fibers require complex manufacturing, conventional multi-mode fibers suffer from mode coupling, caused by random perturbations in fibers and modal (de)multiplexers. Methods that have been developed to address the problem of mode coupling so far, have been dependent on computationally intensive digital signal processing algorithms using adaptive optics feedback or complex multiple-input multiple-output algorithms. Here we study the possibility of using the orbital angular momentum (OAM), or helicity, of light, as a means of increasing capacity of future optical fiber communication links. We first introduce a class of specialty fibers designed to minimize mode coupling and show their potential for OAM mode generation in fibers using numerical analysis. We then experimentally confirm the existence of OAM states in these fibers using methods based on fiber gratings and spatial light modulators. In order to quantify the purity of created OAM states, we developed two methods based on mode-image analysis, showing purity of OAM states to be 90% after 1km in these fibers. Finally, in order to demonstrate data transmission using OAM states, we developed a 4-mode multiplexing and demultiplexing systems based on free-space optics and spatial light modulators. Using simple coherent detection methods, we successfully transmit data at 400Gbit/s using four OAM modes at a single wavelength, over 1.1 km of fiber. Furthermore, we achieve data transmission at 1.6Tbit/s using 10 wavelengths and two OAM modes. Our study indicates that OAM light can exist, and be long lived, in a special class of fibers and our data transmission demonstrations show that OAM could be considered an additional degree of freedom for data multiplexing in future optical fiber communication links. Our studies open the doors for other applications such as micro-endoscopy and nanoscale imaging which require fiber based remote delivery of OAM light.

Bozinovic, Nenad

134

Hansan ramie fibers irradiated by electron beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Material is inexpensive, abundant Light weight: fuel efficient Environment: Co{sub 2} reduction, renewable Performance: acceptable Spec. But it is variability, Irregular hollow fiber shape, limited planting counting Environment: odor, degradation of mechanical properties Performance: poor fiber-matrix bonding, water absorption, difficulty in quality control. Hansan ramie fibers were irradiated by electron beam to make surface modification for better bonding in the manufacture of composite. EB irradiation on cellulose changed the surface morphology property. - Impurities on the surface of ramie and lignin were removed by electron beam irradiation. The electron beam irradiation with high energy reduced {alpha}-cellulose and increased {beta}-cellulose. - The reduction of {alpha}-cellulose indicates the degradation of cellulose chain, which usually lead to decrease of fiber strength properties. When ramie fibers were irradiated by electron beam with 3kGy, {alpha}-cellulose was not decreased significantly and the impurity and lignin were separated from the ramie fiber. The best mechanical properties were obtained when ramie fibers were obtained when ramie fibers were irradiated by electron beam with 3kGy.

Choi, Haeyoung; Lee, Jeong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-07-01

135

Hansan ramie fibers irradiated by electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Material is inexpensive, abundant Light weight: fuel efficient Environment: Co2 reduction, renewable Performance: acceptable Spec. But it is variability, Irregular hollow fiber shape, limited planting counting Environment: odor, degradation of mechanical properties Performance: poor fiber-matrix bonding, water absorption, difficulty in quality control. Hansan ramie fibers were irradiated by electron beam to make surface modification for better bonding in the manufacture of composite. EB irradiation on cellulose changed the surface morphology property. - Impurities on the surface of ramie and lignin were removed by electron beam irradiation. The electron beam irradiation with high energy reduced ?-cellulose and increased ?-cellulose. - The reduction of ?-cellulose indicates the degradation of cellulose chain, which usually lead to decrease of fiber strength properties. When ramie fibers were irradiated by electron beam with 3kGy, ?-cellulose was not decreased significantly and the impurity and lignin were separated from the ramie fiber. The best mechanical properties were obtained when ramie fibers were obtained when ramie fibers were irradiated by electron beam with 3kGy

136

Fiber Lasers V : Technology, Systems, and Applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems require specially designed fibers with large cores and good power handling capabilities – requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 ?m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350 W CW fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. Finally, we briefly touch upon the subject of photo darkening andits origin.

Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

2008-01-01

137

The power of fiber optics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The latest technology in optical groundwire (OPGW), involving a single cable serving as a communications network, providing high-speed data and voice transmission, and as a conventional groundwire, part of a power transmission grid, is described. The first-ever symposium devoted to OPGW was held at Hydro-Quebec`s IREQ facility in Montreal, a fitting venue, considering that Hydro-Quebec has installed an extensive network of some 3,500 km of OPGW cables since 1992. The international symposium was attended by over 130 interested experts mainly from North America, but with delegates as far away as Australia, Japan, Libya, Brazil and the UK. The three-day event showcased a number of presentations and demonstrations concerning OPGW splicing requirements, the live-line installation process, the merits of using fiber optics in a power situation, comparison of international standards in OPGW and fiber optics applications, and future developments in fiber optics technology. Demonstration of IREQ`s OPGW type-testing and manufacturer`s exhibits provided an opportunity for hands-on experience.

Roy, C.

1999-03-01

138

Automotive Manufacturing Employment  

Science.gov (United States)

This page from the Consortium for Alabama Regional Center for Automotive Manufacturing (CARCAM) provides a number of links to the websites of automotive manufacturers and suppliers. The list focuses on locations in the Southern United States, and it would be useful for students in this region looking for employment.

139

Micromechanical Numeric Investigation of Fiber Bonds in 3D Network Structures.  

OpenAIRE

In manufacturing of paper and paperboard, optimized fiber usage has crucial importance for process efficiency and profitability. Dry strength of paper is one of the important quality criteria, which can be improved by adding dry strength additive that affect fiber to fiber bonding. This study is using the micromechanical simulations which assist interpretation of the experimental results concerning the effect of strength additives. A finite element model for 3D dry fiber network was construct...

Azi?zog?lu, Yag?iz

2014-01-01

140

Experimental Evaluation of Steel, Glass and Polypropilene Fiber Reinforced Shotcretes for Tunnel Lining  

OpenAIRE

The present paper deals with the use of different types of fiber to reinforce shotcrete for tunnel linings. Experimental investigations were performed on steel (SF), glass (GF) and polypropylene fibers (PF) reinforced concretes and shotcrete (manufactured with a silicate based set-accelerating admixture) in order to compare rheological and mechanical behaviour of fiber reinforced mixtures with respect to plain concrete (without fibers: PL). Moreover, the influence of the dosage of a ...

Coppola, Luigi; Buoso, Alessandra; D Alessandro, Franco

2013-01-01

141

Mechanical behavior of entangled materials with or without cross-linked fibers  

OpenAIRE

Entangled materials can be manufactured using fibers made from various materials, such as carbon, glass or steel. The mechanical properties of these low-density materials are linked to their architecture (fiber orientation, number of contacts, etc.). Specimens can be produced with and without cross-links between fibers by sintering for steel wool or by using epoxy spraying for carbon or glass fibers. Experimental mechanical compression tests were performed on these materials. The results were...

Masse, Jean-philippe; Poquillon, Dominique

2013-01-01

142

Laser assisted direct manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct Laser Manufacturing (DLM) with coaxial powder injection (TRUMPF DMD 505 installation) was applied for fabrication of 3D objects from metallic and ceramic powder. One of the advantages of DLM is the possibility to build functionally graded objects in one-step manufacturing cycle by application of a 2-channel powder feeder. Several models with different types of material gradients (smooth, sharp, periodic) and multi-layered structures were manufactured from SS, stellite (Cobalt alloy), Cu and W alloys. Technology of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) was applied for manufacturing of net shaped objects from different powders (PHENIX PM-100 machine) : Inox 904L, Ni625, Cu/Sn, W and Zr02-Y2O3. Performance and limitations of SLM technology for fabrication of elements for chemical and mechanical industries are analysed. Two-component objects (Stainless steel /Cu - H13/CuNi) were fabricated in a two-step manufacturing cycle.

Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

2007-06-01

143

Advanced stabilization of PAN fibers for fabrication of carbon fibers by e-beam irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, the carbon fiber industry has been growing rapidly to meet the demand from efferent industries such as aerospace, military, turbine blades, light weight cylinders and pressure vessels. Generally, carbon fibers are manufactured by a controlled pyrolysis of stabilized precursor fiber such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the stabilization step, the linear PAN molecules are first converted to cyclic structure. However, cyclization is a very complicated process and there are still differences of opinion on the reaction mechanisms. Photo-induced crosslinking and stabilization of PAN via ion beam, X-ray, gamma ray and UV irradiation has been reported in the literature. However, the process required a long stabilization time. In this work, a new and highly effective method of pretreatment PAN precursor fiber was described. The effect of the e-beam on the stabilization process of the fibers was investigated using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement

Jeun, Joon Pyo; Kim, Du Young; Shin, Hye Kyoung; Kang, Phil Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-05-15

144

A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described. A novel adsorbent carbon composite material has been developed comprising carbon fibers and a binder. The material, called carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), was developed through a joint research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER).

Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

1995-06-01

145

29 CFR 1926.449 - Definitions applicable to this subpart.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ignitible fibers and flyings include rayon, cotton (including cotton linters and cotton waste), sisal or henequen, istle, jute, hemp, tow, cocoa fiber, oakum, baled waste kapok, Spanish moss, excelsior, sawdust, woodchips, and other material of...

2010-07-01

146

29 CFR 1910.178 - Powered industrial trucks.  

Science.gov (United States)

...coal dust, coke dust Grain dust, flour dust, starch dust, organic dust Baled waste, cocoa fiber, cotton, excelsior, hemp, istle, jute, kapok, oakum, sisal, Spanish moss, synthetic fibers, tow. Table N-1—Summary Table on Use of...

2010-07-01

147

29 CFR 1910.399 - Definitions applicable to this subpart.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ignitable fibers and flyings include rayon, cotton (including cotton linters and cotton waste), sisal or henequen, istle, jute, hemp, tow, cocoa fiber, oakum, baled waste kapok, Spanish moss, excelsior, and other materials of similar nature....

2010-07-01

148

29 CFR 1926.449 - Definitions applicable to this subpart.  

Science.gov (United States)

...or used. Note: Easily ignitible fibers and flyings include rayon, cotton (including cotton linters and cotton waste), sisal or henequen, istle, jute, hemp, tow, cocoa fiber, oakum, baled waste kapok,...

2010-07-01

149

Fiber optics and their applications in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Naturally, technical innovation and advanced technology give large impact also to the technical field of atomic energy, and the examples are the introduction of computers and optical information transmission and processing technology into atomic energy facilities. Combined with the development of radiation-resistant optical fibers, the optical information technology has been introduced into all aspects of atomic energy field. The information transmission using optical fibers is advantageous because of wide band, small loss, the immunity to crosstalk and electromagnetic induction effects, small size and low price. The structure of optical fibers, the transmission loss in optical fibers, the manufacturing method for optical fibers, the coating structure for optical fibers, optical cable structure, the new optical fibers developed recently such as optical fiber image guides, constant polarization fibers and infrared fibers, the merits of using optical fibers for signal transmission, atomic energy facilities and image transmission, the present status of the research on radiation-resistant fibers, and the application to nuclear power stations, reprocessing plants, FBRs, fusion reactors and others are described. (Kako, I.)

150

Melt-spun shaped fibers with enhanced surface effects: fiber fabrication, characterization and application to woven scaffolds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scaffolds with a high surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA:V) are advantageous with regard to the attachment and proliferation of cells in the field of tissue engineering. This paper reports on the development of novel melt-spun fibers with a high SA:V, which enhanced the surface effects of a fiber-based scaffold while maintaining its mechanical strength. The cross-section of the fibers was altered to a non-circular shape, producing a higher SA:V for a similar cross-sectional area. To obtain fibers with non-circular cross-sectional shape, or shaped fibers, three different types of metal spinnerets were fabricated for the melt-spinning process, each with circular, triangular or cruciform capillaries, using deep X-ray lithography followed by nickel electroforming. Using these spinnerets, circular and shaped fibers were manufactured with biodegradable polyester, polycaprolactone. The SA:V increase in the shaped fibers was experimentally investigated under different processing conditions. Tensile tests on the fibers and indentation tests on the woven fiber scaffolds were performed. The tested fibers and scaffolds exhibited similar mechanical characteristics, due to the similar cross-sectional area of the fibers. The degradation of the shaped fibers was notably faster than that of circular fibers, because of the enlarged surface area of the shaped fibers. The woven scaffolds composed of the shaped fibers significantly increased the proliferation of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells. This approach to increase the SA:V in shaped fibers could be useful for the fabrication of programmable, biodegradable fiber-based scaffolds in tissue engineering. PMID:23669620

Park, S J; Lee, B-K; Na, M H; Kim, D S

2013-08-01

151

Reduced toxicity polyester resins and microvascular pre-preg tapes for advanced composites manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced composites manufacturing broadly encapsulates topics ranging from matrix chemistries to automated machines that lay-up fiber-reinforced materials. Environmental regulations are stimulating research to reduce matrix resin formulation toxicity. At present, composites fabricated with polyester resins expose workers to the risk of contact with and inhalation of styrene monomer, which is a potential carcinogen, neurotoxin, and respiratory irritant. The first primary goal of this thesis is to reduce the toxicity associated with polyester resins by: (1) identification of potential monomers to replace styrene, (2) determination of monomer solubility within the polyester, and (3) investigation of approaches to rapidly screen a large resin composition parameter space. Monomers are identified based on their ability to react with polyester and their toxicity as determined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) and a green screen method. Solubilities were determined by the Hoftyzer -- Van Krevelen method, Hansen solubility parameter database, and experimental mixing of monomers. A combinatorial microfluidic mixing device is designed and tested to obtain distinct resin compositions from two input chemistries. The push for safer materials is complemented by a thrust for multifunctional composites. The second primary goal of this thesis is to design and implement the manufacture of sacrificial fiber materials suitable for use in automated fiber placement of microvascaular multifunctional composites. Two key advancements are required to achieve this goal: (1) development of a roll-to-roll method to place sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber pre-preg tape; and (2) demonstration of feasible manufacture of microvascular carbon fiber plates with automated fiber placement. An automated method for placing sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber tapes is designed and a prototype implemented. Carbon fiber tows with manual placement of sacrificial fibers is implemented within an automated fiber placement machine and the successful fabrication of a carbon fiber plate with an integrated microvascular channel is demonstrated.

Poillucci, Richard

152

Fiber laser performance in industrial applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber lasers are competing with the traditional CO2 Laser, Plasma, Water Jet and Press Punch technology. This paper concentrates on the drivers behind the progress that Punch for higher quality, large volume components and Plasma for lower quality, small quantities. Up until the fiber lasers were commercially available many machine manufacturers were deterred from incorporating lasers due to the technical barriers posed by the lasers available at that time. In particular fiber laser requires no maintenance does not necessitate a beam path to be aligned and kept free of contaminant so have encouraged many traditionally non-laser machine builders to integrate fiber sources into a variety of applications and push the performance envelope. All of the components to build a fibre laser cutting or welding system are now available "off-the shelf" which is even allowing end users to design and build their own systems directly in production environments.

McCulloch, S.; Hassey, A.; Harrison, P.

2013-02-01

153

Effects of radiation on pure silica fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study has been made of the effects of gamma irradiation on pure silica core fibers manufactured by the Maxlight Division of Raychem. Steady state irradiation data were obtained using a Co-60 source. In addition, transient recovery data were obtained using the Hermes II X-ray pulser at Sandia Laboratories. Measurements were made on both glass clad and plastic clad fibers at room temperature and at -55 C. The steady state results on the glass clad and plastic clad fibers were qualitatively similar, indicating the dominance of the core in radiation-induced attenuation effects. Evidence is given to support that the radiation-induced attenuation increases with decreasing core diameter. The recovery time of these glass clad fibers after pulsed irradiation is believed to be superior to any other reported in the published literature at this time. 5 references

154

Lean Manufacturing Engineering Certification  

Science.gov (United States)

This website from Best Practice Research features online business training courses including lean manufacturing and six sigma certification training courses. The courses are available for purchase and may be taken online.

2012-12-10

155

Manufacturing parabolic mirrors  

CERN Multimedia

The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)

1975-01-01

156

Synopsis of fiber optics in harsh environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber optic technology is making significant advances for use in a number of harsh environments, such as air and space platforms. Many of these applications involve integration into systems which make extensive use of optical fiber for high bandwidth signal transmission. The large signal transmission bandwidth of optical fiber has a large and positive impact on the overall performance and weight of the cable harness. There are many benefits of fiber optic systems for air and space harsh environment applications, including minimal electromagnetic interference and environmental effects, lightweight and smaller diameter cables, greater bandwidth, integrated prognostics and diagnostics and the ability to be easily upgraded. To qualify and use a fiber optic cable in space and air harsh environments requires treatment of the cable assembly as a system and understanding the design and behavior of its parts. Many parameters affect an optical fiber's ability to withstand a harsh temperature and radiation environment. The space radiation environment is dependent on orbital altitude, inclination and time, contains energetic magnetically-trapped electrons in the outer Van Allen radiation belt, trapped protons in the inner belt and solar event protons and ions. Both transient and permanent temperature and radiation have an attenuation effect on the performance of the cable fiber. This paper presents an overview of defining fiber optic system and component performance by identifying operating and storage environmental requirements, using appropriate standards to be used in fiber optic cable assembly manufacturing and integration, developing inspection methods and fixtures compliant with the selected standards and developing a fiber optic product process that assures compliance with each design requirement.

Pirich, Ronald

2014-09-01

157

INTEGRATED AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING SUPPLY  

OpenAIRE

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Traditionally, the impact of supply planning strategies on plant traffic is rarely considered. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS) that will assist automotive manufacturers to analyse the effect of supply planning decisions on plant traffic during the supply planning phase of their logistics planning process. In es...

Dyk, P. J. S.; Strasheim, J. J.; Schoor, C. W.

2012-01-01

158

Manufacturing of laboratory equipments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A design of an automatic machine to manufacture components as well as an automatic system for assembly were developed. The designs and system developed are as follows: a) Designs of automatic tack welder in the process of CANDU fuel fabrication. b) Cam design for plug manufacturing lathe. c) Design, mold and fabrication of tool machine for the components of CANDU fuel bundle. d) Service another division

159

Manufacturing technology acquisition  

OpenAIRE

This thesis concerns the acquisition of newly developed production equipment in factories. Types of Manufacturing Technology Acquisition (MTA) can range from in-house development through to outright purchase from a supplier. MTA projects often fail because the new equipment fails to perform well enough or the expected financial benefits are not achieved. The purpose of this research has been to find out how to select the right manufacturing technology acquisition projects, a...

Mallon, Michael John

2002-01-01

160

Cement composites reinforced by short curaua fibers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The development of an eco-friendly material that could reduce CO² emission and that could aggregate value to a natural fiber, setting man at the countryside and raising the income of populations from poor regions is a challenge. Lignocellulosic fibers are cheap and are a readily available reinforcem [...] ent, requiring only a low degree of industrialization for their processing. The main drawback of using cement composites reinforced with lignocellulosic fibers is that the fibers can be mineralized inside the alkaline environment. In this work, Portland cement was partially replaced by metakaolinite in order to produce a matrix free from calcium hydroxide, avoiding thus the problem of fiber mineralization. Cement composites reinforced with 2, 4 and 6% of short curaua fibers, were manufactured. The composites were submitted to four pointing bending tests in order to determine their mechanical behavior. The results obtained were compared with those found for cement composites reinforced with sisal fibers.

A., d' Almeida; R., Toledo Filho; J., Melo Filho.

161

Fabrication and characterization of special microstructured fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) as a novel type of light guiding media typically combine structural elements with very different chemical and optical behavior, e.g. silica - air, silica - high refractive index glasses. The applicative potential is very manifold: devices for telecommunication, nonlinear optics, sensing devices, fiber based gas lasers, etc. We report about preparation and characterization of selected total internal reflection (TIR) guiding MOFs: Air Clad Fiber, Suspended Core Fiber and heavy metal oxide (HMO) glass core MOFs. We fabricated Air Clad Fibers with extreme air fraction. The bridge width of about 0.13 ?m corresponds to a numerical aperture (NA) of about 0.6. Suspended core fibers for evanescent sensing were prepared by pressurized drawing of arrangements of three and four capillaries. By inflating the cavities the NA was increased up to 0.68. Material combined MOFs were prepared for nonlinear application (e.g. supercontinuum generation) with lanthanum aluminum silicate glass core. Thermochemical and optical behaviors of high nonlinear core glass candidates were investigated for alumina concentration up to 20 mol% and lanthanum oxide concentration up to 24 mol% in silica matrix. The manufactured HMO glass core MOF with a La2O3 concentration of 10 mol% shows a similar background loss level like the unstructured HMO glass fiber about 1 dB/m.

Kobelke, J.; Schuster, K.; Schwuchow, A.; Litzkendorf, D.; Spittel, R.; Kirchhof, J.; Bartelt, H.

2011-05-01

162

STUDY THE CREEP OF TUBULAR SHAPED FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inpresent work tubular –shaped fiber reinforced composites were manufactured byusing two types of resins ( Epoxy and unsaturated polyester and separatelyreinforced with glass, carbon and kevlar-49 fibers (filament and woven roving,hybrid reinforcement composites of these fibers were also prepared. The fiberswere wet wound on a mandrel using a purposely designed winding machine,developed by modifying an ordinary lathe, in winding angle of 55° for filament. A creep test was made of either the fulltube or specimens taken from it. Creep was found to increase upon reinforcementin accordance to the rule of mixture and mainly decided by the type of singleor hybridized fibers. The creep behavior, showed that the observed strain tendsto appear much faster at higher temperature as compared with that exhibited atroom temperate. The creep rate also found to be depending on fiber type, matrixtype, and the fiber /matrix bonding. The creep energy calculated fromexperimental observations was found to exhibit highest value for hybridizedreinforcement.

Najat J. Saleh

2013-05-01

163

Development of self-sensing BFRP bars with distributed optic fiber sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a new type of self-sensing basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) bars is developed with using the Brillouin scattering-based distributed optic fiber sensing technique. During the fabrication, optic fiber without buffer and sheath as a core is firstly reinforced through braiding around mechanically dry continuous basalt fiber sheath in order to survive the pulling-shoving process of manufacturing the BFRP bars. The optic fiber with dry basalt fiber sheath as a core embedded further in the BFRP bars will be impregnated well with epoxy resin during the pulling-shoving process. The bond between the optic fiber and the basalt fiber sheath as well as between the basalt fiber sheath and the FRP bar can be controlled and ensured. Therefore, the measuring error due to the slippage between the optic fiber core and the coating can be improved. Moreover, epoxy resin of the segments, where the connection of optic fibers will be performed, is uncured by isolating heat from these parts of the bar during the manufacture. Consequently, the optic fiber in these segments of the bar can be easily taken out, and the connection between optic fibers can be smoothly carried out. Finally, a series of experiments are performed to study the sensing and mechanical properties of the propose BFRP bars. The experimental results show that the self-sensing BFRP bar is characterized by not only excellent accuracy, repeatability and linearity for strain measuring but also good mechanical property.

Tang, Yongsheng; Wu, Zhishen; Yang, Caiqian; Shen, Sheng; Wu, Gang; Hong, Wan

2009-03-01

164

Manufacturing strategy issues in selected Indian manufacturing industry  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents some findings of Indian manufacturing sectors viz. automobile (especially two-wheeler), tractor and general manufacturing industry. Various manufacturing strategy issues such as competitive priorities, improvement activities, and performance measures, have been identified and assessed in Indian context. Sector wise comparison of competitive priorities, improvement activities i.e. advanced manufacturing technology (AMT), integrated information systems (IIS), and advanced ma...

Mahender Singh; Basak, P. C.; Rajbir Singh

2013-01-01

165

Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness losses) during wet/dry cycling. SCMs have been found to be effective in mitigating composite degradation through several processes, including a reduction in the calcium hydroxide content, stabilization of monosulfate by maintaining pore solution pH, and a decrease in ettringite reprecipitation accomplished by increased binding of aluminum in calcium aluminate phases and calcium in the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phase.

Mohr, Benjamin J.

166

Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection  

Science.gov (United States)

Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

Gaddy, Darrell

2014-01-01

167

Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization.

Sigmund, Ole

2009-01-01

168

Reconfigurable manufacturing system: an overview  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the review of Reconfigurable manufacturing system. That aims at achievingcost effective and rapid system changes needed, by incorporating principle of modularity, integrability andscalability as this new manufacturing system. Reconfigurable manufacturing system promises customizedflexibility in a short time, while the other manufacturing system provides generalized flexibility designed foranticipation variations.This paper shows the definition and background of reconfigura...

Malhotra V.; Raj T.; Arora A

2009-01-01

169

Neutron/photon damage assessment of commercial plastic scintillating fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five types of plastic scintillating fibers from three manufacturers were analyzed before and after mixed-field (neutron/photon) exposures in the PULSTAR reactor at North Carolina State University. The fibers received fast neutron fluences which are comparable to multi-year fluences expected within detectors for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The gamma-ray doses delivered were between about 7 and 560 krad, which are generally below the doses considered to be required to induce significant permanent damage in the types of fibres tested. Thus, we were able to make preliminary assessments of neutron effects on light output and attenuation length. The results indicate that, although there is some variability depending on fiber type and manufacturer, significant long-term optical degradation is induced in fibers exposed to fast neutron fluences above approximately 2 x 1013 cm-2. (author)

170

Pressure sensitivity analysis of fiber Bragg grating sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent development in fiber optic sensing technology has mainly focused on discrete sensing, particularly, sensing systems with potential multiplexing and multi-parameter capabilities. Bragg grating fiber optic sensors have emerged as the non-disputed champion for multiplexing and simultaneous multi-parameter sensing for emerging high value structural components, advanced processing and manufacturing capabilities and increased critical infrastructure resilience applications. Although the number of potential applications for this sensing technology is large and spans the domains of medicine, manufacturing, aerospace, and public safety; critical issues such as fatigue life, sensitivity, accuracy, embeddability, material/sensor interface integrity, and universal demodulation systems still need to be addressed. The purpose of this paper is to primarily evaluate Commercial-Of-The-Shelf (COTS) Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors' sensitivity to pressure, often neglected in several applications. The COTS fiber sensitivity to pressure is further evaluated for two types of coatings (Polyimide and Acrylate), and different arrangements (arrayed and single).

Mrad, Nezih; Sridharan, Vasant; Kazemi, Alex

2014-09-01

171

New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections and it is important to understand the effect that different types of calcium carbonates have on the paper properties made of 100% eucalyptus pulp. The current study is focused on selecting the most suitable market available calcium carbonate for the production of uncoated Eucalyptus digital printing paper, targeting a potential filler increase of 5% above the currently used filler content. We made hand sheets using 13 different varieties of widely used calcium carbonates [Nine samples of PCC (two rhombic and seven scalenohedral, covering a wide particle size range from 1.2 {micro}m to 2.9 {micro}m), and four samples of GCC (three anionic and one cationic, with a particle size range from 0.7 {micro}m to 1.5 {micro}m)] available in the market followed by a 12� pilot plant paper machine run. The detailed analysis on the main structural, optical and strength properties of the hand sheets found that the most suitable calcium carbonate for uncoated Eucalyptus digital printing paper production is scalenohedral PCC, with a particle size of 1.9 {micro}m for its positive effects on thickness, stiffness, brightness and opacity of paper.

