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1

Flame-resistant kapok fiber manufactured using gamma ray  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Owing to homogeneous hollow tube shape and hydrophobicity of kapok fiber, the usages of this fiber are various such as fiberfill in pillows, quilts, non-woven fabric for oil spill cleanup and plastic green house. Even though kapok fiber is able to apply various industrial usages, it has a serious disadvantage which is the extreme sensitivity to spark or flame. Therefore, we try to make flame-resistant kapok fiber using gamma ray. The radiation caused loss of hydrophobic compounds in kapok fiber and no morphological change, especially fine hollow tube shape, was observed. The lignin contents were negligible changed after gamma irradiation. However, the building units of lignin polymer such as coniferyl alcohol, and sinapyl alcohol were significantly changed that is, functional group as a methoxyl group from lignin polymer was cleaved by gamma irradiation. Based on the results of removal of hydrophobic compounds and cleavage of methoxyl group from lignin polymer, kapok fiber can be converted into a flame-resistant fiber by gamma ray treatment.

Chung, Byung Yeoup; Hyeong, Min Ho; An, Byung Chull; Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Seung Sik; Kim, Jin-Hong; Kim, Jae-Sung [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI), Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Hoon [Department of Herbal Medicinal Pharmacology, Daegu Haany University 712-715 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae-Young [Department of Applied Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: soilcosmos@chonbuk.co.kr

2009-07-15

2

Flame-resistant kapok fiber manufactured using gamma ray  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Owing to homogeneous hollow tube shape and hydrophobicity of kapok fiber, the usages of this fiber are various such as fiberfill in pillows, quilts, non-woven fabric for oil spill cleanup and plastic green house. Even though kapok fiber is able to apply various industrial usages, it has a serious disadvantage which is the extreme sensitivity to spark or flame. Therefore, we try to make flame-resistant kapok fiber using gamma ray. The radiation caused loss of hydrophobic compounds in kapok fiber and no morphological change, especially fine hollow tube shape, was observed. The lignin contents were negligible changed after gamma irradiation. However, the building units of lignin polymer such as coniferyl alcohol, and sinapyl alcohol were significantly changed that is, functional group as a methoxyl group from lignin polymer was cleaved by gamma irradiation. Based on the results of removal of hydrophobic compounds and cleavage of methoxyl group from lignin polymer, kapok fiber can be converted into a flame-resistant fiber by gamma ray treatment.

3

Development Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Kapok Fiber Absorbent Using Irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hydrophobic characteristic of kapok fibers was changed to hydrophilic property after NaClO2, treatments which is able to break all phenolic units especially lignin. After NaClO2 treatment, NaIO4, applied to kapok fibers for opening hexagonal polysaccharide structure, this step led to produce carbonyl groups(>C=O) on kapok fibers. In the final step, NaClO2, treatments were performed again to provide carboxyl groups(-COOH) on kapok fibers. In addition, kapok fibers after all chemical treatments were retained hollow structure which was observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Kapok fibers which were obtained after chemical treatments would be a good heavy metal absorbent when these fibers applied less than in 10 mg/L standard solution. Moreover, these fibers were not detached heavy metals even added physical forces and used kapok fibers are able to reuse after detached heavy metals under pH 2-3. The degree of grafting increased as the irradiation dose increased, and are in the range 32% to 250% when the concentration of glycidyl methacrylate monomer was 50 vol. %. Based on this result, various functional groups are possible to be attached on kapok fibers used by radiation grafting technique.

Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Nho, Young Chang; Kang, Phil Hyun; Baek, Myung Hwa

2006-01-15

4

Development Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Kapok Fiber Absorbent Using Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hydrophobic characteristic of kapok fibers was changed to hydrophilic property after NaClO2, treatments which is able to break all phenolic units especially lignin. After NaClO2 treatment, NaIO4, applied to kapok fibers for opening hexagonal polysaccharide structure, this step led to produce carbonyl groups(>C=O) on kapok fibers. In the final step, NaClO2, treatments were performed again to provide carboxyl groups(-COOH) on kapok fibers. In addition, kapok fibers after all chemical treatments were retained hollow structure which was observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Kapok fibers which were obtained after chemical treatments would be a good heavy metal absorbent when these fibers applied less than in 10 mg/L standard solution. Moreover, these fibers were not detached heavy metals even added physical forces and used kapok fibers are able to reuse after detached heavy metals under pH 2-3. The degree of grafting increased as the irradiation dose increased, and are in the range 32% to 250% when the concentration of glycidyl methacrylate monomer was 50 vol. %. Based on this result, various functional groups are possible to be attached on kapok fibers used by radiation grafting technique

5

The development of nonwoven fabric and agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber for industrial usages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this project is the development of nonwoven fabric using natural kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for industrial usages and the development of manufacturing techniques for nursery bed soil using kapok fiber. Research scopes include the development of agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber and nonwoven fabric using kapok fiber. Main results are as follow; the physico-chemical characterization of kapok fiber (water holding capacity, bulk density, water retention curve, viscoelastic measurement, oil adsorption capacity, analysis of essential elements, measurement of anion and cation); the physico-chemical characterization of kapok bed soil; the evidence experiment of kapok bed soil; the optimum content of kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for nonwoven fabric; establishment of the optimum radiation dose for manufacturing kapok nonwoven fabric

6

KAPOK I: CHARACTERISTCS OF KAPOK FIBER AS A POTENTIAL PULP SOURCE FOR PAPERMAKING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential use of kapok fiber for pulping and papermaking has been investigated. The kapok fibers were cooked using the optimal dosage of sodium hydroxide determined from the experiments. Then, the pulp was refined with two passes using a disc refiner and mixed with commercial hardwood pulp and/or softwood pulp at different blend ratios to make papers. It was found that addition of the kapok pulp to the mixed pulps improved the tensile and burst strengths of the sheets but decreased the tear resistance and elongation. Water repellency of the sheets prepared from the kapok pulp mixed with the commercial pulps was also improved. These results indicate that kapok fiber can be a quality pulp source for papermaking, especially for packaging paper requiring strength and water repellency.

Somporn Chaiarrekij,

2011-11-01

7

Superhydrophobicity determines the buoyancy performance of kapok fiber aggregates  

Science.gov (United States)

Superhydrophobicity is commonly regarded as a surface property that has important consequences for self-cleaning applications. Here we show interestingly that the superhydrophobicity is closely connected to the bulk buoyancy performance of kapok fiber aggregates, a natural material endowed with superhydrophobicity and extraordinary high porosity. First of all, we have determined the superhydrophobicity of a single kapok fiber, which can be ascribed to its micro-nano-binary structure (MNBS) and the thin hydrophobic paraffinic wax layer covered on the surface. Second, based on classic capillary and wicking theory, the buoyancy performance of the kapok fiber aggregates can be modeled and we demonstrate that their buoyancy performance is actually determined by the superhydrophobicity of individual kapok fibers. Our results also suggest an optimized density ˜0.015 g cm-3 for using kapok fiber aggregates as the lightest natural buoyancy.

Zhang, Xiaoyan; Fu, Wangyang; Duan, Chunting; Xiao, Hong; Shi, Meiwu; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian

2013-02-01

8

Study of oil sorption behavior of filled and structured fiber assemblies made from polypropylene, kapok and milkweed fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on oil sorption behavior of fiber assemblies made up of single natural and synthetic fibers as well as blend of natural and synthetic fibers when tested with high density oil and diesel oil. A series of filled fiber assemblies were prepared from 100% polypropylene, kapok, and milkweed fibers and another series of bonded structured fiber assemblies were prepared from a 70/30 blend of kapok and polypropylene fibers and a 70/30 blend of milkweed and polypropylene fibers. It was observed that the porosity of the fiber assemblies played a very important role in determining its oil sorption capacity. The polypropylene fiber assembly exhibited the highest sorption capacity (g/g) followed by the kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies at porosity diesel oil. As the kapok and milkweed fiber have low cellulose content, hence their slow degradation is an advantage in fresh and marine water applications. The good sorption capacity of kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies along with their bio-degradable nature offer great scope for structuring them into fiber assemblies with large porosity and uniform pores to have efficient oil sorbents. PMID:21146290

Rengasamy, R S; Das, Dipayan; Karan, C Praba

2011-02-15

9

Manufacturing of Smart Structures Using Fiber Placement Manufacturing Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Smart structures research and development, with the ultimate aim of rapid commercial and military production of these structures, are at the forefront of the Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost-Effective Structures (SPICES) program. As part of this ARPA-sponsored program, MDA-E is using fiber placement processes to manufacture integrated smart structure systems. These systems comprise advanced composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensors, shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators, and miniature accelerometers. Cost-effective approaches and solutions to smart material synthesis in the fiber-placement process, based upon integrated product development, are discussed herein.

Thomas, Matthew M.; Glowasky, Robert A.; McIlroy, Bruce E.; Story, Todd A.

1996-01-01

10

Radiation shielding fiber and its manufacturing method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To manufacture radiation shielding fibers of excellent shielding effects. Method: Fibers containing more than 1 mmol/g of carboxyl groups are bonded with heavy metals, or they are impregnated with an aqueous solution containing water-soluble heavy metal salts dissolved therein. Fibers as the substrate may be any of forms such as short fibers, long fibers, fiber tows, webs, threads, knitting or woven products, non-woven fabrics, etc. It is however necessary that fibers contain more than 1 mmol/g, preferably, from 2 to 7 mmol/g of carboxylic groups. Since heavy metals having radiation shielding performance are bonded to the outer layer of the fibers and the inherent performance of the fibers per se is possessed, excellent radiation shielding performance can be obtained, as well as they can be applied with spinning, knitting or weaving, stitching, etc. thus can be used for secondary fiber products such as clothings, caps, masks, curtains, carpets, cloths, etc. for use in radiation shieldings. (Kamimura, M.)

11

Carbon fiber manufacturing via plasma technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The disclosed invention introduces a novel method of manufacturing carbon and/or graphite fibers that avoids the high costs associated with conventional carbonization processes. The method of the present invention avoids these costs by utilizing plasma technology in connection with electromagnetic radiation to produce carbon and/or graphite fibers from fully or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors. In general, the stabilized or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors are placed under slight tension, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, and carbonized using a plasma and electromagnetic radiation having a power input which is increased as the fibers become more carbonized and progress towards a final carbon or graphite product. In an additional step, the final carbon or graphite product may be surface treated with an oxygen-plasma treatment to enhance adhesion to matrix materials.

Paulauskas, Felix L. (Knoxville, TN); Yarborough, Kenneth D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

12

Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders  

Science.gov (United States)

Pitch-based nanocomposite carbon fibers were prepared with various percentages of carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and the fibers were used for manufacturing composite structures. Experimental results show that these nanocomposite carbon fibers exhibit improved structural and electrical conductivity properties as compared to unreinforced carbon fibers. Composite panels fabricated from these nanocomposite carbon fibers and an epoxy system also show the same properties transformed from the fibers. Single-fiber testing per ASTM C1557 standard indicates that the nanocomposite carbon fiber has a tensile modulus of 110% higher, and a tensile strength 17.7% times higher, than the conventional carbon fiber manufactured from pitch. Also, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber carbonized at 900 C was reduced from 4.8 to 2.2 ohm/cm. The manufacturing of the nanocomposite carbon fiber was based on an extrusion, non-solvent process. The precursor fibers were then carbonized and graphitized. The resultant fibers are continuous.

Tan, Seng; Zhou, Jian-guo

2013-01-01

13

Effects of the Composition and the Preparation Methods on Oil Sorption Capacity of Recycled Rayon Waste-Kapok Mixtures (RRWK Sorbent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the utilization of a recycled rayon waste-kapok mixtures as an oil sorbent for the removal of diesel, motor oil and bunker C. The effects of the kapok fibers: rayon fibers ratio and the additional of sodium sulfate on RRWK sorbents properties were investigated through series of oil sorption tests. The ASTM 726-06 method was used to determine the oil sorption capacity of the sorbents under both static and dynamic conditions. The results showed the high sorption capacity of the recycled rayon waste-kapok mixture for difference kinds of oil. Oil, which has a high viscosity, tends to have a higher oil sorption ratio. RRWK sorbents had higher oil sorption capacity than commercial polypropylene. The presence of kapok fibers in RRWK increases the hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of the sorbents while the presence of rayon fibers improves the strength of the sorbents. The additional of sodium sulfate during sorbent preparation increases the surface area and pore size of RRWK sorbent and thus improves the oil sorption capacity. It can be concluded that RRWK, which can be produced by utilizing industrial waste, is effective low cost, environmentally friendly oil sorbent with comparable performance to commercial products.

Sutha Khaodhiar

2013-06-01

14

BN Bonded BN fiber article and method of manufacture  

Science.gov (United States)

A boron nitride bonded boron nitride fiber article and the method for its manufacture which comprises forming a shaped article with a composition comprising a bonding compound selected from boron oxide and boric acid and a structural fiber selected from the group consisting of boron oxide, boron nitride and partially nitrided boron oxide fibers, heating the composition in an anhydrous gas to a temperature above the melting point of the compound and nitriding the resulting article in ammonia gas.

Hamilton, Robert S. (Youngstown, NY)

1981-08-18

15

16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...description of the fiber. (d) Rayon —A manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose, as well as manufactured fibers composed of regenerated cellulose in which substituents have replaced not more than 15% of the hydrogens of...

2010-01-01

16

New Manufacturing Method for Paper filler and Fiber Material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study compares commercial available filler products with a new developed â??Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Materialâ? and how main structural, optical and strength properties are affected by increasing the filler content of at least 5% over commercial values. The study consists of: (i) an overview of paper filler materials used in the paper production process, (ii) discusses the manufacturing technology of lime based filler materials for paper applications, (iii) gives an overview of new emerging paper filler technologies, (iv) discusses a filler evaluation of commercial available digital printing paper products, (v) reports from a detailed handsheet study and 12â? pilot plant paper machine trial runs with the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material, and (vi) evaluates and compares commercial filler products and the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material with a life cycle analyses that explains manufacturing, economic and environmental benefits as they are applied to uncoated digital printing papers.

Doelle, Klaus

2011-11-22

17

Modelling fiber flow in fiberboard manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resin weighs substantially on the costs associated with the manufacturing of MDF (medium-density ?berboard). It is thus important to ensure the e?ciency of resin usage in production lines with the purpose of ensuring a given internal bond strength (IB) for speci?c products. Sonae has two MDF production lines using similar technologies and materials but which need di?erent resin percentages to reach the same IB. It was asked of the study group to ?nd out what were t...

Santos, Jorge; Pinheiro, Diogo; Penedones, Joa?o; Matos, Jose?; Freitas, Pedro; Gama, Slvio; Gonc?alves, Vasco

2012-01-01

18

Effect of epoxy coatings on carbon fibers during manufacture of carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The changes in oxygen and nitrogen during manufacture of the carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composites were measured using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. The effects of the change in oxygen and nitrogen on the strength of the carbon fibers were investigated and the results revealed that the change of the tensile strength with increasing heat curing temperature was attributed to the change in the surface flaws of the carbon fibers because the carbon fibers are sensitive to the surface flaws. The effect of the surface energy that was calculated using Kaelble's method on the strength of the carbon fibers was investigated. Furthermore, the surface roughness of the carbon fibers was measured using atom force microscopy. The change trend of roughness was reverse to that of the strength, which was because of the brittle fracture of the carbon fibers.

19

77 FR 73978 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN, Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Authority), Opening...with authority to manufacture carbon fiber for export and oxidized polyacrylonitrile...include authority to manufacture carbon fiber for the U.S. market; the...

2012-12-12

20

16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Textiles—Man-made fibres—Generic names...fiber composed of regenerated cellulose, as well as manufactured fibers composed of regenerated cellulose in which substituents have...Where the fiber is composed of cellulose precipitated from an...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Development of multifunctional carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRCs) - Manufacturing process  

Science.gov (United States)

This work describes a successful attempt toward the development of CFRCs based on nanofilled epoxy resins. The epoxy matrix was prepared by mixing a tetrafunctional epoxy precursor with a reactive diluent which allows to reduce the viscosity of the initial epoxy precursor and facilitate the nanofiller dispersion step. As nanofiller, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were embedded in the epoxy matrix with the aim of improving the electrical properties of the resin used to manufacture CFRCs. Panels were manufactured by Resin Film Infusion (RFI) using a non-usual technique to infuse a nano-filled resin into a carbon fiber dry preform.

Guadagno, Liberata; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Vietri, Umberto; Barra, Giuseppina; Vertuccio, Luigi; Volponi, Ruggero; Cosentino, Giovanni; De Nicola, Felice; Grilli, Andrea; Spena, Paola

2014-05-01

22

Short fiber-reinforced cementitious composites manufactured by extrusion technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of short fibers in the cement-based composites is more preferable due to the simplicity and economic nature in fabrication. The short fiber-reinforced cementitious composite (SFRCC) manufactured by the extrusion method show a great improvement in both strength and toughness as compared to the fiber-reinforced composites made by traditional casting methods. This improvement can be attributed to the achievement of low porosity and good interfacial bond in SFRCC under high shear and compressive stress during the extrusion process. In the present study, products of cylinders, sheets, pipes and honeycomb panels incorporating various mineral admixtures such as slag, silica fume, and metakaolin have been manufactured by the extrusion technology. Two kinds of short fibers, ductile polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers and stronger but less ductile glass fibers, were used as the reinforcement in the products. After the specimens were extruded, tension, bending and impact tests were performed to study the mechanical properties of these products. The rheology test was performed for each mix to determine its viscoelastic properties. In addition, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) technology were employed to get an insight view of the mechanism. A freezing and thawing experiment (ASTM C666) was also carried to investigate the durability of the specimens. Based on these experimental results, the reinforcing behaviors of these two short fibers were investigated. The enhancing effects of silica fume and metakaolin on the extrudates were compared and discussed. Finally, the optimum amount of silica fume and slag was proposed. Since the key point for a successful extrusion is the properly designed rheology which controls both internal and external flow properties of extrudate, a nonlinear viscoelastic model was applied to investigate the rheological behavior of a movable fresh cementitious composite in an extruder channel. The velocity profile of the fresh cementitious composite and the relationship between pressure gradients and flow volume rates were obtained by the finite difference method. The hardened short fiber-reinforced extrudates were then studied by a micromechanics model based on the energy dissipation approach. The overall tension behaviors were predicted and the strain hardening response was discussed.

Mu, Bin

23

16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER...definitions, set forth in International Organization for Standardization...covered by metal. (p) Glass. A manufactured fiber in...fiber-forming substance is glass. (q) Anidex. A...

2010-01-01

24

16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of the total polymer content of the fiber), and...composed of regenerated cellulose, as well as manufactured...fiber is composed of cellulose precipitated from an...fiber-forming substance is cellulose acetate. Where not...vinylidene dinitrile content is no less than...

2010-01-01

25

Environmental measurements of total dust and fiber concentration in manufacturer and user of man-made mineral fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Man-made mineral fibers (MMMF), most of which are referred to as man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF), are mostly amorphous silicates manufactured from glass, rock, or other minerals. Analysis for MMMF have been restricted largely to the measurement of total airborne mass concentrations, but more recently to the determination of airborne fiber levels by phase contrast optical microscopy. In Korea, many small factories are related with manufacturing and using MMMF without any special evaluation of environmental measurements. Though MMMF are known as the substitute of asbestos and their toxicity are regarded as very low, MMMF do not totally excluded from the respiratory and/or skin diseases now. Therefore, we evaluated the environments of many workplaces with total dust and fiber concentration. Most dust and fiber concentrations were below threshold limit value (TLV) at various industries and working processes. However, these data showed a slight relationship between total dust and fiber concentration. PMID:10441904

Kim, J H; Chang, H S; Kim, K Y; Park, W M; Lee, Y J; Choi, H C; Kim, K A; Lim, Y

1999-07-01

26

Oxidative activation of wood fibers for the manufacture of medium-density fiberboard (MDF)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this thesis work was to study the possibilities of radical formation in wood fiber surfaces to enable direct fiber-to-fiber adhesion by radical-based reactions in the manufacture of fibreboard, particularly medium-density fiberboard (MDF). The fibers were produced by defibration at high temperatures. Radical formation was achieved by treatment with laccase, treatment with Fenton's reagent, or gamma-irradiation. High-temperature defibration was found to cause cleavage of interun...

Widsten, Petri

2002-01-01

27

78 FR 55057 - Authority To Manufacture Carbon Fiber for the U.S. Market Not Approved; Foreign-Trade Subzone...  

Science.gov (United States)

...1914] Authority To Manufacture Carbon Fiber for the U.S. Market Not Approved...Inc. (TTA), to manufacture carbon fiber under zone procedures for the U...requesting authority to manufacture carbon fiber for the U.S. market under...

2013-09-09

28

Manufacturing of robust natural fiber preforms utilizing bacterial cellulose as binder.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel method of manufacturing rigid and robust natural fiber preforms is presented here. This method is based on a papermaking process, whereby loose and short sisal fibers are dispersed into a water suspension containing bacterial cellulose. The fiber and nanocellulose suspension is then filtered (using vacuum or gravity) and the wet filter cake pressed to squeeze out any excess water, followed by a drying step. This will result in the hornification of the bacterial cellulose network, holding the loose natural fibers together. Our method is specially suited for the manufacturing of rigid and robust preforms of hydrophilic fibers. The porous and hydrophilic nature of such fibers results in significant water uptake, drawing in the bacterial cellulose dispersed in the suspension. The bacterial cellulose will then be filtered against the surface of these fibers, forming a bacterial cellulose coating. When the loose fiber-bacterial cellulose suspension is filtered and dried, the adjacent bacterial cellulose forms a network and hornified to hold the otherwise loose fibers together. The introduction of bacterial cellulose into the preform resulted in a significant increase of the mechanical properties of the fiber preforms. This can be attributed to the high stiffness and strength of the bacterial cellulose network. With this preform, renewable high performance hierarchical composites can also be manufactured by using conventional composite production methods, such as resin film infusion (RFI) or resin transfer molding (RTM). Here, we also describe the manufacturing of renewable hierarchical composites using double bag vacuum assisted resin infusion. PMID:24893649

Lee, Koon-Yang; Shamsuddin, Siti Rosminah; Fortea-Verdejo, Marta; Bismarck, Alexander

2014-01-01

29

Manufacturing Of Robust Natural Fiber Preforms Utilizing Bacterial Cellulose as Binder  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel method of manufacturing rigid and robust natural fiber preforms is presented here. This method is based on a papermaking process, whereby loose and short sisal fibers are dispersed into a water suspension containing bacterial cellulose. The fiber and nanocellulose suspension is then filtered (using vacuum or gravity) and the wet filter cake pressed to squeeze out any excess water, followed by a drying step. This will result in the hornification of the bacterial cellulose network, holding the loose natural fibers together. Our method is specially suited for the manufacturing of rigid and robust preforms of hydrophilic fibers. The porous and hydrophilic nature of such fibers results in significant water uptake, drawing in the bacterial cellulose dispersed in the suspension. The bacterial cellulose will then be filtered against the surface of these fibers, forming a bacterial cellulose coating. When the loose fiber-bacterial cellulose suspension is filtered and dried, the adjacent bacterial cellulose forms a network and hornified to hold the otherwise loose fibers together. The introduction of bacterial cellulose into the preform resulted in a significant increase of the mechanical properties of the fiber preforms. This can be attributed to the high stiffness and strength of the bacterial cellulose network. With this preform, renewable high performance hierarchical composites can also be manufactured by using conventional composite production methods, such as resin film infusion (RFI) or resin transfer molding (RTM). Here, we also describe the manufacturing of renewable hierarchical composites using double bag vacuum assisted resin infusion. PMID:24893649

Lee, Koon-Yang; Shamsuddin, Siti Rosminah; Fortea-Verdejo, Marta; Bismarck, Alexander

2014-01-01

30

New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections. and it is important to understand the effect that new manufacturing methods of calcium carbonates have on the energy efficiency and paper production. Research conducted under this award showed that the new fiber filler composite material has the potential to increase the paper filler content by up to 5% without losing mechanical properties. Benefits of the technology can be summarized as follows for a 1% filler increase per metric ton of paper produced: (i) production cost savings over $12, (ii) Energy savings of 100,900 btu, (iii) CO{sub 2} emission savings of 33 lbs, and additional savings for wood preparation, pulping, recovery of 203593 btu with a 46lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per 1% filler increase. In addition the technology has the potential to save: (i) additional $3 per ton of bleached pulp produced, (ii) bleaching energy savings of 170,000 btu, (iii) bleaching CO{sub 2} emission savings of 39 lbs, and (iv) additional savings for replacing conventional bleaching chemicals with a sustainable bleaching chemical is estimated to be 900,000 btu with a 205 lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per ton of bleached pulp produced. All the above translates to a estimated annual savings for a 12% filler increase of 296 trillion buts? or 51 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) or 13.7% of the industries energy demand. This can lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 70% for the industry sector. CO{sub 2} emission of the industry at a 12% filler increase could be lowered by over 39 million tons annually. If the new technology could be implemented for bleaching process a total annual estimated energy savings potential of 64 trillion buts? or 11 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) equal to 3% of the paper industries energy demand could be realized. This could lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 60% for the industry. CO{sub 2} emissions could be lowered by over 7.4 million tons annually. It is estimated that an installed system could also yield a 75 to 100% return of investment (ROI) rate for the capital equipment that need to be installed for the fiber filler composite manufacturing process.

Doelle, Klaus [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

2013-08-25

31

The comparison of two methods to manufacture fused biconical tapered optical fiber coupler  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical fiber coupler is a directional coupler which is crucial component for optical fiber communication systems. The fused biconical taper is the most important method in facture of optical fiber coupler, with many advantages of low excess loss, precise coupling ratio, good consistency and stability. In this paper we have introduced a new method to manufacture optical fiber coupler. And more over the new manufacture process has been compared with the traditional manufacture method. In the traditional crafts, two optical fibers are parallel placed, and then use the method of tie a knot of the two optical fibers. In the new process, a new program of fiber placement is introduced. Two optical fibers are parallel placed in the middle of the fixture, and then in order to make the bare part of the optical fiber close as much as possible, the new plan using high temperature resistant material bind the both end of the fiber which are not removing the cladding. After many contrast tests, we can see that adopt the improved method of fiber placement, during the process of fiber pulling, the variation of optical power in the directional arm and the coupler arm are more smooth and steady. But the excess loss (EL) generated in the process of pulling is a bit higher than the traditional method of tie a knot. The tests show that the new method of optical fiber placement is feasible in the actual projects for the manufacture of coupler with low coupling ratio, but for the control of the EL still need further studying.

Wang, Yue; Liu, Hairong

2009-08-01

32

Influence of photonic crystal fiber manufacturing inaccuracies on supercontinuum generation  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate a change of dispersion characteristic in a series of nonlinear photonic crystal fibers caused by slight variation of structural parameters, i.e. an air-hole diameter and a lattice constant. Each fiber has been fabricated to have zero dispersion wavelength close to 1064 nm. The generation of supercontinuum is also demonstrated with the use of fabricated fibers pumped at the wavelength of 1064 nm. We provide the comparison of SC evolution and different nonlinear effects in fabricated fibers. Due to the extensive content of experimental research performed for different photonic crystal fibers, our paper indicates how to design a fiber to be tolerant to the fabrication inaccuracies and to obtain the desired supercontinuum characteristics.

Napierala, Marek; Holdynski, Zbigniew; Szymanski, Michal; Murawski, Michal; Mergo, Pawel; Marc, Pawel; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.; Nasilowski, Tomasz

2014-05-01

33

Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex  

Science.gov (United States)

Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.

1993-02-01

34

Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex  

Science.gov (United States)

Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.

1993-01-01

35

Innovative design of composite structures: Design, manufacturing, and testing of plates utilizing curvilinear fiber trajectories  

Science.gov (United States)

As a means of improving structural design, the concept of fabricating flat plates containing holes by incorporating curvilinear fiber trajectories to transmit loads around the hole is studied. In the present discussion this concept is viewed from a structural level, where access holes, windows, doors, and other openings are of significant size. This is opposed to holes sized for mechanical fasteners. Instead of cutting the important load-bearing fibers at the hole edge, as a conventional straightline design does, the curvilinear design preserves the load-bearing fibers by orienting them in smooth trajectories around the holes, their loading not ending abruptly at the hole edge. Though the concept of curvilinear fiber trajectories has been studied before, attempts to manufacture and test such plates have been limited. This report describes a cooperative effort between Cincinnati Milacron Inc., NASA Langley Research Center, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to design, manufacture, and test plates using the curvilinear fiber trajectory concept. The paper discusses details of the plate design, details of the manufacturing, and a summary of results from testing the plates with inplane compressive buckling loads and tensile loads. Comparisons between the curvilinear and conventional straightline fiber designs based on measurements and observation are made. Failure modes, failure loads, strains, deflections, and other key responses are compared.

Hyer, M. W.; Rust, R. J.; Waters, W. A., Jr.

1994-01-01

36

Size Classification of Chopped Carbon Fibers in the Composite Materials Manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information synthesis of the learning decision support system for automation of the chopped carbon fibers size control used for the matrix filling within the manufacturing of composite materials based on polytetrafluoroethylene is considered. To improve the reliability of recognition learning algorithm with the optimization of the precision control is proposed.

?.S. Dovbysh

2010-01-01

37

16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...locations.html. (a) Acrylic. A manufactured fiber...long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least...long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least...long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least...monohydric alcohol and acrylic acid, CH2...

