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1

The development of nonwoven fabric and agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber for industrial usages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this project is the development of nonwoven fabric using natural kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for industrial usages and the development of manufacturing techniques for nursery bed soil using kapok fiber. Research scopes include the development of agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber and nonwoven fabric using kapok fiber. Main results are as follow; the physico-chemical characterization of kapok fiber (water holding capacity, bulk density, water retention curve, viscoelastic measurement, oil adsorption capacity, analysis of essential elements, measurement of anion and cation); the physico-chemical characterization of kapok bed soil; the evidence experiment of kapok bed soil; the optimum content of kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for nonwoven fabric; establishment of the optimum radiation dose for manufacturing kapok nonwoven fabric

2010-01-01

2

The development of nonwoven fabric and agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber for industrial usages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this project is the development of nonwoven fabric using natural kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for industrial usages and the development of manufacturing techniques for nursery bed soil using kapok fiber. Research scopes include the development of agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber and nonwoven fabric using kapok fiber. Main results are as follow; the physico-chemical characterization of kapok fiber (water holding capacity, bulk density, water retention curve, viscoelastic measurement, oil adsorption capacity, analysis of essential elements, measurement of anion and cation); the physico-chemical characterization of kapok bed soil; the evidence experiment of kapok bed soil; the optimum content of kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for nonwoven fabric; establishment of the optimum radiation dose for manufacturing kapok nonwoven fabric

Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Seung Sik

2010-01-15

3

Coated kapok fiber for removal of spilled oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A low-cost and biodegradable oil absorbent based on kapok fiber was prepared. ? The polymer-coated kapok fiber showed higher oil sorption capacity. ? Coated kapok fiber can be reused and the absorbed oil can be easily recovered. ? Adsorption of oil is spontaneous and exothermic physisorption and chemisorption. -- Abstract: Based on raw kapok fiber, two kinds of oil absorbers with high sorption capacity were prepared by a facile solution–immersion process. The coated polymer with low surface energy and rough fiber surface play important role in the retention of oil. The as-prepared fiber can quickly absorb gasoline, diesel, soybean oil, and paraffin oil up to above 74.5%, 66.8%, 64.4% and 47.8% of oil sorption capacity of raw fiber, respectively. The absorbed oils can be easily recovered by a simple vacuum filtration and the recovered coated-fiber still can be used for several cycles without obvious loss in oil sorption capacity. The thermodynamic study indicates that the adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic, with complex physisorption and chemisorption. The results suggest that the coated fiber can be used as a low-cost alternative for the removal of oil spilled on water surface

2013-04-15

4

Synthesis and Characterization of Kapok Fibers and its Composites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the developing countries are very rich in agricultural and natural fiber. Natural fibers are lignocellulosic in nature. These composites are gaining importance due to their non-carcinogenic and biodegradable in nature. The natural fiber reinforced composite are dominated over the conventional composites because of the main advantage of low cost. Polymeric materials reinforced with natural fibers provide advantages of high stiffness and strength to weight ratio as compared to conventional construction materials. Natural fiber reinforced composites have gained popularity nowadays because of their processing advantage and good technical properties. The present work includes the processing, characterization of kapok fiber reinforced epoxy composites. Keeping in this view the present study has been undertaken to develop a polymer matrix composite (epoxy matrix and kapok fiber (Reinforcement and to study its structural and electrical properties. This study is concerned to investigate the percentage of crystallinity, surface structure, dielectric constant, dielectric loss and resistivity.

Dillip Kumar Bisoyi

2012-01-01

5

Synthesis and Characterization of Kapok Fibers and its Composites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most of the developing countries are very rich in agricultural and natural fiber. Natural fibers are lignocellulosic in nature. These composites are gaining importance due to their non-carcinogenic and biodegradable in nature. The natural fiber reinforced composite are dominated over the conventional composites because of the main advantage of low cost. Polymeric materials reinforced with natural fibers provide advantages of high stiffness and strength to weight ratio as compared to conventio...

Ganesh Kumar Mani; John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan; Dillip Kumar Bisoyi

2012-01-01

6

Preparation of kapok-polyacrylonitrile core-shell composite microtube and its application as gold nanoparticles carrier  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, a new catalyst carrier kapok-polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite microtube was fabricated based on the natural kapok fiber. Kapok-PAN core-shell composite microtubes were prepared by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) assisted self-assembly method. The formation mechanism was proposed and the influence of the concentration of acrylonitrile (AN) monomer and CTAB on the morphology of kapok-PAN was investigated. The hydrophilicity and specific surface area of kapok microtubes were improved because of the outside PAN coating constructed by the PAN nanoparticles aggregation. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were immobilized on the surface of kapok-PAN microtubes via in situ reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl 4) by sodium borohydride (NaBH 4). The obtained Au NPs with mean diameter of 3.1 nm were well dispersed without any aggregation. In addition, kapok-PAN-Au composites exhibited excellent catalytic activity and could be recovered easily without apparent decrease of activity, as demonstrated via the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol by NaBH 4. The kapok-PAN composite microtubes may be one of the promising supporting materials in developing low-cost, high-efficiency catalyst carriers for metal NPs.

Fan, Haosen; Yu, Xiaolan; Long, Yuhua; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xiang, Haifan; Duan, Chunting; Zhao, Ning; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xu, Jian

2012-01-01

7

Microwave Heating for Fiber Placement Manufacturing of Carbon Fiber Composites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Usually, carbon-fiber/polymeric composite parts have been assembled manually and cured using autoclave techniques. To reduce labor costs and to enable the manufacture of composite parts larger than available autoclaves, an automated fiber placement proces...

A. C. Lind F. C. Wear J. E. Kurz

1992-01-01

8

Glass fiber manufacturing and fiber safety: the producer's perspective.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Historically, the potential health effects of airborne fibers have been associated with the dose, dimension, and durability. Increasing focus is being placed on the latter category. Concern about airborne fiber safety could be reduced by manufacturing fibers that are not respirable; however, due to performance and manufacturing constraints on glasswool insulations, this is not possible today. These products are an important part of today's economy and as a major manufacturer, Owens-Corning is...

Bender, J. R.; Hadley, J. G.

1994-01-01

9

Manufacturing of Smart Structures Using Fiber Placement Manufacturing Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Smart structures research and development, with the ultimate aim of rapid commercial and military production of these structures, are at the forefront of the Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost-Effective Structures (SPICES) program. As part of this ARPA-sponsored program, MDA-E is using fiber placement processes to manufacture integrated smart structure systems. These systems comprise advanced composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensors, shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators, and miniature accelerometers. Cost-effective approaches and solutions to smart material synthesis in the fiber-placement process, based upon integrated product development, are discussed herein.

Thomas, Matthew M.; Glowasky, Robert A.; McIlroy, Bruce E.; Story, Todd A.

1996-01-01

10

Carbon fiber manufacturing via plasma technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The disclosed invention introduces a novel method of manufacturing carbon and/or graphite fibers that avoids the high costs associated with conventional carbonization processes. The method of the present invention avoids these costs by utilizing plasma technology in connection with electromagnetic radiation to produce carbon and/or graphite fibers from fully or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors. In general, the stabilized or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors are placed under slight tension, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, and carbonized using a plasma and electromagnetic radiation having a power input which is increased as the fibers become more carbonized and progress towards a final carbon or graphite product. In an additional step, the final carbon or graphite product may be surface treated with an oxygen-plasma treatment to enhance adhesion to matrix materials.

Paulauskas, Felix L. (Knoxville, TN); Yarborough, Kenneth D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

11

Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders  

Science.gov (United States)

Pitch-based nanocomposite carbon fibers were prepared with various percentages of carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and the fibers were used for manufacturing composite structures. Experimental results show that these nanocomposite carbon fibers exhibit improved structural and electrical conductivity properties as compared to unreinforced carbon fibers. Composite panels fabricated from these nanocomposite carbon fibers and an epoxy system also show the same properties transformed from the fibers. Single-fiber testing per ASTM C1557 standard indicates that the nanocomposite carbon fiber has a tensile modulus of 110% higher, and a tensile strength 17.7% times higher, than the conventional carbon fiber manufactured from pitch. Also, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber carbonized at 900 C was reduced from 4.8 to 2.2 ohm/cm. The manufacturing of the nanocomposite carbon fiber was based on an extrusion, non-solvent process. The precursor fibers were then carbonized and graphitized. The resultant fibers are continuous.

Tan, Seng; Zhou, Jian-guo

2013-01-01

12

Effects of the Composition and the Preparation Methods on Oil Sorption Capacity of Recycled Rayon Waste-Kapok Mixtures (RRWK Sorbent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the utilization of a recycled rayon waste-kapok mixtures as an oil sorbent for the removal of diesel, motor oil and bunker C. The effects of the kapok fibers: rayon fibers ratio and the additional of sodium sulfate on RRWK sorbents properties were investigated through series of oil sorption tests. The ASTM 726-06 method was used to determine the oil sorption capacity of the sorbents under both static and dynamic conditions. The results showed the high sorption capacity of the recycled rayon waste-kapok mixture for difference kinds of oil. Oil, which has a high viscosity, tends to have a higher oil sorption ratio. RRWK sorbents had higher oil sorption capacity than commercial polypropylene. The presence of kapok fibers in RRWK increases the hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of the sorbents while the presence of rayon fibers improves the strength of the sorbents. The additional of sodium sulfate during sorbent preparation increases the surface area and pore size of RRWK sorbent and thus improves the oil sorption capacity. It can be concluded that RRWK, which can be produced by utilizing industrial waste, is effective low cost, environmentally friendly oil sorbent with comparable performance to commercial products.

Sutha Khaodhiar

2013-06-01

13

USING OF FIBER COMPOSITE OF POLYPROPYLENE TO MANUFACTURING CARS BUMPERS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research aims to manufacturing cars bumpers from polypropylene resin reinforced by it glass fibers with different reinforcement percentage (10%,30%,50%,70%) and study the impact strength and compressive strength for obtained composite material .An Improvementwas happened in these properties after reinforcement by fibers The value of mechanical properties will increase with increasing percentage of reinforcement . Impact strength increased from (85Kj/m2) to (498Kj/m2) and compressive stre...

2012-01-01

14

Fiber-reinforced composites materials, manufacturing, and design  

CERN Multimedia

The newly expanded and revised edition of Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design presents the most up-to-date resource available on state-of-the-art composite materials. This book is unique in that it not only offers a current analysis of mechanics and properties, but also examines the latest advances in test methods, applications, manufacturing processes, and design aspects involving composites. This third edition presents thorough coverage of newly developed materials including nanocomposites. It also adds more emphasis on underlying theories, practical methods, and problem-solving skills employed in real-world applications of composite materials. Each chapter contains new examples drawn from diverse applications and additional problems to reinforce the practical relevance of key concepts. New in The Third Edition: Contains new sections on material substitution, cost analysis, nano- and natural fibers, fiber architecture, and carbon-carbon composites Provides a new chapter on poly...

Mallick, P K

2007-01-01

15

77 FR 73978 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN, Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Authority), Opening...with authority to manufacture carbon fiber for export and oxidized polyacrylonitrile...include authority to manufacture carbon fiber for the U.S. market; the...

2012-12-12

16

Effect of epoxy coatings on carbon fibers during manufacture of carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The changes in oxygen and nitrogen during manufacture of the carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composites were measured using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. The effects of the change in oxygen and nitrogen on the strength of the carbon fibers were investigated and the results revealed that the change of the tensile strength with increasing heat curing temperature was attributed to the change in the surface flaws of the carbon fibers because the carbon fibers are sensitive to the surface flaws. The effect of the surface energy that was calculated using Kaelble's method on the strength of the carbon fibers was investigated. Furthermore, the surface roughness of the carbon fibers was measured using atom force microscopy. The change trend of roughness was reverse to that of the strength, which was because of the brittle fracture of the carbon fibers.

2010-03-01

17

16 CFR 303.33 - Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.33 Country where textile fiber products are processed or...

2010-01-01

18

Development of multifunctional carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRCs) - Manufacturing process  

Science.gov (United States)

This work describes a successful attempt toward the development of CFRCs based on nanofilled epoxy resins. The epoxy matrix was prepared by mixing a tetrafunctional epoxy precursor with a reactive diluent which allows to reduce the viscosity of the initial epoxy precursor and facilitate the nanofiller dispersion step. As nanofiller, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were embedded in the epoxy matrix with the aim of improving the electrical properties of the resin used to manufacture CFRCs. Panels were manufactured by Resin Film Infusion (RFI) using a non-usual technique to infuse a nano-filled resin into a carbon fiber dry preform.

Guadagno, Liberata; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Vietri, Umberto; Barra, Giuseppina; Vertuccio, Luigi; Volponi, Ruggero; Cosentino, Giovanni; De Nicola, Felice; Grilli, Andrea; Spena, Paola

2014-05-01

19

Short fiber-reinforced cementitious composites manufactured by extrusion technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of short fibers in the cement-based composites is more preferable due to the simplicity and economic nature in fabrication. The short fiber-reinforced cementitious composite (SFRCC) manufactured by the extrusion method show a great improvement in both strength and toughness as compared to the fiber-reinforced composites made by traditional casting methods. This improvement can be attributed to the achievement of low porosity and good interfacial bond in SFRCC under high shear and compressive stress during the extrusion process. In the present study, products of cylinders, sheets, pipes and honeycomb panels incorporating various mineral admixtures such as slag, silica fume, and metakaolin have been manufactured by the extrusion technology. Two kinds of short fibers, ductile polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers and stronger but less ductile glass fibers, were used as the reinforcement in the products. After the specimens were extruded, tension, bending and impact tests were performed to study the mechanical properties of these products. The rheology test was performed for each mix to determine its viscoelastic properties. In addition, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) technology were employed to get an insight view of the mechanism. A freezing and thawing experiment (ASTM C666) was also carried to investigate the durability of the specimens. Based on these experimental results, the reinforcing behaviors of these two short fibers were investigated. The enhancing effects of silica fume and metakaolin on the extrudates were compared and discussed. Finally, the optimum amount of silica fume and slag was proposed. Since the key point for a successful extrusion is the properly designed rheology which controls both internal and external flow properties of extrudate, a nonlinear viscoelastic model was applied to investigate the rheological behavior of a movable fresh cementitious composite in an extruder channel. The velocity profile of the fresh cementitious composite and the relationship between pressure gradients and flow volume rates were obtained by the finite difference method. The hardened short fiber-reinforced extrudates were then studied by a micromechanics model based on the energy dissipation approach. The overall tension behaviors were predicted and the strain hardening response was discussed.

Mu, Bin

20

78 FR 55057 - Authority To Manufacture Carbon Fiber for the U.S. Market Not Approved; Foreign-Trade Subzone...  

Science.gov (United States)

...1914] Authority To Manufacture Carbon Fiber for the U.S. Market Not Approved...Inc. (TTA), to manufacture carbon fiber under zone procedures for the U...requesting authority to manufacture carbon fiber for the U.S. market under...

2013-09-09

 
 
 
 
21

Manufacturing of robust natural fiber preforms utilizing bacterial cellulose as binder.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel method of manufacturing rigid and robust natural fiber preforms is presented here. This method is based on a papermaking process, whereby loose and short sisal fibers are dispersed into a water suspension containing bacterial cellulose. The fiber and nanocellulose suspension is then filtered (using vacuum or gravity) and the wet filter cake pressed to squeeze out any excess water, followed by a drying step. This will result in the hornification of the bacterial cellulose network, holding the loose natural fibers together. Our method is specially suited for the manufacturing of rigid and robust preforms of hydrophilic fibers. The porous and hydrophilic nature of such fibers results in significant water uptake, drawing in the bacterial cellulose dispersed in the suspension. The bacterial cellulose will then be filtered against the surface of these fibers, forming a bacterial cellulose coating. When the loose fiber-bacterial cellulose suspension is filtered and dried, the adjacent bacterial cellulose forms a network and hornified to hold the otherwise loose fibers together. The introduction of bacterial cellulose into the preform resulted in a significant increase of the mechanical properties of the fiber preforms. This can be attributed to the high stiffness and strength of the bacterial cellulose network. With this preform, renewable high performance hierarchical composites can also be manufactured by using conventional composite production methods, such as resin film infusion (RFI) or resin transfer molding (RTM). Here, we also describe the manufacturing of renewable hierarchical composites using double bag vacuum assisted resin infusion. PMID:24893649

Lee, Koon-Yang; Shamsuddin, Siti Rosminah; Fortea-Verdejo, Marta; Bismarck, Alexander

2014-01-01

22

New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections. and it is important to understand the effect that new manufacturing methods of calcium carbonates have on the energy efficiency and paper production. Research conducted under this award showed that the new fiber filler composite material has the potential to increase the paper filler content by up to 5% without losing mechanical properties. Benefits of the technology can be summarized as follows for a 1% filler increase per metric ton of paper produced: (i) production cost savings over $12, (ii) Energy savings of 100,900 btu, (iii) CO{sub 2} emission savings of 33 lbs, and additional savings for wood preparation, pulping, recovery of 203593 btu with a 46lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per 1% filler increase. In addition the technology has the potential to save: (i) additional $3 per ton of bleached pulp produced, (ii) bleaching energy savings of 170,000 btu, (iii) bleaching CO{sub 2} emission savings of 39 lbs, and (iv) additional savings for replacing conventional bleaching chemicals with a sustainable bleaching chemical is estimated to be 900,000 btu with a 205 lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per ton of bleached pulp produced. All the above translates to a estimated annual savings for a 12% filler increase of 296 trillion buts? or 51 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) or 13.7% of the industries energy demand. This can lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 70% for the industry sector. CO{sub 2} emission of the industry at a 12% filler increase could be lowered by over 39 million tons annually. If the new technology could be implemented for bleaching process a total annual estimated energy savings potential of 64 trillion buts? or 11 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) equal to 3% of the paper industries energy demand could be realized. This could lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 60% for the industry. CO{sub 2} emissions could be lowered by over 7.4 million tons annually. It is estimated that an installed system could also yield a 75 to 100% return of investment (ROI) rate for the capital equipment that need to be installed for the fiber filler composite manufacturing process.

Doelle, Klaus [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

2013-08-25

23

Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex  

Science.gov (United States)

Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.

1993-02-01

24

Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex  

Science.gov (United States)

Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.

1993-01-01

25

Size Classification of Chopped Carbon Fibers in the Composite Materials Manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information synthesis of the learning decision support system for automation of the chopped carbon fibers size control used for the matrix filling within the manufacturing of composite materials based on polytetrafluoroethylene is considered. To improve the reliability of recognition learning algorithm with the optimization of the precision control is proposed.

?.S. Dovbysh

2010-01-01

26

Design and Manufacturing of Tow-Steered Composite Shells Using Fiber Placement  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced composite shells that may offer the potential to improve the structural performance of future aircraft fuselage structures were developed under this joint NASA-industry collaborative effort. Two cylindrical shells with tailored, tow-steered layups and continuously varying fiber angle orientations were designed and built at the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing - Louisiana Partnership. The shells were fabricated from unidirectional IM7/8552 graphite-epoxy pre-preg slit tape material fiber-placed on a constant-diameter mandrel. Each shell had the same nominal 8-ply [plus or minus 45/plus or minus Theta]s layup, where the nominal fiber angle in the tow-steered plies varied continuously from 10 degrees along the crown to 45 degrees on each side, then back to 10 degrees on the keel. One shell was fabricated with all 24 tows placed during each pass of the fiber placement machine, resulting in many tow overlaps on the shell surface. The fiber placement machine's individual tow cut/restart capability was also used to manufacture a second shell with tow drops and a more uniform laminate thickness. This paper presents an overview of the detailed design and manufacturing processes for these shells, and discusses issues encountered during their fabrication and post-cure evaluation. Future plans for structural testing and analyses of the shells are also discussed.

Wu, K. Chauncey; Tatting, Brian F.; Smith, Brett H.; Stevens, Randy S.; Occhipiniti, Gina P.; Swift, Jonathan B.; Achary, David C.; Thornburgh, Robert P.

2009-01-01

27

LOW-COST COMPOSITES IN VEHICLE MANUFACTURE - Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the last decade, natural fiber composites have experienced rapid growth in the European automotive market, and this trend appears to be global in scale, provided the cost and performance is justified against competing technologies. However, mass reduction, recyclability, and performance requirements can be met today by competing systems such as injection-molded unreinforced thermoplastics; natural fiber composites will continue to expand their role in automotive applications only if such technical challenges as moisture stability, fiber-polymer interface compatibility, and consistent, repeatable fiber sources are available to supply automotive manufacturers. Efforts underway by Tier I and II automotive suppliers to explore hybrid glass-natural fiber systems, as well as applications that exploit such capabilities as natural fiber sound dampening characteristics, could very well have far-reaching effects. In addition, the current development underway of bio-based resins such as Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biodegradable polyesters and bio-based polyols could provide fully bio-based composite options to future automotive designers. In short, the development of the natural fiber composite market would make a positive impact on farmers and small business owners on a global scale, reduce US reliance on foreign oil, improve environmental quality through the development of a sustainable resource supply chain, and achieve a better CO2 balance over the vehicle?s lifetime with near-zero net greenhouse gas emissions.

Holbery, Jim; Houston, Dan

2006-11-01

28

Studies on radiation resistance of fiber reinforced plastic composites featured by easiness of manufacturing, 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Degradation behavior of fiber reinforced plastic(FRP) composite materials manufactured by conventional lamination technology was studied by measuring various mechanical properties after irradiation and observing fracture surfaces by scanning electron microscopy. When bisphenol-A type epoxy was used as matrix material, the laminated composites degraded rapidly. This fact was ascribed to poor radiation resistance of the matrix resin. The radiation resistance varied depending on types of hardeners. Diaminodiphenylmethane(DDM) gave radiation resistance higher than diaminodiphenylsulfone(DDS). The dose that produced an incipient decrease in mechanical properties(threshold dose) was larger in case of carbon fiber reinforcement than glass fiber reinforcement. For example, the threshold dose was about 10 MGy in case of glass fiber reinforcement with epoxy matrix hardened by DDS, and about 30 MGy when hardened by DDM. While, it increased to about 60 MGy with the latter matrix when carbon fiber is used. From the results of scanning electron microscopic observation of fractured surfaces, the superior radiation resistance in case of carbon fiber reinforcement was found due to its stable bonding interface between fiber and matrix. When BT(bismaleimide-triazine) resin was used as matrix for glass fiber reinforcement, little influence of irradiation was observed in various mechanical properties at least up to 60 MGy, and three point flexural strength showed no change even up to 100 MGy. This stability was ascribed to the stability of both the matrix resin and the bonding interface. Interlaminar shear strength reflects radiation effects on FRP with highest sensitivity among various mechanical properties tested in this work. (author)

1986-01-01

29

Production Performance of Brahman Cross Steer Feed with Concentrate Containing Kapok Seed Meal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the weight gain and meat physical quality of Brahman cross steer (BX fed with concentrate containing kapok seed meal (Ceiba pentandra. The research used 12 heads of two years age Brahman cross steer with body weight of 324 ± 11.29 kg. the steer were kept in individual barn and offered with concentrate containing three level of kapok seed meal. i.e: R1 (10%, R2 (20% and R3 (30%. A completely randomized design with four replications was employed. Elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum was fed along with concentrate in 20 : 80% ratio. A total amount of feed given to the cattle was 2.5 % of the body weight on the basis of dry matter and offered twice a day in the morning and the afternoon. Water was given ad libitum. Result showed that there was no significant different on daily gain and meat physical quality. Daily gain of R1, R2 and R3 was 0.73 kg, 0.84 kg, and 0.75 kg of respectively. There was significant different in carcass percentage i.e. 52.57, 50.84, and 48.58 for R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Physical quality of meat consisting of colour, pH, water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL and tenderness indicated non significant effect. The pH value of observed muscle in Longisinus dorsi (LD, semitendinosus (ST, and bicep femoris (BF, was 5.80 (R1 5.87(R2 and 5.81 (R3, meat colour score was 5.48 (R1, 5.58 (R2 and 5.59 (R3, water holding capacity % was 36.40 (R1, 39.66 (R2 and 34,09 (R3, and cooking loss (5 was 46.62, 44.17 and 46.19 for R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Result of meat tenderness (g/mm/second was 57.84 (R1, 56.05 (R2 and 59.41 (R3. In relation to price, feed consumption, and daily gain indicated that feed cost per gain was Rp. 2.991.50 (R1, Rp. 2.638.50 (R2, Rp. 2.965.25 (R3, and income over feed cost was Rp. 818.25 (R1, Rp. 1.238.95 (R2, and Rp. 855.80 (R3 respectively. The result showed that the use of 20% of Kapok Seed meal in concentrate (R2, although there was no significant effect, gives the most efficient result. (Animal Production 7(3: 189-193 (2005 Key Words : Brahman Cross Steer, Body Weight, Meat Quality, Kapok Seed Meal.

H Soeprapto

2005-11-01

30

Studies on radiation resistance of fiber reinforced plastic composites featured by easiness of manufacturing, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mechanical properties of glass fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRP) irradiated at room temperature with electron beams were studied in order to characterize the radiation resistance. Mechanical properties were tested by flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) at room and low temperature, and flexural fatigue strength at room temperature. The GFRP used in the present study were manufactured trial with three kinds of epoxy matrices having excellent radiation resistance at room temperature and easiness of manufacturing. These composites prepared in selected curing condition were equipped with high flexural strength at low temperature, about two times at room temperature. GFRP composed of 4,4'-tetraglycidyl diamino diphenyl methane cured with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane showed the highest radiation resistance: the strength after irradiation up to 90 MGy were kept the initial value, that is, flexural strength of 1000 MPa at 77 K and ILSS of 70 MPa at 123 K. It was also confirmed that the flexural strength measured at 4.2 K were well agreed with the values tested at 77 K. On the effects of fiber-matrix bonding materials by using different kinds and/or amount of silane coupling agents, the pronounced difference were found in the degradation behavior but did not affect to the flexural strength of the GFRP. Flexural fatigue behavior showed rather well radiation degradation comparing with three point bending strength at room temperature. (author)

1989-01-01

31

CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON FIBER EMISSIONS FROM CURRENT AND PROJECTED ACTIVITIES FOR THE MANUFACTURE AND DISPOSAL OF CARBON FIBER PRODUCTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Composite materials formed by impregnating a carbon or graphite fiber mat with plastic binders are being used increasingly in military, aerospace, sports and automotive applications. Carbon fibers are formed primarily from synthetic fibers carbonized in the absence of oxygen. Pos...

32

Fiber Pave, Polypropylene Fiber.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report documents the performance of Fiber Pave. Fiber Pave 3010, which is manufactured by Hercules Incorporated, consists of short-length polypropylene fibers designed for use as a reinforcement in bituminous concrete and asphalt pavements. It is mark...

D. S. Harmelink

1992-01-01

33

Three-phase Coupling of Air, Droplets and Fibers for the Spray Molding Manufacturing Process of Polyurethane-Fiber-Reinforced Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present paper the authors present a multiphase flow simulation model of the interaction of a droplet-laden air flow with flexible fibers. This highly complex flow is occurring during a manufacturing process of fiber reinforced polyurethane based composites, where the liquid plastic polyurethane (PUR) is sprayed with air assistance in a tool form or on a substrate. Simultaneously chopped fibers are laterally inserted in the polyurethane-air spray cone for wetting before the entire mixture deposits on the substrate, where it starts curing. This investigation aims to compute the statistical fiber orientation and density distribution in the final composite, which will help modeling its anisotropic material properties. It is presumed that the final position and orientation of a fiber on a substrate results from its dynamics and coupled interactions with air, PUR-droplets and other fibers within the spray cone. Therefore, we present a new approach simplifying the multiply coupled interaction of the three phases. In this paper a model of the process is built, that computes the transient, 4-way-coupled behavior of the air-liquid droplets mixture with the CFD code ANSYS Fluent and the 1-way-air- and 1-way-droplet-coupled dynamics of the fibers with an extra code called FIDYST. Two approaches for the coupling of fibers with the air-droplets-mixture are presented: One considers the mixture as a pseudo-fluid (``homogenization''), the other computes a force for each of the phases separately, wherein the average momentum transfer for the fiber-droplet collision is estimated based on the probability of local collision events.

Diffo, P.; Wulf, P.; Breuer, M.

2011-09-01

34

Utilization of Non -oven Jute felt - A natural Fiber as a Substitution of Wood Veneer for Manufacture of Plywood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the suitability of using core veneer made from renewable natural fiber i.e. Non-oven jute felt, which is the second most widely used natural fiber for manufacturing of plywood was investigated to minimize the gap between demand and supply of wood veneer. The renewable natural hard jute fibre was impregnated with phenolic resin and was used for the manufacture of plywood. Plywood of 4 mm, 6 mm, 12 mm and 18 mm thick were manufactured by using phenolic resin impregnated jute felt having thickness 16mm of 1850 GSM (approx. as a core in place of the natural wood veneer. From the study, it can be inferred that PF Resin impregnated Non oven jute felt as a natural fibre can suitably replace the wooden glue core veneer to manufacture ply board up to 80% as an alternative substitute of wood. The physico-mechanical properties such as surface roughness, moisture content, density, water absorption, swelling, compressive strength, tensile strength, static bending strength, glue shear strength, of the plywood manufactured by using jute felt as core veneer with different resin dilution have been studied. Data revels that most of the physico-mechanical properties of the plywood showed satisfactory results meeting the requirement of different grades of plywood tested as per IS: 1734 - 1983. The accelerated study of the glued core after impregnation with jute felt have been carried out for three months before plywood manufacture after storing it in proper temperature and humidity. The data revealed that there is no appreciable change in bond quality and mechanical properties of the plyboard manufactured after storing the veneer up to 30 days. The study concluded that wood substituted jute composites could be an ideal solution with ever depleting forest reserves where utilization of renewable resources will be beneficiary for plywood industries to meet the challenges during scarcity of veneer by reducing the cost of imported veneer.

Mr. S.C.Sahoo

2012-04-01

35

Ultra-miniature all-glass Fabry-Pérot pressure sensor manufactured at the tip of a multimode optical fiber  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The design and fabrication of an ultra-miniature all-glass pressure sensor with a diameter of 125 m are presented. The sensor consists of a thin flexible silica membrane fused on a capillary tube section, which is assembledat the tip of a standard multimode fiber, thus forming a Fabry-Pérot air cavity whose length depends on applied pressure. Controlled polishing steps including on-line tuning of the diaphragm thickness during the manufacturing process achieve good repeatability and high sen...

Pinet, Eric; Cibula, Edvard; Đonlagic?, Denis

2012-01-01

36

Manufacture of and environmental effects on carbon fiber-reinforced phenylethynyl-terminated poly(etherimide)  

Science.gov (United States)

The initial objective of this research project was to determine the feasibility of manufacturing carbon fiber-reinforced (CFR) composites with a matrix consisting of a phenylethynyl-terminated version of a thermoplastic poly(etherimide) termed PETU. Successful composite manufacture with 3,000 g/mol (3k) PETU led to a survey of CFR 3kPETU mechanical properties for comparison with other high-performance composites. Encouraging results led to a study of moisture sorption effects on CFR 3kPETU properties. The success of these initial studies spawned the large scale production of 2,500 g/mol (2.5k) PETU. Thermal characterization of neat and CFR 2.5kPETU via differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, and parallel plate rheometry resulted in an understanding of the influence of cure time and temperature on reaction progress via both reaction kinetics and monitoring of the glass transition temperature. From the rheological characterization, a two-stage, dual-Arrhenius model was developed to successfully model isothermal complex viscosity over the range of processing temperatures. Neat 2.5kPETU and CFR 2.5kPETU specimens were exposed separately to elevated temperature environments of different moisture and different oxygen concentrations to evaluate the effects of moisture absorption, moisture desorption, and thermal oxidation on material properties. Moisture absorption took place in a 90°C/85% relative humidity environment followed by moisture desorption in a 90°C/10% relative humidity environment. Thermal-oxidative aging for up to 5000 hours took place at 204°C in environments of four different oxygen partial pressures: 0.0 kPa, 2.84 kPa, 20.2 kPa, and 40.4 kPa. Following exposure to the different aging environments, the specimens were tested for retention of mechanical properties. In addition, moisture sorption properties were measured. Results from the moisture sorption studies on CFR 3kPETU and CFR 2.5kPETU suggest that fully cured composites will withstand moisture absorption and desorption with negligible effects on mechanical properties, whereas, lack of full cure allows moisture sorption to permanently damage the composites. Despite a lack of mass loss or visual evidence of degradation following thermal-oxidative aging, a decline in mechanical properties was observed with the reduction becoming greater with longer aging times and higher oxygen partial pressures.

Bullions, Todd Aaron

37

ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS LIGNIN DERIVED FROM CORN STOVER AS AN INTRINSTIC BINDER FOR BIO-COMPOSITES MANUFACTURE: EFFECT OF FIBER MOISTURE CONTENT AND PRESSING TEMPERATURE ON BOARDS’ PROPERTIES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Binderless fiberboards from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL) and cotton stalk fibers were prepared under various manufacturing conditions, and their physico-mechanical properties were evaluated. Full factorial experimental design was used to assess the effect of fiber moisture content and pressing temperature on boards’ properties. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg) of EHL. We found that both fiber moisture content ...

2011-01-01

38

Chemical composition of abaca (Musa textilis) leaf fibers used for manufacturing of high quality paper pulps  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical composition of leaf fibers of abaca (Musa textilis), which are commonly used for high-quality paper pulp production, was thoroughly studied. The results revealed that the lignin content was 13.2 % of the total fiber. The analysis of abaca fibers by Pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) released predominantly compounds arising from lignin and p-hydroxycinnamic acids, with high amounts of 4-vinylphenol. The latter compound was demonstrated to arise fr...

Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del; Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana

2006-01-01

39

Study of Heat Transfer in a Kapok Material from the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient and the Excitation Pulse of Solicitations External Climatic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize thermal insulating local material, kapok, from a study in 3 dimensions in Cartesian coordinate and in dynamic frequency regime. From a study a 3 dimensional the heat transfer through a material made of wool kapok (thermal conductivity: &lambda = 0,035 W/m/K; density: &rho = 12, 35 kg/m3; thermal diffusivity: &alpha = 17, 1.10-7 m2 /s is presented. The evolution curves of temperature versus convective heat transfer coefficient have helped highlight the importance of pulse excitation and the depth in the material. The thermal impedance is studied from representations of Nyquist and Bode diagrams allowing characterizing the thermal behavior from thermistors. The evolution of the thermal impedance with the thermal capacity of the material is presented.

M. Dieng

2013-02-01

40

Manufacture of a weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold with excellent biocompatibility and space maintenance ability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although collagen scaffolds have been used for regenerative medicine, they have insufficient mechanical strength. We made a weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold from a collagen fiber suspension (physiological pH 7.4) through a process of freeze drying and denaturation with heat under low pressure (1 × 10?1 Pa). Heat treatment formed cross-links between the collagen fibers, providing the scaffold with sufficient mechanical strength to maintain the space for tissue regeneration in vivo. The scaffold was embedded under the back skin of a rat, and biocompatibility and space maintenance ability were examined after 2 weeks. These were evaluated by using the ratio of foreign body giant cells and thickness of the residual scaffold. A weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold with moderate biocompatibility and space maintenance ability was made by freezing at ?10 °C, followed by denaturation at 140 °C for 6 h. In addition, the direction of the collagen fibers in the scaffold was adjusted by cooling the suspension only from the bottom of the container. This process increased the ratio of cells that infiltrated into the scaffold. A weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold thus made can be used for tissue regeneration or delivery of cells or proteins to a target site. (paper)

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
41

Electronic manufacturing process improvement (EMPI) for automatic winding of quadrupole fiber optic gyro sensor coils  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this EMPI program was to design an Automatic Coil Winding Station (ACWS) for winding Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) sensor coils through the use of TQM, QFD, etc., followed by use of Taguchi an other statistical techniques to optimize the coil winding process. Four phases were involved: Process Definition, Critical Factor Identification, Variability Reduction, and SPC Implementation. Winding FOG coils is both difficult and fragile in that it is a quadrupole wind - as apposed to the conventional thread wind - compounded by the requirement for low tension precision, high-fiber packing density, and always risk of damage to the delicate fiber itself. The critical factor identification in the quadrupole winding process was reduced to fiber crossover - a significant detrimental influence on gyro performance - which, in turn, was closely identified with fiber gap control. The station was completed and deployed to the field where production coils are currently being wound. The ACWS not only lowered the required labor skill but succeeded in reducing the winding cycle time to 1 hour (from 24 hours) and touch labor time to 0.3 hours (from 24 hours) while improving the yield and performance through improved process control.