Doelle, Klaus

2011-06-26

172

Engineering drawing for manufacture  

CERN Document Server

The processes of manufacture and assembly are based on the communication of engineering information via drawing. These drawings follow rules laid down in national and international standards. The organisation responsible for the international rules is the International Standards Organisation (ISO). There are hundreds of ISO standards on engineering drawing because drawing is very complicated and accurate transfer of information must be guaranteed. The information contained in an engineering drawing is a legal specification, which contractor and sub-contractor agree to in a binding contract. The ISO standards are designed to be independent of any one language and thus much symbology is used to overcome any reliance on any language. Companies can only operate efficiently if they can guarantee the correct transmission of engineering design information for manufacturing and assembly.This book is a short introduction to the subject of engineering drawing for manufacture. It should be noted that standards are updat...

Griffiths, Brian

2002-01-01

173

7 CFR 1755.902 - Minimum performance Specification for fiber optic cables.  

Science.gov (United States)

...manufacturer must establish a quality assurance system. Tests on a quality assurance basis must be made...requirements and the fiber and cable attributes required by this section...insulating material such as wood. (B) Tape...

2010-01-01

174

Flexibility in fuel manufacturing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From its inception Exxon Nuclear has produced both BWR and PWR fuels. This is reflected in a product line that, to date, includes over 20 fuel designs. These range from 6x6 design at one end of the spectrum to the recently introduced 17x17 design. The benefits offered include close tailoring of the fuel design to match the customer's requirements, and the ability to rapidly introduce product changes, such as the axial blanket design, with a minimal impact on manufacturing. This flexibility places a number of demands on the manufacturing organization. Close interfaces must be established, and maintained, between the marketing, product design, manufacturing, purchasing and quality organizations, and the information flows must be immediate and accurate. Production schedules must be well planned and must be maintained or revised to reflect changing circumstances. Finally, the manufacturing facilities must be designed to allow rapid switchover between product designs with minor tooling changes and/or rerouting of product flows to alternate work stations. Among the tools used to manage the flow of information and to maintain the tight integration necessary between the various manufacturing, engineering and quality organizations is a commercially available, computerized planning and tracking system, AMAPS. A real-time production data collection system has been designed which gathers data from each production work station for use by the shop floor control module of AMAPS. Acche shop floor control module of AMAPS. Accuracy of input to the system is improved through extensive use of bar codes to gather information on the product as it moves through and between work stations. This computerized preparation of material tracing has an impact on direct manufacturing records, quality control records, nuclear material records and accounting and inventory records. This is of benefit to both Exxon Nuclear and its customers

175

Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers  

Science.gov (United States)

Composed of thirteen vehicle manufacturers, the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers is an advocacy group for the automobile industry with special focuses on vehicle safety and the environment. Its Web site is loaded with information about emerging technologies, fuel facts, and safety data. One outstanding resource is the Driver Focus Guidelines report, found in the Vehicle Safety section. This report, released last month, discusses the best practices of "driver interactions with future in-vehicle information and communications systems" such as cellular phones and navigation systems. There are many other features on the site, like detailed descriptions of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid and fully electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles.

176

Advanced Integrated Manufacturing Center  

Science.gov (United States)

A 15,000 sq. ft. state of the art model factory is the centerpiece of the Advanced Integrated Manufacturing (AIM) Center, which offers workforce development, production support, and process improvement services for local industry. In addition to the factory, which companies may utilize for their production needs, the AIM Center also offers Lean Manufacturing workshops (on-site or at the AIM Center). Other workshops, such as CNC programming, CAD/CAM training, injection molding, safety, project management, setup reduction/quick change, value stream mapping, 5S/visual controls, work place organization, lean office, workflow improvement, simulation modeling for workflow, and quality assurance, are also available.

Dilley, David

2009-11-02

177

Laser in manufacturing  

CERN Document Server

Generally a laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) is defined as "a device which uses a quantum mechanical effect, stimulated emission, to generate a coherent beam of light from a lasing medium of controlled purity, size, and shape". Laser material processing represents a great number of methods, which are rapidly growing in current and different industrial applications as new alternatives to traditional manufacturing processes. Nowadays, the use of lasers in manufacturing is an emerging area with a wide variety of applications, for example, in electronics, molds an

Davim, J Paulo

2013-01-01

178

Manufacturing and automation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

2010-04-01

179

ATS materials/manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Materials/Manufacturing Technology subelement is a part of the base technology portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program. The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from national laboratories and universities. The projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. Work is currently ongoing on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), the scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technologies, materials characterization, and technology information exchange. This paper presents highlights of the activities during the past year. 12 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

Karnitz, M.A.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K. [and others

1997-11-01

180

Boiler tube manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In boiler tube manufacture it is necessary to pay special attention to the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and freedom from defects of the product. These properties are affected by both composition and production methods. The production route for boiler tubes at SANDVIK is described. The merits of pilgering and drawing as cold working methods are discussed. A tube mill especially designed for making PWR steam generator tubing is described. Finally the importance of a well developed quality control system for successful tube manufacture is stressed. (author)

181

Validation of Long-Fiber Thermoplastic Composite Models  

OpenAIRE

With increased pressure to reduce energy consumption, long-fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (LFTs) are of interest to aerospace and automotive industries due to their light weight in combination with other desirable mechanical properties and ease of manufacturing to replace common materials such as aluminum and magnesium. However, the performance of LFTs is highly dependent on microstructural variables such as fiber length and orientation, which are heavily influenced by the manufact...

Vuong, Christian A.; Kinney, Megan; Sangid, Michael

2013-01-01

182

Flax Fiber - Interfacial Bonding  

Science.gov (United States)

Measured flax fiber physical and chemical properties potentially impact bonding and thus stress transfer between the matrix and fiber within composites. These first attempts at correlating flax fiber quality and biofiber composites contain the initial steps towards identifying key flax fiber charac...

183

Wood versus plant fibers: Similarities and differences in composite applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The work on cellulose fiber composites is typically strictly divided into two separated research fields depending on the fiber origin, that is, from wood and from annual plants, representing the two different industries of forest and agriculture, respectively. The present paper evaluates in parallel wood fibers and plant fibers to highlight their similarities and differences regarding their use as reinforcement in composites and to enable mutual transfer of knowledge and technology between the two research fields. The paper gives an introduction to the morphology, chemistry, and ultrastructure of the fibers, the modeling of the mechanical properties of the fibers, the fiber preforms available for manufacturing of composites, the typical mechanical properties of the composites, the modeling of the mechanical properties with focus on composites having a random fiber orientation and a non-negligible porosity content, and finally, the moisture sensitivity of the composites. The performance of wood and plant fibercomposites is compared to the synthetic glass and carbon fibers conventionally used for composites, and advantages and disadvantages of the different fibers are discussed. © 2013 Bo Madsen and E. Kristofer Gamstedt.

Madsen, Bo; Gamstedt, E. Kristofer

2013-01-01

184

Radiation oxidation and subsequent thermal curing of polyacrylonitrile fiber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were exposed to gamma-ray irradiation at room temperature under vacuum, air and oxygen to investigate the radiation oxidation effects on PAN fibers. Radiation-induced oxidation degradation and crosslinking was evaluated by measuring the gel fraction. It was found that radiation oxidation took place mainly on the fiber surface due to the limited penetration of oxygen into PAN fibers from the surface, and the oxidation thickness increased with the oxygen pressure. Chain scission was dominant in the oxidized area, and crosslinking occurred in the inner part of the fibers. However, the oxidized regions of the fibers can be converted to gel via crosslinking by thermal curing at 160 °C in a N2 atmosphere. Higher extents of radiation oxidation degradation led to a greater increase in the gel fraction. These results suggest that the radiation treatment of PAN fibers prior to thermal oxidation may be useful for manufacturing carbon fibers. - Highlights: • PAN fiber was irradiated in the presence of oxygen to induce oxidation at room temperature. • Oxidation degradation occurred at the fiber surface. • Oxidation thickness increased with oxygen pressure. • The oxidized region can be converted to a gel by the thermal treatment

185

Advanced fiber optic face plate quality detector design  

Science.gov (United States)

A fiber optic face plate is defined by a plurality of fibers of transparent material that are fused and compressed together to transmit an image from one end to another end. Fiber optic face plates exhibit utility in the image intensifiers, cathoderay tubes, and other media displays. In this paper, the design of an advanced fiber optic face plate quality detector is presented. Modern optoelectronic imaging techniques are being used to form fiber optic plate transmission images that are suitable for analyzing the quality parameters of fiber optic face plate. The diffusing light from a halogen lamp is condensed by condenser lens then through a fiber optic face plate, a set of lenses are used to magnify the transmission image, a computer controls a long linear CCD to scan the transmission image, a data grabber captures the CCD's output data and the computer transforms the data into frame image for further analysis. Digital image processing techniques are adopted to analyze the transmission image to obtain the required quality parameters. The image analysis software combines the API that a company provided and programed API is used to acquire the quality parameter that a relevant criteria required. With the long linear CCD scanning and image analysis being computerized, it accomplishes the detection of quality parameters of fiber optic face plates automaticly. The detector can replace the manual detection method and can be widely used for the quality detection of fiber optic face plate. Manufacturers of fiber optic face plates can benefit from the detector for quality control.

Liu, Yang; Su, Liping; Zhao, Jingxia

2010-10-01

186

NOVEL USE OF WASTE KERATIN AND COTTON LINTER FIBERS FOR PROTOTYPE TISSUE PAPERS AND THEIR EVALUATION  

OpenAIRE

Corporate environmental sustainability calls for sustainable product manufacturing with less creation of waste material or increased reuse of waste materials. One example is the use of keratin fiber from the poultry industry and cotton linter from the textile industry for paper and tissue manufacturing. In this paper, the feasibility of using these waste fibers to make paper was demonstrated in handsheets. The properties of these handsheets were compared to the properties of handsheets made w...

Bo Shi; Shannon, Tom G.; Ellen Pelky

2010-01-01

187

Novel design of dual-core microstructured fiber with enhanced longitudinal strain sensitivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Constantly refined technology of manufacturing increasingly complex photonic crystal fibers (PCF) leads to new optical fiber sensor concepts. The ways of enhancing the influence of external factors (such as hydrostatic pressure, temperature, acceleration) on the fiber propagating conditions are commonly investigated in literature. On the other hand longitudinal strain analysis, due to the calculation difficulties caused by the three dimensional computation, are somehow neglected. In this paper we show results of such a 3D numerical simulation and report methods of tuning the fiber strain sensitivity by changing the fiber microstructure and core doping level. Furthermore our approach allows to control whether the modes' effective refractive index is increasing or decreasing with strain, with the possibility of achieving zero strain sensitivity with specific fiber geometries. The presented numerical analysis is compared with experimental results of the fabricated fibers characterization. Basing on the aforementioned methodology we propose a novel dual-core fiber design with significantly increased sensitivity to longitudinal strain for optical fiber sensor applications. Furthermore the reported fiber satisfies all conditions necessary for commercial applications like good mode matching with standard single-mode fiber, low confinement loss and ease of manufacturing with the stack-and-draw technique. Such fiber may serve as an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer when highly coherent source is used. With the optimization of single mode transmission to 850 nm, we propose a VCSEL source to be used in order to achieve a low-cost, reliable and compact strain sensing transducer.

Szostkiewicz, Lukasz; Tenderenda, T.; Napierala, M.; Szyma?ski, M.; Murawski, M.; Mergo, P.; Lesiak, P.; Marc, P.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.; Nasilowski, T.

2014-05-01

188

Dynamic Strength of Fiber Glass Shells  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents generalization of results, obtained by experimental investigations of dynamic response, strength, and load-bearing ability of cylindrical and spherical shells, manufactured from composite materials on the basis of fiber glass, under loading them by explosion of compact high-explosive charges on the inside. The paper describes mechanisms and criteria of destruction of such shells, methods to improve their specific load-bearing ability. Results of experiments concerning inve...

Syrunin, M.; Fedorenko, A.; Ivanov, A.

1997-01-01

189

Virtual manufacturing in reality  

Science.gov (United States)

SMEs play an important role in manufacturing industry. But from time to time there is a shortage in resources to complete the particular order in time. Number of systems is introduced to produce digital information in order to support product and process development activities. Main problem is lack of opportunity for direct data transition within design system modules when needed temporary extension of design capacity (virtuality) or to implement integrated concurrent product development principles. The planning experience in the field is weakly used as well. The concept of virtual manufacturing is a supporting idea to solve this problem. At the same time a number of practical problems should be solved like information conformity, data transfer, unified technological concepts acceptation etc. In the present paper the proposed ways to solve the practical problems of virtual manufacturing are described. General objective is to introduce the knowledge-based CAPP system as missing module for Virtual Manufacturing in the selected product domain. Surface-centered planning concept based on STEP- based modeling principles, and knowledge-based process planning methodology will be used to gain the objectives. As a result the planning module supplied by design data with direct access, and supporting advising environment is expected. Mould producing SME would be as test basis.

Papstel, Jyri; Saks, Alo

2000-10-01

190

Control of Manufacturing Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

This course features a complete set of lecture notes and problem sets with solutions. The objective of this subject is to understand the nature of manufacturing process variation and the methods for its control. The key concepts of these lessons are: statistical process control, process optimization and in-process feedback control.

Boning, Duane S.

191

Manufacturing and Merchandising Careers  

Science.gov (United States)

Anyone with a flair for business, product development, or promotion might consider a manufacturing or merchandising occupation. The music industry offers many career opportunities for administrators, salespersons, marketing specialists--the record industry offers positions from promotion manager to rack jobber. Describes instrument company…

Ryan, Peter J.; And Others

1977-01-01

192

Cladding tube manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report 'Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding.' Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs.

Hahn, R. [Kraftwerk Union AG, Mulheim (Germany); Jeong, Y.H.; Baek, B.J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, B.K.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1999-04-01

193

Radiation curing of composites for vehicle component and vehicle manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some traditional uses of metals in vehicle component and vehicle manufacture, such as steel (specific gravity 7.8) or aluminum (specific gravity 2.7), can be replaced by carbon-fiber composites (specific gravity 1.6) to provide significant weight savings while maintaining structural integrity. The aerospace and aircraft industries have adopted this approach. The auto or motor vehicle industries have explored the use of composites, but have been reluctant to widely adopt this technology because of concerns over manufacturing processes. A typical steel auto body weighing ? 750 kilos would weigh only ? 155 kilos if replaced with carbon-fiber composites. Structural members, as the vehicle chassis, could also be fabricated out of carbon-fiber composites. With only 20% of the body weight, smaller, lower horse-power and more fuel efficient engines could be used to power such vehicles. Commercial aircraft manufacturers that have adopted carbon-fiber structures in lieu of aluminum (a 40% weight savings) estimate a 20% savings in fuel costs for large planes. These are still made with conventional materials being used for motors, tires, interiors, and the like. A fuel efficient auto now running at ? 10 kilometers/liter would more than double its fuel efficiency given the nearly 80% weight savings attainable by use of carbon-fiber composites just for the vehicle body. As with aircraft, conventional systems for propulsion (motors), braking, tires and interiors could still be, tires and interiors could still be used. Radiation curing can simplify the manufacture of carbon-fiber composite vehicle components. Highly penetrating X-rays derived from high current, high energy electron beam (EB) accelerators can be used to cure structural composites while they are constrained within inexpensive molds; thus reducing cure cycles, eliminating heat transfer concerns and concerns over potentially hazardous emissions during the curing process. Since X-rays can penetrate mold walls, the curing process is quite versatile, enabling diverse components with varying designs to be cured using a common X-ray source or multiple parts of the same design could be cured at once. Since the energy output of an EB unit can be tightly controlled, EB processing itself can be used to produce 'B' staged fiber-reinforced composite materials for sheet molding (SMC) and prepregs. Such materials can significantly reduce the time-to-cure should alternative energy sources or even subsequent X-ray curing be used. In the EB mode, SMC materials can be made in excess of 100 meters/minute. The matrix systems are proprietary formulations based on common radiation responsive materials used in a variety of radiation curing applications. (author)

194

Decay time and light yield measurements for plastic scintillating fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have studied light production and propagation in three different samples of plastic scintillating fibers manufactured by Kyowa Gas Co.: SCSF-81, SCSF-38 and SCSF-38 with a quenching additive. The emission time distribution is described phenomenologically by a fast two-step scintillation process and an additional slow component, the time constants of which are determined. The light yield from the fibers is measured as a function of distance for the two light components which propagate by total internal reflection from the core-clad interface and from the clad-air interface. We obtain the absolute light yield and attenuation lengths for the different fibers. (orig.)

195

Decay time and light yield measurements for plastic scintillating fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied light production and propagation in three different samplesof plastic scintillating fibers manufactured by Kyowa Gas Co.: SCSF-81, SCSF-38 and SCSF-38 with afquenching additive. The emissio time distribution is described phenomenologically by a fast two-step scintillation process and an additional slow component, the time constants of which are determined. The light yield from the fibers is measured as a function of distance for the two light components which propagate by total internal reflection from the core-clad interface and from the clad-air interface. We obtain the absolute light yield and attenuation lengths for the different fibers.

Hawkes, C. M.; Kuhlen, M.; Milliken, B.; Stroynowski, R.; Wicklund, E.; Shimizu, T.; Shinji, O.

1990-07-01

196

Composite PLA scaffolds reinforced with PDO fibers for tissue engineering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel composite scaffolds were produced using long continuous bidirectional fibers embedded in an electrospun matrix, with the aim of using them in soft tissue engineering applications. The fibers are of polydioxanone and the matrix of polylactic acid. The novel manufacturing method consists of direct electrospinning performed on both sides of a collector that supports the already arranged fibers. The scaffolds were tested in vitro using 3T3 mouse fibroblasts as-obtained or functionalized with biotin or poly (dopamine). Functionalization did not significantly affect cells attachment, metabolic activity, or proliferation, but poly (dopamine) was proven to be effective in inducing hydrophilicity to the surface. PMID:22071352

Cont, Liana; Grant, David; Scotchford, Colin; Todea, Milica; Popa, Catalin

2013-02-01

197

Lunar preform manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

198

Enrichment of a set of microRNAs during the cotton fiber development  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is one of the most important economic crops and provides excellent fibers for textile manufacture. In addition to its industrial and agricultural importance, the fiber cell (plant trichome) also is a biological model system for exploring gene expression and regulation. Small RNAs regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. However, whether small RNAs are involved in regulation of fiber cell development is unk...

Qiu Cheng; Chen Xu; Wang Qin; Kwak Pieter; Yang Zhi

2009-01-01

199

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

OpenAIRE

Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF) which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carboni...

Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo; Choyu Otani; Heitor Aguiar Polidoro; Satika Otani

2013-01-01

200

Biopersistence of man-made vitreous silicate fibers in the human lung.  

OpenAIRE

There is now a substantial body of experimental data on the pulmonary biopersistence of man-made vitreous silicate fibers (MMVSF), but human data are seriously lacking. Our knowledge in this field is essentially limited to a few reports of measurements of fibers retained in lung tissue samples taken at autopsy from workers manufacturing these products. Three types of exposure were studied: fibrous glass, mineral wool, and refractory ceramic fibers. Overall, the available data do not provide e...

Se?bastien, P.

1994-01-01

201

Composite submarine cable containing optical fibers and pilot pairs  

Science.gov (United States)

Demands for composite cables containing optical fibers and multi pairs have been increasing for an economical and a systematical point of view. In reply to such demands, we have developed and manufactured a composite submarine cable containing 8 GI type fibers and 50 pairs of 0.9 mm copper conductors. This paper describes the construction of the composite cable and the loss characteristics of the optical fibers against various mechanical forces due to the armouring process and the installation and also describes the evaluation of the life time of the optical fibers determined by various tensions and remained stress in fibers. We confirm the reliability of the newly developed composite submarine cable for an actual use.

Matsuo, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Aoto, K.; Higashimoto, T.; Amano, Y.

1986-11-01

202

Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Cissus quadrangularis stem.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polymer composite has contributed tremendously for energy efficient technologies in automotive and aero industries. Environmental and health concerns related to the carcinogenic nature of artificial fiber in polymer composite needs a retrofit. Eco friendly natural cellulosic fiber extract from the stem of Cissus quadrangularis plant is extensively characterized to consider as a viable alternative for man-made hazardous fibers. Anatomical study, chemical analysis, physical analysis, FTIR, XRD, SEM analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis were done to establish the certainty of using them as reinforcement fiber. Its light weight and the presence of high cellulose content (82.73%) with very little wax (0.18%) provide high specific strength and good bonding properties in composite manufacturing. The flaky honeycomb outer surface revealed through electron microscopy contributes for high modulus in CQ stem fiber and thermo gravimetric analysis ensures thermal stability up to 270 °C, which is within the polymerization process temperature. PMID:25498651

Indran, S; Raj, R Edwin

2015-03-01

203

Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Cissus quadrangularis root.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber reinforced polymer composites are replacing many metallic structures due to its high specific strength and modulus. However commonly used man-made E-glass fibers are hazardous for health and carcinogenic by nature. Comprehensive characterization of Cissus quadrangularis root fiber such as anatomical study, chemical analysis, physical analysis, FTIR, XRD, SEM analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis are done. The results are very encouraging for its application in fiber industries, composite manufacturing, etc. Due to its light weight and the presence of high cellulose content (77.17%) with very little wax (0.14%) provide high specific strength and good bonding properties. The flaky honeycomb outer surface and low microfibril angle revealed through electron microscopy contributes for its high modulus. The thermo gravimetric analysis indicates better thermal stability of the fiber up to 230°C, which is well within the polymerization process temperature. PMID:24906775

Indran, S; Raj, R Edwin; Sreenivasan, V S

2014-09-22

204

Utilization of Faraday Mirror in Fiber Optic Current Sensors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fiber optic sensors dispose of some advantages in the field of electrical current and magnetic field measurement, like large bandwidth, linearity, light transmission possibilities. Unfortunately, they suffer from some parasitic phenomena. The crucial issue is the presence of induced and latent linear birefringence, which is imposed by the fiber manufacture imperfections as well as mechanical stress by fiber bending. In order to the linear birefringence compensation a promising method was chosen for pulsed current sensor design. The method employs orthogonal polarization conjugation by the back direction propagation of the light wave in the fiber. The Jones calculus analysis presents its propriety. An experimental fiber optic current sensor has been designed and realized. The advantage of the proposed method was proved considering to the sensitivity improvement.

P. Fiala

2008-12-01

205

Nano-fiber diameters as liquid concentration sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufacturing technologies of nano-fiber sensors offer a number of approved properties of optical fiber sensors utilized in various sensory applications. The nano-fiber sensor is utilized to sense the difference in the concentration of D-glucose in double-distilled deionized water and to measure the refractive index (RI) of a sugar solution. Our proposed method exhibited satisfactory capability based on bimolecular interactions in the biological system. The response of the nano-fiber sensors indicates a different kind of interaction among various groups of AAs. These results can be interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and the structure making or breaking ability of solutes in the given solution. This study utilized spectra photonics to measure the transmission of light through different concentrations of sugar solution, employing cell cumber and nano-optical fibers as sensors.

Chyad, Radhi M.; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi

2013-05-01

206

Mechanical properties of glass fiber-reinforced endodontic posts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five types of posts from three different manufacturers (RTD, France, Carbotech, France and Ivoclar-Vivadent, Liechenstein) were subjected to three-point bending tests in order to obtain fatigue results, flexural strength and modulus. Transverse and longitudinal polished sections were examined by scanning electron microscopy and evaluated by computer-assisted image analysis. Physical parameters, including volume % of fibers, their dispersion index and coordination number, were calculated and correlated with mechanical properties. The weaker posts showed more fiber dispersion, higher resin contents, larger numbers of visible defects and reduced fatigue resistance. The flexural strength was inversely correlated with fiber diameter and the flexural modulus was weakly related to coordination number, volume % of fibers and dispersion index. The interfacial adhesion between the silica fibers and the resin matrix was observed to be of paramount importance. PMID:19428317

Cheleux, Nicolas; Sharrock, Patrick J

2009-10-01

207

Manufacture of heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tube bundle for use in a heat exchanger has a series of spaced parallel tubes supported by tube plates and is manufactured by depositing welding material around the end of each tube, machining the deposited material to form an annular flange around the end of the tube and welding the flange into apertures in the tube plate. Preferably the tubes have a length which is slightly less than the distance between the outer surfaces of the tube plates and the deposited material is deposited so that it overlaps and protects the end surfaces of the tubes. A plug may be inserted in the bore of the tubes during the welding material deposition which, as described, is effected by manual metal arc welding. One use of heat exchangers incorporating a tube bundle manufactured as above is in apparatus for reducing the volume of, and recovering nitric acid from, radioactive effluents from a nuclear reprocessing plant. (author)

208

Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications  

CERN Document Server

Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

2013-01-01

209

[Manufacture of foam plastic.  

OpenAIRE

This document on the manufacture of foam plastic has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processen to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technolo...

Hulskotte J; Veldt C; Poel P van de

2012-01-01

210

Additive manufactured material  

OpenAIRE

AbstractThis project treats Additive Manufacturing (AM) for metallic material and the question if it is suitable to be used in the aeronautics industry. AM is a relatively new production method where objects are built up layer by layer from a computer model. The art of AM allows in many cases more design freedoms that enables production of more weight optimized and functional articles. Other advantages are material savings and shorter lead times which have a large economic value.An extensive ...

Ek, Kristofer

2014-01-01

211

Additive Manufactured Material  

OpenAIRE

This project treats Additive Manufacturing (AM) for metallic material and the question if it is suitable to be used in the aeronautics industry. AM is a relatively new production method where objects are built up layer by layer from a computer model. The art of AM allows in many cases more design freedoms that enables production of more weight optimized and functional articles. Other advantages are material savings and shorter lead times which have a large economic value. An extensive literat...

Ek, Kristofer

2014-01-01

212

Procyclical Productivity in Manufacturing  

OpenAIRE

We study the cyclical behavior of labor productivity in eighty industries of the Chilean manufacturing sector in the 1979-2001 period. We find that labor productivity at the sector-level is procyclical but it is a-cyclical when using aggregate data. We provide an analytical and empirical explanation for this divergence. We also use an econometric model to quantify the determinants of productivity. The results indicate that technology shocks account for one half of productivity growth, thus su...

LUCAS NAVARRO; RAIMUNDO SOTO

2006-01-01

213

Composite Random Fiber Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems made from fibers are common in the biological and engineering worlds. In many instances, as for example in skin, where elastin and collagen fibers are present, the fiber network is composite, in the sense that it contains fibers of very different properties. The relationship between microstructural parameters and the elastic moduli of random fiber networks containing a single type of fiber is understood. In this work we address a similar target for the composite networks. We show that linear superposition of the contributions to stiffness of individual sub-networks does not apply and interesting non-linear effects are observed. A physical basis of these effects is proposed.

Picu, Catalin; Shahsavari, Ali

2013-03-01

214

Two Products Manufacturer’s Production Decisions with Carbon Constraint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a manufacture which produces both ordinary products and green products in a monopoly market, and investigate his production decisions with carbon constraint. Firstly, we derive the manufacturer’s optimal production and maximum profit without carbon constraint. Then, we discuss the optimal production and maximum profit with carbon constraint in different situation. The results indicate that manufacturer’s optimal production and maximum profit with carbon constraint are less than them without carbon constraint, optimal production is an increasing function with carbon constraint.

Li LU

2013-03-01

215

Steel fiber reinforced concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

216

16 CFR 1500.91 - Determinations regarding lead content for certain materials or products under section 101 of the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...of: (i) Natural fibers (dyed or undyed) including, but not limited to, cotton, kapok, flax, linen, jute, ramie, hemp, kenaf, bamboo, coir, sisal, silk, wool (sheep), alpaca, llama, goat (mohair, cashmere), rabbit (angora),...