2010-01-01

38

Design and Manufacturing of Tow-Steered Composite Shells Using Fiber Placement  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced composite shells that may offer the potential to improve the structural performance of future aircraft fuselage structures were developed under this joint NASA-industry collaborative effort. Two cylindrical shells with tailored, tow-steered layups and continuously varying fiber angle orientations were designed and built at the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing - Louisiana Partnership. The shells were fabricated from unidirectional IM7/8552 graphite-epoxy pre-preg slit tape material fiber-placed on a constant-diameter mandrel. Each shell had the same nominal 8-ply [plus or minus 45/plus or minus Theta]s layup, where the nominal fiber angle in the tow-steered plies varied continuously from 10 degrees along the crown to 45 degrees on each side, then back to 10 degrees on the keel. One shell was fabricated with all 24 tows placed during each pass of the fiber placement machine, resulting in many tow overlaps on the shell surface. The fiber placement machine's individual tow cut/restart capability was also used to manufacture a second shell with tow drops and a more uniform laminate thickness. This paper presents an overview of the detailed design and manufacturing processes for these shells, and discusses issues encountered during their fabrication and post-cure evaluation. Future plans for structural testing and analyses of the shells are also discussed.

Wu, K. Chauncey; Tatting, Brian F.; Smith, Brett H.; Stevens, Randy S.; Occhipiniti, Gina P.; Swift, Jonathan B.; Achary, David C.; Thornburgh, Robert P.

2009-01-01

39

Easily manufactured TiO2 hollow fibers for quantum dot sensitized solar cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

TiO(2) hollow fibers with high surface area were manufactured by a simple synthesis method, using natural cellulose fibers as template. The effective light scattering properties of the hollow fibers, originating from their micron size, were observed by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. In spite of the micrometric length of the TiO(2) hollow fibers, the walls were highly porous and high surface area (78.2 m(2) g(-1)) was obtained by the BET method. TiO(2) hollow fibers alone and mixed with other TiO(2) pastes were sensitized with CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) and integrated as a photoanode in quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). High power conversion efficiency was obtained, 3.24% (V(oc) = 503 mV, J(sc) = 11.92 mA cm(-2), FF = 0.54), and a clear correspondence of the cell performance with the photoanode structure was observed. The unique properties of these fibers: high surface area, effective light scattering, hollow structure to facile electrolyte diffusion and the rather high efficiencies obtained here suggest that hollow fibers can be introduced as promising nanostructures to make highly efficient quantum dot sensitized solar cells. PMID:22108763

Samadpour, Mahmoud; Giménez, Sixto; Zad, Azam Iraji; Taghavinia, Nima; Mora-Seró, Iván

2012-01-14

40

Longitudinal estimates of pulmonary function in refractory ceramic fiber manufacturing workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) are man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) used in high-temperature industrial applications. Between 1987 and 1994, a prospective study evaluated pulmonary function of 361 male workers currently employed in RCF manufacturing and related operations for plausibility of a causal relationship between RCF exposure and pulmonary function changes. Workers included in the analysis provided at least five pulmonary function tests. The exposure-response relationship was modeled with two exposure variables: years in a production job, and cumulative fiber exposure (fiber-mo/cc). Comparison groups were nonproduction workers and workers with up to 15 fiber-mo/cc cumulative exposure. A statistically significant decrease in FVC was demonstrated among workers employed in production jobs more than 7 yr prior to initial test. A similar but nonstatistically significant result was demonstrated for FVC in workers with greater than 60 fiber-mo/cc cumulative exposure prior to initial pulmonary function test. Similar but nonstatistically significant results were obtained for FEV1. These findings, which primarily reflect workers employed before 1980, did not persist with analysis of follow-up production years and accumulated RCF exposure from initial pulmonary function test. Since longitudinal analyses are sensitive to influences that continue to affect annual decline during the study period, lower RCF exposure levels since the 1980s may be responsible for eliminating any further effect on pulmonary function. PMID:9563743

Lockey, J E; Levin, L S; Lemasters, G K; McKay, R T; Rice, C H; Hansen, K R; Papes, D M; Simpson, S; Medvedovic, M

1998-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

Studies on radiation resistance of fiber reinforced plastic composites featured by easiness of manufacturing, 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Degradation behavior of fiber reinforced plastic(FRP) composite materials manufactured by conventional lamination technology was studied by measuring various mechanical properties after irradiation and observing fracture surfaces by scanning electron microscopy. When bisphenol-A type epoxy was used as matrix material, the laminated composites degraded rapidly. This fact was ascribed to poor radiation resistance of the matrix resin. The radiation resistance varied depending on types of hardeners. Diaminodiphenylmethane(DDM) gave radiation resistance higher than diaminodiphenylsulfone(DDS). The dose that produced an incipient decrease in mechanical properties(threshold dose) was larger in case of carbon fiber reinforcement than glass fiber reinforcement. For example, the threshold dose was about 10 MGy in case of glass fiber reinforcement with epoxy matrix hardened by DDS, and about 30 MGy when hardened by DDM. While, it increased to about 60 MGy with the latter matrix when carbon fiber is used. From the results of scanning electron microscopic observation of fractured surfaces, the superior radiation resistance in case of carbon fiber reinforcement was found due to its stable bonding interface between fiber and matrix. When BT(bismaleimide-triazine) resin was used as matrix for glass fiber reinforcement, little influence of irradiation was observed in various mechanical properties at least up to 60 MGy, and three point flexural strength showed no change even up to 100 MGy. This stability was ascribed to the stability of both the matrix resin and the bonding interface. Interlaminar shear strength reflects radiation effects on FRP with highest sensitivity among various mechanical properties tested in this work. (author)

42

Studies on radiation resistance of fiber reinforced plastic composites featured by easiness of manufacturing, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mechanical properties of glass fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRP) irradiated at room temperature with electron beams were studied in order to characterize the radiation resistance. Mechanical properties were tested by flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) at room and low temperature, and flexural fatigue strength at room temperature. The GFRP used in the present study were manufactured trial with three kinds of epoxy matrices having excellent radiation resistance at room temperature and easiness of manufacturing. These composites prepared in selected curing condition were equipped with high flexural strength at low temperature, about two times at room temperature. GFRP composed of 4,4'-tetraglycidyl diamino diphenyl methane cured with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane showed the highest radiation resistance: the strength after irradiation up to 90 MGy were kept the initial value, that is, flexural strength of 1000 MPa at 77 K and ILSS of 70 MPa at 123 K. It was also confirmed that the flexural strength measured at 4.2 K were well agreed with the values tested at 77 K. On the effects of fiber-matrix bonding materials by using different kinds and/or amount of silane coupling agents, the pronounced difference were found in the degradation behavior but did not affect to the flexural strength of the GFRP. Flexural fatigue behavior showed rather well radiation degradation comparing with three point bending strength at r

43

CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON FIBER EMISSIONS FROM CURRENT AND PROJECTED ACTIVITIES FOR THE MANUFACTURE AND DISPOSAL OF CARBON FIBER PRODUCTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Composite materials formed by impregnating a carbon or graphite fiber mat with plastic binders are being used increasingly in military, aerospace, sports and automotive applications. Carbon fibers are formed primarily from synthetic fibers carbonized in the absence of oxygen. Pos...

44

Effect of Protected Kapok Seed Oil Supplementation on In Vitro Ruminal Lipid Status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to study the influence of protected kapok seed oil (KSO supplementation on ruminal lipid status. Kapok seed oil (KSO, field grass (FG, Javanese Thin Tailed Sheep (JTTS sheep rumen fluid, were used as experimental material. There were two treatment factors, namely : KSO supplementation as factor I, and KSO protection (throughout formation of Ca- salt after lipolysis by KOH as factor II. Factor I consist of 4 supplementation levels, namely : 0% (S0; 5% (S1; 10% (S2, and 15% (S3, respectively, wheareas factor II consist of 5 protection levels, namely : 0% (P0; 25% (P1; 50% (P2; 75% (P3, and 100% (P4, repectivelly. Amount of 15 treatment combination were formed with control, namely without KSO supplementation and without protection (S0P0. The measured variables included : relative proportion of volatile fatty acids (VFAs, i.e. : acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. In addition, the iodine number (IN and relative proportion of long chain fatty acid (LCFA, i.e. : stearic acid and linoleic acid omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid were also measured. Collected data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance with factorial treatment pattern in completely randomized design. The result of this investigation showed that supplementation 10% or upper KSO without protection decreased asetis acid/propionic (A/P ratio. Ratio of A/P tend increased again with protected KSO supplementation, but on 10 and 15% supplementation levels still lower than control (1.47–2.99 vs 3.36. Protected KSO supplementation increased the relative proportion of linoleic acid and unsaturation rate of ruminal fatty acid (P<0,05 with the higher iodine number, a long with enhancing of supplementation level. Relative proportion of linoleic acid and iodine number (IN in S1P0, S2P0, S2P3, S2P4 and S3P4 treatment groups were : 17,65 and 10,32; 33,07% and 18,67; 42,29% and 41,95; 45,01% and 47,40; 45,17and 50,99%, respectively. (Animal Production 11(2: 122-128 (2009 Key Words: supplementation, kapok seed oil, ruminal lipid status

Widiyanto Widiyastuti

2009-05-01

45

Production Performance of Brahman Cross Steer Feed with Concentrate Containing Kapok Seed Meal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the weight gain and meat physical quality of Brahman cross steer (BX fed with concentrate containing kapok seed meal (Ceiba pentandra. The research used 12 heads of two years age Brahman cross steer with body weight of 324 ± 11.29 kg. the steer were kept in individual barn and offered with concentrate containing three level of kapok seed meal. i.e: R1 (10%, R2 (20% and R3 (30%. A completely randomized design with four replications was employed. Elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum was fed along with concentrate in 20 : 80% ratio. A total amount of feed given to the cattle was 2.5 % of the body weight on the basis of dry matter and offered twice a day in the morning and the afternoon. Water was given ad libitum. Result showed that there was no significant different on daily gain and meat physical quality. Daily gain of R1, R2 and R3 was 0.73 kg, 0.84 kg, and 0.75 kg of respectively. There was significant different in carcass percentage i.e. 52.57, 50.84, and 48.58 for R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Physical quality of meat consisting of colour, pH, water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL and tenderness indicated non significant effect. The pH value of observed muscle in Longisinus dorsi (LD, semitendinosus (ST, and bicep femoris (BF, was 5.80 (R1 5.87(R2 and 5.81 (R3, meat colour score was 5.48 (R1, 5.58 (R2 and 5.59 (R3, water holding capacity % was 36.40 (R1, 39.66 (R2 and 34,09 (R3, and cooking loss (5 was 46.62, 44.17 and 46.19 for R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Result of meat tenderness (g/mm/second was 57.84 (R1, 56.05 (R2 and 59.41 (R3. In relation to price, feed consumption, and daily gain indicated that feed cost per gain was Rp. 2.991.50 (R1, Rp. 2.638.50 (R2, Rp. 2.965.25 (R3, and income over feed cost was Rp. 818.25 (R1, Rp. 1.238.95 (R2, and Rp. 855.80 (R3 respectively. The result showed that the use of 20% of Kapok Seed meal in concentrate (R2, although there was no significant effect, gives the most efficient result. (Animal Production 7(3: 189-193 (2005 Key Words : Brahman Cross Steer, Body Weight, Meat Quality, Kapok Seed Meal.

H Soeprapto

2005-11-01

46

Design optimization, manufacture and response measurements for fast-neutron radiography converters made of scintillator and wavelength-shifting fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to improve the image quality of fast neutron radiography, a converter made of scintillator and wavelength-shifting fibers has been developed. The appropriate parameters of the converter such as fibers arrangement, distance between fibers are optimized theoretically, and manufacture of the converter are also optimized. Fast neutron radiography experiments by 14 MeV neutrons are used to test this converter and kinds of traditional converters. The experiments' results matched the calculations. The novel converter's resolution is better than 1 mm and the light output is high.

Li, Hang; Wu, Yang; Cao, Chao; Huo, Heyong; Tang, Bin

2014-10-01

47

Three-phase Coupling of Air, Droplets and Fibers for the Spray Molding Manufacturing Process of Polyurethane-Fiber-Reinforced Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present paper the authors present a multiphase flow simulation model of the interaction of a droplet-laden air flow with flexible fibers. This highly complex flow is occurring during a manufacturing process of fiber reinforced polyurethane based composites, where the liquid plastic polyurethane (PUR) is sprayed with air assistance in a tool form or on a substrate. Simultaneously chopped fibers are laterally inserted in the polyurethane-air spray cone for wetting before the entire mixture deposits on the substrate, where it starts curing. This investigation aims to compute the statistical fiber orientation and density distribution in the final composite, which will help modeling its anisotropic material properties. It is presumed that the final position and orientation of a fiber on a substrate results from its dynamics and coupled interactions with air, PUR-droplets and other fibers within the spray cone. Therefore, we present a new approach simplifying the multiply coupled interaction of the three phases. In this paper a model of the process is built, that computes the transient, 4-way-coupled behavior of the air-liquid droplets mixture with the CFD code ANSYS Fluent and the 1-way-air- and 1-way-droplet-coupled dynamics of the fibers with an extra code called FIDYST. Two approaches for the coupling of fibers with the air-droplets-mixture are presented: One considers the mixture as a pseudo-fluid ("homogenization"), the other computes a force for each of the phases separately, wherein the average momentum transfer for the fiber-droplet collision is estimated based on the probability of local collision events.

Diffo, P.; Wulf, P.; Breuer, M.

2011-09-01

48

Dry Process for Manufacturing Hybridized Boron Fiber/Carbon Fiber Thermoplastic Composite Materials from a Solution Coated Precursor  

Science.gov (United States)

An apparatus for producing a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite from precursor tape and a linear array of boron fibers. The boron fibers are applied onto the precursor tapes and the precursor tape processed within a processing component having an impregnation bar assembly. After passing through variable-dimension forming nip-rollers, the precursor tape with the boron fibers becomes a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite. A driving mechanism is used to pulled the precursor tape through the method and a take-up spool is used to collect the formed hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite.

Belvin, Harry L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

49

Utilization of Non -oven Jute felt - A natural Fiber as a Substitution of Wood Veneer for Manufacture of Plywood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the suitability of using core veneer made from renewable natural fiber i.e. Non-oven jute felt, which is the second most widely used natural fiber for manufacturing of plywood was investigated to minimize the gap between demand and supply of wood veneer. The renewable natural hard jute fibre was impregnated with phenolic resin and was used for the manufacture of plywood. Plywood of 4 mm, 6 mm, 12 mm and 18 mm thick were manufactured by using phenolic resin impregnated jute felt having thickness 16mm of 1850 GSM (approx. as a core in place of the natural wood veneer. From the study, it can be inferred that PF Resin impregnated Non oven jute felt as a natural fibre can suitably replace the wooden glue core veneer to manufacture ply board up to 80% as an alternative substitute of wood. The physico-mechanical properties such as surface roughness, moisture content, density, water absorption, swelling, compressive strength, tensile strength, static bending strength, glue shear strength, of the plywood manufactured by using jute felt as core veneer with different resin dilution have been studied. Data revels that most of the physico-mechanical properties of the plywood showed satisfactory results meeting the requirement of different grades of plywood tested as per IS: 1734 - 1983. The accelerated study of the glued core after impregnation with jute felt have been carried out for three months before plywood manufacture after storing it in proper temperature and humidity. The data revealed that there is no appreciable change in bond quality and mechanical properties of the plyboard manufactured after storing the veneer up to 30 days. The study concluded that wood substituted jute composites could be an ideal solution with ever depleting forest reserves where utilization of renewable resources will be beneficiary for plywood industries to meet the challenges during scarcity of veneer by reducing the cost of imported veneer.

Mr. S.C.Sahoo

2012-04-01

50

16 CFR 303.7 - Generic names and definitions for manufactured fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...1999(E), “Textiles—Man-made fibres—Generic names.” This incorporation...fiber-forming substance is comprised of natural or synthetic rubber, including the following...fiber-forming substance is a hydrocarbon such as natural rubber, polyisoprene,...

2010-01-01

51

Study of Heat Transfer in a Kapok Material from the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient and the Excitation Pulse of Solicitations External Climatic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to characterize thermal insulating local material, kapok, from a study in 3 dimensions in Cartesian coordinate and in dynamic frequency regime. From a study a 3 dimensional the heat transfer through a material made of wool kapok (thermal conductivity: &lambda = 0,035 W/m/K; density: &rho = 12, 35 kg/m3; thermal diffusivity: &alpha = 17, 1.10-7 m2 /s) is presented. The evolution curves of temperature versus convective heat transfer coefficient have helped highlight the...

Dieng, M.; Diagne, I.; Fleur, B.; Kane, A.; Sow, M. L.; Sissoko, G.

2013-01-01

52

Implementing Machining of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites to Manufacturing Courses in 2 Year and 4 Year Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites offer very high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. As a result, the aerospace industry is making a major effort to incorporate an increasing number of composite materials into various components and structures. However, machining of FRP composites is one of the most difficult and least understood areas in manufacturing technology. Thus, it is necessary to include machining and tool regimes of FRP composites into manufacturing curricula, especially at schools in regions of the country where significant aerospace industry exist. This new topic has been applied into various programs such as Machine Manufacturing Technology Program at Portland Community College (PCC) and Mechanical Engineering Program at Washington State University Vancouver (WSUV). This report focuses on all aspects of these newly developed course materials including course content and student feedback.

Flaman, Michael; Kim, Dave

2009-07-24

53

Manufacturing and Mechanical Testing of a New Functionally Graded Fiber Reinforced Cement Composite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A functionally graded (FG) material system is employed to make fiber use more efficient in a fiber reinforced cement composite (FRCC). This preliminary study demonstrates beam elements that were functionally graded fiber reinforced cement composite (FGFRCC) with four layers, each with a different fiber volume ratio. Fiber volume ratio was graded in accordance with its potential contribution to the mechanical load-bearing capacity so as to reduce the overall fiber volume ratio while preserving the flexural strength and ductility of the beam. Extrusion was used to produce single homogeneous layers of constant fiber volume ratio. The FRCC layers with different fiber volume ratios were stacked according to a desired configuration and then pressed to make an integrated FGFRCC. Flexural tests were carried out to characterize the mechanical behavior, and the results were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the designed fiber distribution. Compared with homogeneous FRCC with the same overall fiber volume fraction, the FGFRCC exhibited about 50% higher strength and comparable ductility

54

Fibers  

... Fibers Fibers, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. Fibers Submit to Fibers Login Register MDPI Journals A-Z For Authors For Editors ...Journal Diagnostics Diseases Diversity Econometrics Economies Education Sciences Electronics Energies Entropy Environments Fibers Foods Forests Future Internet Galaxies Games Genes Geosciences Healthcare Humanities Informatics ...Project Report Reply Retraction Review Short Note Technical Note Special Issue Page Fibers Fibers Home About this journal Indexing & Abstracting Instructions for ... 1 (2013) Fibers — Editors Journal Contact Fibers Editorial Office MDPI AG, Klybeckstrasse 64, 4057 Basel, Switzerland E-Mail: fibers@mdpi.com ...

55

Properties of SBS and sisal fiber composites: ecological material for shoe manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The worldwide trend toward using cheap, atoxic and durable materials from renewable resources contributes to sustainable development. Thus, the investigation of the potential use of vegetal fibers as reinforcing agent in polymeric composites has gained new significance. Sisal fiber has emerged as a reinforcing material for polymers used in automobile, footwear and civil industries. In this work, properties such as hardness, tensile strength and tear strength of polymer composites composed by ...

José Carlos Krause de Verney; Martha Fogliato Santos Lima; Denise Maria Lenz

2008-01-01

56

Manufacture of a weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold with excellent biocompatibility and space maintenance ability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although collagen scaffolds have been used for regenerative medicine, they have insufficient mechanical strength. We made a weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold from a collagen fiber suspension (physiological pH 7.4) through a process of freeze drying and denaturation with heat under low pressure (1 × 10?1 Pa). Heat treatment formed cross-links between the collagen fibers, providing the scaffold with sufficient mechanical strength to maintain the space for tissue regeneration in vivo. The scaffold was embedded under the back skin of a rat, and biocompatibility and space maintenance ability were examined after 2 weeks. These were evaluated by using the ratio of foreign body giant cells and thickness of the residual scaffold. A weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold with moderate biocompatibility and space maintenance ability was made by freezing at ?10 °C, followed by denaturation at 140 °C for 6 h. In addition, the direction of the collagen fibers in the scaffold was adjusted by cooling the suspension only from the bottom of the container. This process increased the ratio of cells that infiltrated into the scaffold. A weakly denatured collagen fiber scaffold thus made can be used for tissue regeneration or delivery of cells or proteins to a target site. (paper)

57

Electronic manufacturing process improvement (EMPI) for automatic winding of quadrupole fiber optic gyro sensor coils  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this EMPI program was to design an Automatic Coil Winding Station (ACWS) for winding Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) sensor coils through the use of TQM, QFD, etc., followed by use of Taguchi an other statistical techniques to optimize the coil winding process. Four phases were involved: Process Definition, Critical Factor Identification, Variability Reduction, and SPC Implementation. Winding FOG coils is both difficult and fragile in that it is a quadrupole wind - as apposed to the conventional thread wind - compounded by the requirement for low tension precision, high-fiber packing density, and always risk of damage to the delicate fiber itself. The critical factor identification in the quadrupole winding process was reduced to fiber crossover - a significant detrimental influence on gyro performance - which, in turn, was closely identified with fiber gap control. The station was completed and deployed to the field where production coils are currently being wound. The ACWS not only lowered the required labor skill but succeeded in reducing the winding cycle time to 1 hour (from 24 hours) and touch labor time to 0.3 hours (from 24 hours) while improving the yield and performance through improved process control.

Safonov, Gregory S.

1994-09-01

58

Properties of SBS and sisal fiber composites: ecological material for shoe manufacturing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The worldwide trend toward using cheap, atoxic and durable materials from renewable resources contributes to sustainable development. Thus, the investigation of the potential use of vegetal fibers as reinforcing agent in polymeric composites has gained new significance. Sisal fiber has emerged as a [...] reinforcing material for polymers used in automobile, footwear and civil industries. In this work, properties such as hardness, tensile strength and tear strength of polymer composites composed by block copolymer styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and 5, 10 and 20% by weight of sisal fiber were evaluated. The influence of conventional polymer processing techniques such as single-screw and double-screw extrusion, as well as the addition of coupling agent on the composite mechanical performance was investigated. Also, the morphology and thermal stability of the composites were analyzed. The addition of 2 wt. (%) maleic anhydride as coupling agent between sisal fiber and SBS has improved the composite mechanical performance and the processing in a double-screw extruder has favored the sisal fiber distribution in the SBS matrix.

José Carlos Krause de, Verney; Martha Fogliato Santos, Lima; Denise Maria, Lenz.

2008-12-01

59

Properties of SBS and sisal fiber composites: ecological material for shoe manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The worldwide trend toward using cheap, atoxic and durable materials from renewable resources contributes to sustainable development. Thus, the investigation of the potential use of vegetal fibers as reinforcing agent in polymeric composites has gained new significance. Sisal fiber has emerged as a reinforcing material for polymers used in automobile, footwear and civil industries. In this work, properties such as hardness, tensile strength and tear strength of polymer composites composed by block copolymer styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS and 5, 10 and 20% by weight of sisal fiber were evaluated. The influence of conventional polymer processing techniques such as single-screw and double-screw extrusion, as well as the addition of coupling agent on the composite mechanical performance was investigated. Also, the morphology and thermal stability of the composites were analyzed. The addition of 2 wt. (% maleic anhydride as coupling agent between sisal fiber and SBS has improved the composite mechanical performance and the processing in a double-screw extruder has favored the sisal fiber distribution in the SBS matrix.

José Carlos Krause de Verney

2008-12-01

60

Seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures and process for their manufacture  

Science.gov (United States)

A metallic outer sleeve is provided which is capable of enveloping a hollow metallic inner member having continuous reinforcing fibers attached to the distal end thereof. The inner member is then introduced into outer sleeve until inner member is completely enveloped by outer sleeve. A liquid matrix member is then injected into space between inner member and outer sleeve. A pressurized heat transfer medium is flowed through the inside of inner member, thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. The novelty of this invention resides in the development of a efficient method of producing seamless metal clad fiber reinforced organic matrix composite structures.

Bluck, Raymond M. (inventor); Bush, Harold G. (inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (inventor)

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

16 CFR 303.33 - Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured.  

Science.gov (United States)

...product completely made in the United States of materials that were made in the United States shall be labeled using the term Made in U.S.A. or some other clear and equivalent term. (3) Each textile fiber product made in the United States, either in...

2010-01-01

62

Carcass Characteristics of Kacang Goats Fed Ration Containing MH-1 Variety of Kapok Seed Meal (Ceiba pentandra, GAERTN.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aimed to study the carcass characteristics of Kacang goats fed ration containing kapok seed meal (KSM as a component of the concentrate. The experiment was conducted in two stages. The first stage was to find out the best variety of kapok that will be used in the second experiment; the second stage was to determine the benefits of KSM on carcass characteristics. Twenty-five, 8 months old Kacang goats with initial body weight of 11.71±1.08 kg, were used in this experiment. The animals were housed individually based on completely randomized design (CRD with 5 treatments and 5 replications. The rations were based on forage:concentrate ratio of 50:50 dry matter basis. The ration contained concentrates, with increasing levels of KSM, i.e.: R0 (napier grass + concentrate: rice bran, coconut cake, corn, urea + 0% KSM; R5 (R0 + KSM 5%; R10 (R0 + KSM 10%; R15 (R0 + KSM 15%; and R20 (R0 + KSM 20%. Drinking water was provided ad libitum. The result of first stage showed that KSM variety of MH-1 would be used as a component of the concentrate on the second experiment. The increasing level of KSM in the rations had significant effect (P<0.05 on physical characteristics of the carcass, such as dressing percentage (44.35%, carcass length (54.006 cm, fleshing index (130.59 g/cm, plumpness of leg (87.48%, loin eye area (5.06 cm2, and percentage of carcass meat (64.69%. It is concluded that MH-1 variety of KSM can be used as a feed component up to 20 % in the goat ration.

T. Hidjaz

2014-04-01

63

Processing conditions and properties of continuous fiber reinforced GF/PP thermoplastic matrix composites manufactured from different pre-impregnated materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present work was to study and compare the processing conditions and final mechanical properties of continuous glass-fiber reinforced polypropylene composites (GF/PP) manufactured by using available thermoplastic preimpregnated materials produced by different methods.To assess the quality of the three different GF/PP pre-impregnated materials, final manufactured composite parts were submitted to mechanical testing and microscopy analysis. The obtained properties were compared be...

Nunes, J. P.; Silva, J. F.; Novo, Paulo; Marques, A. T.

2013-01-01

64

Oxidative Activation of Bagasse Fibers Surfaces in Medium Density Fiberboard Manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents the investigation of the effects of oxidant type (nitric acid and potassium dichromate), oxidant content (three different levels as 2, 4, and 6 percent) and urea- formaldehyde (UF) resin percentage (two levels as 5 and 7 percent) on mechanical and physical properties of interior grade medium density fiberboard made from bagasse fibers. Some panel properties were studied, such as modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) in bending, compression-shear strength...

Doosthoseini; Zarea Hosseinabadi; Moradpour

2013-01-01

65

Study of Heat Transfer in a Kapok Material from the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient and the Excitation Pulse of Solicitations External Climatic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize thermal insulating local material, kapok, from a study in 3 dimensions in Cartesian coordinate and in dynamic frequency regime. From a study a 3 dimensional the heat transfer through a material made of wool kapok (thermal conductivity: &lambda = 0,035 W/m/K; density: &rho = 12, 35 kg/m3; thermal diffusivity: &alpha = 17, 1.10-7 m2 /s is presented. The evolution curves of temperature versus convective heat transfer coefficient have helped highlight the importance of pulse excitation and the depth in the material. The thermal impedance is studied from representations of Nyquist and Bode diagrams allowing characterizing the thermal behavior from thermistors. The evolution of the thermal impedance with the thermal capacity of the material is presented.

M. Dieng

2013-02-01

66

The Addition of Oat Fiber and Natural Alternative Sweeteners in the Manufacture of Plain Yogurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Calorie-reduced yogurts that were fortified with 1.32% oat fiber were prepared from lactosehydrolyzed milk, alone and supplemented with 2 and 4% sucrose or with 1.6, 3.6, and 5.5% fructose. Treated samples were compared with unsweetened yogurt and with yogurts sweetened with 2, 4, and 6% sucrose. Addition of 5.5% fructose increased fermentation time by 60%, slowing down the production of lactic, pyruvic, acetic, and propionic acids and the consumption of hippuric an...

Ferna?ndez Garci?a, Estrella; Traylor, Sandra; Mcgregor, John U.

1998-01-01

67

ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED BOVINE BIOFIBER AS A SOURCE OF FIBER FOR PARTICLEBOARD MANUFACTURING: AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores the physical and economic potential to substitute anaerobically digested bovine biofiber (ADBF for wood in the making of particleboard. Laboratory tests indicated that replacement of one-half the wood in particleboard with ADBF produced panels that compared favorably to the requirements for commercial particleboard performance (specified by ANSI Standard A208.1–1999. The economic question hinges on the opportunity costs of alternative uses for ADBF. The current use is primarily animal bedding, and prices appear to be greater than those paid by particleboard plants for sawdust and planer shavings but less than for chips. ADBF is most similar in size to, thus most likely to be substitutable for, sawdust and shavings. At current bedding values, use for particleboard appears a less favorable alternative. However, this could be overcome by large-volume, long-term contractual arrangements that provide a secure long-term outlet for excess ADBF fiber that may otherwise not have value. For a particleboard operation, the opportunity for fiber diversification and the incorporation of post-industrial waste in the process offer strategic advantages.