Safonov, Gregory S.

1994-09-01

42

Carbon fiber-reinforced carbon composite material and manufacturing method therefor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For a composite material useful as heat shielding tiles for use in first walls of a thermonuclear reactor, a prefoam is formed by a large square rods formed by orienting carbon fibers in the axial direction into a cylindrical shape and arranging them in a matrix in longitudinal and lateral directions of a plate toward the direction of the thickness each at a predetermined distance, and thin square rods stacked in lattice-like manner between the large square rods. The prefoam is impregnated with a thermosetting resin or a pitch and carbonated by heating in an inactive atmosphere. The orientation ratio of the fibers in the direction of the plate thickness and fiber content can be increased to maintain the linearity of the fibers. High thermal conductivity can be provided in the direction of the plate thickness to maintain high thermal conductivity even under a high temperature thereby preventing reduction of the wall thickness due to erosion. The weaving step is simplified and the fabrication time and cost can be reduced. (N.H.)

1994-09-14

43

Processing conditions and properties of continuous fiber reinforced GF/PP thermoplastic matrix composites manufactured from different pre-impregnated materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present work was to study and compare the processing conditions and final mechanical properties of continuous glass-fiber reinforced polypropylene composites (GF/PP) manufactured by using available thermoplastic preimpregnated materials produced by different methods.To assess the quality of the three different GF/PP pre-impregnated materials, final manufactured composite parts were submitted to mechanical testing and microscopy analysis. The obtained properties were compared be...

2013-01-01

44

Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

Diet - fiber; Roughage; Bulk ... Dietary fiber adds bulk to your diet. Because it makes you feel full faster, it can be helpful in controlling weight. Fiber aids digestion, helps prevent constipation , and is sometimes ...

45

Development of a Fiber Laser Welding Equipment for the LVDT Manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The instrumented fuel irradiation test at a research reactor is needed to evaluate the performance of the developed nuclear fuel. A LVDT(Linear Variable Differential Transformer) can be designed to measure the pressure level and elongation during the irradiation test by using various metals and MI cables. LVDT's parts were composed of MI cables and Inconel 600 materials. Laser welding technology is widely used to fabricate some products of nuclear fuel in the nuclear industry. Especially, micro-welding using Fiber laser is one of the key technologies to be developed to fabricate precise products of fuel irradiation test. We also have to secure micro-welding technology to perform various instrumentations for fuel irradiation test. Micro-welding technology was adopted to seal between seal tubes and MI cables with thickness of 0.15 mm. The soundness of welding area has to be confirmed to prevent fission gas of the fuel from leaking out of the fuel rods during the fuel irradiation test. In this report, fundamental data for welding technology using Fiber laser was proposed to seal Inconel 600 sheaths of LVDT instrumented capsules for the irradiation test. Moreover, It is expected that the use of fuel irradiation tests will be revitalized by the self-development of LVDT's parts using the Fiber laser welding technology

Kim, S. S.; Lee, C. Y.; Park, S. J.; Shin, Y. T.; Cho, M. S.; Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-12-15

46

Development of a Fiber Laser Welding Equipment for the LVDT Manufacturing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The instrumented fuel irradiation test at a research reactor is needed to evaluate the performance of the developed nuclear fuel. A LVDT(Linear Variable Differential Transformer) can be designed to measure the pressure level and elongation during the irradiation test by using various metals and MI cables. LVDT's parts were composed of MI cables and Inconel 600 materials. Laser welding technology is widely used to fabricate some products of nuclear fuel in the nuclear industry. Especially, micro-welding using Fiber laser is one of the key technologies to be developed to fabricate precise products of fuel irradiation test. We also have to secure micro-welding technology to perform various instrumentations for fuel irradiation test. Micro-welding technology was adopted to seal between seal tubes and MI cables with thickness of 0.15 mm. The soundness of welding area has to be confirmed to prevent fission gas of the fuel from leaking out of the fuel rods during the fuel irradiation test. In this report, fundamental data for welding technology using Fiber laser was proposed to seal Inconel 600 sheaths of LVDT instrumented capsules for the irradiation test. Moreover, It is expected that the use of fuel irradiation tests will be revitalized by the self-development of LVDT's parts using the Fiber laser welding technology

2010-01-01

47

Biodiesel Production from Kapok (Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil using Naturally Alkaline Catalyst as an Effort of Green Energy and Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, energy that used to serve all the needs of community, mainly generated from fossil (conventional energy. Terrace in energy consumption is not balanced with adequate fossil fuel reserves and will be totally depleted in the near future. Indonesian Government through a Presidential Decree No. 5 year 2006 mandates an increased capacity in renewable energy production from 5 percent to 15 percent in 2025. C. pentandra seed oil has feasibility as a sustainable biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia. The aim of this paper was to investigate biodiesel production from ceiba petandra seed oil using naturally potassium hydroxide catalyst. Research designs are based on factorial design with 2 levels and 3 independent variables (temperature, reaction time and molar ratio of methanol to oil. According to data calculation, the most influential single variable is molar ratio of methanol to oil. Characterization of biodiesel products meet all the qualifications standardized by SNI 04-7182-2006. Keywords: biodiesel, kapok seed oil, c. pentandra, green technology

N.A. Handayani

2013-10-01

48

ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED BOVINE BIOFIBER AS A SOURCE OF FIBER FOR PARTICLEBOARD MANUFACTURING: AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores the physical and economic potential to substitute anaerobically digested bovine biofiber (ADBF for wood in the making of particleboard. Laboratory tests indicated that replacement of one-half the wood in particleboard with ADBF produced panels that compared favorably to the requirements for commercial particleboard performance (specified by ANSI Standard A208.1–1999. The economic question hinges on the opportunity costs of alternative uses for ADBF. The current use is primarily animal bedding, and prices appear to be greater than those paid by particleboard plants for sawdust and planer shavings but less than for chips. ADBF is most similar in size to, thus most likely to be substitutable for, sawdust and shavings. At current bedding values, use for particleboard appears a less favorable alternative. However, this could be overcome by large-volume, long-term contractual arrangements that provide a secure long-term outlet for excess ADBF fiber that may otherwise not have value. For a particleboard operation, the opportunity for fiber diversification and the incorporation of post-industrial waste in the process offer strategic advantages.

Henry Spelter

2008-11-01

49

Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 4.1 Intelligent Manufacturing of Hybrid Carbon-Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EXECUTIVE SUMARY In this subtask, the manufacturability of hybrid carbon-glass fiber-reinforced composite wind turbine blades using Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) was investigated. The objective of this investigation was to study the VARTM process and its parameters to manufacture cost-effective wind turbine blades with no defects (mainly eliminate dry spots and reduce manufacturing time). A 2.5-dimensional model and a 3-dimensional model were developed to simulate mold filling and part curing under different conditions. These conditions included isothermal and non-isothermal filling, curing of the part during and after filling, and placement of injection gates at different locations. Results from this investigation reveal that the process can be simulated and also that manufacturing parameters can be optimized to eliminate dry spot formation and reduce the manufacturing time. Using computer-based models is a cost-effective way to simulate manufacturing of wind turbine blades. The approach taken herein allows the design of the wind blade manufacturing processes without physically running trial-and-error experiments that are expensive and time-consuming; especially for larger blades needed for more demanding environmental conditions. This will benefit the wind energy industry by reducing initial design and manufacturing costs which can later be passed down to consumers and consequently make the wind energy industry more competitive.

Janet M Twomey, PhD

2010-04-30

50

Evaluating the impact of recycled fiber content on effluent recycling in newsprint manufacture.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the effect of using recycled fiber (RCF) in newsprint production on the effluent quality and its treatability using membrane operations for internal and external recycling and reuse. Increased chemical usage in RCF for deinking had significant impact on the silica and sodium content of the effluent which in turn limits the membrane's operation. Increasing the RCF content from 0% to 50% is estimated to increase the silica content from 4 to 119mgL(-1) and sodium content from 135 to 500mgL(-1). A process model was developed to calculate the impact of these excess chemicals on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and brine disposal for an integrated membrane plant design producing 4MLday(-1) of recycled water. As the ratio of RCF increased from 0% to 50% in the mill process, the operating pressure increased for nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Additionally, organics presence in the feed increased the NF operating pressure above the simulated value and reduced the silica removal efficiency by 15%. Incorporation of lime coagulation pretreatment was found to be essential to operate RO at high recoveries with relatively GHG emissions. Without pretreatment, as RCF content increased from 0% to 50%, RO recovery decreased from 80% to 22% and the expended GHG increased from 0.9 to 3.5kgCO2m(-3). Although the excess sodium concentration limits the brine disposal for irrigation purposes, a partial blending of the treated wastewater with other process streams resulted in the reduction of sodium absorption ratio by 20%. PMID:23668963

Negaresh, Ebrahim; Antony, Alice; Cox, Shane; Lucien, Frank P; Richardson, Desmond E; Leslie, Greg

2013-09-01

51

Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural fibers have been used to reinforce materials for over 3,000 years. More recently they have been employed in combination with plastics. Many types of natural fi fibers have been investigated for use in plastics including Flax, hemp, jute, straw, wood fiber, rice husks, wheat, barley, oats, rye, cane (sugar and bamboo), grass reeds, kenaf, ramie, oil palm empty fruit bunch, sisal, coir, water hyacinth, pennywort, kapok, paper-mulberry, raphia, banana fiber, pineapple leaf fiber and papyrus. Natural fibers have the advantage that they are renewable resources and have marketing appeal. The Asian markets have been using natural fibers for many years e.g., jute is a common reinforcement in India. Natural fibers are increasingly used in automotive and packaging materials. Pakistan is an agricultural country and it is the main stay of Pakistan's economy. Thousands of tons of different crops are produced but most of their wastes do not have any useful utilization. Agricultural wastes include wheat husk, rice husk, and their straw, hemp fiber and shells of various dry fruits. These agricultural wastes can be used to prepare fiber reinforced polymer composites for commercial use. This report examines the different types of fibers available and the current status of research. Many references to the latest work on properties, processing and application have been cited in this review. (author)

2007-06-01

52

ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS LIGNIN DERIVED FROM CORN STOVER AS AN INTRINSTIC BINDER FOR BIO-COMPOSITES MANUFACTURE: EFFECT OF FIBER MOISTURE CONTENT AND PRESSING TEMPERATURE ON BOARDS’ PROPERTIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL and cotton stalk fibers were prepared under various manufacturing conditions, and their physico-mechanical properties were evaluated. Full factorial experimental design was used to assess the effect of fiber moisture content and pressing temperature on boards’ properties. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg of EHL. We found that both fiber moisture content and pressing temperature had significant effects on binderless fiberboards’ properties. High fiber moisture content and pressing temperature are suggested to contribute to the self-bonding improvement among fibers with lignin-rich surface mainly by thermal softening enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. In this experiment, the optimized pressing temperature applied in binderless fiberboard production should be as high as 190°C in accordance with the EHL Tg value of 189.4°C, and the fiber moisture content should be limited to less than 20% with a higher board density of 950 kg/m3 to avoid the delamination of boards during hot pressing.

Guanben Du

2011-02-01

53

Electric power control system used in synthetic fiber manufacturing lines. Gosei sen'i seizo line yo denki seigyo system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes an electric power control system used in synthetic fiber manufacturing lines. Synthetic fiber making machines have their characteristic requirements in the specifications that require special functions to satisfy the requirements. The functions include the followings; because inverter operation must continue even during a momentary power failure, such a method is used widely that the inverter will not trip at the momentary power failure, and pick up the motor after power restoration to continue the operation; a method to use electrolytic capacitors for back-up may be used; a traverse device for thread winding has its speed varied as required, hence requiring an inverter that has traverse output frequency patterns; thread guarding requires a function to switch synchronism between an entrance inverter and an operating inverter; if a failure has occurred to a motor in a multi-drive system, a selective interruption system works effectively to continue normal operation of the motor; and in engineering the electric apparatuses in synthetic fiber manufacturing lines, it is necessary to conceive the whole line as one system. 6 figs.

Miyazaki, K. (Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

1994-06-30

54

Good manufacturing practice-compliant animal-free expansion of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stroma cells in a closed hollow-fiber-based bioreactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesenchymal stroma cells (MSC) are increasingly recognized for various applications of cell-based therapies such as regenerative medicine or immunomodulatory treatment strategies. Standardized large-scale expansions of MSC under good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant conditions avoiding animal derived components are mandatory for further evaluation of these novel therapeutic approaches in clinical trials. We applied a novel automated hollow fiber cell expansion system (CES) for in vitro expansion of human bone marrow derived MSC employing a GMP-compliant culture medium with human platelet lysate (HPL). Between 8 and 32 ml primary bone marrow aspirate were loaded into the hollow fiber CES and cultured for 15-27 days. 2-58 million MSC were harvested after primary culture. Further GMP-compliant cultivation of second passage MSC for 13 days led to further 10-20-fold enrichment. Viability, surface antigen expression, differentiation capacity and immunosuppressive function of MSC cultured in the hollow fiber CES were in line with standard criteria for MSC definition. We conclude that MSC can be enriched from primary bone marrow aspirate in a GMP-conform manner within a closed hollow fiber bioreactor and maintain their T lymphocyte inhibitory capacity. Standardized and reliable conditions for large scale MSC expansion pave the way for safe applications in humans in different therapeutic approaches. PMID:23146633

Nold, Philipp; Brendel, Cornelia; Neubauer, Andreas; Bein, Gregor; Hackstein, Holger

2013-01-01

55

Chemical characterization of lignin and lipid fractions in kenaf bast fibers used for manufacturing high-quality papers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical composition of lignin and lipids of bast fibers from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) used for high-quality paper pulp production was studied. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) of fibers showed a lignin with high syringyl:guaiacyl ratio (5.4) and minor amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units. Simultaneously, sinapyl and coniferyl acetates were also identified, indicating that this lignin is partially acetylated. p-Hydroxycinnamic acids were only found in trace amounts...

Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana; Rodri?guez Garci?a, Mari?a Isabel; Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del

2004-01-01

56

In-Depth Survey Report: Styrene Exposures during Fiber Reinforced Wind Blade Manufacturing at LM Glasfiber, Grand Forks, ND.  

Science.gov (United States)

In December 2007, NIOSH researchers conducted an in-depth survey at LM Glasfiber in Grand Forks, ND and sampled for styrene, noise, and total particulate. LM Glasfiber manufactures wind blades for utility scale wind energy applications and had previously ...

A. Garcia B. Johnson C. A. Kardous D. Farwick D. R. Hammond D. V. L. Myers T. C. Morata

2009-01-01

57

Evaluation of manufacturing processes for boron/aluminum composites containing 0.2-mm-diameter boron fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of starting materials and fabrication techniques on the properties and cost of producing boron/aluminum (B/Al) composite panels containing 0.2-mm-diameter boron fibers are evaluated. The boron fibers were obtained from a single supplier. Five kinds of B/Al tape were used to produce 105, 8-ply panels. Consolidation was accomplished by hot pressing in air or in vacuum. Nondestructive and destructive tests included room-temperature tensile tests. On the basis of an evaluation of the test results and relative cost estimates, two kinds of tape were selected for use: fugitive binder tape and dry woven tape.

Moore, T. J.; Moorhead, P. E.

1978-01-01

58

Boron and/or silicon containing one directional carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite material and manufacturing method therefor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention concerns a material for first walls used in a thermonuclear reactor. In one directional carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materials, at least one of boron, silicon and compounds thereof having an average grain size of not greater than 10?m is incorporated homogeneously by from 2 to 45wt% as boron and/or silicon in a matrix. In addition, the volume content of the capacity of the carbon fibers is determined from 45 to 75%. This can provide heat conductivity and mechanical property which are satisfactory for a material of the first walls of a thermonuclear reactor and also provide high bending strength and low elasticity in 90deg direction. (T.M.)

1995-02-22

59

Chemical characterization of pitch deposits produced in the manufacturing of high-quality paper pulps from hemp fibers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The composition of pitch deposits occurring in pulp sheets and mill circuits during soda/anthraquinone pulping and elemental chlorine-free pulp bleaching of bast fibers of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) has been studied. Pitch deposits were extracted with acetone, and the extracts analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acetone extracts (15-25% of pitch deposits) were constituted by the defoamers used at the mill and by lipophilic extractives f...

Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana; Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del

2005-01-01

60

Recycling of Glass Fibers from Fiberglass Polyester Waste Composite for the Manufacture of Glass-Ceramic Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work presents the feasibility of reusing a glass fiber resulting from the thermolysis and gasification of waste composites to obtain glass-ceramic tiles. Polyester fiberglass (PFG) waste was treated at 550? for 3 h in a 9.6 dm3 thermolytic reactor. This process yielded an oil (?24 wt%), a gas (?8 wt%) and a solid residue (?68 wt%). After the polymer has been removed, the solid residue is heated in air to oxidize residual char and remove surface contaminatio...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Fibers | Special Issue : Cellulose Fibers  

...  Rayon, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate, and lyocell are the major commercial fibers manufactured.  The objective of this special issue is to focus on the main cellulose fibers: cotton, rayon (viscose), cellulose acetate, cellulose triacetate, and lyocell.... Keywords cotton rayon lyocell viscose cellulose cellulose acetate Published Papers No papers have been published in this special issue yet. Last update: 17 January 2014 Fibers EISSN 2079-6439 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert Terms & ...

62

Recycling of Glass Fibers from Fiberglass Polyester Waste Composite for the Manufacture of Glass-Ceramic Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents the feasibility of reusing a glass fiber resulting from the thermolysis and gasification of waste composites to obtain glass-ceramic tiles. Polyester fiberglass (PFG waste was treated at 550? for 3 h in a 9.6 dm3 thermolytic reactor. This process yielded an oil (?24 wt%, a gas (?8 wt% and a solid residue (?68 wt%. After the polymer has been removed, the solid residue is heated in air to oxidize residual char and remove surface contamination. The cleaning fibers were converted into glass-ceramic tile. A mixture consisting of 95 wt% of this solid residue and 5% Na2O was melted at 1450? to obtain a glass frit. Powder glass samples (<63 ?m was then sintered and crystallized at 1013?, leading to the formation of wollastonite-plagioclase glass-ceramic materials for architectural applications. Thermal stability and crystallization mechanism have been studied by Differential Thermal Analysis. Mineralogy analyses of the glass-ceramic materials were carried out using X-ray Diffraction.

Maximina Romero

2012-08-01

63

Effect of manufacturing on the properties of polyester/glass fiber laminates used for construction of small yachts and boats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microstructural SEM characteristics (Fig. 3) and mechanical behaviour were compared for glass/polyester laminates manufactured in the boatbuilding plant using three methods: hand lay-up, vaccum bagging, infusion. Microstructure was assessed in terms of matrix Vm and void volume fraction using quantitative image analysis. Vm was found 51%, 23%, 35%, respectively. Differences in Vm affected laminate thickness which was fund 3.8 mm for hand lay-up method, 2.6 mm for vacuum bagging and 2.7 mm for infusion. Mechanical behaviour was characterized using three point bending test (Fig. 4), interlaminar shear strength (Fig. 5), Charpy impact and drop weight tests (Fig. 6). Bending test results did not vary much between the methods. Maximum difference of flexural strength and Young's modulus of about 10% in favour of the two vacuum methods (Fig. 4) was due lesser Vm and VV. However, significantly (20%) reduced deformation at fracture and 25% reduced impact strength were observed (Fig. 6) for vacuum bagging method compared to infusion. This was due to numerous debondings and microcracks which formed between the fibres (Fig. 3d, e) in the "dry" spots where fibres were not separated by the resin layer because of locally excessively small matrix content. Based on the results of experiments and knowledge about the impact of polymer laminate manufacturing methods on the environment it has been concluded that infusion method should be recommended to the Polish boat building plants not only due to improved efficiency and harmlessness to the workers' health but also because of improved mechanical behaviour of the materials.

Landowski, M; Budzik, MK

2011-01-01

64

Completion of evaluation of manufacturing processes for B/Al composites containing 0.2mm diameter boron fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Four fabricators produced a total of 54 B/1100 Al, B/6061 Al, and B/2024 Al panels for evaluation. The 8 ply unidirectional, 45 to 50 volume percent, panels were made using 0.20 mm diameter boron fibers which were obtained from a single supplier. Hot press consolidation was carried out in vacuum except for one set of dry woven tape panels which were hot pressed in air. A single testing contractor conducted nondestructive inspection, metallography, fractography and mechanical property tests. The mechanical property tests included 21 and 260 C tensile tests and 21 C shear tests. Panel quality, as measured by nondestructive evaluation, was generally good as were the 21 C tensile properties. The panels hot pressed in air delaminated in the shear tests. Shear strength values were lower in these panels. But tensile strengths were not affected by the delaminations because of the relation between the tensile loading direction and the delaminations. Composite tensile strength was found to be proportional to the volume percent boron and the aluminum matrix rather than to the tape used or fabrication technique. Suitability of these composites for 260 C service was confirmed by tensile tests.

Moore, T. J.; Moorhead, P. E.

1980-01-01

65

Carbon-fiber technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The state of the art of PAN based carbon fiber manufacture and the science of fiber behavior is surveyed. A review is given of the stabilization by oxidation and the subsequent carbonization of fibers, of the apparent structure of fibers deduced from scanning electron microscopy, from X-ray scattering, and from similarities with soft carbons, and of the known relations between fiber properties and heat treatment temperature. A simplified model is invoked to explain the electrical properties of fibers and recent quantum chemical calculations on atomic clusters are used to elucidate some aspects of fiber conductivity. Some effects of intercalation and oxidative modification of finished fibers are summarized.

Hansen, C. F.; Parker, J. A.

1980-01-01

66

Fiber Singular Optics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present review is devoted to the optical vortex behavior both in free space and optical fibers. The processes of the vortex transformations in perturbed optical fibers are analyzed on the base of the operator of the spin – orbit interaction in order to forecast the possible ways of manufacturing the vortex preserving fibers and their applications in supersensitive optical devices.

A. V. Volyar

2002-06-01

67

Producing Silicon Carbide/Silicon Nitride Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufacturing process makes CxSiyNz fibers. Precursor fibers spun from extruding machine charged with polycarbosilazane resin. When pyrolyzed, resin converted to cross-linked mixture of silicon carbide and silicon nitride, still in fiber form. CxSiyNz fibers promising substitutes for carbon fibers in high-strength, low-weight composites where high electrical conductivity unwanted.

1986-01-01

68

Airclad fiber laser technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last 5 years. Many of the traditional manufacturers of gas and solid-state lasers are now pursuing the fiber-based systems, which are displacing the conventional technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems require reliable fibers with large cores, stable mode quality, and good power handling capabilities-requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through ma...

2011-01-01

69

Optical fibers for FTTH application  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper the specifics of FTTH (Fiber To The Home) networks in terms of requirements for optical fibers has been presented. Optical fiber samples used in FTTH applications acquired from the worldwide leading manufacturers were subjected to small diameter mandrel wraps tests. The detailed procedures of performed tests and the measurement results has been presented.

Guzowski, Bartlomiej; Tosik, Grzegorz; Lisik, Zbigniew; Bedyk, Michal; Kubiak, Andrzej

2013-07-01

70

Advanced Manufacturing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Manufacturing Industry Study visited a wide range of manufacturing firms and met with domestic and foreign industry leaders from academic institutions, research and development organizations and various trade and labor associations. This pape...

O. A. Ketbi A. Azaizeh W. Carrico R. Cook D. Cooke

2002-01-01

71

Manufacturing simulators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Simulation modelling has been identified as one of the most powerful techniques available for the analysis and design of complex manufacturing systems. A number of manufacturing simulators have been designed in an effort to make it easier to use the simulation approach in the manufacturing environment. This paper will attempt to describe and evaluate the characteristics of some of the available manufacturing simulators as well as possible ways to alleviate some of the inhere...

Kruger, P. S.; Schutte, C. S. L.

1987-01-01

72

Alining sleeve for optical fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Sleeve for alining two optical fibers is made with precisely correct inside diameter by using section of fiber as mandrel. Because optical fiber is manufactured to very close tolerances, diameter of section serving as mandrel will be same as diameters of two fibers that are mated in butt joint inside sleeve. Result, determined by experiments, is loss of no more that 0.3 dB at joint.

Austin, K. L.

1981-01-01

73

Recycling of cementitious scrap inert in the manufacture of fiber composite materials; Riciclo dei materiali inerti cementizi per la produzione di materiali compositi fibrosi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The disposal of cementitious scrap materials, coming from demolition and construction actives, it is a problem of enormous environmental impact, either for the quantities in play, either for the lack of the fit sites to receive them. In the present work is described a recycling technology of such residual for the production of fiber composites, as thermo acoustical insulating materials or fiber-reinforced, that could be applied also to the cement-asbestos like the eter nit. In this case, inertization and re-use of refusal, also otherwise classified like special or dangerous according to his state of preservation, is archived. [Italian] Lo smaltimento dei materiali inerti cementizi, derivanti da attivita' di demolizione e costruzione, e' un problema di enorme rilevanza ambientale, sia per i quantitativi in gioco sia per la mancanza di siti a riceverli. Nel presente lavoro e' descritta una metodologia di riciclo di tali residui per la produzione di materiali compositi fibrosi, come isolanti termoacustici e fibrorinforzanti, che puo' essere applicata anche al cemento animato tipo eternit. In questo caso si ottiene anche l'inertizzazione ed il riutilizzo di un rifiuto altrimenti classificato come speciale o pericoloso a seconda del suo stato di conservazione.

Buccolieri, G. [Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dipt. Scienza dei Materiali; De Luca, F.; De Stefano, L. [Ente Nazionale per l' Energia Elettrica, Brindisi (Italy). Area Ambiente; Paglietti, F. [ECOTEC Srl, Rome (Italy); Plescia, P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Istituto Trattamento Minerali

1999-04-01

74

ZBLAN Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

Marshall Space Flight Center's researchers have conducted suborbital experiments with ZBLAN, an optical material capable of transmitting 100 times more signal and information than silica fibers. The next step is to process ZBLAN in a microgravity environment to stop the formation of crystallites, small crystals caused by a chemical imbalances. Scientists want to find a way to make ZBLAN an amorphous (without an internal shape) material. Producing a material such as this will have far-reaching implications on advanced communications, medical and manufacturing technologies using lasers, and a host of other products well into the 21st century.

2004-01-01

75

Using a Fiber Loop and Fiber Bragg Grating as a Fiber Optic Sensor to Simultaneously Measure Temperature and Displacement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to the module, and, consequently, the center wavelength displacement of FBG was limited by only the effects of temperature change. Displacement and temperature were determined by measuring changes in th...

Yao-Tang Chang; Chih-Ta Yen; Yue-Shiun Wu; Hsu-Chih Cheng

2013-01-01

76

Manufacturing of thick-walled composites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work is to obtain proper and educated values of thermal conductivity of the composite material, study which phenomena appear during the manufacturing process and which setting parameters affect to the final manufactured plate. It is necessary to obtain proper and educated values of thermo physical parameters of the resin and the glass fiber and study phenomena during the manufacturing process. To achieve this goal, some experiments were run at the laboratory in order to ...

Rodri?guez Gil, A?ngel

2010-01-01

77

Green insulation: hemp fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.

Anon

2011-09-15

78

Effect of Fiber Surface Structure on Absorption Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carbon fibers with different surface structures were obtained through changing the treatment intensities in the process of electrochemical oxidation, and then oxidized carbon fibers were used as reinforcements to manufacture carbon fiber/epoxy composites. The relationship between fiber surface structure and the moisture absorption of carbon fiber/epoxy composites after hygrothermal aging treatment was studied. Results show that a significant increase happen to the surface activity of carbon f...

Qian Xin, Zhi Jian-hai

2013-01-01

79

Connecting device of a fiber optic cable to a junction box, and manufacture of said device. Dispositif de raccordement d'un cable a fibres optiques a un boitier de jonction, et procede de fabrication de ce dispositif  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent discloses an apparatus for connecting an optical fiber cable to a junction box and to an axial carrier element made of a composite material including fibers or fiber braid. A process for fabricating such an apparatus is also disclosed. At the end of the axial element, the fibers are parted into a tuft and immobilized in a cold-polymerized resin filling a cavity solidly connected to the box. The invention is applicable for guard cables for high voltage power lines.

Bonicel, J.-P.; Couvrie, G.

1989-05-02

80

Manufacturing and properties of aramid-reinforced composites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The functional properties of the aramid-reinforced polymer composites depend primarily on the properties of the aramid reinforcing fibers, since the fraction of the fiber constituent in FRP is quite high, usually well above 30% by volume. The properties of the aramid fibers, in turn, depend on their chemical composition and manufacturing conditions: both of these determine the fibers physical structure and mechanical properties. The chapter

Denchev, Z.; Dencheva, Nadya Vasileva

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Latest advances in optical fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical fibers can now be encountered anywhere in a telecommunication network. In that field, one of the major changes that occurred, at the turn of the Century, is the growing interest in Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) architectures, that is, optical fibers replacing copper in access networks to directly connect subscribers. This gave birth to a new category of single mode fibers referred to as bend-insensitive fibers, which has represented one of the major development focus of optical fiber manufacturers for the last 5 years. In parallel, key evolutions also took place in data communications with the decision to create, at the end of this decade, the next generation Ethernet hierarchy for equipment interfaces at rates of 40 and 100 Gb/s. This is driving recent research on fibers to be used to transport such high-rate signals between these equipments. To cite this article: L.-A. de Montmorillon et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

de Montmorillon, Louis-Anne; Kuyt, Gerard; Nouchi, Pascale; Bertaina, Alain

2008-11-01

82

Manufacturing land  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Manufacturing productive land is the basis for this thesis document. The document is split into five related sections each displaying an emphasis on manipulation of ground in a productive manner over time. O rganising land deals with a study based on a farm in Derryleigh, Newport, Co. Tipperary and explores through case study the changing nature of productivity of ground/farmland and the resultant dwellings and sheds which become an extension of such the landscap...

Doheny, Gavin

2012-01-01

83

Manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This biobliography brings together the documentation on the research and development of sensors used in automated manufacturing. It includes works from the major industrial countries. The emphasis is on vision sensor since this has been the predominant trend in research in the last 10 years. Contents: Non-contract sensors. Contact sensors. General vision sensors and tactile sensor technology. Operational application of sensors. Authors index.

Gomersall, A.

1984-01-01

84

Green Manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

Patten, John

2013-12-31

85

77 FR 75972 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, Tennessee, Toho Tenax America, Inc., Subzone 148C (Carbon Fiber...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Tennessee, Toho Tenax America, Inc., Subzone 148C (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Authority); Extension of Comment Period...preliminary recommendation not to authorize TTA to manufacture carbon fiber for the U.S. market at this time, is being...

2012-12-26

86

Manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

Blaedel, K L

1998-01-01

87

Chrysotile asbestos exposure in the manufacturing of thermal insulating boards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to asbestos fibers has been extensively studied in milling, mining of asbestos fibers, and in industries manufacturing asbestos-cement sheets, pipes, etc. However, very few studies have been reported in asbestos textiles, brake lining workers, and insulation products. In the present investigation, chrysotile exposure monitoring was carried out in a small thermal insulating boards manufacturing facility. Twenty-eight samples were analyzed from various locations like feeding of raw materials, weighing, pressing, machine grinding, and hand finishing of final products. Twenty-five percent of the samples were found to be above ACGIH TLV of 0.1 fibers per milliliter. However, mean fiber concentrations were found to be lower than 0.1 fibers per milliliter, except for the process of feeding of raw materials where the mean fiber concentration was 0.1087+/-0.0631 fibers per milliliter. PMID:19626449

Bhagia, L J; Vyas, J B; Shaikh, M I; Dodia, S L

2010-08-01

88

Computing fibers: A novel fiber for intelligent fabrics?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This communication describes a possible path for transition from a wearable computer to a fiber computer in which digital processing power is integrated directly into textiles via circuits on individual fibers. Three different classes of computing fiber substrate (active, passive, and intermediate) are discussed and some technologies for their manufacture are reviewed. It is shown here that with two of these techniques it is possible to develop new substrates for the semiconductor industry. Using an silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process, polycrystalline silicon fibers with a length of 42 mm have been successfully produced at NMRC in Ireland. These fibers are 35 {mu}m wide and 1 {mu}m thick. Silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) endless fibers (subsequently cut in to 20 cm lengths) have also been produced by extrusion. After sintering, this method yielded polycrystalline SiC fibers and pure amorphous SiO{sub 2} glass fibers. For many future applications, fiber computing appears to be a possible key to success. The computing power offered by such fibers may be combined with additional in- and output functions by weaving fiber-based sensors and piezoelectric materials into textiles. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Clemens, F.; Wegmann, M.; Graule, T. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Mathewson, A.; Healy, T.; Donnelly, J. [National Microelectronic Research Center (NMRC), Cork (Ireland); Ullsperger, A.; Hartmann, W. [Klaus Steilmann Institut, D-44866 Bochum (Germany); Papadas, C. [ISD, GR-815233 Athens (Greece)

2003-09-01

89

Scintillating tile/fiber calorimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scintillating tile/fiber calorimetry is being developed intensively for high-energy hadron collider experiments. It takes advantage of high speed response of scintillator. Signals from scintillating tiles are readout by use of about 1 mm? wave-shifting fibers embedded in the tile hence the calorimeter dead space is minimized and the longitudinal segmentation is easily achieved. We describe the principle of the tile/fiber calorimeter and the status of R and D on fiber manufacturing methods, optimization of tile/fiber optics, and development of radiation hard scintillators. The performance as a calorimeter is evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. Scintillating tile/fiber calorimetry is a good candidate for precision calorimetry in future hadron collider experiments. (author)

1994-06-01

90

Manufacturing network evolution : a manufacturing plant perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose â?? This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach â??The research questions are developed by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings â?? The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing plant affects the other plants in the same network by altering their strategic roles, which leads to the subsequent transformation of the manufacturing network. Originality/value â?? A review of the existing literature investigated different elements of a manufacturing network independently. In this paper, the complex phenomenon of a manufacturing network evolution is observed by combining the analysis of a manufacturing plant and network level. The historical trajectories of manufacturing networks that are presented in the case studies are examined in order to understand and determine the future shape of the networks. This study will help industrial managers make more knowledgeable decisions regarding manufacturing network management.

Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami

2011-01-01

91

Method of manufacturing fibrous hemostatic bandages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of manufacturing a sturdy and pliable fibrous hemostatic dressing by making fibers that maximally expose surface area per unit weight of active ingredients as a means for aiding in the clot forming process and as a means of minimizing waste of active ingredients. The method uses a rotating object to spin off a liquid biocompatible fiber precursor, which is added at its center. Fibers formed then deposit on a collector located at a distance from the rotating object creating a fiber layer on the collector. An electrical potential difference is maintained between the rotating disk and the collector. Then, a liquid procoagulation species is introduced at the center of the rotating disk such that it spins off the rotating disk and coats the fibers.

Larsen, Gustavo; Spretz, Ruben; Velarde-Ortiz, Raffet

2012-09-04

92

Cellular manufacturing for clinical applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid progress has been made in the development of novel cell-based approaches for the potential treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. As a result, one must consider carefully the conditions under which these therapeutics are manufactured if they are to be used in clinical studies or, ultimately, be approved as licensed cellular therapeutics. Here, we describe the principles behind the manufacturing of clinical-grade cellular products, as well as potential methods for large-scale expansion and processing according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standards sets by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Standards for personnel, materials, procedures, and facilities required for such manufacturing processes are reviewed. We also discuss current and future scale-up methods for the manufacturing of large doses of cellular therapeutics under GMP conditions and compare the use of conventional culture methods such as tissue culture flasks and multi-layered cell factories with novel systems such as closed system hollow-fiber bioreactors. Incorporation of these novel bioreactor systems into GMP facilities may enable us to provide adequate cell numbers for multi-center clinical trials and paves the way for development of cellular therapeutics with the potential to treat very large numbers of patients. PMID:24732771

Sheu, Jonathan; Klassen, Henry; Bauer, Gerhard

2014-01-01

93

Using a Fiber Loop and Fiber Bragg Grating as a Fiber Optic Sensor to Simultaneously Measure Temperature and Displacement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to the module, and, consequently, the center wavelength displacement of FBG was limited by only the effects of temperature change. Displacement and temperature were determined by measuring changes in the transmission of optical power and shifts in Bragg wavelength. This study provides a simple and economical method to measure displacement and temperature simultaneously.