2010-01-01

217

16 CFR 1500.91 - Determinations regarding lead content for certain materials or products under section 101 of the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...consisting of: (i) Natural fibers (dyed or undyed) including, but not limited to, cotton, kapok, flax, linen, jute, ramie, hemp, kenaf, bamboo, coir, sisal, silk, wool (sheep), alpaca, llama, goat (mohair, cashmere), rabbit...

2010-01-01

218

Radiation curing of composites for vehicle component and vehicle manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some ordinary uses of metals in vehicle components and vehicle manufacture, such as steel (specific gravity 7.8) or aluminum (specific gravity 2.7), can be replaced by carbon fiber composites (specific gravity 1.6) to provide significant weight savings while still maintaining structural integrity. The aircraft and aerospace industries have adopted this concept. The motor vehicle industry is using composite materials for some nonstructural components in automobiles, but have been reluctant to widely adopt this technology because of concerns about thermal curing times and other issues in high-volume manufacturing processes. A typical steel auto body weighing ?750 kilograms would weigh only ?155 kilograms if replaced with carbon fiber composites. Structural members, such as the vehicle chassis and body frame, could also be made out of carbon fiber composites. With only 20% of the typical body weight, smaller, lighter, less powerful and more fuel efficient engines could be used in such vehicles. Commercial aircraft manufacturers have adopted large carbon fiber structures in lieu of aluminum for a 40% weight reduction and estimate a 20% savings in fuel costs for large planes. These aircraft still use conventional materials for motors, tires and interior components. The fuel efficiency of an automobile could be doubled with an 80% weight reduction. As with aircraft, conventional motors, tires and interior components could be used in automobiles. Radiation curing can sim automobiles. Radiation curing can simplify the manufacture of carbon fiber composites. Penetrating X-rays generated with high-energy, high-power electron beam (EB) accelerators can cure structural composites while they are constrained within inexpensive molds; thus reducing cure times, eliminating heat transfer concerns and potentially hazardous volatile emissions during the curing process. Since X-rays can penetrate mold walls, the curing process is quite versatile, enabling diverse components with varying designs to be cured using a common X-ray generator or multiple parts of the same design could be cured at the same time. Since the power output of an EB accelerator can be tightly controlled, EB processing can be used to produce 'B' staged, fiber-reinforced composite materials for sheet molding compounds (SMC) and prepregs. Such materials can significantly reduce the time-to-cure should alternative energy sources or subsequent X-ray curing be used. In the EB mode, SMC materials can be made at more than 100 meters per minute. The polymeric matrix systems are proprietary formulations based on common radiation responsive materials which are used in a variety of radiation curing applications. (author)

219

Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter  

Science.gov (United States)

A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

1983-06-30

220

Whole Grains and Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

... soluble fiber include oat bran, oatmeal, beans, peas, rice bran, barley, citrus fruits, strawberries and apple pulp. Insoluble ... fiber include whole-wheat breads, wheat cereals, wheat bran, rye, rice, barley, most other grains, cabbage, beets, carrots, Brussels ...

221

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Kids 'n Fiber Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer ... Hemorrhoids'? - - For More Information FDA Flickr Photostream - Kids 'n Fiber - Page Last Updated: 01/08/2014 Note: ...

222

Mechanical Behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Pultruded Composite Gratings  

OpenAIRE

Well-designed and manufactured glass fiber reinforced polymer composite structures have several advantages over steel and conventional concrete structures such as high strength-to-weight ratio, good stiffness, good corrosion resistance and good damping capacity. In view of their higher cost however, their use is restricted to structures with smaller dimensions such as pedestrian walkways particularly where aggressive environmental con...

Rahul Mangire; Srinivasan, Malur N.

2013-01-01

223

7 CFR 1755.903 - Fiber optic service entrance cables.  

Science.gov (United States)

...fibers. (2) Bend test. All cables manufactured...High Temperature Bend Test” described in Section...user, the cable may be factory terminated with connectors...obtain the Agency's acceptance, refer to the product...testing. (1) The tests described in this...

2010-01-01

224

Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

Frazier, William E.

2014-06-01

225

Scintillating fiber tracking techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status of the field of scintillating fiber detection and tracking is briefly reviewed, and avenues for further work are suggested. Attention is given to the core material, cladding material, and extra-mural absorber to be used in the scintillating fibers, as well as to the properties of attenuation length, radiation resistance, and fiber profile. Some examples are given of successful recording of tracks and interactions. Current developments are mentioned in relation to plastic and glass fibers and liquid capillaries

226

Fiber Laser Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

This pdf from OP-TEC, the National Center for Optics and Photonics Education, addresses basic concepts underlying the operation of fiber lasers. This free 19 page document supplements the fiber laser material presented in an Elements of Photonics Course by provided a more current and detailed description of how lasers operate. This course covers an introduction to fiber laser application, established laser types, advantages of fiber lasers, application in materials processing, and other applications.

227

Advanced Fibers for Composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews high performance fibers used in the production of textile composites. Techniques used to produce preform using these fibers are discussed. The properties of fibers such as kevlar, spectra, glass, carbon and ceramic are presented. The paper also discusses densification or consolidation techniques used to produce composites from each fiber. Finally, the paper compares the properties of Carbon/Epoxy composites with that of 6061 aluminum. 3 figs., 4 tabs

228

Superlattice Microstructured Optical Fiber  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A generic three-stage stack-and-draw method is demonstrated for the fabrication of complex-microstructured optical fibers. We report the fabrication and characterization of a silica superlattice microstructured fiber with more than 800 rhomboidally arranged air-holes. A polarization-maintaining fiber with a birefringence of 8.5 × 10?4 is demonstrated. The birefringent property of the fiber is found to be highly insensitive to external environmental effects, such as pressure.

Ming-Leung Vincent Tse

2014-06-01

229

Stacked macro fiber piezoelectric composite generator for a spinal fusion implant  

Science.gov (United States)

A manufacturing method was developed to create a piezoelectric 3-layer stacked, macro fiber composite generator operating in d33 mode to promote bone growth in spinal fusion surgeries. A specimen of 9 × 17 × 9 mm thick was constructed from 800 ?m diameter PZT fibers and medical grade epoxy. Electromechanical testing was performed at three stages of manufacturing to determine the influence of these processes on power generation. An average peak power of over 335 ?W was generated in the heat-treated specimen during simulated human body loads. The work provides insights into manufacturing methods for lowered source impedance power generation for a variety of applications.

Tobaben, Eric J.; Goetzinger, Nathan C.; Domann, John P.; Barrett-Gonzalez, Ronald; Arnold, Paul M.; Friis, Elizabeth A.

2015-01-01

230

Fundamentals of fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers  

CERN Document Server

This book covers the fundamental aspects of fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers, and includes a wide range of material from laser physics fundamentals to state-of-the-art topics in this rapidly growing field of quantum electronics. Emphasis is placed on the nonlinear processes taking place in fiber lasers and amplifiers, their similarities, differences to, and their advantages over other solid-state lasers. The reader will learn basic principles of solid-state physics and optical spectroscopy of laser active centers in fibers, main operational laser regimes, and practical recommendations and suggestions on fiber laser research, laser applications, and laser product development. The book will be useful for students, researchers, and professionals who work with lasers, in the optical communications, chemical and biological industries, etc.

Ter-Mikirtychev, Valerii (Vartan)

2014-01-01

231

Three-Axis Distributed Fiber Optic Strain Measurement in 3D Woven Composite Structures  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading. Keywords: fiber optic, distributed strain sensing, Rayleigh scatter, optical frequency domain reflectometry

Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

2013-01-01

232

Oxynitride glass fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Research at the Army Materials Technology Laboratory (AMTL) and elsewhere has shown that many glass properties including elastic modulus, hardness, and corrosion resistance are improved markedly by the substitution of nitrogen for oxygen in the glass structure. Oxynitride glasses, therefore, offer exciting opportunities for making high modulus, high strength fibers. Processes for making oxynitride glasses and fibers of glass compositions similar to commercial oxide glasses, but with considerable enhanced properties, are discussed. We have made glasses with elastic moduli as high as 140 GPa and fibers with moduli of 120 GPa and tensile strengths up to 2900 MPa. AMTL holds a U.S. patent on oxynitride glass fibers, and this presentation discusses a unique process for drawing small diameter oxynitride glass fibers at high drawing rates. Fibers are drawn through a nozzle from molten glass in a molybdenum crucible at 1550 C. The crucible is situated in a furnace chamber in flowing nitrogen, and the fiber is wound in air outside of the chamber, making the process straightforward and commercially feasible. Strengths were considerably improved by improving glass quality to minimize internal defects. Though the fiber strengths were comparable with oxide fibers, work is currently in progress to further improve the elastic modulus and strength of fibers. The high elastic modulus of oxynitride glasses indicate their potential for making fibers with tensile strengths surpassing any oxide glass fibers, and we hope to realize that potential in the near future.

Patel, Parimal J.; Messier, Donald R.; Rich, R. E.

1991-01-01

233

Resonant filtered fiber amplifiers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present our recent result on utilizing resonant/bandgap fiber designs to achieve high performance ytterbium doped fiber amplifers for achieving diffraction limited beam quality in large mode area fibers, robust bending performance and gain shaping for long wavelength operation of yb-doped amplifiers.

Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko

2013-01-01

234

Careers in Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

This learning activity from The Mechatronics Education CenterâÂÂs Project SHINE widens studentsâ understanding of the manufacturing industry, including learning about specific jobs in industry. Through researching a specific business (the example used is in the health care industry), students will begin to more deeply understand products and services offered by the company, a general profile of the company, skills required for various jobs and more. The activity is designed as a 14-21 day unit, intended for use as a long-term class project.

Jacobi, Linda

2010-12-23

235

Method of manufacturing scintillators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to simultaneously manufacture many scintillators of the same or various size and shape, the surface of a support is made of aluminium, glass or ceramic with slits of 0.1 width and depth of 0.3 mm corresponding to the side boundories of the scintillators to be fabricated. After coating a separator layer of e.g. grarhite, the scintillation material, e.g. sodium-activated cesium iodide, is evaporated onto it in a vacuum chamber. Having acquised the desired layer, thickness, each body in loosened by pushing e.g. a wedge into the separating layer. (DG)

236

Good manufacturing practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation author deals with the Implementation of good manufacturing practice for radiopharmaceuticals. The presentation is divided into next parts: Batch size; Expiration date; QC Testing; Environmental concerns; Personnel aspects; Radiation concerns; Theoretical yields; Sterilizing filters; Control and reconciliation of materials and components; Product strength; In process sampling and testing; Holding and distribution; Drug product inspection; Buildings and facilities; Renovations at BNL for GMP; Aseptic processing and sterility assurance; Process validation and control; Quality control and drug product stability; Documentation and other GMP topics; Building design considerations; Equipment; and Summary

237

Manufacturing Safety and Awareness  

Science.gov (United States)

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into manufacturing safety and awareness, including identifying hazards, risk assessment, and hazard prevention or control. An assessment follows the module to gauge student understanding.

238

Improvement of physico-mechanical properties of coir-polypropylene biocomposites by fiber chemical treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Coir-polypropylene biocomposites were manufactured using hot press technique. • OH groups in raw coir cellulose were converted to OH?Cr groups during treatment. • SEM indicates improved interfacial adhesion between coir and PP upon treatment. • Chemically treated composites yielded the best set of mechanical properties. - Abstract: In preparing polymer–matrix composites, natural fibers are widely used as “reinforcing agents” because of their biodegradable characteristic. In present research, coir fiber reinforced polypropylene biocomposites were manufactured using hot press method. In order to increase the compatibility between the coir fiber and polypropylene matrix, raw coir fiber was chemically treated with basic chromium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate salt in acidic media. Both raw and treated coir at different fiber loading (10, 15 and 20 wt%) were utilized during composite manufacturing. During chemical treatment, hydrophilic –OH groups in the raw coir cellulose were converted to hydrophobic –OH?Cr groups. Microstructural analysis and mechanical tests were conducted. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicates improvement in interfacial adhesion between the coir and polypropylene matrix upon treatment. Chemically treated specimens yielded the best set of mechanical properties. On the basis of fiber loading, 20% fiber reinforced composites had the optimum set of mechanical properties among all composites manufactured

239

24 CFR 3285.308 - Manufactured piers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Manufactured piers. 3285.308 Section 3285...HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION... § 3285.308 Manufactured piers. (a) Manufactured piers must be listed and labeled...

2010-04-01

240

INTEGRATED AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING SUPPLY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Traditionally, the impact of supply planning strategies on plant traffic is rarely considered. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS that will assist automotive manufacturers to analyse the effect of supply planning decisions on plant traffic during the supply planning phase of their logistics planning process. In essence, this DSS consists of a Supply Medium Decision Support Tool (SMDST (an interactive MS-Excel model with Visual Basic interfacing and a traffic flow simulation model tool (using eMPlant simulation software.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskaffingsbeplanning en verkeersvloeibeplanning is belangrike aktiwiteite in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf wêreldwyd. Tradisioneel word die uitwerking van verskaffings-beplanningsstrategië op aanlegverkeer selde in ag geneem. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van ’n Besluitnemings Ondersteuningstelsel (DSS wat motorvervaardigers sal ondersteun in die analise van die effek van verskaffingsbeplanningbesluite op aanlegverkeer tydens die verskaffingsbeplanningsfase van hulle logistieke beplanningsproses. Hierdie DSS bestaan hoofsaaklik uit ’n Verskaffings-vervoermiddel Besluitnemingshulpmiddel (SMDST (’n interaktiewe MS-Excel model met “Visual Basic” koppelling asook ’n simulasiemodel van verkeersvloei (met eM-Plant simulasiesagteware.

P.J.S. Van Dyk

2012-01-01

241

New mold manufacturing techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Typically, optical molds have been made from silicon carbide (SiC) or tungsten carbide (WC). Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) polishing results of SiC and WC molds will be reviewed. Impressive figure corrections have been demonstrated on both types of materials. The roughness performance of CVD-SiC, WC and binderless WC will be compared. However, the hardness and polycrystalline nature of these materials make them difficult to manufacture. In this paper we report positive initial results using an alternate mold material, glassy carbon. Test samples have been ground, pre-polished and finish polished to a 38 nm surface figure peak-to-valley (PV) and a 6 Å rms surface roughness, with improved cycle times versus SiC and WC. Glassy carbon is a promising mold material candidate as an amorphous material of lower hardness. The lower hardness leads to more effective diamond grinding process and results in a better surface rms roughness following MRF. After reviewing key material properties of glassy carbon material, this paper will describe some collaborative activities between Toshiba Machine Co., Ltd. and QED Technologies (QED) to manufacture representative examples of glassy carbon. Details of the grinding, pre-polishing and final polishing process will be provided along with the resultant metrology results after key steps. Molding experiments based on these developments will also be presented.

Hall, Chris; Tricard, Marc; Murakoshi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Kuriyama, Kunitaka; Yoko, Hiroyoshi

2005-08-01

242

Cloud manufacturing distributed computing technologies for global and sustainable manufacturing  

CERN Document Server

Global networks, which are the primary pillars of the modern manufacturing industry and supply chains, can only cope with the new challenges, requirements and demands when supported by new computing and Internet-based technologies. Cloud Manufacturing: Distributed Computing Technologies for Global and Sustainable Manufacturing introduces a new paradigm for scalable service-oriented sustainable and globally distributed manufacturing systems.   The eleven chapters in this book provide an updated overview of the latest technological development and applications in relevant research areas.  Following an introduction to the essential features of Cloud Computing, chapters cover a range of methods and applications such as the factors that actually affect adoption of the Cloud Computing technology in manufacturing companies and new geometrical simplification method to stream 3-Dimensional design and manufacturing data via the Internet. This is further supported case studies and real life data for Waste Electrical ...

Mehnen, Jörn

2013-01-01

243

77 FR 75972 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, Tennessee, Toho Tenax America, Inc., Subzone 148C (Carbon Fiber...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Foreign-Trade Zone 148--Knoxville, Tennessee, Toho Tenax America, Inc., Subzone 148C (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing...Evidence The comment period on new evidence provided by Toho Tenax America, Inc. (TTA), in response to the examiner's...

2012-12-26

244

Multimaterial Acoustic Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

The emergence of multimaterial fibers that combine a multiplicity of solid materials with disparate electrical, optical, and mechanical properties into a single fiber presents new opportunities for extending fiber applications well beyond optical transmission. Fiber reflectors, thermal detectors, photodetectors, chemical sensors, surface-emitting fiber lasers, fiber diodes, and other functional fiber devices have been demonstrated with this approach. Yet, throughout this development and indeed the development of fibers in general, a key premise has remained unchanged : that fibers are essentially static devices incapable of controllably changing their properties at high frequencies. Unique opportunities would arise if a rapid, electrically-driven mechanism for changing fiber properties existed. A wide spectrum of hitherto passive fiber devices could at once become active with applications spanning electronics, mechanics, acoustics, and optics, with the benefits of large surface-area, structural robustness, and mechanical flexibility. This thesis addresses the challenges and opportunities associated with the realization of electromechanical transduction in fibers through the integration of internal piezoelectric and electrostrictive domains. The fundamental challenges related to the fabrication of piezoelectric devices in fiber form are analyzed from a materials perspective, and candidate materials and geometries are selected that are compatible with the thermal drawing process. The first realization of a thermally drawn piezoelectric fiber device is reported and its piezoelectric response is established over a wide range of frequencies. The acoustic properties of piezoelectric fiber devices are characterized and related to their mechanical and geometric properties. Collective effects in multi-fiber constructs are discussed and demonstrated by the realization of a linear phased array of piezoelectric fibers capable of acoustic beam steering. High strain actuation capabilities in a fiber are demonstrated based on the integration of a highly electrostrictive relaxor ferroelectric polymer. The potential of this approach to realize integrated microelectromechanical systems in fibers is illustrated by the fabrication of a hybrid fiber comprising an electrostrictive device and an adjacent Fabry-Perot optical filter. Amplitude modulation of the light reflected from the Fabry-Perot cavity is demonstrated through electric field induced tuning of the cavity resonance. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs@mit.edu)

Chocat, Noemie

245

Fiber optic plenum cable  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber optic plenum cables use fluorocarbon jackets to provide the low smoke and flame characteristics required to be classified as plenum cables. Compared with more commonly used optical cable jackets, fluorocarbon jackets have less creep resistance and potentially higher shrinkback. Consequently, the establishment of satisfactory plenum cables required both specialized modeling and experimental cable testing. This paper describes theoretical modelling of the change in attenuation of a plenum fiber optic cable as a function of temperature range. The temperature test results of one and two fiber plenum cables and single fiber connectorized assemblies show the models to be useful tools in rationally developing fiber optic plenum cable.

Angeles, Purita; Kurt, Jeffrey

1986-11-01

246

Smart Cellulose Fibers Coated with Carbon Nanotube Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Smart multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers with a unique sensing ability were manufactured by a simple dip coating process. The formation of electrically-conducting MWCNT networks on cellulose mono- and multi-filament fiber surfaces was confirmed by electrical resistance measurements and visualized by scanning electron microscopy. The interaction between MWCNT networks and cellulose fiber was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The piezoresistivity of these fibers for strain sensing was investigated. The MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers exhibited a unique linear strain-dependent electrical resistance change up to 18% strain, with good reversibility and repeatability. In addition, the sensing behavior of these fibers to volatile molecules (including vapors of methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran was investigated. The results revealed a rapid response, high sensitivity and good reproducibility for these chemical vapors. Besides, they showed good selectivity to different vapors. It is suggested that the intrinsic physical and chemical features of cellulose fiber, well-formed MWCNT networks and favorable MWCNT-cellulose interaction caused the unique and excellent sensing ability of the MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers, which have the potential to be used as smart materials.

Haisong Qi

2014-11-01

247

Fiber Optic Sensors for Health Monitoring of Morphing Aircraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber optic sensors are being developed for health monitoring of future aircraft. Aircraft health monitoring involves the use of strain, temperature, vibration and chemical sensors. These sensors will measure load and vibration signatures that will be used to infer structural integrity. Sine the aircraft morphing program assumes that future aircraft will be aerodynamically reconfigurable there is also a requirement for pressure, flow and shape sensors. In some cases a single fiber may be used for measuring several different parameters. The objective of the current program is to develop techniques for using optical fibers to monitor composite cure in real time during manufacture and to monitor in-service structural integrity of the composite structure. Graphite-epoxy panels were fabricated with integrated optical fibers of various types. The panels were mechanically and thermally tested to evaluate composite strength and sensor durability. Finally the performance of the fiber optic sensors was determined. Experimental results are presented evaluating the performance of embedded and surface mounted optical fibers for measuring strain, temperature and chemical composition. The performance of the fiber optic sensors was determined by direct comparison with results from more conventional instrumentation. The facilities for fabricating optical fiber and associated sensors and methods of demodulating Bragg gratings for strain measurement will be described.

Brown, Timothy; Wood, Karen; Childers, Brooks; Cano, Roberto; Jensen, Brian; Rogowski, Robert

2001-01-01

248

TENCEL / LENZING FIBER, A NEW FIBER  

OpenAIRE

Tencel is a new fiber made in a process that is similar to the creation of rayon. As with rayon, cellulose, primarily from wood pulp, is used to make the fiber. Whether this creates a natural product is open to discussion. The process involves dissolving wood pulp with a solvent which unlike the process for rayon orcupra, is a relatively non-toxic amine. The dissolved pulp is then forced through tiny holes called spinnerettes creating long, smooth, lusterous fibers much like silk in appearanc...

Porav Viorica

2012-01-01

249

Manufacturing of superconducting wiggler coil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The superconducting wiggler coil system was manufactured and charged up successfully. The race track shape coil has training quench to reach rated field at its virgin running. The design and manufacturing of winding method was studied in order to reduce number of training quenches. The following manufacturing methods were studied before real coil manufacturing. (1) the resin material, (2) press during curing of winding pack, (3) accuracy of coil case. The various resin materials were evaluated concerning to adhesive strength, training of coils and easiness of winding. A small coil was manufactured and charged up in order to verify the manufacturing technique. This superconducting wiggler coil system was achieved to rated current at only after one training, and its quench current was reached the critical current of superconducting wire at the fourth charging in this experiment. (author)

250

Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

1994-12-01

251

Method of manufacturing powder particles :  

OpenAIRE

The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a dry powder particle, preferably using electro-hydrodynamic spraying, wherein two oppositely charged aerosol streams are contacted. The invention allows for the manufacture of powders having various, controllable compositions and shapes. In particular the method according to the invention may be used to perform physical and chemical reactions and allows for the manufacture of powders not previously obtainable. In addition, the invention rela...

Borra, J. P. D.

2002-01-01

252

Green manufacturing processes and systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book provides the recent advances on green manufacturing processes and systems for modern industry. Chapter 1 provides information on sustainable manufacturing through environmentally-friendly machining. Chapter 2 is dedicated to environmentally-friendly machining: vegetable based cutting fluids. Chapter 3 describes environmental-friendly joining of tubes. Chapter 4 contains information on concepts, methods and strategies for zero-waste in manufacturing. Finally, chapter 5 is dedicated to the application of hybrid MCDM approach for selecting the best tyre recycling process.

Davim, J. Paulo (ed.) [Aveiro Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Universitario de Santiago

2013-02-01

253

Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficiency and effectiveness of the gas turbine engine is directly related to the turbine inlet temperatures. The ability to increase these temperatures has occurred as a result of improvements in materials, design, and processing techniques. A generic sequence indicating the relationship of these factors to temperature capability is schematically shown in Figure 1 for aircraft engine and land based engine materials. A basic contribution that is not captured by the Figure is the significant improvement in process and manufacturing capability that has accompanied each of these innovations. It is this capability that has allowed the designs and innovations to be applied on a high volume, cost effective scale in the aircraft gas turbine market.

Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

1995-10-01

254

Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing (ECM)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kansas City Plant (KCP) is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) as the Kansas City Division of Allied-Signal Inc. The KCP produces and procures non-nuclear electrical, electronic, electromechanical, plastic, and metal components for nuclear weapons. Environmental goals at the KCP are to clean up, maintain, and operate the governmental facilities in the most environmentally advantageous manner consistent with regulations. New environmental technologies that are developed by the design laboratories and the KCP are incorporated into the DOE manufacturing facilities, and information is shared with the outside industry through meetings, publications, and seminars. This booklet presents current projects on solvent waste streams, polymer waste streams, plating waste streams, and miscellaneous waste stream minimization projects

255

Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

256

Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach by comparison with the full numerical simulations. Finally, we discuss possible sources of instability that are due to resonances in the device.

Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev

2000-01-01

257

Fiber Optical Sensing with Fiber Bragg Gratings  

OpenAIRE

A new measurement method is presented utilizing glass fibers with inscribed Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG). Strain and temperature changes have direct effects on these gratings. With this technology and suitable transducers, however, also parameters like pressure, dislocation, vibration, acceleration, humidity and even chemicals can be monitored. A broadband or sweeping laser light source is used and light with wavelengths corresponding to the FBGs is reflected back to a data acquisition unit (in...

 eisenmann, T.

2010-01-01

258

Improving the Value Chain of Biofuel Manufacturing Operations by Enhancing Coproduct Transportation and Logistics  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofuels, including corn-based ethanol, can partially meet the increasing demand for transportation fuels. The production of ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased; so too has the quantity of manufacturing coproducts. These nonfermentable residues (i.e., proteins, fibers, oils) are sold as...

259

Access Control for Manufacturing Process in Networked Manufacturing Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The deficiencies of current access control techniques in solving the problems of manufacturing process access conflict in networked manufacturing environment were analyzed. An information model of manufacturing process was con-structed, and a case XML Schema of manufacturing task model was given. Based on the characteristic analysis of the access control for the information model, an improved access control model of manufacturing process was constructed, and the access control model based on manufacture tasks, roles and time limits and the relationships among the ele-ments were defined. The implementation mechanisms for access control model were analyzed, in which the access case matching strategy based on manufacture tasks and time limits, the authorization assignment mechanism based on manufacture tasks, roles, correlation degrees and time limits, XML based access control for transaction security and integrity were included. And the two-level detection architecture of transaction conflict was designed to find the con-flicts both in application and in the database. Finally the prototype system was developed based on these principles. Feasibility and effectiveness of the method were verified by an enterprise application.

Ke Zhou

2009-06-01

260

Industrial Arts 7-9. Manufacturing: Metalwork, Plastics, Woodwork, Manufacturing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This curriculum guide provides materials for the industrial arts (grades 7-9) subject cluster of manufacturing. This subject cluster has four areas of study: metalwork, plastics, woodwork, and manufacturing. Introductory materials include an overview of the industrial arts curriculum in its entirety, a listing of program objectives for each of the…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Div. of Vocational Education.

261

Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past decade, natural-fiber composites with thermoplastic and thermoset matrices have been embraced by European car manufacturers and suppliers for door panels, seat backs, headliners, package trays, dashboards, and interior parts. Natural fibers such as kenaf, hemp, flax, jute, and sisal offer such benefits as reductions in weight, cost, and CO2, less reliance on foreign oil sources, and recyclability. However, several major technical considerations must be addressed before the engineering, scientific, and commercial communities gain the confidence to enable wide-scale acceptance, particularly in exterior parts where a Class A surface finish is required. Challenges include the homogenization of the fiber's properties and a full understanding of the degree of polymerization and crystallization, adhesion between the fiber and matrix, moisture repellence, and flame-retardant properties, to name but a few.