Henry Spelter

2008-11-01

68

Oxidative Activation of Bagasse Fibers Surfaces in Medium Density Fiberboard Manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents the investigation of the effects of oxidant type (nitric acid and potassium dichromate, oxidant content (three different levels as 2, 4, and 6 percent and urea- formaldehyde (UF resin percentage (two levels as 5 and 7 percent on mechanical and physical properties of interior grade medium density fiberboard made from bagasse fibers. Some panel properties were studied, such as modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE in bending, compression-shear strength (C.S sth., water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS after 2- and 24-hour immersion in cold water. In addition, the results indicated the best values for WA and TS after 2- and 24-hour immersion, and C.S. sth. was discerned at 7 percent UF resin content, together with 6 percent nitric acid. Furthermore, the greatest values for MOR and MOE were related to 7 percent UF resin content together with 4 percent nitric acid.

Doosthoseini

2013-09-01

69

Production and application of chemical fibers with special properties for manufacturing composite materials and goods of different usage  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of modern technologies demands the creation of new nonmetallic, fibrous materials with specific properties. The fibers and materials developed by NII 'Chimvolokno', St. Petersburg, can be divided into two groups. The first group includes heat-resistant fibers, fire-resistant fibers, thermotropic fibers, fibers for medical application, and textile structures. The second group contains refractory fibers, chemoresistant and antifriction fibers, fibers on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol, microfiltering films, and paperlike and nonwoven materials. In cooperation with NPO 'Chimvolokno' MYTITSHI, we developed and started producing heat-resistant high-strength fibers on the base of polyhetarearilin and aromatic polyimides (SVM and terlon); heat-resistant fibers on the base of polyemede (aramid); fire-retardant fibers (togilen); chemoresistant and antifriction fibers on the basis of homo and copolymers of polytetrafluoroethylene (polyfen and ftorin); and water soluble, acetylated, and high-modulus fibers from polyvinyl alcohol (vylen). Separate reports will deal with textile structures and thermotropic fibers, as well as with medical fibers. One of the groups of refractory fibers carbon fibers (CF) and the corresponding paperlike nonwoven materials are discussed in detail. Also, composite materials (CM) and their base, which is the subject of the author's research since 1968, is discussed.

Levit, R.

1993-01-01

70

Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 4.1 Intelligent Manufacturing of Hybrid Carbon-Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EXECUTIVE SUMARY In this subtask, the manufacturability of hybrid carbon-glass fiber-reinforced composite wind turbine blades using Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) was investigated. The objective of this investigation was to study the VARTM process and its parameters to manufacture cost-effective wind turbine blades with no defects (mainly eliminate dry spots and reduce manufacturing time). A 2.5-dimensional model and a 3-dimensional model were developed to simulate mold filling and part curing under different conditions. These conditions included isothermal and non-isothermal filling, curing of the part during and after filling, and placement of injection gates at different locations. Results from this investigation reveal that the process can be simulated and also that manufacturing parameters can be optimized to eliminate dry spot formation and reduce the manufacturing time. Using computer-based models is a cost-effective way to simulate manufacturing of wind turbine blades. The approach taken herein allows the design of the wind blade manufacturing processes without physically running trial-and-error experiments that are expensive and time-consuming; especially for larger blades needed for more demanding environmental conditions. This will benefit the wind energy industry by reducing initial design and manufacturing costs which can later be passed down to consumers and consequently make the wind energy industry more competitive.

Janet M Twomey, PhD

2010-04-30

71

Evaluating the impact of recycled fiber content on effluent recycling in newsprint manufacture.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the effect of using recycled fiber (RCF) in newsprint production on the effluent quality and its treatability using membrane operations for internal and external recycling and reuse. Increased chemical usage in RCF for deinking had significant impact on the silica and sodium content of the effluent which in turn limits the membrane's operation. Increasing the RCF content from 0% to 50% is estimated to increase the silica content from 4 to 119mgL(-1) and sodium content from 135 to 500mgL(-1). A process model was developed to calculate the impact of these excess chemicals on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and brine disposal for an integrated membrane plant design producing 4MLday(-1) of recycled water. As the ratio of RCF increased from 0% to 50% in the mill process, the operating pressure increased for nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Additionally, organics presence in the feed increased the NF operating pressure above the simulated value and reduced the silica removal efficiency by 15%. Incorporation of lime coagulation pretreatment was found to be essential to operate RO at high recoveries with relatively GHG emissions. Without pretreatment, as RCF content increased from 0% to 50%, RO recovery decreased from 80% to 22% and the expended GHG increased from 0.9 to 3.5kgCO2m(-3). Although the excess sodium concentration limits the brine disposal for irrigation purposes, a partial blending of the treated wastewater with other process streams resulted in the reduction of sodium absorption ratio by 20%. PMID:23668963

Negaresh, Ebrahim; Antony, Alice; Cox, Shane; Lucien, Frank P; Richardson, Desmond E; Leslie, Greg

2013-09-01

72

Radiation pretreatments of cellulose materials for the enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis—II. Wood chips, paper, grain straw, hay, kapok  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of ?-ray pre-irradiation of cellulose materials such as wood chips, paper, grain straw, hay and kapok on glucose production on enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase has been investigated. These materials have been irradiated in air, water and acetate buffer solution over the dose range 10 3-4 x 10 6 Gy. In the relatively low dose range, up to about 5 x 10 5 Gy, the glucose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis are practically insensitive to radiation. At higher dose levels, up to 1.7-2 x 10 6 Gy, the pre-irradiation becomes very effective on enzymatic cellulose conversion. It has been found that the radiation-induced degradation of cellulose into low molecular weight polysaccharides is dependent on the nature and chemical composition of the cellulose materials and on the radiation environmental conditions. Further increases of dose causes radiation-induced structural modifications in polysaccharides previously produced, which can lead to a decrease in glucose production by enzymatic hydrolysis.

Ardica, S.; Calderaro, E.; Cappadona, C.

73

ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS LIGNIN DERIVED FROM CORN STOVER AS AN INTRINSTIC BINDER FOR BIO-COMPOSITES MANUFACTURE: EFFECT OF FIBER MOISTURE CONTENT AND PRESSING TEMPERATURE ON BOARDS’ PROPERTIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL and cotton stalk fibers were prepared under various manufacturing conditions, and their physico-mechanical properties were evaluated. Full factorial experimental design was used to assess the effect of fiber moisture content and pressing temperature on boards’ properties. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg of EHL. We found that both fiber moisture content and pressing temperature had significant effects on binderless fiberboards’ properties. High fiber moisture content and pressing temperature are suggested to contribute to the self-bonding improvement among fibers with lignin-rich surface mainly by thermal softening enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. In this experiment, the optimized pressing temperature applied in binderless fiberboard production should be as high as 190°C in accordance with the EHL Tg value of 189.4°C, and the fiber moisture content should be limited to less than 20% with a higher board density of 950 kg/m3 to avoid the delamination of boards during hot pressing.

Guanben Du

2011-02-01

74

Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural fibers have been used to reinforce materials for over 3,000 years. More recently they have been employed in combination with plastics. Many types of natural fi fibers have been investigated for use in plastics including Flax, hemp, jute, straw, wood fiber, rice husks, wheat, barley, oats, rye, cane (sugar and bamboo), grass reeds, kenaf, ramie, oil palm empty fruit bunch, sisal, coir, water hyacinth, pennywort, kapok, paper-mulberry, raphia, banana fiber, pineapple leaf fiber and papyrus. Natural fibers have the advantage that they are renewable resources and have marketing appeal. The Asian markets have been using natural fibers for many years e.g., jute is a common reinforcement in India. Natural fibers are increasingly used in automotive and packaging materials. Pakistan is an agricultural country and it is the main stay of Pakistan's economy. Thousands of tons of different crops are produced but most of their wastes do not have any useful utilization. Agricultural wastes include wheat husk, rice husk, and their straw, hemp fiber and shells of various dry fruits. These agricultural wastes can be used to prepare fiber reinforced polymer composites for commercial use. This report examines the different types of fibers available and the current status of research. Many references to the latest work on properties, processing and application have been cited in this review. (author)

75

Development of manufacturing process for large-diameter composite monofilaments by pyrolysis of resin-impregnated carbon-fiber bundles  

Science.gov (United States)

Large diameter, carbon-carbon composite, monofilaments were produced from the pyrolysis of organic precursor resins reinforced with high-strenght carbon fibers. The mechanical properties were measured before and after pyrolysis and the results were correlated with the properties of the constituents. The composite resulting from the combination of Thornel 75 and GW-173 resin precursor produced the highest tensile strength. The importance of matching strain-to-failure of fibers and matrix to obtain all the potential reinforcement of fibers is discussed. Methods are described to reduce, within the carbonaceous matrix, pyrolysis flaws which tend to reduce the composite strength. Preliminary studies are described which demonstrated the feasibility of fiber-matrix copyrolysis to alleviate matrix cracking and provide an improved matrix-fiber interfacial bonding.

Bradshaw, W. G.; Pinoli, P. C.; Vidoz, A. E.

1972-01-01

76

Numerical study on the dopant concentration and refractive index profile evolution in an optical fiber manufacturing process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The index of refraction is an important property of optical fibers, since it directly affects the bandwidth and optical loss during information transmission. The refractive index is governed by the dopant concentration distribution across the fiber cross section, which is strongly influenced by the processing conditions. An understanding of the effects of process parameters on the dopant concentration profile evolution is important to design the drawing process for tailored refractive index and optical transmission characteristics. Although the heat and momentum transport in optical fiber drawing have been studied extensively, little has been reported in the open literature on dopant concentration and index of refraction profile development during processing. This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical analysis on the flow, heat and mass transfer phenomena involved in the drawing and cooling process of glass optical fibers using a finite difference approach based on primitive variables. The effects of several important parameters are investigated in terms of nondimensional groups, including: fiber draw speed, inert gas velocity, furnace dimensions, gas properties, and dopant properties on the flow, temperature and dopant concentration distribution. (author)

Yan, Y.; Pitchumani, R. [Advanced Materials and Technologies Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Road, Unit 3139, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States)

2006-07-15

77

Evaluation of manufacturing processes for boron/aluminum composites containing 0.2-mm-diameter boron fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of starting materials and fabrication techniques on the properties and cost of producing boron/aluminum (B/Al) composite panels containing 0.2-mm-diameter boron fibers are evaluated. The boron fibers were obtained from a single supplier. Five kinds of B/Al tape were used to produce 105, 8-ply panels. Consolidation was accomplished by hot pressing in air or in vacuum. Nondestructive and destructive tests included room-temperature tensile tests. On the basis of an evaluation of the test results and relative cost estimates, two kinds of tape were selected for use: fugitive binder tape and dry woven tape.

Moore, T. J.; Moorhead, P. E.

1978-01-01

78

Recycling of Glass Fibers from Fiberglass Polyester Waste Composite for the Manufacture of Glass-Ceramic Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work presents the feasibility of reusing a glass fiber resulting from the thermolysis and gasification of waste composites to obtain glass-ceramic tiles. Polyester fiberglass (PFG) waste was treated at 550? for 3 h in a 9.6 dm3 thermolytic reactor. This process yielded an oil (?24 wt%), a gas (?8 wt%) and a solid residue (?68 wt%). After the polymer has been removed, the solid residue is heated in air to oxidize residual char and remove surface contamination. The clean...

Maximina Romero; Francisco Jose Alguacil; Olga Rodríguez; Irene García-Díaz; Maria Isabel Martín; Felix Antonio López

2012-01-01

79

Recycling of Glass Fibers from Fiberglass Polyester Waste Composite for the Manufacture of Glass-Ceramic Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents the feasibility of reusing a glass fiber resulting from the thermolysis and gasification of waste composites to obtain glass-ceramic tiles. Polyester fiberglass (PFG waste was treated at 550? for 3 h in a 9.6 dm3 thermolytic reactor. This process yielded an oil (?24 wt%, a gas (?8 wt% and a solid residue (?68 wt%. After the polymer has been removed, the solid residue is heated in air to oxidize residual char and remove surface contamination. The cleaning fibers were converted into glass-ceramic tile. A mixture consisting of 95 wt% of this solid residue and 5% Na2O was melted at 1450? to obtain a glass frit. Powder glass samples (<63 ?m was then sintered and crystallized at 1013?, leading to the formation of wollastonite-plagioclase glass-ceramic materials for architectural applications. Thermal stability and crystallization mechanism have been studied by Differential Thermal Analysis. Mineralogy analyses of the glass-ceramic materials were carried out using X-ray Diffraction.

Maximina Romero

2012-08-01

80

Effect of manufacturing on the properties of polyester/glass fiber laminates used for construction of small yachts and boats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microstructural SEM characteristics (Fig. 3) and mechanical behaviour were compared for glass/polyester laminates manufactured in the boatbuilding plant using three methods: hand lay-up, vaccum bagging, infusion. Microstructure was assessed in terms of matrix Vm and void volume fraction using quantitative image analysis. Vm was found 51%, 23%, 35%, respectively. Differences in Vm affected laminate thickness which was fund 3.8 mm for hand lay-up method, 2.6 mm for vacuum bagging and 2.7 mm for infusion. Mechanical behaviour was characterized using three point bending test (Fig. 4), interlaminar shear strength (Fig. 5), Charpy impact and drop weight tests (Fig. 6). Bending test results did not vary much between the methods. Maximum difference of flexural strength and Young's modulus of about 10% in favour of the two vacuum methods (Fig. 4) was due lesser Vm and VV. However, significantly (20%) reduced deformation at fracture and 25% reduced impact strength were observed (Fig. 6) for vacuum bagging method compared to infusion. This was due to numerous debondings and microcracks which formed between the fibres (Fig. 3d, e) in the "dry" spots where fibres were not separated by the resin layer because of locally excessively small matrix content. Based on the results of experiments and knowledge about the impact of polymer laminate manufacturing methods on the environment it has been concluded that infusion method should be recommended to the Polish boat building plants not only due to improved efficiency and harmlessness to the workers' health but also because of improved mechanical behaviour of the materials.

Landowski, M; Budzik, MK

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Completion of evaluation of manufacturing processes for B/Al composites containing 0.2mm diameter boron fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Four fabricators produced a total of 54 B/1100 Al, B/6061 Al, and B/2024 Al panels for evaluation. The 8 ply unidirectional, 45 to 50 volume percent, panels were made using 0.20 mm diameter boron fibers which were obtained from a single supplier. Hot press consolidation was carried out in vacuum except for one set of dry woven tape panels which were hot pressed in air. A single testing contractor conducted nondestructive inspection, metallography, fractography and mechanical property tests. The mechanical property tests included 21 and 260 C tensile tests and 21 C shear tests. Panel quality, as measured by nondestructive evaluation, was generally good as were the 21 C tensile properties. The panels hot pressed in air delaminated in the shear tests. Shear strength values were lower in these panels. But tensile strengths were not affected by the delaminations because of the relation between the tensile loading direction and the delaminations. Composite tensile strength was found to be proportional to the volume percent boron and the aluminum matrix rather than to the tape used or fabrication technique. Suitability of these composites for 260 C service was confirmed by tensile tests.

Moore, T. J.; Moorhead, P. E.

1980-01-01

82

Low cost heat-and-pull rig for manufacturing adiabatic optical fiber tapers / Sistema de bajo costo para fabricar fibras ópticas adelgazadas adiabáticas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se reporta la fabricación de fibras ópticas adelgazadas que cumplen con el criterio de adiabaticidad, para lo cual se implementó un sistema de calor-tracción de bajo costo. Nuestra configuración se basa en la técnica de la flama que se mueve en zigzag, para esto se utilizó una micro [...] antorcha de gas portátil de bajo costo y fácil de usar. Este sistema no requiere un control electrónico para la tasa de flujo del gas, lo que hace de nuestro sistema una alternativa atractiva, de bajo costo y trivial de implementar. La viabilidad de dicha fuente de calor se demuestra con la fabricación de fibras ópticas adelgazadas de pérdida de transmisión muy baja ( Abstract in english In this paper we report the fabrication of adiabatic tapered optical fibers using a low cost heat-and-pull rig. Our setup is based on the flame-brushing technique moving in zigzag, where an inexpensive and simple portable gas micro-torch is used as heating device. Since this method does not require [...] an electronic system to control the gas flow rate, makes out taper rig an attractive alternative, low-cost, and trivial to implement. The feasibility of such a heat source is shown with the manufacture of low-loss tapers (

Yamile, Cardona Maya; Nelson, Gómez Cardona; Pedro Ignacio, Torres Trujillo.

2014-03-01

83

Organics, sulfates and ammonia removal from acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater using a combined Fenton-UASB (2 phase)-SBR system.  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined Fenton-UASB (2 phase)-SBR system was employed to treat acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal and effluent Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) to COD were 65.5% and 0.529%, respectively, with the optimal Fenton conditions: ferrous was 300 mg/L; hydrogen peroxide was 500 mg/L; pH was 3.0; reaction time was 2.0 h. In two-phase UASB reactor, mesophilic operation (35±0.5 °C) was performed with hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied between 28 and 40 h. The results showed that with the HRT not less than 38 h, COD and sulfate removal were 65% and 75%, respectively. The greatest sizes of granule formed in the sulfate-reducing and methane-producing phases were 5 and 2 mm, respectively. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) accounted for 35% in the sulfate-reducing phase while methane-producing archaea (MPA) accounted for 72% in the methane-producing phase. During the SBR process, shortcut nitrification was achieved by temperature control of 30 °C. PMID:21937223

Li, Jin; Luan, Zhaokun; Yu, Lian; Ji, Zhongguang

2011-11-01

84

76 FR 30908 - Foreign-Trade Zone 203-Moses Lake, Washington, Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, SGL...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber); Notice of Temporary...on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC (SGL) to manufacture carbon fiber under FTZ procedures...manufacturing authority when the activity would be for export...

2011-05-27

85

Fiber Singular Optics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present review is devoted to the optical vortex behavior both in free space and optical fibers. The processes of the vortex transformations in perturbed optical fibers are analyzed on the base of the operator of the spin – orbit interaction in order to forecast the possible ways of manufacturing the vortex preserving fibers and their applications in supersensitive optical devices.

A. V. Volyar

2002-06-01

86

The Fiber Optic Connection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the fiber optics programs at the Career and Technical Center in Berlin, Pennsylvania and the Charles S. Monroe Technology Center in Loudoun County, Virginia. Discusses the involvement of the Fiber Optic Association with education, research and development, manufacturing, sales, distribution, installation, and maintenance of fiber optic…

Reese, Susan

2003-01-01

87

Distributed Fiber-Optic Sensing and Numerical Simulation of Shock Wave Response of Manufactured Clay. Phase 2: Software Model and Breadboard.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of the proposed work was to determine the efficacy of distributed fiber-optic sensing in the form of Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry/Analysis (BOTDR/BOTDA) and/or fiber Bragg grating (FBG) application to measure and model th...

M. A. Mentzer

2013-01-01

88

Distributed Fiber-Optic Sensing and Numerical Simulation of Shock Wave Response of Manufactured Clay. Phase 3: Breadboard and Technology Transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of the proposed work is to determine the efficacy of distributed fiber-optic sensing in the form of Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry/Analysis (BOTDR/BOTDA) and/or fiber Bragg grating (FBG) application to measure and model the...

M. A. Mentzer

2013-01-01

89

Distributed Fiber-Optic Sensing and Numerical Simulation of Shock Wave Response of Manufactured Clay. Phase 3. Breadboard and Technology Transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of the proposed work is to determine the efficacy of distributed fiber-optic sensing in the form of Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry/Analysis (BOTDR/BOTDA) and/or fiber Bragg grating (FBG) application to measure and model the...

M. A. Mentzer

2013-01-01

90

Manufacturing Success  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that manufacturing output in America…

Reese, Susan

2007-01-01

91

Why Manufacturing?  

Science.gov (United States)

This web page from the Florida Advanced Technological Education Center for Manufacturing (FLATE) will help students and educators looking at domestic manufacturing. The page highlights products manufactured in the state of Florida including food, beverages, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, metals, plastics, electronic devices and more. A video on the variety of items manufactured in the state of Florida is available in both English and Spanish.

2011-09-19

92

Manufacturing Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective 7:05 - Students will develop an awareness of the designed World through : Describing a manufacturing system; listing and describing the basic type of manufacturing; defining production and manufacturing enterprise;defining AGV, CAD, CIM, CAM, CNC, production tooling, automation, and material processes. Day 1: Introduction/Background Objective Preassessment: Use a KWL chart to assess your students prior knowledge. This will also help you deal with any misconceptions regarding manufacturing system. Students will use the curriculum companion PowerPoint and Objective 7.05 Outline to develop an awarness of: Define manufacturing List and describe the basic types of Manufacturing Student ...

Wallace, S.

2010-07-16

93

INCLUSION OF KAPOK SEED OIL IN THE DIET FOR GROWING OF THIN-TAILED SHEEP TO REDUCE CHOLESTEROL AND TO IMPROVE OMEGA-SIX FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF LAMB  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the influence of protected kapok seed oil (PKSO supplementation in its combination with concentrate, in this case was rice bran (RB on lipid content of thin tailed sheep received field grass as basal feed. A number of 24 heads of male thin-tailed sheep were used as experimental material. These sheep were divided into 8 treatment groups. There were two treatment factors, i.e. : PKSO supplementation (S as factor I and RB supplementation (K as factor II. Factor I consisted of 2 levels, i.e. 0% (S0 and 10% (S1, whereas factor II consist of 4 levels, i.e. 0% (K0, 15% (K1, 30% (K2 and 45% (K3, respectively, based on dry matter (DM intake. Several variables were measured, namely content of intra muscular fat (IMF, iodine number of muscular fatty acid, content of meat cholesterol and omega 6 fatty acid (in this case linoleic acid. The collected data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance with factorial treatment pattern (2 x 4 in completely randomized design (CRD. Content of IMF in sheep supplemented with 0 and 15% KSO levels was not significantly different from those without kapok seed oil (KSO supplementation at the same level of RB feeding (3.45 and 3.99% vs 3.01 and 3.75%. Supplementation of protected KSO in combination with 30 and 45% RP resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 IMF content (4.75 and 5.93% vs 4.32 and 5.40% and significantly decreased (P < 0.05 meat chollesterol content (62.46 and 65.26 mg/100 g vs 89.21 and 72.63 mg/100 g also significantly increased (P < 0.05 linoleic acid proportion (15.52 and 18.25% vs 3.68 and 4.04% and iodine number (12.52 and 10.25 vs 4.09 and 4.98.

Z. Bachrudin

2012-09-01

94

Lean Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

For instructors looking for a basic outline of what lean manufacturing is, this website provides the information in a brief, easy to read format. Students will learn about the history of lean manufacturing, the basic goals of lean manufacturing and key processes involved. An interesting section at the end of the webpage asks students to take a lean manufacturing viewpoint in regards to their own lives, considering areas like overproduction, waiting, inventory and overprocessing.

2013-07-29

95

Manufacturing Interfaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper identifies the changing needs and requirements with respect to the interfacing of manufacturing functions. It considers the manufacturing system, its components and their relationships from the technological and logistic point of view, against the background of concurrent engineering. Design- and manufacturing features are considered to become the basic elements for both internal and external communication between manufacturing functions. The increasing level of automation on the sh...

Houten, F. J. A. M.

1992-01-01

96

Using a Fiber Loop and Fiber Bragg Grating as a Fiber Optic Sensor to Simultaneously Measure Temperature and Displacement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to the module, and, consequently, the center wavelength displacement of FBG was limited by only the effects of temperature change. Displacement and temperature were determined by measuring changes in th...

Hsu-Chih Cheng; Yue-Shiun Wu; Chih-Ta Yen; Yao-Tang Chang

2013-01-01

97

Manufacturing Careers  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource, created by Technology and Innovation in Manufacturing Education (TIME Center), examines the many career paths in manufacturing. These include design and development, production and quality assurance, inventory and distribution, health, safety, and environment, as well as installation, maintenance, and repair. Links to websites with relevant information are included such as "Stanford University - How Everyday Things Are Made by the Alliance for Innovative Manufacturing" and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

2011-10-10

98

Flexible manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

The current status of flexible manufacturing technology and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) in the FRG is surveyed. Topics addressed include technical and economic obstacles to CIM, definitions of flexibility in manufacturing operations and facilities, the components of a flexible facility (processing system, workpiece transport system, tool transport system, and monitoring and control system), and the impact of flexibility and CIM on the overall organization of a manufacturing company. A number of specific installations and approaches are presented in photographs, diagrams, and drawings and characterized in detail.

Schmidt, Hubert; Erkes, Klaus F.

1987-08-01

99

Manufacturing Engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufacturing Engineering is a monthly publication of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers. It is targeted primarily at manufacturing professionals, but it can also be of use to anyone with an interest in the field. This Web site posts between six and ten in-depth articles from each issue of the magazine. Examples of some topics that have been addressed in past issues include turbomachining processes, computer-aided design and manufacturing, and robotic assembly. The online archive maintains all previous monthly postings back to January 2000.

100

Gene expression in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber: cloning of the mRNAs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotton, an important natural fiber, is a differentiated epidermal cell. The number of genes that are active in fiber cells is similar to those in leaf, ovule, or root tissues. Through differential screening of a fiber cDNA library, we isolated five cDNA clones that are preferentially expressed in fiber. One of the cDNA clones, pCKE6, corresponded to an abundant mRNA in fiber. Transcripts for E6 were detected throughout the development of the fiber. Immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products and Western blot analysis of fiber proteins showed two polypeptides in the range of 30-32 kDa as the products of E6 mRNA. Sequence analysis and hybrid-selected RNA translation also suggest that E6 mRNAs encode two polypeptides. Concentrations of E6 mRNA and protein are highest during the late primary cell wall and early secondary cell wall synthesis stages. Sequence comparison of E6 with other known eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes reveals no significant homology (GenBank; December 1991). E6 or a homologous gene(s) is conserved in several members of Malvaceae as well as in one other fiber-producing plant, kapok, but is not found in several other plants examined or in Acetobacter xylinum. A genomic clone corresponding to pCKE6 was isolated, and the promoter element of the E6 gene was shown to direct the expression of a carrot extensin mRNA in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated fashion in transgenic cotton plants. Images PMID:1631059

John, M E; Crow, L J

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Green insulation: hemp fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.

Anon

2011-09-15

102

Manufacturing technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

NONE

1995-09-01

103

Manufacturing Technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

Barnes, James L.

104

Application of high-performance OEM fibre lasers in manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Medium and high-power fiber lasers operating in the 1um region have proven their capabilities for cutting and welding in industrial manufacturing applications. This paper reviews the process performance capabilities of medium power (up to 500W) fiber lasers in a range of precision cutting, fusion-welding and additive manufacturing applications.

Norman, S.; Appleyard, A.; Harrison, P.; Hassey, A.

2012-02-01

105

Effect of Fiber Surface Structure on Absorption Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carbon fibers with different surface structures were obtained through changing the treatment intensities in the process of electrochemical oxidation, and then oxidized carbon fibers were used as reinforcements to manufacture carbon fiber/epoxy composites. The relationship between fiber surface structure and the moisture absorption of carbon fiber/epoxy composites after hygrothermal aging treatment was studied. Results show that a significant increase happen to the surface activity of carbon f...

Qian Xin, Zhi Jian-hai

2013-01-01

106

Manufacturing Planning  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufacturing Planning is a lesson plan that introduces the knowledge and skills necessary to organize and plan a manufacturing project. Use of actual planning charts provides direct carryover to the work floor. After completing this module, students should be able to access and use a variety of resources (human, equipment, tools, plans, vendors and materials) to plan and complete projects according to process and time requirements. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

King, John; Maplestone, Bob

2010-08-09

107

Manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

Blaedel, K.L.

1997-02-01

108

Micro Manufacturing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance. If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management addresses these issues for products based on metal, polymers and ceramics.

Hansen, Hans NØrgaard

2003-01-01

109

Airclad fiber laser technology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last 5 years. Many of the traditional manufacturers of gas and solid-state lasers are now pursuing the fiber-based systems, which are displacing the conventional technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems require reliable fibers with large cores, stable mode quality, and good power handling capabilities-requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 100 m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to megawatt power levels. Furthermore, we describe the novel airclad-based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350 W cw fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

2011-01-01

110

21 CFR 177.2800 - Textiles and textile fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances...i) Fibers: Cotton Polyethylene terephthalate complying in...lubricant in the manufacture of polyethylene terephthalate fibers specified...Methyl alcohol Oxygen Polyethylene glycol (molecular...

2010-04-01

111

21 CFR 177.2800 - Textiles and textile fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Fibers: Cotton Polyethylene terephthalate complying...substances: Aluminum stearate Borax For use as...the manufacture of polyethylene terephthalate fibers...of this chapter. Polyethylene, oxidized (air blown...Waxes, petroleum Zinc hydrosulfite...

2010-04-01

112

MANUFACTURING SIMULATORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Simulation modelling has been identified as one of the most powerful techniques available for the analysis and design of complex manufacturing systems. A number of manufacturing simulators have been designed in an effort to make it easier to use the simulation approach in the manufacturing environment. This paper will attempt to describe and ~valuate the characteristics of some of the available manufacturing simulators as well as possible ways to alleviate some of the inherent disadvantages. This paper will also report on the preliminary design philosophy and specifications of a manufacturing simulation program generator (FACSIM presently under development.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Simulasiemodellering is een van die mees kragtige tegnieke beskikbaar vir die analise en ontwerp van komplekse vervaardigingstelsels. In 'n poging om die gebruik van simulasiemodellering in die vervaardigingsomgewing te vergemaklik is 'n aantal vervaardigingsimulators ontwikkel. Hierdie artjkel sal poog om die eienskappe van sommige van die beskikbare vervaard~gingsimulators te bespreek en te evalueer. Tegnieke wat moontlik gebruik kan word om die effekte van die inherente nadele van simulators te verminder sal bespreek J?, word. Die voorlopige ontwerpfilosofie en -spesifikasie van 'n vervaardigingsimulasie programgenerator (FACSIM, wat tans ontwikkel word, sal ook beskryf word.