Hsu-Chih Cheng

2013-05-01

94

Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program is to develop the technology required for cost-and weight-efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements, and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of stringer-stiffened and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant-section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements cocured to skin structures. Significant process development efforts included AFP, braiding, RTM, autoclave cure, and core blanket fabrication for both sandwich and stiffened-skin structure. Outer-mold-line and inner-mold-line tooling was developed for sandwich structures and stiffened-skin structure. The effect of design details, process control and tool design on repeatable, dimensionally stable, structure for low cost barrel assembly was assessed. Subcomponent panels representative of crown, keel, and side quadrant panels were fabricated to assess scale-up effects and manufacturing anomalies for full-scale structures. Manufacturing database including time studies, part quality, and manufacturing plans were generated to support the development of designs and analytical models to access cost, structural performance, and dimensional tolerance.

Wilden, K. S.; Harris, C. G.; Flynn, B. W.; Gessel, M. G.; Scholz, D. B.; Stawski, S.; Winston, V.

1997-01-01

95

Simple method of fabrication tapered fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a simple method for manufacturing fiber tapered through elongation, by the combination of heating with a butane torch and controlled stretch. Reducing the diameter of the multimode fiber of 100 microns to 10 microns, the displacement of the fiber is performed through bipolar stepping motors with one driver L293B and one PIC16F628A microcontroller for controlling movement. The system allows control of the desired fiber diameter up to 10 microns; the results are seen in a microscope and a rule of separation 2.5?m micrometer to calculate the diameter of the fiber.

Vega, Fabio; Torres, Cesar; Diaz, Leonardo; Mattos, L.

2013-11-01

96

V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

2012-10-01

97

Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

2008-01-01

98

Mechanical Properties of Heat-treated Carbon Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon fibers are selected for ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are based on their as-fabricated properties or on "that is what we have always done" technical culture while citing cost and availability when there are others with similar cost and availability. However, the information is not available for proper selection of carbon fibers since heat-treated properties are not known for the fibers on the market currently. Heat-treating changes the fiber's properties. Therefore, an effort was undertaken to establish fiber properties on 19 different types of fibers from six different manufactures for both PAN and pitch fibers. Heat-treating has been done at three different temperatures.

Effinger, Michael R.; Patel, Bhavesh; Koenig, John; Cuneo, Jaques; Neveux, Michael G.; Demos, Chrystoph G.

2004-01-01

99

Single-mode optical fiber cable.  

Science.gov (United States)

A single-mode optical fiber cable was manufactured; loss increase characteristics due to cabling were evaluated. The existence of wide V-value regions without cabling loss increases is shown by a suitable selection of fiber parameters and optical wavelengths. A selection method for fiber parameters, which minimizes cabling and splicing loss increases, is discussed. Selected values are Delta = 0.2% and V = 2.2, based on experimental results. PMID:20212639

Katsuyama, Y; Mochizuki, S; Ishihara, K; Miyashita, T

1979-07-01

100

Spectral response of scintillating fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The spectral response of PHT-0044 (blue) and BCF-20 (green) scintillating fibers was measured as a function of wavelength using a UV LED. It was observed that significant spectral strength from the PHT-0044 fibers was missing compared to manufacturer's specifications at the origin of the source, shifting the peak value of the spectrum to significantly higher values in wavelength. In contrast, the corresponding shift for the BCF-20 fibers was minimal. The mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior are discussed herein. Moreover, the attenuation length for each fiber type was extracted and studied as a function of wavelength. Finally, the measured fiber spectra were convolved with the wavelength response from a typical bi-alkali photomultiplier as well as a green-sensitive silicon photomultiplier and compared.

Papandreou, Z. [Department of Physics, University of Regina, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2 (Canada)], E-mail: zisis@uregina.ca; Leverington, B.D.; Lolos, G.J. [Department of Physics, University of Regina, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2 (Canada)

2008-11-11

 
 
 
 
101

Spectral response of scintillating fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spectral response of PHT-0044 (blue) and BCF-20 (green) scintillating fibers was measured as a function of wavelength using a UV LED. It was observed that significant spectral strength from the PHT-0044 fibers was missing compared to manufacturer's specifications at the origin of the source, shifting the peak value of the spectrum to significantly higher values in wavelength. In contrast, the corresponding shift for the BCF-20 fibers was minimal. The mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior are discussed herein. Moreover, the attenuation length for each fiber type was extracted and studied as a function of wavelength. Finally, the measured fiber spectra were convolved with the wavelength response from a typical bi-alkali photomultiplier as well as a green-sensitive silicon photomultiplier and compared.

2008-11-11

102

Fiber Metal Laminates Made by the VARTM Process  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber metal laminates (FMLs) are multi-component materials utilizing metals, fibers and matrix resins. Tailoring their properties is readily achievable by varying one or more of these components. Established FMLs like GLARE utilize aluminum foils, glass fibers and epoxy matrices and are manufactured using an autoclave. Two new processes for manufacturing FMLs using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) have been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). A description of these processes and the resulting FMLs are presented.

Jensen, Brian J.; Cano, Roberto J.; Hales, Stephen J.; Alexa, Joel A.; Weiser, Erik S.; Loos, Alfred; Johnson, W.S.

2009-01-01

103

Advanced Manufacturing Career Collaborative  

Science.gov (United States)

This website is all about advanced manufacturing including: Career Exploration, Manufacturing Career Pathways, Gold Collar Careers, Careers for the Future, and FAQs. It is aimed at manufacturing in Southwestern Pennsylvania, but has valuable information for the industry in general.

2010-06-08

104

An overview of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFRTP) are a class of injection molding materials that extend the physical property envelope of thermoplastic polymers. The technology to manufacture LFRTP has improved during the last 10 years. This has resulted in dramatic improvements in the quality of these materials. They are now used in numerous, high volume commercial applications. LFRTP are pelletized, fiber reinforced thermoplastic polymers which are injection molded to form parts. The reinforcing fibers are 9-12 mm in length, compared to 0.5-1.0 mm typically found in other fiber reinforced thermoplastic materials. These longer fibers provide several property enhancements: higher impact strength, improved modulus at elevated temperatures and better dimensional stability. LFRTP are manufactured by pulling continuous fiber tows through a thermoplastic polymer melt in a specialized processing die. The ratio of fiber to resin is controlled by a metering orifice. The resulting rods are cut into pellets, 8-12 mm in length, that can be injection molded to form a part. Early manufacturing attempts mimicked wire-coating technology and did not wet-out the individual fibers within the tow. This resulted in poorly wet-out pellets, containing high levels of loose fibers. This creates problems in automated material handling and produces potential flaws in a molded part.

Bockstedt R.J.; Skarlupka, R.J. [Polymer Composites Inc., Winona, MN (United States)

1997-12-31

105

Characterization and enhancement of the fiber-matrix adhesion in pitch-based carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The level of fiber-matrix adhesion present in Tonen HM pitch-based carbon fiber/EPON 828 epoxy matrix composite materials was characterized. It was determined that the failure of a weak layer on the fiber surface was likely responsible for the poor base case fiber-matrix adhesion. A number of fiber treatments, designed to enhance the strength of the fiber-matrix interfacial bond were evaluated. Two classes of fiber treatments were considered. The first group was designed specifically to improve the chemical bonding between the fiber and matrix. The second group of treatments was designed to have the capability to remove weak regions on the fiber surface, in addition to increasing the degree of chemical interaction between the fiber and matrix. The treatments designed to enhance only the chemical bonding between the fiber and matrix were applied to unsized HM fibers which had previously received a proprietary, oxidative surface treatment by the manufacturer (i.e., HMS fibers). It was concluded that the effectiveness of these treatments was dependent upon the level of fiber-matrix adhesion present for the base fibers. An electrochemical treatment in ammonium sulfate, potentially capable of removing weak graphitic regions on the fiber surface, and also increasing the fiber-matrix chemical interactions, was subsequently developed. This treatment was observed (using the embedded single fiber and short beam shear tests) to produce strong fiber-matrix interfacial bonding, even when the base case adhesion was weak.

King, T.R.

1989-01-01

106

Carbon fiber resin matrix interphase: effect of carbon fiber surface treatment on composite performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon fibers are supplied by various manufacturers with a predetermined level of surface treatment and matrix compatible sizings. Surface treatment of the carbon fiber increases the active oxygen content, the polarity and the total free surface energy of the fiber surface. This study is directed toward determining the effect of varying carbon fiber surface treatment on the composite performance of thermoset matrix resins. The effect of varying fiber surface treatment on performance of a promising proprietary sizing is also presented. 6 references, 11 figures

1985-01-01

107

Colloquium on Optical Fiber Cable, Institution of Electrical Engineers (U.K.).  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents short summaries of papers presented at a colloquium on optical fibers held in London on 17 May 1977. Topics include propagation, cable manufacture, strength, testing and installation of optical fiber cables. (Author)

D. A. Hart

1977-01-01

108

Polypropylene Fiber-Reinforced Microsilica Concrete Bridge Deck Overlay at Link River Bridge.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1997 ODOT overlaid the Link River Bridge with microsilica concrete, reinforced with polypropylene fibers (FMC). The manufacturer claimed the fibers would reduce plastic shrinkage cracks and settlement cracking during the early life of the concrete, as ...

E. W. Brooks

2000-01-01

109

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Technology Development for Carbon Fiber Composite Applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this project was to further develop low cost carbon fiber for a variety of potential applications. Manufacturing feasi-bility of low cost carbon fibers/composites has been demonstrated. A number of technologies that are currently using ot...

A. D. Vakili Z. Yue

2012-01-01

110

An overview of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFRTP) are a class of injection molding materials that extend the physical property envelope of thermoplastics polymers. These materials are manufactured by pulling continuous fiber tows through a thermoplastic polymer melt in a specialized processing die. The strands are subsequently cooled and chopped into pellets of equal length. LFRTP materials are available in virtually every common thermoplastic resin with glass, aramid, stainless steel, or carbon fiber reinforcement at levels up to 60% by weight. Unlike short fiber reinforced thermoplastics manufactured by conventional screw compounding processes, LFRTP exhibit simultaneous improvements in both flexural modulus and impact resistance. Improvements in load transfer, creep resistance at elevated temperatures, and dimensional stability can also be attributed to the long fiber network formed in the molded part. This unique combination of properties makes LFRTP the material of choice for replacement of metal structural assemblies in many automotive, industrial, consumer and recreational applications.

Bockstedt, R.J.; Skarlupka, R.J. [Polymer Composites Inc., Winona, MN (United States)

1995-12-01

111

Mechanical reliability of optical fiber in combined continuous draw and proof testing process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fiber manufacturing has traditionally had three different process phases: Preform Manufacturing, Fiber Draw and Proof Testing. This thesis focuses on combining draw process and proof testing, which requires catching the fiber end after break at full production speed without disturbing the draw process. Proof testing means applying a specified tensile load to continuous lengths of optical fiber. The tensile load is applied for as short time as possible, yet sufficiently long to ensure ...

Turunen, Harri

2005-01-01

112

Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologi  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologies Project - Preliminary Manufacturing Demonstration Articles for Ares V Payload Shroud Barrel Acreage Structure

2010-01-01

113

Manufacturing Strategy, Capabilities and Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation addresses the topic of manufacturing strategy, especially the manufacturing capabilities and operational performance of manufacturing plants. Manufacturing strategy research aims at providing a structured decision making approach to improve the economics of manufacturing and to make companies more competitive. The overall objective of this thesis is to investigate how manufacturing companies make use of different manufacturing practices or bundles of manufacturing practices ...

2007-01-01

114

Fiber Optics  

Science.gov (United States)

SFGate: SBC and Microsofthttp://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2004/06/23/MNGVR7AI711.DTLSBC Communications Inc.http://www.sbc.com/gen/press-room?pid=5838How Stuff Works: How Fiber Optics Workhttp://electronics.howstuffworks.com/fiber-optic.htmFiber Optic Reference Guide: A Brief Historyhttp://www.fiber-optics.info/fiber-history.htmPC World: Has Your Broadband Had Its Fiber?http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,117684,00.aspTelephony Onlinehttp://telephonyonline.com/ar/telecom_breaking_meg_barrier/index.htmThis article from SFGate reports on the recent negotiations between SBC and Microsoft (1) and the implications of the new technology for Internet and television access. This website from SBC (2) provides video footage and background information on their initiative called Project Lightspeed. This initiative is based largely on fiber technology, which is described further on this website from How Stuff Works (3). This website (4) provides a brief history of fiber optics technology along with links to sections on the applications of fiber optics and more basics on transmission. This article from PC World (5) discusses how fiber optics became a viable option. This article from Telephony Online 6)reviews some of the challenges that remain.

115

Optimization of laser fibers for high pump light absorption  

Science.gov (United States)

For the implementation of novel fiber laser concepts, such as extra-large mode area (X-LMA) fiber lasers or multi-core fiber lasers alternative manufacturing processes for highly-doped silica glasses and the laser fibers fabricated from it are required. For efficient laser operation a high absorption of pump power in the active fiber core is a necessary condition. To increase the pump light absorption the fiber development aimed at the preparation of laser-active and adapted passive single-large core fibers up to multi-core structures with 7 large cores showing broken circular fiber symmetry. The optimization of the optical fibers which will be shown in detail is based on the combination of several innovative manufacturing methods such as the powder sintering technology (REPUSIL), the preform preparation by stack-and-draw technique and the fiber drawing process. The described procedure is particularly suitable to produce multifilament glass preforms resp. laser fibers with large cores in which the radial and lateral indices of refraction can be adjusted homogeneously and reproducibly. Due to the realized increase of the laser-active core volume in these fibers the pump light absorption could be considerably increased and the resulting shorter fiber length allows the use of fibers with a moderate attenuation. The results concerning the characterization of materials science and the optical aspects e. g. the dopant concentration distributions and related refractive index profiles as well attenuation and pump absorption spectra will be presented.

Bierlich, Jörg; Kobelke, Jens; Jetschke, Sylvia; Grimm, Stephan; Unger, Sonja; Schuster, Kay

2014-03-01

116

RRR Niobium Manufacturing Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

ATI Wah Chang has been manufacturing RRR niobium for more than 30 years using electron beam melting techniques. Fabricated forms include plate, sheet, foil, bar, rod and tubing. This paper provides manufacturing information.

Graham, Ronald A.

2007-08-01

117

Manufacturing Processes and Engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

This website, created by Jonathan S. Colton of the Georgia Institute of Technology, contains class notes for a senior-level course on manufacturing processes and engineering. This site contains assignments, solutions, course requirements, syllabi, quizzes, and manufacturing videos.

Colton, Jonathan S.

2009-12-29

118

Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had amounts of bonded and physisorbed sizing similar to what has been presented in literature. An estimated sizing thickness was found to be approximately 100 nm. It is indicated that an epoxy-resin containing film former and a polyethylene oxide lubricant are present, yet no silanes or other sizing components were identified in the extractant. (Author)

Noergaard Petersen, H.; Almdal, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nanotech, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kusano, Y.; Broendsted, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

2013-09-01

119

Workforce Development for Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

Bernard, Rosalie

2007-01-01

120

Fiber Blender.  

Science.gov (United States)

The machine is for use in opening and blending fibers directly from baled lint cotton. It may be used in the processing of synthetic fibers, wool, ramie, jute, and flax. Cotton from a large number of bales can be blended by use of a single machine. The ap...

J. I. Kotter E. F. Wallace H. L. Salaun R. A. Rusca

1965-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams  

Science.gov (United States)

Long fibers are generally preferred for reinforcing foams for performance reasons. However, uniform dispersion is difficult to achieve because they must be mixed with liquid resin prior to foam expansion. New approaches aiming to overcome such problem have been developed at USC's Composites Center. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams with long fibers (over 6 mm in length) manufactured at USC's Composites Center have achieved promising mechanical properties and demonstrated lower density relative to conventional composite foams. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were synthesized from thermosetting polymeric microspheres (amino and phenolic microspheres), as well as thermoplastic PVC heat expandable microspheres (HEMs). Carbon and/or aramid fibers were used to reinforce the syntactic foams. Basic mechanical properties, including shear, tensile, and compression, were measured in syntactic foams and fiber-reinforced syntactic foams. Microstructure and crack propagation behavior were investigated by scanning electron microscope and light microscopy. Failure mechanisms and reinforcing mechanisms of fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were also analyzed. As expected, additions of fiber reinforcements to foams enhanced both tensile and shear properties. However, only limited enhancement in compression properties was observed, and fiber reinforcement was of limited benefit in this regard. Therefore, a hybrid foam design was explored and evaluated in an attempt to enhance compression properties. HEMs were blended with glass microspheres to produce hybrid foams, and hybrid foams were subsequently reinforced with continuous aramid fibers to produce fiber-reinforced hybrid foams. Mechanical properties of these foams were evaluated. Findings indicated that the production of hybrid foams was an effective way to enhance the compressive properties of syntactic foams, while the addition of fiber reinforcements enhanced the shear and tensile performance of syntactic foams. Another approach to produce ultralight sandwich core materials was explored in which towpreg (fiber bundles impregnated with resin) were configured to produce 3D pyramidal truss structures. The composite truss structures were subsequently filled with foam to improve resistance to buckling. Mechanical properties of the foam-filled truss structures were measured and contrasted with analytical predictions based on simple truss theory. Results indicated that combination of foams and carbon fiber truss structures had synergistic effects that enhanced the capacity to carry compressive and shear loads.

Huang, Yi-Jen

122

Asbestos exposure during routine brake lining manufacture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occupational exposure to asbestos fiber and total dust of workers of a major brake lining manufacture plant in a developing country were examined and compared with those in developed countries. Time weighted average of total dust and asbestos fiber concentration in the potential sources of exposure were monitored. All personal air sampling were collected on membrane filters and analyzed by phase contrast optical microscopy (PCM) for comparison with the occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc, 8-h time--weighted average. This study demonstrates that routine mixing, polishing and beveling process in the brake lining production can result in elevated levels of airborne asbestos. Greater releases of airborne asbestos were observed during mixing process and mixer machine. The results also showed that the employees working in the process had the exposure to total dust concentrations ranging from 2.08 to 16.32 mg/m(3) that is higher than OSHA, recommendation. According to OSHA definition of fibers, it has been indicated that from 3,000 counted particles, 90% of particles are in the form of non-fiber and reaming have fiber-shaped. The particle analyze gives the geometric mean diameter as 6.02 mum, and also indicated that the arithmetic mean of the number distribution for the particle population was 8.4 mum. Approximately 60.4% of the counted fibers were lower than 10 mum in length, from which only 8% consists of fibers (>5 mum in length). In conclusion, the analysis showed a presence in the air of only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of other types of asbestos. During an 8-h shift, the average asbestos fiber exposure (0.78 f/cc) were 7.8 time in excess of OSHA PEL. Additional studies in occupational exposure to asbestos are needed. PMID:18212474

Kakooei, Hossein; Sameti, Mahmod; Kakooei, Ali Akbar

2007-12-01

123

Manufacturing Planning Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

Waid, Michael

2011-01-01

124

Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements

1995-01-01

125

Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements.

Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.; Farmer, J.P. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-04-01

126

METHOD FOR MEASURING CARBON FIBER EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon fibers are highly conductive, lightweight and of small dimensions. When released as emissions from production, manufacturing, processing and disposal sources they may become airborne and disperse over wide areas. If they settle onto electronic or electrical components they...

127

Preliminary experiments of an optical fiber display; Mogi shikai sochiyo fiber display no shisaku  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The preliminary experiments of an optical fiber display were conducted to investigate the manufacturing of a screen display based on a dome video self-luminescence system. A self-luminescence display, that is, a fiber display was used in this system. As a result, the following became clear as compared with the conventional screen display based on a concave mirror infinity system that is used at the National Aerospace Laboratory. The brightness is sufficient. The angle of visibility is slightly narrow. The picture quality is inferior. The problem of the visibility angle and picture quality is due to the manufacturing process. It is out of the question to machine the display block of a fiber display into a dome shape when a dome fiber displayed is manufactured as the screen display. A large dome fiber display can also be manufactured because of diversification. However, the number of plastic optical fibers to be used remarkably increases as the area of the display block increases. Therefore, there is a problem left for wiring or machining. 7 refs., 28 figs., 3 tabs.

Wakaba, K.; Watanabe, A.; Kawahara, H. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

1995-01-01

128

Chemical Modification Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Coir Fiber  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Natural fiber has a vital role as a reinforcing agent due to its renewable, low cost, biodegradable, less abrasive and eco-friendly nature. Whereas synthetic fibers like glass, boron, carbon, metallic, ceramic and inorganic fibers are expensive and not eco-friendly. Coir is one of the natural fibers easily available in Bangladesh and cheap. It is derived from the husk of the coconut (Cocos nucifera. Coir has one of the highest concentrations of lignin, which makes it stronger. In recent years, wide range of research has been carried out on fiber reinforced polymer composites [4-13].The aim of the present research is to characterize brown single coir fiber for manufacturing polymer composites reinforced with characterized fibers. Adhesion between the fiber and polymer is one of factors affecting the strength of manufactured composites. In order to increase the adhesion, the coir fiber was chemically treated separately in single stage (with Cr2(SO43•12(H2O and double stages (with CrSO4 and NaHCO3. Both the raw and treated fibers were characterized by tensile testing, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic analysis, scanning electron microscopic analysis. The result showed that the Young’s modulus increased, while tensile strength and strain to failure decreased with increase in span length. Tensile properties of chemically treated coir fiber was found higher than raw coir fiber, while the double stage treated coir fiber had better mechanical properties compared to the single stage treated coir fiber. Scanning electron micrographs showed rougher surface in case of the raw coir fiber. The surface was found clean and smooth in case of the treated coir fiber. Thus the performance of coir fiber composites in industrial application can be improved by chemical treatment.

Samia Sultana Mir

2012-04-01

129

Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

We designed, manufactured and characterized two birefringent microstructured fibers that feature a 5-fold increase in polarimetric sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure compared to the earlier reported values for microstructured fibers. We demonstrate a good agreement between the finite element simulations and the experimental values for the polarimetric sensitivity to pressure and to temperature. The sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure has a negative sign and exceeds -43 rad/MPa x m at 1.55 microm for both fibers. In combination with the very low sensitivity to temperature, this makes our fibers the candidates of choice for the development of microstructured fiber based hydrostatic pressure measurement systems. PMID:20639996

Martynkien, Tadeusz; Statkiewicz-Barabach, Gabriela; Olszewski, Jacek; Wojcik, Jan; Mergo, Pawe?; Geernaert, Thomas; Sonnenfeld, Camille; Anuszkiewicz, Alicja; Szczurowski, Marcin K; Tarnowski, Karol; Makara, Mariusz; Skorupski, Krzysztof; Klimek, Jacek; Poturaj, Krzysztof; Urbanczyk, Waclaw; Nasilowski, Tomasz; Berghmans, Francis; Thienpont, Hugo

2010-07-01

130

Establishing a Testing Procedure for the Single Fiber Fragmentation Test  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report describes the details of the single fiber fragmentation test as conducted at the materials research department (AFM) at Risø. The equipment and specimen manufacture is described in detail. Furthermore, examples of results interpretation are given. For the experiments in this report, specimens with one E-glass fiber placed inside an epoxy or polyester matrix were used. Elongating the specimens with a mini tensile tester, which was placed under a microscope, leads to fiber fragmentations. Different bonding strengths between fiber and matrix result in differences in the critical fracture length for the fiber and fracture characteristics.

Feih, Stefanie; Wonsyld, Karen

2004-01-01

131

Testing procedure for the single fiber fragmentation test  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report describes the details of the single fiber fragmentation test as conducted at the materials research department (AFM) at Risø. The equipment and specimen manufacture is described in detail. Furthermore, examples of results interpretation aregiven. For the experiments in this report, specimens with one E-glass fiber placed inside an epoxy or polyester matrix were used. Elongating the specimens with a mini tensile tester, which was placed under a microscope, leads to fiber fragmentations.Different bonding strengths between fiber and matrix result in differences in the critical fracture length for the fiber and fracture characteristics.

Feih, S.; Wonsyld, K.

2004-01-01

132

Carbon Fiber Production from a Kraft Hardwood Lignin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lignin is a renewable resource material that is being evaluated for the low cost production of carbon fiber for automotive and other applications. Solvent extraction of a commercial hardwood lignin product yielded a purified lignin free of the contaminants typical of lignins derived from the Kraft chemical pulping of wood. The purified lignin was highly melt-spinnable into fibers, from which carbon fiber was subsequently produced. The lignin has been evaluated in terms of its rheological properties, fiber melt spinning ability, and potential for manufacture of low cost carbon fiber without the need for plasticizing agents or chemical modifications.

Baker, Darren A [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL

2008-01-01

133

Role of oiling agent in the manufacture of petroleum mesophase pitch based carbon fiber and its improvement. Picchi kei tanso sen'i seizo ji ni okeru shusokuzai no yakuwari to kairyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When spinning the pitch which is an insulating material, due to passing through along the nozzle bese wall very rapidly, a static electricity is charged by the friction. In the multi-spinning which is adopted for a high productivity, therefore, a bundle of the filaments swells by the electrostatic repulsion between the filaments each other, and consequently the end breakages occur often when winding unless some countermeasures are taken. In order to prevent the static electric charge, and to increase the density of a bundle of filaments, the oiling agent is used. In this study, as for 3 kinds of oiling agent the commercial silicon-based oil agents were suspended in the water, their bundle density increasing mechanism and role were investigated. Although the static electricity can be removed even in case of using the water only, an excessive increase of density can occur because of the hydrophobicity of the pitch, and as a result, the fusion of filaments is induced. The silicon oil was added in order to prevent the excessive increase of density. Although the phenyl silicon oil based oiling agent was the most effective out of 3 kinds of silicon oil to prevent the excessive increase of density and to suppress the exothermic action at the non fusion case, but, the carbon fiber strength was considerably decreased. However, by adding the ethanol, it could be prevented. 9 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Mochida, I.; Sakanishi, A. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Material Study); Oyama, T. (Koa Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1993-01-01

134

Cloud agile manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a new manufacturing paradigm, we call Cloud Agile Manufacturing, and whose principal objective is to offer industrial production systems as a service. Thus users can access any functionality available in the cloud of manufacturing (process design, production, management, business integration, factories virtualization, etc.) without knowledge — or at least without having to be experts — in managing the required resources. The proposal takes advantage of many of the bene...

2012-01-01

135

Manufacturing execution systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The term Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) was created in 1990 by Advanced Manufacturing Research (AMR) to describe the suite of software products which enables the execution of manufacturing through the integration of planning and control systems. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the current status of MES and to investigate the possible role of the Industrial Engineer in the development, implementation and use of MES. To achieve this objective, the most commonly accepted,...

1999-01-01

136

Optimizing Belt Conveyor Manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This final year project was carried out at a Chinese company, Chaohu Machinery Manufacturing Co, Ltd, which produces all kinds of conveying equipments for all walks of life. Chaohu Machinery Manufacturing Co, Ltd was established in 1990, and is located in Anhui Province, the southern part of China. The purpose of this project was to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the basic production process theory of manufacturing belt conveyors. The project focuses on choosing the right conveyor b...

Chen, Honghong

2010-01-01

137

Integrated automotive manufacturing supply  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Supply planning directly influences the traffic within a manufacturing plant. The impact of supply planning strategies like Just-in-Time, Just-in-Sequence and Direct Supply on plant traffic is rarely considered, as supply and traffic flow planning are traditionally seen as separate activities. BMW SA and other automotive manufacturers are facing various specific problems relat...

2004-01-01

138

Advanced Manufacturing Discovery Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a 3:15 minute video on YouTube. It shows a set of high school students assigned to a manufacturing project that is very much like a real industry situation. A diverse mix of students work on developing a hovercraft. Their skills and backgrounds include: 3D CAD, engineering, manufacturing, marketing, math, sciences, business, communications, arts, and electronics. They learn how to work together to create a finished product while discovering the many opportunities available in manufacturing.

2009-08-13

139

Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

2008-01-01

140

Physico-mechanical properties of chemically treated palm and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene composites.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, palm and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene bio-composites were manufactured using a single extruder and injection molding machine. Raw palm and coir were chemically treated with benzene diazonium salt to increase their compatibility with the polypropylene matrix. Both raw and treated palm and coir fiber at five level of fiber loading (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 wt.%) was utilized during composite manufacturing. Microstructural analysis and mechanical tests were conducted. Comparison has been made between the properties of the palm and coir fiber composites. Treated fiber reinforced specimens yielded better mechanical properties compared to the raw composites, while coir fiber composites had better mechanical properties than palm fiber ones. Based on fiber loading, 30% fiber reinforced composites had the optimum set of mechanical properties. PMID:19477124

Haque, Md Mominul; Hasan, Mahbub; Islam, Md Saiful; Ali, Md Ershad

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Dry Process for Making Polyimide/ Carbon-and-Boron-Fiber Tape  

Science.gov (United States)

A dry process has been invented as an improved means of manufacturing composite prepreg tapes that consist of high-temperature thermoplastic polyimide resin matrices reinforced with carbon and boron fibers. Such tapes are used (especially in the aircraft industry) to fabricate strong, lightweight composite-material structural components. The inclusion of boron fibers results in compression strengths greater than can be achieved by use of carbon fibers alone. The present dry process is intended to enable the manufacture of prepreg tapes (1) that contain little or no solvent; (2) that have the desired dimensions, fiber areal weight, and resin content; and (3) in which all of the fibers are adequately wetted by resin and the boron fibers are fully encapsulated and evenly dispersed. Prepreg tapes must have these properties to be useable in the manufacture of high-quality composites by automated tape placement. The elimination of solvent and the use of automated tape placement would reduce the overall costs of manufacturing.

Belvin, Harry L.; Cano, Roberto J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Marchello, Joseph M.

2003-01-01

142

Radiation resistivity of quartz core fiber, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation resistance characteristics were evaluated for a multi-mode quartz core fiber in low temperature region together with photobleaching effect depending on the incident light power and dependency on the wavelength of measuring rays. This report describes the results of the abovementioned items and the next step study of trial manufacturing of a pure-quartz single-mode fiber for the employment of longer wavelength rays and greater capacity in light transmission communication system. Quartz core fiber specimens were irradiated by "6"0Co ?-ray source at -55 deg C to 80 deg C in a constant temperature bath and light transmission loss was determined under irradiation conditions. Low temperature characteristics were superior in an MRT (modified rod-in tube) pure quartz fiber prepared by the plasma method as compared to VAD quartz and Ge-GI fibers. The MRT fiber showed better quality than the Ge-GI fiber also in the photobleaching effect examination. As for the wavelength dependency, light transmission loss of the MRT fiber was less than that of the Ge-GI fiber. The MRT fiber also showed a superior quality in the wide range of irradiation temperatures. Based on the above-mentioned understandings, a pure-quartz single-mode fiber of both BF_3-doped and F-doped cladding types were developed for longer wavelengths uses. The fibers could attain low light transmission loss of less than 1.0 dB/km at 1.30 ?m of wavelength. At the standpoint of radiation resistivity, the BF_3-doped fiber was found superior. (Takagi, S.)

1985-01-01

143

Utilization of Faraday Mirror in Fiber Optic Current Sensors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fiber optic sensors dispose of some advantages in the field of electrical current and magnetic field measurement, like large bandwidth, linearity, light transmission possibilities. Unfortunately, they suffer from some parasitic phenomena. The crucial issue is the presence of induced and latent linear birefringence, which is imposed by the fiber manufacture imperfections as well as mechanical stress by fiber bending. In order to the linear birefringence compensation a promising method was chos...

2008-01-01

144

Development of fiber optic cabling technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optical glass fiber is a better choice than copper media for supporting both today/tomorrow`s communication network requirements. The optical fiber cable as its final product will play an important role in the high bandwidth superhighway traffic that networks will soon carry. The basic manufacturing technology of fiber optic cables, including its processes and materials, entails the same as that of the conventional copper wire cable, but the performance of the final products is strongly dependent on the details of the cabling designs, materials and processes because the optical fiber is extremely sensitive to environmental conditions. This paper will discuss the technological development of optical fiber cables used in various communication applications.

Oh, P.S. [Optical Cable Corporation, Roanoke, VA (United States)

1995-12-01

145

Curved Piezoelectric Actuators for Stretching Optical Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Assemblies containing curved piezoceramic fiber composite actuators have been invented as means of stretching optical fibers by amounts that depend on applied drive voltages. Piezoceramic fiber composite actuators are conventionally manufactured as sheets or ribbons that are flat and flexible, but can be made curved to obtain load-carrying ability and displacement greater than those obtainable from the flat versions. In the primary embodiment of this invention, piezoceramic fibers are oriented parallel to the direction of longitudinal displacement of the actuators so that application of drive voltage causes the actuator to flatten, producing maximum motion. Actuator motion can be transmitted to the optical fiber by use of hinges and clamp blocks. In the original application of this invention, the optical fiber contains a Bragg grating and the purpose of the controlled stretching of the fiber is to tune the grating as part of a small, lightweight, mode-hop-free, rapidly tunable laser for demodulating strain in Bragg-grating strain-measurement optical fibers attached to structures. The invention could also be used to apply controllable tensile force or displacement to an object other than an optical fiber.

Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

2008-01-01

146

A survey of fiber-positioning technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

A wide range of positioning technologies has been exploited to flexibly configure fiber ends on the focal surfaces of telescopes. The earliest instruments used manual plugging, or glued buttons on the focal plane. Later instruments have used robotic fisherman-round-the-pond probes and articulated armsto position fibres, each probe or arm operated by its own motors, or buttons on fiber ends moved by pick-and-place robotic positioners. A positioner using fiber spines incorporating individual actuators operating over limited patrol areas is currently being manufactured and a derivative proposed for future large telescopes. Other techniques, using independent agents carrying the fiber ends about the focal plane have been prototyped. We describe these various fiber positioning techniques and compare them, listing the issues associated with their implementation, and consider the factors which make each of them suitable for a given situation. Factors considered include: robot geometries; costs; inherent limits to the number of fibers; clustering of targets; serial and parallel positioning and reconfiguration times; adaptability to curved focal surfaces; the virtues of on-telescope versus off-telescope configuration of the field, and suitability for the various telescope foci. The design issues include selection of actuators and encoding systems, counterbalancing, configuration of fiber buttons and their associated grippers, interchanging field plates, and the need for fiber retractors. Finally we consider the competing technologies: fiber and reflective image slicer IFUs, multislit masks and reconfigurable slits.

Smith, Greg; Brzeski, Jurek; Miziarski, Stan; Gillingham, Peter R.; Moore, Anna; McGrath, Andrew

2004-09-01

147

Automotive Manufacturing Employment  

Science.gov (United States)

This page from the Consortium for Alabama Regional Center for Automotive Manufacturing (CARCAM) provides a number of links to the websites of automotive manufacturers and suppliers. The list focuses on locations in the Southern United States, and it would be useful for students in this region looking for employment.

2011-01-31

148

Integrated automotive manufacturing supply  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Supply planning directly influences the traffic within a manufacturing plant. The impact of supply planning strategies like Just-in-Time, Just-in-Sequence and Direct Supply on plant traffic is rarely considered, as supply and traffic flow planning are traditionally seen as separate activities.

2005-01-01

149

Developments in Agile Manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of a project design initiative, Sandia National Laboratories and AlliedSignal Inc. Kansas City Division have joined efforts to develop a concurrent engineering capability for the manufacturing of complex precision components. The primary effort of this project, called Agile Manufacturing, is directed toward: (1) Understand the error associated with manufacturing and inspection. (2) Develop methods for correcting error. (3) Integrate diverse software technologies into a compatible process. The Agile Manufacturing System (AMS) is a system that integrates product design, manufacturing, and inspection into a closed loop, concurrent engineering process. The goal of developing the Agile Manufacturing System is to: (1) Optimize accuracy in manufacturing and inspection. (A) Use of softgage software for product evaluation. This will ensure ANSI Y14.5 compliance. (B) Establish and monitor bias between CMM and machine center. (C) Map probe deflection error and apply correction to inspection results. This applies to both on machine probing and CMM inspections. (D) Inspection process. (2) Compress the cycle time from product concept to production level manufacturing and verification. (3) Create a self-correcting process that feeds inspection results back into the machining process. (4) Link subordinate processes (cutting/probing path, softgage model, etc.) to the solid model definition.

Clinesmith, M.G.

1993-09-01

150

WATER REUSE IN A WET PROCESS HARDBOARD MANUFACTURING PLANT  

Science.gov (United States)

Superior Fiber Products, Inc., a manufacturer of smooth on one side wet process hardboard, undertook a project to eliminate any discharge of process water through a program of increasing process water reuse. All but wash up water and some pump seal leak water discharges were elim...