Holbery, James; Houston, Dan

2006-11-01

262

Manufacturing strategy issues in selected Indian manufacturing industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents some findings of Indian manufacturing sectors viz. automobile (especially two-wheeler, tractor and general manufacturing industry. Various manufacturing strategy issues such as competitive priorities, improvement activities, and performance measures, have been identified and assessed in Indian context. Sector wise comparison of competitive priorities, improvement activities i.e. advanced manufacturing technology (AMT, integrated information systems (IIS, and advanced management systems (AMS, and performance measure, is provided. Our results showed that most of the Indian companies are still emphasizing on quality. However, automobile sector has set to compete globally with high innovation rate, faster new product development, and continuous improvement. It is also observed that Indian companies are investing more in AMS as compared to IIS and AMT. Manufacturing competence index is also computed for each sector.

Mahender Singh

2013-03-01

263

A Manufacturing Informatics Framework for Manufacturing Sustainability Assessment. In : Re-engineering Manufacturing for Sustainability, Springer  

OpenAIRE

Manufacturing firms that wish to improve their environmental performance of their product, process, and systems are faced with a complex task because manufacturing systems are very complex and they come in many forms and life expectancies. To achieve desired product functionalities, different design and material can be selected; thus the corresponding manufacturing processes are also changed accordingly. There is direct need of assessment tools to monitor and estimate environmental impact gen...

Zhao, Yaoyao Fiona; Perry, Nicolas; Andriankaja, Hery

2013-01-01

264

Melt extraction of gold fibers and precious metal doped fibers and preparation of porous gold fiber structures: Presentation held at the International Gold Conference 2003 - New Industrial Applications of Gold. Vancouver, Canada, September 28-October 1, 2003  

OpenAIRE

Crucible melt extraction yields short metal fibers with eqivalent diameters as low as 50 µm from almost arbitrary metals and alloys. Highly porous components can be made from such fibers by suitable deposition and sintering methods. This technology is being developed at the Dresden based Department of Powder Metallurgy and Composite Materials of the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials (IFAM) and has been applied to gold alloys and iron-base alloys containing small a...

Andersen, O.; Kostmann, C.; Stephani, G.

2003-01-01

265

Durable fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to produce thin precast elements, a self-compacting concrete was prepared. When manufacturing these elements, homogenously dispersed steel fibers instead of ordinary steel-reinforcing mesh were added to the concrete mixture at a dosage of 10% by mass of cement. An adequate concrete strength class was achieved with a water to cement ratio of 0.40. Compression and flexure tests were carried out to assess the safety of these thin concrete elements. Moreover, serviceability aspects were taken into consideration. Firstly, drying shrinkage tests were carried out in order to evaluate the contribution of steel fibers in counteracting the high concrete strains due to a low aggregate-cement ratio. Secondly, the resistance to freezing and thawing cycles was investigated on concrete specimens in some cases superficially treated with a hydrophobic agent. Lastly, both carbonation and chloride penetration tests were carried out to assess durability behavior of this concrete mixture

266

Large effective area fiber for DWDM systems  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we analyze and propose an exponentially modulated refractive index profile for large effective area fibers with non-zero dispersion characteristics. A linear finite element method is used for computing the modal propagation characteristics and modal field distributions of an optical fiber having an arbitrary refractive index profile. The core effective area and the dispersion characteristics are optimized by optimizing a constraint objective function in the profile parametric space. The optimum refractive index profile can give a core effective area of 110 micrometers 2. The dispersion varies linearly from 2.5 ps/nm-km to 4.5 ps/nm-km with a dispersion slope of 0.065 ps/nm2-km over 1.53 micrometers -1.56 micrometers wavelength range. Manufacturing tolerance analysis for the designed fiber characteristics is also studied. The bending loss for the fiber is around 0.003 dB/m for a bend radius of 100mm.

Survaiya, Sunil P.; Shevgaonkar, R. K.

2001-09-01

267

Polymer optical fiber fuse  

CERN Document Server

Although high-transmission-capacity optical fibers are in demand, the problem of the fiber fuse phenomenon needs to be resolved to prevent the destruction of fibers. As polymer optical fibers become more prevalent, clarifying their fuse properties has become important. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a fuse propagation velocity of 21.9 mm/s, which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude slower than that in standard silica fibers. The achieved threshold power density and proportionality constant between the propagation velocity and the power density are respectively 1/186 of and 16.8 times the values for silica fibers. An oscillatory continuous curve instead of periodic voids is formed after the passage of the fuse. An easy fuse termination method is presented herein, along with its potential plasma applications.

Mizuno, Yosuke; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro

2013-01-01

268

Natural Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Composites as Engineered Structural Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this work was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP)'s ability to act as a structural material. As a chemical treatment, aligned kenaf fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide (alkalization) in different concentrations and durations and then manufactured into kenaf fiber / vinyl ester composite plates. Single fiber tensile properties and composite flexural properties, both in dry and saturated environments, were assessed. Based on ASTM standard testing, a comparison of flexural, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical properties was also made between an untreated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a chemically treated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a glass fiber reinforced composite, and oriented strand board (OSB). The mechanical properties were evaluated for dry samples, samples immersed in water for 50 hours, and samples immersed in water until saturation (~2700 hours). Since NFRPs are more vulnerable to environmental effects than synthetic fiber composites, a series of weathering and environmental tests were conducted on the kenaf fiber composites. The environmental conditions studied include real-time outdoor weathering, elevated temperatures, immersion in different pH solutions, and UV exposure. In all of these tests, degradation was found to be more pronounced in the NFRPs than in the glass FRPs; however, in nearly every case the degradation was less than 50% of the flexural strength or stiffness. Using a method of overlapping and meshing discontinuous fiber ends, large mats of fiber bundles were manufactured into composite facesheets for structural insulated panels (SIPs). The polyisocyanurate foam cores proved to be poorly matched to the strength and stiffness of the NFRP facesheets, leading to premature core shear or delamination failures in both flexure and compressive testing. The NFRPs were found to match well with the theoretical stiffness prediction methods of classical lamination theory, finite element method, and Castigliano's method in unidirectional tension and compression, but are less accurate for the more bond-dependent flexural and shear properties. With the acknowledged NFRP matrix bonding issues, the over-prediction of these theoretical models indicates that the flexural stiffness of the kenaf composite may be increased by up to 40% if a better bond between the fiber and matrix can be obtained. The sustainability of NFRPs was examined from two perspectives: environmental and socioeconomic. While the kenaf fibers themselves possess excellent sustainability characteristics, costing less while possessing a lesser environmental impact than the glass fibers, the vinyl ester resin used in the composites is environmentally hazardous and inflated the cost and embodied energy of the composite SIPs. Consistent throughout all the designs was a correlation between the respective costs of the raw materials and the respective environmental impacts. The socioeconomic study looked at the sustainability of natural fiber reinforced composite materials as housing materials in developing countries. A literature study on the country of Bangladesh, where the fibers in this study were grown, showed that the jute and kenaf market would benefit from the introduction of a value-added product like natural fiber composites. The high rate of homeless and inadequately housed in Bangladesh, as well as in the US and throughout the rest of the world, could be somewhat alleviated if a new, affordable, and durable material were introduced. While this study found that natural fiber composites possess sufficient mechanical properties to be adopted as primary structural members, the two major remaining hurdles needing to be overcome before natural fiber composites can be adopted as housing materials are the cost and sustainability of the resin system and the moisture resistance/durability of the fibers. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Dittenber, David B.

269

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURE  

Science.gov (United States)

The report summarizes the assessment of air emissions from the manufacture of carbon black, currently manufactured in the U.S. by two major processes: thermal and oil furnace. Sources of atmospheric emissions within oil furnace plants (about 90% of the 30 U.S. carbon black plants...

270

Guitar Design and Manufacture Workbook  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource from the Guitarbuilding.org project is a comprehensive workbook on the design and manufacture of guitars. In addition to the obvious ties to general manufacturing concepts, the material will incorporate science, math, electronics and technology into your curriculum. This workbook includes a number of learning activities and exercises. Useful appendices are also provided.

2012-11-14

271

Oriented Fiber Filter Media  

OpenAIRE

Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

Bharadwaj, R.; A Patel, S. Chokdeepanich; G G Chase, Ph D.

2008-01-01

272

Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

None

2002-09-01

273

Functional Fiber Composites  

OpenAIRE

This report covers the result of a master thesis project concerning integration of functional fiber composites. With departure in making flexible and innovative materials for the construction industry, the project has stressed a necessary investigation of incorporation of new functions in traditional fiber composites to make them interesting for applications in new contexts and for new actors. In the initial phase of the process, integration of a range of functional elements in fiber...

Hasling, Karen Marie

2010-01-01

274

Bragg Grating Based Sensors in Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers: Accelerometers and Microphones  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With the growing interest towards fiber Bragg grating sensors and the growing ability in manufacturing polymer optical fibers, the development of polymer fiber Bragg sensors has catched the attention of industries with the goal of developing high performance sensors. This thesis presents the development of fiber sensors based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings. The whole process from the preform to the device is discussed and reported. A presentation on the fiber drawing technique used is given. Issues encountered when working with polymer fibers and solutions concerning fiber cleaving and gluing of polymer to silica fibers are discussed. The realization of gratings in polymer fibers is shown with two different techniques: the UV phase mask technique and the direct writing technique reported here for the first time for polymer fibers. Realization of gratings in PMMA step index fibers and in microstructured fibers made of PMMA and TOPAS is reported. The gratings have been written at both 1550 nm, to take advantage of components made for telecommunications, and 850 nm, to exploit the lower loss of polymers and the fast acquisition electronics at this wavelength. A technique for writing multiplexed gratings is shown and temperature compensation of strain sensors, by using two adjacent gratings, is demonstrated. Humidity insensitivity in a strain sensor based on a TOPAS fiber is also shown. In order to investigate the possibility of using viscoelastic materials, such as polymers, in dynamic sensors, dynamic mechanical characterization of polymer fibers was made and it is presented. The investigated and produced fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured polymer optical bers were used to produce optical accelerometers. The accelerometers and their characterization are reported. Finally the realization of an optical microphone based on polymer ber Bragg gratings is reported.

Stefani, Alessio

2011-01-01

275

Collaborative Network Learning in Manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the antecedents of collaborative networked learning (CNL, to develop an integrative CNL framework and to bridge the gap between theory and praxis in manufacturing. It provides a holistic perspective of CNL within the complexity of the manufacturing environment, including empirical investigation using survey questionnaires. The findings and discussions draw upon socio-technical systems (STS theory, and present the theoretical context and interpretations through the lens of manufacturing employees. Results of the study show the existence of significant positive influences of organizational support, promotive interactions, positive interdependence, internal-external learning, perceived effectiveness and perceived usefulness of CNL among manufacturing employees. The study offers a basis for empirical validity for measuring CNL in organizational learning, knowledge and information sharing in manufacturing.

Wee Hock Quik

2014-12-01

276

Oriented Fiber Filter Media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

R. Bharadwaj

2008-06-01

277

Continuous fiber coating system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A CVD system for coating continuous fiber tows and monofilaments was designed, fabricated, and successfully operated. The vertical CVD furnace is of the hot wall type which permits coating of electrically insulating or conducting fibers. A supply spool of as-received fiber is used to feed fiber into the bottom of the furnace, through the reactor, and onto a second, motorized spool affixed to the top of the coater. Experience in depositing YBa2Cu3Ox, BN, and SiC coatings is described

278

Electrospinning of nanocomposite fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical properties of a novel biocompatible nanocomposite fiber are investigated. The fibers are fabricated by incorporation of organically modified clay in a fiber electrospinning process. Commercially available Montmorillonite type organoclays with different extent of miscibility with the polymer matrix are employed to study the effect of organic modifier/matrix interactions. The nanocomposite fibers are prepared by electrospinning a suspension of organoclay/dichloromethane with poly(L-lactic acid), PLLA, a widely used biodegradable synthetic polyester. Effect of clay incorporation on fiber diameter, crystallinity and mechanical properties are studied. A high degree of birefringence in polarized light microscopy suggested that the polymer chains in as-spun fibers are highly aligned. However, wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data revealed no crystalline peaks in as-spun fibers. Annealing the samples above the glass transition temperature induces high degree of crystallinity. Based on Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), spun fibers are highly porous, which may be beneficial in biomedical applications, membranes, and reinforcement matrices. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data show the ordering of silicate platelets along the fiber axis, consistent with the d-spacings obtained from WAXS. Cold crystallization behavior of as spun nanofibers studied via in-situ Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) will also be presented.

Krikorian, Vahik

2005-03-01

279

Laser Cutting of Carbon Fiber Fabrics  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to their high weight-specific mechanical stiffness and strength, parts made from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are increasingly used as structural components in the aircraft and automotive industry. However, the cutting of preforms, as with most automated manufacturing processes for CFRP components, has not yet been fully optimized. This paper discusses laser cutting, an alternative method to the mechanical cutting of preforms. Experiments with remote laser cutting and gas assisted laser cutting were carried out in order to identify achievable machining speeds. The advantages of the two different processes as well as their fitness for use in mass production are discussed.

Fuchs, A. N.; Schoeberl, M.; Tremmer, J.; Zaeh, M. F.

280

Manufacturing methods for canisters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study is focused upon the manufacturing of a large copper canister meant for encapsulation of nuclear waste. Tube making processes for high and low quantity production are reviewed as a background to the problem. 'Three-roll forming' is considered to be a possible method for forming the tube (longitudinal weld) of the canister. The strip material for the bending operation is produced by hot rolling. A rolling schedule is presented. The requirements of a fine grained microstructure of the copper material, free from voids is taken into serious account. The schedule is scrutinized with respect to roll contact pressures, force requirements and stress states in the centre of the workpiece, all of them gradually changing from one pass to another. 'Non-bite' rolling, is described as a method for improving the stress states. As an alternative way for making the tube, 'ring-forging' and 'ring-rolling' are discussed. The idea is to build the long tube by means of a series of rings which are joint by welding (circumferential welds). 'Impact extrusion', as a method for forming the bottom of the canister is analyzed by means of a commercial FEM-program. 9 refs, 32 figs

281

Intelligent modelling in manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Modeling of production systems is very important and makes optimization of complicated relation in production system possible. The purpose of this paper is introducing artificial techniques, like Genetic Algorithms in modeling and optimization of job shop scheduling in production environment and in programming of CNC machine tools.Design/methodology/approach: Conventional methods are not suitable for solving such complicated problems. Therefore Artificial Intelligent method was used. We apply Genetic Algorithm method. Genetic Algorithms are computation methods owing their power in particular to autonomous mechanisms in biological evolution, such as selection, “survival of the fittest” (competition, and recombination.Findings: In example solutions are developed for an optimization problem of job shop scheduling by natural selection. Thus no explicit knowledge was required about how to create a good solution: the evolutionary algorithm itself implicitly builds up knowledge about good solutions, and autonomously absorbs knowledge. CNC machining time was significant shorter by using GA method for NC programming.Research limitations/implications: The system was developed for PC and tested in simulation process. It needs to be tested more in detail in the real manufacturing environment.Practical implications: It is suitable for small and medium-sized companies. Human errors are avoid or at lover level. It is important for engineers in job – shops.Originality/value: The present paper is a contribution to more intelligent systems in production environment. It used genetic based methods to solve engineering problem.

J. Balic

2007-09-01

282

Manufacture of measles viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measles viruses have shown potent oncolytic activity as a therapeutic against a variety of human cancers in animal models and are currently being tested in clinical trials in patients. In contrast to using measles virus as a vaccine, oncolytic activity depends on high concentrations of infectious virus. For use in humans, the high-titer measles virus preparations must also be purified to remove significant levels of cellular proteins and nucleic acid resulting from the cytolytic products of measles virus replication and release. Pleomorphic measles virus must be treated as >1-?m particles that are extremely shear sensitive to maximize recoveries and retain infectivity. Therefore, to maximize the recovery of sterile, high titer infectious measles viruses, the entire production and purification process must be done using gentle conditions and aseptic processing. Here we describe a procedure applicable to the production of small (a few liters) to large (50-60 L) batches of measles virus amplified in Vero cells adapted to serum-free growth. Cell culture supernatant containing the measles virus is clarified by filtration to remove intact Vero cells and other debris, and then treated with Benzonase(®) in the presence of magnesium chloride to digest contaminating nucleic acid. The measles virus in the treated cell culture supernatant is then concentrated and purified using tangential flow filtration (TFF) and diafiltration. The concentrated and diafiltered measles virus is passed through a final clarifying filter prior to final vialing and storage at production and purification of measles viruses using good manufacturing practices (GMP). PMID:21590404

Langfield, Kirsten K; Walker, Henry J; Gregory, Linda C; Federspiel, Mark J

2011-01-01

283

Precision manufacturing using LIGA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our objective is the fabrication of small high-precision parts using LIGA, which can be used in a variety of industrial applications. LIGA is a combination of deep x-ray lithography, electroplating, and replication processes that enables the fabrication of microstructures with vertical dimensions several millimeters high, lateral dimensions in the micrometer range, and submicron tolerances. On beamline 10.3.2, at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) has built an end station suitable for LIGA. The ALS is an excellent source of radiation for this application. The CXRO, in close collaboration with Sandia National Laboratory and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has developed the other essential process steps of mask making, resist development, x-ray exposure, and electroplating. This technology provides a powerful tool for mass production and miniaturization of mechanical systems into a dimensional regime not accessible by traditional manufacturing operations. We will present several applications that exploit the characteristics of the LIGA process: the fabrication of magnetic laminations for a high precision stepping motor; miniature octopole lens for advanced e-beam lithography; high-aspect-ratio x-ray collimating grids for astronomy; and microscopic tumblers for nuclear security. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

284

Fiber-Reinforced Reactive Nano-Epoxy Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

An ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene/ matrix interface based on the fabrication of a reactive nano-epoxy matrix with lower surface energy has been improved. Enhanced mechanical properties versus pure epoxy on a three-point bend test include: strength (25 percent), modulus (20 percent), and toughness (30 percent). Increased thermal properties include higher Tg (glass transition temperature) and stable CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion). Improved processability for manufacturing composites includes faster wetting rates on macro-fiber surfaces, lower viscosity, better resin infusion rates, and improved rheological properties. Improved interfacial adhesion properties with Spectra fibers by pullout tests include initial debonding force of 35 percent, a maximum pullout force of 25 percent, and energy to debond at 65 percent. Improved mechanical properties of Spectra fiber composites (tensile) aging resistance properties include hygrothermal effects. With this innovation, high-performance composites have been created, including carbon fibers/nano-epoxy, glass fibers/nano-epoxy, aramid fibers/ nano-epoxy, and ultra-high-molecularweight polyethylene fiber (UHMWPE).

Zhong, Wei-Hong

2011-01-01

285

FIBERBOARD MANUFACTURED WITHOUT RESIN USING THE FENTON REACTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Resin-free fiberboards were manufactured using industrial fiber from Pinus radiata activated by an oxidative treatment using the Fenton reaction (H(2)0(2)/ Fe(II)). A multivariate analysis was used to study the effect of fiber moisture content (MC), press temperature (T), and the H(2)0(2)/Fe(II) rat [...] io on the board internal bond strength (IB). Using response surface methodology, a set of máximum IB conditions was obtained. Validation of these conditions which included 25% MC, 170°C press temperature and a H(2)0(2)/Fe(II) relation of 25 produced an optimal board with an IB strength of 0.888 MPa. Without the addition of sizing agents or other additives, the dimensional stability properties were 16% of thickness swell and 40% of the water absorption of control boards.

JUAN, RIQUELME-VALDÉS; ESTEBAN, RAMÍREZ; DAVID, CONTRERAS; JUANITA, FREER; JAIME, RODRÍGUEZ.

1722-17-01

286

Electrooptic polymer voltage sensor and method of manufacture thereof  

Science.gov (United States)

An optical voltage sensor utilizing an electrooptic polymer is disclosed for application to electric power distribution systems. The sensor, which can be manufactured at low cost in accordance with a disclosed method, measures voltages across a greater range than prior art sensors. The electrooptic polymer, which replaces the optical crystal used in prior art sensors, is sandwiched directly between two high voltage electrodes. Voltage is measured by fiber optical means, and no voltage division is required. The sample of electrooptic polymer is fabricated in a special mold and later mounted in a sensor housing. Alternatively, mold and sensor housing may be identical. The sensor housing is made out of a machinable polymeric material and is equipped with two opposing optical windows. The optical windows are mounted in the bottom of machined holes in the wall of the mold. These holes provide for mounting of the polarizing optical components and for mounting of the fiber optic connectors. One connecting fiber is equipped with a light emitting diode as a light source. Another connecting fiber is equipped with a photodiode as a detector.

Gottsche, Allan (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

287

USDA Flax fiber utilization research  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States is pursuing natural fibers as sustainable, environmentally friendly sources for a variety of industrial applications. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fiber offers many possibilities towards this goal. Research on flax fiber production, processing, and standards development is urgen...

288

Investigation of the photosensitivity, temperature sustainability and fluorescence characteristics of several Er-doped photosensitive fibers  

CERN Document Server

Three different types of Er doped photosensitive fibers, germanium/erbium (Ge/Er) fiber, tin/germanium/erbium fiber (Sn/Er) and antimony/germanium/erbium fiber (Sb/Er) have been manufactured and studied for use in optical sensor systems. Their characteristics of photosensitivity, the temperature sustainability of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written into these fibers and the fluorescence emission from the Er dopant were investigated and compared. It has been shown in this work that these fibers all show a satisfactory degree of photosensitivity to enable the fabrication of FBGs and a significant level of fluorescence emission within the 1550 nm band for sensor use. The high temperature sustainability of the FBGs written into these fibers was investigated and seen to be quite significant at temperatures as high as 850 ^{\\circ}C, in particular for the Sn/Er and Sb/Er fibers. A fiber laser using the Sb/Er fiber as the gain medium was demonstrated, giving evidence of the strong fluorescence emission from the Er do...

Shen, Y H; Mandal, J; Sun, T; Grattan, K T V; Wade, S A; Collins, Stephen F; Baxter, Gregory W; Dussardier, Bernard; Monnom, Gérard; 10.1016/j.optcom.2004.04.004

2011-01-01

289

Fiber-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof  

Science.gov (United States)

A fiber-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The fiber-based adsorbent includes polymer fibers with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight over known fibers to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. The polymer fibers include a circular morphology in some embodiments, having a mean diameter of less than 15 microns, optionally less than about 1 micron. In other embodiments, the polymer fibers include a non-circular morphology, optionally defining multiple gear-shaped, winged-shaped or lobe-shaped projections along the length of the polymer fibers. A method for forming the fiber-based adsorbents includes irradiating high surface area polymer fibers, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting the grafted fibers with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. High surface area fiber-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

Janke, Christopher J; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

2014-05-13

290

Method of carbonizing polyacrylonitrile fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention relates to a method of carbonizing polyacrylonitrile fibers by exposing the fibers at an elevated temperature to an oxidizing atmosphere; then exposing the oxidized fibers to an atmosphere of an inert gas such as nitrogen containing a carbonaceous material such as acetylene. The fibers are preferably treated with an organic compound, for example benzoic acid, before the exposure to an oxidizing atmosphere. The invention also relates to the resulting fibers. The treated fibers have enhanced tensile strength.

Cagliostro, D. E.; Lerner, N. R. (inventors)

1983-01-01

291

Applications of nonlinear fiber optics  

CERN Document Server

* The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

Agrawal, Govind P

2008-01-01

292

Beryllium Manufacturing Processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61 cm high), may be cut or machined into parts or be thermomechanically processed to develop the desired microstructure, properties, and shapes. Vacuum hot-isostatic pressing and cold-isostatic pressing (CIP) followed by sintering and possibly by a final HIP'ing (CIP/Sinter/HIP) are important in their use for the production of near net-shaped parts. For the same starting powder, a HIP'ed product will have less anisotropy than that obtained for a VHP'ed product. A schematic presentation illustrating the difference between VHP'ing and HIP'ing is shown in Figure I-1. The types of powders and the various beryllium grades produced from the consolidated powders and their ambient-temperature mechanical properties were presented in the consolidation report referred to above. Elevated-temperature properties and the effect of processing variables on mechanical properties are described in the mechanical properties report. Beryllium can also be deposited as coatings as well as freestanding forms. The microstructure, properties, and various methods used that are related to the deposition of beryllium are discussed in the report on beryllium coatings.

Goldberg, A

2006-06-30

293

Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors <1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants. During the first year a custom batch furnace was built to develop the method with high power radiative heating to simulate transfer of glass into a hot slumping zone in a production line. To preserve the original high polish of the float glass on both front and back surfaces, as required for a second surface mirror, the mold surface is machined to the required shape as grooves which intersect the glass at cusps, reducing the mold contact area to significantly less than 1%. The mold surface is gold-plated to reflect thermal radiation. Optical metrology of glass replicas made with the system has been carried out with a novel, custom-built test system. This test provides collimated, vertically-oriented parallel beams from a linear array of co-aligned lasers translated in a perpendicular direction across the reflector. Deviations of each reflected beam from the paraboloid focus give a direct measure of surface slope error. Key findings • A gravity sag method for large (2.5 m2) second surface glass solar reflectors has been developed and demonstrated to a uniquely high level of accuracy. Mirror surface slope accuracy of 0.65 mrad in one dimension, 0.85 mrad in 2 dimensions (point focus) has been demonstrated by commercial partner REhnu using this process. This accuracy exceeds by a factor of two current solar reflector accuracy. Our replicas meet the Sunshot accuracy objective of 2 mrad optical, which requires better than 1 mrad rms slope error. • Point-focus as well as line-focus mirrors have been demonstrated at 1.65 m x 1.65 m square – a unique capability. • The new process using simple molds is economical. The molds for the 1.65 m square reflectors are bent and machined steel plates on a counter-weighted flotation support. To minimize thermal coupling by radiative heat transfer, the mold surface is grooved and gilded. The molds are simple to manufacture, and have minimal thermal stresses and distortion in use. Lapping and bending techniques have been developed to obtain better than 1 mrad rms surface mold accuracy. Float glass is sagged into the molds by rapid radiative heating, using a custom high power (350 kW) furnace. The method of manufacture is well suited for small as well as large volume production, and as it requires little capital investment and no high technology, it could be used anywhere in the world to make solar concentrating reflectors. • A novel slope metrology method for full 1.65 aperture has been demonstrated, with 25 mm resolution across the face of the replicas. The method is null and therefore inherently accurate: it can easily be reproduced without high-tech equipment and does not need sophisticated calibration. We find by cross calibration with reference trough reflectors from RioGlass that our null-test laser system yields a measurement accuracy better than 0.4 mrad rms slope error. Our system is inexpensive and could have broad application for test

Angel, Roger [University of Arizona

2014-12-17

294

Treatment and characterization of fiber licuri for synthesis of polymeric composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural fibers are materials of increasing use of polymeric composites, due to several advantageous properties compared to synthetic fibers: low cost, density, toxicity and excellent biodegradability. Licuri fiber is widely used in the manufacture of handicrafts, with a wide range of possible applications. Before this, characterize the properties of the fiber is of great interest economic, technological and social. This study characterized the fibers in nature, which were washed with water, treated with 5% H2SO4 or 5% NaOH. Techniques were used FTIR, DSC, TGA and XRD, as well as analysis of surface reactivity of the acid and base. All treatments altered the surface of licuri, exposing reactive sites. It was observed that sodium hydroxide licuri changed significantly, as expected. These results are very significant for the recovery of a natural fiber (licuri), abundant in poor regions of the country. (author)

295

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN. In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo

2013-02-01

296

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN. In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo

2012-01-01

297

Curvilinear fiber optimization tools for aeroelastic design of composite wings  

Science.gov (United States)

The aeroelastic design of composite wings modeled as thin-walled beams is investigated through the use of curvilinear fiber. The structural model considers non-classical effects such as transverse shear, warping restraint, rotary inertia, nonuniform torsional model and also aerodynamic loads based on Wagner's function. In this paper, a linear spanwise variation of the fiber orientation resulting in a variable-stiffness structure is used to optimize the wing for maximum aeroelastic instability speed purpose, while manufacturing constraints are incorporated. Numerical results indicate improvements of aeroelastic stability of variable-stiffness wings over conventional, constant-stiffness ones.