P.S. Kruger

2012-01-01

113

77 FR 75972 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, Tennessee, Toho Tenax America, Inc., Subzone 148C (Carbon Fiber...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Tennessee, Toho Tenax America, Inc., Subzone 148C (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Authority); Extension of Comment Period...preliminary recommendation not to authorize TTA to manufacture carbon fiber for the U.S. market at this time, is being...

2012-12-26

114

Polymer fiber waveguides for terahertz radiation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Terahertz radiation offers many exciting applications noticeably in spectroscopy and it is showing promising results in imaging, mainly for security applications. In this project the study of using structured polymer fibers for THz waveguiding is presented. The inspiration for the THz fiber is taken from microstructured polymer optical fibers (mPOFs) used at optical wavelengths for sensing and communication. The fibers investigated can be divided into two groups, the solid core fibers and the hollow core fibers. The solid core fibers offer the broadest bandwidth with the best dispersion profile, while the hollow core fibers hold the promise for lowest loss but at the cost of lower bandwidth. In both cases the fabrication and characterization of the fibers is presented. The fibers are also investigated numerically and the numerical results are held up against the experimental results. The polymer material with lowest loss is Topas and all the solid core fibers are manufactured using this material. The polymer PMMA however has higher refractive index along with higher loss, and this higher refractive index is utilized to achieve a large bandwidth hollow core fiber with a low air-fill fraction. Finally, an example of an application is presented in the form of a broadband 3-dB directional fiber coupler. The device is numerically investigated and designed in such a way that it is manufacturable.

Nielsen, Kristian

2011-01-01

115

Manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L. [eds.

1993-08-01

116

Green Manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

Patten, John

2013-12-31

117

Photosensitivity, chemical composition gratings and optical fiber based components  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The different topics of this thesis include high-temperaturestable fiber Bragg gratings, photosensitivity and fiber basedcomponents. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are wavelength dispersiverefractive index structures manufactured through UV exposure ofoptical fibers. Their applications range from WDM filters,dispersion compensators and fiber laser resonators fortelecommunication applications to different types of point ordistributed sensors for a variety of applications. One aim of this thesis ha...

Fokine, Michael

2002-01-01

118

Manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

Blaedel, K L

1998-01-01

119

Fabric Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

When rapid oscillation of blanket wearing looms at Chatham Manufacturing Company caused significant metal fatigue, the company turned to NC/STRC for a NASA data bank computer search. The search pinpointed tensile stress, and suggested a built-in residual compressive stress as a solution. "Shot peening," bombarding a part with a high velocity stream of very small shot to pound and compress the part's surface, was found to be the only practical method for creating compressive stress. The method has been successful and the company estimates its annual savings as a quarter million dollars.

1986-01-01

120

Method of manufacturing fibrous hemostatic bandages  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of manufacturing a sturdy and pliable fibrous hemostatic dressing by making fibers that maximally expose surface area per unit weight of active ingredients as a means for aiding in the clot forming process and as a means of minimizing waste of active ingredients. The method uses a rotating object to spin off a liquid biocompatible fiber precursor, which is added at its center. Fibers formed then deposit on a collector located at a distance from the rotating object creating a fiber layer on the collector. An electrical potential difference is maintained between the rotating disk and the collector. Then, a liquid procoagulation species is introduced at the center of the rotating disk such that it spins off the rotating disk and coats the fibers.

Larsen, Gustavo; Spretz, Ruben; Velarde-Ortiz, Raffet

2012-09-04

 
 
 
 
121

Radiation treatment of natural fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The properties of fibers of henequen are improved by gamma irradiation in presence of methylmethacrylate. This natural fiber is mainly used for the manufacture of threads, rugs, ropes, sacs, etc. so some of its properties, like tenacity, water repellency etc. are important in order to maintain the quality of the products. The fibers received a treatment before and after the gamma irradiation to a dose up to 0.245 Mrad. The studies include an analysis of several conditions like dose, dose rate, monomer concentration, etc. Tenacity of the treated fibers increases about 40 per cent with respect to the untreated ones, and also the repellency to water. Studies of the structure by optical and electron microscopy show that the improvements are due to deep inclusion of the polymer in the fiber. (author)

122

Mechanical Properties of Heat-treated Carbon Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon fibers are selected for ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are based on their as-fabricated properties or on "that is what we have always done" technical culture while citing cost and availability when there are others with similar cost and availability. However, the information is not available for proper selection of carbon fibers since heat-treated properties are not known for the fibers on the market currently. Heat-treating changes the fiber's properties. Therefore, an effort was undertaken to establish fiber properties on 19 different types of fibers from six different manufactures for both PAN and pitch fibers. Heat-treating has been done at three different temperatures.

Effinger, Michael R.; Patel, Bhavesh; Koenig, John; Cuneo, Jaques; Neveux, Michael G.; Demos, Chrystoph G.

2004-01-01

123

Manufacturing network evolution : a manufacturing plant perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing plant affects the other plants in the same network by altering their strategic roles, which leads to the subsequent transformation of the manufacturing network. Originality/value – A review of the existing literature investigated different elements of a manufacturing network independently. In this paper, the complex phenomenon of a manufacturing network evolution is observed by combining the analysis of a manufacturing plant and network level. The historical trajectories of manufacturing networks that are presented in the case studies are examined in order to understand and determine the future shape of the networks. This study will help industrial managers make more knowledgeable decisions regarding manufacturing network management.

Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami

2011-01-01

124

Dietary Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit ...

125

Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program is to develop the technology required for cost-and weight-efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements, and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of stringer-stiffened and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant-section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements cocured to skin structures. Significant process development efforts included AFP, braiding, RTM, autoclave cure, and core blanket fabrication for both sandwich and stiffened-skin structure. Outer-mold-line and inner-mold-line tooling was developed for sandwich structures and stiffened-skin structure. The effect of design details, process control and tool design on repeatable, dimensionally stable, structure for low cost barrel assembly was assessed. Subcomponent panels representative of crown, keel, and side quadrant panels were fabricated to assess scale-up effects and manufacturing anomalies for full-scale structures. Manufacturing database including time studies, part quality, and manufacturing plans were generated to support the development of designs and analytical models to access cost, structural performance, and dimensional tolerance.

Wilden, K. S.; Harris, C. G.; Flynn, B. W.; Gessel, M. G.; Scholz, D. B.; Stawski, S.; Winston, V.

1997-01-01

126

Manufacturing consensus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has declared that it would be illegal to advertise as or in any way claim your drug to be superior to competitors on the market, which are up to 30 times cheaper. How does a pharmaceutical company market such a product? The answer is to enlist academics to form expert panels to construct guidelines and algorithms, or participate in Delphi panels and other exercises, which can be expected to prove that newer, more costly drugs produce cost savings. These academics do so on the basis of the existing clinical trial evidence--which supposedly the FDA has used to come to its verdict that the newer compound is no better than its competitors. However, where the FDA has seen the raw data, academics later see the published data. In between intervenes a medical writing exercise, which produces the first and most important piece of advertising for any pharmaceutical product--the randomized controlled trial infomercial. This paper explores how pharmaceutical companies manufacture an apparent academic consensus and, in so doing, gives a case study of the recent controversies surrounding the marketing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drugs for adolescent depression. PMID:16804639

Healy, David

2006-06-01

127

Carbon fiber resin matrix interphase: effect of carbon fiber surface treatment on composite performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon fibers are supplied by various manufacturers with a predetermined level of surface treatment and matrix compatible sizings. Surface treatment of the carbon fiber increases the active oxygen content, the polarity and the total free surface energy of the fiber surface. This study is directed toward determining the effect of varying carbon fiber surface treatment on the composite performance of thermoset matrix resins. The effect of varying fiber surface treatment on performance of a promising proprietary sizing is also presented. 6 references, 11 figures

128

V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

2012-10-01

129

Composites in manufacturing - Case studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The papers presented in this volume focus on 19 cases of applied technology in composites design and manufacturing, all of them dealing with specific products. Topics covered include design using composite in aerospace, innovative materials and processing, tooling, fasteners and adhesives, finishing, repair, specialty applications of composites, and applications in the automotive industry. Papers are presented on the filament winding of isogrid fuselage structures; design and use of aramid fiber in aircraft structures; resin transfer molding of a complex composite aircraft structure; and field repair of an advanced helicopter vertical fin structure.

Strong, A.B. (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States))

1991-01-01

130

Fiber Optics  

Science.gov (United States)

SFGate: SBC and Microsofthttp://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2004/06/23/MNGVR7AI711.DTLSBC Communications Inc.http://www.sbc.com/gen/press-room?pid=5838How Stuff Works: How Fiber Optics Workhttp://electronics.howstuffworks.com/fiber-optic.htmFiber Optic Reference Guide: A Brief Historyhttp://www.fiber-optics.info/fiber-history.htmPC World: Has Your Broadband Had Its Fiber?http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,117684,00.aspTelephony Onlinehttp://telephonyonline.com/ar/telecom_breaking_meg_barrier/index.htmThis article from SFGate reports on the recent negotiations between SBC and Microsoft (1) and the implications of the new technology for Internet and television access. This website from SBC (2) provides video footage and background information on their initiative called Project Lightspeed. This initiative is based largely on fiber technology, which is described further on this website from How Stuff Works (3). This website (4) provides a brief history of fiber optics technology along with links to sections on the applications of fiber optics and more basics on transmission. This article from PC World (5) discusses how fiber optics became a viable option. This article from Telephony Online 6)reviews some of the challenges that remain.

131

Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

132

Manufacturing Engineering Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufacturing Engineering Skills provides an assessment of what the key manufacturing skills along with skill gaps are in the marketplace. Joe Loughrey is president and chief operating officer of Cummins Inc. and chairman of The Manufacturing Institute, the research and education arm of the National Association of Manufacturers. Additionally, Manufacturing Engineering Skills was shared by Mike Mohlar and by Roger Lang at an SME mfg executive roundtable in 2005 to provide clarity and encouragement about careers in manufacturing.

Loughrey, Joe

2009-08-03

133

Optimization of laser fibers for high pump light absorption  

Science.gov (United States)

For the implementation of novel fiber laser concepts, such as extra-large mode area (X-LMA) fiber lasers or multi-core fiber lasers alternative manufacturing processes for highly-doped silica glasses and the laser fibers fabricated from it are required. For efficient laser operation a high absorption of pump power in the active fiber core is a necessary condition. To increase the pump light absorption the fiber development aimed at the preparation of laser-active and adapted passive single-large core fibers up to multi-core structures with 7 large cores showing broken circular fiber symmetry. The optimization of the optical fibers which will be shown in detail is based on the combination of several innovative manufacturing methods such as the powder sintering technology (REPUSIL), the preform preparation by stack-and-draw technique and the fiber drawing process. The described procedure is particularly suitable to produce multifilament glass preforms resp. laser fibers with large cores in which the radial and lateral indices of refraction can be adjusted homogeneously and reproducibly. Due to the realized increase of the laser-active core volume in these fibers the pump light absorption could be considerably increased and the resulting shorter fiber length allows the use of fibers with a moderate attenuation. The results concerning the characterization of materials science and the optical aspects e. g. the dopant concentration distributions and related refractive index profiles as well attenuation and pump absorption spectra will be presented.

Bierlich, Jörg; Kobelke, Jens; Jetschke, Sylvia; Grimm, Stephan; Unger, Sonja; Schuster, Kay

2014-03-01

134

Introduction to Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction to Manufacturing provides an overview of basic manufacturing processes and career opportunities within manufacturing. Students will participate in a manufacturing simulation in which they will analyze the manufacturing process for a product and redesign the process to incorporate a teaming approach. After completing this module, students should be able to analyze and execute a manufacturing process, identify problems in the process, and redesign the process for improvement during a simulated manufacturing line. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

2010-07-23

135

Ceramic fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main peculiarities of fabrication and properties of ceramic fibers of different types are considered. Advantages of ceramic fibers (BN, TiN, NbN, B4C, Mo2C, NbC), used as fillers of composite materials with different matrices are shown

136

Fiber-assisted emulsification microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of aromatic amines in aqueous samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel fiber-assisted emulsification microextraction (FAEME) method was developed for the determination of eight aromatic amines (AAs) in aqueous samples. In this method, the extraction solvent (100 ?L chlorobenzene) and the dispersive material (1.0mg kapok fiber fragments) were added successively into the aqueous sample (5.0 mL), and then the mixture was emulsified by ultrasound to form the cloudy solution. Phase separation was performed by centrifugation, and the sedimented phase was transferred to micro-inserts with a microsyringe for analysis. All variables involved in the extraction process were identified and optimized. By coupling the analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), excellent detection limits (0.01-0.2 ?g L(-1)), good precision (RSDs, 3.33-6.56%) and linear ranges (0.10-160 ?g L(-1) and 1.0-160 ?g L(-1)) were obtained. Compared with the traditional solvent-emulsification method, the extraction recoveries of the proposed method were much higher. Satisfactory recoveries were achieved when the method was used for the analysis of AAs in spiked real water samples. PMID:25152494

Feng, Wen; Jiang, Ruifen; Chen, Bo; Ouyang, Gangfeng

2014-09-26

137

Status of fiber lasers study of on ytterbium doped fiber laser and laser spectroscopy of doped fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work shows all the advantages and drawbacks of the rare-earth-doped fiber lasers and fiber optical amplifiers, pointing out their potential use for instrumentation and optical fiber sensor technology. The theory of light propagation in optical fibers is presented in order to understand the manufacturing methods. A comparative study of preform surface and concentration analysis is performed. The gain behaviour is also thoroughly examined. A synthesis of all technological parameters of the fiber laser is then established and all technologies of the constituting integrated components are reviewed and compared. The experimental techniques mainly involve: site selective excitation tunability, cooperative luminescence, oxidation state changes induced by gamma irradiation, ytterbium-doped mono-mode continuous wave tunable three-level fiber laser. (TEC). 622 refs., 176 figs

138

Fiber-optic communication systems and equipment. November 1986-October 1988 (Citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Report for November 1986-October 1988  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography contains citations concerning fiber-optic communication systems and equipment. Topics include fiber strength, microbend effects, radiation effects, fiber systems, optical fiber cables, fiber manufacturing, computer networks, couplers and connectors, AM sources, detectors and switches, fiber design, modal noise, splicing cables, and data networks. (This updated bibliography contains 108 citations, 52 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

1988-11-01

139

Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had amounts of bonded and physisorbed sizing similar to what has been presented in literature. An estimated sizing thickness was found to be approximately 100 nm. It is indicated that an epoxy-resin containing film former and a polyethylene oxide lubricant are present, yet no silanes or other sizing components were identified in the extractant.

Petersen, Helga NØrgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro

2013-01-01

140

Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams  

Science.gov (United States)

Long fibers are generally preferred for reinforcing foams for performance reasons. However, uniform dispersion is difficult to achieve because they must be mixed with liquid resin prior to foam expansion. New approaches aiming to overcome such problem have been developed at USC's Composites Center. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams with long fibers (over 6 mm in length) manufactured at USC's Composites Center have achieved promising mechanical properties and demonstrated lower density relative to conventional composite foams. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were synthesized from thermosetting polymeric microspheres (amino and phenolic microspheres), as well as thermoplastic PVC heat expandable microspheres (HEMs). Carbon and/or aramid fibers were used to reinforce the syntactic foams. Basic mechanical properties, including shear, tensile, and compression, were measured in syntactic foams and fiber-reinforced syntactic foams. Microstructure and crack propagation behavior were investigated by scanning electron microscope and light microscopy. Failure mechanisms and reinforcing mechanisms of fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were also analyzed. As expected, additions of fiber reinforcements to foams enhanced both tensile and shear properties. However, only limited enhancement in compression properties was observed, and fiber reinforcement was of limited benefit in this regard. Therefore, a hybrid foam design was explored and evaluated in an attempt to enhance compression properties. HEMs were blended with glass microspheres to produce hybrid foams, and hybrid foams were subsequently reinforced with continuous aramid fibers to produce fiber-reinforced hybrid foams. Mechanical properties of these foams were evaluated. Findings indicated that the production of hybrid foams was an effective way to enhance the compressive properties of syntactic foams, while the addition of fiber reinforcements enhanced the shear and tensile performance of syntactic foams. Another approach to produce ultralight sandwich core materials was explored in which towpreg (fiber bundles impregnated with resin) were configured to produce 3D pyramidal truss structures. The composite truss structures were subsequently filled with foam to improve resistance to buckling. Mechanical properties of the foam-filled truss structures were measured and contrasted with analytical predictions based on simple truss theory. Results indicated that combination of foams and carbon fiber truss structures had synergistic effects that enhanced the capacity to carry compressive and shear loads.

Huang, Yi-Jen

 
 
 
 
141

Heliostat manufacturing analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of a manufacturing cost analysis of heliostats are presented. The two primary objectives are: (1) providing a base for uniform cost analysis, and (2) providing facility and manufacturing cost estimates for planning purposes in the development of a heliostat industry. The manufacturing analysis provides materials, labor, equipment, and facility costs for each step in the manufacturing process. Detailed procedures are presented for cost estimates. These include estimating worksheets for each component of the manufacturing costs.

Drumheller, K.

1978-10-01

142

Strength distribution of reinforcing fibers in a Nicalon fiber/chemically vapor infiltrated silicon carbide matrix composite  

Science.gov (United States)

The strength distribution of fibers within a two-dimensional laminate ceramic/ceramic composite consisting of an eight harness satin weave of Nicalon continuous fiber within a chemically vapor infiltrated SiC matrix was determined from analysis of the fracture mirrors of the fibers. Comparison of the fiber strengths and the Weibull moduli with those for Nicalon fibers prior to incorporation into composites suggests that possible fiber damage may occur either during the weaving or during another stage of the composite manufacture. Observations also indicate that it is the higher-strength fibers which experience the greatest extent of fiber pullout and thus make a larger contribution to the overall composite toughness than do the weaker fibers.

Eckel, Andrew J.; Bradt, Richard C.

1989-01-01

143

Effect of fiber content on the mechanical properties of glass fiber-phenolic matrix composite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glass fiber-Phenolic matrix composite is used for the manufacturing of parts related to aerospace and electronic industry due to its high strength, dimensional stability and excellent electrical insulation properties. The evaluation of this composite material is necessary prior to make components/articles of new designs. In the present work, Thermosetting Phenolic plastic was reinforced with E-glass fiber, in different fiber-to-resin ratios to produce composites of different compositions. Mechanical properties of these composite materials were evaluated with reference to the effect of fiber content variation in phenolic resin. (author)

144

Effect of fiber content on the properties of glass fiber-phenolic matrix composite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glass fiber-Phenolic matrix composite is used for the manufacturing of parts /components related to electronic and aerospace industry due to its high strength, dimensional stability and excellent electrical insulation properties. The evaluation of this composite material is necessary prior to make parts/components of new designs. In the present research, thermosetting phenolic plastic was reinforced with E-glass fiber in different fiber-to-resin ratios to produce composites of different compositions. Mechanical and electrical properties of these composite materials were evaluated with reference to the effect of fiber content variation in phenolic resin. (author)

145

Manufacturing Strategy, Capabilities and Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation addresses the topic of manufacturing strategy, especially the manufacturing capabilities and operational performance of manufacturing plants. Manufacturing strategy research aims at providing a structured decision making approach to improve the economics of manufacturing and to make companies more competitive. The overall objective of this thesis is to investigate how manufacturing companies make use of different manufacturing practices or bundles of manufacturing practices ...

Hallgren, Mattias

2007-01-01

146

Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements

147

Manufacturing implications of fibre optic systems  

Science.gov (United States)

It is pointed out that fiber optic data transmission offers powerful advantages over conventional copper based links. These advantages are related to increased bandwidth, smaller diameter, lower weight, elimination of crosstalk, and complete immunity to electromagnetic interference. A major difficulty concerning the introduction of fiber optic systems has been related to the lack of properly developed manufacturing and repair techniques to produce systems which have an adequate performance compatible with operation in the airborne environment. An experimental manufacturing program was, therefore, initiated to assess the performance of operation, tooling systems, and airborne system performance. On the basis of the results of the investigations, it is concluded that a complete set of components exist, albeit in the prototype state to enable a range of applications. The system performance obtainable is adequate for many interconnection applications.

Roy, S. D.; Gardiner, P. T.

1982-08-01

148

METHOD FOR MEASURING CARBON FIBER EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon fibers are highly conductive, lightweight and of small dimensions. When released as emissions from production, manufacturing, processing and disposal sources they may become airborne and disperse over wide areas. If they settle onto electronic or electrical components they...

149

Manufacturing Extension Partnership Source for Manufacturers  

Science.gov (United States)

Located within the United States Commerce Department, the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) consists of not-for-profit centers whose "sole purpose is to provide small and medium sized manufacturers with the services they need to succeed." On their site, they provide access to a number of resources that support supply chain integration and also provide access to information about technology that will increase productivity. First-time visitors may wish to begin by looking over the "Success Stories" area, which tells about those manufacturers that have created useful partnerships through the program. Visitors who might be studying these types of manufacturers may wish to look at the "Economic Indicators" area of the site and the "Tools" section, which contain a number of e-business tools designed for these types of manufacturers. Additionally, visitors can also use an interactive map to find their local MEP Center.

150

Carbon fibers from SRC pitch  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention relates to an improved method of manufacturing carbon fibers from a coal derived pitch. The improvement resides in the use of a solvent refined coal which has been hydrotreated and subjected to solvent extraction whereby the hetero atom content in the resulting product is less than 4.0% by weight and the softening point is between about 100.degree.-250.degree. F.

Greskovich, Eugene J. (Allentown, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1981-01-01

151

Refractory ceramic fiber exposure and pleural plaques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) are manmade vitreous fibers (MMVF) manufactured for high-temperature applications. Between 1987 and 1992, a retrospective cohort and nested case-control study evaluated chest radiographs from 652 workers involved in the manufacture of these fibers for plausibility of a causal relationship between exposure to RCF and chest-radiographic changes. The exposure-response relationship was modeled with three variables: years since first fiber production job, years in fiber production, and cumulative fiber exposure to date of study X-ray. The case-control study used a comprehensive characterization of possible asbestos exposure to investigate asbestos as the potential causative agent of chest-radiographic changes. Chest radiographs of 20 workers (3.1%) demonstrated 19 pleural plaques and one diffuse pleural thickening. Nine of 72 workers (12.5%) with more than 20 yr since their first fiber-production job had plaques (odds ratio [OR] = 9.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9 to 48.2). Five of 19 workers with more than 20 yr in fiber-production work (26.3%) had plaques (OR = 22.3; 95% CI = 3.6 to 137.0). Similarly, adjusted ORs demonstrated a progressive relationship between cumulative fiber-months per milliliter (fiber-mo/ml) exposure and plaques. The case-control study confirmed that asbestos exposure did not account for the observed association between fiber exposure and plaques. A validity review of historical films demonstrated biologic plausibility for the association, since sufficient latency existed from the time of first RCF exposure to the development of plaques. There was no significant increase in parenchymal changes consistent with interstitial fibrosis. PMID:8912756

Lockey, J; Lemasters, G; Rice, C; Hansen, K; Levin, L; Shipley, R; Spitz, H; Wiot, J

1996-11-01

152

Chemical Modification Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Coir Fiber  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Natural fiber has a vital role as a reinforcing agent due to its renewable, low cost, biodegradable, less abrasive and eco-friendly nature. Whereas synthetic fibers like glass, boron, carbon, metallic, ceramic and inorganic fibers are expensive and not eco-friendly. Coir is one of the natural fibers easily available in Bangladesh and cheap. It is derived from the husk of the coconut (Cocos nucifera. Coir has one of the highest concentrations of lignin, which makes it stronger. In recent years, wide range of research has been carried out on fiber reinforced polymer composites [4-13].The aim of the present research is to characterize brown single coir fiber for manufacturing polymer composites reinforced with characterized fibers. Adhesion between the fiber and polymer is one of factors affecting the strength of manufactured composites. In order to increase the adhesion, the coir fiber was chemically treated separately in single stage (with Cr2(SO43•12(H2O and double stages (with CrSO4 and NaHCO3. Both the raw and treated fibers were characterized by tensile testing, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic analysis, scanning electron microscopic analysis. The result showed that the Young’s modulus increased, while tensile strength and strain to failure decreased with increase in span length. Tensile properties of chemically treated coir fiber was found higher than raw coir fiber, while the double stage treated coir fiber had better mechanical properties compared to the single stage treated coir fiber. Scanning electron micrographs showed rougher surface in case of the raw coir fiber. The surface was found clean and smooth in case of the treated coir fiber. Thus the performance of coir fiber composites in industrial application can be improved by chemical treatment.

Samia Sultana Mir

2012-04-01

153

Testing procedure for the single fiber fragmentation test  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report describes the details of the single fiber fragmentation test as conducted at the materials research department (AFM) at Risø. The equipment and specimen manufacture is described in detail. Furthermore, examples of results interpretation aregiven. For the experiments in this report, specimens with one E-glass fiber placed inside an epoxy or polyester matrix were used. Elongating the specimens with a mini tensile tester, which was placed under a microscope, leads to fiber fragmentations.Different bonding strengths between fiber and matrix result in differences in the critical fracture length for the fiber and fracture characteristics.

Feih, S.; Lilholt, Hans

2004-01-01

154

Establishing a Testing Procedure for the Single Fiber Fragmentation Test  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report describes the details of the single fiber fragmentation test as conducted at the materials research department (AFM) at Risø. The equipment and specimen manufacture is described in detail. Furthermore, examples of results interpretation are given. For the experiments in this report, specimens with one E-glass fiber placed inside an epoxy or polyester matrix were used. Elongating the specimens with a mini tensile tester, which was placed under a microscope, leads to fiber fragmentations. Different bonding strengths between fiber and matrix result in differences in the critical fracture length for the fiber and fracture characteristics.

Feih, Stefanie; Wonsyld, Karen

2004-01-01

155

Microbending fiber optic sensors for smart structures  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber optic smart structures can be used to perform a variety of functions ranging from monitoring the manufacturing process, performing nondestructive evaluation of components once the parts have been made, providing means to implement vehicle health monitoring and maintenance systems, and enabling systems such as actively damped structures and performance monitoring of aircraft engines. This paper describes a low cost approach to microbending sensing and its application to feasibility studies for manufacturing and health maintenance.

Udd, Eric; Theriault, John Paul; Markus, Alan; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

1990-02-01

156

RRR Niobium Manufacturing Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

ATI Wah Chang has been manufacturing RRR niobium for more than 30 years using electron beam melting techniques. Fabricated forms include plate, sheet, foil, bar, rod and tubing. This paper provides manufacturing information.

Graham, Ronald A.

2007-08-01

157

Manufacturing Career Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

Explore careers in Manufacturing with the following links to job descriptions, which include information such as daily activities, skill requirements, salary and training required. To learn more about the Manufacturing Industry, follow the related links below the career descriptions section.

2010-06-29

158

Safety in Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Safety in Manufacturing provides participants with an understanding of the critical nature of safety in manufacturing and of the individual's role in providing for a safe manufacturing environment. After completing this module, students should be able to evaluate the degree of hazard in a given scenario and recommend appropriate corrective action. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

2010-08-03

159

What is Manufacturing?  

Science.gov (United States)

This PowerPoint presentation from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center provides an introduction to general manufacturing. The material focuses on manufacturing that is Florida based, but would be useful for students in other regions as well. The presentation demonstrates the manufacturing cycle (innovate, design, fabricate, test, market, distribute) and shows student the pathway they may take to a career in manufacturing.

2011-01-25

160

Rapid Manufactured Textiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Rapid Manufacturing (RM) is increasingly becoming a viable manufacturing process due to dramatic advantages that are achievable in the area of design complexity. Through the exploration of the design freedom afforded by RM, this paper introduces the concept and novel research area of RM textiles. The paper highlights the design and manufacturing possibilities applied to textiles when considering additive manufacturing techniques, the current limitations of conventional Com...

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Manufacturing in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report compares the manufacturing strategies, practices, performances and improvement activities of 39 companies that are representative for the Danish assembly industry with those of 804 companies from 19 other countries. The data supporting this report were collected in 2013 and concern: • Manufacturing strategies pursued and implemented between 2010 and 2012. • Performance improvements achieved during that period. • Actual manufacturing practices and performances as well as competitive priorities in 2012. • Manufacturing strategies pursued for the years 2010-2012.

Hansen, Johannes; Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth

2014-01-01

162

75 FR 104 - Manufacturing & Services' Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative; Update  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Manufacturing & Services' Sustainable Manufacturing...SUMMARY: The International Trade Administration's (ITA) Manufacturing & Services Unit held a...

2010-01-04

163

Birefringence in optical fibers formed by proton implantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Birefringence can be induced in silica-based optical fibers by ion implantation. In the present research, protons were implanted in single-mode optical fibers with two different energies, one being the energy with which the protons can just reach the center of the optical fiber core and the other being a slightly lower energy. The degree of birefringence was evaluated by measuring reflection spectra of Bragg gratings formed at the proton-implanted region of the optical fibers. The results confirmed that birefringence is induced by unidirectional densification along the projected range of protons formed in the fiber core and by densification of the fiber cladding. The induced birefringence reached three to ten times higher than that of a conventional birefringent fiber. The birefringence caused by ion implantation can be a versatile tool for manufacturing various optical fiber devices.