151

Interphase properties of carbon fiber-vinyl ester composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decline in price of carbon fibers gives an economic incentive to reconsider the use of these reinforcements in markets previously deemed too expensive, such as the automotive industry. Additionally, it would be advantageous if carbon fibers could be immediately used with polymers and manufacturing methods currently used for the production of fiberglass composites, and thus minimize development and startup costs. Of particular interest is the use of carbon fibers in vinyl esters manufactured by resin transfer molding, a leading manufacturing technology for the production of large and complex shaped composite parts. However, carbon fiber-vinyl ester composites have inferior mechanical properties as a result of poor bonding between fiber and matrix. The objective of this program was to evaluate the physical and chemical mechanisms currently thought responsible for adhesion in order to improve the performance of carbon fiber-vinyl ester composites. The effect of carbon fiber surface treatment on fiber chemistry and topography was evaluated to uncover the fundamental mechanisms governing carbon fiber to vinyl ester adhesion.

Rich, M.J.; Weitzsacker, C.W.; Xie, M.; Corbin, S.; Drzal, L.T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1997-12-31

152

Aerospace Manufacturing Education (AME)  

Science.gov (United States)

The NSF funded Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project's mission is to "develop and disseminate curricula modules to enhance manufacturing technician and engineering programs in higher education with relevant aerospace manufacturing examples." The project is developing curricula modules to prepare manufacturing technology practitioners for the aerospace industry and increase the number of interested candidates for aerospace manufacturing jobs. Curricula modules are being developed and used by two-year colleges for student education and by industry for in-house training of employees. Visitors will find the downloadable curriculum modules (after a quick and free registration form) on the left side of the homepage, as well as further info about the project, its partners, and advisors.

2010-09-20

153

Laser assisted direct manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct Laser Manufacturing (DLM) with coaxial powder injection (TRUMPF DMD 505 installation) was applied for fabrication of 3D objects from metallic and ceramic powder. One of the advantages of DLM is the possibility to build functionally graded objects in one-step manufacturing cycle by application of a 2-channel powder feeder. Several models with different types of material gradients (smooth, sharp, periodic) and multi-layered structures were manufactured from SS, stellite (Cobalt alloy), Cu and W alloys. Technology of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) was applied for manufacturing of net shaped objects from different powders (PHENIX PM-100 machine) : Inox 904L, Ni625, Cu/Sn, W and Zr02-Y2O3. Performance and limitations of SLM technology for fabrication of elements for chemical and mechanical industries are analysed. Two-component objects (Stainless steel /Cu - H13/CuNi) were fabricated in a two-step manufacturing cycle.

Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

2007-07-01

154

High-fiber foods  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fiber - self-care ... Fiber is a substance found in plants. Dietary fiber -- the kind you eat -- is found in fruits, vegetables, and grains. Your body cannot digest fiber, so it passes through your intestines quickly.

155

Whole Grains and Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

... Program Requirements Fit-Friendly Resources Whole Grains and Fiber Updated:Feb 19,2014 Any food made from ... fiber. Does not contain partially hydrogenated oils. Dietary Fiber Dietary fiber is the term for several materials ...

156

Soluble vs. insoluble fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

Insoluble vs. soluble fiber; Fiber - soluble vs. insoluble ... There are two different types of fiber -- soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. ...

157

Permeability characterization of stitched carbon fiber preforms by fiber optic sensors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The in-plane and through thickness permeability of unidirectional stitched carbon fiber preforms have been determined through vacuum infusion tests. The impregnation of various dry preforms with different stitching characteristics has been monitored by fiber optic sensors that have been stitched together with the dry tow to manufacture the dry preform. The experimental infusion times have been fitted by a numerical procedure based on Finite Element (FE) processing simulations. A good agreemen...

Antonucci, V.; Esposito, M.; Ricciardi, M. R.; Raffone, M.; Zarrelli, M.; Giordano, M.

2011-01-01

158

Rapid small lot manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

Harrigan, R.W.

1998-05-09

159

Advanced Manufacturing Institute.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of the Advanced Manufacturing Institute (AMI) at Stevens is to increase American industry's competitiveness through the development, validation, and implementation of concurrent engineering techniques in strategically targeted areas ...

S. Manoochehri C. Chassapis

2001-01-01

160

Lean Manufacturing Engineering Certification  

Science.gov (United States)

This website from Best Practice Research features online business training courses including lean manufacturing and six sigma certification training courses. The courses are available for purchase and may be taken online.

2012-12-10

 
 
 
 
161

Manufacturing parabolic mirrors  

CERN Multimedia

The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)

1975-01-01

162

INTEGRATED AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING SUPPLY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Traditionally, the impact of supply planning strategies on plant traffic is rarely considered. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS) that will assist automotive manufacturers to analyse the effect of supply planning decisions on plant traffic during the supply planning phase of their logistics planning process. In es...

2012-01-01

163

Manufacturing and economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the theoretical and empirical evidence for the hypothesis that manufacturing is the main engine of growth in developing countries. The paper opens with an overview of the main arguments supporting the engine of growth hypothesis and then examines each of these arguments using a mix of statistical analysis of secondary data and secondary literature. The paper concludes that manufacturing will continue to be important in accelerating growth and achieving catch-up in developi...

Szirmai, Adam

2011-01-01

164

The power of fiber optics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The latest technology in optical groundwire (OPGW), involving a single cable serving as a communications network, providing high-speed data and voice transmission, and as a conventional groundwire, part of a power transmission grid, is described. The first-ever symposium devoted to OPGW was held at Hydro-Quebec`s IREQ facility in Montreal, a fitting venue, considering that Hydro-Quebec has installed an extensive network of some 3,500 km of OPGW cables since 1992. The international symposium was attended by over 130 interested experts mainly from North America, but with delegates as far away as Australia, Japan, Libya, Brazil and the UK. The three-day event showcased a number of presentations and demonstrations concerning OPGW splicing requirements, the live-line installation process, the merits of using fiber optics in a power situation, comparison of international standards in OPGW and fiber optics applications, and future developments in fiber optics technology. Demonstration of IREQ`s OPGW type-testing and manufacturer`s exhibits provided an opportunity for hands-on experience.

Roy, C.

1999-03-01

165

Modeling and validation of a stochastic drag for fibers in turbulent flows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The understanding of the motion of long slender elastic fibers in turbulent flows is of great interest to research, development and production in technical textiles manufacturing. The fiber dynamics depend on the drag forces that are imposed on the fiber by the fluid. Their computation requires in principle a coupling of fiber and flow with no-slip interface conditions. However, theneeded high resolution and adaptive grid refinement make the direct numerical simulation of the three-dimensiona...

Marheineke, N.; Wegener, R.

2009-01-01

166

Mechanical behavior of entangled materials with or without cross-linked fibers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Entangled materials can be manufactured using fibers made from various materials, such as carbon, glass or steel. The mechanical properties of these low-density materials are linked to their architecture (fiber orientation, number of contacts, etc.). Specimens can be produced with and without cross-links between fibers by sintering for steel wool or by using epoxy spraying for carbon or glass fibers. Experimental mechanical compression tests were performed on these materials. The results were...

Masse, Jean-philippe; Poquillon, Dominique

2013-01-01

167

Effect of Fiber Surface Structure on Absorption Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carbon fibers with different surface structures were obtained through changing the treatment intensities in the process of electrochemical oxidation, and then oxidized carbon fibers were used as reinforcements to manufacture carbon fiber/epoxy composites. The relationship between fiber surface structure and the moisture absorption of carbon fiber/epoxy composites after hygrothermal aging treatment was studied. Results show that a significant increase happen to the surface activity of carbon fiber after electrochemical oxidation, and there is also a large extent of elevation in the relative content of oxygen-containing functional groups especially –OH group which increases from 18.62% to 34.84%. The moisture absorption mechanism of carbon fiber/epoxy composites varies with the change of hygrothermal aging conditions. Temperature is considered to be a leading factor in the moisture absorption process. Results also indicate that the higher the surface activity of carbon fiber, the greater composite materials get the equilibrium moisture content. There is an obvious decline in the ILSS values of carbon fiber/epoxy composites with the increase of moisture uptake content.

QIAN Xin, ZHI Jian-Hai, WANG Xue-Fei, ZHANG Yong-Gang, YANG Jian-Xing

2013-02-01

168

Melt-spun shaped fibers with enhanced surface effects: fiber fabrication, characterization and application to woven scaffolds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scaffolds with a high surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA:V) are advantageous with regard to the attachment and proliferation of cells in the field of tissue engineering. This paper reports on the development of novel melt-spun fibers with a high SA:V, which enhanced the surface effects of a fiber-based scaffold while maintaining its mechanical strength. The cross-section of the fibers was altered to a non-circular shape, producing a higher SA:V for a similar cross-sectional area. To obtain fibers with non-circular cross-sectional shape, or shaped fibers, three different types of metal spinnerets were fabricated for the melt-spinning process, each with circular, triangular or cruciform capillaries, using deep X-ray lithography followed by nickel electroforming. Using these spinnerets, circular and shaped fibers were manufactured with biodegradable polyester, polycaprolactone. The SA:V increase in the shaped fibers was experimentally investigated under different processing conditions. Tensile tests on the fibers and indentation tests on the woven fiber scaffolds were performed. The tested fibers and scaffolds exhibited similar mechanical characteristics, due to the similar cross-sectional area of the fibers. The degradation of the shaped fibers was notably faster than that of circular fibers, because of the enlarged surface area of the shaped fibers. The woven scaffolds composed of the shaped fibers significantly increased the proliferation of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells. This approach to increase the SA:V in shaped fibers could be useful for the fabrication of programmable, biodegradable fiber-based scaffolds in tissue engineering. PMID:23669620

Park, S J; Lee, B-K; Na, M H; Kim, D S

2013-08-01

169

Surface analysis of plasma grafted carbon fiber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The surface characteristics of carbon fibers were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wetting measurements. The surface of carbon fiber was modified by means of plasma graft silsesquioxane. The oxygen/carbon and silicon/carbon ratio increased rapidly after treatments. Fitting the C 1s, O 1s, and Si 2p spectra demonstrated that new photopeaks were emerged, which were indicated C-Si, Si-O groups, respectively. The degree of surface roughness and the wettability of carbon fiber surface were both increased by plasma graft silsesquioxane. The results may shed some light on the design of the appropriate surface structure, which could react with resin, and the manufacture of the carbon fiber reinforced composites

2006-12-30

170

Fiber laser performance in industrial applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber lasers are competing with the traditional CO2 Laser, Plasma, Water Jet and Press Punch technology. This paper concentrates on the drivers behind the progress that Plasma for lower quality, small quantities. Up until the fiber lasers were commercially available many machine manufacturers were deterred from incorporating lasers due to the technical barriers posed by the lasers available at that time. In particular fiber laser requires no maintenance does not necessitate a beam path to be aligned and kept free of contaminant so have encouraged many traditionally non-laser machine builders to integrate fiber sources into a variety of applications and push the performance envelope. All of the components to build a fibre laser cutting or welding system are now available "off-the shelf" which is even allowing end users to design and build their own systems directly in production environments.

McCulloch, S.; Hassey, A.; Harrison, P.

2013-02-01

171

Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization.

Sigmund, Ole

2009-01-01

172

Evaluation on Decomposition granularity of Manufacturing Task in Manufacturing Grid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Task decomposition is on of the most important activities for manufacturing task planning in Manufacturing Grid. Many achievements in the methods to decompose manufacturing tasks have been obtained. But as for the decomposition granularity, the study and research are rare. Referring to the principle of “strong cohesion and weak coupling” in the software engineering field, the decomposition model of manufacturing task is built up, in which a manufacturing task is decomposed into different ...

Yong Yin; Chaoyong Zhang; Jihong Wang

2013-01-01

173

Manufacturing Renaissance: Return of manufacturing to western countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Manufacturing Renaissance, i.e. return of manufacturing to west, has been recently observed. This paper analyzes the patterns observed within each of the four main drivers behind this new phenomenon and delves more deeply into the driver that centers on the new manufacturing technologies such as Additive Manufacturing (AM) and 3D Printing. Next, this paper will make the case that the location of manufacturing will be in west, relying on the established theory that has ...

Kianian, Babak; Larsson, Tobias; Tavassoli, Mohammad

2013-01-01

174

Two Products Manufacturer’s Production Decisions with Carbon Constraint  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we consider a manufacture which produces both ordinary products and green products in a monopoly market, and investigate his production decisions with carbon constraint. Firstly, we derive the manufacturer’s optimal production and maximum profit without carbon constraint. Then, we discuss the optimal production and maximum profit with carbon constraint in different situation. The results indicate that manufacturer’s optimal production and maximum profit with carbon constrai...

Lu, Li; Chen, Xu

2013-01-01

175

Access Control for Manufacturing Process in Networked Manufacturing Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The deficiencies of current access control techniques in solving the problems of manufacturing process access conflict in networked manufacturing environment were analyzed. An information model of manufacturing process was con-structed, and a case XML Schema of manufacturing task model was given. Based on the characteristic analysis of the access control for the information model, an improved access control model of manufacturing process was constructed, and the access control model based on ...

2009-01-01

176

Implementation of hierarchical design for manufacture rules in manufacturing processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to shorten the product development cycle time, minimise overall cost and smooth transition into production, early consideration of manufacturing processes is important. Design for Manufacture (DFM) is the practice of designing products with manufacturing issues using an intelligent system, which translates 3D solid models into manufacturable features. Many existing and potential applications, particularly in the field of manufacturing, require various aspects of features technology. ...

2008-01-01

177

NASA's National Center for Advanced Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA has designated the Principal Center Assignment to the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for implementation of the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM). NCAM is NASA s leading resource for the aerospace manufacturing research, development, and innovation needs that are critical to the goals of the Agency. Through this initiative NCAM s people work together with government, industry, and academia to ensure the technology base and national infrastructure are available to develop innovative manufacturing technologies with broad application to NASA Enterprise programs, and U.S. industry. Educational enhancements are ever-present within the NCAM focus to promote research, to inspire participation and to support education and training in manufacturing. Many important accomplishments took place during 2002. Through NCAM, NASA was among five federal agencies involved in manufacturing research and development (R&D) to launch a major effort to exchange information and cooperate directly to enhance the payoffs from federal investments. The Government Agencies Technology Exchange in Manufacturing (GATE-M) is the only active effort to specifically and comprehensively address manufacturing R&D across the federal government. Participating agencies include the departments of Commerce (represented by the National Institute of Standards and Technology), Defense, and Energy, as well as the National Science Foundation and NASA. MSFC s ongoing partnership with the State of Louisiana, the University of New Orleans, and Lockheed Martin Corporation at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) progressed significantly. Major capital investments were initiated for world-class equipment additions including a universal friction stir welding system, composite fiber placement machine, five-axis machining center, and ten-axis laser ultrasonic nondestructive test system. The NCAM consortium of five universities led by University of New Orleans with Mississippi State University, Tennessee Technological University, Texas A&M University, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University provided wide-ranging engineering research, new degree/curriculum programs, and a web-based lecture series. NCAM has fostered an important presence and leadership role within the national manufacturing community. Its progressive influence can be seen in government, industry and academia, and in national associations, professional organizations, conferences, workshops, and forums.

Vickers, John

2003-01-01

178

Information modeling of manufacturing processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The innovation process is an important process for our primemotor of welfare, manufacturing. During this process, theprerequisites for manufacturing are set. To set the bestpossible prerequisites consideration about products,manufacturing processes, and manufacturing resources must bemade concurrently, which also means involving several differentdisciplines in a collaborative effort. As a consequence of involving different disciplines, thecommunication of engineering information may be hinder...

Nielssen, Johan

2003-01-01

179

Scintillator manufacture at Fermilab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A decade of research into plastic scintillation materials at Fermilab is reviewed. Early work with plastic optical fiber fabrication is revisited and recent experiments with large-scale commercial methods for production of bulk scintillator are discussed. Costs for various forms of scintillator are examined and new development goals including cost reduction methods and quality improvement techniques are suggested.

Mellott, K.; Bross, A.; Pla-Dalmau, A.

1998-08-01

180

Energy consumption in manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Energy sources, in the form of coal, oil, natural gas, solar or nuclear power, are global commodities, and as demand is projected to rise in the coming decades, so will costs. As such, an understanding of the energy needs of manufacturing processes and the ability to reduce the energy and carbon footprints are essential for sustainability reasons. Energy source effects are quantified in a number of measures. Models of energy needs by manufacturing processes are then examined, along with models incorporating the use of ancillary equipment such as pumps, filters, blowers, lighting, etc. Finally, the successful application of the tribological principles to influence energy consumption is discussed.

Schmid, S. R.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Boiler tube manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In boiler tube manufacture it is necessary to pay special attention to the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and freedom from defects of the product. These properties are affected by both composition and production methods. The production route for boiler tubes at SANDVIK is described. The merits of pilgering and drawing as cold working methods are discussed. A tube mill especially designed for making PWR steam generator tubing is described. Finally the importance of a well developed quality control system for successful tube manufacture is stressed. (author)

1974-09-25

182

Advanced Integrated Manufacturing Center  

Science.gov (United States)

A 15,000 sq. ft. state of the art model factory is the centerpiece of the Advanced Integrated Manufacturing (AIM) Center, which offers workforce development, production support, and process improvement services for local industry. In addition to the factory, which companies may utilize for their production needs, the AIM Center also offers Lean Manufacturing workshops (on-site or at the AIM Center). Other workshops, such as CNC programming, CAD/CAM training, injection molding, safety, project management, setup reduction/quick change, value stream mapping, 5S/visual controls, work place organization, lean office, workflow improvement, simulation modeling for workflow, and quality assurance, are also available.

Dilley, David

2009-11-02

183

Laser in manufacturing  

CERN Document Server

Generally a laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) is defined as "a device which uses a quantum mechanical effect, stimulated emission, to generate a coherent beam of light from a lasing medium of controlled purity, size, and shape". Laser material processing represents a great number of methods, which are rapidly growing in current and different industrial applications as new alternatives to traditional manufacturing processes. Nowadays, the use of lasers in manufacturing is an emerging area with a wide variety of applications, for example, in electronics, molds an

Davim, J Paulo

2013-01-01

184

Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a spider silk-manufacturing process is of great interest. However, there are serious problems with natural manufacturing through spider farming, and standard recombinant protein production platforms have provided limited progress due to their inability to assemble spider silk proteins into fibers. Thus, we used piggyBac vectors to create transgenic silkworms encoding chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins. The silk fibers produced by these animals were composite materials that included chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins integrated in an extremely stable manner. Furthermore, these composite fibers were, on average, tougher than the parental silkworm silk fibers and as tough as native dragline spider silk fibers. These results demonstrate that silkworms can be engineered to manufacture composite silk fibers containing stably integrated spider silk protein sequences, which significantly improve the overall mechanical properties of the parental silkworm silk fibers. PMID:22215590

Teulé, Florence; Miao, Yun-Gen; Sohn, Bong-Hee; Kim, Young-Soo; Hull, J Joe; Fraser, Malcolm J; Lewis, Randolph V; Jarvis, Donald L

2012-01-17

185

New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections and it is important to understand the effect that different types of calcium carbonates have on the paper properties made of 100% eucalyptus pulp. The current study is focused on selecting the most suitable market available calcium carbonate for the production of uncoated Eucalyptus digital printing paper, targeting a potential filler increase of 5% above the currently used filler content. We made hand sheets using 13 different varieties of widely used calcium carbonates [Nine samples of PCC (two rhombic and seven scalenohedral, covering a wide particle size range from 1.2 {micro}m to 2.9 {micro}m), and four samples of GCC (three anionic and one cationic, with a particle size range from 0.7 {micro}m to 1.5 {micro}m)] available in the market followed by a 12â?ť pilot plant paper machine run. The detailed analysis on the main structural, optical and strength properties of the hand sheets found that the most suitable calcium carbonate for uncoated Eucalyptus digital printing paper production is scalenohedral PCC, with a particle size of 1.9 {micro}m for its positive effects on thickness, stiffness, brightness and opacity of paper.

Doelle, Klaus

2011-06-26

186

Manufacturing & Electronics Hourly Pay  

Science.gov (United States)

This sheet from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center highlights hourly wages for individuals working in the manufacturing and electronics industries. The information may serve to motivate students to obtain education beyond high school for use in these industries.

2011-01-24

187

Cladding tube manufacturing technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding. Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs

1999-01-01

188

Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific goal of this program is to define manufacturing methods that will allow single crystal technology to be applied to complex-cored airfoils components for power generation applications. Tasks addressed include: alloy melt practice to reduce the sulfur content; improvement of casting process; core materials design; and grain orientation control.

Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

189

Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technolog...

A. Tesar

1995-01-01

190

Advanced Computing for Manufacturing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses ways that supercomputers are being used in the manufacturing industry, including the design and production of airplanes and automobiles. Describes problems that need to be solved in the next few years for supercomputers to assume a major role in industry. (TW)

Erisman, Albert M.; Neves, Kenneth W.

1987-01-01

191

Cladding tube manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report 'Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding.' Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs.

Hahn, R. [Kraftwerk Union AG, Mulheim (Germany); Jeong, Y.H.; Baek, B.J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, B.K.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1999-04-01

192

Teamwork In Modern Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center uses the example of a business (Featherlite Luxury Coaches) to demonstrate careers in manufacturing. The presentation focuses on how teams are assembled and how each team accomplishes given tasks to support the overall goals of the business.

2011-02-11

193

NTC thermistor manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Consumer demands for enhanced microprocessor control in automotive and appliance products have resulted in an increasing need for temperature sensors. The Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) thermistor still appears to be the overwhelming choice to support that need when considering sensitivity, design, and cost. A review of NTC thermistor manufacturing along with a critique of processing problem areas is presented.

Horsey, R.S. [Keystone Carbon Company, St. Marys, PA (United States)

1995-12-01

194

Control of Manufacturing Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

This course features a complete set of lecture notes and problem sets with solutions. The objective of this subject is to understand the nature of manufacturing process variation and the methods for its control. The key concepts of these lessons are: statistical process control, process optimization and in-process feedback control.

Boning, Duane S.; Hardt, D. E. (David E.)

2009-01-28

195

Manufacturing and Merchandising Careers  

Science.gov (United States)

Anyone with a flair for business, product development, or promotion might consider a manufacturing or merchandising occupation. The music industry offers many career opportunities for administrators, salespersons, marketing specialists--the record industry offers positions from promotion manager to rack jobber. Describes instrument company…

Ryan, Peter J.; And Others

1977-01-01

196

Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes  

Science.gov (United States)

A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

1977-01-01

197

STUDY THE CREEP OF TUBULAR SHAPED FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inpresent work tubular –shaped fiber reinforced composites were manufactured byusing two types of resins ( Epoxy and unsaturated polyester and separatelyreinforced with glass, carbon and kevlar-49 fibers (filament and woven roving,hybrid reinforcement composites of these fibers were also prepared. The fiberswere wet wound on a mandrel using a purposely designed winding machine,developed by modifying an ordinary lathe, in winding angle of 55° for filament. A creep test was made of either the fulltube or specimens taken from it. Creep was found to increase upon reinforcementin accordance to the rule of mixture and mainly decided by the type of singleor hybridized fibers. The creep behavior, showed that the observed strain tendsto appear much faster at higher temperature as compared with that exhibited atroom temperate. The creep rate also found to be depending on fiber type, matrixtype, and the fiber /matrix bonding. The creep energy calculated fromexperimental observations was found to exhibit highest value for hybridizedreinforcement.

Najat J. Saleh

2013-05-01

198

Manufacturing analysis of axisymmetric composite structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Specific topics relating to the design, analysis, and manufacturing of three axisymmetric composite structures are investigated. The first study examines a graphite/epoxy pressure vessel designed to withstand 20 atmospheres pressure of xenon gas for use in an X-ray detection device. Design constraints dictate an oblate spherical pressure vessel manufactured using hand layup techniques. Experimental results compare favorably to predictions using finite-element analysis coupled with laminated-plate theory. The second topic deals with the design and manufacture of a stretched-membrane heliostat for solar-energy central-receiver systems. Based on theoretical predictions using laminated plate theory, a quasi-isotropic layup of (0/90{plus minus}45)s of E-glass/epoxy is recommended. Based on results of a characterization study, two one-meter diameter prototypes were designed, built, and tested. Finally, a centrifugal-casting technique for making seamless composite rings with continuous-fiber reinforcement is presented. A mathematical model of void transport in such centrifugally cast structures predicts that this approach could have significant advantages over existing composite-processing methods.

Alei, P.E.

1990-01-01

199

Historic trends in manufacturing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manufacturing accounts for more of the world's energy use - around 40% of final energy - than any other major sector. In the OECD countries, its share of final energy use declined from about 35% to 30% between 1973 and 1988 due to rising consumption in other sectors and decline in manufacturing. It plays a more important role outside the OECD countries, however, accounting for approximately 40% of energy use in the Soviet Union, 60% in China, and 35-45% in other LDCs. At a global level, it is difficult to separate manufacturing from total industrial energy use, but trends in the latter give a reasonably good picture of those in manufacturing, since the latter dominates industrial activity and energy use. The other main industrial activities - mining and construction - account for 10-20% of total industrial energy use in the OECD countries, about 20% in the former East Bloc, and around 20-25% in the LDCs. Total OECD industrial energy use has fluctuated since the early 1970s, but was less in 1988 than in 1973. In the LDCs and former East Bloc, growth has been more steady, though the growth trend for the latter has levelled off since 1988. Decrease in the relative importance of energy-intensive industries within the manufacturing sector contributed to a decline in energy use in the OECD countries. Much more important, however, were decreases in the energy intensities of the various industry groups that comprise the sector. In the Former East Bloc, there seems to have been relatively little structural change or change in intensities. There is evidence that energy intensities have declined in a number of LDCs. 21 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs

1992-01-01

200

Differential Curing In Fiber/Resin Laminates  

Science.gov (United States)

Modified layup schedule counteracts tendency toward delamination. Improved manufacturing process resembles conventional process, except prepregs partially cured laid on mold in sequence in degree of partial cure decreases from mold side to bag side. Degree of partial cure of each layer at time of layup selected by controlling storage and partial-curing temperatures of prepreg according to Arrhenius equation for rate of gel of resin as function of temperature and time from moment of mixing. Differential advancement of cure in layers made large enough to offset effect of advance bag-side heating in oven or autoclave. Technique helps prevent entrapment of volatile materials during manufacturing of fiber/resin laminates.

Webster, Charles N.

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

75 FR 78715 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging, Labeling, or Holding Operations for...Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging, Labeling, or Holding Operations for...Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging, Labeling, or Holding Operations...

2010-12-16

202

Computational Techniques in Manufacturing Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manufacturing processes are complex and therefore difficult to plan by software. The present state in computational techniques in manufacturing technology as well as software applications at the Department of Manufacturing Technology of CTU in Prague are discussed in this article. Computational techniques may help to solve many manufacturing problems as such programs in the field of process planning have been developed. However, due to the complexity of manufacturing processes, complete planning of a manufacturing process by software is not possible at present.

J. Mádl

2000-01-01

203

Evaluation on Decomposition granularity of Manufacturing Task in Manufacturing Grid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Task decomposition is on of the most important activities for manufacturing task planning in Manufacturing Grid. Many achievements in the methods to decompose manufacturing tasks have been obtained. But as for the decomposition granularity, the study and research are rare. Referring to the principle of “strong cohesion and weak coupling” in the software engineering field, the decomposition model of manufacturing task is built up, in which a manufacturing task is decomposed into different subtasks, and each subtask is composed of various processing events. On the basis of the model, the constraint among processing events within the subtasks is analyzed. Then the evaluation index on decomposition granularity of manufacturing task is put forward based on several definitions and evaluation steps for the decomposition granularity of manufacturing task are listed. Finally, examples to illustrate the idea of the paper are given. We hope the work of the paper can promote the study and application for Manufacturing Grid further.

Jihong Wang

2013-02-01

204

Assessment of Good Manufacturing Practices in Tablet and Capsule Manufacturers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report profiles objectionable manufacturing practices recorded on the last inspectional form (FDA 483) given to tablet and capsule manufacturers. Establishments included in the study are those that were inspected for a tablet or capsule dosage form be...

N. Mocniak

1986-01-01

205

Carbon fiber as a component of thermoplastic material for mine blower blades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Use of plastics reinforced with carbon fiber is discussed for the manufacturing of blades for blowers used in coal mine ventilation. Carbon fiber is manufactured in Poland according to technology developed by the Polish Academy of Sciences. Manufacturing consists of two stages: fiber oxidation at 493 to 513 K combined with fiber tension, and carbonization in inert atmosphere at 1273 to 1373 K. Carbon fiber is from 2 to 15 cm long (without finish) and contains 80% carbon. Physical and mechanical properties of the Polish-made carbon fiber are compared to those of carbon fiber produced in the FRG, Japan, the USA, and the UK. Manufacturing blower blades using 7 types of 28-SAM plastic reinforced with fiberglass is discussed. Fiberglass content in the composite ranges from 26.04% to 28%, content of Tarnamid T-27 (polyamide) is from 52.07% to 56%, content of combustion inhibitors ranges from 14.89% to 16.0%, and carbon fiber content ranges from 0 to 7%. Polyamide reinforced with fiberglass and with carbon fiber is thermally stabilized at 403 to 473 K. Physical and mechanical properties of reinforced polyamide depending on mixture composition, processing conditions and thermal stabilization are shown in 7 diagrams. 12 references.

Czaplicka-Kolarz, K.

1984-01-01

206

1997 Economic Census Manufacturing, Industry Series: Plastics Bottle Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

This data from the US Department of Commerce Census Bureau constitutes the one of the first in a series of several hundred reports on individual industries in the manufacturing sector from the 1997 Economic Census. The 1997 Economic Census Manufacturing, Industry Series on Plastics Bottle Manufacturing reports that California, Illinois, and Ohio accounted for a third of the $6.4 billion worth of 1997 goods shipped by the nation's plastics bottle manufacturers.

207

Chemical characterization of PAN based carbon fibers produced by microwave assisted plasma (MAP) technology and effect of plasma treatment on carbon fiber surface and interphase with polymer matrix  

Science.gov (United States)

The first objective of this research was to chemically characterize the surface of conventional carbon fiber and carbon fiber produced by microwave assisted plasma (MAP) manufacturing process. The chemical composition and functional groups on the surface of the fibers were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The untreated unsized MAP carbon fibers were compared to untreated unsized conventional carbon fibers and showed a significant amount of oxygen. Comparison between treated unsized MAP carbon fiber and treated unsized conventional carbon fiber reveal a 100% enhancement of oxygen elemental concentration. Two plasma systems, remote applicator and atmospheric plasma were used to treat untreated unsized conventional carbon fiber. XPS results indicated that both systems have changed the chemical composition of carbon fiber surface. Oxygen-containing functional groups were found on carbon fiber surface after plasma treatment. Auger electron spectroscopy combining with chemical deritivazation was used to investigate the effect of morphological structure of carbon fiber surface on the placement of carboxyl groups. It was found that carboxyl groups were located preferentially in the valleys. A model of surface morphological structure of carbon fibers treated with plasma was proposed. Chemical bonding formed in the interphase between plasma treated carbon fiber and urethane was investigated using FTIR imaging. Directed evidence of formation of hydrogen bonding between carbon fiber and urethane was observed.

Luo, Xiaoyu

208

Radiation curing of composites for vehicle component and vehicle manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some traditional uses of metals in vehicle component and vehicle manufacture, such as steel (specific gravity 7.8) or aluminum (specific gravity 2.7), can be replaced by carbon-fiber composites (specific gravity 1.6) to provide significant weight savings while maintaining structural integrity. The aerospace and aircraft industries have adopted this approach. The auto or motor vehicle industries have explored the use of composites, but have been reluctant to widely adopt this technology because of concerns over manufacturing processes. A typical steel auto body weighing ? 750 kilos would weigh only ? 155 kilos if replaced with carbon-fiber composites. Structural members, as the vehicle chassis, could also be fabricated out of carbon-fiber composites. With only 20% of the body weight, smaller, lower horse-power and more fuel efficient engines could be used to power such vehicles. Commercial aircraft manufacturers that have adopted carbon-fiber structures in lieu of aluminum (a 40% weight savings) estimate a 20% savings in fuel costs for large planes. These are still made with conventional materials being used for motors, tires, interiors, and the like. A fuel efficient auto now running at ? 10 kilometers/liter would more than double its fuel efficiency given the nearly 80% weight savings attainable by use of carbon-fiber composites just for the vehicle body. As with aircraft, conventional systems for propulsion (motors), braking, tires and interiors could still be used. Radiation curing can simplify the manufacture of carbon-fiber composite vehicle components. Highly penetrating X-rays derived from high current, high energy electron beam (EB) accelerators can be used to cure structural composites while they are constrained within inexpensive molds; thus reducing cure cycles, eliminating heat transfer concerns and concerns over potentially hazardous emissions during the curing process. Since X-rays can penetrate mold walls, the curing process is quite versatile, enabling diverse components with varying designs to be cured using a common X-ray source or multiple parts of the same design could be cured at once. Since the energy output of an EB unit can be tightly controlled, EB processing itself can be used to produce 'B' staged fiber-reinforced composite materials for sheet molding (SMC) and prepregs. Such materials can significantly reduce the time-to-cure should alternative energy sources or even subsequent X-ray curing be used. In the EB mode, SMC materials can be made in excess of 100 meters/minute. The matrix systems are proprietary formulations based on common radiation responsive materials used in a variety of radiation curing applications. (author)

2009-05-04

209

75 FR 104 - Manufacturing & Services' Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative; Update  

Science.gov (United States)

...INFORMATION: ITA's Manufacturing and Services...individual U.S. firms at its October...programs to U.S. firms across the country...the Sustainable Manufacturing American Regional...specific U.S. manufacturing sectors. These...hurdles U.S. firms are facing in...

2010-01-04

210

Influence of fiber type, fiber mat orientation, and process time on the properties of a wood fiber/polymer composite  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A rapid press consolidation technique was used to produce composites from two types of air-laid wood fiber mat, incorporating either mechanically refined or bleached chemi-thermomechanically refined Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] and a bicomponent polymer fiber. The manufacturing technique involved pre-compression, contact heating to the process temperature under vacuum and then rapid transfer to the press for consolidation and cooling. Composites were tested to determine response to water or water vapor, porosity, fiber volume fraction and tensile properties. The composites absorbed water rapidly and showed changes in thickness with fluctuations in relative humidity. Porosity was higher in composites containing mechanically refined (MDF) fibers than in composites containing bleached chemi-thermomechanically refined (CTMP) fibers. Tensile test results suggessted that fiber wetting by the polymer matrix had been maximized within a five-minute heating time. Results also indicated that had been maximizedwithin a five-minute heating time. Results also indicated that porosity was not the key determinant of tensile properties in the composites.

Plackett, David; Torgilsson, R.

2002-01-01

211

Procyclical Productivity in Manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the cyclical behavior of labor productivity in eighty industries of the Chilean manufacturing sector in the 1979-2001 period. We find that labor productivity at the sector-level is procyclical but it is a-cyclical when using aggregate data. We provide an analytical and empirical explanation for this divergence. We also use an econometric model to quantify the determinants of productivity. The results indicate that technology shocks account for one half of productivity growth, thus su...

LUCAS NAVARRO; RAIMUNDO SOTO

2006-01-01

212

Manufacture of phosphor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described of the manufacture of a phosphor based on barium, strontium, or lead, requiring no annealing. Hot aqueous solutions containing a cation and an anion of the phosphor are added (at intensive stirring) to a third solution containing a cation or an anion. Filtration, washing and drying of the precipitate in a temperature range of up to 300 "0C follow. (B.S.)

1973-01-01

213

Scandinavian equipment manufacturers review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Profiles are given of the major Scandinavian manufacturers that supply equipment to the coal mining industry around the world. These are: ABB, Ergolift/TAWI, Metso Minerals, Larox Flowsys Oy, Sandvik, SSAB Oxeloesund and Volvo. equipment includes mine hoists, drive and control systems, dise brakes, electric trucks, mine automation systems, lifting equipment, hose pumps, screens, valves, drilling, excavation and crushing machinery, structural steel plant, loaders and excavators. 4 figs.

NONE

2005-05-01

214

Apparatus for manufacturing hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A H-manufacturing apparatus consists of 2 or more reactors in which a metal hydride (e.g., CaH/sub 2/) is reacted with water to generate H, a pipeline for feeding reaction water into the reactors, and a pipeline for feeding H generated in 1 reactor into the other reactor and to a H-consuming apparatus (e.g., air-H fuel cell). Steam-free H is obtained.

1981-09-09

215

Uncertainty of manufacturing simulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During mathematical simulation of real manufacturing system we can meet any type and rate model uncertainty. Its reasons can be incognizance of modelers or data inaccuracy. So, classification of uncertainties, with respect to they sources, distinguishes between aleatory and epistemic ones. The aleatory uncertainty is an inherent data variation associated with the investigated system or the environment. Epistemic one is an uncertainty that is due to a lack of knowledge of quantities or process...