Haddadpour, H.; Zamani, Z.

2012-08-01

298

Fiber-optical systems in physical experiment technique. Part 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of fiber-optic systems (FOS) application in modern physical experiment automatization systems mainly oriented to functional monitoring electrophysical installations (EPI), beams, plasma, targets diagnostics as well as experiment environment investigation is considering. Questions of the FOS functioning in high and low pressure; high and cryogenic temperature; pulsed, SHF and radiational fields, high potentials are discussed. Attention is attached to designing, manufacturing and servicing FOS, their metrological support. There are functioning concepts of FOS, and modern component base: fiber and optical cabels, connectors, and couplers, spectral devices, optical sources and photodetectors, transmitter and receiver devices. 191 refs.; 19 figs.; 9 tabs

299

SERIAL SECTIONS THROUGH A CONTINUOUS FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The microstructure of a unidirectional glass-fiber composite material is described seeking especially for the influence of the stitching perpendicular to the reinforcement. Serial cuts are performed through the composite and the microstructure is quantified using global parameters and linear morphological analysis. A key result is that the stitching induces variations in fibers spacing within the yarns and in the matrix volume between the yarns. This can affect noticeably the flow of the resin during the manufacturing process and also the mechanical properties of the composite.

Laurent Bizet

2011-05-01

300

Ultrashort pulsed fiber laser welding and sealing of transparent materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, methods of welding and sealing optically transparent materials using an ultrashort pulsed (USP) fiber laser are demonstrated which overcome the limit of small area welding of optical materials. First, the interaction of USP fiber laser radiation inside glass was studied and single line welding results with different laser parameters were investigated. Then multiline scanning was used to obtain successful area bonding. Finally, complete four-edge sealing of fused silica substrates with a USP laser was demonstrated and the hermetic seal was confirmed by water immersion test. This laser microwelding technique can be extended to various applications in the semiconductor industry and precision optic manufacturing. PMID:22614601

Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Liu, Jian

2012-05-20

301

Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

King, Kenneth L.; Dean, Rashe A.; Akbar, Shahzad; Kouzes, Richard T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2010-08-10

302

Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

303

MEGARA fiber bundles  

Science.gov (United States)

MEGARA (Multi Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is the future optical Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) for the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC). MEGARA has three different fiber bundles, the Large Central Bundle covering 12.5 arcsec x 11.3 arcsec on sky, the Small Compact Bundle, of 8.5 arcsec x 6.7 arcsec, and a Fiber MOS positioner system that is able to place up to 100 mini-bundles with 7 fibers each in MOS configuration within a 3.5 arcmin x 3.5 arcmin FOV. The MEGARA focal plane subsystems are located at one of the GTC Folded Cassegrain focal stations. A field lens provides a telecentric focal plane, where the fibers are located. Micro-lenses arrays couple the telescope beam to the collimator focal ratio at the entrance of the fibers. Finally, the fibers, organized in bundles conducted the light from the focal plane to the pseudo-slit plates at the entrance of the MEGARA spectrograph, which shall be located at one of the Nasmyth platforms. This article also summarizes the prototypes already done and describes the set-up that shall be used to integrate fibers and micro-lens and characterize the fiber bundles.

Pérez-Calpena, A.; García-Vargas, María. Luisa; Arrillaga, X.; Gil de Paz, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Martínez-Delgado, I.; Carrera, M. A.; Gallego, J.; Carrasco, E.; Sánchez-Moreno, F. M.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

2014-07-01

304

Multimode optical fiber  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

2014-11-04

305

Molded optics design and manufacture  

CERN Document Server

While several available texts discuss molded plastic optics, none provide information on all classes of molded optics. Filling this gap, Molded Optics: Design and Manufacture presents detailed descriptions of molded plastic, glass, and infrared optics. Since an understanding of the manufacturing process is necessary to develop cost-effective, producible designs, the book extensively covers various manufacturing methods, design guidelines, trade-offs, best practices, and testing of critical parameters. It also discusses topics that often arise when designing systems with molded optics, such as

Schaub, Michael

2007-01-01

306

Micro manufacturing techniques and applications  

CERN Document Server

Micro/meso-scale manufacturing has been developed in research fields of machining, forming, materials and others, but its potential to industries are yet to be fully realized. The theme of the current volume was to build a bridge joining academic research and industrial needs in micro manufacturing. Among the 12 papers selected for publication are three keynote addresses onmicro and desktop factories for micro/meso-scale manufacturing applicationsand future visions, tissue cutting mechanics and applications for needlecore biopsy and guidance, and micro-texturing onto amorphous carbonmaterials

Du, Ruxu; Li, Zifu

2013-01-01

307

Manufacture of FBTR sodium pumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Centrifugal mechanical pumps are chosen for sodium heat transfer system of Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). The manufacturing technology of these pumps differs to a large extent from the conventional pumps because these pumps operate at high temperature (about 673 deg. K) and handle chemically reactive sodium. These pumps have been manufactured first time in India to stringent technical requirements. This paper highlights the important technical requirements and the major problems faced during manufacture of these pumps and how these problems have been overcome in order to achieve the desired requirements. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs

308

Exploring manufacturing solutions for SMEs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This exploratory study provides an overview over current state of manufacturing solutions in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in region of Southern Denmark. Building on manufacturing paradigms, this paper reveals relevant aspects for the development and implementation of improving SMEs’ automation processes. The paper presents an embedded case study based on 10 low- and medium-tech Danish companies. Based on the development of production paradigms and the presented study, this research helps to understand key determinants and processes for SMEs’ exploration of future directions of manufacturing solutions, which are required to increase their competitiveness and assure sustainable growth.

Radziwon, Agnieszka; Blichfeldt, Henrik

309

EDF's surveillance on fuel manufacturing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EDF has 58 PWR reactors requiring an annual supply of approximately 2,300 fuel assemblies. The issues of safety and reliability are important concerning the fuel given the risk of generic manufacturing issues. Being a nuclear power operator, EDF is responsible for the safety of the fuel being used in their vessels. EDF is subject to a French law which requires in particular the surveillance of the manufacture of the components involved in safety. This law is in some way an opportunity. It permits the entities involved to have an influence on the quality of components supplied which is an important condition to exercise an operational responsibility. EDF has applied for 30 years surveillance of the manufacturing processes of suppliers of fuel assemblies and contracts have specific clauses in order to organize this surveillance. In order to focus the surveillance on important matters, critical characteristics of the fuel have been determined between EDF and the suppliers to ensure the safety requirements. Activities related to the manufacturing and having an influence on these characteristics are subject to the surveillance required by regulation authorities. In order to obtain fuel assemblies that fulfill the safety requirements, EDF considers that several aspects need to be treated correctly: - The clear and sufficient definition of the components that constitutes the assembly (technical file: drawings and specifications), a definition which takes into account as far efinition which takes into account as far as possible the critical characteristics. - The demonstration of the efficiency, in terms of results, of complex manufacturing or controls steps (equipment qualification) included in the global manufacturing process (efficiency which depends on parameters that need to be defined and determined). - The definition of manufacturing processes (manufacturing quality plan) and the demonstration of their efficiency (qualification of manufacturing processes) to produce components that meet safety requirements (efficiency which depends on parameters that need to be defined and determined). - The relevancy of the justifications of usability of non-conforming products, taking into account the fact that any manufacturing process can normally produce some from time to time. - The continuous improvement of the manufacturing processes which are in fact not always as robust as expected to segregate non-conforming products (abnormal manufacturing event). The first three aspects contribute to obtain in a complementary way components that meet all the safety requirements given the fact that those requirements sometimes cannot be guaranteed for economic reasons by means of direct controls but only indirectly by the fulfillment of specific parameters. EDF surveys consequently: - The definition of the requirements in the technical file. - The initial qualifications of complex equipment, and subsequently during the manufacturing, the compliance with the parameters that guarantee the validity of the results of this equipment. - The initial qualification of the manufacturing processes, and subsequently during the manufacturing, the compliance within the parameters that need to be applied in order for the components to meet the safety requirements. The fourth aspect strongly involves EDF, given its responsibility as operator. The justification of usability when they have an impact on safety cannot be handled unilaterally by a supplier. - EDF surveys that the justification of usability of non-conform products are submitted for validation when the non-conformity has an impact on safety. - EDF verifies the relevancy of those justifications. The last aspect deals with the feedback needed for the continuous improvement of the robustness of the manufacturing processes. EDF asks its suppliers to declare the abnormal manufacturing events detected at the plants given the fact that non-conform products may have been supplied without knowing. According to this: - EDF discuss and validate the corrective actions proposed by suppliers to secure their manuf

310

Woven fiber optics.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we describe how the art of weaving can be applied to fiber optics in order to produce precisely controlled reproducible image guides and image dissectors. As examples of the types of device for which woven fiber optics are applicable, we describe a 3:1 interleaver for use with a cathode-ray tube to produce color images, and a high speed alpha numeric output device. The techniques of weaving fiber optics are discussed in sufficient detail in order to allow for further work. Although, in principle, one might be able to weave glass optical fibers, all the work described here made use of plastic optical fibers 0.25 mm in diameter. PMID:20134880

Schmidt, A C; Courtney-Pratt, J S; Ross, E A

1975-02-01

311

Types of the Fiber Glass-Mat on Fatigue Characteristic of Composite Materials at Constant Fiber Volume Fraction: Experimental Determination  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work is to study the influence of the type of fiber glass ?mat on fatigue behavior of composite material which is manufactured from polyester and E-glass (woven roving, chopped strand mat (CSM)) as a laminate with a constant fiber volume fraction (VF) of 33%. The results showed that the laminates reinforced with E-glass (woven roving) [0/90, ±45.0/90] and [0/90, CSM, 0/90] have lower fatigue strength than the laminates reinforced with E-glass [0/90]3,[CSM]3 and [CSM, 0/90, C...

Al-alkawi, Hussain J.; Al-fattal, Dhafir S.; Ali, Abdul-jabar H.

2012-01-01

312

77 FR 66179 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...Department of Commerce by close of business on November 2, 2012. This...on matters relating to the competitiveness of the U.S. manufacturing...Advisory Committees by close of business on Friday, November 16...66180

2012-11-02

313

Longitudinally Graded Optical Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Described herein, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, are optical fibers possessing significant compositional gradations along their length due to longitudinal control of the core glass composition. More specifically, MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers were fabricated that exhibited a gradient of up to about 0.55 weight percent GeO2 per meter. These gradients are about 1900 times greater than previously reported for fibers possessing longitudinal changes in composition. The refractive index difference is shown to change by about 0.001, representing a numerical aperture change of about 10%, over a fiber length of less than 20 m. The lowest attenuation measured from the present longitudinally-graded fiber (LGF) was 82 dB/km at a wavelength of 1550 nm, though this is shown to result from extrinsic process-induced factors and could be reduced with further optimization. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectrum from the LGF exhibited a 4.4 dB increase in the spectral width, and thus reduction in Brillouin gain, relative to a standard commercial single mode fiber, over a fiber length of only 17 m. Fibers with longitudinally uniform (i.e., not gradient) refractive index profiles but differing chemical compositions among various core layers were also fabricated to determine acoustic effects of the core slug method. The refractive index of the resulting preform varies by about +/- 0.00013 from the average. Upon core drilling, it was found that the core slugs had been drilled off-center from the parent preform, resulting in semi-circular core cross sections that were unable to guide light. As a result, optical analysis could not be conducted. Chemical composition data was obtained, however, and is described herein. A third fiber produced was actively doped with ytterbium (Yb3 ) and fabricated similarly to the previous fibers. The preforms were doped via the solution doping method with a solution of 0.015 M Yb 3 derived from ytterbium chloride hexahydrate and 0.30 M Al 3 derived from aluminum chloride hexahydrate. The doped preform was engineered to have two core layers of differing chemical composition, resulting in both a gradient refractive index profile as well as a gradient acoustic profile. While exhibiting higher loss than the original LGF, the Yb 3-doped fiber showed slightly better SBS suppression with preliminary calculations showing at least 6 dB reduction in Brillouin gain. Lastly, reported here is a straight-forward and flexible method to fabricate silica optical fibers of circular cladding cross-section and rectilinear cores whose aspect ratio and refractive index profile changes with position along the fiber in a deterministic way. Specifically, a modification to the process developed to produce longitudinally-graded optical fibers, was employed. Herein reported are MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers with rectangular cores where the aspect ratio changes by nearly 200 % and the average refractive index changed by about 5 %. Fiber losses were measured to be about 50 dB/km. Such rectangular core fibers are useful for a variety of telecommunication and biomedical applications and the dimensional and optical chirp provides a deterministic way to control further the modal properties of the fiber. Possible applications of longitudinally graded optical fibers and future improvements are also discussed. The methods employed are very straight-forward and technically simple, providing for a wide variety of longitudinal refractive index and acoustic velocity profiles, as well as core shapes, that could be especially valuable for SBS suppression in high energy laser systems. Next generation analogs, with longitudinally-graded compositional profiles that are very reasonable to fabricate, are shown computationally to be more effective at suppressing SBS than present alternatives, such as externally-applied temperature or strain gradients.

Evert, Alexander George

314

Trends in manufacturing execution systems  

OpenAIRE

Today's manufacturing plants are equipped with heterogeneous software systems for different types of tasks, both manufacturing operations and factory planning. On the operating level software systems are neither yet integrated and thus support separate tasks such as production monitoring, sequence planning, work piece identification, maintenance order management, worker information and others. Nor are MES-systems parts of the integrated industrial engineering chain from mechanical engineering...

Sauer, O.

2010-01-01

315

Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Solar Collector Manufacturing Activity 1990 report prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents summary and detailed data provided by domestic manufacturers on shipments of solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the period 1974 through 1990. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the period 1982 through 1990. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1990

316

Labor Dynamics in Chinese Manufacturing  

OpenAIRE

During the process of globalization, China has gained a position as an extremely important player on the world economic stage. The country has become particularly famous as a hub for the global manufacturing industry, with a large quantity of cheap labor that produces low-cost products. However, there is now growing concern that the labor costs for China’s manufacturing workforce are growing rampantly. This could have obvious detrimental effects for Chinese exports, and foreshadow major res...

Rydbert, Erik

2011-01-01

317

Manufacture of nuclear fuel compacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear fuel rods are manufactured utilizing a graphite flourpitch matrix formulation containing an additive. The matrix formulation has a decreased viscosity at fabrication temperatures which permits manufacture of the fuel rods with lower fabrication pressures. Also, the matrix formulation does not cause the fuel rod to adhere or bond to the fuel element during heat treatment of the fuel rod in the fuel element. The nuclear fuel rods are suitable for use in high temperature gas cooled nuclear

318

Influence of the lamination process on the plastic optical fiber sensors embedded in composite materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Silica-based HB fibers have severe limitations due to their coating layers while embedded into a composite: the hard coating layer easily transmits radial stress to the sensing fiber and changes its birefringence. Two coating layers - hard and soft - attached to the HB fiber do not influence fiber birefringence since the second (soft) layer can easily absorb any lateral force. On the other hand, a soft coating does not provide any proper transmission of the longitudinal strain. Additionally, fused-silica fibers have an upper strain limit of approximately 2% strain. In highly loaded engineering structures structural monitoring strain is becoming increasingly important. Hence, soft polymer materials used in the manufacturing process of highly birefringent microstructured polymer optical fibers (mPOFs) can solve this limitation. In this paper we present interactions between a composite material and mPOFs during the manufacturing process. The lamination process can dramatically change the group birefringence of the mPOFs. Measurements for fiber embedded in composite materials and fiber in free space were made and compared. A simple explanation of these differences is presented at the end of the paper.

Lesiak, Piotr; SzelÄ g, Mateusz; Awietjan, Stefan; Kuczkowski, Micha?; Ertman, S?awomir; Budaszewski, Daniel; Doma?ski, Andrzej; Woli?ski, Tomasz

2013-05-01

319

Static and dynamic mechanical properties of alkali treated unidirectional continuous Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fiber/jute fiber reinforced hybrid polyester composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • New type of hybrid composite with Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fibers (PPLSF) and jute. • Composites fabricated with continuous, unidirectional fibers. • Alkali treatment and hybridizing jute imparted good static and dynamic properties. • Properties are comparable with well know natural/glass fiber composites. • New hybrid composite can be an alternative in place of synthetic fiber composites. - Abstract: Alkali treated continuous Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fiber (PPLSF) and jute fibers were used as reinforcement in unsaturated polyester matrix and their static and dynamic mechanical properties were evaluated. Continuous PPLSF and jute fibers were aligned unidirectionally in bi-layer arrangement and the hybrid composites were fabricated by compression molding process. Positive hybrid effect was observed for the composites due to hybridization. Increasing jute fiber loading showed a considerable increase in tensile and flexural properties of the hybrid composites as compared to treated PPLSF composites. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) of the fractured surfaces showed the nature of fiber/matrix interface. The impact strength of the hybrid composites were observed to be less compared to pure PPLSF composites. Addition of jute fibers to PPLSF and alkali treatment of the fibers has enhanced the storage and loss modulus of the hybrid composites. A positive shift of Tan ? peaks to higher temperature and reduction in the peak height of the composites was also observed. The composites with higher jute loading showed maximum damping behavior. Overall the hybridization was found to be efficient showing increased static and dynamic mechanical properties. A comparative study of properties of this hybrid composite with other hybrids made out of using natural/glass fibers is elaborated. Hybridization of alkali treated jute and PPLSF has resulted in enhanced properties which are comparable with other natural/glass fiber composites thus increasing the scope of application in manufacturing of light weight automotive parts

320

Evaluation of exposure to the airborne asbestos in an automobile brake and clutch manufacturing industry in Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

About 2000 tons of chrysotile is used annually to produce friction materials in Islamic Republic of Iran. Approximately, 3000 workers are exposed to the asbestos fibers in the different processes of brake and clutch manufacturing. In the current study, asbestos fiber concentrations during brake and clutch manufacture were measured. This study also evaluated the fiber size and morphology distribution according to the Asbestos International Association (AIA) for standardization analytical method for asbestos. The airborne asbestos fiber concentrations and its chemical composition of 92 personal samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX). Personal monitoring of fiber levels demonstrated counts that ranged from 0.31 to 1.3 PCM f/ml (15.5-51.5 SEM f/ml). Geometric means of the asbestos concentrations were 1.3 PCM f/ml (51.5 SEM f/ml) and 0.86 PCM f/ml (42.1 SEM f/ml) according to the brake weighting and mixing and clutch mixing process, respectively. The geometrical mean concentrations were 0.63 PCM f/ml (31 SEM f/ml), which is considerably higher than threshold limit value (TLV) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) which is 0.1f/ml. The SEM data demonstrate that the fibrous particles consisted, approximately, of chrysotile (50%), tremolite (30%), and actinolite (20%). Based on these findings, the 50% of airborne fibers inhaled by the workers were amphiboles asbestos with fibers equal and greater than 5 microm in length and 0.2 microm in diameter, and thus not included in the PCM-based fiber counts. Therefore, it might be expected that workers who worked in the brake and clutch manufacture will suffer from negative health effects of exposing to the amphibole asbestos fibers. PMID:19818821

Kakooei, Hossein; Marioryad, Hossein

2010-03-01

321

Distribution of fibers in fresh fiber reinforced concrete  

OpenAIRE

This study examines the distribution of steel - and plastic fiber in fresh fiber reinforced concrete. Thisis in relevance to, whether the use of fiber reinforced concrete in structural concrete is advantageous ornot.The thesis is divided into the following two parts:1. Literature study, focusing on the fiber reinforced concrete properties, fiber distribution inconcrete and previous field trials.2. Field work at the site of construction, consisting of two series of experiments; quantitativemea...

Nikolaisen, Eirik Birkeland

2010-01-01

322

Jute fiber reinforced polypropylene produced by continuous extrusion compounding. Part 1. Processing and ageing properties  

OpenAIRE

This article addresses the processing and ageing properties of jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. The composite has been manufactured by a continuous extrusion process and results in free flowing composite granules, comprising up to 50 weight percent (wt %) jute fiber in PP. These granules have similar shape and diameter as commercially available PP granules. Rheological analysis shows that viscosity of the compounds follows the same shear rate dependency as PP and is on the...

Oever, M. J. A.; Snijder, M. H. B.

2008-01-01

323

EVALUATION OF OLD CORRUGATED CONTAINER AND WOOD FIBER APPLICATION ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF THREE- LAYER PARTICLEBOARD  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the results of a study to use virgin wood and OCC fiber for particleboard production. Three-layer boards, with wood and OCC fiber on the surface, were fabricated. The type of applied furnishes at surface layers, moisture, and adhesive content were considered as variables, and their effects on roughness of manufactured particleboards were examined. The panels were produced with 10% and 12% urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive at 10% and 14% moisture content. The surface characte...

Hamideh Abdolzadeh; Kazem Doosthoseini

2009-01-01

324

Bragg gratings in multi-mode fiber optics for wavelength calibration of GAIA and RAVE spectra  

OpenAIRE

We propose a new technique, the use of FBGs (fiber Bragg gratings), for accurate, easy and low cost wavelength calibration of GAIA, RAVE and follow-ups spectra at local Observatories. FBGs mark the spectra with absorption lines, freely defined in number and position during the fibers manufacturing. The process goes in parallel with the science exposure and through the same optical train and path, thus ensuring the maximum return in wavelength calibration accuracy. Plans to m...

Pernechele, C.; Munari, U.

2002-01-01

325

Persistence of tungsten oxide particle/fiber mixtures in artificial human lung fluids  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background During the manufacture of tungsten metal for non-sag wire, tungsten oxide powders are produced as intermediates and can be in the form of tungsten trioxide (WO3) or tungsten blue oxides (TBOs). TBOs contain fiber-shaped tungsten sub-oxide particles of respirable or thoracic size. The aim of this research was to investigate whether fiber-containing TBOs had prolonged biodurability in artificial lung fluids compared to tungsten metal or WO3 <...

Stefaniak Aleksandr B

2010-01-01

326

Maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment  

OpenAIRE

Potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin which has previously been shown to exhibit promising properties as dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to solubilize dietary fibers from potato pulp by a one-step minimal treatment procedure and evaluat...

Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Licht, Tine Rask; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S.

2011-01-01

327

Fluid-fiber-interactions in rotational spinning process of glass wool production  

OpenAIRE

The optimal design of rotational production processes for glass wool manufacturing poses severe computational challenges to mathematicians, natural scientists and engineers. In this paper we focus exclusively on the spinning regime where thousands of viscous thermal glass jets are formed by fast air streams. Homogeneity and slenderness of the spun fibers are the quality features of the final fabric. Their prediction requires the computation of the fluid-fiber-interactions which involves the s...

Arne, W.; Marheineke, N.; Schnebele, J.; Wegener, R.

2011-01-01

328

Properties of M40J Carbon/PMR-II-50 Composites Fabricated with Desized and Surface Treated Fibers. Characterization of M40J Desized and Finished Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

To increase performance and durability of high temperature composites for potential rocket engine components, it is necessary to optimize wetting and interfacial bonding between high modulus carbon fibers and high temperature polyimide resins. It has been previously demonstrated that the electro-oxidative shear treatments used by fiber manufacturers are not effective on higher modulus fibers that have fewer edge and defect sites in the surface crystallites. In addition, sizings commercially supplied on most carbon fibers are not compatible with polyimides. This study was an extension of prior work characterizing the surface chemistry and energy of high modulus carbon fibers (M40J and M60J, Torray) with typical fluorinated polyimide resins, such as PMR-II-50. A continuous desizing system which utilizes environmentally friendly chemical- mechanical processes was developed for tow level fiber and the processes were optimized based on weight loss behavior, surface elemental composition (XPS) and morphology (FE-SEM) analyses, and residual tow strength of the fiber, and the similar approaches have been applied on carbon fabrics. Both desized and further treated with a reactive finish were investigated for the composite reinforcement. The effects of desizing and/or subsequent surface retreatment on carbon fiber on composite properties and performance including fiber-matrix interfacial mechanical properties, thermal properties and blistering onset behavior will be discussed in this presentation.

Allred, Ronald E.; Gosau, Jan M.; Shin, E. Eugene; McCorkle, Linda S.; Sutter, James K.; OMalley, Michelle; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

329

Multifunctional carbon nanotube composite fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Continuous carbon nanotube composite fibers having record energy-to-break (toughness) are reported. These fibers have been employed in the fabrication of lightweight fiber supercapacitors, which can be woven or sewn into fabrics and, therefore, be potentially considered as components for electronic textiles. Moreover, these fibers provided remarkable electromechanical actuator capabilities. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Munoz, E. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castan, 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Dalton, A.B. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Collins, S.; Kozlov, M.; Razal, J.; Ebron, V.H.; Selvidge, M.; Ferraris, J.P.; Baughman, R.H. [The NanoTech Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Dallas, P.O. Box 830688, BE26, Richardson, TX 75083-0688 (United States); Coleman, J.N. [Department of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Kim, B.G. [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea)

2004-10-01

330

Random Fiber Laser  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the effects of two dimensional confinement on the lasing properties of a classical random laser system operating in the incoherent feedback (diffusive) regime. A suspension of 250nm rutile (TiO2) particles in a Rhodamine 6G solution was inserted into the hollow core of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) generating the first random fiber laser and a novel quasi-one-dimensional RL geometry. Comparison with similar systems in bulk format shows that the random fiber laser presents an efficiency that is at least two orders of magnitude higher.

de Matos, Christiano J S; Brito-Silva, Antônio M; Gámez, M A Martinez; Gomes, Anderson S L; de Araújo, Cid B

2007-01-01

331

Optical fiber spectrophotometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method called 'Two Arm's Photo out and Electricity Send-back' is introduced. UV-365 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer has been reequipped by this way with 5 meters long optical fiber. Another method called 'One Arm's Photo out and Photo Send-back' is also introduced. ?19 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer has been reequipped by this way with 10 meters long optical fiber. Optical fiber spectrophotometer can work as its main set. So it is particularly applicable to radio activity work

332

Fiber Digestion in Mammals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal models are viewed to understand the major types of fiber digestion. Faunivores, omnivores and granivores differ in their amounts of fiber digestion. These differences are partially due to the morphology of the gut and opportunities in abundance and Sacristy of food stuffs. The funivore model is the anteater, who utilizes autoenszymes to deal with the chitin in the diet. The frugivor model is the bat, who has to deal with cellulose and seeds. The herbivore model is the rabbit, who must consume large amounts of dietary fiber as dose the grazer. Adaptions vary in gut and selection

J. Caroline

2003-01-01

333

Bragg gratings in multi-mode fiber optics for wavelength calibration of GAIA and RAVE spectra  

CERN Document Server

We propose a new technique, the use of FBGs (fiber Bragg gratings), for accurate, easy and low cost wavelength calibration of GAIA, RAVE and follow-ups spectra at local Observatories. FBGs mark the spectra with absorption lines, freely defined in number and position during the fibers manufacturing. The process goes in parallel with the science exposure and through the same optical train and path, thus ensuring the maximum return in wavelength calibration accuracy. Plans to manufacture and test FBGs for the CaII/Paschen region are underway at the Astronomical Observatory of Padova.