Yu, Seung Jun; Suzuki, Masahiro; Ohki, Yoshimichi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Fujimaki, Makoto [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Center for Applied Near-Field Optics Research (CAN-FOR), Tsukuba Central 4, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)], E-mail: m-fujimaki@aist.go.jp; Awazu, Kouichi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Center for Applied Near-Field Optics Research (CAN-FOR), Tsukuba Central 4, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Eisuke [SWCC Showa Business Solutions Co., Ltd., 4-1-1 Minami-Hashimoto, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1133 (Japan); Okude, Satoshi [Electron Device Laboratory, Fujikura Ltd., 1440 Mutsuzaki, Sakura, Chiba 285-8550 (Japan)

2007-12-15

164

Birefringence in optical fibers formed by proton implantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Birefringence can be induced in silica-based optical fibers by ion implantation. In the present research, protons were implanted in single-mode optical fibers with two different energies, one being the energy with which the protons can just reach the center of the optical fiber core and the other being a slightly lower energy. The degree of birefringence was evaluated by measuring reflection spectra of Bragg gratings formed at the proton-implanted region of the optical fibers. The results confirmed that birefringence is induced by unidirectional densification along the projected range of protons formed in the fiber core and by densification of the fiber cladding. The induced birefringence reached three to ten times higher than that of a conventional birefringent fiber. The birefringence caused by ion implantation can be a versatile tool for manufacturing various optical fiber devices

165

A fiber optic Bragg grating seismic sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we present a fiber optic seismic waves sensor based on in-fiber Bragg gratings. Fiber Bragg Grating sensors have been demonstrated to have very high sensitivity to dynamical strain in the sub-micro-strain range and very extended dynamical response from static to very high frequency. The seismic sensing system is based on the integration of three FBGs dynamical strain sensors in a mechanical structure acting as an inverse pendulum. Polar symmetry of the mechanical system and 120° placement of the FBG sensors guarantee a directional capability of the seismic sensor. Design, manufacturing and preliminary dynamical testing of the seismic sensor are discussed.

Laudati, A.; Mennella, F.; Esposito, M.; Cusano, A.; Giordano, M.; Breglio, G.; Sorge, S.; Calisti Tassini, C.; Torre, A.; D'Altrui, G.; Cutolo, A.

2007-07-01

166

Workforce Development for Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

Bernard, Rosalie

2007-01-01

167

Fiber Optics  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical fibers transmit light signals and are widely used in the telecommunications industry to transmit data over long distances. Light travels through the core material of an optical fiber by essentially repeatedly bouncing off the cladding material that surrounds the core. Understanding refraction and how light behaves at the boundary of two different materials is the basis for understanding how fiber optic lines work. In particular, total internal reflection occurs when light travels in a material with a higher index of refraction toward a material with a lower index of refraction and the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle.In this lesson, students investigate through experimentation, discussion, and video the phenomenon of total internal reflection and its relationship to fiber optics. Students also watch a video about dispersion and discuss the implications for fiber optics.Note: This is the second of two optics lesson plans. You may want to precede this lesson with The Index of Refraction Lesson Plan.

2012-05-24

168

Fiber Optics Technician. Curriculum Research Project. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined the role of technicians in the fiber optics industry and determined those elements that should be included in a comprehensive curriculum to prepare fiber optics technicians for employment in the Texas labor market. First the current literature, including the ERIC database and equipment manufacturers' journals were reviewed. After…

Whittington, Herschel K.

169

Curved Piezoelectric Actuators for Stretching Optical Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Assemblies containing curved piezoceramic fiber composite actuators have been invented as means of stretching optical fibers by amounts that depend on applied drive voltages. Piezoceramic fiber composite actuators are conventionally manufactured as sheets or ribbons that are flat and flexible, but can be made curved to obtain load-carrying ability and displacement greater than those obtainable from the flat versions. In the primary embodiment of this invention, piezoceramic fibers are oriented parallel to the direction of longitudinal displacement of the actuators so that application of drive voltage causes the actuator to flatten, producing maximum motion. Actuator motion can be transmitted to the optical fiber by use of hinges and clamp blocks. In the original application of this invention, the optical fiber contains a Bragg grating and the purpose of the controlled stretching of the fiber is to tune the grating as part of a small, lightweight, mode-hop-free, rapidly tunable laser for demodulating strain in Bragg-grating strain-measurement optical fibers attached to structures. The invention could also be used to apply controllable tensile force or displacement to an object other than an optical fiber.

Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

2008-01-01

170

Photovoltaic fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4-5 % range.

Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

2006-08-01

171

Uso de harina de cotiledón de algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) como fuente de proteína y fibra dietética en la elaboración de galletas y hojuelas fritas / Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los aminoácidos limitantes en la proteína de algarrobo chileno son isoleucina, treonina y metionina/cisteina. La mezcla de cereales y leguminosas, permite mejorar el balance aminoacídico, ya que las leguminosas tienen más lisina y los cereales son más ricos en aminoácidos azufrados. Debido al interé [...] s nutricional del cotiledón de algarrobo, se evaluó la incorporación de harina de cotiledón de algarrobo (HCA) en la elaboración de “snack” dulces y salados. Se prepararon galletas dulces y hojuelas fritas saladas con 0%, 10% y 20% de HCA. En las harinas se determinó, color, granulometría, humedad, composición proximal, lisina disponible, fibra dietética total, soluble e insoluble. A las galletas y hojuelas se les determinaron las mismas características físicas y químicas (excepto granulometría) que las harinas; además se determinó actividad de agua, peso y dimensiones y se calculó el aporte calórico. Se evaluó la calidad y aceptabilidad sensorial de ambos productos. Destaca el alto contenido de proteínas, lípidos, cenizas, fibra cruda (63,6; 10,2; 4,3 y 4,2 g/100g bms, respectivamente), lisina disponible (62,4 mg/g proteína) y fibra dietética total (24,2 g/100g bms) de la HCA. Tanto en las galletas como en las hojuelas con HCA, aumenta significativamente el contenido de proteínas, lípidos, cenizas, fibra cruda, lisina disponible (desde 15,5 a 19,3 y de 20,3 a 29,6 mg lisina/g proteína, respectivamente) y fibra dietética total (de 1,39 a 2,80 y de 1,60 a 5,60 g/100g bms, respectivamente). Todos los tratamientos de galletas fueron igualmente aceptados (“me gusta mucho”); las hojuelas, con 10% de HCA presentaron la mayor aceptabilidad (“me gusta medianamente”). Se puede concluir que la incorporación de HCA en la elaboración de galletas y hojuelas fritas aumenta el aporte de lisina disponible, su contenido de proteínas y fibra dietética, mejorando la relación fibra soluble/ insoluble, sin afectar sus características físicas ni la aceptabilidad sensorial. Abstract in english Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean “algarrobo” are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of “algarrob [...] o” cotyledons, the use of “algarrobo cotyledon” flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted (“I like it very much”); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance (“I like it”). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance.

Berta, Escobar; Ana María, Estévez A; Carolina, Fuentes G; Daniela, Venegas F.

2009-06-01

172

Uso de harina de cotiledón de algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) como fuente de proteína y fibra dietética en la elaboración de galletas y hojuelas fritas / Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los aminoácidos limitantes en la proteína de algarrobo chileno son isoleucina, treonina y metionina/cisteina. La mezcla de cereales y leguminosas, permite mejorar el balance aminoacídico, ya que las leguminosas tienen más lisina y los cereales son más ricos en aminoácidos azufrados. Debido al interé [...] s nutricional del cotiledón de algarrobo, se evaluó la incorporación de harina de cotiledón de algarrobo (HCA) en la elaboración de “snack” dulces y salados. Se prepararon galletas dulces y hojuelas fritas saladas con 0%, 10% y 20% de HCA. En las harinas se determinó, color, granulometría, humedad, composición proximal, lisina disponible, fibra dietética total, soluble e insoluble. A las galletas y hojuelas se les determinaron las mismas características físicas y químicas (excepto granulometría) que las harinas; además se determinó actividad de agua, peso y dimensiones y se calculó el aporte calórico. Se evaluó la calidad y aceptabilidad sensorial de ambos productos. Destaca el alto contenido de proteínas, lípidos, cenizas, fibra cruda (63,6; 10,2; 4,3 y 4,2 g/100g bms, respectivamente), lisina disponible (62,4 mg/g proteína) y fibra dietética total (24,2 g/100g bms) de la HCA. Tanto en las galletas como en las hojuelas con HCA, aumenta significativamente el contenido de proteínas, lípidos, cenizas, fibra cruda, lisina disponible (desde 15,5 a 19,3 y de 20,3 a 29,6 mg lisina/g proteína, respectivamente) y fibra dietética total (de 1,39 a 2,80 y de 1,60 a 5,60 g/100g bms, respectivamente). Todos los tratamientos de galletas fueron igualmente aceptados (“me gusta mucho”); las hojuelas, con 10% de HCA presentaron la mayor aceptabilidad (“me gusta medianamente”). Se puede concluir que la incorporación de HCA en la elaboración de galletas y hojuelas fritas aumenta el aporte de lisina disponible, su contenido de proteínas y fibra dietética, mejorando la relación fibra soluble/ insoluble, sin afectar sus características físicas ni la aceptabilidad sensorial. Abstract in english Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean “algarrobo” are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of “algarrob [...] o” cotyledons, the use of “algarrobo cotyledon” flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted (“I like it very much”); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance (“I like it”). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance.

Berta, Escobar; Ana María, Estévez A; Carolina, Fuentes G; Daniela, Venegas F.

173

Design of Natural Fiber Composites Chemical Container Using Resin Flow Simulation of VARTML Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, an investigation on mechanical properties of flax natural fiber composite is performed as a precedent study on the design of eco-friendly structure using flax natural fiber composite. The Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding-Light (VARTML manufacturing method is adopted for manufacturing the flax fiber composite panel. The VARTML is a manufacturing process that the resin is injected into the dry layered –up fibers enclosed by a rigid mold tool under vacuum. In this work, the resin flow analysis of VARTM manufacturing method is performed. A series of flax composite panels are manufactured, and several kinds of specimens cut out from the panels are tested to obtain mechanical performance data. Based on this, structural design of chemical storage tank for agricultural vehicle was performed using flax/vinyl ester. After structural design and analysis, the resin flow analysis of VARTM manufacturing method was performed

Changduk Kong

2014-08-01

174

Fiber Scrambling for High Precision Spectrographs  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection of Earth-like exoplanets with the radial velocity method requires extreme Doppler precision and long-term stability in order to measure tiny reflex velocities in the host star. Recent planet searches have led to the detection of so called "super-Earths” (up to a few Earth masses) that induce radial velocity changes of about 1 m/s. However, the detection of true Earth analogs requires a precision of 10 cm/s. One of the largest factors limiting Doppler precision is variation in the Point Spread Function (PSF) from observation to observation due to changes in the illumination of the slit and spectrograph optics. Thus, this stability has become a focus of current instrumentation work. Fiber optics have been used since the 1980's to couple telescopes to high-precision spectrographs, initially for simpler mechanical design and control. However, fiber optics are also naturally efficient scramblers. Scrambling refers to a fiber's ability to produce an output beam independent of input. Our research is focused on characterizing the scrambling properties of several types of fibers, including circular, square and octagonal fibers. By measuring the intensity distribution after the fiber as a function of input beam position, we can simulate guiding errors that occur at an observatory. Through this, we can determine which fibers produce the most uniform outputs for the severest guiding errors, improving the PSF and allowing sub-m/s precision. However, extensive testing of fibers of supposedly identical core diameter, length and shape from the same manufacturer has revealed the "personality” of individual fibers. Personality describes differing intensity patterns for supposedly duplicate fibers illuminated identically. Here, we present our results on scrambling characterization as a function of fiber type, while studying individual fiber personality.

Kaplan, Zachary; Spronck, J. F. P.; Fischer, D.

2011-05-01

175

Permeability characterization of stitched carbon fiber preforms by fiber optic sensors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The in-plane and through thickness permeability of unidirectional stitched carbon fiber preforms have been determined through vacuum infusion tests. The impregnation of various dry preforms with different stitching characteristics has been monitored by fiber optic sensors that have been stitched together with the dry tow to manufacture the dry preform. The experimental infusion times have been fitted by a numerical procedure based on Finite Element (FE) processing simulations. A good agreemen...

Antonucci, V.; Esposito, M.; Ricciardi, M. R.; Raffone, M.; Zarrelli, M.; Giordano, M.

2011-01-01

176

Integrated automotive manufacturing supply  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Supply planning directly influences the traffic within a manufacturing plant. The impact of supply planning strategies like Just-in-Time, Just-in-Sequence and Direct Supply on plant traffic is rarely considered, as supply and traffic flow planning are traditionally seen as separate activities. BMW SA and other automotive manufacturers are facing various specific prob...

Dyk, Petrus Jakobus Schoeman

2005-01-01

177

Manufacturing execution systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The term Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) was created in 1990 by Advanced Manufacturing Research (AMR) to describe the suite of software products which enables the execution of manufacturing through the integration of planning and control systems. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the current status of MES and to investigate the possible role of the Industrial Engineer in the development, implementation and use of MES. To achieve this objective, the most commonly ac...

Dyk, Liezl

2006-01-01

178

Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

2008-01-01

179

Advanced Manufacturing Discovery Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a 3:15 minute video on YouTube. It shows a set of high school students assigned to a manufacturing project that is very much like a real industry situation. A diverse mix of students work on developing a hovercraft. Their skills and backgrounds include: 3D CAD, engineering, manufacturing, marketing, math, sciences, business, communications, arts, and electronics. They learn how to work together to create a finished product while discovering the many opportunities available in manufacturing.

2009-08-13

180

Automation in optics manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

The optics industry has not followed the lead of the machining and electronics industries in applying advances in computer aided engineering (CAE), computer assisted manufacturing (CAM), automation or quality management techniques. Automation based on computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) and flexible machining systems (FMS) has been widely implemented in these industries. Optics continues to rely on standalone equipment that preserves the highly skilled, labor intensive optical fabrication systems developed in the 1940's. This paper describes development initiatives at the Center for Optics Manufacturing that will create computer integrated manufacturing technology and support processes for the optical industry.

Pollicove, Harvey M.; Moore, Duncan T.

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Automation for optics manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

The optics industry has not followed the lead of the machining and electronics industries in applying advances In computer aided engineering (CAE), computer assisted manufacturing (CAM), automation or quality management techniques. Automationbased on computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) and flexible machining systems (FMS) has been widely implemented In these industries. Optics continues to rely on standalone equipment that preserves the highly skilled, labor intensive optical fabrication systems developed in the 1940's. This paper describes development initiatives at the Center for Optics Manufacturing that will create computer integrated manufacturing technology and support processes for the optical industry.

Pollicove, Harvey M.; Moore, Duncan T.

1990-11-01

182

Manufacturing Field Trip  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufacturing Field Trip is a lesson plan which helps students gain a realistic picture of employment within the manufacturing sector when visiting the manufacturing plant of an MTAG industry partner. After completing this module, students should be able to describe the qualifications required by, as well as the daily functions and work environment offered by various positions within the company visited. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

Alston, Michele; Imre, John; King, John

2010-08-05

183

Hansan ramie fibers irradiated by electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Material is inexpensive, abundant Light weight: fuel efficient Environment: Co2 reduction, renewable Performance: acceptable Spec. But it is variability, Irregular hollow fiber shape, limited planting counting Environment: odor, degradation of mechanical properties Performance: poor fiber-matrix bonding, water absorption, difficulty in quality control. Hansan ramie fibers were irradiated by electron beam to make surface modification for better bonding in the manufacture of composite. EB irradiation on cellulose changed the surface morphology property. - Impurities on the surface of ramie and lignin were removed by electron beam irradiation. The electron beam irradiation with high energy reduced ?-cellulose and increased ?-cellulose. - The reduction of ?-cellulose indicates the degradation of cellulose chain, which usually lead to decrease of fiber strength properties. When ramie fibers were irradiated by electron beam with 3kGy, ?-cellulose was not decreased significantly and the impurity and lignin were separated from the ramie fiber. The best mechanical properties were obtained when ramie fibers were obtained when ramie fibers were irradiated by electron beam with 3kGy

184

Optical characterization of some modern "eco-friendly" fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fibers that are termed "eco-friendly" or "biodegradable" by manufacturers are increasingly being used in textile products such as apparel and carpeting to appeal to the ever more environmentally aware public. As such, these modern fibers are expected to begin showing up more often in forensic casework, and it is important that the forensic examiner recognize them. This study employed polarized light microscopy (PLM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to characterize selected fibers of azlon, polylactic acid (PLA), cellulose composites of alginate or chitin, and bamboo (viscose rayon). Fiber cross-sections, refractive indices, melting points, solubilities, and FTIR measurements were conducted. Results indicate that the azlons and PLA fibers are easily distinguishable from other textile fibers by their optical and chemical properties. The cellulose composites show only small differences in comparison with other cellulose-based fibers, while bamboo viscose rayon is indistinguishable from normal viscose rayon. PMID:20345771

Brinsko, Kelly M

2010-07-01

185

Dental fiber-post resin base material: a review  

Science.gov (United States)

Teeth that have short clinical crown, which are not alone enough to support the definitive restoration can be best treated using the post and core system. The advantages of fiber post over conventional metallic post materials have led to its wide acceptance. In addition to that the combination of aesthetic and mechanical benefits of fiber post has provided it with a rise in the field of dentistry. Also the results obtained from some clinical trials have encouraged the clinicians to use the fiber posts confidently. Fiber posts are manufactured from pre-stretched fibers impregnated within a resin matrix. The fibers could that be of carbon, glass/silica, and quartz, whereas Epoxy and bis-GMA are the most widely used resin bases. But recently studies are also found to be going on for polyimide as possible material for the fiber post resin base as a substitute for the conventional materials. PMID:24605208

Xu, Chun; Zhang, Fu-qiang

2014-01-01

186

Stress optical fiber sensor using light coupling between two laterally fused multimode optical fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A stress optical fiber sensor was manufactured and tested. It uses light coupling between two parallel and laterally fused, all-silica multimode optical fibers along a cladding length of a few centimeters. This sensor is dedicated to the measurement of high values of stress. A theoretical model was developed using the mode coupling and the perturbation theory to calculate the global coupling coefficient of light. A serial optical fiber sensor network interrogated by the time-division multiplexing method was realized and tested. The major applications of this sensor are control and monitoring of civil engineering structures and concretes. PMID:18273302

Gafsi, R; Lecoy, P; Malki, A

1998-06-01

187

Potato fiber as a dietary fiber source in dog foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato fiber (PF), a coproduct of potato starch manufacture, was evaluated as a potential novel fiber source in dog food. Potato fiber contained 55% total dietary fiber, 29% starch, 4% crude protein, and 2% acid-hydrolyzed fat. The PF substrate was evaluated for chemical composition, in vitro digestion and fermentation characteristics, and in vivo responses. For the in vitro hydrolytic-enzymatic digestion and fermentation experiment, raw and cooked PF substrates were first subjected to hydrolytic-enzymatic digestion to determine OM disappearance and then fermented using dog fecal inoculum. Fermentation characteristics were then measured at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. For the in vivo experiment, 10 female mixed-breed dogs (6.13±0.17 yr; 22±2.1 kg) were provided 5 diets with graded concentrations (0%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, or 6%) of PF in a replicated 5×5 Latin square design. Dogs were acclimated to the test diet for 10 d, followed by 4 d of total fecal collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected to measure fecal pH and fermentation end products. In vitro digestion revealed that raw and cooked PF were 32.3% and 27.9% digested enzymatically, whereas in vitro fermentation showed that PF was fermentable through 9 h. Raw PF had greater (Pdigestibility of diets containing graded concentrations of PF. However, total dietary fiber digestibility exhibited a linear increase (Pdigestibility or stool characteristics, indicating that PF could be a functional dietary fiber source in dog foods. PMID:24045465

Panasevich, M R; Rossoni Serao, M C; de Godoy, M R C; Swanson, K S; Guérin-Deremaux, L; Lynch, G L; Wils, D; Fahey, G C; Dilger, R N

2013-11-01

188

Advanced stabilization of PAN fibers for fabrication of carbon fibers by e-beam irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, the carbon fiber industry has been growing rapidly to meet the demand from efferent industries such as aerospace, military, turbine blades, light weight cylinders and pressure vessels. Generally, carbon fibers are manufactured by a controlled pyrolysis of stabilized precursor fiber such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the stabilization step, the linear PAN molecules are first converted to cyclic structure. However, cyclization is a very complicated process and there are still differences of opinion on the reaction mechanisms. Photo-induced crosslinking and stabilization of PAN via ion beam, X-ray, gamma ray and UV irradiation has been reported in the literature. However, the process required a long stabilization time. In this work, a new and highly effective method of pretreatment PAN precursor fiber was described. The effect of the e-beam on the stabilization process of the fibers was investigated using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement

189

Effect of Fiber Surface Structure on Absorption Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carbon fibers with different surface structures were obtained through changing the treatment intensities in the process of electrochemical oxidation, and then oxidized carbon fibers were used as reinforcements to manufacture carbon fiber/epoxy composites. The relationship between fiber surface structure and the moisture absorption of carbon fiber/epoxy composites after hygrothermal aging treatment was studied. Results show that a significant increase happen to the surface activity of carbon fiber after electrochemical oxidation, and there is also a large extent of elevation in the relative content of oxygen-containing functional groups especially –OH group which increases from 18.62% to 34.84%. The moisture absorption mechanism of carbon fiber/epoxy composites varies with the change of hygrothermal aging conditions. Temperature is considered to be a leading factor in the moisture absorption process. Results also indicate that the higher the surface activity of carbon fiber, the greater composite materials get the equilibrium moisture content. There is an obvious decline in the ILSS values of carbon fiber/epoxy composites with the increase of moisture uptake content.

QIAN Xin, ZHI Jian-Hai, WANG Xue-Fei, ZHANG Yong-Gang, YANG Jian-Xing

2013-02-01

190

Fiber optics and their applications in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Naturally, technical innovation and advanced technology give large impact also to the technical field of atomic energy, and the examples are the introduction of computers and optical information transmission and processing technology into atomic energy facilities. Combined with the development of radiation-resistant optical fibers, the optical information technology has been introduced into all aspects of atomic energy field. The information transmission using optical fibers is advantageous because of wide band, small loss, the immunity to crosstalk and electromagnetic induction effects, small size and low price. The structure of optical fibers, the transmission loss in optical fibers, the manufacturing method for optical fibers, the coating structure for optical fibers, optical cable structure, the new optical fibers developed recently such as optical fiber image guides, constant polarization fibers and infrared fibers, the merits of using optical fibers for signal transmission, atomic energy facilities and image transmission, the present status of the research on radiation-resistant fibers, and the application to nuclear power stations, reprocessing plants, FBRs, fusion reactors and others are described. (Kako, I.)

191

Additive Versus Subtractive Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

For manufacturing students learning the basics, this page from SnoCAMP would be a useful addition to in-class instruction. The webpage combines photographs of examples with descriptive text. This would be a good introduction for students learning the basics about manufacturing.

2013-07-23

192

A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described. A novel adsorbent carbon composite material has been developed comprising carbon fibers and a binder. The material, called carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), was developed through a joint research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER).

Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

1995-06-01

193

Laser assisted direct manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct Laser Manufacturing (DLM) with coaxial powder injection (TRUMPF DMD 505 installation) was applied for fabrication of 3D objects from metallic and ceramic powder. One of the advantages of DLM is the possibility to build functionally graded objects in one-step manufacturing cycle by application of a 2-channel powder feeder. Several models with different types of material gradients (smooth, sharp, periodic) and multi-layered structures were manufactured from SS, stellite (Cobalt alloy), Cu and W alloys. Technology of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) was applied for manufacturing of net shaped objects from different powders (PHENIX PM-100 machine) : Inox 904L, Ni625, Cu/Sn, W and Zr02-Y2O3. Performance and limitations of SLM technology for fabrication of elements for chemical and mechanical industries are analysed. Two-component objects (Stainless steel /Cu - H13/CuNi) were fabricated in a two-step manufacturing cycle.

Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

2007-06-01

194

Aerospace Manufacturing Education (AME)  

Science.gov (United States)

The NSF funded Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project's mission is to "develop and disseminate curricula modules to enhance manufacturing technician and engineering programs in higher education with relevant aerospace manufacturing examples." The project is developing curricula modules to prepare manufacturing technology practitioners for the aerospace industry and increase the number of interested candidates for aerospace manufacturing jobs. Curricula modules are being developed and used by two-year colleges for student education and by industry for in-house training of employees. Visitors will find the downloadable curriculum modules (after a quick and free registration form) on the left side of the homepage, as well as further info about the project, its partners, and advisors.

2010-09-20

195

Method of manufacturing neutron protecting materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To manufacture neutron protecting materials which are highly flexible and can be shaped with ease at a good workability. Method: In this invention, natural lithium, natural boron such as Li-6 or B-10 or enriched isotope thereof with a great neutron absorption cross section is fixed to fibers. As a specific example, lumps of copolymer fibers are fabricated into weave sheets in a carding machine and applied with needle punching to prepare felt-like products. They are conditioned to OH or H type, which are respectively immersed in saturated aqueous boric acid or 1M-aqueous solution of lithium hydroxide and then dewatered and dried. As a result, boric acid type anion exchange fibers and lithium type cation exchange fibers can be obtained from the former and the latter respectively. In this way, blankets or cloths which are light in weight, flexible and have high neutron absorbing performance can be shaped. They are also in good fitting contact to a human body. (Kamimura, M.)

196

Radiation effects on heated optical fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optical fibers are ubiquitous on today{close_quote}s plasma devices, and will play a major role in future machines. However, radiation causes luminescence and transmission loss in fibers at troubling levels even on today{close_quote}s machines when they operate in DT. We have evaluated these effects and studied the use of elevated operating temperatures to reduce them. Using high-purity UV grade silica-silica fibers at 400{degree}C reduces transmission loss by a factor of at least 100, but has little or no effect on radioluminescence. The radioluminescent spectrum appears to be Cerenkov radiation. The transmission loss spectrum depends on the fiber material and details of the manufacture. The mode structure of transmission loss is mainly simple path length attenuation, with a suggestion of internal reflection degradation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Ramsey, A.T.; Tighe, W.; Bartolick, J. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Morgan, P.D. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3EA (United Kingdom)

1997-01-01

197

Surface analysis of plasma grafted carbon fiber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The surface characteristics of carbon fibers were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wetting measurements. The surface of carbon fiber was modified by means of plasma graft silsesquioxane. The oxygen/carbon and silicon/carbon ratio increased rapidly after treatments. Fitting the C 1s, O 1s, and Si 2p spectra demonstrated that new photopeaks were emerged, which were indicated C-Si, Si-O groups, respectively. The degree of surface roughness and the wettability of carbon fiber surface were both increased by plasma graft silsesquioxane. The results may shed some light on the design of the appropriate surface structure, which could react with resin, and the manufacture of the carbon fiber reinforced composites

198

Thermophysical ESEM Characterization of Carbon Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of carbon fibers create residual stresses in aggressive manufacturing and service environments. In this effort, environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) is used for in situ observations of a carbon fiber cross-section up to 1000 C in order to evaluate the much neglected transverse CTE. The perimeter of fiber cross-section is calculated with the Scion image processing program from images that were taken at every 100 C increments. CTE values are calculated by linear regression of the strain data based on the perimeter changes. Furthermore, through SEM, WDS and TEM observations, we are in the process of bringing an interactive rationale between CTE, crystallinity and surface roughness of carbon fibers.

Sue, Jiwoong; Ochoa, Ozden O.; Effinger, Michael R.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

199

Reduced toxicity polyester resins and microvascular pre-preg tapes for advanced composites manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced composites manufacturing broadly encapsulates topics ranging from matrix chemistries to automated machines that lay-up fiber-reinforced materials. Environmental regulations are stimulating research to reduce matrix resin formulation toxicity. At present, composites fabricated with polyester resins expose workers to the risk of contact with and inhalation of styrene monomer, which is a potential carcinogen, neurotoxin, and respiratory irritant. The first primary goal of this thesis is to reduce the toxicity associated with polyester resins by: (1) identification of potential monomers to replace styrene, (2) determination of monomer solubility within the polyester, and (3) investigation of approaches to rapidly screen a large resin composition parameter space. Monomers are identified based on their ability to react with polyester and their toxicity as determined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) and a green screen method. Solubilities were determined by the Hoftyzer -- Van Krevelen method, Hansen solubility parameter database, and experimental mixing of monomers. A combinatorial microfluidic mixing device is designed and tested to obtain distinct resin compositions from two input chemistries. The push for safer materials is complemented by a thrust for multifunctional composites. The second primary goal of this thesis is to design and implement the manufacture of sacrificial fiber materials suitable for use in automated fiber placement of microvascaular multifunctional composites. Two key advancements are required to achieve this goal: (1) development of a roll-to-roll method to place sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber pre-preg tape; and (2) demonstration of feasible manufacture of microvascular carbon fiber plates with automated fiber placement. An automated method for placing sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber tapes is designed and a prototype implemented. Carbon fiber tows with manual placement of sacrificial fibers is implemented within an automated fiber placement machine and the successful fabrication of a carbon fiber plate with an integrated microvascular channel is demonstrated.

Poillucci, Richard

200

Tapered fiber tips for fiber optic biosensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Tapered fiber tips with different geometries are fabricated for developing a fiber optic biosensor. Fluorescence experiments are performed to compare the coupling efficiency of light for different fiber tip configurations. When light is generated in a `thick' layer (> 1 micrometers ) around a fiber core, the continuously tapered tip with the steepest taper collects light more efficiently than the longer combination tapered tip. To demonstrate the applicability of our results, we have successfully detected weak chemiluminescent signal collected by a bundle of fibers with the short continuously tapered tips using a cooled CCD array detector. The chemiluminescence reaction was catalyzed by alkaline phosphatase immobilized on the fiber tips by a sol-gel technique.

Gao, Harry H.; Chen, Zhongping; Kumar, Jayant; Tripathy, Sukant K.; Kaplan, David L.