2009-01-01

216

Solar cell manufacture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for manufacturing solar cells from a silicon wafer having a p-n junction therein and front and back contacts thereon is disclosed. The improvement comprises washing said wafer with a buffered hydrofluoric acid solution having a ph of from about 3.5 to about 5 and containing from about 2 to about 10 weight percent hydrofluoric acid based on the total weight of the solution.

Gay, C.F.

1980-04-15

217

Flexible manufacturing field trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within the European project R-Fieldbus (http://www.hurray.isep.ipp.pt/activities/rfieldbus/), an industrial manufacturing field trial was developed. This field trial was conceived as a demonstration test bed for the technologies developed during the project. Because the R-Fieldbus field trial included prototype hardware devices, the purpose of this equipment changed and since the conclusion of the project, several new technologies also emerged, therefore an update of the field trial was requi...

2009-01-01

218

Manufacturing | Sustainable Minds  

...March 2010 (2) February 2010 (5) January 2010 (3) December 2009 (5) November 2009 (4) October 2009 (4) September 2009 (4) August 2009 (5) July 2009 (5) June 2009 (5) May 2009 (4) April 2009 (3) March 2009 (4) February 2009 (4) January 2009 (5) December 2008 (4) November 2008 (8) October 2008 (8) September 2008 (10) August 2008 (13) Legal & License Manufacturing Webcast Replay: SM Transparency Reports, a solution to the LCA/EPD/PCR conundrum By Sustainable Minds on January 28, 2014 In response ... Continue reading Green Economy, In the press, Innovation, Life cycle assessment, Manufacturing, Marketing, Materials & processes, Products, Strategies Webcast Replay: Introducing v3.0 - Part 2: SM2013 methodology, use cases & demo By Sustainable Minds on June 12, 2013 In this webcast, ... Continue reading Innovation, Life cycle assessment, Manufacturing, Materials & processes, Strategies, Webcast Webcast Replay: Introducing v3.0 - Part 1: What’s New By Sustainable Minds on June 12, 2013 In this webcast, Terry Swack (Founder & CEO) and Joep Meijer (...

219

Clad fiber capacitor and method of making same  

Science.gov (United States)

A clad capacitor and method of manufacture includes assembling a preform comprising a ductile, electrically conductive fiber; a ductile, electrically insulating cladding positioned on the fiber; a ductile, electrically conductive sleeve positioned over the cladding. One or more of the preforms are then bundled, heated and drawn along a longitudinal axis to decrease the diameter of the ductile components of the preform and fuse the preform into a unitized strand.

Tuncer, Enis

2013-11-26

220

Manufacturing a Superconductor in School.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described is the manufacture of a superconductor from a commercially available kit using equipment usually available in schools or easily obtainable. The construction is described in detail including equipment, materials, safety procedures, tolerances, and manufacture. (Author/CW)

Barrow, John

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Photonic crystal fibers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field.

Lćgsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K. P.; Nielsen, M. D.; Hansen, Theis Peter; Riishede, Jesper; Hougaard, Kristian G.; Sřrensen, T.; Larsen, T. T.; Mortensen, N. A.; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

2010-01-01

222

Additive Manufacturing for Large Products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis researches the possibility and feasibility of applying additive manufacturing technology in the manufacturing of propellers. The thesis concerns the production at the foundry Oshaug Metall AS. Their products consist of propellers and other large products cast in Nickel-Aluminium Bronze. This report looks at three approaches and applications for additive manufacturing at the foundry. These are additively manufactured pattern, sand mold and end metal parts. The available \\emph{State...

Leirva?g, Roar Nelissen

2013-01-01

223

Safe food manufacturing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food safety is a growing preoccupation of the health authorities and the major food companies in any European country. All the aspects of food manufacturing, from the raw materials until the product is consumed have to insure they are innoxious to human health, eliminate any harmful effects related either to food handling or consumption in domestic or common eating places, as well as protect, as much as possible, our environment. Thus, the food manufacturer has to examine step-by-step the security of the agro-cultures, their composition, but also the possible residues of pollutants and contaminants, or chemicals used to protect them against various pests and determine the possible loss or retention of these substances during technological processes. Animal raw materials should not contain veterinary drug residues or an abnormal amount of some components that result from inadequate feeding. Care should be taken to ensure the security of foods manufactured by biotechnology processes. The organisms and the whole processes used in food biotechnologies should eliminate any impurities. Any minor food ingredients, such as food additives, are under a permanent revision from the point of view of their safety. The industry reacts immediately if any justification requires that a particular food additive should not be used. In other words all the raw materials must conform to their specifications. Technological processes must create a food with an adequate microbiological quality, e.g. free of pathogens and their toxic metabolites. Any danger of microbiological contamination or accidental pollution, such as mechanical particles, chemical substances, etc. should be eliminated. The particular role of food packaging is crucial, since this is a barrier to protect the food against further parasites or microbial contamination and preserve the food from alterations due to enzymatic reactions that require particular oxygen and water activity conditions. The packaging should also protect against possible criminal damage. In addition, the material of packaging should not allow micro-migration to the food. It should be inert against its food content. Another aspect of food packaging that has to be taken into account is its recovery and recyclability. Finally, the food manufacturer has to ensure that the nutritional value of the product does not diminish through its shelf-life. The consumer should be advised about the effects of culinary practices since some of them, such as deep frying or grilling under certain circumstances, may create undesirable substances potentially harmful to human health. The food manufacturing in the context of the environment protection requires a separate issue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8202696

Shapiro, A; Mercier, C

1994-03-31

224

Two Products Manufacturer’s Production Decisions with Carbon Constraint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a manufacture which produces both ordinary products and green products in a monopoly market, and investigate his production decisions with carbon constraint. Firstly, we derive the manufacturer’s optimal production and maximum profit without carbon constraint. Then, we discuss the optimal production and maximum profit with carbon constraint in different situation. The results indicate that manufacturer’s optimal production and maximum profit with carbon constraint are less than them without carbon constraint, optimal production is an increasing function with carbon constraint.

Li LU

2013-03-01

225

Fiber optic connector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled.

Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenior City, TN)

1996-01-01

226

Out of Bounds Additive Manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing (AM) system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

Holshouser, Chris [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Newell, Clint [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Palas, Sid [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Rowe, John C [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL

2013-01-01

227

75 FR 80040 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...applicants who are active manufacturing executives (Chief Executive...leaders within their local manufacturing communities and industries...of a U.S. entity in the manufacturing sector. For the purposes...entity is defined as a firm incorporated in the...

2010-12-21

228

77 FR 2275 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...applicants who are active manufacturing executives (Chief Executive...leaders within their local manufacturing communities and industries...of a U.S. entity in the manufacturing sector. For the purposes...entity is defined as a firm incorporated in the...

2012-01-17

229

76 FR 33244 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...applicants who are active manufacturing executives (Chief Executive...leaders within their local manufacturing communities and industries...of a U.S. entity in the manufacturing sector. For the purposes...entity is defined as a firm incorporated in the...

2011-06-08

230

78 FR 67117 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...businesses in the manufacturing industry that are controlled...or an unincorporated firm with its principal...cross-section of the U.S. manufacturing industry in terms of...S. entity in the manufacturing industry and its particular...entity is defined as a firm incorporated in...

2013-11-08

231

75 FR 30781 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...applicants who are active manufacturing executives (Chief Executive...leaders within their local manufacturing communities and industries...of a U.S. entity in the manufacturing sector. For the purposes...entity shall be defined as a firm incorporated in the...

2010-06-02

232

Fiber Optics Physics and Technology  

CERN Document Server

Telephone, telefax, email and internet -- the key ingredient of the inner workings is the conduit: the line which is designed to carry massive amounts of data at breakneck speed. In their data-carrying capacity optical fiber lines beat other technologies (copper cable, microwave beacons, satellite links) hands down, at least in the long haul. This book tells you all you want to know about optical fibers: Their structure, their light-guiding mechanism, their material and manufacture, their use. Several effects tend to degrade the signal as it travels down the fiber: they are spelled out in detail. Nonlinear processes are given due consideration for a twofold reason: On the one hand they are fundamentally different from the more familiar processes in electrical cable. On the other hand, they form the basis of particularly interesting and innovative applications, provided they are understood well enough. A case in point is the use of so-called solitons, i.e. special pulses of light which have the wonderful prope...

Mitschke, Fedor

2010-01-01

233

Fiber optic monitoring device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information.

Samborsky, James K. (605 Groves Blvd., N. Augusta, SC 29841)

1993-01-01

234

Manufacturing of JT-60, a plasma feasibility experiment device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma feasibility experiment device JT-60, a large nuclear fusion system, is now being constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The JT-60 tokamak machine corresponding to reactor core is now being manufactured by Hitachi, Ltd. Since the components are subjected to strain, heat stresses and sudden repeated loads due to heavy current and strong magnetic fields, the structures are complicated but dimensional accuracy must be highly precise. To meet such requirements, computer analysis has been performed and extensive experiments have been conducted on various trial components during the designing stages. Moreover, new materials, new manufacturing techniques and up-to-date inspection techniques are being employed in the manufacturing processes. Various kinds of computers and displays have been employed in the design of the control system. Moreover, an optical fiber signal transmission system was also adopted. The control system design followed hierarchy construction and control system dispersion technology. (author)

1981-01-01

235

Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

Frazier, William E.

2014-04-01

236

Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

Frazier, William E.

2014-06-01

237

ToF-SIMS imaging of dopant diffusion in optical fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Applications of optical fibers in telecommunication and sensing are rapidly emerging where the fiber properties are related to the controlled addition of dopants such as germanium, phosphorous, fluorine and erbium. The modern ToF-SIMS instrument, with its high sensitivity and high lateral resolution, has shown to be an excellent tool to directly analyze cross-sections of as-manufactured fibers. The present work describes ToF-SIMS imaging of the dopant distribution in fluorine, germanium and rare-earth doped fibers where dopants are confined to a few ?m in the core. The increased fluorine diffusion in the fluorine doped fibers due to chemical reactions with hydroxyl groups was examined. This process is utilized in the manufacture of thermally stable chemical composition fiber Bragg gratings. We were able to produce ToF-SIMS elemental images with a lateral resolution around 0.5 ?m showing the detailed distribution of the dopants

2003-01-15

238

ToF-SIMS imaging of dopant diffusion in optical fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Applications of optical fibers in telecommunication and sensing are rapidly emerging where the fiber properties are related to the controlled addition of dopants such as germanium, phosphorous, fluorine and erbium. The modern ToF-SIMS instrument, with its high sensitivity and high lateral resolution, has shown to be an excellent tool to directly analyze cross-sections of as-manufactured fibers. The present work describes ToF-SIMS imaging of the dopant distribution in fluorine, germanium and rare-earth doped fibers where dopants are confined to a few {mu}m in the core. The increased fluorine diffusion in the fluorine doped fibers due to chemical reactions with hydroxyl groups was examined. This process is utilized in the manufacture of thermally stable chemical composition fiber Bragg gratings. We were able to produce ToF-SIMS elemental images with a lateral resolution around 0.5 {mu}m showing the detailed distribution of the dopants.

Hellsing, M.; Fokine, M.; Claesson, A.; Nilsson, L.-E.; Margulis, W

2003-01-15

239

Concepts in syngas manufacture  

CERN Document Server

This book provides a general overview of syngas technologies as well as an in-depth analysis of the steam reforming process. Syngas is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon oxides which can be made from hydrocarbons, coal and biomass. It is an important intermediate in the chemical industry for manufacture of ammonia, methanol and other petrochemicals as well as hydrogen for refineries and fuel cells. Syngas is playing a growing role in the energy sector, because it can be converted into a number of important energy carriers and fuels. Syngas catalysis creates new options and flexibility in the com

Rostrup-Nielsen, Jens

2011-01-01

240

Design and manufacturing excellence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

US technical expertise is arguably at the forefront of world materials handling equipment design and manufacturing. Despite the fact that higher costs of research and development - and indeed also in production - makes it difficult for US companies to compete in overseas markets, a number of outstanding achievements continue to be recorded, as illustrated in this paper. They include a hydraulic bucket from Pro-Line, the Cleveland Cascade chute and air cleaning system, from Pebco and CMC Engineering, a range of dust control and handling systems from DCL, and railroad unloaders from Heyl and Patterson. 6 photos.

Phillips, K.

2001-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Good manufacturing practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation author deals with the Implementation of good manufacturing practice for radiopharmaceuticals. The presentation is divided into next parts: Batch size; Expiration date; QC Testing; Environmental concerns; Personnel aspects; Radiation concerns; Theoretical yields; Sterilizing filters; Control and reconciliation of materials and components; Product strength; In process sampling and testing; Holding and distribution; Drug product inspection; Buildings and facilities; Renovations at BNL for GMP; Aseptic processing and sterility assurance; Process validation and control; Quality control and drug product stability; Documentation and other GMP topics; Building design considerations; Equipment; and Summary

2001-12-01

242

Mining equipment manufacturers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report analyses and compares the financial results of 72 leading companies concerned with the manufacture of mining equipment. Although equipment is made for mines of many kinds, in practice the main markets lie in the extraction of coal. Moreover, with some exceptions, the products are for use in deep mines. The main equipment in use on opencast sites represents a larger version of earth-moving machinery. The main coverage of the Report is on the basis of three successive years' company reports, running to dates not later than April 1987.

1988-01-01

243

Electrical anisotropy in multiscale nanotube/fiber hybrid composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This letter reports an experimental and theoretical study on the electrical properties of carbon nanotube/glass fiber composites. Experimental measurements on unidirectional glass fiber composites with nanotubes dispersed in the polymer matrix show a high degree of anisotropy. The composites, manufactured with a vacuum infusion technique, do not show any significant process-induced anisotropy. Theoretical modeling reveals that the microstructure of the fiber composite plays a dominant role in the electrical behavior due to alteration of percolating paths in the carbon nanotube network.

2009-08-17

244

Radiation curing of composites for vehicle component and vehicle manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some ordinary uses of metals in vehicle components and vehicle manufacture, such as steel (specific gravity 7.8) or aluminum (specific gravity 2.7), can be replaced by carbon fiber composites (specific gravity 1.6) to provide significant weight savings while still maintaining structural integrity. The aircraft and aerospace industries have adopted this concept. The motor vehicle industry is using composite materials for some nonstructural components in automobiles, but have been reluctant to widely adopt this technology because of concerns about thermal curing times and other issues in high-volume manufacturing processes. A typical steel auto body weighing ?750 kilograms would weigh only ?155 kilograms if replaced with carbon fiber composites. Structural members, such as the vehicle chassis and body frame, could also be made out of carbon fiber composites. With only 20% of the typical body weight, smaller, lighter, less powerful and more fuel efficient engines could be used in such vehicles. Commercial aircraft manufacturers have adopted large carbon fiber structures in lieu of aluminum for a 40% weight reduction and estimate a 20% savings in fuel costs for large planes. These aircraft still use conventional materials for motors, tires and interior components. The fuel efficiency of an automobile could be doubled with an 80% weight reduction. As with aircraft, conventional motors, tires and interior components could be used in automobiles. Radiation curing can simplify the manufacture of carbon fiber composites. Penetrating X-rays generated with high-energy, high-power electron beam (EB) accelerators can cure structural composites while they are constrained within inexpensive molds; thus reducing cure times, eliminating heat transfer concerns and potentially hazardous volatile emissions during the curing process. Since X-rays can penetrate mold walls, the curing process is quite versatile, enabling diverse components with varying designs to be cured using a common X-ray generator or multiple parts of the same design could be cured at the same time. Since the power output of an EB accelerator can be tightly controlled, EB processing can be used to produce 'B' staged, fiber-reinforced composite materials for sheet molding compounds (SMC) and prepregs. Such materials can significantly reduce the time-to-cure should alternative energy sources or subsequent X-ray curing be used. In the EB mode, SMC materials can be made at more than 100 meters per minute. The polymeric matrix systems are proprietary formulations based on common radiation responsive materials which are used in a variety of radiation curing applications. (author)

2010-01-01

245

INTEGRATED AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING SUPPLY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Traditionally, the impact of supply planning strategies on plant traffic is rarely considered. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS that will assist automotive manufacturers to analyse the effect of supply planning decisions on plant traffic during the supply planning phase of their logistics planning process. In essence, this DSS consists of a Supply Medium Decision Support Tool (SMDST (an interactive MS-Excel model with Visual Basic interfacing and a traffic flow simulation model tool (using eMPlant simulation software.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskaffingsbeplanning en verkeersvloeibeplanning is belangrike aktiwiteite in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf węreldwyd. Tradisioneel word die uitwerking van verskaffings-beplanningsstrategië op aanlegverkeer selde in ag geneem. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van ’n Besluitnemings Ondersteuningstelsel (DSS wat motorvervaardigers sal ondersteun in die analise van die effek van verskaffingsbeplanningbesluite op aanlegverkeer tydens die verskaffingsbeplanningsfase van hulle logistieke beplanningsproses. Hierdie DSS bestaan hoofsaaklik uit ’n Verskaffings-vervoermiddel Besluitnemingshulpmiddel (SMDST (’n interaktiewe MS-Excel model met “Visual Basic” koppelling asook ’n simulasiemodel van verkeersvloei (met eM-Plant simulasiesagteware.

P.J.S. Van Dyk

2012-01-01

246

New mold manufacturing techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Typically, optical molds have been made from silicon carbide (SiC) or tungsten carbide (WC). Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) polishing results of SiC and WC molds will be reviewed. Impressive figure corrections have been demonstrated on both types of materials. The roughness performance of CVD-SiC, WC and binderless WC will be compared. However, the hardness and polycrystalline nature of these materials make them difficult to manufacture. In this paper we report positive initial results using an alternate mold material, glassy carbon. Test samples have been ground, pre-polished and finish polished to a 38 nm surface figure peak-to-valley (PV) and a 6 Ĺ rms surface roughness, with improved cycle times versus SiC and WC. Glassy carbon is a promising mold material candidate as an amorphous material of lower hardness. The lower hardness leads to more effective diamond grinding process and results in a better surface rms roughness following MRF. After reviewing key material properties of glassy carbon material, this paper will describe some collaborative activities between Toshiba Machine Co., Ltd. and QED Technologies (QED) to manufacture representative examples of glassy carbon. Details of the grinding, pre-polishing and final polishing process will be provided along with the resultant metrology results after key steps. Molding experiments based on these developments will also be presented.

Hall, Chris; Tricard, Marc; Murakoshi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Kuriyama, Kunitaka; Yoko, Hiroyoshi

2005-08-01

247

Specialty optical fibers: revisited  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper contains description of chosen aspects of analysis and design of tailored optical fibers. By specialty optical fibers we understand here the fibers which have complex construction and which serve for the functional processing of optical signal rather than long distance transmission. Thus, they are called also instrumentation optical fibers. The following issues are considered: transmission properties, transformation of optical signal, fiber characteristics, fiber susceptibility to external reactions. The technology of tailored optical fibers offers a wider choice of the design tools for the fiber itself, and then various devices made from these fiber, than classical technology of communication optical fibers. The consequence is different fiber properties, nonstandard dimensions and different metrological problems. The price to be paid for wider design possibilities are bigger optical losses of these fibers and weaker mechanical properties, and worse chemical stability. These fibers find their applications outside the field of telecommunications. The applications of instrumentation optical fibers combine other techniques apart from the photonics ones like: electronic, chemical and mechatronic.

Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

2011-06-01

248

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF) which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carboni...

Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo; Choyu Otani; Heitor Aguiar Polidoro; Satika Otani

2012-01-01

249

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF) which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carboni...

Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo; Choyu Otani; Heitor Aguiar Polidoro; Satika Otani

2013-01-01

250

Ultrasound Wave Propagation in Thick Composites with Uniform Fiber Waviness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been a growing interest in thick composite materials especially for primary structures. Fiber waviness is one of the manufacturing defects frequently encountered in thick composite structures and affects the mechanical properties such as stiffness and strength significantly. Therefore, nondestructive evaluation technique that can detect fiber waviness of thick composite is very important for the integrity of structures. In this study, efforts were made to understand ultrasonic wave propagation in thick composites with uniform fiber waviness by adopting the ray and plane wave theories. Both theoretical and experimental investigations were conducted to understand the wave propagation in thick composites with uniform fiber waviness. The experiments were conducted on specially fabricated thick composite specimens with various degrees of uniform fiber waviness using the conventional through-transmission method to verify the predicted results. The experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions

2001-06-01

251

Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Cissus quadrangularis root.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber reinforced polymer composites are replacing many metallic structures due to its high specific strength and modulus. However commonly used man-made E-glass fibers are hazardous for health and carcinogenic by nature. Comprehensive characterization of Cissus quadrangularis root fiber such as anatomical study, chemical analysis, physical analysis, FTIR, XRD, SEM analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis are done. The results are very encouraging for its application in fiber industries, composite manufacturing, etc. Due to its light weight and the presence of high cellulose content (77.17%) with very little wax (0.14%) provide high specific strength and good bonding properties. The flaky honeycomb outer surface and low microfibril angle revealed through electron microscopy contributes for its high modulus. The thermo gravimetric analysis indicates better thermal stability of the fiber up to 230°C, which is well within the polymerization process temperature. PMID:24906775

Indran, S; Raj, R Edwin; Sreenivasan, V S

2014-09-22

252

Mechanical properties of glass fiber-reinforced endodontic posts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five types of posts from three different manufacturers (RTD, France, Carbotech, France and Ivoclar-Vivadent, Liechenstein) were subjected to three-point bending tests in order to obtain fatigue results, flexural strength and modulus. Transverse and longitudinal polished sections were examined by scanning electron microscopy and evaluated by computer-assisted image analysis. Physical parameters, including volume % of fibers, their dispersion index and coordination number, were calculated and correlated with mechanical properties. The weaker posts showed more fiber dispersion, higher resin contents, larger numbers of visible defects and reduced fatigue resistance. The flexural strength was inversely correlated with fiber diameter and the flexural modulus was weakly related to coordination number, volume % of fibers and dispersion index. The interfacial adhesion between the silica fibers and the resin matrix was observed to be of paramount importance. PMID:19428317

Cheleux, Nicolas; Sharrock, Patrick J

2009-10-01

253

Utilization of Faraday Mirror in Fiber Optic Current Sensors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fiber optic sensors dispose of some advantages in the field of electrical current and magnetic field measurement, like large bandwidth, linearity, light transmission possibilities. Unfortunately, they suffer from some parasitic phenomena. The crucial issue is the presence of induced and latent linear birefringence, which is imposed by the fiber manufacture imperfections as well as mechanical stress by fiber bending. In order to the linear birefringence compensation a promising method was chosen for pulsed current sensor design. The method employs orthogonal polarization conjugation by the back direction propagation of the light wave in the fiber. The Jones calculus analysis presents its propriety. An experimental fiber optic current sensor has been designed and realized. The advantage of the proposed method was proved considering to the sensitivity improvement.

P. Fiala

2008-12-01

254

Cloud manufacturing distributed computing technologies for global and sustainable manufacturing  

CERN Document Server

Global networks, which are the primary pillars of the modern manufacturing industry and supply chains, can only cope with the new challenges, requirements and demands when supported by new computing and Internet-based technologies. Cloud Manufacturing: Distributed Computing Technologies for Global and Sustainable Manufacturing introduces a new paradigm for scalable service-oriented sustainable and globally distributed manufacturing systems.   The eleven chapters in this book provide an updated overview of the latest technological development and applications in relevant research areas.  Following an introduction to the essential features of Cloud Computing, chapters cover a range of methods and applications such as the factors that actually affect adoption of the Cloud Computing technology in manufacturing companies and new geometrical simplification method to stream 3-Dimensional design and manufacturing data via the Internet. This is further supported case studies and real life data for Waste Electrical ...

Mehnen, Jörn

2013-01-01

255

Study of Reaction Mechanisms in Plasmas Related to Glass-Fiber Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of the fertilizer industry waste product SiF4 for the manufacturing of optical fibers for telecommunication is discussed. The SiF4 can be obtained from H2SiF6, a by-product of the manufacturing process. A relatively simple distillation procedure can b...

L. H. Saes

1987-01-01

256

Fiber optic ring network  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An optical fiber cable distribution architecture and a ring interface are described. The unique synergism of the ring configuration coupled with a widespread optical fiber cable facility are explored. The ring interface adapts a token passing network of work-stations from coaxial cable to 50 micron core, telecommunications type, fiber optic cable. The optical fiber cable links a series of communications centers to as many as 288 optical fibers. The loop distribution of optical fibers forms the backbone for a 6.7 km ring operating at 6 to 12 Mbps.

Gossage, S.A.

1985-01-01

257

Fiber sputtering and painting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The selection of the sigma design for the plate-fiber modules of the SSC calorimeter has reduced by a factor of two the number of fiber ends that will be read directly by photomultiplier tubes. With this design, only one of the ends of a fiber will be connected to a readout channel. In order to avoid wasting the light coming from the other end of the fiber inside the plate, mirroring techniques such as sputtering and painting are being studied. The sputtering and/or painting of optical fibers such as BCF91A considerably increases the light output of the plate-fiber system. (Author)

1992-05-02

258

Array fiber welding on micro optical glass substrates for chip-to-fiber coupling  

Science.gov (United States)

High bandwidth parallel optical transceivers are highly demanded for optical interconnects in data centers and in high performance computing. Such transceivers are composed of VCSEL- and photodiode components which have to be fiber coupled, and the appropriate driving and amplifying circuitry. For high density fiber optical connectors lens arrays for improved coupling efficiency have to be used. We propose an advantageous adhesive free method to interconnect optical fibers with such kind of lens arrays. Common approaches using adhesive bonding have high challenges in terms of yield, reliability and optical performance. We introduce our novel fiber welding approach for joining directly fused silica fibers on borosilicate glass substrates with integrated micro optics, e.g. lenses and lens arrays. It is a thermal process with a precise heat input by CO2-laser processing, which is combinable with sequential passive or active alignment of each single fiber to the substrate causing flexibility and highest coupling efficiencies. Since the fiber is accessed only from one side, a two dimensional high-density fiber array can be realized. The manufacturing time of such an interconnection is very short. Due to the adhesive free interface high power transmission is enabled and the occurrence of polymer caused misalignment and degradation are prevented. The paper presents current results in thin glass-based opto-electronic packaging. In particular our laboratory setup for array fiber welding and experimental results of such connections will be discussed and compared to UV-adhesive joining. Also further investigation, for example optical characterization and reliability tests are included. Finally a machine concept, which is under development, will be discussed.

Schröder, Henning; Neitz, Marcel; Brusberg, Lars; Queiser, Marco; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Lang, K.-D.

2014-03-01

259

Offshoring and Small U.S. Manufacturers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small manufacturers are critical to the health and dynamism of U.S. manufacturing. In 2003, manufacturers with fewer than 500 employees accounted for 99 percent of all manufacturing firms and for 43 percent of all manufacturing jobs. Small manufacturers p...

2008-01-01

260

Fiber optics in adverse environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations.

Lyous, P.B.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Procyclical Productivity in Manufacturing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english We study the cyclical behavior of labor productivity in eighty industries of the Chilean manufacturing sector in the 1979-2001 period. We find that labor productivity at the sector-level is procyclical but it is a-cyclical when using aggregate data. We provide an analytical and empirical explanation [...] for this divergence. We also use an econometric model to quantify the determinants of productivity. The results indicate that technology shocks account for one half of productivity growth, thus supporting the supply shocks hypothesis as the main source of business cycles in Chile. The other 50% of the productivity changes is explained by reallocation of resources from less to more productive sectors as well as the presence of increasing returns. Variations in factor utilization were insignificant

NAVARRO, LUCAS; SOTO, RAIMUNDO.

262

Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficiency and effectiveness of the gas turbine engine is directly related to the turbine inlet temperatures. The ability to increase these temperatures has occurred as a result of improvements in materials, design, and processing techniques. A generic sequence indicating the relationship of these factors to temperature capability is schematically shown in Figure 1 for aircraft engine and land based engine materials. A basic contribution that is not captured by the Figure is the significant improvement in process and manufacturing capability that has accompanied each of these innovations. It is this capability that has allowed the designs and innovations to be applied on a high volume, cost effective scale in the aircraft gas turbine market.

Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

1995-10-01

263

Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing (ECM)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kansas City Plant (KCP) is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) as the Kansas City Division of Allied-Signal Inc. The KCP produces and procures non-nuclear electrical, electronic, electromechanical, plastic, and metal components for nuclear weapons. Environmental goals at the KCP are to clean up, maintain, and operate the governmental facilities in the most environmentally advantageous manner consistent with regulations. New environmental technologies that are developed by the design laboratories and the KCP are incorporated into the DOE manufacturing facilities, and information is shared with the outside industry through meetings, publications, and seminars. This booklet presents current projects on solvent waste streams, polymer waste streams, plating waste streams, and miscellaneous waste stream minimization projects

1991-01-01

264

Advanced Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The Aerospace manufacturing industry segment is facing problems of a "graying" workforce. In addition they face the challenges of increasing productivity and integrating new materials accentuating the need to attract new engineers to the manufacturing workplace. This paper describes a project funded by the National Science Foundation to examine the changing needs of the aerospace manufacturing industries, and to develop curricula materials to address those needs. These materials will be in the public domain and fit into existing engineering and manufacturing technology programs. The project is a joint venture between El Camino College, Wichita Area Technical College, Oregon Institute of Technology and Purdue University, and is supported by the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, The Boeing Company, Northrop Grumman Corp., Bell Helicopter, Lockheed Martin Corp., and other leading aerospace companies. The first phase of this project involved conducting interviews with new manufacturing engineers and their mangers, and results of these interviews are included.

Anderson, John

2009-07-13

265

Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

266

Temperature uniformity analysis and development of open lightweight composite molds using carbon fibers as heating elements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the most critical steps in developing new composite products is the design and the manufacturing of molds. Especially in the high end composite materials manufacturing sector, the design of molds and tools comprises a major challenge. As far as the manufacturing of CFRPs is concerned, liquid composite molding processes and autoclave techniques are highly temperature-sensitive. The ability of carbon fibers (CFs) to conduct electric current can be used in heat transfer applications in th...

Athanasopoulos, N.; Koutsoukis, G.; Vlachos, D.; Kostopoulos, V.

2013-01-01

267

Bend-optimized optical fiber with S+C+L bands for FTTH applications  

Science.gov (United States)

A multi-clad waveguide, which provide more bandwidth for WDM with S+C+L bands, is illustrated in this study. The bending loss is optimized for the FTTH applications. The fiber is manufactured by PCVD process; the test results are identical with the theoretic calculation. This fiber has nearly flat dispersion from 1460 nm to 1625 nm. The MFD at 1310 nm and 1550 nm are 8.2 and 9.4 ?m, respectively. Bending loss is less than 0.1 dB/Turn at a bending radius of 7.5 mm. With low-water-peak manufacture technologies, the fiber is suitable for FTTH applications.

Cheng, Yu; Han, QingRong; Maran, Jean-Noel

2008-12-01

268

Measurements at 351 nm of temporal dispersion in fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1. Temporal dispersion at 351-nm was measured in the following: a 35-m bundle of 19 each 50-micro;m-core fibers, a companion 35-m single fiber, a 100- micro;m-core single fiber (at 4 lengths), and a 50-micro;m-core single fiber (two samples, 7 lengths). The 50-ampersand micro;m-core fiber was from preform number sign 24; the 100-ampersand micro;m-core fiber was a prototype version having a thick cladding. All of the fibers were developed and manufactured at the Vavilov State Optical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia. 2. Dispersion measurements were made by propagating a 20-ps 351-nm pulse through the fiber under test and recording the output on an S20 streak camera. The width of the pulse transmitted by the fiber was compared to that of a fraction of the pulse that had propagated over an air path. Values of dispersion were calculated as, D = ?(F ampersand sup2; - A ampersand sup2;) , where F and A are the full widths at half maximum (FWHM) for, respectively, the fiber-path and the air-path streaks. 3. In each of the experiments, the measured dispersion increased with counts in the streak record, which in principle, are proportional to intensity in the fiber. Measured values of dispersion ranged from about 0.6 to 1.0 ps/m for the single fibers. 4. The measured FWHMs of both the fiber-path pulse and the air-path pulse increased with increase in counts in the streak record. The rate of broadening was greatest for the fiber-path pulse, and the broadening of that pulse was the primary cause for the dependence of dispersion on counts in the streak record. Pulse broadening with increase in counts is symptomatic of camera saturation, but it is difficult to understand why saturation should have effected the fiber-path pulses more strongly. 5. There were spatial anomalies in the streak records of the output pulses from some of the fibers. Emission by the bundle of a ''doubled'' pulse is a primary example. In streaks recorded at about 800 counts, the total duration for the pair of pulses was about 100 ps. The maxima of the pulses occurred in different columns of the streak, so there was a relative spatial or angular offset between the two pulses. Pulses with extended tails were observed in each streak that was recorded at about 400 counts. 6. We frequently had difficulty obtaining adequate transmittance through 50-mm single fibers. Some of our problems probably were related to inexperience in cleaving this particular fiber

1998-01-01

269

Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

1994-12-01

270

Manufacturing productivity, deindustrialization, and reindustrialization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In considering pathways to industrialization in the twenty-first century, cognisance needs to be taken of the fact that many countries have actually been deindustrializing. This paper analyses deindustrialization experiences internationally, by decomposing changes in the level and share of manufacturing employment. The results indicate that in most countries the decline in manufacturing employment is associated mainly with rising labour productivity in manufacturing. Reindustrialization is li...

Tregenna, Fiona

2011-01-01

271

Low-Cost Fiber Optic Weigh-in-Motion Sensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report proposes a design for a fiber optic weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensor. A prototype of the proposed sensor is designed, manufactured, and tested in the laboratory for different load-frequency combinations using an MTS machine. Statistical analyses of...

A. Safaai-Jazi S. A. Ardekani M. Mehdikhani

1990-01-01

272

MONITORING TECHNIQUES FOR CARBON FIBER EMISSIONS: EVALUATION A  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was carried out of methods and techniques applicable to the detection and monitoring of carbon fibers as they are emitted in processes involving their manufacture or their use. The specific activities of these programs were: (a) to perform a detailed literature s...

273

Foods high in fiber and phytobezoar formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-fiber diets are being recommended by government agencies, cancer institutes, and manufacturers of high-fiber foods. Although this recommendation is appropriate for the majority of clients, some persons are prone to form phytobezoars and should not add certain kinds of fiber to the diet. The phytobezoar is a compact mass of fibers, skins, seeds, leaves, roots, or stems of plants that collects in the stomach or small intestine. Other food particles, such as fats, crystals, granules, fibers, and residues of salts, are incorporated into the mass and contribute to the growth of the bezoar. Clients who have undergone surgical procedures for peptic ulcer disease or stomach cancer or who for other reasons, such as diabetic gastroparesis, have a loss of normal pyloric function and decreased gastric acidity are prone to form phytobezoars. Once formed, the bezoar can be disintegrated through surgery, by the use of the Water Pik and enzymes during endoscopy, or by treatment with metoclopramide. The dietitian should advise such clients to avoid identified foods that lead to phytobezoar formation--oranges, persimmons, coconuts, berries, green beans, figs, apples, sauerkraut, brussels sprouts, and potato peel. PMID:2824590

Emerson, A P

1987-12-01

274

Fiber Optic Ring Network.  

Science.gov (United States)

An optical fiber cable distribution architecture and a ring interface are described. The unique synergism of the ring configuration coupled with a widespread optical fiber cable facility are explored. The ring interface adapts a token passing network of w...

S. A. Gossage

1985-01-01

275

Multimaterial multifunctional fiber devices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent discoveries have enabled the integration of metals, insulators and semiconductors structures into extended length of polymer fibers. The challenges and opportunities associated with this new class of fiber devices will be presented.

Sorin, Fabien; Fink, Yoel

2011-01-01

276

Patterned Electrospray Fiber Structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrospun fibers have useful filtration properties for chemical protective clothing and filter masks. Techniques for the patterned deposition of these fibers have been developed based on varying the conductivity of the target substrate. We are investiga...

P. Gibson H. Schreuder-Gibson

2005-01-01

277

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Kids 'n Fiber Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates ... and Healthy Diets Getting kids to eat the fiber they need can be a challenge. Join FDA ...

278

Kids 'n Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Kids 'n Fiber Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates ... and Healthy Diets Getting kids to eat the fiber they need can be a challenge. Join FDA ...

279

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Kids 'n Fiber Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer ... Hemorrhoids'? - - For More Information FDA Flickr Photostream - Kids 'n Fiber - Page Last Updated: 01/08/2014 Note: ...