Pernechele, C

2002-01-01

334

Exploring manufacturing competencies of a two wheeler manufacturing unit  

Science.gov (United States)

The two wheeler industry of India is one of the most dependable industries as every person has at least a two wheeler with him, if not any four wheeler. Earlier there were scooters like Bajaj Chetak, Priya but with evolution of motorcycles like splendor, splendor+, etc. the scooter market started declining but with arrival of gearless scooters like Honda Activa, Scooty Pep, etc. the market place has become increasingly competitive in recent time and industries are facing tough test of improving products and thus market share. The competitiveness among industries is an important issue. Competency development is a vital tool to enhance the competitiveness of industries. Based, on aggregate performance of a firm, it comprehensively explores the varying importance of manufacturing competencies and drives of industrial competitiveness. Hence by, exploring the manufacturing competencies of a two wheeler industry, one can reflect the competitiveness of two wheeler manufacturing industry as a whole. This study presents various factors of manufacturing competencies affecting industrial competitiveness as the significance of these competencies is increasing day by day in two wheeler manufacturing industry.

Deep Singh, Chandan; Singh Khamba, Jaimal; Singh, Rajdeep; Singh, Navdeep

2014-07-01

335

Study of Maleic Anhydride Grafted Polypropylene Effect on Resin Impregnated Bamboo Fiber Polypropylene Composit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previously, Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA and phenolic resin were used for resin impregnated bamboo fiber reinforced PP composites which was manufactures for resin impregnated bamboo fiber with polypropylene (PP. Resin impregnation method can show improvement on tensile strength of fiber. However, to reduce the contact surface area and low inter-facial shear strength (IFSS between impregnated resin and matrix, using 40% weight fraction of bamboo fiber in PP matrix, PVA impregnated composites with mean flexural and tensile strength 10% higher than untreated composites were produced butphenolic resin impregnated fiber reinforced composition’s mechanical properties were decreased. In this study maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP was used to increase interfacial shear strength between resin impregnated fiber and PP. With 10% MAPP, IFSS between resin impregnated fiber and PP increased more than 100% and reinforced composites. MAPP with untreated, phenolic resin and PVA impregnated cases showed similar mechanical properties. Yet in water absorption test, the PVA treatment with bamboo/PP composites increased water absorption ratio. But with 10% MAPP, matrix PP water absorption ratio decreased like phenolic resin impregnated fiber reinforced composites. 10% MAPP with resin impregnated bamboo fiber reinforced PP composites can improve IFSS, mechanical properties of composite and can decrease water absorption PVA resin impregnated bamboo fiber reinforced composites.

Gibeop Nam

2014-11-01

336

Characterization of carbon-fiber reinforced polyetherimide thermoplastic composites using mechanical and ultrasonic methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (CFRT) have the potential for being a mass-produced material for high-performance applications. The primary challenge of using CFRT is achieving fiber wet-out due to the high viscosity of thermoplastics. This results in higher temperatures and pressures required for processing the composites. Co-mingling thermoplastic fibers with a reinforcing fiber, potentially, can enable better wetting by reducing the distance the matrix needs to flow. This could result in shorter cycle times and better consolidation at lower temperatures and pressures. In this study, a polyetherimide (PEI) fiber was comingled with carbon fibers (CF). The resultant fibers were woven into fabrics and processed through a compression-molding technique to form laminates. Control specimens were also fabricated using films of PEI layered between plies of woven carbon-fiber materials. The manufactured CFRT panels were evaluated using ultrasonic C-scans (scans in two spatial dimensions) and then characterized for mechanical properties. The specimens produced using the co-mingled fibers had the cycle time reduced significantly compared to the film CFRT, although the results from the mechanical property evaluations were mixed. The behaviors in the co-mingled laminates can be attributed to the resin- and void-content distribution and the fiber-bundle orientations in the cured composite.

ALHaidri, Mohannad

337

Mortality of workers at acetylene production plants.  

OpenAIRE

To reduce the risk of explosion oxyacetylene cylinders are filled with a spongy mass, acetone is added to saturate the mass, and acetylene is pumped into the cylinder. The first cylinders manufactured before 1936 used a kapok filling topped off with about 16 oz of crocidolite asbestos, with a metal gauze thimble inserted to reduce risk of flash back. Cylinders must be examined annually. The use of crocidolite ceased in 1972 and other fillings have been adopted since 1970; kapok cylinders now ...

Newhouse, M. L.; Matthews, G.; Sheikh, K.; Knight, K. L.; Oakes, D.; Sullivan, K. R.

1988-01-01

338

Characterization of Scintillating X-ray Optical Fiber Sensors  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents a set of tests carried out in order to evaluate the design characteristics and the operating performance of a set of six X-ray extrinsic optical fiber sensors. The extrinsic sensor we developed is intended to be used as a low energy X-ray detector for monitoring radiation levels in radiotherapy, industrial applications and for personnel dosimetry. The reproducibility of the manufacturing process and the characteristics of the sensors were assessed. The sensors dynamic rang...

Dan Sporea; Laura Mihai; Ion Vâ??; Denis McCarthy; Keeffe, Sinead O.; Elfed Lewis

2014-01-01

339

Mode profiling of optical fibers at high laser powers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes the development of a measuring equipment capable of analysing the beam profile at high optical powers emitted by delivery fibers used in manufacturing processes. Together with the optical delivery system, the output beam quality from the delivery fiber and the shape of the focused spot can be determined. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating wire being swept though the laser beam, while the reflected signal is recorded [1]. By changing the incident angle of the rotating rod from 0° to 360° in relation to the fiber, the full profile of the laser beam is obtained. Choosing a highly reflective rod material and a sufficiently high rotation speed, these measurements can be done with high laser powers, without any additional optical elements between the fiber and analyzer. The performance of the analyzer was evaluated by coupling laser light into different fibers, and measuring the output beam profiles. Fibers with different core diameters and different surface qualities were tested.

Nielsen, Peter CarØe; Pedersen, David Bue

2008-01-01

340

Fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to develop the radiation sensor, which is composed of a scintillator, an optical fiber bundle and a light measuring device to detect the tritium in real-time. In this study, we have fabricated fiber-optic radiation sensors using inorganic scintillators and plastic optical fiber bundles. Each scintillator interacts with electron or beta ray and generates 455-550 nm wavelength of scintillation photons. An optical fiber bundle is usually made of plastic or glass, which is used to guide the light signal from a scintillating probe to light measuring device. For the purpose of selecting the best scintillator with a high efficiency, fiber-optic sensors manufactured using three kinds of inorganic scintillator such as Gd2O2S:Tb, Y3Al5O12:Ce and CsI:Tl, and they are tested with a metal hydride type of tritium source. In addition, the scintillation photons are measured as a function of distance between a fiber-optic sensor and source. Finally, we have measured the amounts of scintillation photon with different activities of tritium source and compared the measured results with those obtained using a surface activity monitor.

341

Fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to develop the radiation sensor, which is composed of a scintillator, an optical fiber bundle and a light measuring device to detect the tritium in real-time. In this study, we have fabricated fiber-optic radiation sensors using inorganic scintillators and plastic optical fiber bundles. Each scintillator interacts with electron or beta ray and generates 455-550 nm wavelength of scintillation photons. An optical fiber bundle is usually made of plastic or glass, which is used to guide the light signal from a scintillating probe to light measuring device. For the purpose of selecting the best scintillator with a high efficiency, fiber-optic sensors manufactured using three kinds of inorganic scintillator such as Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce and CsI:Tl, and they are tested with a metal hydride type of tritium source. In addition, the scintillation photons are measured as a function of distance between a fiber-optic sensor and source. Finally, we have measured the amounts of scintillation photon with different activities of tritium source and compared the measured results with those obtained using a surface activity monitor.

Jang, K.W.; Cho, D.H.; Yoo, W.J.; Seo, J.K.; Heo, J.Y.; Park, J.-Y. [School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B., E-mail: bslee@kku.ac.kr [School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-01

342

Fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to develop the radiation sensor, which is composed of a scintillator, an optical fiber bundle and a light measuring device to detect the tritium in real-time. In this study, we have fabricated fiber-optic radiation sensors using inorganic scintillators and plastic optical fiber bundles. Each scintillator interacts with electron or beta ray and generates 455-550 nm wavelength of scintillation photons. An optical fiber bundle is usually made of plastic or glass, which is used to guide the light signal from a scintillating probe to light measuring device. For the purpose of selecting the best scintillator with a high efficiency, fiber-optic sensors manufactured using three kinds of inorganic scintillator such as Gd 2O 2S:Tb, Y 3Al 5O 12:Ce and CsI:Tl, and they are tested with a metal hydride type of tritium source. In addition, the scintillation photons are measured as a function of distance between a fiber-optic sensor and source. Finally, we have measured the amounts of scintillation photon with different activities of tritium source and compared the measured results with those obtained using a surface activity monitor.

Jang, K. W.; Cho, D. H.; Yoo, W. J.; Seo, J. K.; Heo, J. Y.; Park, J.-Y.; Lee, B.

2011-10-01

343

Free Surface Glass Flow in High Speed Optical Fiber Drawing  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing draw speeds have placed stringent demands on the optical fiber manufacturing process, mainly because of large temperature gradients that can generate thermally induced defects and inhomogeneities in the fiber. The flow of silica glass from rods of diameters as high as 10 cm to fibers of diameters in the range 100-125 microns determines the quality of the fiber. This paper presents a numerical study of the optical fiber drawing process for relatively large diameter preforms and draw speeds as high as 20-25 m/s. The free surface that constitutes the neck-down profile is calculated by employing the overall force balance at the surface, and the associated temperature, velocity and defect distributions are determined. The problem is complicated because of combined radiation, convection and conduction mechanisms that arise. The velocity level increases dramatically and the geometry becomes very complicated. In addition, the viscosity changes by several orders of magnitude due to the range of temperatures encountered. This requires particularly fine grids and couples the momentum and energy equations. The effect of high speeds on the glass flow, on the defects generated in the fiber and on the neck-down profile is determined. Several other aspects in the flow are studied and the implications of these results in practical systems are discussed.

Jaluria, Y.; Yin, Z.

1997-11-01

344

Industrial kitchen equipment manufacturer’s responsibility consciousness: Turkey sample  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Responsibility consciousness is a characteristic property for business enterprises. It is relatively more difficult to determine responsibility consciousness in service businesses. Monitoring responsibility can be limited in tourism enterprises. In this study, industrial kitchen equipment which are used in food and beverage operations and are accepted as one of the tangible indicators are examined. First, qualitative research was conducted and content analysis was applied to 97 manufacturer's product catalogs. Subsequently, correspondence analysis was performed to determine the difference between the characteristics according to cities. Results showed that Ankara, ?stanbul and ?zmir differed from other cities. It is also interesting that manufacturers in Ankara were conscious about the environment. In conclusion, it was understood that three major cities manufacturers have responsibility. Besides, it was revealed that other cities should also pay attention to this issue.

Ebru Zencir

2014-02-01

345

Fiber-optic couplers as displacement sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce the novel concept of using a fiber-optic coupler as a versatile displacement sensor. Comparatively long fiber-optic couplers, with a coupling region of approximately 10 mm, are manufactured using standard communication SM fiber and placed in a looped-back configuration. The result is a displacement sensor, which is robust and highly sensitive over a wide dynamic range. This displacement sensor resolves 1-2 ?m over distances of 1-1.5 mm and is characterized by the essential absence of a 'spring constant' plaguing other strain gauge-type sensors. Consequently, it is possible to couple to extremely weak vibrations, such as the skin displacement affected by arterial heart beat pulsations. Used as a wrist-worn heartbeat monitor, the fidelity of the arterial pulse signal has been shown to be so high that it is possible to not only determine heartbeat and breathing rates, but to implement a new single-point blood pressure measurement scheme which does not squeeze the arm. In an application as a floor vibration sensor for the non-intrusive monitoring of independently living elderly, the sensor has been shown to resolve the distinct vibration spectra of different persons and different events.

Baruch, Martin C.; Gerdt, David W.; Adkins, Charles M.

2003-04-01

346

Vibration control via shunted embedded piezoelectric fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

The scientific community has put significant efforts into the manufacturing of sensors and actuators made of piezoceramic fibers with interdigitated electrodes. These allow for increased conformability, integrability in laminate structures and offer high coupling factors. They are of particular interest for damping applications. This paper presents a comparison between piezoceramic monolithic actuators and Active Fiber Composites (AFCs) for shunt damping. For this purpose, the different actuators were bonded on aluminum cantilever plates, respectively embedded in a glass fiber composite cantilever plate. The vibration suppression was attained by converting the electric charge by means of the converse piezoelectric effect and dissipated through robust resonant shunt circuits. A new circuit topology was used, which enables efficient damping even with low piezoelectric capacitance. An integrated FE model was implemented for prediction of the natural frequencies, the optimum values for the electric components and the resulting damping performance. Patches working in the direct 3-3 mode show much better specific damping performance than the 3-1 actuated patch. The comparison between monolithic and AFC actuators shows that AFCs fulfill integrability and performance requirements for the planned damping applications.

Belloli, Alberto; Niederberger, Dominik; Kornmann, Xavier; Ermanni, Paolo; Morari, Manfred; Pietrzko, Stanislaw

2004-07-01

347

Full Scale Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: (1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, (2) Boron-lined proportional counters, (3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and (4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. Reported here are the results of tests of the full-scale 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT) and Saint Gobain, and is a follow-up report to an earlier one on a smaller prototype system.m.

348

Full Scale Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. Reported here are the results of tests of the full-scale 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT) and Saint Gobain, and is a follow-up report to an earlier one on a smaller prototype system.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2010-03-17

349

Fiber-optically sensorized composite wing  

Science.gov (United States)

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and light-weight, fiber-optic sensor based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) will find increasing application in aerospace structures ranging from aircraft wings to jet engine vanes. Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) has been developing multi-functional fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor systems including parallel processing FBG interrogators combined with advanced signal processing for SHM, structural state sensing and load monitoring applications. This paper reports work with Auburn University on embedding and testing FBG sensor arrays in a quarter scale model of a T38 composite wing. The wing was designed and manufactured using fabric reinforced polymer matrix composites. FBG sensors were embedded under the top layer of the composite. Their positions were chosen based on strain maps determined by finite element analysis. Static and dynamic testing confirmed expected response from the FBGs. The demonstrated technology has the potential to be further developed into an autonomous onboard system to perform load monitoring, SHM and Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of composite aerospace structures (wings and rotorcraft blades). This platform technology could also be applied to flight testing of morphing and aero-elastic control surfaces.

Costa, Joannes M.; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Oblea, Levy; Patel, Rona; Sotoudeh, Vahid; Abouzeida, Essam; Quinones, Vladimir; Gowayed, Yasser; Soobramaney, Paul; Flowers, George

2014-04-01

350

Thermally sprayed prepregs for thixoforging of UD fiber reinforced light metal MMCs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low density and good mechanical properties are the basic requirements for lightweight structures in automotive and aerospace applications. With their high specific strength and strain to failure values, aluminum alloys could be used for such applications. Only the insufficient stiffness and thermal and fatigue strength prevented their usage in high-end applications. One possibility to solve this problem is to reinforce the light metal with unidirectional fibers. The UD fiber allows tailoring of the reinforcement to meet the direction of the component's load. In this study, the production of thermally sprayed prepregs for the manufacturing of continuous fiber reinforced MMC by thixoforging is analysed. The main aim is to optimize the winding procedure, which determines the fiber strand position and tension during the coating process. A method to wind and to coat the continuous fibers with an easy-to-use handling technique for the whole manufacturing process is presented. The prepregs were manufactured by producing arc wire sprayed AlSi6 coatings on fibers bundles. First results of bending experiments showed appropriate mechanical properties

351

Thermally sprayed prepregs for thixoforging of UD fiber reinforced light metal MMCs  

Science.gov (United States)

Low density and good mechanical properties are the basic requirements for lightweight structures in automotive and aerospace applications. With their high specific strength and strain to failure values, aluminum alloys could be used for such applications. Only the insufficient stiffness and thermal and fatigue strength prevented their usage in high-end applications. One possibility to solve this problem is to reinforce the light metal with unidirectional fibers. The UD fiber allows tailoring of the reinforcement to meet the direction of the component's load. In this study, the production of thermally sprayed prepregs for the manufacturing of continuous fiber reinforced MMC by thixoforging is analysed. The main aim is to optimize the winding procedure, which determines the fiber strand position and tension during the coating process. A method to wind and to coat the continuous fibers with an easy-to-use handling technique for the whole manufacturing process is presented. The prepregs were manufactured by producing arc wire sprayed AlSi6 coatings on fibers bundles. First results of bending experiments showed appropriate mechanical properties.

Silber, Martin; Wenzelburger, Martin; Gadow, Rainer

2007-04-01

352

Dry sliding wear behaviour of Cu based composite materials reinforced with alumina fibers  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: Parameters for new manufacturing route of Cu casting reinforced with alumina fibers were elaborated. There was observed improvement of hardness and wear properties of composite materials comparing to the unreinforced copper and this indicates for the proper applied process parameters.Design/methodology/approach: Manufacturing of composite materials involves two stages, preparation of porous preforms and next their infiltration with molten Cu. Preforms exhibits semioriented arrangemen...

Naplocha, K.; Granat, K.; Kaczmar, J. W.

2013-01-01

353

Neuroanatomic Fiber Orientation Maps (FOMs)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new neuroanatomic method is described which allows to map the orientation of central nervous fibers in gross histological sections. Polarised light is used to calculate the angle of inclination and direction of the fibers in each pixel. Serial fiber orientation maps (FOMs) can be aligned and 3D reconstructed. This volume allows to identify and segment the major fiber tracts. The feasible goal is a human central nervous fiber atlas.

Axer, Hubertus; Jantzen, Jan

2002-01-01

354

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting ... Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Kids 'n Fiber Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates by ...

355

Basalt Fiber Based Filters  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Development of Highly Effective Filtering Systems on the Basis of a Super-Thin Basalt Fiber for Radioactive Aerosols Purification and Creation of a Work Cycle for Filters Manufacturig with the Purpose of Their Operation at the Nuclear Power Plants

356

Fiber optic gas sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

357

Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb (electromagnetic) and Cu (hadron) absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters, for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles (1 degree--7 degree). The 7 ? deep hadron tower contained 2.8% by volume 1.5 mm diameter core clear plastic fibers. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.8% and 7.2% of 1 mm diameter core quartz fibers as the active Cerenkov sampling medium. The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response, pulse shapes and angular studies are presented

358

Fiber optics dosimetry  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear radiation induced darkening of optical fibers has been employed to extend the range of glass dosimetry to that of personal dosimetry. Dosimeters constructed using this principle have proved sufficiently rugged and reliable for civil defense applications.

Kronenberg, Stanley; Siebentritt, Carl R.

1980-09-01

359

Fiber based optofluidic biosensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal diagnosis requires the development of innovative devices allowing the detection of small amounts of biological species. Among the large variety of available biosensors, the ones based on fluorescence phenomenon are really promising. Here, we show a prototype of the basic unit of a multi-sensing biosensor combining optics and microfluidics benefits. This unit makes use of two crossed optical fibers: the first fiber is used to carry small probe molecules droplets and excite fluorescence, while the second one is devoted to target molecules droplets transport and fluorescence detection. Within this scheme, the interaction takes place in each fiber node. The main benefits of this detection setup are the absence of fibers functionalization, the use of microliter volumes of target and probe species, their separation before interaction, and a better detection limit compared to cuvettes setups.

Lismont, M.; Vandewalle, N.; Joris, B.; Dreesen, L.

2014-09-01

360

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Child Obesity Searching Online for 'Hemorrhoids'? - - For More Information FDA Flickr Photostream - Kids 'n Fiber - Page Last ... 08/2014 Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

361

Proceedings of the international conference on specialty glass and optical fiber: materials, technology and devices - book of abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present conference on Specialty Glass and Optical Fiber (ICGF-2011) was organized during 4-6 August, 2011 as a part of Institute's year long Diamond Jubilee celebration.The development and commercialization of specialty glasses and optical fibers has become a rightful index of a country's progress in today's competitive global scenario. The conference covers topics on modeling, manufacturing and processing of glass with novel design and composition as well as specialty optical fiber and technologies, papers on innovative, cutting-edge topics in the fields of specialty glass and optical fiber foregrounding the recent technical advances. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

362

Free radical activity of industrial fibers: role of iron in oxidative stress and activation of transcription factors.  

OpenAIRE

We studied asbestos, vitreous fiber (MMVF10), and refractory ceramic fiber (RCF1) from the Thermal Insulation Manufacturers' Association fiber repository regarding the following: free radical damage to plasmid DNA, iron release, ability to deplete glutathione (GSH), and activate redox-sensitive transcription factors in macrophages. Asbestos had much more free radical activity than any of the man-made vitreous fibers. More Fe3+ was released than Fe2+ and more of both was released at pH 4.5 tha...

Gilmour, P. S.; Brown, D. M.; Beswick, P. H.; Macnee, W.; Rahman, I.; Donaldson, K.

1997-01-01

363

Effect of Glass Fiber Hybridization on the Behavior Under Impact of Woven Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates  

OpenAIRE

The low-velocity impact behavior was studied in hybrid laminates manufactured by RTM with woven carbon and glass (S2) fabrics. Specimens with different thicknesses and glass fiber content (from 0 to 21 vol.%) were tested with impact energies in the range 30–245 J and the resulting deformation and fracture micromechanisms were studied using X-ray microtomography. The results of these analyses, together with those of the impact tests (maximum load and energy absorbed), were used to elucidate ...

Enfedaque Diaz, Alejandro

2010-01-01

364

Knowledge Bowl for Manufacturing Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

The Manufacturing Processes (ME 201) class in the Mechanical Engineering (ME) Department at Christian Brothers University (CBU) is a required course for all ME students. This class combines traditional machining, advanced machining (CNC), and rapid prototyping techniques with field trips and hands-on projects. One of the highlights of this class is the manufacturing bowl at the end of the semester. Students are divided into four groups to compete in theknowledge of manufacturing. The winning group is selected by means of the double-elimination process. A gaming device that consists of a console and two push-button control boxes is created for the competition. Seven sets of multiple-choice questions are created in PowerPoint presentations. Prior to the end of the semester, a final project is assigned to have each group of students design their own trophy for the competition. This project illustrates students' creativity, their ability to work as a team and their manufacturing skills.The competition serves as a review of materials covered in the class. It boosts up the interest and motivation of students in the area of manufacturing processes. The design for the gaming device is included.

Shiue, Paul

2009-07-29

365

Self focusing optical fiber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention relates to the field of optoelectronics and may be used in the fiber/optic data transmission systems. Summary of the invention consists in that the self focusing optical fiber contains a shell with a core, placed between two control electrodes. With that the shell is made in the form of a plastic tube, and the core - in the form of a colloidal suspention of PbTiO3 and SrTiO3 powders in the polyethilsiloxane oil

366

Terawatt fiber pinch experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fiber pinches have been found to be less prone to disruptive instabilities (m = o type) than predicted by MHD theory (pinch life time > 100 MHD growth times). Comparing different experiments, this remarkable macroscopical stability seems to scale with driver power. Fiber experiments performed at the pulseline KALIF (1,6 TW, 2 MV, 2?) show no pinch disruptions during the whole current pulse (> 120 ns) if the initial fiber radius exceeds a critical limit (> 10 ?m). From optical framing pictures it is realized that local pinch column neckings develop when the ratio of the pinch current to the initial fiber radius exceeds 15 kA/?m. This leads to local radiative collapses (micropinches) near the cathode first and up to 20 ns later near the anode as seen on X-ray streak pictures. A few ns after these short-lived (? ns) micropinches a more or less axially inhomogeneous hot (Te 300 kA) intensive hard X-ray emission starts immediately after the micropinches and no hot pinch plasma develops. Depending on power input and fiber radius the fiber ablation and ionization process lasts for more than 20 ns. It has been found that reduced power input per electron-ion pair during fiber ablation and ionization reduces initial discharge expansion whereas high power input per plasma particle during pinch phase improves the hot pinch pinch phase improves the hot pinch plasma (axial homogeneity and confinement). From these contradictory power requirements it is concluded that a solid fiber is not the best start condition for these Z-pinches that need initial pinch conductivity and compressibility in order to further improve axial homogeneity and confinement

367

Fiber optic detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

1990-12-31

368

Enzymatic modification of flaxseed fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) fibers were modified by oxidoreductive and cellulolytic enzymes. The lignin amount and intrinsic plant peroxidase activity was evaluated by histochemical and spectrophotometric assays. Peroxidase activity was not found from bast fibers. The flaxseed fibers were further separated and treated with laccase to conjugate the model compounds, that is, the hydrophobic gallate molecules on fiber surfaces. Laccase was able to slowly oxidize fiber-conjugated phenolics, but no fundamental changes in fiber cell surface structure or notable coupling of the applied hydrophobic gallate molecules onto the fibers occurred, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The reactivity of the mature fibers was further investigated using cellulolytic enzymes. Cellobiohydrolase (CBH) and endoglucanase (EG)-rich enzyme preparations were applied to reach a hydrolysis degree of 1-6% (of the fiber dry matter) using a standard enzyme dosage. The CBH mixture altered the fiber surface morphology distinctly, and SEM images illustrated fibers in which the cellulose fibrils seemed to be loosened and partially hydrolyzed. In contrast, the effect of the EG-rich preparation without CBH activity was notable on the fiber surface, polishing the surfaces. The cellulolytic treatments were potentially interesting for specific enzymatic modifications of flax fiber surfaces, whereas the approach to use oxidoreductive enzyme treatments on mature linseed fibers offered little potential, obviously due to the low lignin content of the fibers. PMID:23098092

Maijala, Pekka; Mäkinen, Marliina; Galkin, Sari; Fagerstedt, Kurt; Härkäsalmi, Tiina; Viikari, Liisa

2012-11-01

369

Ply-based Optimization of Laminated Composite Shell Structures under Manufacturing Constraints  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This work concerns a new ply-based parameterization for performing simultaneous material selection and topology optimization of fiber reinforced laminated composite structures while ensuring that a series of different manufacturing constraints are fulfilled. The material selection can either be performed on the basis of different materials, and/or consist of discrete selection of the same orthotropic material with different orientations of the fibers. The problem considered is the optimization of a general laminated composite shell structure with respect to maximum stiffness (minimum compliance) with an additional constraint on the maximum allowable amount mass.

SØrensen, Rene; Lund, Erik

2012-01-01

370

Right- and left-handed twist in optical fibers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english The effect of twist-induced variation of the output state of polarization on clockwise and counterclockwise torsion was measured in two standard optical fibers made by different manufacturers. It was found that standard fiber samples may exhibit a different twist-induced polarization performance for [...] right- and left-handed twists. In this work we compare the results obtained for two commercial fibers using linearly polarized input signals with azimuth angles between 0 and 150°, within the 1520-1570 nm spectral range. In all cases these results could be described using the same theoretical model. We demonstrate that the different behavior observed for right- and left-handed twists for one of the samples can be explained by the presence of a residual torsion.

D., Tentori; A., Garcia-Weidner.

2014-02-01

371

Infrared single mode chalcogenide glass fiber for space.  