1995-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Synopsis of fiber optics in harsh environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber optic technology is making significant advances for use in a number of harsh environments, such as air and space platforms. Many of these applications involve integration into systems which make extensive use of optical fiber for high bandwidth signal transmission. The large signal transmission bandwidth of optical fiber has a large and positive impact on the overall performance and weight of the cable harness. There are many benefits of fiber optic systems for air and space harsh environment applications, including minimal electromagnetic interference and environmental effects, lightweight and smaller diameter cables, greater bandwidth, integrated prognostics and diagnostics and the ability to be easily upgraded. To qualify and use a fiber optic cable in space and air harsh environments requires treatment of the cable assembly as a system and understanding the design and behavior of its parts. Many parameters affect an optical fiber's ability to withstand a harsh temperature and radiation environment. The space radiation environment is dependent on orbital altitude, inclination and time, contains energetic magnetically-trapped electrons in the outer Van Allen radiation belt, trapped protons in the inner belt and solar event protons and ions. Both transient and permanent temperature and radiation have an attenuation effect on the performance of the cable fiber. This paper presents an overview of defining fiber optic system and component performance by identifying operating and storage environmental requirements, using appropriate standards to be used in fiber optic cable assembly manufacturing and integration, developing inspection methods and fixtures compliant with the selected standards and developing a fiber optic product process that assures compliance with each design requirement.

Pirich, Ronald

2014-09-01

202

Rapid small lot manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

Harrigan, R.W.

1998-05-09

203

Continuous fiber ceramic composites for energy related applications. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy has established the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program to develop technology for the manufacture of CFCC`s for use in industrial applications where a reduction in energy usage or emissions could be realized. As part of this program, the Dow Chemical Company explored the manufacture of a fiber reinforced/self reinforced silicon nitride for use in industrial chemical processing. In Dow`s program, CFCC manufacturing technology was developed around traditional, cost effective, tape casting routes. Formulations were developed and coupled with unique processing procedures which enabled the manufacture of tubular green laminates of the dimension needed for the application. An evaluation of the effect of various fibers and fiber coatings on the properties of a fiber reinforced composites was also conducted. Results indicated that fiber coatings could provide composites exhibiting non-catastrophic failure and substantially improved toughness. However, an evaluation of these materials in industrial process environments showed that the material system chosen by Dow did not provide the required performance improvements to make replacement of current metallic components with CFCC components economically viable.

NONE

1998-04-07

204

Lean Manufacturing Engineering Certification  

Science.gov (United States)

This website from Best Practice Research features online business training courses including lean manufacturing and six sigma certification training courses. The courses are available for purchase and may be taken online.

2012-12-10

205

Superalloys: metallurgy and manufacture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Forty-four papers are presented concerning current needs and new applications, minor element effects, physical metallurgy, advanced materials, and new trends in manufacturing processes for superalloys. Separate abstracts were prepared for 6 of the papers. (FS)

Kear, B.H.; Muzyka, D.R.; Tien, J.K. (Wlodek, S.T. (eds.)

1976-01-01

206

Absorber manufacturing made easy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Whether by means of a laser source or an ultrasound head - automation technology is making progress in the solar thermal sector. S and WE presents news developments in welding technology in absorber manufacture. (orig.)

Berner, Joachim

2010-07-01

207

Manufacturing parabolic mirrors  

CERN Multimedia

The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)

1975-01-01

208

77 FR 2275 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade...opportunity to apply for membership on the Manufacturing Council...to fill six vacant positions on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose...

2012-01-17

209

76 FR 33244 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade...Opportunity To Apply for Membership on the Manufacturing Council...to fill two vacant positions on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose...

2011-06-08

210

78 FR 67117 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade...Opportunity to Apply for Membership on the Manufacturing Council...from representatives of the U.S. manufacturing industry to fill five vacant...

2013-11-08

211

Manufacturing of laboratory equipments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A design of an automatic machine to manufacture components as well as an automatic system for assembly were developed. The designs and system developed are as follows: a) Designs of automatic tack welder in the process of CANDU fuel fabrication. b) Cam design for plug manufacturing lathe. c) Design, mold and fabrication of tool machine for the components of CANDU fuel bundle. d) Service another division

212

Method of making a continuous ceramic fiber composite hot gas filter  

Science.gov (United States)

A ceramic fiber composite structure particularly suitable for use as a hot gas cleanup ceramic fiber composite filter and method of making same from ceramic composite material has a structure which provides for increased strength and toughness in high temperature environments. The ceramic fiber composite structure or filter is made by a process in which a continuous ceramic fiber is intimately surrounded by discontinuous chopped ceramic fibers during manufacture to produce a ceramic fiber composite preform which is then bonded using various ceramic binders. The ceramic fiber composite preform is then fired to create a bond phase at the fiber contact points. Parameters such as fiber tension, spacing, and the relative proportions of the continuous ceramic fiber and chopped ceramic fibers can be varied as the continuous ceramic fiber and chopped ceramic fiber are simultaneously formed on the porous vacuum mandrel to obtain a desired distribution of the continuous ceramic fiber and the chopped ceramic fiber in the ceramic fiber composite structure or filter.

Hill, Charles A. (Lynchburg, VA); Wagner, Richard A. (Lynchburg, VA); Komoroski, Ronald G. (Lynchburg, VA); Gunter, Greg A. (Lynchburg, VA); Barringer, Eric A. (Lynchburg, VA); Goettler, Richard W. (Lynchburg, VA)

1999-01-01

213

Manufacturing information system  

Science.gov (United States)

The size and cost of manufacturing equipment has made it extremely difficult to perform realistic modeling and simulation of the manufacturing process in university research laboratories. Likewise the size and cost factors, coupled with many uncontrolled variables of the production situation has even made it difficult to perform adequate manufacturing research in the industrial setting. Only the largest companies can afford manufacturing research laboratories; research results are often held proprietary and seldom find their way into the university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development of miniature prototype equipment suitable for use in an integrated CAD/CAM Laboratory. The equipment being developed is capable of actually performing production operations (e.g. drilling, milling, turning, punching, etc.) on metallic and non-metallic workpieces. The integrated CAD/CAM Mini-Lab is integrating high resolution, computer graphics, parametric design, parametric N/C parts programmings, CNC machine control, automated storage and retrieval, with robotics materials handling. The availability of miniature CAD/CAM laboratory equipment will provide the basis for intensive laboratory research on manufacturing information systems.

Allen, D. K.; Smith, P. R.; Smart, M. J.

1983-12-01

214

Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness losses) during wet/dry cycling. SCMs have been found to be effective in mitigating composite degradation through several processes, including a reduction in the calcium hydroxide content, stabilization of monosulfate by maintaining pore solution pH, and a decrease in ettringite reprecipitation accomplished by increased binding of aluminum in calcium aluminate phases and calcium in the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phase.

Mohr, Benjamin J.

215

77 FR 56811 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S...sector. The Manufacturing and Services division of the International Trade Administration oversees...

2012-09-14

216

New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections and it is important to understand the effect that different types of calcium carbonates have on the paper properties made of 100% eucalyptus pulp. The current study is focused on selecting the most suitable market available calcium carbonate for the production of uncoated Eucalyptus digital printing paper, targeting a potential filler increase of 5% above the currently used filler content. We made hand sheets using 13 different varieties of widely used calcium carbonates [Nine samples of PCC (two rhombic and seven scalenohedral, covering a wide particle size range from 1.2 {micro}m to 2.9 {micro}m), and four samples of GCC (three anionic and one cationic, with a particle size range from 0.7 {micro}m to 1.5 {micro}m)] available in the market followed by a 12� pilot plant paper machine run. The detailed analysis on the main structural, optical and strength properties of the hand sheets found that the most suitable calcium carbonate for uncoated Eucalyptus digital printing paper production is scalenohedral PCC, with a particle size of 1.9 {micro}m for its positive effects on thickness, stiffness, brightness and opacity of paper.

Doelle, Klaus

2011-06-26

217

1997 Economic Census Manufacturing, Industry Series: Ice Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

This data from the US Department of Commerce Census Bureau constitutes the one of the first in a series of several hundred reports on individual industries in the manufacturing sector from the 1997 Economic Census. According to the 1997 Economic Census Manufacturing, Industry Series on Ice Manufacturing, Texas expended the most on ice manufacturing in 1997.

218

Novel folding device for manufacturing aerospace composite structures  

Science.gov (United States)

A new manufacturing methodology, termed shape-inclusive lay-up has been applied that allows the generation of three-dimensional preforms for the resin transfer molding (RTM) process. A flexible novel folding device for forming dry fabrics including non-crimp fabric (NCF) preform is designed and integrated with a Material Delivery System (MDS) into a robotic cell for manufacturing dry fiber composite aerospace components. The paper describes detailed design, implementation and operational performance of a prototype device. The proposed folding device has been implemented and tested by manufacturing a range of reinforcement structure preforms (C,T,J and I reinforcement preforms), normally used in aerostructure applications. A key advantage of the proposed device is its flexibility. The system is capable of manufacturing a wide range of components of various sizes without the need for reconfiguration.

Tewfic, Tarik; Sarhadi, M.

2000-10-01

219

National Center for Manufacturing Sciences: Environmentally conscious manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this presentation is to share the results and some of the thinking of the Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing - Strategic Initiative Group (ECM-SIG) at the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS). NCMS is a consortium of more than 185 North American Manufacturing organizations comprised of about 75 percent for profit manufacturing companies and about 25 percent nonprofit organizations that support manufacturing activities. NCMS conducts collaborative R&D programs designed to improve global competitiveness of its members and other North American manufacturers to address common issues that are important to manufacturing industries. NCMS is an industry driven organization whose agenda is established by industry with input from appropriate government agencies.

Vinton, Clare

1995-01-01

220

Optimized manufacturable porous materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM/S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization. The distribution of the material in the unit cell is optimized according to a given objective (e.g. maximum bulk modulus or minimum Poisson’s ratio) and some given constraints (e.g. isotropy) using topology optimization. The manufacturability is achieved using various filtering techniques together with a stochastic approach, where the mean performance of several slightly different designs is optimized. In most cases this assures a minimum length scale for the intermediate design, and thereby manufacturability is achieved. Furthermore, the study will look at how "negative" aspects of the manufacturing method can be exploited to achieve exotic material properties. An example of this is how the SLM/S causes softer regions in the structure due to insufficient heating of the metal powder. If the goal is to design a material, which to some degree is compliant, such as negative Poisson’s ratio material, softer regions are desirable. Another example is closedcell materials, e.g. maximum bulk modulus material, where the cells will be filled by metal powder if manufactured using SLM/S. This is considered as a drawback, because it makes the structure heavier. However, it also drastically increases the damping ratio of the structure, which is beneficial in many applications.

Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

 
 
 
 
221

NASA's National Center for Advanced Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA has designated the Principal Center Assignment to the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for implementation of the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM). NCAM is NASA s leading resource for the aerospace manufacturing research, development, and innovation needs that are critical to the goals of the Agency. Through this initiative NCAM s people work together with government, industry, and academia to ensure the technology base and national infrastructure are available to develop innovative manufacturing technologies with broad application to NASA Enterprise programs, and U.S. industry. Educational enhancements are ever-present within the NCAM focus to promote research, to inspire participation and to support education and training in manufacturing. Many important accomplishments took place during 2002. Through NCAM, NASA was among five federal agencies involved in manufacturing research and development (R&D) to launch a major effort to exchange information and cooperate directly to enhance the payoffs from federal investments. The Government Agencies Technology Exchange in Manufacturing (GATE-M) is the only active effort to specifically and comprehensively address manufacturing R&D across the federal government. Participating agencies include the departments of Commerce (represented by the National Institute of Standards and Technology), Defense, and Energy, as well as the National Science Foundation and NASA. MSFC s ongoing partnership with the State of Louisiana, the University of New Orleans, and Lockheed Martin Corporation at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) progressed significantly. Major capital investments were initiated for world-class equipment additions including a universal friction stir welding system, composite fiber placement machine, five-axis machining center, and ten-axis laser ultrasonic nondestructive test system. The NCAM consortium of five universities led by University of New Orleans with Mississippi State University, Tennessee Technological University, Texas A&M University, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University provided wide-ranging engineering research, new degree/curriculum programs, and a web-based lecture series. NCAM has fostered an important presence and leadership role within the national manufacturing community. Its progressive influence can be seen in government, industry and academia, and in national associations, professional organizations, conferences, workshops, and forums.

Vickers, John

2003-01-01

222

Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization.

Sigmund, Ole

2009-01-01

223

Pressure sensitivity analysis of fiber Bragg grating sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent development in fiber optic sensing technology has mainly focused on discrete sensing, particularly, sensing systems with potential multiplexing and multi-parameter capabilities. Bragg grating fiber optic sensors have emerged as the non-disputed champion for multiplexing and simultaneous multi-parameter sensing for emerging high value structural components, advanced processing and manufacturing capabilities and increased critical infrastructure resilience applications. Although the number of potential applications for this sensing technology is large and spans the domains of medicine, manufacturing, aerospace, and public safety; critical issues such as fatigue life, sensitivity, accuracy, embeddability, material/sensor interface integrity, and universal demodulation systems still need to be addressed. The purpose of this paper is to primarily evaluate Commercial-Of-The-Shelf (COTS) Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors' sensitivity to pressure, often neglected in several applications. The COTS fiber sensitivity to pressure is further evaluated for two types of coatings (Polyimide and Acrylate), and different arrangements (arrayed and single).

Mrad, Nezih; Sridharan, Vasant; Kazemi, Alex

2014-09-01

224

Characterization of fiber optic cables under large tensile loads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fiber optic cables designed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have to withstand an unusually harsh environment. Cables have been manufactured under a 6 year old DOE specification that has been slightly modified as the cable requirements are better understood. In order to better understand the cable properties a unique capability has been established at the NTS. Instrumentation has been developed to characterize the transmission properties of 1 km of fiber optic cable placed under a controlled tensile load up to 1500 lbs. The properties measured are cable tension, cable elongation, induced attenuation, attenuation vs. location, fiber strain, bandwidth, and ambient temperature. Preforming these measurements on cables from the two qualified NTS fiber optic cable manufacturers, Siecor and Andrew Corp., led to a new set of specifications

225

Scintillator manufacture at Fermilab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A decade of research into plastic scintillation materials at Fermilab is reviewed. Early work with plastic optical fiber fabrication is revisited and recent experiments with large-scale commercial methods for production of bulk scintillator are discussed. Costs for various forms of scintillator are examined and new development goals including cost reduction methods and quality improvement techniques are suggested.

Mellott, K.; Bross, A.; Pla-Dalmau, A.

1998-08-01

226

Fibers | Special Issue : Cellulose Fibers  

... Noureddine Abidi Fiber and Biopolymer Research Institute, Dept. of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Box 45019 Lubbock TX 79409-5019, USA Website: http://www.pssc.ttu.edu E-Mail: n.abidi@ttu.edu Special Issue Information Dear Colleagues, Cellulose is obtained from cotton, wood, and other plants. Cellulose is natural cellulose macromolecules with repeating anhydroglucose units (b(... Noureddine Abidi Guest Editor Submission Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review ...

227

Evaluation on Decomposition granularity of Manufacturing Task in Manufacturing Grid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Task decomposition is on of the most important activities for manufacturing task planning in Manufacturing Grid. Many achievements in the methods to decompose manufacturing tasks have been obtained. But as for the decomposition granularity, the study and research are rare. Referring to the principle of “strong cohesion and weak coupling” in the software engineering field, the decomposition model of manufacturing task is built up, in which a manufacturing task is decomposed into different ...

Jihong Wang; Chaoyong Zhang; Yong Yin

2013-01-01

228

Alumina fiber strength improvement  

Science.gov (United States)

The effective fiber strength of alumina fibers in an aluminum composite was increased to 173,000 psi. A high temperature heat treatment, combined with a glassy carbon surface coating, was used to prevent degradation and improve fiber tensile strength. Attempts to achieve chemical strengthening of the alumina fiber by chromium oxide and boron oxide coatings proved unsuccessful. A major problem encountered on the program was the low and inconsistent strength of the Dupont Fiber FP used for the investigation.

Pepper, R. T.; Nelson, D. C.

1982-01-01

229

Reconfigurable manufacturing system: an overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the review of Reconfigurable manufacturing system. That aims at achievingcost effective and rapid system changes needed, by incorporating principle of modularity, integrability andscalability as this new manufacturing system. Reconfigurable manufacturing system promises customizedflexibility in a short time, while the other manufacturing system provides generalized flexibility designed foranticipation variations.This paper shows the definition and background of reconfigura...

Malhotra V.; Raj T; Arora A

2009-01-01

230

Environmentally sound manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

231

Environmentally sound manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

1994-01-01

232

Wood versus plant fibers: Similarities and differences in composite applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The work on cellulose fiber composites is typically strictly divided into two separated research fields depending on the fiber origin, that is, from wood and from annual plants, representing the two different industries of forest and agriculture, respectively. The present paper evaluates in parallel wood fibers and plant fibers to highlight their similarities and differences regarding their use as reinforcement in composites and to enable mutual transfer of knowledge and technology between the two research fields. The paper gives an introduction to the morphology, chemistry, and ultrastructure of the fibers, the modeling of the mechanical properties of the fibers, the fiber preforms available for manufacturing of composites, the typical mechanical properties of the composites, the modeling of the mechanical properties with focus on composites having a random fiber orientation and a non-negligible porosity content, and finally, the moisture sensitivity of the composites. The performance of wood and plant fibercomposites is compared to the synthetic glass and carbon fibers conventionally used for composites, and advantages and disadvantages of the different fibers are discussed. © 2013 Bo Madsen and E. Kristofer Gamstedt.

Madsen, Bo

2013-01-01

233

Novel optical fibers for Brillouin-based distributed sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical fiber sensors utilizing Brillouin scattering rely on the principle that the Brillouin frequency shift is a function of the local temperature or strain. Conventional optical fibers, such as standard telecommunications single-mode fibers, have been successfully used in these applications, and most typically in the time domain, such as with BOTDR. Such conventional fibers however are susceptible simultaneously to both temperature and strain, requiring either at least two fibers or specialized cabling to distinguish the effects of a local stress from those of a local change in temperature. Recently, methods utilizing fibers possessing at least two Brillouin frequency shifts, each with different temperature or strain coefficients have been proposed. However, realizing such fibers is challenging, requiring fibers with regions of very different compositions, all of which must have substantial overlap with the optical field, posing significant manufacturing challenges. We present several new specialty optical fibers based on novel and unconventional fabrication techniques with significant potential for use in distributed fiber sensor systems. First, we describe a class of fibers fabricated from materials whose Brillouin frequency shifts are immune to either temperature or strain, with a demonstration of the former using fiber derived from sapphire crystal, and modeling and measurements predicting the latter. The `Brillouin-athermal' fiber enables the measurement of a local strain, independent of the local temperature. Second, we describe and demonstrate a novel group of longitudinally graded (chirped) fibers enabling easily-implemented frequency-domain systems; affording the potential to simplify and reduce the cost of Brillouin-based distributed sensors.

Dragic, Peter D.; Ballato, John; Morris, Stephanie; Evert, Alex; Rice, Robert R.; Hawkins, Thomas

2013-05-01

234

Flexibility in fuel manufacturing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From its inception Exxon Nuclear has produced both BWR and PWR fuels. This is reflected in a product line that, to date, includes over 20 fuel designs. These range from 6x6 design at one end of the spectrum to the recently introduced 17x17 design. The benefits offered include close tailoring of the fuel design to match the customer's requirements, and the ability to rapidly introduce product changes, such as the axial blanket design, with a minimal impact on manufacturing. This flexibility places a number of demands on the manufacturing organization. Close interfaces must be established, and maintained, between the marketing, product design, manufacturing, purchasing and quality organizations, and the information flows must be immediate and accurate. Production schedules must be well planned and must be maintained or revised to reflect changing circumstances. Finally, the manufacturing facilities must be designed to allow rapid switchover between product designs with minor tooling changes and/or rerouting of product flows to alternate work stations. Among the tools used to manage the flow of information and to maintain the tight integration necessary between the various manufacturing, engineering and quality organizations is a commercially available, computerized planning and tracking system, AMAPS. A real-time production data collection system has been designed which gathers data from each production work station for use by the shop floor control module of AMAPS. Accuracy of input to the system is improved through extensive use of bar codes to gather information on the product as it moves through and between work stations. This computerized preparation of material tracing has an impact on direct manufacturing records, quality control records, nuclear material records and accounting and inventory records. This is of benefit to both Exxon Nuclear and its customers

235

Clad fiber capacitor and method of making same  

Science.gov (United States)

A clad capacitor and method of manufacture includes assembling a preform comprising a ductile, electrically conductive fiber; a ductile, electrically insulating cladding positioned on the fiber; and a ductile, electrically conductive sleeve positioned over the cladding. One or more preforms are then bundled, heated and drawn along a longitudinal axis to decrease the diameter of the ductile components of the preform and fuse the preform into a unitized strand.

Tuncer, Enis

2012-12-11

236

Clad fiber capacitor and method of making same  

Science.gov (United States)

A clad capacitor and method of manufacture includes assembling a preform comprising a ductile, electrically conductive fiber; a ductile, electrically insulating cladding positioned on the fiber; a ductile, electrically conductive sleeve positioned over the cladding. One or more of the preforms are then bundled, heated and drawn along a longitudinal axis to decrease the diameter of the ductile components of the preform and fuse the preform into a unitized strand.

Tuncer, Enis

2013-11-26

237

7 CFR 1755.902 - Minimum performance Specification for fiber optic cables.  

Science.gov (United States)

...under the outer jacket. (vii) For self-supporting cable...included must be for Rule B, Ice and Wind Loading , and when...attenuation measurements. (vii) Fiber cable attenuation measured...assembly or manufacture; (vii) Written user testimonials...

2010-01-01

238

Fiber Optics Physics and Technology  

CERN Document Server

Telephone, telefax, email and internet -- the key ingredient of the inner workings is the conduit: the line which is designed to carry massive amounts of data at breakneck speed. In their data-carrying capacity optical fiber lines beat other technologies (copper cable, microwave beacons, satellite links) hands down, at least in the long haul. This book tells you all you want to know about optical fibers: Their structure, their light-guiding mechanism, their material and manufacture, their use. Several effects tend to degrade the signal as it travels down the fiber: they are spelled out in detail. Nonlinear processes are given due consideration for a twofold reason: On the one hand they are fundamentally different from the more familiar processes in electrical cable. On the other hand, they form the basis of particularly interesting and innovative applications, provided they are understood well enough. A case in point is the use of so-called solitons, i.e. special pulses of light which have the wonderful prope...

Mitschke, Fedor

2010-01-01

239

Laser in manufacturing  

CERN Document Server

Generally a laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) is defined as "a device which uses a quantum mechanical effect, stimulated emission, to generate a coherent beam of light from a lasing medium of controlled purity, size, and shape". Laser material processing represents a great number of methods, which are rapidly growing in current and different industrial applications as new alternatives to traditional manufacturing processes. Nowadays, the use of lasers in manufacturing is an emerging area with a wide variety of applications, for example, in electronics, molds an

Davim, J Paulo

2013-01-01

240

ATS materials/manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Materials/Manufacturing Technology subelement is a part of the base technology portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program. The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from national laboratories and universities. The projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. Work is currently ongoing on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), the scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technologies, materials characterization, and technology information exchange. This paper presents highlights of the activities during the past year. 12 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

Karnitz, M.A.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K. [and others

1997-11-01

 
 
 
 
241

Manufacturing and automation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

2010-04-01

242

Boron carbide manufacturing process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention relates to the manufacture of boron carbide powder. It is well known that boron carbide, formula B4C, has many industrial applications because of its hardness. It is thus used in powder form as an abrasive, especially for lapping and polishing hard metals and carbides, whereas in the pressed and sintered condition it is very suitable for manufacturing parts subjected to a high rate of wear, e.g., sanding nozzles, dies, or bearings. Other applications exist in the nuclear field, when the B 10 isotope, which is a neutron absorber, is present

243

Novel design of dual-core microstructured fiber with enhanced longitudinal strain sensitivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Constantly refined technology of manufacturing increasingly complex photonic crystal fibers (PCF) leads to new optical fiber sensor concepts. The ways of enhancing the influence of external factors (such as hydrostatic pressure, temperature, acceleration) on the fiber propagating conditions are commonly investigated in literature. On the other hand longitudinal strain analysis, due to the calculation difficulties caused by the three dimensional computation, are somehow neglected. In this paper we show results of such a 3D numerical simulation and report methods of tuning the fiber strain sensitivity by changing the fiber microstructure and core doping level. Furthermore our approach allows to control whether the modes' effective refractive index is increasing or decreasing with strain, with the possibility of achieving zero strain sensitivity with specific fiber geometries. The presented numerical analysis is compared with experimental results of the fabricated fibers characterization. Basing on the aforementioned methodology we propose a novel dual-core fiber design with significantly increased sensitivity to longitudinal strain for optical fiber sensor applications. Furthermore the reported fiber satisfies all conditions necessary for commercial applications like good mode matching with standard single-mode fiber, low confinement loss and ease of manufacturing with the stack-and-draw technique. Such fiber may serve as an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer when highly coherent source is used. With the optimization of single mode transmission to 850 nm, we propose a VCSEL source to be used in order to achieve a low-cost, reliable and compact strain sensing transducer.

Szostkiewicz, Lukasz; Tenderenda, T.; Napierala, M.; Szyma?ski, M.; Murawski, M.; Mergo, P.; Lesiak, P.; Marc, P.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.; Nasilowski, T.

2014-05-01

244

X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF YB3+-DOPED OPTICAL FIBERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optical fibers doped with Ytterbium-3+ have become increasingly common in fiber lasers and amplifiers. Yb-doped fibers provide the capability to produce high power and short pulses at specific wavelengths, resulting in highly effective gain media. However, little is known about the local structure, distribution, and chemical coordination of Yb3+ in the fibers. This information is necessary to improve the manufacturing process and optical qualities of the fibers. Five fibers doped with Yb3+ were studied using Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), in addition to Yb3+ mapping. The Yb3+ distribution in each fiber core was mapped with 2D and 1D intensity scans, which measured X-ray fluorescence over the scan areas. Two of the five fibers examined showed highly irregular Yb3+ distributions in the core center. In four of the five fibers Yb3+ was detected outside of the given fiber core dimensions, suggesting possible Yb3+ diffusion from the core, manufacturing error, or both. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis has so far proven inconclusive, but did show that the fibers had differing EXAFS spectra. The Yb3+ distribution mapping proved highly useful, but additional modeling and examination of fiber preforms must be conducted to improve XAS analysis, which has been shown to have great potential for the study of similar optical fi bers.

Citron, Robert; Kropf, A.J.

2008-01-01

245

Computational Techniques in Manufacturing Technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Manufacturing processes are complex and therefore difficult to plan by software. The present state in computational techniques in manufacturing technology as well as software applications at the Department of Manufacturing Technology of CTU in Prague are discussed in this article. Computational techniques may help to solve many manufacturing problems as such programs in the field of process planning have been developed. However, due to the complexity of manufacturing processes, complete plann...

Ma?dl, J.; C?erma?k, J.; Vrabec, M.

2000-01-01

246

UTILIZATION OF OLIVE MILL SLUDGE IN THE MANUFACTURE OF FIBERBOARD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this research was to investigate the utilization of olive mill sludge (OMS) as an alternative to wood in the manufacture of the medium density fiberboard (MDF). The MDF panels were manufactured using standardized procedures that simulated industrial production at the laboratory. Six panel types were made from various mixtures of hardwood fiber/dried OMS flour, 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, and 50/50 (by weight) percents, respectively. With increasing OMS flour content, t...

Nadir Ayrilmis; Umit Buyuksari

2010-01-01

247

Photonic bandgap confinement in an all-solid tellurite-glass photonic crystal fiber.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the fabrication and optical assessment of an all-solid tellurite-glass photonic bandgap fiber. The manufacturing process via a preform drawing approach and the fiber characterization procedures are described and discussed. The fiber exhibits some minor morphological deformations that do not prevent the observation of optical confinement within the fiber by bandgap effects. The experimental fiber attenuation spectrum displays clear bandgap confinement regions whose positions are confirmed by modeling the guiding properties of the ideal geometry using a plane-wave expansion method. The model identifies the bound modes of the structure and provides confirmation of experimentally observed mode field profiles. PMID:23202091

Lousteau, Joris; Scarpignato, Gerardo; Athanasiou, Giorgos S; Mura, Emanuele; Boetti, Nadia; Olivero, Massimo; Benson, Trevor; Sewell, Phillip; Abrate, Silvio; Milanese, Daniel

2012-12-01

248

Manufacturing of lasers for DWDM systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) has allowed service provides a convenient and cost effective method to dramatically increase transmission capacity over existing and new fiber network systems. As the demand for bandwidth continues to increase, systems designers are responding by increasing both the number of channels and the data rates. This trend has placed considerable pressure on many of the underlying system components. One component that has been particularly challenged by this trend is the manufacture of semiconductor lasers. This paper reviews the technical and logistical challenges faced in the high volume manufacture of lasers to support DWDM systems. As the product portfolio continues to expand, precise execution and team work among multiple organizations is required to assure reliable shipping performance. Production scheduling and manufacturing operations must work closely to continuously re-prioritize the work in process in response to constantly changing channel demand and yield fluctuations. Wavelength prediction models must be developed that correlate in-process parameters to final device wavelength. These models are then applied to both in-process specification targeting and inventory management. Once the in-process specifications are properly targeted, the challenge moves to the fabrication processes, where processes are pushed to the limits of their control. Underpinning the entire effort must be an information management system in which parametric data is collected, wavelength prediction models are executed, and work in process inventory is controlled with respect to the final output volume and wavelength distribution.

Campbell, Kevin T.; Robertson, Alexander J., Jr.; Wetzel, Steven J.

1999-11-01

249

Manufacturing Challenge: Flight Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson plan from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center asks students to conceptualize a flight simulator which would be used to train pilots. The class will draw a sketch of what their simulator would look like. They will then compare their own work to a case study of how a real manufacturing company responded to the same challenge.