280

Wireless technology for integrated manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the ground breaking work in Oak Ridge facilities that now leads us to the brink of the wireless revolution in manufacturing. The focus is on solving tough technological problems necessary for success and addressing the critical issues of throughput, security, reliability, and robustness in applying wireless technology to manufacturing processes. Innovative solutions to these problems are highlighted through detailed designs and testbed implementations that demonstrate key concepts. The DOE-Oak Ridge complex represented by the Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technologies (ORCMT) continues to develop these technologies and will continue to focus on solving tough manufacturing problems.

Manges, W.W.; Allgood, G.O.; Shourbaji, A.A.

1996-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Advanced Fibers for Composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews high performance fibers used in the production of textile composites. Techniques used to produce preform using these fibers are discussed. The properties of fibers such as kevlar, spectra, glass, carbon and ceramic are presented. The paper also discusses densification or consolidation techniques used to produce composites from each fiber. Finally, the paper compares the properties of Carbon/Epoxy composites with that of 6061 aluminum. 3 figs., 4 tabs

1994-03-01

282

Rayleigh fiber optics gyroscope  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel kind of fiber-optic gyroscope based on Rayleigh backscattering in a fiber-ring resonator is presented in this letter. Information on the rotation rate is obtained from the composed response of the fiber ring to an optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) instrument. The developed model based on the coherence properties of the Rayleigh scattering yields a polarization-insensitive and low-cost gyroscope

Kung, A.; Budin, J.; The?venaz, Luc; Robert, P. A.

1997-01-01

283

Scintillating fiber tracking techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status of the field of scintillating fiber detection and tracking is briefly reviewed, and avenues for further work are suggested. Attention is given to the core material, cladding material, and extra-mural absorber to be used in the scintillating fibers, as well as to the properties of attenuation length, radiation resistance, and fiber profile. Some examples are given of successful recording of tracks and interactions. Current developments are mentioned in relation to plastic and glass fibers and liquid capillaries

1986-01-15

284

Ultrafast Nd fiber lasers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since rare earth ions were first incorporated in single mode fibers, a large number of applications have been demonstrated resulting in the establishment of rare earth doped fibers as one of the major tools in fiber optics. Here, femtosecond pulse generation based in Kerr-type and carrier-type modelocking of Nd{sup 3+} doped fiber lasers is discussed. Special emphasis is to be given to the startup conditions and the methods used to initiate the modelocking process.

Ober, M.H.; Hofer, M. [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria)

1995-11-01

285

Development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have initiated a three phase investigation of the development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer usable lifetimes. This report presents the results of the first phase of the study, performed from Aug. 1989 through Feb. 1991, which shows that significant energy saving are possible through the use of high temperature insulating fibers that better retain their efficient insulating properties during the service lifetime of the fibers. The remaining phases of this program include the pilot scale development and then full scale production feasibility development and evaluation of enhanced high temperature refractory insulting fibers. This first proof of principle phase of the program presents a summary of the current use patterns of refractory fibers, a laboratory evaluation of the high temperature performance characteristics of selected typical refractory fibers and an analysis of the potential energy savings through the use of enhanced refractory fibers. The current use patterns of refractory fibers span a wide range of industries and high temperature furnaces within those industries. The majority of high temperature fiber applications are in furnaces operating between 2000 and 26000{degrees}F. The fibers used in furnaces operating within this range provide attractive thermal resistance and low thermal storage at reasonable cost. A series of heat treatment studies performed for this phase of the program has shown that the refractory fibers, as initially manufactured, have attractive thermal conductivities for high temperature applications but the fibers go through rapid devitrification and subsequent crystal growth upon high temperature exposure. Development of improved fibers, maintaining the favorable characteristics of the existing as-manufactured fibers, could save between 1 and 4% of the energy consumed in high temperature furnaces using refractory fibers.

Martin, P.C.; DePoorter, G.L.; Munoz, D.R.

1991-02-01

286

Elastoplastic damage micromechanics for elliptical fiber composites with progressive partial fiber debonding and thermal residual stresses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Incorporating the interfacial damage and thermal residual stresses, an elasto-plastic damage formulation is proposed to predict the overall transverse mechanical behavior of continuous elliptical-fiber reinforced ductile matrix composites within the framework of micromechanics and homogenization. Based on the concept of equivalent inclusion and taking the progressive interfacial debonding angle into consideration, partially debonded fibers are replaced by equivalent orthotropic, perfectly bonded fibers. Three interfacial damage modes are considered. The Weibull's probabilistic function is adopted to describe the varying probability of progressive partial fiber debonding. The effective elastic moduli of four-phase composites, composed of a ductile matrix and randomly located yet unidirectionally aligned fibers are derived by a micromechanical formulation. Thermal residual stresses are taken into account through the concept of thermal eigenstrain to investigate the effects of the manufacturing processinduced residual stresses. Employing the micromechanical approximation, the overall stress-strain responses and the effective yield function are formulated with the thermal eigenstrain. When comparing with the available experimental data, significant effects of thermal residual stresses are discussed. Moreover, the effects of the interfacial strengths and the cross- sectional shapes of fibers on the mechanical behaviors of composites are systematically investigated.

Ju J.W.

2008-01-01

287

Access Control for Manufacturing Process in Networked Manufacturing Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The deficiencies of current access control techniques in solving the problems of manufacturing process access conflict in networked manufacturing environment were analyzed. An information model of manufacturing process was con-structed, and a case XML Schema of manufacturing task model was given. Based on the characteristic analysis of the access control for the information model, an improved access control model of manufacturing process was constructed, and the access control model based on manufacture tasks, roles and time limits and the relationships among the ele-ments were defined. The implementation mechanisms for access control model were analyzed, in which the access case matching strategy based on manufacture tasks and time limits, the authorization assignment mechanism based on manufacture tasks, roles, correlation degrees and time limits, XML based access control for transaction security and integrity were included. And the two-level detection architecture of transaction conflict was designed to find the con-flicts both in application and in the database. Finally the prototype system was developed based on these principles. Feasibility and effectiveness of the method were verified by an enterprise application.

Ke Zhou

2009-06-01

288

Gated Fiber Optic Transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

A gated fiber optic sensor system is disclosed for increasing the effective optical path of a length of optical fiber cable. A pulse of polarized light having a known optical wavelength is directed into a length of optical fiber cable for propagation ther...

L. C. Bobb

1982-01-01

289

Manufacturing strategy issues in selected Indian manufacturing industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents some findings of Indian manufacturing sectors viz. automobile (especially two-wheeler, tractor and general manufacturing industry. Various manufacturing strategy issues such as competitive priorities, improvement activities, and performance measures, have been identified and assessed in Indian context. Sector wise comparison of competitive priorities, improvement activities i.e. advanced manufacturing technology (AMT, integrated information systems (IIS, and advanced management systems (AMS, and performance measure, is provided. Our results showed that most of the Indian companies are still emphasizing on quality. However, automobile sector has set to compete globally with high innovation rate, faster new product development, and continuous improvement. It is also observed that Indian companies are investing more in AMS as compared to IIS and AMT. Manufacturing competence index is also computed for each sector.

Mahender Singh

2013-03-01

290

Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Reported here are the results of tests of the 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT).

Lintereur, Azaree T.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

2009-10-23

291

Dimensionally stable PET fibers for tire reinforcement. [Polyethylene terephthalate (POLYESTERS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-modulus, high-tenacity polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers have gained wide acceptance in reinforcement for rubber products such as tires and hoses; in geotextiles, and in ropes and cordage. Accordingly, a great deal of fundamental research has been conducted on how the processing and resulting morphology of these thermoplastic fibers affect their physical properties. The translation of these starting fiber properties to those in the final end-use product has received much less attention. This article compares the structure-property relationships of recently-developed PET yarns possessing high dimensional stability (i.e., high modulus and low shrinkage) with conventional PET tire yarn. Interest in these materials is stimulated by their ability to improve tire uniformity and, for some tire manufacturers, eliminate the need for post-cure inflation during tire manufacturing. Where possible, cause and effect relationships will be developed.

Rim, P.B.; Nelson, C.J.

1991-05-01

292

A Manufacturing Informatics Framework for Manufacturing Sustainability Assessment. In : Re-engineering Manufacturing for Sustainability, Springer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Manufacturing firms that wish to improve their environmental performance of their product, process, and systems are faced with a complex task because manufacturing systems are very complex and they come in many forms and life expectancies. To achieve desired product functionalities, different design and material can be selected; thus the corresponding manufacturing processes are also changed accordingly. There is direct need of assessment tools to monitor and estimate environmental impact gen...

2013-01-01

293

Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) engineers John Zimmerman and Tom Bender directed separate projects within this CRADA. This Project Accomplishments Summary contains their reports independently. Zimmerman: In 1998 Honeywell FM&T partnered with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Cooperative Business Management Program to pilot the Supply Chain Integration Planning Prototype (SCIP). At the time, FM&T was developing an enterprise-wide supply chain management prototype called the Integrated Programmatic Scheduling System (IPSS) to improve the DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) supply chain. In the CRADA partnership, FM&T provided the IPSS technical and business infrastructure as a test bed for SCIP technology, and this would provide FM&T the opportunity to evaluate SCIP as the central schedule engine and decision support tool for IPSS. FM&T agreed to do the bulk of the work for piloting SCIP. In support of that aim, DAMA needed specific DOE Defense Programs opportunities to prove the value of its supply chain architecture and tools. In this partnership, FM&T teamed with Sandia National Labs (SNL), Division 6534, the other DAMA partner and developer of SCIP. FM&T tested SCIP in 1998 and 1999. Testing ended in 1999 when DAMA CRADA funding for FM&T ceased. Before entering the partnership, FM&T discovered that the DAMA SCIP technology had an array of applications in strategic, tactical, and operational planning and scheduling. At the time, FM&T planned to improve its supply chain performance by modernizing the NWC-wide planning and scheduling business processes and tools. The modernization took the form of a distributed client-server planning and scheduling system (IPSS) for planners and schedulers to use throughout the NWC on desktops through an off-the-shelf WEB browser. The planning and scheduling process within the NWC then, and today, is a labor-intensive paper-based method that plans and schedules more than 8,000 shipped parts per month based on more than 50 manually-created document types. The fact that DAMA and FM&T desired to move from paper-based manual architectures to digitally based computer architectures gave further incentive for the partnership to grow. FM&T's greatest strength was its knowledge of NWC-wide scheduling and planning with its role as the NWC leader in manufacturing logistics. DAMA's asset was its new knowledge gained in the research and development of advanced architectures and tools for supply chain management in the textiles industry. These complimentary strengths allowed the two parties to provide both the context and the tools for the pilot. Bender: Honeywell FM&T participated in a four-site supply chain project, also referred to as an Inter-Enterprise Pipeline Evaluation. The MSAD project was selected because it involves four NWC sites: FM&T, Pantex, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). FM&T had previously participated with Los Alamos National Laboratory in FY98 to model a two-site supply chain project, between FM&T and LANL. Evaluation of a Supply Chain Methodology is a subset of the DAMA project for the AMTEX consortium. LANL organization TSA-7, Enterprise Modeling and Simulation, has been involved in AMTEX and DAMA through development of process models and simulations for LANL, the NWC, and others. The FY 1998 and this FY 1999 projects directly involved collaboration between Honeywell and the Enterprise Modeling and Simulation (TSA-7) and Detonation Science and Technology (DX1) organizations at LANL.

Bender, T.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.

2001-02-07

294

Oil separator manufacturers Version 11  

…your company manufactures separators and would like its products to appear on this list, please contact Jo Bradley on 08708 506 506. Despite our best efforts, this list may not be comprehensive. It doesn't represent Environment Agency approved manufacturers. We do not endorse any on the companies listed… Related Searches: ppg

295

Guitar Design and Manufacture Workbook  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource from the Guitarbuilding.org project is a comprehensive workbook on the design and manufacture of guitars. In addition to the obvious ties to general manufacturing concepts, the material will incorporate science, math, electronics and technology into your curriculum. This workbook includes a number of learning activities and exercises. Useful appendices are also provided.

2012-11-14

296

Gun Tube Manufacture by Automation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes three areas of the production line in manufacture of gun tubes that, with improvement, would be beneficial to gun tube manufacture by automation. The purpose of the project was to highlight and improve these areas to result in an imp...

C. LaRoss

1979-01-01

297

Fiber coating method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A coating is applied to reinforcing fibers arranged into a tow by coaxially aligning the tow with an adjacent separation layer and winding or wrapping the tow and separation layer onto a support structure in an interleaved manner so that the separation layer separates a wrap of the tow from an adjacent wrap of the tow. A coating can then be uniformly applied to the reinforcing fibers without defects caused by fiber tow to fiber tow contact. The separation layer can be a carbon fiber veil.

Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY)

2001-01-01

298

Multimaterial Acoustic Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

The emergence of multimaterial fibers that combine a multiplicity of solid materials with disparate electrical, optical, and mechanical properties into a single fiber presents new opportunities for extending fiber applications well beyond optical transmission. Fiber reflectors, thermal detectors, photodetectors, chemical sensors, surface-emitting fiber lasers, fiber diodes, and other functional fiber devices have been demonstrated with this approach. Yet, throughout this development and indeed the development of fibers in general, a key premise has remained unchanged : that fibers are essentially static devices incapable of controllably changing their properties at high frequencies. Unique opportunities would arise if a rapid, electrically-driven mechanism for changing fiber properties existed. A wide spectrum of hitherto passive fiber devices could at once become active with applications spanning electronics, mechanics, acoustics, and optics, with the benefits of large surface-area, structural robustness, and mechanical flexibility. This thesis addresses the challenges and opportunities associated with the realization of electromechanical transduction in fibers through the integration of internal piezoelectric and electrostrictive domains. The fundamental challenges related to the fabrication of piezoelectric devices in fiber form are analyzed from a materials perspective, and candidate materials and geometries are selected that are compatible with the thermal drawing process. The first realization of a thermally drawn piezoelectric fiber device is reported and its piezoelectric response is established over a wide range of frequencies. The acoustic properties of piezoelectric fiber devices are characterized and related to their mechanical and geometric properties. Collective effects in multi-fiber constructs are discussed and demonstrated by the realization of a linear phased array of piezoelectric fibers capable of acoustic beam steering. High strain actuation capabilities in a fiber are demonstrated based on the integration of a highly electrostrictive relaxor ferroelectric polymer. The potential of this approach to realize integrated microelectromechanical systems in fibers is illustrated by the fabrication of a hybrid fiber comprising an electrostrictive device and an adjacent Fabry-Perot optical filter. Amplitude modulation of the light reflected from the Fabry-Perot cavity is demonstrated through electric field induced tuning of the cavity resonance. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs@mit.edu)

Chocat, Noemie

299

Manufacturers look beyond relicensing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As has been documented in recent issues of ASE magazine, the next five years will feature intense activity in hydropower relicensing activity, as developers compete for a rash of licenses due to expire and environmental groups push for mitigation of perceived damages to the environment. The early states of this new chapter in hydro development will create a lot of work for legal staffs, consulting engineers and environmental specialists, but the equipment suppliers and contractors will have to wait until the relicense awards are made by the FERC before receiving new business. From the equipment supplier's point of view, and especially the turbine manufacturer's point of view, the current relicensing program is a minor perturbation in the on-going process of repairing and replacing old plants. However, it would appear that the improvement and replacement of obsolescent plants may soon be accelerated considerably by the level of competition and external pressures to make efficient use of resources.

Carr, P.

1987-11-01

300

Energy Absorption in Chopped Carbon Fiber Compression Molded Composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In passenger vehicles the ability to absorb energy due to impact and be survivable for the occupant is called the ''crashworthiness'' of the structure. To identify and quantify the energy absorbing mechanisms in candidate automotive composite materials, test methodologies were developed for conducting progressive crush tests on composite plate specimens. The test method development and experimental set-up focused on isolating the damage modes associated with the frond formation that occurs in dynamic testing of composite tubes. Quasi-static progressive crush tests were performed on composite plates manufactured from chopped carbon fiber with an epoxy resin system using compression molding techniques. The carbon fiber was Toray T700 and the epoxy resin was YLA RS-35. The effect of various material and test parameters on energy absorption was evaluated by varying the following parameters during testing: fiber volume fraction, fiber length, fiber tow size, specimen width, profile radius, and profile constraint condition. It was demonstrated during testing that the use of a roller constraint directed the crushing process and the load deflection curves were similar to progressive crushing of tubes. Of all the parameters evaluated, the fiber length appeared to be the most critical material parameter, with shorter fibers having a higher specific energy absorption than longer fibers. The combination of material parameters that yielded the highest energy absorbing material was identified

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Energy Absorption in Chopped Carbon Fiber Compression Molded Composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In passenger vehicles the ability to absorb energy due to impact and be survivable for the occupant is called the ''crashworthiness'' of the structure. To identify and quantify the energy absorbing mechanisms in candidate automotive composite materials, test methodologies were developed for conducting progressive crush tests on composite plate specimens. The test method development and experimental set-up focused on isolating the damage modes associated with the frond formation that occurs in dynamic testing of composite tubes. Quasi-static progressive crush tests were performed on composite plates manufactured from chopped carbon fiber with an epoxy resin system using compression molding techniques. The carbon fiber was Toray T700 and the epoxy resin was YLA RS-35. The effect of various material and test parameters on energy absorption was evaluated by varying the following parameters during testing: fiber volume fraction, fiber length, fiber tow size, specimen width, profile radius, and profile constraint condition. It was demonstrated during testing that the use of a roller constraint directed the crushing process and the load deflection curves were similar to progressive crushing of tubes. Of all the parameters evaluated, the fiber length appeared to be the most critical material parameter, with shorter fibers having a higher specific energy absorption than longer fibers. The combination of material parameters that yielded the highest energy absorbing material was identified.

Starbuck, J.M.

2001-07-20

302

Virtual Manufacturing Techniques Designed and Applied to Manufacturing Activities in the Manufacturing Integration and Technology Branch  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the identified goals of EM3 is to implement virtual manufacturing by the time the year 2000 has ended. To realize this goal of a true virtual manufacturing enterprise the initial development of a machinability database and the infrastructure must be completed. This will consist of the containment of the existing EM-NET problems and developing machine, tooling, and common materials databases. To integrate the virtual manufacturing enterprise with normal day to day operations the development of a parallel virtual manufacturing machinability database, virtual manufacturing database, virtual manufacturing paradigm, implementation/integration procedure, and testable verification models must be constructed. Common and virtual machinability databases will include the four distinct areas of machine tools, available tooling, common machine tool loads, and a materials database. The machine tools database will include the machine envelope, special machine attachments, tooling capacity, location within NASA-JSC or with a contractor, and availability/scheduling. The tooling database will include available standard tooling, custom in-house tooling, tool properties, and availability. The common materials database will include materials thickness ranges, strengths, types, and their availability. The virtual manufacturing databases will consist of virtual machines and virtual tooling directly related to the common and machinability databases. The items to be completed are the design and construction of the machinability databases, virtual manufacturing paradigm for NASA-JSC, implementation timeline, VNC model of one bridge mill and troubleshoot existing software and hardware problems with EN4NET. The final step of this virtual manufacturing project will be to integrate other production sites into the databases bringing JSC's EM3 into a position of becoming a clearing house for NASA's digital manufacturing needs creating a true virtual manufacturing enterprise.

Shearrow, Charles A.

1999-01-01

303

Fiber optic vibration sensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

Dooley, Joseph B. (Harriman, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Tobin, Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN)

1995-01-01

304

Fiber Accelerating Structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the options for future particle accelerators are photonic band gap (PBG) fiber accelerators. PBG fibers are specially designed optical fibers that use lasers to excite an electric field that is used to accelerate electrons. To improve PBG accelerators, the basic parameters of the fiber were tested to maximize defect size and acceleration. Using the program CUDOS, several accelerating modes were found that maximized these parameters for several wavelengths. The design of multiple defects, similar to having closely bound fibers, was studied to find possible coupling or the change of modes. The amount of coupling was found to be dependent on distance separated. For certain distances accelerating coupled modes were found and examined. In addition, several non-periodic fiber structures were examined using CUDOS. The non-periodic fibers produced several interesting results and promised more modes given time to study them in more detail.

Hammond, Andrew P.; /Reed Coll. /SLAC

2010-08-25

305

Fiber Reinforcement in Injection Molded Nylon 6/6 Spur Gears  

Science.gov (United States)

Injection molded polymer composite gears are being used in many power and or motion transmission applications. In order to widen the utilization of reinforced polymers for precision motion transmission and noise less applications, the accuracy of molded gears should be increased. Since the injection molded gear accuracy is significantly influenced by the material shrinkage behaviour, there is a need to understand the influence of fiber orientation and gate location on part shrinkage behaviour and hence the gear accuracy. Unreinforced and 20% short glass fiber reinforced Nylon 6/6 spur gears were injection molded in the laboratory and computer aided simulations of gear manufacturing was also carried out. Results of the mold flow simulation of gear manufacturing were correlated with the actual fiber orientation and measured major geometrical parameters of the molded gears. Actual orientation of the fibers near the tooth profile, weld line region and injection points of molded gears were observed using optical microscope and correlated with predicted fiber orientation.

Senthilvelan, S.; Gnanamoorthy, R.

2006-07-01

306

WHAT HAPPENS TO CELLULOSIC FIBERS DURING PAPERMAKING AND RECYCLING? A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Both reversible and irreversible changes take place as cellulosic fibers are manufactured into paper products one or more times. This review considers both physical and chemical changes. It is proposed that by understanding these changes one can make better use of cellulosic fibers at various stages of their life cycles, achieving a broad range of paper performance characteristics. Some of the changes that occur as a result of recycling are inherent to the fibers themselves. Other changes may result from the presence of various contaminants associated with the fibers as a result of manufacturing processes and uses. The former category includes an expected loss of swelling ability and decreased wet-flexibility, especially after kraft fibers are dried. The latter category includes effects of inks, de-inking agents, stickies, and additives used during previous cycles of papermaking.

Orlando J. Rojas

2007-11-01

307

Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of a spider silk-manufacturing process is of great interest. However, there are serious problems with natural manufacturing through spider farming, and standard recombinant protein production platforms have provided limited progress due to their inability to assemble spider silk proteins into fibers. Thus, we used piggyBac vectors to create transgenic silkworms encoding chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins. The silk fibers produced by these animals were composite materials t...

Teule?, Florence; Miao, Yun-gen; Sohn, Bong-hee; Kim, Young-soo; Hull, J. Joe; Fraser, Malcolm J.; Lewis, Randolph V.; Jarvis, Donald L.

2012-01-01

308

Low-coherence interferometric measurements of optical losses in autoclave cured composite samples with embedded optical fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work a high-performance optical low-coherence reflectometer (OLCR) has been used to estimate the optical losses in optical fibers and fiber Bragg grating sensors embedded into CFRP material samples. An ASE tunable narrowband light source coupled to a Michelson interferometer allowed the high spatial resolution localization of both the concentrated and the distributed loss for different fiber coatings and type. In particular, acrylate- and polyimidecoated fibers and bend-insensitive fibers were tested. By using the OLCR it was possible to locate and identify the sources of optical loss introduced by the CFRP manufacturing process, therefore obtaining useful information on the efficiency of the embedding process.

Di Sante, Raffaella; Bastianini, Filippo; Donati, Lorenzo

2013-05-01

309

All-fiber, long-active-length Fabry-Perot strain sensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a high-sensitivity, all-silica, all-fiber Fabry-Perot strain-sensor. The proposed sensor provides a long active length, arbitrary length of Fabry-Perot cavity, and low intrinsic temperature sensitivity. The sensor was micro-machined from purposely-developed sensor-forming fiber that is etched and directly spliced to the lead-in fiber. This manufacturing process has good potential for cost-effective, high-volume production. Its measurement range of over 3000 µ?, and strain-resolution better than 1 µ? were demonstrated by the application of a commercial, multimode fiber-based signal processor. PMID:21934926

Pevec, Simon; Donlagic, Denis

2011-08-01

310

Fiber-optic strain gauge with attached ends and unattached microbend section  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A strain gauge is made of an optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. The permanent microbends cause a reduction in the fiber's optical transmission, but, when the gauge is attached to a substrate that is subsequently strained, the amplitude of the deformations will diminish and the optical transmission through the fiber will increase. An apparatus and process for manufacturing these microbends into the optical fiber through a heat-set process is employed; this apparatus and process includes a testing and calibration system.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

311

Fabrication and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotube fiber for electronics applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a customized technique to spin fiber from unique single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films utilizing a motorized pulling/twisting stage. The manufactured SWCNT fibers' diameter ranged from 30 to 130 mu m. Electrical measurements show fusing current of 1-200 mA - depending on the spun fiber's diameter - which is close to the values known for copper wires with similar diameter. These results reveal that the fiber spinning process could retain most of the advantageous electr...

Song, Li; Toth, Geza; Vajtai, Robert; Endo, Morinobu; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

2012-01-01

312

The application of laser micromachining technology in fiber optic sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

Micromachining of optic fiber is one of the key technologies in the field of fiber optic sensing. In this paper, the progress of optic fiber machining has been discussed and our study in this field has been described. Because the main component of fiber optic materials is SiO2 and the optic fibers are thin, small, hard and crisp, the results of micromachining of optic fiber are poor by using traditional methods. It is impossible to do the partial precise modification for optic fibers or make holes on them and therefore it is difficult to meet the needs of practical use. The newly deep ultraviolet light micromachining technology is the effective technology for the micromachining of optic fiber. By using excimer laser, the three-dimensional micromachining of fiber materials has been studied, and the results show that with the increase of the pulse laser energy, the etching width of the fiber grooves will increase and then keep unchanged after the pulse laser energy reaches a certain value. For the two-dimensional micromachining of fiber materials, it was found that the etching was related to the focused spot quality such as energy uniformity, scanning velocity and repetition frequency, which provides theoretical and technical preliminary for the direct micromachining of optic fiber using excimer laser. Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are new sensors which developed in recently years and have important application in many fields. FBG is the key sensing element and can be prepared by the precise micro modification of fiber optic materials. In this paper, the study on the micromachining to change precisely the local refractive ratio of optic fiber materials with excimer laser has performed and FBG can be formed in this way. Various kinds of FBG including single mode, multimode, chirp and long period fiber grating have been prepared, and the FBG sensors for the detection of stress/strain, pressure, temperature, vibration have been manufactured and used in many fields such as bridges, petroleum chemistry, industry and civil construction, navigation.

Jiang, Desheng; Xin, Sijin; Wei, Renxuan; Huang, Jun

2004-12-01

313

Process for the manufacture of semi-rigid, folding solar generators manufactured from several coated solar cells. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines halbstarren, faltbaren, aus mehreren bedeckten Solarzellen (Cics) hergestellten Solargenerators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a process for manufacturing a semi-rigid, folding solar generator manufactured from several coated solar cells (Cics), which has at least two folding parts connected together so as to turn by hinges, characterized by the following stages of the process: a) On the back of matrix subsections, in order to cover the connector, carbon fibre strips are glued on, which project over the upper or lower edge of each matrix subsection. b) The projecting ends of adjacent carbon fiber strips are connected with two carbon fibre strips. c) At least two matrix subsections are fixed in separately manufactured carbon fiber frames, and d) the carbon fiber frames, together with the matrix subsections are connected via hinges to a solar generator.

Koch, J.

1985-10-31

314

Mechanical and thermal properties of basalt fiber reinforced poly(butylene succinate) composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Novel basalt fiber-reinforced biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) composites have been successfully fabricated with various fiber loadings. ? The tensile and flexural properties of the PBS matrix resin are improved significantly by increasing the fiber loading in the composites. ? The impact strength of the BF/PBS composite decreases with the addition fibers primarily and increases with increasing fiber loading due to energy dissipation when the fibers are pulled out. ? Heat deflection temperature tests clearly show that the HDT of the basalt fiber reinforced PBS composites is significantly higher than the HDT of the PBS resin. - Abstract: Basalt fiber (BF) reinforced poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) composites have been fabricated with different fiber contents by a injection molding method and their tensile, flexural and impact properties, as well as thermal stability have been investigated. The tensile and flexural properties of the PBS matrix resin are improved markedly by increasing the fiber contents in the composites. The values are relatively higher than the natural fiber/PP systems reported earlier by other research groups. The heat deflection temperature (HDT) and Vicat softening temperature (VST) of the composites are significantly higher than those of the neat PBS resin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) conducted on the fracture surfaces of the composites reveals superior interfacial linkage between the basalt fibers and PBS matrix. The results suggest that the BF/PBS composites may be a potential candidate of PP or PP composites to manufacturing some daily commodities to solve the “white pollution” in environmental management.

2012-04-16

315

EDF's surveillance on fuel manufacturing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EDF has 58 PWR reactors requiring an annual supply of approximately 2,300 fuel assemblies. The issues of safety and reliability are important concerning the fuel given the risk of generic manufacturing issues. Being a nuclear power operator, EDF is responsible for the safety of the fuel being used in their vessels. EDF is subject to a French law which requires in particular the surveillance of the manufacture of the components involved in safety. This law is in some way an opportunity. It permits the entities involved to have an influence on the quality of components supplied which is an important condition to exercise an operational responsibility. EDF has applied for 30 years surveillance of the manufacturing processes of suppliers of fuel assemblies and contracts have specific clauses in order to organize this surveillance. In order to focus the surveillance on important matters, critical characteristics of the fuel have been determined between EDF and the suppliers to ensure the safety requirements. Activities related to the manufacturing and having an influence on these characteristics are subject to the surveillance required by regulation authorities. In order to obtain fuel assemblies that fulfill the safety requirements, EDF considers that several aspects need to be treated correctly: - The clear and sufficient definition of the components that constitutes the assembly (technical file: drawings and specifications), a definition which takes into account as far as possible the critical characteristics. - The demonstration of the efficiency, in terms of results, of complex manufacturing or controls steps (equipment qualification) included in the global manufacturing process (efficiency which depends on parameters that need to be defined and determined). - The definition of manufacturing processes (manufacturing quality plan) and the demonstration of their efficiency (qualification of manufacturing processes) to produce components that meet safety requirements (efficiency which depends on parameters that need to be defined and determined). - The relevancy of the justifications of usability of non-conforming products, taking into account the fact that any manufacturing process can normally produce some from time to time. - The continuous improvement of the manufacturing processes which are in fact not always as robust as expected to segregate non-conforming products (abnormal manufacturing event). The first three aspects contribute to obtain in a complementary way components that meet all the safety requirements given the fact that those requirements sometimes cannot be guaranteed for economic reasons by means of direct controls but only indirectly by the fulfillment of specific parameters. EDF surveys consequently: - The definition of the requirements in the technical file. - The initial qualifications of complex equipment, and subsequently during the manufacturing, the compliance with the parameters that guarantee the validity of the results of this equipment. - The initial qualification of the manufacturing processes, and subsequently during the manufacturing, the compliance within the parameters that need to be applied in order for the components to meet the safety requirements. The fourth aspect strongly involves EDF, given its responsibility as operator. The justification of usability when they have an impact on safety cannot be handled unilaterally by a supplier. - EDF surveys that the justification of usability of non-conform products are submitted for validation when the non-conformity has an impact on safety. - EDF verifies the relevancy of those justifications. The last aspect deals with the feedback needed for the continuous improvement of the robustness of the manufacturing processes. EDF asks its suppliers to declare the abnormal manufacturing events detected at the plants given the fact that non-conform products may have been supplied without knowing. According to this: - EDF discuss and validate the corrective actions proposed by suppliers to secure their manufacturing processes when abnormal events ha

2009-06-01

316

FIBERBOARD MANUFACTURED WITHOUT RESIN USING THE FENTON REACTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Resin-free fiberboards were manufactured using industrial fiber from Pinus radiata activated by an oxidative treatment using the Fenton reaction (H(2)0(2)/ Fe(II)). A multivariate analysis was used to study the effect of fiber moisture content (MC), press temperature (T), and the H(2)0(2)/Fe(II) rat [...] io on the board internal bond strength (IB). Using response surface methodology, a set of máximum IB conditions was obtained. Validation of these conditions which included 25% MC, 170°C press temperature and a H(2)0(2)/Fe(II) relation of 25 produced an optimal board with an IB strength of 0.888 MPa. Without the addition of sizing agents or other additives, the dimensional stability properties were 16% of thickness swell and 40% of the water absorption of control boards.

RIQUELME-VALDÉS, JUAN; RAMÍREZ, ESTEBAN; CONTRERAS, DAVID; FREER, JUANITA; RODRÍGUEZ, JAIME.

317

FIBERBOARD MANUFACTURED WITHOUT RESIN USING THE FENTON REACTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resin-free fiberboards were manufactured using industrial fiber from Pinus radiata activated by an oxidative treatment using the Fenton reaction (H(20(2/ Fe(II. A multivariate analysis was used to study the effect of fiber moisture content (MC, press temperature (T, and the H(20(2/Fe(II ratio on the board internal bond strength (IB. Using response surface methodology, a set of máximum IB conditions was obtained. Validation of these conditions which included 25% MC, 170°C press temperature and a H(20(2/Fe(II relation of 25 produced an optimal board with an IB strength of 0.888 MPa. Without the addition of sizing agents or other additives, the dimensional stability properties were 16% of thickness swell and 40% of the water absorption of control boards.

JUAN RIQUELME-VALDÉS

2008-12-01

318

Coatings for Graphite Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Several approaches for applying high resistance coatings continuously to graphite yarn were investigated. Two of the most promising approaches involved (1) chemically vapor depositing (CVD) SiC coatings on the surface of the fiber followed by oxidation, and (2) drawing the graphite yarn through an organo-silicone solution followed by heat treatments. In both methods, coated fibers were obtained which exhibited increased electrical resistances over untreated fibers and which were not degraded. This work was conducted in a previous program. In this program, the continuous CVD SiC coating process used on HTS fiber was extended to the coating of HMS, Celion 6000, Celion 12000 and T-300 graphite fiber. Electrical resistances three order of magnitude greater than the uncoated fiber were measured with no significant degradation of the fiber strength. Graphite fibers coated with CVD Si3N4 and BN had resistances greater than 10(exp 6) ohm/cm. Lower pyrolysis temperatures were used in preparing the silica-like coatings also resulting in resistances as high as three orders of magnitude higher than the uncoated fiber. The epoxy matrix composites prepared using these coated fibers had low shear strengths indicating that the coatings were weak.

Galasso, F. S.; Scola, D. A.; Veltri, R. D.

1980-01-01

319

Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

Nicole E. Zander

2013-01-01

320

Energy Efficient Manufacturing from Machine Tools to Manufacturing Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Energy efficiency is one of the key drivers for sustainability. Within manufacturing environments, energy efficiency importance has grown, and it is now considered among other decision-making factors such as productivity, cost and flexibility. However, in most cases the energy consumption of the various components of the manufacturing systems, such as machine tools, are considered using average energy consumption models for the needs of discrete event simulation. The paper presents an overvie...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Molded optics design and manufacture  

CERN Document Server

While several available texts discuss molded plastic optics, none provide information on all classes of molded optics. Filling this gap, Molded Optics: Design and Manufacture presents detailed descriptions of molded plastic, glass, and infrared optics. Since an understanding of the manufacturing process is necessary to develop cost-effective, producible designs, the book extensively covers various manufacturing methods, design guidelines, trade-offs, best practices, and testing of critical parameters. It also discusses topics that often arise when designing systems with molded optics, such as

Schaub, Michael

2007-01-01

322

Manufacture of FBTR sodium pumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Centrifugal mechanical pumps are chosen for sodium heat transfer system of Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). The manufacturing technology of these pumps differs to a large extent from the conventional pumps because these pumps operate at high temperature (about 673 deg. K) and handle chemically reactive sodium. These pumps have been manufactured first time in India to stringent technical requirements. This paper highlights the important technical requirements and the major problems faced during manufacture of these pumps and how these problems have been overcome in order to achieve the desired requirements. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs

1994-01-01

323

Fiber probes based optical techniques for biomedical diagnosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Although fiber optics have been applied in optical communication and sensor systems for several years in a very successful way, their first application was developed in medicine in the early 20's. Manufacturing and developing of optical fibers for biomedical purposes have required a lot of research efforts in order to achieve a non-invasive, in-vivo, and real-time diagnosis of different diseases in human or animal tissues. In general, optical fiber probes are designed as a function of the optical measurement technique. In this work, a brief description of the main optical techniques for optical characterization of biological tissues is presented. The recent advances in optical fiber probes for biomedical diagnosis in clinical analysis and optical biopsy in relation with the different spectroscopic or tomographic optical techniques are described.