Science.gov (United States)

An important measuring technique under study for the DARWIN planet finding mission, is nulling interferometry, enabling the detection of the weak infrared emission lines of an orbiting planet. This technique requires a perfect wavefront of the light beams to be combined in the interferometer. By using a single mode waveguide before detection, wavefront errors are filtered and a virtually perfect plane wavefront is obtained. In this paper the results on the development and the optical characterisation of suitable infrared transmitting chalcogenide glasses and mid-IR guiding optical fibers are reported. Two different perform techniques for manufacturing core-cladding chalcogenide fibers are described. Two types of step index fibers, prepared with Te(2)As(3)Se(5) chalcogenide glasses, offer single mode guidance at 10.6 mum. PMID:19547623

Houizot, P; Boussard-Plédel, C; Faber, A J; Cheng, L K; Bureau, B; Van Nijnatten, P A; Gielesen, W L M; Pereira do Carmo, J; Lucas, J

2007-09-17

372

Emergence of fiber supercapacitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supercapacitors (SCs) are energy storage devices which have high power density and long cycle life. Conventional SCs have two-dimensional planar structures. As a new family of SCs, fiber SCs utilize one-dimensional cylindrically shaped fibers as electrodes. They have attracted significant interest since 2011 and have shown great application potential either as micro-scale devices to complement or even replace micro-batteries in miniaturized electronics and microelectromechanical systems or as macro-scale devices for wearable electronics or smart textiles. This tutorial review provides an essential introduction to this new field. We first introduce the basics of performance evaluation for fiber SCs as a foundation to understand different research approaches and the diverse performance metrics reported in the literature. Next, we summarize the current state-of-the-art progress in structure design and electrode fabrication of fiber SCs. This is followed by a discussion on the integration of multiple fiber SCs and the combination with other energy harvesting or storage devices. Last, we present our perspectives on the future development of fiber SCs and highlight key technical challenges with the hope of stimulating further research progress. PMID:25420877

Yu, Dingshan; Qian, Qihui; Wei, Li; Jiang, Wenchao; Goh, Kunli; Wei, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Yuan

2014-11-25

373

Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Systems  

CERN Document Server

Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require  balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology – with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element – is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

Thiede, Sebastian

2012-01-01

374

Asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The unique set of physical and chemical properties of asbestos has led to its many industrial applications, such as roof coverings, textiles, rope, cord and yarn, paper, friction and composition materials, household product, acid-resistant filters, packing, insulation, and certain types of lagging, amongst others. In Poland asbestos-containing products were manufactured from raw materials imported mainly from the former Soviet Union, with production launched at the beginning of 20th century. According to Annex 4 to the Act of 19 June 1997 on the prohibition of the use of asbestos-containing products, there were 28 asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland located in 11 provinces throughout the country. The current survey was undertaken to enable asbestos manufacturing plants to be arranged, described and divided in order to contribute to further surveys.

Wilk Ewa

2014-06-01

375

A Manufacturing Systems Capstone Course  

Science.gov (United States)

Capstone courses serve a valuable function in Engineering and Engineering Technology curricula. Typically these courses offer the student an opportunity to integrate the lessons learned in engineering science classes, as well as transition from the textbook problems with a limited scope to more open ended problems. A capstone course also offers the opportunity to fill in some gaps in the students academic background prior to entering the professional ranks. The Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) [1] has developed a quantitative survey instrument to measure the technical and professional competency of newly hired manufacturing engineers and rate how well these new engineers met expectations. If the survey respondent rated a competency of a new engineer as below or well below expectations, they were asked to rate how important this competency was to the success of their company. Using the results of this survey SME ranked the competencies in order by their importance to organizations and the frequency they were cited as falling short of expectations. The competencies are listed in order: 1) Business knowledge/ skill; 2) Project management; 3) Written communications; 4) Supply chain management; 5) Specific manufacturing processes (hands-on experience in at least one process); 6) Oral communications/ listening; 7) International perspective; 8) Manufacturing process control; 9) Quality; 10) Problem solving; 11) Teamwork/ working effectively w/ others; 12) Materials; 13) Product/ process design; 14) Engineering fundamentals; & 15) Personal Attributes. This listing proves a good source of input for the design of a manufacturing oriented capstone course. In addition, the thrust of the course should be determined. Manufacturing engineering encompasses a wide variety of topics. Several valid approaches are possible in a capstone course, including quality systems, process analysis, or a more general approach.

Anderson, John

2012-03-19

376

Single longitudinal mode modified CSP injection laser for single-mode optical fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

Injection lasers applicable as miniature high quality optical sources for fiber optic rotation sensors (FORS) are described. Attention is focused on the gaussian channel substrate (GCSP) laser, which provides stable single transverse, longitudinal mode CW operation, linear light output characteristics and low spontaneous noise. The GCSP has a built-in effective index guide that varies across the lateral junction plane. The laser is manufactured using a liquid phase epitaxy process and a GaAs substrate, and the variable index guide provides mode selection. It is shown that a 35 percent coupling efficiency can be achieved between a GCSP laser and a single mode fiber by using a tapered polished fiber method.

Ceruzzi, A. D.; Stockton, T. E.; McNeely, J. B.

377

Fabricated nano-fiber diameter as liquid concentration sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanofiber is characterized by thin, long, and very soft silica. Taper fibers are made using an easy and low cost chemical method. Etching is conducted with a HF solution to remove cladding and then a low molarity HF solution to reduce the fiber core diameter. One approach to on-line monitoring of the etching process uses spectrophotometer with a white light source. In the aforementioned technique, this method aims to determine the diameter of the reduced core and show the evolution of the two different processes from the nanofiber regime to the fixed regime in which the mode was remote from the surrounding evanescent field, intensity can propagate outside the segment fiber when the core diameter is less than 500 nm. Manufacturing technologies of nano-fiber sensors offer a number of approved properties of optical fiber sensors utilized in various sensory applications. The nano-fiber sensor is utilized to sense the difference in the concentration of D-glucose in double-distilled deionized water and to measure the refractive index (RI) of a sugar solution. Our proposed method exhibited satisfactory capability based on bimolecular interactions in the biological system. The response of the nano-fiber sensors indicates a different kind of interaction among various groups of AAs. These results can be interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and the structure making or breaking ability of solutes in the given solution. This study utilized spectra photonics to measure the transmission of light through different concentrations of sugar solution, employing cell cumber and nano-optical fibers as sensors.

Chyad, Radhi M.; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi

378

Improved communication between manufacturing robots  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Communication between manufacturing robots and autonomous vehicles in the industrial environment is important, sinceinstructions and information are crucial for communication between the control station and the robot station. Information is required between different manufacturing robots for optimal [...] performance and dedication to industrial tasks within the environment. Failures in communication could cause robots to be a safety hazard or to perform tasks that are not required. This article shows how communication was improved with the use of the Robotics Communication Protocol (RCP) and an extension of this protocol.

R., Stopforth; G., Bright; S., Davrajh; A., Walker.

379

ECM (Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing) newsletter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This newsletter is published quarterly at Sandia Laboratories to disseminate information obtained from research and development programs and demonstration, testing, and evaluation projects at DOE facilities on environmentally conscious manufacturing processes. Inside this issue: TDI-free rigid polyurethane foam encapsulants; news in brief; a compatibility study relating organic materials and non-halogenated cleaning materials; asilamine aromatic diamine curing agents; solvent substitution at Allied Signal-Kansas City division; overview of DOE's industrial waste reduction program; and the RIOTECH environmentally conscious manufacturing technology development program

380

Mechanical and thermal properties of basalt fiber reinforced poly(butylene succinate) composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Novel basalt fiber-reinforced biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) composites have been successfully fabricated with various fiber loadings. ? The tensile and flexural properties of the PBS matrix resin are improved significantly by increasing the fiber loading in the composites. ? The impact strength of the BF/PBS composite decreases with the addition fibers primarily and increases with increasing fiber loading due to energy dissipation when the fibers are pulled out. ? Heat deflection temperature tests clearly show that the HDT of the basalt fiber reinforced PBS composites is significantly higher than the HDT of the PBS resin. - Abstract: Basalt fiber (BF) reinforced poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) composites have been fabricated with different fiber contents by a injection molding method and their tensile, flexural and impact properties, as well as thermal stability have been investigated. The tensile and flexural properties of the PBS matrix resin are improved markedly by increasing the fiber contents in the composites. The values are relatively higher than the natural fiber/PP systems reported earlier by other research groups. The heat deflection temperature (HDT) and Vicat softening temperature (VST) of the composites are significantly higher than those of the neat PBS resin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) conducted on the fracture surfaces of the composites reveals superior interfacial linkage between the basalt fibers and PBS matrix. the basalt fibers and PBS matrix. The results suggest that the BF/PBS composites may be a potential candidate of PP or PP composites to manufacturing some daily commodities to solve the “white pollution” in environmental management.

381

Hydroxyapatite fiber reinforced poly(alpha-hydroxy ester) foams for bone regeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

A process has been developed to manufacture biodegradable composite foams of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and hydroxyapatite short fibers for use in bone regeneration. The processing technique allows the manufacture of three-dimensional foam scaffolds and involves the formation of a composite material consisting of a porogen material (either gelatin microspheres or salt particles) and hydroxyapatite short fibers embedded in a PLGA matrix. After the porogen is leached out, an open-cell composite foam remains which has a pore size and morphology defined by the porogen. By changing the weight fraction of the leachable component it was possible to produce composite foams with controlled porosities ranging from 0.47 +/- 0.02 to 0.85 +/- 0.01 (n = 3). Up to a polymer:fiber ratio of 7:6, short hydroxyapatite fibers served to reinforce low-porosity PLGA foams manufactured using gelatin microspheres as a porogen. Foams with a compressive yield strength up to 2.82 +/- 0.63 MPa (n = 3) and a porosity of 0.47 +/- 0.02 (n = 3) were manufactured using a polymer:fiber weight ratio of 7:6. In contrast, high-porosity composite foams (up to 0.81 +/- 0.02, n = 3) suitable for cell seeding were not reinforced by the introduction of increasing quantities of hydroxyapatite short fibers. We were therefore able to manufacture high-porosity foams which may be seeded with cells but which have minimal compressive yield strength, or low porosity foams with enhanced osteoconductivity and compressive yield strength.

Thomson, R. C.; Yaszemski, M. J.; Powers, J. M.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

382

Influence of moisture absorption on properties of fiber reinforced polyamide 6 composites  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A state-of-the art study of thermoplastic polymer matrix materials for fiber composites has identified polyamide 6 (PA6) as a potential candidate thermoplastic polymer relevant for manufacturing large composite structures like wind turbine blades. The mechanical properties of PA6 are highly sensitive to moisture, and if PA6 is used as matrix material in a fiber composite, the properties of the fiber composite will depend on the moisture content of the material. At standard condition (23 °C and 50% RH) polyamide6 absorbs about 3 weight-% of water, whereas the PA6 material is dry right after manufacturing of components. In the current article, lamina properties of dry glass fiber/PA6 and conditioned (23 °C, 50% RH) glass fiber/PA6 are calculated for lamina with two different fiber content (45 and 50 vol.-%) by the use of classical micro mechanics. The matrix dominated properties like the shear stiffness, the shear strength and the stiffness and strength across the fiber direction are the ones which are mostly affected by the moisture content in the material.

Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; LØgstrup Andersen, Tom

2011-01-01

383

Characterization of Amazon fibers of the peach palm, balsa, and babassu by XDR, TGA and NMR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was to present the results by testing X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and determining the moisture content of the peach palm, balsa and babassu fibers for assessing the feasibility of composite materials. The fibers of peach palm, balsa and babassu showed characteristic chemical structure of lignocellulosic material, and good thermal stability up to 220 deg C. The fiber with the highest crystallinity index (Ic) is the peach palm (72%) and the less crystalline is the babassu (37%), while the balsa fibers have Ic equal to 64%. The results have shown that these fibers can be used in the manufacture of composite materials. (author)

384

Calibration artefact for the microscale with high aspect ratio: The fiber gauge  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper presents a new concept of micro-artefact, the fiber gauge, consisting of a set of optical fibers sticking out from a flat surface. The fibers are arranged as a regular array of different height cylinders, with aspect ratios up to 20:1. The artefact is produced taking advantage of optical fibers manufacturing technology, featuring relatively high geometrical accuracy, combined with very good mechanical properties. The fiber gauge can be applied to calibration of most contact or non-contact instruments for characterization of surface topographies and 3Dmicro-geometries, such as micro- or nano-CMMs, optical instruments, etc. Different designs and dimensions allow for realization of structures that can be adapted to various instruments calibration needs. Development, analysis and application of prototype artefacts are reported.

Marinello, Francesco; Savio, Enrico

2008-01-01

385

High-birefringent and high-gain erbium-doped polarization-maintaining fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

An erbium-doped polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber has been manufactured. The core is codoped with Ge and Al and a gain of 36 dB is achieved. The fiber design utilizes the combined effects of an elliptical stress-inducing cladding and an elliptical core to achieve a high birefringence of 3.1 X 10-4 and a polarization crosstalk below -37 dB for a 10 m length. To optimize the birefringence, a model of the distribution of thermal stress in an elliptical-cladding fiber has been developed, which yields an accurate expression for the birefringence. The additional geometrical birefringence due to the elliptical shape of the core can be superimposed on this result. Measurements of birefringence versus wavelength confirm the predictions of the model. The erbium-doped polarization-maintaining fiber has been tested in an all-PM fiber ring laser having highly linearly polarized output.

Edvold, Bent; Palsdottir, Bera

1994-10-01

386

Approaches to mitigate polymer-core loss in plastic optical fibers: a review  

Science.gov (United States)

Within fiber optics, plastic optical fibers (POFs) have always had to take a back seat due to their relatively high loss. This kept them as a specialty fiber for illumination, sensing and low speed short data links. However, continued research and development on the core materials used in POFs are improving their performance significantly as we are now able to manufacture POFs with low transmission loss, high temperature resistance and stable bandwidth over distance. The improved performance, the ease of installation and the low cost of POFs has led to a renewed interest in these fibers. This review looks at the material developments that have and continue to improve the optical loss factors in POFs. Both intrinsic and extrinsic loss mechanisms are discussed. In particular the intrinsic loss mechanisms are reviewed in greater detail. Intrinsic losses are associated with the chemical and physical structure of the fiber materials, while extrinsic losses are related to losses due to contaminants and various production imperfections.

Ioannides, N.; Chunga, E. B.; Bachmatiuk, A.; Gonzalez-Martinez, I. G.; Trzebicka, B.; Adebimpe, D. B.; Kalymnios, D.; Rümmeli, M. H.

2014-09-01

387

Characteristics and Applications of Tapered Fiber Optical Sensors for 1310 nm Wavelength  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical sensors for displacement measurement and fluorescence probes were designed and experimentally studied. This is the first time we used photonic sensors for displacement measurement and fluorescence probes at the same time using a long-wavelength (1310 nm) photon beam in the reflective mode. A tapered fiber sensor was chosen to increase the dynamic range for fluorescence probes. The results showed that the tapered fiber sensor exhibited a high resolution of 12 nm and a better dynamic range of 2 mm in our system. The relationship between resolution and dynamic range was experimentally found to vary with tapered fiber tilt angle. The precise diameter of the fiber microlens was measured. These were the characteristics considered in the manufacturing of our chosen device. Moreover, these novel 1310-nm-wavelength tapered fiber sensors with high resolution, good dynamic range, better reliability, and low cost may provide multipurpose applications, such as those in telecommunication systems, commercial measurements, and military inspection.

Hwang, Thunter; Cheng, Wood-Hi; Su, Yan-Kuin

2013-06-01

388

Inkjet printing in the manufacture of electronics, photonics, and displays  

Science.gov (United States)

Ink-jet printing technologies are now being developed and used across a wide spectrum of optoelectronic and microelectronic manufacturing applications, because they provide opportunities both for significant cost reductions in existing components and for new component and device configurations. Examples of cost reductions in existing component configurations include printing of optical epoxies to fabricate precision microlens arrays for micro-mirror-based MEMS optical switches and fluxless printing of solder bumps for flip-chip BGA, ?BGA and CSP (chin-scale package) manufacture. The most widely recognized, relatively new application of ink-jet printing has arisen in the manufacturing of PLED (Polymer-LED) displays. Potential uses of these technologies for creating new device and package configurations that provide both higher performance and lower cost include microlens printing directly onto VCSELs or the tips of optical fibers for increasing the efficiency of coupling and solder ball printing for making right-angle electrical connections, in order to enable further miniaturization of optoelectronic packages. Example ofnew device configurations which may be fabricated using these capabilities include chip-level optical switches, transceivers, transmitters and receivers.

Hayes, Donald J.; Grove, Michael E.; Wallace, David B.; Chen, Ting; Cox, Weldon R.

2002-11-01

389

UTILIZATION OF OLIVE MILL SLUDGE IN THE MANUFACTURE OF FIBERBOARD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the utilization of olive mill sludge (OMS as an alternative to wood in the manufacture of the medium density fiberboard (MDF. The MDF panels were manufactured using standardized procedures that simulated industrial production at the laboratory. Six panel types were made from various mixtures of hardwood fiber/dried OMS flour, 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, and 50/50 (by weight percents, respectively. With increasing OMS flour content, the flexural properties of the panels, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, decreased by 31.0% and 29.2% as compared to panels without OMS flour, respectively. However, the water resistance was improved by the addition of the OMS flour up to 20 wt % content. For example, the thickness swelling and water absorption values of the panels containing 20% OMS flour were 17.3% and 59.5%, while they were found for the panels without OMS flour as 21.5% and 75.6%, respectively. The findings obtained in the study showed that the OMS was capable of serving as lignocellulosic raw material in the manufacture of the MDF.

Nadir Ayrilmis

2010-07-01

390

Optimum plastic scintillator and optical fiber combination for brachytherapy dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose/Objective: There have been several recent reports using plastic scintillators to measure dose in photon and electron beams. External beam measurements agreed well with standard ion chamber dosimetry. This was implemented by using two identical, parallel optical fibers with a small piece of plastic scintillator attached to one. We have constructed a similar device for application to brachytherapy. Brachytherapy dosimetry is a more difficult problem than external beam because of high dose gradients and widely ranging photon energies. Based on detailed spectral measurements, we have designed a dosimeter specifically to meet the unique, stringent needs of brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: The work consisted of two stages. In the first stage, we measured the optical spectra emitted by commercial plastic scintillators and silica core optical fibers in the presence of a 10 Curie iridium 192 HDR source. In the second stage, the spectral information was used to select an optimum combination of scintillator and fiber which were incorporated in the dosimeter. Equipment for the spectral measurements included a 0.1 meter monochromator with a sensitive photomultiplier (PMT) with flat response across the visible. The resolution of spectral scans was 4 nm. The dosimeter was constructed with a 1mm x 3mm piece of plastic scintillator bonded with optical cement to a 0.6 mm diameter silica core optical fiber. A second, identical optical fiber running alongside the first, withal fiber running alongside the first, with no scintillator attached, was used for background subtraction. Two PMTs with high sensitivity in the visible were used at the fiber distal ends. There was a space for an optical filter between the fiber and the PMTs, whose purpose is described below. The PMTs were connected to a differential pair whose output was transferred to a current source for measurement by a standard electrometer. Results: The scintillation spectra of six different types of silica core optical fibers in the presence of the iridium 192 source were measured in the range 200 to 700 nm. The spectra of three commercial plastic scintillators were also measured. The fiber core-generated light was predominantly at UV and blue wavelengths, with a main peak at 285 nm. Two fibers had intense peaks at 400 or 450 nm that were absent from the other 4 fibers. These 2 fibers also had much higher total light output than the others. Under the same irradiation conditions, the integrated light from 3 of the fibers was comparable. The emission spectra of the scintillators showed several apparent discrepancies with the manufacturer's specifications. An 'orange' scintillator with claimed emission at 520-640 nm emitted mostly at shorter wavelengths, with bands at 370 nm and 470nm. A 'green' scintillator showed both green and UV bands, while a 'blue' scintillator had a single band at 420 nm, as claimed. Interestingly, the total, spectrally integrated light output of the three scintillators was the same, within experimental uncertainty. The selection of the optimum fiber and scintillator combination was based on the requirement to keep background light to a minimum. We have eliminated as much as possible of the background light by optical filtration. The best combination for this purpose was the blue scintillator together with one of the relatively weakly emitting fibers. A filter with short wavelength cutoff at 400 nm selectively removed all fiber core emission below 400 nm (57% of the total), while allowing essentially all of the scintillator light to pass through. Conclusions: The often close proximity of the dosimeter stem to brachytherapy sources makes background noise a primary consideration in brachytherapy, since background subtraction alone is insufficient to eliminate noise-based measurement errors. By selecting a scintillator with emission at longer wavelengths, most of the fiber core emission could be selectively removed by optical filtration, without significantly reducing scintillator output. The resulting low noise dosimeter is optimized for brachythera

391

Hydrodynamic flow in capillary-channel fiber columns for liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

The flow characteristics of capillary-channel polymer (C-CP) fiber liquid chromatographic (LC) columns have been investigated. The C-CP fibers are manufactured with eight longitudinal grooves (capillary channels) extending the length of the fibers. Three C-CP fiber examples were studied, with fiber dimensions ranging from approximately 35 microm to 65 microm, and capillary-channel dimensions ranging from approximately 6 microm to 35 microm. The influence of fiber packing density and column inner diameter on peak asymmetry, peak width, and run-to-run reproducibility have been studied for stainless steel LC columns packed with polyester (PET) and polypropylene (PP) C-CP fibers. The van Deemter A-term was evaluated as a function of fiber packing density (approximately 0.3 g/cm(3)-0.75 g/cm(3)) for columns of 4.6 mm inner diameter (i.d.) and at constant packing densities for 1.5 mm, 3.2 mm, 4.6 mm, and 7.7 mm i.d. columns. Although column diameter had little influence on the eluting peak widths, peak asymmetry increased with increasing column diameter. The A-terms for the C-CP fiber packed columns are somewhat larger than current commercial, microparticulate-packed columns, and means for improvement are discussed. Applications in the area of protein (macromolecule) separations appear the most promising at this stage of the system development. PMID:16194542

Stanelle, Rayman D; Sander, Lane C; Marcus, R Kenneth

2005-12-23

392

A new in vitro cellular system for the analysis of mineral fiber biopersistence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The toxicity of mineral fibers, whether they are natural or man made (MMMF), is usually evaluated in vivo using biopersistence tests in rodents. Development of an in vitro cellular model would be worthwhile in order to reduce, refine and finally replace animal models. For this purpose, we developed an in vitro assay using human monocytic cell line (U-937) to evaluate a new manufactured rock wool fiber (HDN) biodegradation. Experiments on earlier known mineral fibers asbestos (crocidolite) and glass wool fibers (CM44) were also performed. U-937 responded to HDN and CM44 only if they were activated. Among the different activators we used, Escherichia coli living cells as well as FS were the most efficient as evidenced by alterations of HDN and CM44 surface, detected by scanning electron microscopy, and by the measure of silicon released from the rock wool fibers. Asbestos fibers were not degraded when incubated in the presence of living bacteria. The MMMF modifications were function of the fiber composition, the time of exposure to activated cells and the concentration of activators. The pattern of MMMF degradation by our in vitro system was in accordance with those observed in an in vivo study, thus indicating that the fiber degradation by macrophage cells activated by E. coli living cells as well as FS is a valuable system to assess mineral fibers' biopersistence. PMID:18000653

Dika Nguea, Hermine; de Reydellet, Aymon; Lehuédé, Patrice; de Méringo, Alain; Robé, Anne; Le Faou, Alain; Rihn, Bertrand H

2008-07-01

393

Heat treating of manufactured components  

Science.gov (United States)

An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material is disclosed. The system typically includes an insulating vessel placed within a microwave applicator chamber. A moderating material is positioned inside the insulating vessel so that a substantial portion of the exterior surface of each component for heat treating is in contact with the moderating material.

Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-05-22

394

Fuel manufacture and quality control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The different steps in fuel and fuel element manufacturing from the conversion of UF6 to UO2 to the assembling of the whole fuel element are shortly described. Each of this fabrication steps must satisfy well-defined quality criteria which are checked in certain analyses or tests. (RB)

395

Experiences on IGSCC crack manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author presents his experience in manufacturing IGSCC realistic defects, mainly in INCONEL 600 MA Steam Generator Tubes. From that experience he extracts some knowledge about this cracking (influence of chemistry in the environment, stress state, crack growth rate, and occurrence in laboratory condition of break before leak).

Veron, P. [Equipos Nucleares, S.A., Maliano (Spain)

1997-02-01

396

Quality assurance in tube manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reliability in service essential for many high-technology products fabricated today. This is particularly the case within the nuclear industry. Here defective materials or components may have diastrous consequences to the safety of human beings and the environment. A new concept - Quality Assurance - originates from this industry. The concept implies that all contractors, fabricators and material manufactures involved must prove that the quality control system used, fulfits particular requirements at all manufacturing, inspection and testing stages. These requirement are laid down in two standards issued by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. These standards are discussed in the paper. As a manufacturer of steel products for nuclear applications Sandvik has been forced to establish a quality assurance system according to these principles. The Sandvik approach is briefly described with regard to organisation and other major quality assurance activities. Further the education and training of operators and technicians is touched upon. Finally some viewpoints regarding audits performed by customers of steel manufacturers are expressed. (author)

397

77 FR 69794 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...Department of Commerce by close of business on November 2, 2012. This...on matters relating to the competitiveness of the U.S. manufacturing...Advisory Committees by close of business on Tuesday, November 27...with its principal place of business in the United States)...

2012-11-21

398

Agile manufacturing prototyping system (AMPS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Agile Manufacturing Prototyping System (AMPS) is being integrated at Sandia National Laboratories. AMPS consists of state of the industry flexible manufacturing hardware and software enhanced with Sandia advancements in sensor and model based control; automated programming, assembly and task planning; flexible fixturing; and automated reconfiguration technology. AMPS is focused on the agile production of complex electromechanical parts. It currently includes 7 robots (4 Adept One, 2 Adept 505, 1 Staubli RX90), conveyance equipment, and a collection of process equipment to form a flexible production line capable of assembling a wide range of electromechanical products. This system became operational in September 1995. Additional smart manufacturing processes will be integrated in the future. An automated spray cleaning workcell capable of handling alcohol and similar solvents was added in 1996 as well as parts cleaning and encapsulation equipment, automated deburring, and automated vision inspection stations. Plans for 1997 and out years include adding manufacturing processes for the rapid prototyping of electronic components such as soldering, paste dispensing and pick-and-place hardware.

Garcia, P.

1998-05-09

399

The challenges of manufacturing graphite-epoxy structural columns for space platforms  

Science.gov (United States)

A description is given of the manufacturing processes developed for large-quantity production of space structure graphite/epoxy composite tubes. The tubes are to be delivered to orbit by the Space Shuttle and assembled by astronaut-assisted assembly machines. The tooling and manufacturing system uses a novel method of dry fiber placement which carefully controls fiber position and orientation and a non-autoclave cure for the epoxy resin. The means of dimensional tolerance control over differential thermal expansion between metal tooling and graphite tubes, resin shrinkage during cure, hot pressurized resins in close tolerance tooling, and tool wear, are examined in detail. A successful pilot production program is also reported.

Vaughn, R. L.; Friend, C. A.

1981-01-01

400

A Prediction Method for In-Plane Permeability and Manufacturing Applications in the VARTM Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available VARTM (Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding is a popular method for manufacturing large-scaled, single-sided mold composite structures, such as wind turbine blades and yachts. Simulation to find the proper infusion scenario before manufacturing is essential to avoid dry spots as well as incomplete saturation and various fiber weaves with different permeability affect numerical simulation tremendously. This study focused on deriving the in-plane permeability prediction method for FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastics laminates in the VARTM process by experimental measurements and numerical analysis. The method provided an efficient way to determine the permeability of laminates without conducting lots of experiments in the future. In-plane permeability imported into the software, RTM-Worx, to simulate resin flowing pattern before the infusion experiments of a 3D ship hull with two different infusion scenarios. The close agreement between experiments and simulations proved the correctness and applicability of the prediction method for the in-plane permeability.