2011-02-24

250

Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific goal of this program is to define manufacturing methods that will allow single crystal technology to be applied to complex-cored airfoils components for power generation applications. Tasks addressed include: alloy melt practice to reduce the sulfur content; improvement of casting process; core materials design; and grain orientation control.

Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

251

Teamwork In Modern Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center uses the example of a business (Featherlite Luxury Coaches) to demonstrate careers in manufacturing. The presentation focuses on how teams are assembled and how each team accomplishes given tasks to support the overall goals of the business.

2011-02-11

252

Cladding tube manufacturing technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding. Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs

253

Nuclear fuel manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technologies used to manufacture nuclear fuel from uranium ore are outlined, with particular reference to the light water reactor fuel cycle. Capital and operating cost estimates for the processing stages are given, and the relevance to a developing uranium industry in Australia is discussed

254

Cladding tube manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report 'Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding.' Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs.

Hahn, R. [Kraftwerk Union AG, Mulheim (Germany); Jeong, Y.H.; Baek, B.J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, B.K.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1999-04-01

255

Single Mode Fiber Optic Connectors And Splices  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a trend toward increasing use of single mode transmission, particularly in telecommunications where high data bit rates are transmitted for long distances. Inter-connections of multimode fibers can be made in a number of ways, using ferrules, v-grooves, elastomeric splices, etc. However, the connection of single mode fibers, which have core diameters of 4 to 13 ?m, requires more precise alignment than do the multimode fibers having core diameters of 50 ?m or more. At TRW, we have adapted the four rod alignment guide concept for single mode fiber inter-connections. The principle of this OPTAGUIDE* alignment guide is presented. The single mode connectors and splices use the four rod scheme with an index matching material to eliminate or reduce the losses incurred through fiber end roughness or angularity. We are able to produce demountable connectors for 80/4.4 pm fibers having typical insertion losses of 1.0dB. The main factors in obtaining this result are the naturally precise fiber alignment provided by the alignment guide, and the ability of several manufacturers to maintain tight diametral and core offset tolerances. The single mode OPTALIGN* SM Connectors have been subjected to performance and environmental tests including repeated matings, temperature cycle and vibration. The results of these tests are described in this paper. A feature of the OPTALIGN* SM Connectors is the relative ease and speed of attachment to fiber optic cable in the field, without the use of epoxy or polishing procedures. The alignment guide concept has also been applied to permanent single mode splices. The splicing procedure is simple to perform in the field without expensive or delicate equipment. Construction and assembly procedures of the demountable connectors and permanent splices will be described with the aid of diagrams and photographs.

Woods, John G.

1984-08-01

256

A Report of Observed Effects on Electrical Systems of Airborne Carbon/Graphite Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of research on composite materials containing carbon/graphite fibers are presented. It is shown that the release of free carbon/graphite fibers into the environment presents a potential hazard to electrical machinery. The high electrical conductivity of the carbon/graphite fibers coupled with other properties such as small fiber diameter, general short length, and low density which permit the free fibers to become airborne can cause effects which could damage equipment or cause it to malfunction. It is recommended that all manufacturers and users of carbon/graphite fiber composite materials exercise caution in handling free fibers and limit disposal of carbon/graphite fiber composites to controlled land fill.

1978-01-01

257

Lunar preform manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

1992-01-01

258

Fundamentals of Digital Manufacturing Science  

CERN Document Server

The manufacturing industry will reap significant benefits from encouraging the development of digital manufacturing science and technology. Digital Manufacturing Science uses theorems, illustrations and tables to introduce the definition, theory architecture, main content, and key technologies of digital manufacturing science. Readers will be able to develop an in-depth understanding of the emergence and the development, the theoretical background, and the techniques and methods of digital manufacturing science. Furthermore, they will also be able to use the basic theories and key technologies described in Digital Manufacturing Science to solve practical engineering problems in modern manufacturing processes. Digital Manufacturing Science is aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students, academic researchers and researchers in the manufacturing industry. It allows readers to integrate the theories and technologies described with their own research works, and to propose new ideas and new methods to...

Zhou, Zude; Chen, Dejun

2012-01-01

259

Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Cissus quadrangularis root.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber reinforced polymer composites are replacing many metallic structures due to its high specific strength and modulus. However commonly used man-made E-glass fibers are hazardous for health and carcinogenic by nature. Comprehensive characterization of Cissus quadrangularis root fiber such as anatomical study, chemical analysis, physical analysis, FTIR, XRD, SEM analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis are done. The results are very encouraging for its application in fiber industries, composite manufacturing, etc. Due to its light weight and the presence of high cellulose content (77.17%) with very little wax (0.14%) provide high specific strength and good bonding properties. The flaky honeycomb outer surface and low microfibril angle revealed through electron microscopy contributes for its high modulus. The thermo gravimetric analysis indicates better thermal stability of the fiber up to 230°C, which is well within the polymerization process temperature. PMID:24906775

Indran, S; Raj, R Edwin; Sreenivasan, V S

2014-09-22

260

Utilization of Faraday Mirror in Fiber Optic Current Sensors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fiber optic sensors dispose of some advantages in the field of electrical current and magnetic field measurement, like large bandwidth, linearity, light transmission possibilities. Unfortunately, they suffer from some parasitic phenomena. The crucial issue is the presence of induced and latent linear birefringence, which is imposed by the fiber manufacture imperfections as well as mechanical stress by fiber bending. In order to the linear birefringence compensation a promising method was chosen for pulsed current sensor design. The method employs orthogonal polarization conjugation by the back direction propagation of the light wave in the fiber. The Jones calculus analysis presents its propriety. An experimental fiber optic current sensor has been designed and realized. The advantage of the proposed method was proved considering to the sensitivity improvement.

P. Fiala

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Mechanical properties of glass fiber-reinforced endodontic posts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five types of posts from three different manufacturers (RTD, France, Carbotech, France and Ivoclar-Vivadent, Liechenstein) were subjected to three-point bending tests in order to obtain fatigue results, flexural strength and modulus. Transverse and longitudinal polished sections were examined by scanning electron microscopy and evaluated by computer-assisted image analysis. Physical parameters, including volume % of fibers, their dispersion index and coordination number, were calculated and correlated with mechanical properties. The weaker posts showed more fiber dispersion, higher resin contents, larger numbers of visible defects and reduced fatigue resistance. The flexural strength was inversely correlated with fiber diameter and the flexural modulus was weakly related to coordination number, volume % of fibers and dispersion index. The interfacial adhesion between the silica fibers and the resin matrix was observed to be of paramount importance. PMID:19428317

Cheleux, Nicolas; Sharrock, Patrick J

2009-10-01

262

Ceramic fiber reinforced filter  

Science.gov (United States)

A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

Stinton, David P. (Knoxville, TN); McLaughlin, Jerry C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lowden, Richard A. (Powell, TN)

1991-01-01

263

Computational Techniques in Manufacturing Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manufacturing processes are complex and therefore difficult to plan by software. The present state in computational techniques in manufacturing technology as well as software applications at the Department of Manufacturing Technology of CTU in Prague are discussed in this article. Computational techniques may help to solve many manufacturing problems as such programs in the field of process planning have been developed. However, due to the complexity of manufacturing processes, complete planning of a manufacturing process by software is not possible at present.

J. Mádl

2000-01-01

264

Evaluation on Decomposition granularity of Manufacturing Task in Manufacturing Grid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Task decomposition is on of the most important activities for manufacturing task planning in Manufacturing Grid. Many achievements in the methods to decompose manufacturing tasks have been obtained. But as for the decomposition granularity, the study and research are rare. Referring to the principle of “strong cohesion and weak coupling” in the software engineering field, the decomposition model of manufacturing task is built up, in which a manufacturing task is decomposed into different subtasks, and each subtask is composed of various processing events. On the basis of the model, the constraint among processing events within the subtasks is analyzed. Then the evaluation index on decomposition granularity of manufacturing task is put forward based on several definitions and evaluation steps for the decomposition granularity of manufacturing task are listed. Finally, examples to illustrate the idea of the paper are given. We hope the work of the paper can promote the study and application for Manufacturing Grid further.

Jihong Wang

2013-02-01

265

Smart aircraft composite structures with embedded small-diameter optical fiber sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

This talk describes the embedded optical fiber sensor systems for smart aircraft composite structures. First, a summary of the current Japanese national project on structural integrity diagnosis of aircraft composite structures is described with special emphasis on the use of embedded small-diameter optical fiber sensors including FBG sensors. Then, some examples of life-cycle monitoring of aircraft composite structures are presented using embedded small-diameter optical fiber sensors for low-cost and reliable manufacturing merits.

Takeda, Nobuo; Minakuchi, Shu

2012-02-01

266

Biopersistence of man-made vitreous silicate fibers in the human lung.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is now a substantial body of experimental data on the pulmonary biopersistence of man-made vitreous silicate fibers (MMVSF), but human data are seriously lacking. Our knowledge in this field is essentially limited to a few reports of measurements of fibers retained in lung tissue samples taken at autopsy from workers manufacturing these products. Three types of exposure were studied: fibrous glass, mineral wool, and refractory ceramic fibers. Overall, the available data do not provide e...

Se?bastien, P.

1994-01-01

267

16 CFR 1500.91 - Determinations regarding lead content for certain materials or products under section 101 of the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...i) Natural fibers (dyed or undyed) including, but not limited to, cotton, kapok, flax, linen, jute, ramie, hemp, kenaf, bamboo, coir, sisal, silk, wool (sheep), alpaca, llama, goat (mohair, cashmere), rabbit (angora),...

2010-01-01

268

Whole Grains and Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

... Friendly Worksites Program Requirements Fit-Friendly Resources Whole Grains and Fiber Updated:Feb 19,2014 Any food ... to the Terms and Conditions Watch Our Whole Grains Video Loading Get Heart Healthy with Soluble Fiber ...

269

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Kids 'n Fiber Search the Consumer Updates Section Get ... Feed More on Nutrition and Healthy Diets Getting kids to eat the fiber they need can be ...

270

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Kids 'n Fiber Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer ... Hemorrhoids'? - - For More Information FDA Flickr Photostream - Kids 'n Fiber - Page Last Updated: 01/08/2014 Note: ...

271

Fiber Optics Technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

Burns, William E.

1986-01-01

272

Fiber optic radiation sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of fiber-optic sensors for the measurement of ionizing radiation is given. The interactions between ionizing radiation and fiber material, which are of significance for the fiber-optic detection of ionizing radiation, as well as the changes in the properties of the optical fibers induced by such interactions are discussed. Measurement and evaluation techniques for reading out the optical properties induced by ionizing radiation are described. A survey of possible applications for fiber-optic radiation sensors is given. The properties and application possibilities of fiber-optic dosimeters based on radiation-induced losses are specified. In particular, the requirements to be met by fiber-optic dosimeters for applications in radiation therapy are discussed. A fiber-optic dosimeter measuring system for radiation therapy based on radiation-induced losses is presented.

Bueker, Harald; Haesing, Friedrich W.

1994-12-01

273

Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter  

Science.gov (United States)

A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

1983-06-30

274

Array fiber welding on micro optical glass substrates for chip-to-fiber coupling  

Science.gov (United States)

High bandwidth parallel optical transceivers are highly demanded for optical interconnects in data centers and in high performance computing. Such transceivers are composed of VCSEL- and photodiode components which have to be fiber coupled, and the appropriate driving and amplifying circuitry. For high density fiber optical connectors lens arrays for improved coupling efficiency have to be used. We propose an advantageous adhesive free method to interconnect optical fibers with such kind of lens arrays. Common approaches using adhesive bonding have high challenges in terms of yield, reliability and optical performance. We introduce our novel fiber welding approach for joining directly fused silica fibers on borosilicate glass substrates with integrated micro optics, e.g. lenses and lens arrays. It is a thermal process with a precise heat input by CO2-laser processing, which is combinable with sequential passive or active alignment of each single fiber to the substrate causing flexibility and highest coupling efficiencies. Since the fiber is accessed only from one side, a two dimensional high-density fiber array can be realized. The manufacturing time of such an interconnection is very short. Due to the adhesive free interface high power transmission is enabled and the occurrence of polymer caused misalignment and degradation are prevented. The paper presents current results in thin glass-based opto-electronic packaging. In particular our laboratory setup for array fiber welding and experimental results of such connections will be discussed and compared to UV-adhesive joining. Also further investigation, for example optical characterization and reliability tests are included. Finally a machine concept, which is under development, will be discussed.

Schröder, Henning; Neitz, Marcel; Brusberg, Lars; Queiser, Marco; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Lang, K.-D.

2014-03-01

275

Advancements in asphere manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Aspheric optics can pose as a challenge to the manufacturing community due to the surface shape and level of quality required. The aspheric surface may have inflection points that limit the usable tool size during manufacturing, or there may be a stringent tolerance on the slope for mid-spatial frequencies that may be problematic for sub-aperture finishing techniques to achieve. As aspheres become more commonplace in the optics community, requests for more complex aspheres have risen. OptiPro Systems has been developing technologies to create a robust aspheric manufacturing process. Contour deterministic microgrinding is performed on a Pro80 or eSX platform. These platforms utilize software and the latest advancements in machine motion to accurately contour the aspheric shape. Then the optics are finished using UltraForm Finishing (UFF), which is a sub-aperture polishing process. This process has the capability to adjust the diameter and compliance of the polishing lap to allow for finishing over a wide range of shapes and conditions. Finally, the aspheric surfaces are qualified using an OptiTrace contact profilometer, or an UltraSurf non-contact 3D surface scanner. The OptiTrace uses a stylus to scan across the surface of the part, and the UltraSurf utilizes several different optical pens to scan the surface and generate a topographical map of the surface under test. This presentation will focus on the challenges for asphere manufacturing, how OptiPro has implemented its technologies to combat these challenges, and provide surface data for analysis.

Fess, Edward; DeFisher, Scott

2013-09-01

276

Smart PWB manufacturing technologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The inherent functionality of a printed wiring board (PWB) can be dramatically increased by embedding electronic components into the board. For resistors, capacitors and inductors, technological turnkey solutions are offered by major manufacturers and novel technologies are also under development. A further boost of functionality will be accomplished by the integration of active chips into the board. Two approaches for chip integration into the board will be discussed in detail: the chip in p...

Lo?her, T.; Neumann, A.; Pahl, B.; Reich, H.; Ostmann, A.

2006-01-01

277

Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

Tesar, A.

1995-12-01

278

Fuel manufacturing and utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO2, MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

279

Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of ...

Zander, Nicole E.

2013-01-01

280

Advanced Fibers for Composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews high performance fibers used in the production of textile composites. Techniques used to produce preform using these fibers are discussed. The properties of fibers such as kevlar, spectra, glass, carbon and ceramic are presented. The paper also discusses densification or consolidation techniques used to produce composites from each fiber. Finally, the paper compares the properties of Carbon/Epoxy composites with that of 6061 aluminum. 3 figs., 4 tabs

 
 
 
 
281

Rayleigh fiber optics gyroscope  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel kind of fiber-optic gyroscope based on Rayleigh backscattering in a fiber-ring resonator is presented in this letter. Information on the rotation rate is obtained from the composed response of the fiber ring to an optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) instrument. The developed model based on the coherence properties of the Rayleigh scattering yields a polarization-insensitive and low-cost gyroscope

Kung, A.; Budin, J.; The?venaz, Luc; Robert, P. A.

1997-01-01

282

Fiber Optics Basics  

Science.gov (United States)

This pdf from OP-TEC, the National Center for Optics and Photonics Education, addresses basic concepts underlying the operation of fiber lasers. This free 26 page document supplements the fiber laser material presented in an Elements of Photonics Course by provided a more current and detailed description of how lasers operate. This course covers basic laser operations, basic structure of fiber lasers, pulsing methods, output characteristics of fiber lasers, and advanced structures.

2012-12-04

283

Fundamentals of fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers  

CERN Document Server

This book covers the fundamental aspects of fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers, and includes a wide range of material from laser physics fundamentals to state-of-the-art topics in this rapidly growing field of quantum electronics. Emphasis is placed on the nonlinear processes taking place in fiber lasers and amplifiers, their similarities, differences to, and their advantages over other solid-state lasers. The reader will learn basic principles of solid-state physics and optical spectroscopy of laser active centers in fibers, main operational laser regimes, and practical recommendations and suggestions on fiber laser research, laser applications, and laser product development. The book will be useful for students, researchers, and professionals who work with lasers, in the optical communications, chemical and biological industries, etc.

Ter-Mikirtychev, Valerii (Vartan)

2014-01-01

284

Reconfigurable manufacturing system: an overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the review of Reconfigurable manufacturing system. That aims at achievingcost effective and rapid system changes needed, by incorporating principle of modularity, integrability andscalability as this new manufacturing system. Reconfigurable manufacturing system promises customizedflexibility in a short time, while the other manufacturing system provides generalized flexibility designed foranticipation variations.This paper shows the definition and background of reconfigurable manufacturing system. In this researchpaper an overview of components of reconfigurable manufacturing system and comparisons of differentmanufacturing system with their merits and demerits are presented. The capabilities of reconfigurablemanufacturing system, challenges of reconfigurable manufacturing system and key role in reconfigurablemanufacturing system are explained. The characteristic of reconfigurable manufacturing system are alsopresented in this research paper.

Malhotra V.

2009-12-01

285

Oxynitride glass fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Research at the Army Materials Technology Laboratory (AMTL) and elsewhere has shown that many glass properties including elastic modulus, hardness, and corrosion resistance are improved markedly by the substitution of nitrogen for oxygen in the glass structure. Oxynitride glasses, therefore, offer exciting opportunities for making high modulus, high strength fibers. Processes for making oxynitride glasses and fibers of glass compositions similar to commercial oxide glasses, but with considerable enhanced properties, are discussed. We have made glasses with elastic moduli as high as 140 GPa and fibers with moduli of 120 GPa and tensile strengths up to 2900 MPa. AMTL holds a U.S. patent on oxynitride glass fibers, and this presentation discusses a unique process for drawing small diameter oxynitride glass fibers at high drawing rates. Fibers are drawn through a nozzle from molten glass in a molybdenum crucible at 1550 C. The crucible is situated in a furnace chamber in flowing nitrogen, and the fiber is wound in air outside of the chamber, making the process straightforward and commercially feasible. Strengths were considerably improved by improving glass quality to minimize internal defects. Though the fiber strengths were comparable with oxide fibers, work is currently in progress to further improve the elastic modulus and strength of fibers. The high elastic modulus of oxynitride glasses indicate their potential for making fibers with tensile strengths surpassing any oxide glass fibers, and we hope to realize that potential in the near future.

Patel, Parimal J.; Messier, Donald R.; Rich, R. E.

1991-01-01

286

Resonant filtered fiber amplifiers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present our recent result on utilizing resonant/bandgap fiber designs to achieve high performance ytterbium doped fiber amplifers for achieving diffraction limited beam quality in large mode area fibers, robust bending performance and gain shaping for long wavelength operation of yb-doped amplifiers.

Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko

2013-01-01

287

Neutron imaging of fiber-reinforced materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glass-fiber-reinforced plastic laminates used for the insulation of Toroidal Field (TF) magnet-coils and fiber-reinforced silicon carbide ceramic composites used as structural material for the self-cooled Pb-17Li blanket module are attractive candidate materials for fusion reactors because of their high performance under extreme conditions. Porosity, which depends on the manufacturing process, and swelling of fiber-reinforced materials due to the high flux of radiation are the main problems. The aim of this study is to describe the experimental procedures of different imaging methods, and also to decide the most efficient imaging method for the investigations of the complex microstructure of fiber-reinforced materials. In this work, the fiber-reinforced composites were inspected with neutron and X-ray radiographies at ATI-Vienna and also at PSI-Villigen. A contrast enhancement at the edges can be achieved by means of phase contrast neutron radiography (NR), which is based on the wave properties of neutrons and arises from the neutron refraction (rather than attenuation). Elements having different refractive index within a sample cause a phase shift between coherent neutron waves. The degree of coherence can be determined by means of the coherence pattern caused by the sample, when a point source (pinhole) is used and the distance between source and sample is varied

288

Simulation in Semiconductor Manufacturing Facilities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semiconductor manufacturing is one of the most complex industries in terms of technology and manufacturing procedure. The life cycle of a semiconductor facility (FAB) has many phases, in their life cycle including capacity planning, new products introduction, variation of products/technologies, and decline phase. The complexity of the manufacturing and the external forces from markets and technology growth make predicting the effects of changes in the manufacturing system problematic. Simulat...

Arisha, Amr; Young, Paul

2005-01-01

289

Additive Manufacturing for Large Products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis researches the possibility and feasibility of applying additive manufacturing technology in the manufacturing of propellers. The thesis concerns the production at the foundry Oshaug Metall AS. Their products consist of propellers and other large products cast in Nickel-Aluminium Bronze. This report looks at three approaches and applications for additive manufacturing at the foundry. These are additively manufactured pattern, sand mold and end metal parts. The available \\emph{State...

Leirva?g, Roar Nelissen

2013-01-01

290

Out of Bounds Additive Manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing (AM) system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

Holshouser, Chris [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Newell, Clint [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Palas, Sid [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Rowe, John C [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL

2013-01-01

291

Qualification and Lessons Learned with Space Flight Fiber Optic Components  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation covers lessons learned during the design, development, manufacturing and qualification of space flight fiber optic components. Changes at NASA, including short-term projects and decreased budgets have brought about changes to vendors and parts. Most photonics for NASA needs are now commercial off the shelf (COTS) products. The COTS Tecnology Assurance approach for space flight and qualification plans are outlined.

Ott, Melanie

2007-01-01

292

7 CFR 1755.903 - Fiber optic service entrance cables.  

Science.gov (United States)

...must be manufactured from a material having a coefficient of friction sufficiently low to allow the fibers free movement. The design...A) Place the two samples on an insulating material such as wood. (B) Tape thermocouples to the jackets of each sample...

2010-01-01

293

MONITORING TECHNIQUES FOR CARBON FIBER EMISSIONS: EVALUATION A  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was carried out of methods and techniques applicable to the detection and monitoring of carbon fibers as they are emitted in processes involving their manufacture or their use. The specific activities of these programs were: (a) to perform a detailed literature s...

294

Development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have initiated a three phase investigation of the development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer usable lifetimes. This report presents the results of the first phase of the study, performed from Aug. 1989 through Feb. 1991, which shows that significant energy saving are possible through the use of high temperature insulating fibers that better retain their efficient insulating properties during the service lifetime of the fibers. The remaining phases of this program include the pilot scale development and then full scale production feasibility development and evaluation of enhanced high temperature refractory insulting fibers. This first proof of principle phase of the program presents a summary of the current use patterns of refractory fibers, a laboratory evaluation of the high temperature performance characteristics of selected typical refractory fibers and an analysis of the potential energy savings through the use of enhanced refractory fibers. The current use patterns of refractory fibers span a wide range of industries and high temperature furnaces within those industries. The majority of high temperature fiber applications are in furnaces operating between 2000 and 26000{degrees}F. The fibers used in furnaces operating within this range provide attractive thermal resistance and low thermal storage at reasonable cost. A series of heat treatment studies performed for this phase of the program has shown that the refractory fibers, as initially manufactured, have attractive thermal conductivities for high temperature applications but the fibers go through rapid devitrification and subsequent crystal growth upon high temperature exposure. Development of improved fibers, maintaining the favorable characteristics of the existing as-manufactured fibers, could save between 1 and 4% of the energy consumed in high temperature furnaces using refractory fibers.

Martin, P.C.; DePoorter, G.L.; Munoz, D.R.

1991-02-01

295

Fiber optic laser rod  

Science.gov (United States)

A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

Erickson, G.F.

1988-04-13

296

Fiber optic moisture sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

Kirkham, R.R.

1984-08-03

297

Design and manufacturing excellence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

US technical expertise is arguably at the forefront of world materials handling equipment design and manufacturing. Despite the fact that higher costs of research and development - and indeed also in production - makes it difficult for US companies to compete in overseas markets, a number of outstanding achievements continue to be recorded, as illustrated in this paper. They include a hydraulic bucket from Pro-Line, the Cleveland Cascade chute and air cleaning system, from Pebco and CMC Engineering, a range of dust control and handling systems from DCL, and railroad unloaders from Heyl and Patterson. 6 photos.

Phillips, K.

2001-04-01

298

Careers in Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

This learning activity from The Mechatronics Education CenterâÂÂs Project SHINE widens studentsâ understanding of the manufacturing industry, including learning about specific jobs in industry. Through researching a specific business (the example used is in the health care industry), students will begin to more deeply understand products and services offered by the company, a general profile of the company, skills required for various jobs and more. The activity is designed as a 14-21 day unit, intended for use as a long-term class project.

Jacobi, Linda

2010-12-23

299

Concepts in syngas manufacture  

CERN Document Server

This book provides a general overview of syngas technologies as well as an in-depth analysis of the steam reforming process. Syngas is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon oxides which can be made from hydrocarbons, coal and biomass. It is an important intermediate in the chemical industry for manufacture of ammonia, methanol and other petrochemicals as well as hydrogen for refineries and fuel cells. Syngas is playing a growing role in the energy sector, because it can be converted into a number of important energy carriers and fuels. Syngas catalysis creates new options and flexibility in the com

Rostrup-Nielsen, Jens

2011-01-01

300

Three-Axis Distributed Fiber Optic Strain Measurement in 3D Woven Composite Structures  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading. Keywords: fiber optic, distributed strain sensing, Rayleigh scatter, optical frequency domain reflectometry

Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Double-fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometry optical fiber liquid level sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a liquid level sensor with a double-fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity and a diaphragm serving as the sensing element. The end surfaces of the two fibers that integrated in a ferrule serve as the front surfaces of the F-P cavities, and the diaphragm (one of the standard components of a manometer) as the rear surface. The random difference in position between the two fiber ends makes a phase difference between the two F-P interferometers, and is used to interpret the direction of the pattern shifts with the variation of the F-P cavity length, which leads to a much lower technological requirement for the cavity manufacture and a more stable sensor. A prototype is fabricated to demonstrate the design, and the experimental results show a system accuracy of 1/2 fringe, refer to a height-resolution of 1mm.

Tong, Bin; Li, Min; Li, Yulin

2012-02-01

302

Health aspects of man-made vitreous fiber insulations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Medical-scientific studies relating to man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) date from the early 1930s. Extensive health research since that time has dealt with the effects of MMVFs on human, animals, and the environment. Results to date indicate that MMVFs do not produce any chronic adverse health effects in man. Animal inhalation studies demonstrate no appreciable alteration of lung architecture, minimal pleural change, no significant fibrosis, and no tumor development in animals as a result of exposure to man-made vitreous fibers. Even injection of the fibers into the trachea of animals has not produced malignant tumors. Studies of workers exposed to man-made vitreous fibers (fibrous glass) demonstrate no significant difference in lung fiber content or fiber dimensions than shown in nonexposed persons. Such studies further demonstrate no significant malignant respiratory disease. Preliminary results of a current study encompassing 17 man-made vitreous fiber manufacturing facilities and over 16,000 production workers with exposure up to 40 plus years do not indicate any evidence of an excess of malignancies caused by man-made vitreous fibers.

Sheckler, C.L.

1983-01-01

303

Fiber Optic Sensors for Health Monitoring of Morphing Aircraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber optic sensors are being developed for health monitoring of future aircraft. Aircraft health monitoring involves the use of strain, temperature, vibration and chemical sensors. These sensors will measure load and vibration signatures that will be used to infer structural integrity. Sine the aircraft morphing program assumes that future aircraft will be aerodynamically reconfigurable there is also a requirement for pressure, flow and shape sensors. In some cases a single fiber may be used for measuring several different parameters. The objective of the current program is to develop techniques for using optical fibers to monitor composite cure in real time during manufacture and to monitor in-service structural integrity of the composite structure. Graphite-epoxy panels were fabricated with integrated optical fibers of various types. The panels were mechanically and thermally tested to evaluate composite strength and sensor durability. Finally the performance of the fiber optic sensors was determined. Experimental results are presented evaluating the performance of embedded and surface mounted optical fibers for measuring strain, temperature and chemical composition. The performance of the fiber optic sensors was determined by direct comparison with results from more conventional instrumentation. The facilities for fabricating optical fiber and associated sensors and methods of demodulating Bragg gratings for strain measurement will be described.

Brown, Timothy; Wood, Karen; Childers, Brooks; Cano, Roberto; Jensen, Brian; Rogowski, Robert

2001-01-01

304

Smart Cellulose Fibers Coated with Carbon Nanotube Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Smart multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers with a unique sensing ability were manufactured by a simple dip coating process. The formation of electrically-conducting MWCNT networks on cellulose mono- and multi-filament fiber surfaces was confirmed by electrical resistance measurements and visualized by scanning electron microscopy. The interaction between MWCNT networks and cellulose fiber was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The piezoresistivity of these fibers for strain sensing was investigated. The MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers exhibited a unique linear strain-dependent electrical resistance change up to 18% strain, with good reversibility and repeatability. In addition, the sensing behavior of these fibers to volatile molecules (including vapors of methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran was investigated. The results revealed a rapid response, high sensitivity and good reproducibility for these chemical vapors. Besides, they showed good selectivity to different vapors. It is suggested that the intrinsic physical and chemical features of cellulose fiber, well-formed MWCNT networks and favorable MWCNT-cellulose interaction caused the unique and excellent sensing ability of the MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers, which have the potential to be used as smart materials.

Haisong Qi

2014-11-01

305

Cloud manufacturing distributed computing technologies for global and sustainable manufacturing  

CERN Document Server

Global networks, which are the primary pillars of the modern manufacturing industry and supply chains, can only cope with the new challenges, requirements and demands when supported by new computing and Internet-based technologies. Cloud Manufacturing: Distributed Computing Technologies for Global and Sustainable Manufacturing introduces a new paradigm for scalable service-oriented sustainable and globally distributed manufacturing systems.   The eleven chapters in this book provide an updated overview of the latest technological development and applications in relevant research areas.  Following an introduction to the essential features of Cloud Computing, chapters cover a range of methods and applications such as the factors that actually affect adoption of the Cloud Computing technology in manufacturing companies and new geometrical simplification method to stream 3-Dimensional design and manufacturing data via the Internet. This is further supported case studies and real life data for Waste Electrical ...