Arce-Diego, José L.; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix

2007-08-01

324

All-solid microstructured fiber with flat normal chromatic dispersion.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a new approach for the development of all-solid microstructured fiber with flat all-normal dispersion in the broadband range of 1550-2500 nm. The use of two soft glasses gives additional degrees of freedom in the design of microstructured fibers. As a result, we have designed and developed a fiber optimized for supercontinuum generation with 1550 nm pulsed lasers in the all-normal dispersion regime within an infrared range, beyond the fused silica glass limit. The measurement of the chromatic dispersion of the manufactured fibers was performed with a white light interferometric method in the spectral range 900-1650 nm. We demonstrate very good agreement between the full vector finite element simulations and the measurement results. PMID:24978988

Martynkien, Tadeusz; Pysz, Dariusz; St?pie?, Ryszard; Buczy?ski, Ryszard

2014-04-15

325

Integrated Flexible Manufacturing Program for manufacturing automation and rapid prototyping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Inc., as part of the Integrated Flexible Manufacturing Program (IFMP), is developing an integrated manufacturing environment. Several systems are being developed to produce standards and automation tools for specific activities within the manufacturing environment. The Advanced Manufacturing Development System (AMDS) is concentrating on information standards (STEP) and product data transfer; the Expert Cut Planner system (XCUT) is concentrating on machining operation process planning standards and automation capabilities; the Advanced Numerical Control system (ANC) is concentrating on NC data preparation standards and NC data generation tools; the Inspection Planning and Programming Expert system (IPPEX) is concentrating on inspection process planning, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection standards and CMM part program generation tools; and the Intelligent Scheduling and Planning System (ISAPS) is concentrating on planning and scheduling tools for a flexible manufacturing system environment. All of these projects are working together to address information exchange, standardization, and information sharing to support rapid prototyping in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) environment.

Brooks, S.L.; Brown, C.W.; King, M.S.; Simmons, W.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.

1992-12-01

326

Integrated flexible manufacturing program for manufacturing automation and rapid prototyping  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Inc., as part of the Integrated Flexible Manufacturing Program (IFMP), is developing an integrated manufacturing environment. Several systems are being developed to produce standards and automation tools for specific activities within the manufacturing environment. The Advanced Manufacturing Development System (AMDS) is concentrating on information standards (STEP) and product data transfer; the Expert Cut Planner system (XCUT) is concentrating on machining operation process planning standards and automation capabilities; the Advanced Numerical Control system (ANC) is concentrating on NC data preparation standards and NC data generation tools; the Inspection Planning and Programming Expert system (IPPEX) is concentrating on inspection process planning, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection standards and CMM part program generation tools; and the Intelligent Scheduling and Planning System (ISAPS) is concentrating on planning and scheduling tools for a flexible manufacturing system environment. All of these projects are working together to address information exchange, standardization, and information sharing to support rapid prototyping in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) environment.

Brooks, S. L.; Brown, C. W.; King, M. S.; Simons, W. R.; Zimmerman, J. J.

1993-01-01

327

Developing Gradient Metal Alloys through Radial Deposition Additive Manufacturing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has dramatically expanded in the last several years, owing to the paradigm shift that the process provides over conventional manufacturing. Although the vast majority of recent work in AM has focused on three-dimensional printing in polymers, AM techniques for fabricating metal alloys have been available for more than a decade. Here, laser deposition (LD) is used to fabricate multifunctional metal alloys that have a strategically graded composition to alter their mechanical and physical properties. Using the technique in combination with rotational deposition enables fabrication of compositional gradients radially from the center of a sample. A roadmap for developing gradient alloys is presented that uses multi-component phase diagrams as maps for composition selection so as to avoid unwanted phases. Practical applications for the new technology are demonstrated in low-coefficient of thermal expansion radially graded metal inserts for carbon-fiber spacecraft panels. PMID:24942329

Hofmann, Douglas C; Roberts, Scott; Otis, Richard; Kolodziejska, Joanna; Dillon, R Peter; Suh, Jong-Ook; Shapiro, Andrew A; Liu, Zi-Kui; Borgonia, John-Paul

2014-01-01

328

Developing Gradient Metal Alloys through Radial Deposition Additive Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has dramatically expanded in the last several years, owing to the paradigm shift that the process provides over conventional manufacturing. Although the vast majority of recent work in AM has focused on three-dimensional printing in polymers, AM techniques for fabricating metal alloys have been available for more than a decade. Here, laser deposition (LD) is used to fabricate multifunctional metal alloys that have a strategically graded composition to alter their mechanical and physical properties. Using the technique in combination with rotational deposition enables fabrication of compositional gradients radially from the center of a sample. A roadmap for developing gradient alloys is presented that uses multi-component phase diagrams as maps for composition selection so as to avoid unwanted phases. Practical applications for the new technology are demonstrated in low-coefficient of thermal expansion radially graded metal inserts for carbon-fiber spacecraft panels.

Hofmann, Douglas C.; Roberts, Scott; Otis, Richard; Kolodziejska, Joanna; Dillon, R. Peter; Suh, Jong-ook; Shapiro, Andrew A.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Borgonia, John-Paul

2014-01-01

329

77 FR 38269 - Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 7M; Amgen Manufacturing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 7M; Amgen Manufacturing Limited (Biotechnology and Healthcare...the scope of manufacturing authority on behalf of Amgen Manufacturing Limited (Amgen), within Subzone 7M in Juncos, Puerto...

2012-06-27

330

Atmospheric Emissions from Hydrochloric Acid Manufacturing Processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report is one of a series on atmospheric emissions from chemical manufacturing processes. It provides such information on the manufacture of hydrochloric acid. Basic characteristics of the industry, including growth rate, manufacturing processes, prod...

S. L. Bean H. Wall

1969-01-01

331

Carbon fiber; Kabon ffuaiba  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

History of the carbon fiber developments is explained, and the present state of carbon fibers in the industries of space, aerial and transportation, sports goods, construction and architecture field is outlined, as well as the progress in the 21st century is viewed., Methane gas absorbing system, in which methane gas is absorbed in the carbon fiber pores and discharged by heating conducting electricity through carbon fiber, may be applied to automobile fuel supplying system. Water purification using carbon fibers is investigated, in which fungi or bacteria are fixed on bundles of carbon fiber immersed in the bypass water of rivers or lakes and water is purified by decomposition of ammonia or sticking of algae and sludge. (NEDO)

Yasuda, E.

2000-01-01

332

Manufacturing method of organic whiskers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manufacturing method of organic whiskers is achieved by adding, desirably, hardening agent and/or polymerization promoter to polymeric organic low molecular compound or its composition, then in vacuum, irradiating energy ray. The synthesis of epoxy resins is discussed

1986-01-01

333

75 FR 12507 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...S. industry to the resources and tools available in the federal government to help support the creation of sustainable, highly skilled jobs for the 21st...The Department of Commerce is in the process of renewing the Manufacturing...

2010-03-16

334

Sectoral task force report: Manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Manufacturing Task Force was established by the Round Table to provide input on the strategic issues and priority actions for implementing sustainable development in the manufacturing sector in Ontario. A series of internal workshops and a review of policy positions and reference materials was conducted, after which a consultation document was developed to identify key issues, barriers, and potential options for advancing sustainable development ideals in the sector. As part of the exercise, the task force defined the key environmental and economic characteristics of viability that a sustainable manufacturer would demonstrate over 20 years. This document discusses the conclusions of the task force in leadership, decision making, information, full cost pricing and accounting, and technology. The questionnaire given to stakeholders and to manufacturing industries is also included.

1992-01-01

335

NOVEL USE OF WASTE KERATIN AND COTTON LINTER FIBERS FOR PROTOTYPE TISSUE PAPERS AND THEIR EVALUATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corporate environmental sustainability calls for sustainable product manufacturing with less creation of waste material or increased reuse of waste materials. One example is the use of keratin fiber from the poultry industry and cotton linter from the textile industry for paper and tissue manufacturing. In this paper, the feasibility of using these waste fibers to make paper was demonstrated in handsheets. The properties of these handsheets were compared to the properties of handsheets made with standard bleached eucalyptus tropical hardwood fibers. A blend of cotton linter and keratin fibers at 80/20 and 60/40 ratios showed a 59% and 73% improvement in sheet bulk, respectively, compared to eucalyptus handsheets. Similarly, air permeability of the cotton / keratin fiber handsheets improved 414% and 336%, respectively, versus the eucalyptus. However, the tensile index of the cotton and keratin fiber blends was lower than the eucalyptus sheets. There was no remarkable difference in water absorbency up to 20% keratin fiber. Above 20% of keratin fibers the water absorbency started to decrease, which is likely attributable to the hydrophobic nature of the protein-based keratin fiber.

Bo Shi

2010-05-01

336

Natural Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Composites as Engineered Structural Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this work was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP)'s ability to act as a structural material. As a chemical treatment, aligned kenaf fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide (alkalization) in different concentrations and durations and then manufactured into kenaf fiber / vinyl ester composite plates. Single fiber tensile properties and composite flexural properties, both in dry and saturated environments, were assessed. Based on ASTM standard testing, a comparison of flexural, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical properties was also made between an untreated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a chemically treated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a glass fiber reinforced composite, and oriented strand board (OSB). The mechanical properties were evaluated for dry samples, samples immersed in water for 50 hours, and samples immersed in water until saturation (~2700 hours). Since NFRPs are more vulnerable to environmental effects than synthetic fiber composites, a series of weathering and environmental tests were conducted on the kenaf fiber composites. The environmental conditions studied include real-time outdoor weathering, elevated temperatures, immersion in different pH solutions, and UV exposure. In all of these tests, degradation was found to be more pronounced in the NFRPs than in the glass FRPs; however, in nearly every case the degradation was less than 50% of the flexural strength or stiffness. Using a method of overlapping and meshing discontinuous fiber ends, large mats of fiber bundles were manufactured into composite facesheets for structural insulated panels (SIPs). The polyisocyanurate foam cores proved to be poorly matched to the strength and stiffness of the NFRP facesheets, leading to premature core shear or delamination failures in both flexure and compressive testing. The NFRPs were found to match well with the theoretical stiffness prediction methods of classical lamination theory, finite element method, and Castigliano's method in unidirectional tension and compression, but are less accurate for the more bond-dependent flexural and shear properties. With the acknowledged NFRP matrix bonding issues, the over-prediction of these theoretical models indicates that the flexural stiffness of the kenaf composite may be increased by up to 40% if a better bond between the fiber and matrix can be obtained. The sustainability of NFRPs was examined from two perspectives: environmental and socioeconomic. While the kenaf fibers themselves possess excellent sustainability characteristics, costing less while possessing a lesser environmental impact than the glass fibers, the vinyl ester resin used in the composites is environmentally hazardous and inflated the cost and embodied energy of the composite SIPs. Consistent throughout all the designs was a correlation between the respective costs of the raw materials and the respective environmental impacts. The socioeconomic study looked at the sustainability of natural fiber reinforced composite materials as housing materials in developing countries. A literature study on the country of Bangladesh, where the fibers in this study were grown, showed that the jute and kenaf market would benefit from the introduction of a value-added product like natural fiber composites. The high rate of homeless and inadequately housed in Bangladesh, as well as in the US and throughout the rest of the world, could be somewhat alleviated if a new, affordable, and durable material were introduced. While this study found that natural fiber composites possess sufficient mechanical properties to be adopted as primary structural members, the two major remaining hurdles needing to be overcome before natural fiber composites can be adopted as housing materials are the cost and sustainability of the resin system and the moisture resistance/durability of the fibers. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Dittenber, David B.

337

Effect of the interfacial adhesion on the tensile and impact properties of carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene matrices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thermoplastic composites have been applied in a wide variety of industrial products, showing recently a great potential to be used in aeronautical field. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the fiber/matrix interface of carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene-based matrices after tensile and impact tests and also to compare the mechanical test results of the manufactured laminates. The laminates were prepared by stacking carbon fiber fabric style Plain Weave (CF) and films of four diff...

Clara Leal Nogueira; Jane Maria Faulstich de Paiva; Mirabel Cerqueira Rezende

2005-01-01

338

Bragg Grating Based Sensors in Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers: Accelerometers and Microphones  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With the growing interest towards fiber Bragg grating sensors and the growing ability in manufacturing polymer optical fibers, the development of polymer fiber Bragg sensors has catched the attention of industries with the goal of developing high performance sensors. This thesis presents the development of fiber sensors based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings. The whole process from the preform to the device is discussed and reported. A presentation on the fiber drawing technique used is given. Issues encountered when working with polymer fibers and solutions concerning fiber cleaving and gluing of polymer to silica fibers are discussed. The realization of gratings in polymer fibers is shown with two different techniques: the UV phase mask technique and the direct writing technique reported here for the first time for polymer fibers. Realization of gratings in PMMA step index fibers and in microstructured fibers made of PMMA and TOPAS is reported. The gratings have been written at both 1550 nm, to take advantage of components made for telecommunications, and 850 nm, to exploit the lower loss of polymers and the fast acquisition electronics at this wavelength. A technique for writing multiplexed gratings is shown and temperature compensation of strain sensors, by using two adjacent gratings, is demonstrated. Humidity insensitivity in a strain sensor based on a TOPAS fiber is also shown. In order to investigate the possibility of using viscoelastic materials, such as polymers, in dynamic sensors, dynamic mechanical characterization of polymer fibers was made and it is presented. The investigated and produced fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured polymer optical bers were used to produce optical accelerometers. The accelerometers and their characterization are reported. Finally the realization of an optical microphone based on polymer ber Bragg gratings is reported.

Stefani, Alessio

2011-01-01

339

Manufacturers' outsourcing to employment services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We estimate the effects of manufacturers' use of employment services-comprised primarily of temporary help and professional employer organizations-on measured employment and labor productivity in manufacturing between 1989 and 2004. A major contribution of the paper is the construction of panel data on employment by occupation and industry from the Occupational Employment Statistics program. We use these data to document the dramatic rise of production and other manual occupations within the ...

2006-01-01

340

Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Solar Collector Manufacturing Activity 1990 report prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents summary and detailed data provided by domestic manufacturers on shipments of solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the period 1974 through 1990. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the period 1982 through 1990. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1990

 
 
 
 
341

Developing high performance manufacturing systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The work detailed in this dissertation relates to thedevelopment of high performance manufacturing systems. Theperformance factor aimed for is especially flexibility, butthere is an intention of making the results adaptable to focuson performance factors of the readers or users choice. Thefocus of the presented research is not only to provide meansfor accomplishing manufacturing that can handle changes butalso to accomplish flexibility in another area. The resultsshould be applicable in many ...

2002-01-01

342

Capital budgeting and flexible manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lack of measurement and evaluation of flexible manufacturing possibilities seriously handicaps the appraisal and justification of investments in flexible technologies. It is the goal of this paper to formulate a comprehensive definition of manufacturing flexibility which can be explicitly translated into economic and financial variables. Further translation is based upon the financial instruments of cash budgeting and capital budgeting. The sensitivity of the economic and financial variab...

A?lvarez Gil, Mari?a Jose?

1993-01-01

343

Manufacturers use of business services  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarized findings from a Colorado and Utah survey of manufacturing and business service establishments which provided information on the use of business services among different types of firms in this interior region of the United States. The paper provides information which helps to shed light on various areas of inquiry on the relationship between manufacturers and producer services, but certainly calls for additional investigation. Most of the findings are consistent with those found by studies in other areas. Manufacturers are not a major source of sales for business service firms and the availability of business services is not cited as an important location consideration for manufacturers. Given the strong mining and agricultural sectors in these states, the fact that so little trade was with the primary sector may have been surprising. However, most of the responses in the surveys were from the urban areas of Denver and Salt Lake City. One of the hypotheses in the literature, as defined by Perry and Goe, concerns whether the growth in business services and the decline in manufacturing employment is a result of the trend toward the use of contracted services by manufacturers. The aggregate results of the study do not provide much evidence to support the proposition that this occurs. However, the results show that the larger firms internalize certain specialized business services more so than the smaller firms. The greater use company-provided legal services by the larger manufacturers is a case in point. This finding is consistent with Scott`s finding in the printed circuits industry in which larger establishments provided more functions internally than did the smaller establishments. In the case of engineering, architectural, and business management services it appears that many smaller manufacturers do not use such services at all, but that the larger establishments have more needs for professional services.

Calzonetti, F. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Allison, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1992-12-31

344

Mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of cancer and other diseases among workers engaged in aircraft manufacturing and potentially exposed to compounds containing chromate, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and mixed solvents. METHODS: A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of workers employed for at least 1 year at a large aircraft manufacturing facility in California on or after 1 January 1960. The mortality experience of these workers was determined by examin...

Boice, J. D.; Marano, D. E.; Fryzek, J. P.; Sadler, C. J.; Mclaughlin, J. K.

1999-01-01

345

Hazard Assessments of Manufactured Nanomaterials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: It has been difficult to make reliable hazard assessments of manufactured nanomaterials, because the nanomaterials form large agglomerations in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Objective: A project by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of Japan has succeeded in ensuring the stability of dispersion (nanoscale installation studies overseas, and together with the findings made in the NEDO project, and also assess the hazards presented by manufactured nanoparticles. PMID:20543525

Morimoto, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Shinohara, Naohido; Myojo, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Isamu; Nakanishi, Junko

2010-06-10

346

Labor Dynamics in Chinese Manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the process of globalization, China has gained a position as an extremely important player on the world economic stage. The country has become particularly famous as a hub for the global manufacturing industry, with a large quantity of cheap labor that produces low-cost products. However, there is now growing concern that the labor costs for China’s manufacturing workforce are growing rampantly. This could have obvious detrimental effects for Chinese exports, and foreshadow major res...

Rydbert, Erik

2011-01-01

347

Tort Liability and Vaccine Manufacturers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper has been written with future vaccines in mind. It is true, of course, that most vaccines currently available are extremely safe and not prohibitively expensive. For the few injuries caused by these vaccines, an insurance system paid for by their manufacturers might be feasible and reasonable. The small increase in a manufacturer's cost of doing business could be offset by a similarly small increase in the price of the particular vaccine. Disincentive to create new vaccines would be...

Aaronson, William H.

1994-01-01

348

New Technology and Manufacturing Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

New Technology and Manufacturing Processes is part of the Pittsburgh Supercomputer Center's (PSC's) annual report for 2002. It is comprised of fifteen articles that describe research and innovations at PSC during the year, including areas of Manufacturing Process Design, Semiconductor Design and Production, Design of New Materials, and Aerospace Engineering and Design. The articles are contributed from many different sources and institutions, but they all worked with PSC to take advantage of its powerful terascale computer system for advanced simulation and analysis.

1998-01-01

349

Fiber composite flywheel rim  

Science.gov (United States)

A flywheel 2 comprising a hub 4 having at least one radially projecting disc 6, an annular rim 14 secured to said disc and providing a surface circumferential to said hub, a first plurality of resin-impregnated fibers 22 wound about said rim congruent to said surface, and a shell 26 enclosing said first plurality of fibers and formed by a second plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim tangentially to said surface.

Davis, Donald E. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Ingham, Kenneth T. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1987-01-01

350

Natural fiber reinforced concrete  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The construction industry is responsible for the depletion of large amounts of non-renewable resources. This activity generates not only millions of tons of mineral wastes but also carbon dioxide gas emissions. More building materials based on renewable resources such as vegetable fibers are needed. This chapter discusses the utilization of natural fibers for concrete reinforcement. It includes fiber characteristics, properties and the description of the treatments that improve their perfo...

Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Jalali, Said

2011-01-01

351

Fiber optics in SHIVA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SHIVA is a twenty arm laser which is controlled with a network of fifty computers, interconnected with digital fiber optic links. Three different fiber optic systems employed on the Shiva laser will be described. Two of the systems are for digital communications, one at 9600 baud and the other at 1 megabaud. The third system uses fiber optics to distribute diagnostic triggers with subnanosecond jitter

1978-09-14

352

Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

None

2002-09-01

353

Lightweight 2 Fiber Aviation Cable Featuring Low Fiber Stress Levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

An imminent need for fiber optics in aircraft applications has prompted the development of a lightweight, two-fiber, fanout cable. This cable consists of two fiber optic subunits, two glass reinforced polyester rods, aramid yarn strength members, a helica...

B. D. Zimmermann J. C. Chamberlain

1986-01-01

354

ZBLAN, Silica Fiber Comparison  

Science.gov (United States)

This graph depicts the increased signal quality possible with optical fibers made from ZBLAN, a family of heavy-metal fluoride glasses (fluorine combined zirconium, barium, lanthanum, aluminum, and sodium) as compared to silica fibers. NASA is conducting research on pulling ZBLAN fibers in the low-g environment of space to prevent crystallization that limits ZBLAN's usefulness in optical fiber-based communications. In the graph, a line closer to the black theoretical maximum line is better. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

1998-01-01

355

Oriented Fiber Filter Media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

R. Bharadwaj

2008-06-01

356

Fiber-Reinforced Reactive Nano-Epoxy Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

An ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene/ matrix interface based on the fabrication of a reactive nano-epoxy matrix with lower surface energy has been improved. Enhanced mechanical properties versus pure epoxy on a three-point bend test include: strength (25 percent), modulus (20 percent), and toughness (30 percent). Increased thermal properties include higher Tg (glass transition temperature) and stable CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion). Improved processability for manufacturing composites includes faster wetting rates on macro-fiber surfaces, lower viscosity, better resin infusion rates, and improved rheological properties. Improved interfacial adhesion properties with Spectra fibers by pullout tests include initial debonding force of 35 percent, a maximum pullout force of 25 percent, and energy to debond at 65 percent. Improved mechanical properties of Spectra fiber composites (tensile) aging resistance properties include hygrothermal effects. With this innovation, high-performance composites have been created, including carbon fibers/nano-epoxy, glass fibers/nano-epoxy, aramid fibers/ nano-epoxy, and ultra-high-molecularweight polyethylene fiber (UHMWPE).

Zhong, Wei-Hong

2011-01-01

357

Analysis of Coating Thickness Variation During Optical Fiber Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

During the mass production of silica-based optical fibers, a large fiber preform is softened in a high-temperature furnace and is drawn to a small fiber with a diameter of about 125 ?m . The hot fiber exiting the furnace is cooled rapidly by the surrounding air or by blowing a gas, and is subsequently coated with a polymer layer to provide a protection of the fiber surface. The overall quality of the fiber depends on the uniformity of the coating layer, which is strongly influenced by the manufacturing conditions. While the average thickness of the coating layer is extensively investigated in the literature, the studies on the coating thickness fluctuation lack a sound fundamental basis. In this paper, a linear perturbation analysis is adopted to predict the coating thickness variation under different processing conditions. An experimental correlation is developed to determine the initial amplitude of the thickness disturbance. Numerical results are presented for the first time to directly link the processing and geometric parameters with the coating thickness fluctuation in the final product. The results provide guidelines for selecting coating materials, system designs, and processing parameters to achieve uniform fiber coating layers.

Jiang, Qibo; Yang, Fuzheng; Pitchumani, Ranga

2005-03-01

358

Development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes: Phase 2, Improved refractory fiber and industrial benefit development. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is Phase II of a three-phase study for the development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes, for use in the aluminum, glass, cement, and iron and steel industries. Fiberization of 24 out of 25 compositions in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Si0{sub 2}-Zr0{sub 2} system were achieved. These 24 and three existing fiber compositions were evaluated: The shrinkage and the crystalline and vitreous phases were determined vs heat treatment time and temperature. Four theoretical models were developed: Shrinkage, devitrification kinetics, density change, and fiberization. Although some of the fibers formed during Phase II had properties as good as the reference ASZ fiber, no fiber had a significantly improved performance. This work, although not entirely successful, did produce significant benefits to refractory insulating fiber manufacturers and users: Mechanisms of both linear and thickness shrinkage for vitreous refractory fibers were determined, devitrification kinetics were quantified and used in models to predict shrinkage during service, and the mechanism of fiber formation in the melt spinning process was studied.

Cai, Yifang; Curtis, J.M.; DePoorter, G.L.; Martin, P.C.; Munoz, D.R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

1995-05-01

359

Fiber optics development, prospects assessed  

Science.gov (United States)

The status of fiber optics technology in Poland is discussed. Application of fiber optics to telecommunication and military radar is mentioned. Internal problems slowing the development of Polish fiber optics technology are addressed.

Marks, B.

1984-10-01

360

A comparison of single use and reusable small core sized holmium:YAG laser fibers: Is there a difference in the risk of fiber failure?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tests the hypothesis that repeat steam sterilization will result in an increase in the rate of holmium:YAG laser fiber failure during bench testing in a series of commercially available single use and reusable small core sized (200-272 ?m) holmium:YAG laser fibers. Single use and reusable small core-sized holmium laser fibers were tested. Single use fibers included the Dornier Lightguide Super 200, Dornier DUR Laser Fiber Single Use, Optical Integrity Scopesafe 272, IQinc. LLF200TG-D and LLF273TG-D, Boston Scientific AccuFlex 200 and AccuFlex 273, and Lumenis Slimline EZ 200. Reusable fibers included the Dornier DUR Laser Fiber Reusable, Lumenis Slimline 200, Sharplan 200, Laser Peripherals RBLF-200, IQinc. LFT273NT, and Convergent Optiview SMH1020F. A Lumenis VersaPulse 100 watt and a PowerSuite 20 watt holmium:YAG lasers were used. Fibers were bent to 180 degrees at a diameter of 1.5 cm. The laser was fired at 1.5J, 10Hz for 30 minutes or until fiber fracture. Reusable fibers were sterilized for a total of twenty cycles using the manufacturers' specifications and retested after every five completed cycles. No fiber fractured with bending alone. Two of three Dornier Super 200 single use fibers fractured repeatedly within several laser pulses. The Laser Peripherals RBLF-200 fiber fractured during initial but not repeat testing. One of three reusable Dornier DUR Laser Fibers failed during testing after the twentieth steam sterilization cycle. Five of five Boston Scientific Accuflex 200 failed at the SMA connector and did not couple well with the Lumenis Powersuite laser. The test hypothesis was not supported.

Knudsen, Bodo E.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Teichman, Joel M.

2006-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Fiber-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fiber-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The fiber-based adsorbent includes polymer fibers with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight over known fibers to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. The polymer fibers include a circular morphology in some embodiments, having a mean diameter of less than 15 microns, optionally less than about 1 micron. In other embodiments, the polymer fibers include a non-circular morphology, optionally defining multiple gear-shaped, winged-shaped or lobe-shaped projections along the length of the polymer fibers. A method for forming the fiber-based adsorbents includes irradiating high surface area polymer fibers, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting the grafted fibers with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. High surface area fiber-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

Janke, Christopher J; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

2014-05-13

362

Applications of nonlinear fiber optics  

CERN Document Server

* The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

Agrawal, Govind P

2008-01-01

363

40 CFR 414.30 - Applicability; description of the other fibers subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...66 Fibers Nylon 66 Monofilament *Polyamide Fibers (Quiana) *Polyaramid (Kevlar) Resin-Fibers *Polyaramid (Nomex) Resin-Fibers *Polyester Fibers *Polyethylene Fibers *Polypropylene Fibers *Polyurethane Fibers...

2009-07-01

364

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF) which receive an additional activation process and [...] can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

Jossano Saldanha, Marcuzzo; Choyu, Otani; Heitor Aguiar, Polidoro; Satika, Otani.

365

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN. In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo

2012-01-01

366

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN. In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo

2013-02-01

367

Characterization of Optical Fiber Strength Under Applied Tensile Stress and Bending Stress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various types of tensile testing and bend radius tests were conducted on silica core/silica cladding optical fiber of different diameters with different protective buffer coatings, fabricated by different fiber manufacturers. The tensile tests were conducted to determine not only the average fiber strengths at failure, but also the distribution in fracture strengths, as well as the influence of buffer coating on fracture strength. The times-to-failure of fiber subjected to constant applied bending stresses of various magnitudes were measured to provide a database from which failure times of 20 years or more, and the corresponding minimum bend radius, could be extrapolated in a statistically meaningful way. The overall study was done to provide an understanding of optical fiber strength in tensile loading and in applied bending stress as related to applications of optical fiber in various potential coizfgurations for weapons and enhanced surveillance campaigns.

P.E. Klingsporn

2011-08-01

368

Time for a forum on terms used for textile fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The advances in manufactured fibers and textiles have garnered interest and excitement of textile artists and consumers alike for a myriad of reasons, including health, environmental, and fashion. The chemical and molecular nature of these advances, however leads to confusion and misunderstanding of the new fibers in the materials. This is exacerbated by the current climate of distrust for chemical words and desire for "green" products and the unregulated (misinformation and marketing on the web. Textile artists, consumers, and the clothing and household textile industry need clear names and labels to identify the materials they are using.

Zawistoski, P. S.

2012-11-01

369

ICPOES and SEM-EDX analysis of metal fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Composition of metal fiber is important because it influences mechanical, chemical and physical properties of materials. Metal fibers are present in clothing but also in different composites used for manufacturing concrete, strings, airplanes, space crafts and other items. In this work results of direct analysis of solid samples by scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive x-ray analysis system (SEM-EDX) and results obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICPOES) after solid samples dissolution in acidic solutions are presented. ICPOES offered lower LOD and better precision, while SEM-EDX provided important information about the sample layer compositions. (author)

2009-02-15

370

Ceramic fibers with zirconia-technology and application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reports the evaluation observed in the refractory ceramic fiber manufacture. The different compositions were presented and the principal characteristics discussed. The properties and refractory behaviour of new fibers with Zirconia were rated. The product obtained in the Al2O3 - ZrO2 - SiO2 system, is a highly efficient insulation with extremely low shrinkage characteristic at temperature as high as 1400 0C, low heat storage capacity and complete resistance to damage from thermal shock. It also has excelent chemical stability

1989-05-28

371

Ultrashort pulsed fiber laser welding and sealing of transparent materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, methods of welding and sealing optically transparent materials using an ultrashort pulsed (USP) fiber laser are demonstrated which overcome the limit of small area welding of optical materials. First, the interaction of USP fiber laser radiation inside glass was studied and single line welding results with different laser parameters were investigated. Then multiline scanning was used to obtain successful area bonding. Finally, complete four-edge sealing of fused silica substrates with a USP laser was demonstrated and the hermetic seal was confirmed by water immersion test. This laser microwelding technique can be extended to various applications in the semiconductor industry and precision optic manufacturing. PMID:22614601

Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Liu, Jian

2012-05-20

372

Fiber-optical systems in physical experiment technique. Part 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of fiber-optic systems (FOS) application in modern physical experiment automatization systems mainly oriented to functional monitoring electrophysical installations (EPI), beams, plasma, targets diagnostics as well as experiment environment investigation is considering. Questions of the FOS functioning in high and low pressure; high and cryogenic temperature; pulsed, SHF and radiational fields, high potentials are discussed. Attention is attached to designing, manufacturing and servicing FOS, their metrological support. There are functioning concepts of FOS, and modern component base: fiber and optical cabels, connectors, and couplers, spectral devices, optical sources and photodetectors, transmitter and receiver devices. 191 refs.; 19 figs.; 9 tabs

1989-01-01

373

Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

King, Kenneth L.; Dean, Rashe A.; Akbar, Shahzad; Kouzes, Richard T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2010-08-10

374

Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

2010-01-01

375

Tapered Optical Fiber Sensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sensor is disclosed in which light is launched into the core of a single mode optical fiber having a tapered-down or narrow waist region between 2 tapers along an internal portion of the length thereof. The fiber is positioned so that a physical effect ...

H. D. Krumboltz L. C. Bobb

1992-01-01

376

Cellulosic fibers and nonwovens from solutions: Processing and properties  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulose is a renewable and bio-based material source extracted from wood that has the potential to generate value added products such as composites, fibers, and nonwoven textiles. This research was focused on the potential of cellulose as the raw material for fiber spinning and melt blowing of nonwovens. The cellulose was dissolved in two different benign solvents: the amine oxide 4-N-methyl morpholine oxide monohydrate (NMMO•H2O) (lyocell process); and the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C 4MIM]Cl). The solvents have essentially no vapor pressure and are biologically degradable, making them environmentally advantageous for manufacturing processes. The objectives of this research were to: (1) characterize solutions of NMMO and [C4MIM]Cl; (2) develop processing techniques to melt blow nonwoven webs from cellulose using NMMO as a solvent; (3) electrospin cellulosic fibers from the [C4MIM]Cl solvent; (4) spin cellulosic single fibers from the [C4MIM]Cl solvent. Different concentration solutions of cellulose in NMMO and [C4MIM]Cl were initially characterized rheologically and thermally to understand their behavior under different conditions of stress, strain, and temperature. Results were used to determine processing conditions and concentrations for the melt blowing, fiber spinning, and electrospinning experiments. The cellulosic nonwoven webs and fibers were characterized for their physical and optical properties such as tensile strength, water absorbency, fiber diameter, and fiber surface. Thermal properties were also measured by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. Lyocell webs were successfully melt blown from the 14% cellulose solution. Basis weights of the webs were 27, 79, and 141 g/m2 and thicknesses ranged from 0.3-0.9 mm, depending on die temperatures and die to collector distance. The average fiber diameter achieved was 2.3 microns. The 6% lyocell solutions exhibited poor spinability and did not form nonwoven webs. The electrospun nonwoven webs obtained were evaluated for fiber diameter and surface/web structure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fibers obtained were in the range of 17-25 microns and the fiber surfaces and shapes varied with spinning conditions. A capillary rheometer was used to spin single fibers from [C 4MIM]Cl. Circular fibers in diameter ranging from 12-84 microns were obtained.

Dahiya, Atul

377

Python fiber optic seal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories has developed a high security fiber optic seal that incorporates tamper resistance features that are not available in commercial fiber optic seals. The Python Seal is a passive fiber optic loop seal designed to give indication of unauthorized entry. The seal includes a fingerprint feature that provides seal identity information in addition to the unique fiber optic pattern created when the seal is installed. The fiber optic cable used for the seal loop is produced with tamper resistant features that increase the difficulty of attacking that component of a seal. A Seal Reader has been developed that will record the seal signature and the fingerprint feature of the seal. A Correlator software program then compares seal images to establish a match or mismatch. SNL is also developing a Polaroid reader to permit hard copies of the seal patterns to be obtained directly from the seal.

Ystesund, K.; Bartberger, J.; Brusseau, C.; Fleming, P.; Insch, K.; Tolk, K.

1993-08-01

378

Towards Measuring Investment in Flexible Foundry Manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Manufacturing flexibility is an important instrument to ensure the success of manufacturing systems in the modern day competitive and uncertain environment. The major hindrance in integrating flexibility into decision making process is that it is difficult to measure and be compared to future indefinable manufacturing scenarios. This paper presents a methodical concept utilizing real options to evaluate flexible foundry manufacturing system.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-01-01

379

Towards Measuring Investment in Flexible Foundry Manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manufacturing flexibility is an important instrument to ensure the success of manufacturing systems in the modern day competitive and uncertain environment. The major hindrance in integrating flexibility into decision making process is that it is difficult to measure and be compared to future indefinable manufacturing scenarios. This paper presents a methodical concept utilizing real options to evaluate flexible foundry manufacturing system.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-07-01

380

Fiber reinforcement of investment cast parts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For 3 years now the Foundry-Institute (Giesserei-Institut) of the Aachen Institute of Technology has worked on the development of a new, low-cost production process for longfiber-reinforced light alloy components. The process baseline is oriented on the precision casting process in its investment casting mode, also known as lost wax process. The investment casting process is well known as a typical near-net-shape process for the manufacture of high-quality cast components, predominantly for applications in the aerospace industry (structured components, turbine blades and parts etc.) and enjoys significant growth rates during the last decades. After preliminary studies on the modification of single process substeps R & D work concentrated on the final-shape production of Al-components (Al-alloys A356, A357, 201 etc.) reinforced with long ceramic fibers. Both SiC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based fibers of several producers were used. Main interest focuses on techniques for a selective reinforcement of main stress sections. Without using conventional sintered preforms the fibers are infiltrated with molten metal under a support pressure of less than 1 MPa. Combined with a new developed wax pattern technique test specimens with a nearly homogeneous fiber distribution were produced. In addition, even reactive matrix alloys did not lead to destructive interface reactions. In most cases sufficient bonding between fibers and matrix could be observed. Following to these positive tendencies a considerable improvement of mechanical properties could be measured for longfiber reinforced Al-alloys. Both tensile strength and elastic modulus could be increased up to 100% compared with the unreinforced matrix alloy. Latest work concentrated on the production of small representative components for potential applications.