Ya-Jung Lee

2011-07-01

401

Evaluation of the flexural strength of carbon fiber-, quartz fiber-, and glass fiber-based posts.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the flexural strength of eight fiber posts (one carbon fiber, one carbon/quartz fiber, one opaque quartz fiber, two translucent quartz fiber, and three glass fiber posts). Eighty fiber posts were used and divided into eight groups (n = 10): G1: C-POST (Bisco); G2: AESTHETI-POST (Bisco); G3: AESTHETI-PLUS (Bisco); G4: LIGHT-POST (Bisco); G5: D.T. LIGHT-POST (Bisco); G6: PARAPOST WHITE (Coltene); G7: FIBERKOR (Pentron); G8: REFORPOST (Angelus). All of the samples were tested using the three-point bending test. The averages obtained were submitted to the ANOVA and to Tukey's test (p Coltene) and FIBREKOR--glass fiber post (Pentron) were similar and higher than the group REFORPOST-glass fiber post (Angelus). PMID:15735472

Galhano, Graziela Avila; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; de Melo, Renata Marques; Scotti, Roberto; Bottino, Marco Antonio

2005-03-01

402

Terawatt fiber pinch experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pinch formation in fiber pinch experiments has been investigated in the lower terawatt regime. The main results are: (1) there are upper limits of breakdown voltage (?700 kV) and current rise rate (?20 kA/ns) beyond which leak discharges develop within the vacuum feed of the pulseline KALIF; (2) there is a lower limit of fiber radius (?10 ?m) below which pinch disruptions take place at a pinch current of >300 kA; (3) the hot (Te?1 keV) inhomogeneous pinch plasma develops typically 10 ns after local collapses (micropinches) at a pinch current >400 kA and lives for more than 50 ns; (4) neutron emission (yield of CD2 fibers ?1010) appears mostly isotropic; (5) all fiber pinches show global expansion with velocities reaching from typically 10 ?m/ns (initial expansion) to >100 ?m/ns; and (6) the power requirements for the fiber ablation process are contradictory to those for the final pinch phase

403

Continuous fiber thermoplastic prepreg  

Science.gov (United States)

A pultrusion machine employing a corrugated impregnator vessel to immerse multiple, continuous strand, fiber tow in an impregnating material, and an adjustable metered exit orifice for the impregnator vessel to control the quantity of impregnating material retained by the impregnated fibers, is provided. An adjustable height insert retains transverse rod elements within each depression of the corrugated vessel to maintain the individual fiber tows spread and in contact with the vessel bottom. A series of elongated heating dies, transversely disposed on the pultrusion machine and having flat heating surfaces with radiused edges, ensure adequate temperature exposed dwell time and exert adequate pressure on the impregnated fiber tows, to provide the desired thickness and fiber/resin ratio in the prepreg formed. The prepreg passing through the pulling mechanism is wound on a suitable take-up spool for subsequent use. A formula is derived for determining the cross sectional area opening of the metering device. A modification in the heating die system employs a heated nip roller in lieu of one of the pressure applying flat dies.

Wilson, Maywood L. (inventor); Johnson, Gary S. (inventor)

1993-01-01

404

Birefringent hollow core fibers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many applications, and places emphasis on the development of polarization maintaining (PM) HC-PCF. The polarization cross-coupling characteristics of PM HC-PCF are very different from those of conventional PM fibers. The former fibers have the advantage of suffering far less from stress-field fluctuations, but the disadvantage of a higher loss figure and the presence of interface roughness induced modecoupling which increases in strength as birefringence reduces. Close to mode anti-crossing events of one polarization mode, the PM HC-PCF is characterized by high birefringence, a high polarization dependent loss and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core-surround geometry, lambda(PM) may coincide with a low-loss wavelength for the signal carrying polarization mode.

Roberts, John

2007-01-01

405

Optical fiber interferometric spectrometer  

Science.gov (United States)

We design an optical fiber spectrometer based on optical fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In optical fiber Fourier transform spectrometer spectra information is obtained by Fourier transform of interferogram, which recording intensity change vs. optical path difference. Optical path difference is generated by stretching one fiber arm which wound around fiber stretch drive by high power supply. Information from detector is linear with time rather than with optical path difference. In order to obtain high accuracy wavenumber, reference beam is used to control the optical path difference. Optical path difference is measured by reference laser interference fringe. Interferogram vs. optical path difference is resampled by Brault algorithm with information from reference beam and test beam. In the same condition, one-sided interferogram has higher resolution than that of two-sided interferogram. For one-sided interferogram, zero path difference position must be determined as accurately as possible, small shift will result in phase error. For practical experiment in laboratory, position shift is inevitable, so phase error correction must be considered. Zero order fringe is determined by curve fitting. Spectrum of light source is obtained from one-sided interferogram by Fourier cosine transform. A spectral resolution of about ~3.1 cm -1 is achieved. In practice, higher resolution is needed. This compact equipment will be used in emission spectra and absorption spectra, especially in infrared region.

Liu, Yong; Li, Baosheng; Liu, Yan; Zhai, Yufeng; Wang, An

2006-02-01

406

Manufacturing Precise, Lightweight Paraboloidal Mirrors  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for fabricating a precise, diffraction- limited, ultra-lightweight, composite- material (matrix/fiber) paraboloidal telescope mirror has been devised. Unlike the traditional process of fabrication of heavier glass-based mirrors, this process involves a minimum of manual steps and subjective judgment. Instead, this process involves objectively controllable, repeatable steps; hence, this process is better suited for mass production. Other processes that have been investigated for fabrication of precise composite-material lightweight mirrors have resulted in print-through of fiber patterns onto reflecting surfaces, and have not provided adequate structural support for maintenance of stable, diffraction-limited surface figures. In contrast, this process does not result in print-through of the fiber pattern onto the reflecting surface and does provide a lightweight, rigid structure capable of maintaining a diffraction-limited surface figure in the face of changing temperature, humidity, and air pressure. The process consists mainly of the following steps: 1. A precise glass mandrel is fabricated by conventional optical grinding and polishing. 2. The mandrel is coated with a release agent and covered with layers of a carbon- fiber composite material. 3. The outer surface of the outer layer of the carbon-fiber composite material is coated with a surfactant chosen to provide for the proper flow of an epoxy resin to be applied subsequently. 4. The mandrel as thus covered is mounted on a temperature-controlled spin table. 5. The table is heated to a suitable temperature and spun at a suitable speed as the epoxy resin is poured onto the coated carbon-fiber composite material. 6. The surface figure of the optic is monitored and adjusted by use of traditional Ronchi, Focault, and interferometric optical measurement techniques while the speed of rotation and the temperature are adjusted to obtain the desired figure. The proper selection of surfactant, speed or rotation, viscosity of the epoxy, and temperature make it possible to obtain the desired diffraction-limited, smooth (1/50th wave) parabolic outer surface, suitable for reflective coating. 7. A reflective coat is applied by use of conventional coating techniques. 8. Once the final figure is set, a lightweight structural foam is applied to the rear of the optic to ensure stability of the figure.

Hermann, Frederick Thomas

2006-01-01

407

TX-100 manufacturing final project report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report details the work completed under the TX-100 blade manufacturing portion of the Carbon-Hybrid Blade Developments: Standard and Twist-Coupled Prototype project. The TX-100 blade is a 9 meter prototype blade designed with bend-twist coupling to augment the mitigation of peak loads during normal turbine operation. This structural coupling was achieved by locating off axis carbon fiber in the outboard portion of the blade skins. The report will present the tooling selection, blade production, blade instrumentation, blade shipping and adapter plate design and fabrication. The baseline blade used for this project was the ERS-100 (Revision D) wind turbine blade. The molds used for the production of the TX-100 were originally built for the production of the CX-100 blade. The same high pressure and low pressure skin molds were used to manufacture the TX-100 skins. In order to compensate for the difference in skin thickness between the CX-100 and the TX-100, however, a new TX-100 shear web plug and mold were required. Both the blade assembly fixture and the root stud insertion fixture used for the CX-100 blades could be utilized for the TX-100 blades. A production run of seven TX-100 prototype blades was undertaken at TPI Composites during the month of October, 2004. Of those seven blades, four were instrumented with strain gauges before final assembly. After production at the TPI Composites facility in Rhode Island, the blades were shipped to various test sites: two blades to the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, two blades to Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico and three blades to the United States Department of Agriculture turbine field test facility in Bushland, Texas. An adapter plate was designed to allow the TX-100 blades to be installed on existing Micon 65/13M turbines at the USDA site. The conclusion of this program is the kick-off of the TX-100 blade testing at the three testing facilities.

Ashwill, Thomas D.; Berry, Derek S. (TPI Composites, Inc., Warren, RI)

2007-11-01

408

76 FR 21035 - Colfor Manufacturing, Inc., an AAM Company, Minerva, OH; Colfor Manufacturing, Inc., an AAM...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Manufacturing, Inc., an AAM Company, Minerva, OH; Colfor Manufacturing, Inc...workers of Colfor Manufacturing, Inc., Minerva, Ohio. The workers are engaged in activities...location operated in conjunction with the Minerva, Ohio facility, both locations...

2011-04-14

409

Optical Fiber Networks for Remote Fiber Optic Sensors  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an overview of optical fiber sensor networks for remote sensing. Firstly, the state of the art of remote fiber sensor systems has been considered. We have summarized the great evolution of these systems in recent years; this progress confirms that fiber-optic remote sensing is a promising technology with a wide field of practical applications. Afterwards, the most representative remote fiber-optic sensor systems are briefly explained, discussing their schemes, challenges, ...

Montserrat Fernandez-Vallejo; Manuel Lopez-Amo

2012-01-01

410

Numerical modelling of a composite fuselage manufactured by liquid resin infusion  

OpenAIRE

FUSCOMP (FUSelage COMPosite) is a Research & Development program which has received the label from the Aerospace Valley competitiveness cluster. It will lead to a test of a composite fuselage demonstrator manufactured by the Liquid Resin Infusion (LRI) process. LRI is based on the moulding of high performance composite parts by infusing liquid resin on dry fibers instead of prepreg fabrics. The study of this proof of concept is based on the TBM 850 airframe, a pressurized business turboprop a...

Perret, Adrien; Mistou, Se?bastien; Denaud, Louis Etienne; Molle?, Thierry; Veyrac, Claudia; Karama, Moussa

2011-01-01

411

Numerical and experimental analyses of resin infusion manufacturing processes of composite materials  

OpenAIRE

Liquid resin infusion (LRI) processes are promising manufacturing routes to produce large, thick, or complex structural parts. They are based on the resin flow induced, across its thickness, by a pressure applied onto a preform/resin stacking. However, both thickness and fiber volume fraction of the final piece are not well controlled since they result from complex mechanisms which drive the transient mechanical equilibrium leading to the final geometrical configuration. In ...

Wang, Peng; Drapier, Sylvain; Molimard, Je?ro?me; Vautrin, Alain; Minni, Jean-christophe

2012-01-01

412

Pepper Stalks (Capsicum annuum) as Raw Material for Particleboard Manufacturing  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to investigate possible feasibility of pepper stalks in the production of particleboard. Chemical composition and fiber properties of the pepper stalks were determined and three-layer experimental particleboards with density of 0.53, 0.63 and 0.73 g cm3 were manufactured from pepper stalks using certain ratios of Urea Formaldehyde (UF) and Melamine Urea Formaldehyde (MUF) adhesives. Some physical and mechanical properties of the boards were tested. The experime...

Ergun Guntekin; Birol Uner; Turgut Sahin, H.; Beyhan Karakus

2008-01-01

413

A novel microfluidic chip based on fiber sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

We have fabricated a novel microfluidic chip based on fiber sensor with casting PDMS method. The optical fiber is used to transmit excitation light, so the diameter of the excitation beam is decreased to 93?m. In order to improve the coupling efficiency of the excitation light in the fiber, the optical fiber collimation device is used to couple beam. The microfluidic chip consists of multimode optical fiber, PDMS cover slab and PDMS base slab. The mould of cover slab is made through twice exposal, however the base slab is achieved using once exposal only. The depths of microfluidic channel and optical fiber channel in the PDMS cover slab are 50?m and 90?m, respectively, and the optical fiber channel in the PDMS base slab is only 40?m. This design can make the centers of the microfluidic channel and the fiber channel in the same point, so the microfluidic channel and the optical fiber can be aimed at easily. In addition, the size of microfluidic channel depth is near the size of light spot of optical fiber, so the detection sensitivity is improved without using the optical focusing system. The detection system of the microfluidic chip is manufactured and it composed of high voltage modules, darkroom, LED light source, photomultiplier and data acquisition circuit, moreover, the software of the detection system is developed. The high voltage modules with four 2kV are used to control the sample amount in the separation channel, so the sensitivity is improved. The microfluidic chip is placed in the darkroom to avoid the interference of external light. The high brightness blue light emitting diode (LED) is used as excitation light sources for inducing fluorescence detection through coupling the LED light into the optical fiber. The photomultiplier is used to amplify the fluorescence signals and the function of data acquisition circuit is data collection and data processing. Under the control of software, the experiment process can be implemented easily. As an application, the microfluidic chip is tested on the detection system for the separation experiment of FITC fluorescein and FITC-labeled amino acid. The experiments justify the feasibility of the chip.

Su, Bo; Duan, Guoteng; Han, Xue

2013-08-01

414

Containerless glass fiber processing  

Science.gov (United States)

An acoustic levitation furnace system is described that was developed for testing the feasibility of containerless fiber pulling experiments. It is possible to levitate very dense materials such as platinum at room temperature. Levitation at elevated temperatures is much more difficult. Samples of dense heavy metal fluoride glass were levitated at 300 C. It is therefore possible that containerless fiber pulling experiments could be performed. Fiber pulling from the melt at 650 C is not possible at unit gravity but could be possible at reduced gravities. The Acoustic Levitation Furnace is described, including engineering parameters and processing information. It is illustrated that a shaped reflector greatly increases the levitation force aiding the levitation of more dense materials.

Ethridge, E. C.; Naumann, R. J.

1986-01-01

415

Fiber optic calorimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using fiber for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian ({mu}rad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% {sup 240}Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium.

Rudy, C.; Bayliss, S.; Bracken, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bush, J.; Davis, P. [Optiphase, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States)

1998-01-01

416

Fiber optic calorimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using fiber for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian (?rad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

417

Fiber Optic Calorimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using optical fibers for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processes to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian (microrad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

418

Fiber optic calorimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using optical fibers for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microrad to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 rad of phase shift per mW of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

419

Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits  

OpenAIRE

The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber b...

Joanne Slavin

2013-01-01

420

Industrial kitchen equipment manufacturer’s responsibility consciousness: Turkey sample  

OpenAIRE

Responsibility consciousness is a characteristic property for business enterprises. It is relatively more difficult to determine responsibility consciousness in service businesses. Monitoring responsibility can be limited in tourism enterprises. In this study, industrial kitchen equipment which are used in food and beverage operations and are accepted as one of the tangible indicators are examined. First, qualitative research was conducted and content analysis was applied to 97 manufacturer's...

Ebru Zencir

2014-01-01

421

Photoresponsive cellulose fibers by surface modification with multifunctional cellulose derivatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp fibers were modified by adsorption of novel bio-based multifunctional cellulose derivatives in order to generate light responsive surfaces. The cellulose derivatives used were decorated with both cationic groups (degree of substitution, DS of 0.34) and photoactive groups (DS of 0.11 and 0.37). The adsorption was studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). The adsorption isotherms followed the Freundlich model and it turned out that the main driving force for the adsorption was electrostatic interaction. Moreover, strong indications for hydrophobic interactions between the fibers and the derivatives and the derivatives themselves were found. ToF-SIMS imaging revealed an even distribution of the derivatives on the fiber surfaces. The modified fibers underwent fast photocrosslinking under UV-irradiation as demonstrated by light absorbance and fluorescence measurements. Thus, our results proved that the modified fibers exhibited light-responsive properties and can potentially be used for the manufacture of smart bio-based materials. PMID:25037353

Grigoray, Olga; Wondraczek, Holger; Heikkilä, Elina; Fardim, Pedro; Heinze, Thomas

2014-10-13

422

Preface to the Special Issue on short pulse fiber lasers  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last two decades the fiber laser has evolved from a laboratory curiosity to a viable tool in an increasing number of applications in such diverse areas as material processing, atmospheric monitoring, high energy physics, medicine, telecommunications, and defense. The reasons for the growing acceptance of fiber lasers lie in the combination of their many attractive features. Indeed, fiber lasers are together power efficient, compact, light weight, versatile and reliable. Initially, the development of fiber laser technology was led to challenge the dominance of well entrenched solid state lasers used in the lucrative manufacturing industry. Traditionally, the emission wavelength band of interest was mostly limited to the near infrared (NIR) region (i.e. from 1 to 1.6 ?m). More recently, extensive fiber laser R&D advances have extended the laser applications to a broader spectrum, from the ultra violet (UV) to the mid-infrared (Mid-IR) wavelength region, and investigated the specific advantages associated with different pulse widths, from ns to fs, and different operating regimes.

Delavaux, Jean-Marc P.; Grelu, Philippe; Pu, Wang; Ilday, Fatih Ömer

2014-12-01

423

Certain Glass Wool Fibers (Inhalable)  

Science.gov (United States)

... gov Printed on recycled paper June 2011 Certain Glass Wool Fibers (Inhalable) Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Reasonably ... carcinogens 12th Edition 2011 Report on Carcinogens Certain Glass Wool Fibers (Inhalable) n Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens ...

424

Fiber optic sensing and imaging  

CERN Document Server

This book is designed to highlight the basic principles of fiber optic imaging and sensing devices. The editor has organized the book to provide the reader with a solid foundation in fiber optic imaging and sensing devices. It begins with an introductory chapter that starts from Maxwell’s equations and ends with the derivation of the basic optical fiber characteristic equations and solutions (i.e. fiber modes). Chapter 2 reviews most common fiber optic interferometric devices and Chapter 3 discusses the basics of fiber optic imagers with emphasis on fiber optic confocal microscope. The fiber optic interferometric sensors are discussed in detail in chapter 4 and 5. Chapter 6 covers optical coherence tomography and goes into the details of signal processing and systems level approach of the real-time OCT implementation. Also useful forms of device characteristic equations are provided so that this book can be used as a reference for scientists and engineers in the optics and related fields.

2013-01-01

425

Fiber-Optic Sensing Technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article offers a basic review of fiber-optic sensing technology, or more specifically, fiber-optic sensing technology as applied to the qualitative or quantitative identification of a chemical sample, and how it works,

Milnes, M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Baylor, L.C.; Bave, S.

1996-10-24

426

Dietary Fiber and Weight Loss  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... click the CC button on the lower right-hand corner of the player. Dietary Fiber and ... Internal Medicine compared the weight loss results of the American Heart Association diet versus a one-step high fiber ...

427

Collector surface for a microwave tube comprising a carbon-bonded carbon-fiber composite  

Science.gov (United States)

In a microwave tube, an improved collector surface coating comprises a porous carbon composite material, preferably a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite having a bulk density less than about 2 g/cc. Installation of the coating is readily adaptable as part of the tube manufacturing process.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01

428

Workplace monitoring of refractory ceramic fiber in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper summarizes data from a comprehensive workplace exposure monitoring program for refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) conducted since 1990, including data collected under a 5-year consent agreement (1993-1998) between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Refractory Ceramic Fibers Coalition. It presents additional data and analyses, which complement an earlier article published in this journal (L. D. Maxim et al., 1997, Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 26, 156-171). As part of this exposure monitoring program, data were collected at plants operated by RCF manufacturers and at customer facilities. Beginning in 1993, at least 720 samples (each sample consisting of one or more cassettes) were collected annually, distributed according to a stratified random sampling plan. The strata consisted of workers in eight functional job categories (FJCs) at manufacturing and customer plants. Time-weighted average (TWA) and task length average data were gathered and analyzed using phase contrast optical microscopy and (for a subset of samples) transmission electron microscopy methods. Data on respirator usage (by type) were also collected. Statistical analysis indicates that there are significant differences in TWA fiber concentrations (exposure) among FJCs (installation, finishing, and removal categories have the highest average concentrations), that workplace concentration data are approximately lognormally distributed, and that weighted average fiber concentrations decreased over the period from 1990 to 1998-although trend curves leveled out as exposures have decreased and further improvements became more difficult. Material differences exist in exposure between RCF manufacturers and their customers (largely because the mix of jobs differ), but these differences have narrowed over the years. Respirator usage varies with exposure. Respirator data are used to derive improved estimates of actual worker exposure. Alternative criteria for selecting FJCs for control efforts are defined and illustrated. Lessons learned for future monitoring efforts are summarized. PMID:11162723

Maxim, L D; Allshouse, J N; Chen, S H; Treadway, J C; Venturin, D E

2000-12-01

429

Nonlinear fiber optics  

CERN Document Server

Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o

Agrawal, Govind

2012-01-01

430

Fluoride glass fiber optics  

CERN Document Server

Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

Aggarwal, Ishwar D

1991-01-01

431

Cost Models for MMC Manufacturing Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality cost modeling (QCM) tool is intended to be a relatively simple-to-use device for obtaining a first-order assessment of the quality-cost relationship for a given process-material combination. The QCM curve is a plot of cost versus quality (an index indicating microstructural quality), which is unique for a given process-material combination. The QCM curve indicates the tradeoff between cost and performance, thus enabling one to evaluate affordability. Additionally, the effect of changes in process design, raw materials, and process conditions on the cost-quality relationship can be evaluated. Such results might indicate the most efficient means to obtain improved quality at reduced cost by process design refinements, the implementation of sensors and models for closed loop process control, or improvement in the properties of raw materials being fed into the process. QCM also allows alternative processes for producing the same or similar material to be compared in terms of their potential for producing competitively priced, high quality material. Aside from demonstrating the usefulness of the QCM concept, this is one of the main foci of the present research program, namely to compare processes for making continuous fiber reinforced, metal matrix composites (MMC's). Two processes, low pressure plasma spray deposition and tape casting are considered for QCM development. This document consists of a detailed look at the design of the QCM approach, followed by discussion of the application of QCM to each of the selected MMC manufacturing processes along with results, comparison of processes, and finally, a summary of findings and recommendations.

Elzey, Dana M.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

1996-01-01

432

Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) sponsored by the DOE's Advanced Manufacturing Office. The MDF is focusing on R&D of both metal and polymer AM pertaining to in-situ process monitoring and closed-loop controls; implementation of advanced materials in AM technologies; and demonstration, characterization, and optimization of next-generation technologies. ORNL is working directly with industry partners to leverage world-leading facilities in fields such as high performance computing, advanced materials characterization, and neutron sciences to solve fundamental challenges in advanced manufacturing. Specifically, MDF is leveraging two of the world's most advanced neutron facilities, the HFIR and SNS, to characterize additive manufactured components.

Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

2013-01-01

433

Status of fiber lasers study of on ytterbium doped fiber laser and laser spectroscopy of doped fibers; Etat de l`art des lasers a fibre, etude d`un laser a fibre dopee ytterbium et spectroscopie laser de fibres dopees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work shows all the advantages and drawbacks of the rare-earth-doped fiber lasers and fiber optical amplifiers, pointing out their potential use for instrumentation and optical fiber sensor technology. The theory of light propagation in optical fibers is presented in order to understand the manufacturing methods. A comparative study of preform surface and concentration analysis is performed. The gain behaviour is also thoroughly examined. A synthesis of all technological parameters of the fiber laser is then established and all technologies of the constituting integrated components are reviewed and compared. The experimental techniques mainly involve: site selective excitation tunability, cooperative luminescence, oxidation state changes induced by gamma irradiation, ytterbium-doped mono-mode continuous wave tunable three-level fiber laser. (TEC). 622 refs., 176 figs.

Magne, S.

1994-07-01

434

Advances on Optical Fiber Sensors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this review paper some recent advances on optical fiber sensors are reported. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG, long period gratings (LPGs, evanescent field and hollow core optical fiber sensors are mentioned. Examples of recent optical fiber sensors for the measurement of strain, temperature, displacement, air flow, pressure, liquid-level, magnetic field, and the determination of methadone, hydrocarbons, ethanol, and sucrose are briefly described.

Luciano Mescia

2013-12-01

435

Advances on Optical Fiber Sensors  

OpenAIRE

In this review paper some recent advances on optical fiber sensors are reported. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG), long period gratings (LPGs), evanescent field and hollow core optical fiber sensors are mentioned. Examples of recent optical fiber sensors for the measurement of strain, temperature, displacement, air flow, pressure, liquid-level, magnetic field, and the determination of methadone, hydrocarbons, ethanol, and sucrose are briefly described.

Luciano Mescia; Francesco Prudenzano

2013-01-01

436

Principal modes in fiber amplifiers  

CERN Document Server

The dynamics of the state of polarization in single mode and multimode fiber amplifiers are presented. The experimental results reveal that although the state of polarizations at the output can vary over a large range when changing the temperatures of the fiber amplifiers, the variations are significantly reduced when resorting to the principal states of polarization in single mode fiber amplifiers and principal modes in multimode fiber amplifiers.

Fridman, Moti; Dubinskii, Mark; Friesem, Asher A; Davidson, Nir

2010-01-01

437

Fiber-optic seismic sensor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A vibration sensor is constructed by providing two preferably matched coils of fiber-optic material. When the sensor experiences vibration, a differential pressure is exerted on the two fiber coils. The differential pressure results in a variation in the relative optical path lengths between the two fibers so that light beams transmitted through the two fibers are differently delayed, the phase difference therebetween being a detectable indication of the vibration applied to the sensor

438

Cladding-filled graphene in a photonic crystal fiber as a saturable absorber and its first application for ultrafast all-fiber laser  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate a saturable absorber (SA) based on cladding-filled graphene in a specially designed and manufactured photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for the first time. The saturation absorption property is achieved through the evanescent coupling between the guided light and the cladding-filled graphene layers. To boost the mutual interaction, the PCF is designed to contain five large air holes in the cladding and small-core region. Employing this graphene-PCF SA device, we construct an erbium-doped all-fiber laser oscillator and achieve mode-locked operation. This device can pave the way for high power and all-fiber applications of photonics with graphene with some unique advantages, such as single-mode operation, nonlinearity enhancement, high-power tolerance, environmental robustness, all-fiber configuration, and easy fabrication.

Zhao, Junqing; Ruan, Shuangchen; Yan, Peiguang; Zhang, Han; Yu, Yongqin; Wei, Huifeng; Luo, Jie

2013-10-01

439

The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

Brown, K.D.

1995-01-01

440

Reshoring in Manufacturing and Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The extent of offshoring and outsourcing recorded in manufacturing and services in the last two decades has gradually eroded the advantage of the global arbitrage of labor costs. Along with other factors, this process began to change the options of international relocation of some companies that initially had adopted such a strategy, generating a reverse trend for returning in the country of origin of manufacturing and other activities. This process, called "reshoring" has recently started to gain some consistency. The trend is most notable in the sphere of production. In terms of business and IT services we cannot yet speak of a tangible start of the reshoring phenomenon, as it does in the sphere of production. Nevertheless we can see a slowdown in the offshoring of services and the emergence of new strategies in the field.

SERGHEI M?RGULESCU

2014-05-01

441

RESHORING IN MANUFACTURING AND SERVICES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The extent of offshoring and outsourcing recorded in manufacturing and services in the last two decades has gradually eroded the advantage of the global arbitrage of labor costs. Along with other factors, this process began to change the options of international relocation of some companies that initially had adopted such a strategy, generating a reverse trend for returning in the country of origin of manufacturing and other activities. This process, called "reshoring," has recently started to gain some consistency. The trend is most notable in the sphere of production. In terms of business and IT services we cannot yet speak of a tangible start of the reshoring phenomenon, as it does in the sphere of production. Nevertheless we can see a slowdown in the offshoring of services and the emergence of new strategies in the field.

Serghei M?RGULESCU

2014-05-01

442