Nolte, M.; Neussl, E.; Schaedlich-Stubenrauch, J.; Sahm, P.R. [Aachen Institute of Technology (Germany)

1993-12-31

 
 
 
 
381

A battery manufacturer`s perspective on glass microfibre separator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview of the design and fabrication of VRLA batteries is presented covering the properties of the glass microfibre separator, the purity, solubility in acid, and the glass beads used in the manufacture of the fibres. The role of the separator in the battery is discussed. (UK)

Nelson, B.

1998-01-01

382

Fabrication of 1-3 piezo-composites using new micro PZT fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a novel fabrication method of PZT micro-fibers using activated carbon template with the aim of manufacturing PZT/epoxy 1-3 composites. Porous carbon was first prepared by chemical activation technology. The pore diameter formed in an activated carbon template is of several microns and lengths are up to several millimeters. These pores provide a basic platform to grow PZT fibers inside. Then the carbon template is removed at high calcination temperatures to form PZT micro-fibers. Subsequently, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed to analyze the process of removing the template as temperature changing. For manufacturing 1-3 piezo-composites, the PZT fibers were carefully aligned in one direction and infiltrated by epoxy resin. Based on the observation from X-ray diffraction (XRD) the fibers show a pure pervoskite phase at low sintering temperature of 950°C. The fibers embedded orderly in the epoxy matrix are smoothly distributed and straightened which were observed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The diameter of fibers is around several microns with the length up to a few millimeters, matching well with pores in the template. The new micro-fiber composite material can be potentially used in a sensor with high directivity in structural health monitoring.

Chen, Caifeng; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Xiaoning; Luo, Ying; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Han, Xiaoli; Liao, Jinjin

2011-03-01

383

ECM (Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing) newsletter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This newsletter is published quarterly at Sandia Laboratories to disseminate information obtained from research and development programs and demonstration, testing, and evaluation projects at DOE facilities on environmentally conscious manufacturing processes. Inside this issue: TDI-free rigid polyurethane foam encapsulants; news in brief; a compatibility study relating organic materials and non-halogenated cleaning materials; asilamine aromatic diamine curing agents; solvent substitution at Allied Signal-Kansas City division; overview of DOE's industrial waste reduction program; and the RIOTECH environmentally conscious manufacturing technology development program.

1991-09-01

384

Optics manufacturing by laser radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Current results of the development of a process chain for optics manufacturing with laser radiation are presented. The process chain consists of three process steps: High Speed Laser Ablation creates the surface geometry by material ablation, Laser Polishing reduces the surface roughness by material remelting and High Precision Laser Ablation applies a form correction by removing redundant material. Compared to conventional optics manufacturing methods, this process chain benefits from its high flexibility concerning the optics geometry and its processing speed, which is independent from the processed geometry.

Heidrich, Sebastian; Richmann, Annika; Schmitz, Patrick; Willenborg, Edgar; Wissenbach, Konrad; Loosen, Peter; Poprawe, Reinhart

2014-08-01

385

FDM Additive Manufacturing Fundamentals Orientation  

Science.gov (United States)

These zipped documents from MatEd provide information on designing a course titled FDM Additive Manufacturing Fundamentals Orientation. At the end of the course, students will be able to identify manufactured projects or products that are compatible for production on FDM Machines, operate a Dimensions FDM machine, have proposed a project to reinforce these concepts, and understand basic finishing techniques to be applied to the parts. The documents include a draft syllabus, contact information for the author of the course, a sample new course proposal form, a course outline, and instructor's resource manual.

Kraft, Patrick

2012-10-19

386

ECM (Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing) newsletter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This newsletter is published quarterly at Sandia Laboratories to disseminate information obtained from research and development programs and demonstration, testing, and evaluation projects at DOE facilities on environmentally conscious manufacturing processes. Inside this issue: TDI-free rigid polyurethane foam encapsulants; news in brief; a compatibility study relating organic materials and non-halogenated cleaning materials; asilamine aromatic diamine curing agents; solvent substitution at Allied Signal-Kansas City division; overview of DOE's industrial waste reduction program; and the RIOTECH environmentally conscious manufacturing technology development program

1991-01-01

387

Ply-based Optimization of Laminated Composite Shell Structures under Manufacturing Constraints  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This work concerns a new ply-based parameterization for performing simultaneous material selection and topology optimization of fiber reinforced laminated composite structures while ensuring that a series of different manufacturing constraints are fulfilled. The material selection can either be performed on the basis of different materials, and/or consist of discrete selection of the same orthotropic material with different orientations of the fibers. The problem considered is the optimization of a general laminated composite shell structure with respect to maximum stiffness (minimum compliance) with an additional constraint on the maximum allowable amount mass.

Sørensen, Rene; Lund, Erik

2012-01-01

388

Fiber Pulling Apparatus  

Science.gov (United States)

The fiber optics industry has grown into a multi-billion marketplace that will continue to grow into the 21st century. Optical fiber communications is currently dominated by silica glass technology. Successful efforts to improve upon the low loss transmission characteristics of silica fibers have propelled the technology into the forefront of the communications industry. However, reaching the theoretical transmission capability of silica fiber through improved processing has still left a few application areas in which other fiber systems can provide an influential role due to specific characteristics of high theoretical transmission in the 2 - 3 micron wavelength region. One of the other major materials used for optical fibers is the systems based upon Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass (HMFG). Commercial interest is driven primarily by the potential for low loss repeaterless infrared fibers. An example of the major communications marketplace which would benefit from the long distance repeaterless capability of infrared fibers is the submarine cables which link the continents. When considering commercial interests, optical fiber systems provide a healthy industrial position which continues to expand. Major investments in the systems used for optical fiber communications have continued to increase each year and are predicted to continue well into the next century. Estimates of 8.5% compounded annually are predicted through 1999 for the North American market and 1 1 % worldwide. The growth for the optical fiber cable itself is expected to continue between 44 and 50 per cent of the optical fiber communications budget through 1999. The total budget in 1999 world-wide is expected to be in the neighborhood of $9 billion. Another survey predicts that long haul telecommunications represents 15% of a world-wide fiber optics market in 1998. The actual amount allotted to cable was not specified. However, another market research had predicted that the cable costs alone represents more than 50% of the total budget each year through 1998. A newly emerging activity is the commercial development of doped optical fibers which can be pumped by laser diodes to provide amplification of the communication signals. This technology is newly emerging and will be developed for commercial interests in the United States by Galileo Electro-optical Incorporated in Sturbridge, MA on a license from British Telecom. Long repeaterless communication links provide the biggest stimulus for this technology. As an example of the of the revenues involved in the optical fiber communications 3 industry, the current trade journal lists that for the fiscal years, 1991 - 1994, 185 separate undersea links were established. In addition, another 105 links are planned through 1998. The distribution of revenues involved in the undersea installations is roughly $8.5 billion through 1993 and another $13 billion planned through 1998. A large portion of the future activity (34%) is planned for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Region. Other examples of the commercial utility of optical fiber networks is given in a recent scientific symposium in which the outlook for HMFG infrared fiber was determined to be very bright.Another area of interest lies in the use of fiber optics for laser surgery delivery systems.

Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Sue; Adcock, Leonard

1998-01-01

389

Fiber Optic Microphone  

Science.gov (United States)

Research into advanced pressure sensors using fiber-optic technology is aimed at developing compact size microphones. Fiber optic sensors are inherently immune to electromagnetic noise, and are very sensitive, light weight, and highly flexible. In FY 98, NASA researchers successfully designed and assembled a prototype fiber-optic microphone. The sensing technique employed was fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometry. The sensing head is composed of an optical fiber terminated in a miniature ferrule with a thin, silicon-microfabricated diaphragm mounted on it. The optical fiber is a single mode fiber with a core diameter of 8 micron, with the cleaved end positioned 50 micron from the diaphragm surface. The diaphragm is made up of a 0.2 micron thick silicon nitride membrane whose inner surface is metallized with layers of 30 nm titanium, 30 nm platinum, and 0.2 micron gold for efficient reflection. The active sensing area is approximately 1.5 mm in diameter. The measured differential pressure tolerance of this diaphragm is more than 1 bar, yielding a dynamic range of more than 100 dB.

Cho, Y. C.; George, Thomas; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

390

Tissue engineering bone-ligament complexes using fiber-guiding scaffolds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Regeneration of bone-ligament complexes destroyed due to disease or injury is a clinical challenge due to complex topologies and tissue integration required for functional restoration. Attempts to reconstruct soft-hard tissue interfaces have met with limited clinical success. In this investigation, we manufactured biomimetic fiber-guiding scaffolds using solid free-form fabrication methods that custom fit complex anatomical defects to guide functionally-oriented ligamentous fibers in vivo. Co...

Park, Chan Ho; Rios, Hector F.; Jin, Qiming; Sugai, James V.; Padial-molina, Miguel; Taut, Andrei D.; Flanagan, Colleen L.; Hollister, Scott J.; Giannobile, William V.

2012-01-01

391

Characterization of Limulus amoebocyte lysate-reactive material from hollow-fiber dialyzers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hollow-fiber hemodialyzers containing cellulose-based membranes have been shown to produce positive results with the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test. This study was undertaken to determine whether endotoxin was causing the reaction. Rinses from 45 parallel-plate and hollow-fiber dialyzers from eight different manufacturers were tested before and after treatment with cellulase, using three lysates and four Limulus amoebocyte lysate methods. In addition, four in vitro cellular methods--human leu...

1984-01-01

392

Micromechanical modeling of the progressive failure in short glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thermoplastics reinforced with short glass fibers are increasingly used in many industrial applications due to their attractive mechanical properties, rapid processing and relatively low manufacturing cost. Injection molding is a widely used process for the production of reinforced parts with complex shapes. However, the concentration and the orientation of the fibers vary from one point to the other. This induces a strong heterogeneity throughout the material, making the prediction of its be...

Kammoun, Slim

2011-01-01

393

Toughness increase of self compacting concrete reinforced with polypropylene short fibers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increases in bending tests by the addition of low volume fractions of Polypropylene (PP) Short Fibers PP. These toughness increases are similar to those attained by Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) referred elsewhere as Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC), having some ductility and strain hardening in direct tensile and flexural tests. Concretes mixtures were manufactured using natural pozzolanic blended Portland cement, volcanic crushed coarse aggregates and fine sand from Sahara desert ...

Melia?n, G.; Barluenga, G.; Herna?ndez-olivares, F.

2010-01-01

394

Experimental Investigation-Natural Fiber Braided Sleeve for Pneumatic Artificial Muscles Actuation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) as an actuator to create pulling force and bulges mimicking a human muscle contraction. Currently, the method used to manufacture the PAMs is by braiding with artificial fibers. Natural fiber braided PAMs are rarely available for the usage in prosthesis. The novel contribution of this project is to design and develop a desirable low cost and lightweight Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) actuator using different materials. In this study, the studies are ...

Nagarajan, T.; Krishnan, S.; Victor Amirtham; Ahmad Majdi Abdul-Raniand; Rao, T. V. V. L. N.

2013-01-01

395

Mechanical and morphological characterizations of carbon fiber fabric reinforced epoxy composites used in aeronautical field  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRC) have been used in aeronautical industry in the manufacture of different aircraft components that must attend tight mechanical requirements. This paper shows a study involving mechanical (flexural, shear, tensile and compressive tests) and morphological characterizations of four different laminates based on 2 epoxy resin systems (8552TM and F584TM) and 2 carbon fiber fabric reinforcements (Plain Weave (PW) and Eight Harness Satin (8HS)). All laminates ...

Jane Maria Faulstich de Paiva; Alexandre De Nadai dos Santos; Mirabel Cerqueira Rezende

2009-01-01

396

Bragg gratings in multi-mode fiber optics for wavelength calibration of GAIA and RAVE spectra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a new technique, the use of FBGs (fiber Bragg gratings), for accurate, easy and low cost wavelength calibration of GAIA, RAVE and follow-ups spectra at local Observatories. FBGs mark the spectra with absorption lines, freely defined in number and position during the fibers manufacturing. The process goes in parallel with the science exposure and through the same optical train and path, thus ensuring the maximum return in wavelength calibration accuracy. Plans to m...

Pernechele, C.; Munari, U.

2002-01-01

397

Numerical simulation of thin steel fiber self-compacting concrete structures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Steel Fiber Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete (SFRSCC) was developed and applied on the manufacture of structural façade panels composed of a grid ribbed system covered by a layer of 30 mm thickness. Panel prototypes of this structural system were tested using loading configurations that promote the flexural and the punching failure modes in order to assess the benefits of fiber reinforcement to the flexural and shear resistance of thin SFRSCC structural systems. A smeared multi-fixed crac...

Barros, Joaquim A. O.; Pereira, E. N. B.; Gouveia, A. Ventura; Azevedo, A?lvaro F. M.

2007-01-01

398

Kinetics of stress fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stress fibers are contractile cytoskeletal structures, tensile actomyosin bundles which allow sensing and production of force, provide cells with adjustable rigidity and participate in various processes such as wound healing. The stress fiber is possibly the best characterized and most accessible multiprotein cellular contractile machine. Here we develop a quantitative model of the structure and relaxation kinetics of stress fibers. The principal experimentally known features are incorporated. The fiber has a periodic sarcomeric structure similar to muscle fibers with myosin motor proteins exerting contractile force by pulling on actin filaments. In addition the fiber contains the giant spring-like protein titin. Actin is continuously renewed by exchange with the cytosol leading to a turnover time of several minutes. In order that steady state be possible, turnover must be regulated. Our model invokes simple turnover and regulation mechanisms: actin association and dissociation occur at filament ends, while actin filament overlap above a certain threshold in the myosin-containing regions augments depolymerization rates. We use the model to study stress fiber relaxation kinetics after stimulation, as observed in a recent experimental study where some fiber regions were contractile and others expansive. We find that two distinct episodes ensue after stimulation: the turnover-overlap system relaxes rapidly in seconds, followed by the slow relaxation of sarcomere lengths in minutes. For parameter values as they have been characterized experimentally, we find the long time relaxation of sarcomere length is set by the rate at which actin filaments can grow or shrink in response to the forces exerted by the elastic and contractile elements. Consequently, the stress fiber relaxation time scales inversely with both titin spring constant and the intrinsic actin turnover rate. The model's predicted sarcomere velocities and contraction-expansion kinetics are in good quantitative agreement with experiment.

Stachowiak, Matthew R; O' Shaughnessy, Ben [Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)], E-mail: bo8@columbia.edu

2008-02-15

399

Kinetics of stress fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Stress fibers are contractile cytoskeletal structures, tensile actomyosin bundles which allow sensing and production of force, provide cells with adjustable rigidity and participate in various processes such as wound healing. The stress fiber is possibly the best characterized and most accessible multiprotein cellular contractile machine. Here we develop a quantitative model of the structure and relaxation kinetics of stress fibers. The principal experimentally known features are incorporated. The fiber has a periodic sarcomeric structure similar to muscle fibers with myosin motor proteins exerting contractile force by pulling on actin filaments. In addition the fiber contains the giant spring-like protein titin. Actin is continuously renewed by exchange with the cytosol leading to a turnover time of several minutes. In order that steady state be possible, turnover must be regulated. Our model invokes simple turnover and regulation mechanisms: actin association and dissociation occur at filament ends, while actin filament overlap above a certain threshold in the myosin-containing regions augments depolymerization rates. We use the model to study stress fiber relaxation kinetics after stimulation, as observed in a recent experimental study where some fiber regions were contractile and others expansive. We find that two distinct episodes ensue after stimulation: the turnover overlap system relaxes rapidly in seconds, followed by the slow relaxation of sarcomere lengths in minutes. For parameter values as they have been characterized experimentally, we find the long time relaxation of sarcomere length is set by the rate at which actin filaments can grow or shrink in response to the forces exerted by the elastic and contractile elements. Consequently, the stress fiber relaxation time scales inversely with both titin spring constant and the intrinsic actin turnover rate. The model's predicted sarcomere velocities and contraction expansion kinetics are in good quantitative agreement with experiment.

Stachowiak, Matthew R.; O'Shaughnessy, Ben

2008-02-01

400

Kinetics of stress fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stress fibers are contractile cytoskeletal structures, tensile actomyosin bundles which allow sensing and production of force, provide cells with adjustable rigidity and participate in various processes such as wound healing. The stress fiber is possibly the best characterized and most accessible multiprotein cellular contractile machine. Here we develop a quantitative model of the structure and relaxation kinetics of stress fibers. The principal experimentally known features are incorporated. The fiber has a periodic sarcomeric structure similar to muscle fibers with myosin motor proteins exerting contractile force by pulling on actin filaments. In addition the fiber contains the giant spring-like protein titin. Actin is continuously renewed by exchange with the cytosol leading to a turnover time of several minutes. In order that steady state be possible, turnover must be regulated. Our model invokes simple turnover and regulation mechanisms: actin association and dissociation occur at filament ends, while actin filament overlap above a certain threshold in the myosin-containing regions augments depolymerization rates. We use the model to study stress fiber relaxation kinetics after stimulation, as observed in a recent experimental study where some fiber regions were contractile and others expansive. We find that two distinct episodes ensue after stimulation: the turnover-overlap system relaxes rapidly in seconds, followed by the slow relaxation of sarcomere lengths in minutes. For parameter values as they have been characterized experimentally, we find the long time relaxation of sarcomere length is set by the rate at which actin filaments can grow or shrink in response to the forces exerted by the elastic and contractile elements. Consequently, the stress fiber relaxation time scales inversely with both titin spring constant and the intrinsic actin turnover rate. The model's predicted sarcomere velocities and contraction-expansion kinetics are in good quantitative agreement with experiment

2008-02-01

 
 
 
 
401

Bragg gratings in multi-mode fiber optics for wavelength calibration of GAIA and RAVE spectra  

CERN Multimedia

We propose a new technique, the use of FBGs (fiber Bragg gratings), for accurate, easy and low cost wavelength calibration of GAIA, RAVE and follow-ups spectra at local Observatories. FBGs mark the spectra with absorption lines, freely defined in number and position during the fibers manufacturing. The process goes in parallel with the science exposure and through the same optical train and path, thus ensuring the maximum return in wavelength calibration accuracy. Plans to manufacture and test FBGs for the CaII/Paschen region are underway at the Astronomical Observatory of Padova.

Pernechele, C

2002-01-01

402

Single fiber pullout from hybrid fiber reinforced concrete:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hybrid fiber reinforcement can be very efficient for improving the tensile response of the composite. In such materials, fibers of different geometries can act as bridging mechanisms over cracks of different widths. The fiber bridging efficiency depends on the interface properties, which makes interface characterization very important. Therefore, single-fiber pullout tests from conventional matrices as well as from the fiber reinforced mortar matrices are performed. The composition o...

Markovich, I.; Mier, J. G. M.; Walraven, J. C.

2001-01-01

403

Properties of M40J Carbon/PMR-II-50 Composites Fabricated with Desized and Surface Treated Fibers. Characterization of M40J Desized and Finished Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

To increase performance and durability of high temperature composites for potential rocket engine components, it is necessary to optimize wetting and interfacial bonding between high modulus carbon fibers and high temperature polyimide resins. It has been previously demonstrated that the electro-oxidative shear treatments used by fiber manufacturers are not effective on higher modulus fibers that have fewer edge and defect sites in the surface crystallites. In addition, sizings commercially supplied on most carbon fibers are not compatible with polyimides. This study was an extension of prior work characterizing the surface chemistry and energy of high modulus carbon fibers (M40J and M60J, Torray) with typical fluorinated polyimide resins, such as PMR-II-50. A continuous desizing system which utilizes environmentally friendly chemical- mechanical processes was developed for tow level fiber and the processes were optimized based on weight loss behavior, surface elemental composition (XPS) and morphology (FE-SEM) analyses, and residual tow strength of the fiber, and the similar approaches have been applied on carbon fabrics. Both desized and further treated with a reactive finish were investigated for the composite reinforcement. The effects of desizing and/or subsequent surface retreatment on carbon fiber on composite properties and performance including fiber-matrix interfacial mechanical properties, thermal properties and blistering onset behavior will be discussed in this presentation.

Allred, Ronald E.; Gosau, Jan M.; Shin, E. Eugene; McCorkle, Linda S.; Sutter, James K.; OMalley, Michelle; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

404

Reduced Gravity Zblan Optical Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

Two optical fiber pullers have been designed for pulling ZBLAN optical fiber in reduced gravity. One fiber puller was designed, built and flown on board NASA's KC135 reduced gravity aircraft. A second fiber puller has been designed for use on board the International Space Station.

Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

2000-01-01

405

Multifunctional carbon nanotube composite fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Continuous carbon nanotube composite fibers having record energy-to-break (toughness) are reported. These fibers have been employed in the fabrication of lightweight fiber supercapacitors, which can be woven or sewn into fabrics and, therefore, be potentially considered as components for electronic textiles. Moreover, these fibers provided remarkable electromechanical actuator capabilities. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Munoz, E. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castan, 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Dalton, A.B. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Collins, S.; Kozlov, M.; Razal, J.; Ebron, V.H.; Selvidge, M.; Ferraris, J.P.; Baughman, R.H. [The NanoTech Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Dallas, P.O. Box 830688, BE26, Richardson, TX 75083-0688 (United States); Coleman, J.N. [Department of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Kim, B.G. [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea)

2004-10-01

406

Low-residue fiber diet  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber diet - low-residue; Low-fiber diet ... When you are on a low residue fiber diet, you will eat low-fiber foods that are easy for your body to digest. Eating these foods may slow down your bowel ...

407

ZBLAN Fiber Apparatus Tested  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr. Dernis Tucker of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center examines a miniature furnace to be used in studying the crystallization of ZBLAN optical fibers under low-gravity conditions aboard the NASA KC-135 low-g aircraft. NASA is conducting research on pulling ZBLAN fibers in the low-g environment of space to prevent crystallization that limits ZBLAN's usefulness in optical fiber-based communications. ZBLAN is a heavy-metal fluoride glass that shows exceptional promise for high-throughput communications with infrared lasers. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

1998-01-01

408

Fiber Optic Cables  

Science.gov (United States)

This brief interactive activity, by the Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty, is an easy-to-use introduction to fiber optic cables and their uses. Students are able to reveal each section at their leisure as they click through the helpful illustrations and animations on fiber optic cable components, LEDâÂÂs, multi-mode and single-mode cables, and cable connectors. Three review questions wrap up the slide show to test knowledge gained. This would be a great resource for teachers to help introduce the topic to students, or for students to have a comprehensive overview of fiber optic cables.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-28

409

Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence  

Science.gov (United States)

EMPFasis is a publication of the American Competitiveness Institute and the EMPF. The EMPF is the U.S. NavyĂÂ's National Center of Excellence dedicated to advancing the state-of-the-art in electronics and increasing domestic productivity in electronics manufacturing.

2008-11-17

410

Experiences on IGSCC crack manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author presents his experience in manufacturing IGSCC realistic defects, mainly in INCONEL 600 MA Steam Generator Tubes. From that experience he extracts some knowledge about this cracking (influence of chemistry in the environment, stress state, crack growth rate, and occurrence in laboratory condition of break before leak).

Veron, P. [Equipos Nucleares, S.A., Maliano (Spain)

1997-02-01

411

Manufacture of inconel spacer grids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The manufacturing technology, test and examination, as well as quality control for Inconel spacer grids of fuel elements used in PWR nuclear power plant are described. The spacer grids are made of Inconel strip. The processes include: punch, assembly, spot welding, brazing, aging and examination. The selected apparatus, technological specification, items of examinations and the instruments used are introduced

1989-01-01

412

Quality assurance in tube manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reliability in service essential for many high-technology products fabricated today. This is particularly the case within the nuclear industry. Here defective materials or components may have diastrous consequences to the safety of human beings and the environment. A new concept - Quality Assurance - originates from this industry. The concept implies that all contractors, fabricators and material manufactures involved must prove that the quality control system used, fulfits particular requirements at all manufacturing, inspection and testing stages. These requirement are laid down in two standards issued by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. These standards are discussed in the paper. As a manufacturer of steel products for nuclear applications Sandvik has been forced to establish a quality assurance system according to these principles. The Sandvik approach is briefly described with regard to organisation and other major quality assurance activities. Further the education and training of operators and technicians is touched upon. Finally some viewpoints regarding audits performed by customers of steel manufacturers are expressed. (author)

1976-01-01

413

On Strategy and Manufacturing Flexibility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The era when customers bought what companies produced is long gone. The situation is now reversed and companies must produce what customers want; while the customers' preferences are, furthermore, becoming increasingly diverse. This has forced companies to adopt a new mode of thinking in order to survive. The strategy, by necessity, has become to manufacture flexibly.

Nilsson, Carl-henric

1995-01-01

414

Communication Training in Manufacturing Firms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Illinois manufacturing firms were surveyed concerning communication training for first-line managers. Responses indicate that formal training programs exist in less than one-third of the installations; but when such training is provided it frequently includes communication concepts and skills which are practical in orientation and which are based…

Meister, Janis E.; Reinsch, N. L., Jr.

1978-01-01

415

UK manufacturers construction joint venture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines the legal and commercial framework for UK manufacturers to collaborate in a construction venture for a small combustion/steam cycle power plant fueled with biomass. The integration of technology and project plan, the working capital and capitalisation, financial aspects, the market plan, turnkey packages, joint venture entities, and collaboration are discussed. (UK)

NONE

1999-07-01

416

Integrated Design for Manufacturing of Braided Preforms for Advanced Composites Part I: 2D Braiding  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a 2D braiding design system for advanced textile structural composites was based on dynamic models. A software package to assist in the design of braided preform manufacturing has been developed. The package allows design parameters (machine speeds, fiber volume fraction, tightness factor, etc.) to be easily obtained and the relationships between said parameters to be demonstrated graphically. The fabirc geometry model (FGM) method was adopted to evaluate the mechanical properties of the composites. Experimental evidence demonstrates the success of the use of dynamic models in the design software for the manufacture of braided fabric preforms.

Gao, Yan Tao; Ko, Frank K.; Hu, Hong

2013-12-01

417

Textile Pressure Sensor Made of Flexible Plastic Optical Fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we report the successful development of pressure sensitive textile prototypes based on flexible optical fibers technology. Our approach is based on thermoplastic silicone fibers, which can be integrated into woven textiles. As soon as pressure at a certain area of the textile is applied to these fibers they change their cross section reversibly, due to their elastomeric character, and a simultaneous change in transmitted light intensity can be detected. We have successfully manufactured two different woven samples with fibers of 0.51 and 0.98 mm diameter in warp and weft direction, forming a pressure sensitive matrix. Determining their physical behavior when a force is applied shows that pressure measurements are feasible. Their usable working range is between 0 and 30 N. Small drifts in the range of 0.2 to 4.6%, over 25 load cycles, could be measured. Finally, a sensor array of 2 x 2 optical fibers was tested for sensitivity, spatial resolution and light coupling between fibers at intersections.

Frank Clemens

2008-07-01

418

Transmission of laser light through fiber optic connectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The connections of the telecommunications tract elements have a significant influence on the quality of the information transmission. In the essay reasons and an analysis of the losses in fiber optic connectors are introduced. The case of fiber optic connectors: PC type and with a surface enlargement are emphasized. Different types of fiber sleeve connectors are discussed. These optical connectors can be divided according to following criteria: structure (ST, FC, Sc, E-2000, F-3000, LC, MT-RJ, MU, etc.) types of applied ferrules (monolithic, with multiple elements) technology of production (standard, Light Crimp - AMP, Hot Melt - 3MCrimp Lok - 3M, Universal Com Lite - Siecor) and tuning. Moreover the quality of DWDM fiber optic connectors, which have high functional density and an impact on the light polarization is touched on. The results of measurements of transmission parameters and of mechanical resistance on vibration, folding of the cable in the fiber, strikes on hard surfaces, multiple connection and disconnecting, pulling out of a cable from the connectors and climate conditions are discussed. The results of the measurements listed above with additional interferometric tests of ferrule head constitute the main factor of the fiber connectors quality analysis. Furthermore, the up to date results of the compatibility analysis of the connectors manufactured by different producers are mentioned and a future development in the field is forecasted.

Gajda, Jerzy K.

2003-10-01

419

Mode profiling of optical fibers at high laser powers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes the development of a measuring equipment capable of analysing the beam profile at high optical powers emitted by delivery fibers used in manufacturing processes. Together with the optical delivery system, the output beam quality from the delivery fiber and the shape of the focused spot can be determined. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating wire being swept though the laser beam, while the reflected signal is recorded [1]. By changing the incident angle of the rotating rod from 0° to 360° in relation to the fiber, the full profile of the laser beam is obtained. Choosing a highly reflective rod material and a sufficiently high rotation speed, these measurements can be done with high laser powers, without any additional optical elements between the fiber and analyzer. The performance of the analyzer was evaluated by coupling laser light into different fibers, and measuring the output beam profiles. Fibers with different core diameters and different surface qualities were tested.

Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Pedersen, David Bue

2008-01-01

420

Numerical diffraction modeling of light propagation in multicore fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern technology allows for manufacturing of multicore fibers composed of a number of microcores placed on a circle and doped with Nd3+ ions. The construction is attractive because of effective absorption of diode laser pump radiation. High-power conditions are easily achievable, and phase coupling between microcore lasers looks very promising for receiving high-brightness radiation from compact fiber lasers. To understand in detail coupling between microcores and evaluate an opportunity to achieve phase-locked operation of the array, a mathematical code describing light propagation in this composed fiber was developed. A numerical code performs direct integration of scalar wave equation in paraxial approximation. Refractive index profile corresponds to N index-guiding microcores. The composite fiber was embedded into square region imitating fiber cladding with lower index. The wave equation was solved using a splitting technique for diffraction/refraction processes on every propagation step. Calculations on the diffraction step were made with help of 2D FFT technique on Cartesian mesh. Numerical accuracy was checked by special tests. Results on simulations of microcore array excitation by injection of a beam into one of microcores will be reported. For realizable in experiments conditions coupling lengths are found. Evolution of far-field patterns for different fiber lengths was studied.

Napartovich, Anatoly P.; Elkin, Nickolai N.; Sukharev, Alexander G.; Troshchieva, Vera N.; Vysotsky, Dmitri V.

2000-04-01

 
 
 
 
421

Improved Methods for Production Manufacturing Processes in Environmentally Benign Manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to design a production process with low carbon emissions and low environmental impact as well as high manufacturing performance is a key factor in the success of low-carbon production. It is important to address concerns about climate change for the large carbon emission source manufacturing industries because of their high energy consumption and environmental impact during the manufacturing stage of the production life cycle. In this paper, methodology for determining a production process is developed. This methodology integrates process determination from three different levels: new production processing, selected production processing and batch production processing. This approach is taken within a manufacturing enterprise based on prior research. The methodology is aimed at providing decision support for implementing Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM and low-carbon production to improve the environmental performance of the manufacturing industry. At the first level, a decision-making model for new production processes based on the Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (GSAA is presented. The decision-making model considers not only the traditional factors, such as time, quality and cost, but also energy and resource consumption and environmental impact, which are different from the traditional methods. At the second level, a methodology is developed based on an IPO (Input-Process-Output model that integrates assessments of resource consumption and environmental impact in terms of a materials balance principle for batch production processes. At the third level, based on the above two levels, a method for determining production processes that focus on low-carbon production is developed based on case-based reasoning, expert systems and feature technology for designing the process flow of a new component. Through the above three levels, a method for determining the production process to identify, quantify, assess, and optimize the production process with the goal of reducing and ultimately minimizing the environmental impact while maximizing the resource efficiency is effectively presented. The feasibility of the method is verified by a case study of a whole production process design at the above three levels.

Yan-Yan Wang

2011-09-01

422

UTILIZATION OF OLIVE MILL SLUDGE IN THE MANUFACTURE OF FIBERBOARD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the utilization of olive mill sludge (OMS as an alternative to wood in the manufacture of the medium density fiberboard (MDF. The MDF panels were manufactured using standardized procedures that simulated industrial production at the laboratory. Six panel types were made from various mixtures of hardwood fiber/dried OMS flour, 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, and 50/50 (by weight percents, respectively. With increasing OMS flour content, the flexural properties of the panels, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, decreased by 31.0% and 29.2% as compared to panels without OMS flour, respectively. However, the water resistance was improved by the addition of the OMS flour up to 20 wt % content. For example, the thickness swelling and water absorption values of the panels containing 20% OMS flour were 17.3% and 59.5%, while they were found for the panels without OMS flour as 21.5% and 75.6%, respectively. The findings obtained in the study showed that the OMS was capable of serving as lignocellulosic raw material in the manufacture of the MDF.

Nadir Ayrilmis

2010-07-01

423

Thermally sprayed prepregs for thixoforging of UD fiber reinforced light metal MMCs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low density and good mechanical properties are the basic requirements for lightweight structures in automotive and aerospace applications. With their high specific strength and strain to failure values, aluminum alloys could be used for such applications. Only the insufficient stiffness and thermal and fatigue strength prevented their usage in high-end applications. One possibility to solve this problem is to reinforce the light metal with unidirectional fibers. The UD fiber allows tailoring of the reinforcement to meet the direction of the component's load. In this study, the production of thermally sprayed prepregs for the manufacturing of continuous fiber reinforced MMC by thixoforging is analysed. The main aim is to optimize the winding procedure, which determines the fiber strand position and tension during the coating process. A method to wind and to coat the continuous fibers with an easy-to-use handling technique for the whole manufacturing process is presented. The prepregs were manufactured by producing arc wire sprayed AlSi6 coatings on fibers bundles. First results of bending experiments showed appropriate mechanical properties

2007-04-07

424

Radiation resistant characteristics of an image fiber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Image fibers were manufactured for trial testing from pure quartz, the fabrication condition of parent materials of which was different from each other, and their radiation resistivity were examined. Four kinds of core materials were made by the VAD method in changing sinstering process condition (O2/He gas flow : oxygen partial pressure from 0 to 10 %). The test image fibers were irradiated by 60Co ?-ray for dose rates of 5 x 103, 1 x 104, 5 x 104 R/h, 30 minutes exposure and 30 minutes standingby. Light transmission loss was determined by the 0.47, 0.54 and 0.61 ?m of wavelength. As for the dose rate dependency, tendency of light transmission loss was quite different in higher dose rate from lower dose rate for oxygen partial pressure in the fabrication process. In 5 x 103 R/h irradiation, higher-oxygen-pressure fiber showed lower transmission loss. In 5 x 104 R/h irrdiation, rather lower-oxygen-pressure showed lower loss and the relation between oxygen pressure and light transmission loss was not simple. It was speculated that oxygen behavior in the quartz glass affected much for the radiation resistivity. As for wavelength dependency, it was clarified that absorption of specified wavelength rays happened by the presence of non-linked oxygen defect. Increase of transmission loss was the least for 0.54 ?m. It was concluded that the effect of oxygen on the radiation resistivity was very important. (Takagi, S.)

1985-01-01

425

Thickness optimization of fiber reinforced laminated composites using the discrete material optimization method  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This work concerns a novel large-scale multi-material topology optimization method for simultaneous determination of the optimum variable integer thickness and fiber orientation throughout laminate structures with fixed outer geometries while adhering to certain manufacturing constraints. The conceptual combinatorial/integer problem is relaxed to a continuous problem and solved on basis of the so-called Discrete Material Optimization method, explicitly including the manufacturing constraints as linear constraints.

Sørensen, Søren Nørgaard; Lund, Erik

2012-01-01

426

Fiber alignment apparatus and method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring. 8 figs.

Kravitz, S.H.; Warren, M.E.; Snipes, M.B. Jr.; Armendariz, M.G.; Word, J.C. V

1997-08-19

427

Radiation damage of quartz fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quartz fibers are used in high energy physics experiments as the active medium in high radiation area calorimetry. Quartz fibers are also used in the transmission of optical signals. Even though quartz does not damage by moderate amounts of irradiation, the clad of the fibers and the protective coating (buffer) do damage reducing light transmission. Various types of quartz fibers have been irradiated and measured for light transmission. The most radiation hard quartz fibers are those with quartz clad and aluminum buffer.

Hagopian, Vasken

1999-08-01

428

Fiber alignment apparatus and method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Warren, Mial Evans (Albuquerque, NM); Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe (Albuquerque, NM); Word, V., James Cole (Albuqueruqe, NM)

1997-01-01

429

Effect of Glass Fiber Hybridization on the Behavior Under Impact of Woven Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The low-velocity impact behavior was studied in hybrid laminates manufactured by RTM with woven carbon and glass (S2) fabrics. Specimens with different thicknesses and glass fiber content (from 0 to 21 vol.%) were tested with impact energies in the range 30–245 J and the resulting deformation and fracture micromechanisms were studied using X-ray microtomography. The results of these analyses, together with those of the impact tests (maximum load and energy absorbed), were used to elucidate ...

Enfedaque Diaz, Alejandro

2010-01-01