Mehnen, Jörn

2013-01-01

306

Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

Nicole E. Zander

2013-01-01

307

WHAT HAPPENS TO CELLULOSIC FIBERS DURING PAPERMAKING AND RECYCLING? A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Both reversible and irreversible changes take place as cellulosic fibers are manufactured into paper products one or more times. This review considers both physical and chemical changes. It is proposed that by understanding these changes one can make better use of cellulosic fibers at various stages of their life cycles, achieving a broad range of paper performance characteristics. Some of the changes that occur as a result of recycling are inherent to the fibers themselves. Other changes may result from the presence of various contaminants associated with the fibers as a result of manufacturing processes and uses. The former category includes an expected loss of swelling ability and decreased wet-flexibility, especially after kraft fibers are dried. The latter category includes effects of inks, de-inking agents, stickies, and additives used during previous cycles of papermaking.

Orlando J. Rojas

2007-11-01

308

Mechanical and thermal properties of basalt fiber reinforced poly(butylene succinate) composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Novel basalt fiber-reinforced biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) composites have been successfully fabricated with various fiber loadings. ? The tensile and flexural properties of the PBS matrix resin are improved significantly by increasing the fiber loading in the composites. ? The impact strength of the BF/PBS composite decreases with the addition fibers primarily and increases with increasing fiber loading due to energy dissipation when the fibers are pulled out. ? Heat deflection temperature tests clearly show that the HDT of the basalt fiber reinforced PBS composites is significantly higher than the HDT of the PBS resin. - Abstract: Basalt fiber (BF) reinforced poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) composites have been fabricated with different fiber contents by a injection molding method and their tensile, flexural and impact properties, as well as thermal stability have been investigated. The tensile and flexural properties of the PBS matrix resin are improved markedly by increasing the fiber contents in the composites. The values are relatively higher than the natural fiber/PP systems reported earlier by other research groups. The heat deflection temperature (HDT) and Vicat softening temperature (VST) of the composites are significantly higher than those of the neat PBS resin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) conducted on the fracture surfaces of the composites reveals superior interfacial linkage between the basalt fibers and PBS matrix. The results suggest that the BF/PBS composites may be a potential candidate of PP or PP composites to manufacturing some daily commodities to solve the “white pollution” in environmental management.

309

Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)  

Science.gov (United States)

Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths ( ? ( app)) and slip coefficient ( ?) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle ( ?). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers, information is hardly available in this area. In this study, bond characteristics of deformed reinforcing steel bars embedded in SFRSCC is investigated secondly.

Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

2012-09-01

310

Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing (ECM)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kansas City Plant (KCP) is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) as the Kansas City Division of Allied-Signal Inc. The KCP produces and procures non-nuclear electrical, electronic, electromechanical, plastic, and metal components for nuclear weapons. Environmental goals at the KCP are to clean up, maintain, and operate the governmental facilities in the most environmentally advantageous manner consistent with regulations. New environmental technologies that are developed by the design laboratories and the KCP are incorporated into the DOE manufacturing facilities, and information is shared with the outside industry through meetings, publications, and seminars. This booklet presents current projects on solvent waste streams, polymer waste streams, plating waste streams, and miscellaneous waste stream minimization projects

311

Procyclical Productivity in Manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We study the cyclical behavior of labor productivity in eighty industries of the Chilean manufacturing sector in the 1979-2001 period. We find that labor productivity at the sector-level is procyclical but it is a-cyclical when using aggregate data. We provide an analytical and empirical explanation for this divergence. We also use an econometric model to quantify the determinants of productivity. The results indicate that technology shocks account for one half of productivity growth, thus supporting the supply shocks hypothesis as the main source of business cycles in Chile. The other 50% of the productivity changes is explained by reallocation of resources from less to more productive sectors as well as the presence of increasing returns. Variations in factor utilization were insignificant

LUCAS NAVARRO

2006-05-01

312

Procyclical Productivity in Manufacturing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english We study the cyclical behavior of labor productivity in eighty industries of the Chilean manufacturing sector in the 1979-2001 period. We find that labor productivity at the sector-level is procyclical but it is a-cyclical when using aggregate data. We provide an analytical and empirical explanation [...] for this divergence. We also use an econometric model to quantify the determinants of productivity. The results indicate that technology shocks account for one half of productivity growth, thus supporting the supply shocks hypothesis as the main source of business cycles in Chile. The other 50% of the productivity changes is explained by reallocation of resources from less to more productive sectors as well as the presence of increasing returns. Variations in factor utilization were insignificant

LUCAS, NAVARRO; RAIMUNDO, SOTO.

313

Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficiency and effectiveness of the gas turbine engine is directly related to the turbine inlet temperatures. The ability to increase these temperatures has occurred as a result of improvements in materials, design, and processing techniques. A generic sequence indicating the relationship of these factors to temperature capability is schematically shown in Figure 1 for aircraft engine and land based engine materials. A basic contribution that is not captured by the Figure is the significant improvement in process and manufacturing capability that has accompanied each of these innovations. It is this capability that has allowed the designs and innovations to be applied on a high volume, cost effective scale in the aircraft gas turbine market.

Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

1995-10-01

314

Polymer optical fiber fuse  

CERN Document Server

Although high-transmission-capacity optical fibers are in demand, the problem of the fiber fuse phenomenon needs to be resolved to prevent the destruction of fibers. As polymer optical fibers become more prevalent, clarifying their fuse properties has become important. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a fuse propagation velocity of 21.9 mm/s, which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude slower than that in standard silica fibers. The achieved threshold power density and proportionality constant between the propagation velocity and the power density are respectively 1/186 of and 16.8 times the values for silica fibers. An oscillatory continuous curve instead of periodic voids is formed after the passage of the fuse. An easy fuse termination method is presented herein, along with its potential plasma applications.

Mizuno, Yosuke; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro

2013-01-01

315

Low-coherence interferometric measurements of optical losses in autoclave cured composite samples with embedded optical fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work a high-performance optical low-coherence reflectometer (OLCR) has been used to estimate the optical losses in optical fibers and fiber Bragg grating sensors embedded into CFRP material samples. An ASE tunable narrowband light source coupled to a Michelson interferometer allowed the high spatial resolution localization of both the concentrated and the distributed loss for different fiber coatings and type. In particular, acrylate- and polyimidecoated fibers and bend-insensitive fibers were tested. By using the OLCR it was possible to locate and identify the sources of optical loss introduced by the CFRP manufacturing process, therefore obtaining useful information on the efficiency of the embedding process.

Di Sante, Raffaella; Bastianini, Filippo; Donati, Lorenzo

2013-05-01

316

Fiber-optic strain gauge with attached ends and unattached microbend section  

Science.gov (United States)

A strain gauge is made of an optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. The permanent microbends cause a reduction in the fiber's optical transmission, but, when the gauge is attached to a substrate that is subsequently strained, the amplitude of the deformations will diminish and the optical transmission through the fiber will increase. An apparatus and process for manufacturing these microbends into the optical fiber through a heat-set process is employed; this apparatus and process includes a testing and calibration system. 5 figs.

Weiss, J.D.

1992-07-21

317

The optical fiber tip: an inherently light-coupled microscopic platform for micro- and nanotechnologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The flat tip of an optical fiber is a unique and unconventional platform for micro and nanotechnologies. The small cross-section and large aspect ratio of the fiber provide an inherently light-coupled substrate that is uniquely suited to remote, in vivo and in situ applications. However, these same characteristics challenge established fabrication technologies, which are best suited to large planar substrates. This review presents a broad overview of strategies for patterning the flat tip of an optical fiber. Techniques discussed include self-assembly, numerous lithographies, through-fiber patterning, hybrid techniques, and strategies for mass manufacture, while the diverse applications are discussed in context throughout. PMID:24599822

Kostovski, Gorgi; Stoddart, Paul R; Mitchell, Arnan

2014-06-18

318

Fiber-optic strain gauge with attached ends and unattached microbend section  

Science.gov (United States)

A strain gauge is made of an optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. The permanent microbends cause a reduction in the fiber's optical transmission, but, when the gauge is attached to a substrate that is subsequently strained, the amplitude of the deformations will diminish and the optical transmission through the fiber will increase. An apparatus and process for manufacturing these microbends into the optical fiber through a heat-set process is employed; this apparatus and process includes a testing and calibration system.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

319

Analytical Expression for Measurement of Intrinsic Coupling Loss in Multistep Index Optical Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to obtain an analytical expression for intrinsic coupling losses in multistep index (MSI) fibers. For this purpose, a uniform power distribution is assumed. In order to validate the theoretical expression, the obtained results were compared with computer simulations using the ray-tracing method as well as with results obtained using existing models for step index (SI) and clad power-law profile graded index (GI) fibers. This analytical expression will provide fiber manufacturers with a very valuable tool for the assessment of fiber quality in terms of waveguide tolerances.

Aldabaldetreku, G.; Durana, G.; Zubia, J.; Arrue, J.

2006-03-01

320

Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Manufacturing Simulation For Industrial Projects  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufacturing simulation is a major component of the technology program at this university, and has provided opportunities for numerous industrial projects. This software application is being used extensively by many major corporations to model, analyze, and optimize complex manufacturing operations, including Boeing, Lockheed-Martin, Daimler-Chrysler and Toyota.Companies are utilizing these advanced 3D digital manufacturing tools as a component of their product life-cycle management to optimize and continuously improve the manufacturing processes. In many cases simulations are mandatory prior to implementation of any significant new operation, project or process. Manufacturing technologists and engineers need to be familiar with these modern tools and their applications, and to understand when and how to effectively utilize them. At our university these applications are being taught under the title of virtual simulation (VS). This paper explains how VS has been integrated into our curriculum, and has been used to establish effective partnerships with major manufacturing companies

Nutter, Paul

2009-07-28

322

Grafting onto polyformaldehyde fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

e chemical method was used during the grafting reaction. The AA- and AN-grafted PF fibers could be dyed in intense deep shades with cationic dyes. Similarly, AM-grafted substrates gave bright deep shades with acid dyes. Infrared studies, used to analyze the grafted PF fibers, indicated the presence of --COOH, --CN, and --NH2 groups introduced in the fiber structure as a result of grafting with AA, AN, and AM. 2 tables, 14 figures

323

Fiber composite flywheel rim  

Science.gov (United States)

A flywheel 2 comprising a hub 4 having at least one radially projecting disc 6, an annular rim 14 secured to said disc and providing a surface circumferential to said hub, a first plurality of resin-impregnated fibers 22 wound about said rim congruent to said surface, and a shell 26 enclosing said first plurality of fibers and formed by a second plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim tangentially to said surface.

Davis, Donald E. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Ingham, Kenneth T. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1987-01-01

324

Green manufacturing processes and systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book provides the recent advances on green manufacturing processes and systems for modern industry. Chapter 1 provides information on sustainable manufacturing through environmentally-friendly machining. Chapter 2 is dedicated to environmentally-friendly machining: vegetable based cutting fluids. Chapter 3 describes environmental-friendly joining of tubes. Chapter 4 contains information on concepts, methods and strategies for zero-waste in manufacturing. Finally, chapter 5 is dedicated to the application of hybrid MCDM approach for selecting the best tyre recycling process.

Davim, J. Paulo (ed.) [Aveiro Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Universitario de Santiago

2013-02-01

325

A manufacturing cell controller architecture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Worldwide competition among enterprises has lead to new needs in the area of manufacturing to answer for price, quality and delivery time. The improvement of productivity and flexibility in manufacturing systems by the introduction of new concepts and technologies, and by the appropriate integration of the different resources, may constitute a key factor for the solution towards the success. This paper describes the specification and implementation of a Manufacturing Cell Controller integrate...

Quintas, Anto?nio; Leita?o, Paulo

1997-01-01

326

Manufacturing mobility in global operations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The globalization trend inevitably affects the organization of manufacturing by enterprises. It offers opportunities to examine manufacturing from a global perspective and consequently to produce where it is most appropriate. However, globalization has also led to an increase in competitive pressures, as companies have to look wider for opportunities to increase their competitive advantages. One source of competitive advantage arises from manufacturing mobility, which is the ti...

Steenhuis, Harm-jan; Bruijn, Erik J.

2002-01-01

327

Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

1994-12-01

328

Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past decade, natural-fiber composites with thermoplastic and thermoset matrices have been embraced by European car manufacturers and suppliers for door panels, seat backs, headliners, package trays, dashboards, and interior parts. Natural fibers such as kenaf, hemp, flax, jute, and sisal offer such benefits as reductions in weight, cost, and CO2, less reliance on foreign oil sources, and recyclability. However, several major technical considerations must be addressed before the engineering, scientific, and commercial communities gain the confidence to enable wide-scale acceptance, particularly in exterior parts where a Class A surface finish is required. Challenges include the homogenization of the fiber's properties and a full understanding of the degree of polymerization and crystallization, adhesion between the fiber and matrix, moisture repellence, and flame-retardant properties, to name but a few.

Holbery, James; Houston, Dan

2006-11-01

329

Poled fiber devices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The topic of this thesis is the development of devices for telecom applications based on poled optical fibers. The focus is on a specific function, optical switching/modulation. Some of the most important results are summarized below. Optical switching at telecom wavelengths (1.55 ?m) is demonstrated in an all-fiber switch based on a fiber with internal electrodes. The fiber is made electro-optically active with a thermal poling process in which a strong electric field is recorded in the gla...

Myre?n, Niklas

2005-01-01

330

RANKING OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEM CRITERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A high-quality manufacturing system should be capable to meet the company goals. Moreover, it is essential for any organization that its manufacturing system should be aligned with company’s strategy. There is always a potential for improvement in components of manufacturing systems but it is also essential to identify theparticular areas of the components that need improvement. In this paper, we have discussed the most appropriate criterion for good manufacturing systems with the help of a survey that indentified the importance of seven different criteria according to the experts experience and we ranked them accordingly.

SHARFUDDIN AHMED KHAN

2012-06-01

331

Fiber-diffraction Interferometer using Coherent Fiber Optic Taper  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a fiber-diffraction interferometer using a coherent fiber optic taper for optical testing in an uncontrolled environment. We use a coherent fiber optic taper and a single-mode fiber having thermally-expanded core. Part of the measurement wave coming from a test target is condensed through a fiber optic taper and spatially filtered from a single-mode fiber to be reference wave. Vibration of the cavity between the target and the interferometer probe is common to bot...

Kihm, Hagyong; Lee, Yun-woo

2010-01-01

332

Durable fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to produce thin precast elements, a self-compacting concrete was prepared. When manufacturing these elements, homogenously dispersed steel fibers instead of ordinary steel-reinforcing mesh were added to the concrete mixture at a dosage of 10% by mass of cement. An adequate concrete strength class was achieved with a water to cement ratio of 0.40. Compression and flexure tests were carried out to assess the safety of these thin concrete elements. Moreover, serviceability aspects were taken into consideration. Firstly, drying shrinkage tests were carried out in order to evaluate the contribution of steel fibers in counteracting the high concrete strains due to a low aggregate-cement ratio. Secondly, the resistance to freezing and thawing cycles was investigated on concrete specimens in some cases superficially treated with a hydrophobic agent. Lastly, both carbonation and chloride penetration tests were carried out to assess durability behavior of this concrete mixture

333

Access Control for Manufacturing Process in Networked Manufacturing Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The deficiencies of current access control techniques in solving the problems of manufacturing process access conflict in networked manufacturing environment were analyzed. An information model of manufacturing process was con-structed, and a case XML Schema of manufacturing task model was given. Based on the characteristic analysis of the access control for the information model, an improved access control model of manufacturing process was constructed, and the access control model based on manufacture tasks, roles and time limits and the relationships among the ele-ments were defined. The implementation mechanisms for access control model were analyzed, in which the access case matching strategy based on manufacture tasks and time limits, the authorization assignment mechanism based on manufacture tasks, roles, correlation degrees and time limits, XML based access control for transaction security and integrity were included. And the two-level detection architecture of transaction conflict was designed to find the con-flicts both in application and in the database. Finally the prototype system was developed based on these principles. Feasibility and effectiveness of the method were verified by an enterprise application.

Ke Zhou

2009-06-01

334

Natural Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Composites as Engineered Structural Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this work was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP)'s ability to act as a structural material. As a chemical treatment, aligned kenaf fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide (alkalization) in different concentrations and durations and then manufactured into kenaf fiber / vinyl ester composite plates. Single fiber tensile properties and composite flexural properties, both in dry and saturated environments, were assessed. Based on ASTM standard testing, a comparison of flexural, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical properties was also made between an untreated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a chemically treated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a glass fiber reinforced composite, and oriented strand board (OSB). The mechanical properties were evaluated for dry samples, samples immersed in water for 50 hours, and samples immersed in water until saturation (~2700 hours). Since NFRPs are more vulnerable to environmental effects than synthetic fiber composites, a series of weathering and environmental tests were conducted on the kenaf fiber composites. The environmental conditions studied include real-time outdoor weathering, elevated temperatures, immersion in different pH solutions, and UV exposure. In all of these tests, degradation was found to be more pronounced in the NFRPs than in the glass FRPs; however, in nearly every case the degradation was less than 50% of the flexural strength or stiffness. Using a method of overlapping and meshing discontinuous fiber ends, large mats of fiber bundles were manufactured into composite facesheets for structural insulated panels (SIPs). The polyisocyanurate foam cores proved to be poorly matched to the strength and stiffness of the NFRP facesheets, leading to premature core shear or delamination failures in both flexure and compressive testing. The NFRPs were found to match well with the theoretical stiffness prediction methods of classical lamination theory, finite element method, and Castigliano's method in unidirectional tension and compression, but are less accurate for the more bond-dependent flexural and shear properties. With the acknowledged NFRP matrix bonding issues, the over-prediction of these theoretical models indicates that the flexural stiffness of the kenaf composite may be increased by up to 40% if a better bond between the fiber and matrix can be obtained. The sustainability of NFRPs was examined from two perspectives: environmental and socioeconomic. While the kenaf fibers themselves possess excellent sustainability characteristics, costing less while possessing a lesser environmental impact than the glass fibers, the vinyl ester resin used in the composites is environmentally hazardous and inflated the cost and embodied energy of the composite SIPs. Consistent throughout all the designs was a correlation between the respective costs of the raw materials and the respective environmental impacts. The socioeconomic study looked at the sustainability of natural fiber reinforced composite materials as housing materials in developing countries. A literature study on the country of Bangladesh, where the fibers in this study were grown, showed that the jute and kenaf market would benefit from the introduction of a value-added product like natural fiber composites. The high rate of homeless and inadequately housed in Bangladesh, as well as in the US and throughout the rest of the world, could be somewhat alleviated if a new, affordable, and durable material were introduced. While this study found that natural fiber composites possess sufficient mechanical properties to be adopted as primary structural members, the two major remaining hurdles needing to be overcome before natural fiber composites can be adopted as housing materials are the cost and sustainability of the resin system and the moisture resistance/durability of the fibers. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Dittenber, David B.

335

Bragg Grating Based Sensors in Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers: Accelerometers and Microphones  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With the growing interest towards fiber Bragg grating sensors and the growing ability in manufacturing polymer optical fibers, the development of polymer fiber Bragg sensors has catched the attention of industries with the goal of developing high performance sensors. This thesis presents the development of fiber sensors based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings. The whole process from the preform to the device is discussed and reported. A presentation on the fiber drawing technique used is given. Issues encountered when working with polymer fibers and solutions concerning fiber cleaving and gluing of polymer to silica fibers are discussed. The realization of gratings in polymer fibers is shown with two different techniques: the UV phase mask technique and the direct writing technique reported here for the first time for polymer fibers. Realization of gratings in PMMA step index fibers and in microstructured fibers made of PMMA and TOPAS is reported. The gratings have been written at both 1550 nm, to take advantage of components made for telecommunications, and 850 nm, to exploit the lower loss of polymers and the fast acquisition electronics at this wavelength. A technique for writing multiplexed gratings is shown and temperature compensation of strain sensors, by using two adjacent gratings, is demonstrated. Humidity insensitivity in a strain sensor based on a TOPAS fiber is also shown. In order to investigate the possibility of using viscoelastic materials, such as polymers, in dynamic sensors, dynamic mechanical characterization of polymer fibers was made and it is presented. The investigated and produced fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured polymer optical bers were used to produce optical accelerometers. The accelerometers and their characterization are reported. Finally the realization of an optical microphone based on polymer ber Bragg gratings is reported.

Stefani, Alessio

2011-01-01

336

Manufacturing strategy issues in selected Indian manufacturing industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents some findings of Indian manufacturing sectors viz. automobile (especially two-wheeler, tractor and general manufacturing industry. Various manufacturing strategy issues such as competitive priorities, improvement activities, and performance measures, have been identified and assessed in Indian context. Sector wise comparison of competitive priorities, improvement activities i.e. advanced manufacturing technology (AMT, integrated information systems (IIS, and advanced management systems (AMS, and performance measure, is provided. Our results showed that most of the Indian companies are still emphasizing on quality. However, automobile sector has set to compete globally with high innovation rate, faster new product development, and continuous improvement. It is also observed that Indian companies are investing more in AMS as compared to IIS and AMT. Manufacturing competence index is also computed for each sector.

Mahender Singh

2013-03-01

337

Melt extraction of gold fibers and precious metal doped fibers and preparation of porous gold fiber structures: Presentation held at the International Gold Conference 2003 - New Industrial Applications of Gold. Vancouver, Canada, September 28-October 1, 2003  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Crucible melt extraction yields short metal fibers with eqivalent diameters as low as 50 µm from almost arbitrary metals and alloys. Highly porous components can be made from such fibers by suitable deposition and sintering methods. This technology is being developed at the Dresden based Department of Powder Metallurgy and Composite Materials of the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials (IFAM) and has been applied to gold alloys and iron-base alloys containing small a...

Andersen, O.; Kostmann, C.; Stephani, G.

2003-01-01

338

Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

... two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and turns to gel during digestion. ... and nutrient absorption from the stomach and intestine. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oat bran, ...

339

Grafting on polyester fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acrylic acid (AA) and acrylonitrile (AN) were used to carry out grafting on polyester (PE) fibers using the techniques of initiation by ?-radiation as well as benzoyl peroxide. Extent of grafting depended upon the time, concentration of the initiator, and the monomer as well as on the irradiation dose. AA grafted fibers were rendered more hydrophilic than AN grafted fibers for equivalent amount of grafts. Considerable improvement in dyeability of the PE fibers was possible through grafting. About 50 percent to 100 percent improvement with disperse dyes was observed in case of PE fibers containing 22.4 percent and 9.0 percent graft of AA and AN, respectively. Intense fast dyeing with direct and basic (cationic) dyes was also possible, and the dye content was proportional to the extent of graft introduced in the fiber. The CN groups were reduced to NH2 groups in the AN graft on the fiber. With the increased amount of AA graft, the maxima in the zeta potential curve shifted toward higher acidic pH as greater amounts of alkali were utilized by the --COOH groups in the graft. In this respect, CN groups were less sensitive due to their lesser polarity as compared to the carboxylic groups. Surface charge density (S.C.D.) studies showed that the effective surface area of the fiber decreased with the increase in the amount of graft. Surface conductivity (S.C.) studies revealed that with increase in the number of polar groups (--COOH) on the surface of the fiber, th (--COOH) on the surface of the fiber, the S.C. increased with the increase in the amount of AA graft. In case of AN grafts, the reduction in effective surface area of the fiber played a more important role than the contribution by the CN groups to surface conductivity. (U.S.)

340

NOVEL USE OF WASTE KERATIN AND COTTON LINTER FIBERS FOR PROTOTYPE TISSUE PAPERS AND THEIR EVALUATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corporate environmental sustainability calls for sustainable product manufacturing with less creation of waste material or increased reuse of waste materials. One example is the use of keratin fiber from the poultry industry and cotton linter from the textile industry for paper and tissue manufacturing. In this paper, the feasibility of using these waste fibers to make paper was demonstrated in handsheets. The properties of these handsheets were compared to the properties of handsheets made with standard bleached eucalyptus tropical hardwood fibers. A blend of cotton linter and keratin fibers at 80/20 and 60/40 ratios showed a 59% and 73% improvement in sheet bulk, respectively, compared to eucalyptus handsheets. Similarly, air permeability of the cotton / keratin fiber handsheets improved 414% and 336%, respectively, versus the eucalyptus. However, the tensile index of the cotton and keratin fiber blends was lower than the eucalyptus sheets. There was no remarkable difference in water absorbency up to 20% keratin fiber. Above 20% of keratin fibers the water absorbency started to decrease, which is likely attributable to the hydrophobic nature of the protein-based keratin fiber.

Bo Shi

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Applications of nonlinear fiber optics  

CERN Document Server

* The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

Agrawal, Govind P

2008-01-01

342

Fiber-Reinforced Reactive Nano-Epoxy Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

An ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene/ matrix interface based on the fabrication of a reactive nano-epoxy matrix with lower surface energy has been improved. Enhanced mechanical properties versus pure epoxy on a three-point bend test include: strength (25 percent), modulus (20 percent), and toughness (30 percent). Increased thermal properties include higher Tg (glass transition temperature) and stable CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion). Improved processability for manufacturing composites includes faster wetting rates on macro-fiber surfaces, lower viscosity, better resin infusion rates, and improved rheological properties. Improved interfacial adhesion properties with Spectra fibers by pullout tests include initial debonding force of 35 percent, a maximum pullout force of 25 percent, and energy to debond at 65 percent. Improved mechanical properties of Spectra fiber composites (tensile) aging resistance properties include hygrothermal effects. With this innovation, high-performance composites have been created, including carbon fibers/nano-epoxy, glass fibers/nano-epoxy, aramid fibers/ nano-epoxy, and ultra-high-molecularweight polyethylene fiber (UHMWPE).

Zhong, Wei-Hong

2011-01-01

343

Intelligent modelling in manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Modeling of production systems is very important and makes optimization of complicated relation in production system possible. The purpose of this paper is introducing artificial techniques, like Genetic Algorithms in modeling and optimization of job shop scheduling in production environment and in programming of CNC machine tools.Design/methodology/approach: Conventional methods are not suitable for solving such complicated problems. Therefore Artificial Intelligent method was used. We apply Genetic Algorithm method. Genetic Algorithms are computation methods owing their power in particular to autonomous mechanisms in biological evolution, such as selection, “survival of the fittest” (competition, and recombination.Findings: In example solutions are developed for an optimization problem of job shop scheduling by natural selection. Thus no explicit knowledge was required about how to create a good solution: the evolutionary algorithm itself implicitly builds up knowledge about good solutions, and autonomously absorbs knowledge. CNC machining time was significant shorter by using GA method for NC programming.Research limitations/implications: The system was developed for PC and tested in simulation process. It needs to be tested more in detail in the real manufacturing environment.Practical implications: It is suitable for small and medium-sized companies. Human errors are avoid or at lover level. It is important for engineers in job – shops.Originality/value: The present paper is a contribution to more intelligent systems in production environment. It used genetic based methods to solve engineering problem.

J. Balic

2007-09-01

344

Precision manufacturing using LIGA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our objective is the fabrication of small high-precision parts using LIGA, which can be used in a variety of industrial applications. LIGA is a combination of deep x-ray lithography, electroplating, and replication processes that enables the fabrication of microstructures with vertical dimensions several millimeters high, lateral dimensions in the micrometer range, and submicron tolerances. On beamline 10.3.2, at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) has built an end station suitable for LIGA. The ALS is an excellent source of radiation for this application. The CXRO, in close collaboration with Sandia National Laboratory and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has developed the other essential process steps of mask making, resist development, x-ray exposure, and electroplating. This technology provides a powerful tool for mass production and miniaturization of mechanical systems into a dimensional regime not accessible by traditional manufacturing operations. We will present several applications that exploit the characteristics of the LIGA process: the fabrication of magnetic laminations for a high precision stepping motor; miniature octopole lens for advanced e-beam lithography; high-aspect-ratio x-ray collimating grids for astronomy; and microscopic tumblers for nuclear security. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

345

Manufacturing methods for canisters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study is focused upon the manufacturing of a large copper canister meant for encapsulation of nuclear waste. Tube making processes for high and low quantity production are reviewed as a background to the problem. 'Three-roll forming' is considered to be a possible method for forming the tube (longitudinal weld) of the canister. The strip material for the bending operation is produced by hot rolling. A rolling schedule is presented. The requirements of a fine grained microstructure of the copper material, free from voids is taken into serious account. The schedule is scrutinized with respect to roll contact pressures, force requirements and stress states in the centre of the workpiece, all of them gradually changing from one pass to another. 'Non-bite' rolling, is described as a method for improving the stress states. As an alternative way for making the tube, 'ring-forging' and 'ring-rolling' are discussed. The idea is to build the long tube by means of a series of rings which are joint by welding (circumferential welds). 'Impact extrusion', as a method for forming the bottom of the canister is analyzed by means of a commercial FEM-program. 9 refs, 32 figs

346

Product Development in Agile Manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the rapidly intensifying market competition, shortening product lifecycles and increased customer demands, industrialists worldwide are developing newer production methodologies and business strategies to remain in competition. Lean and agile are the business strategies gaining preference these days. Normally, these strategies concentrate on various activities occurring inside and outside of the enterprise. Up gradation from traditional manufacturing to agile manufacturing is generally a...

R V Mahajan, P. R. Bodade

2013-01-01

347

40 CFR 414.30 - Applicability; description of the other fibers subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...66 Fibers Nylon 66 Monofilament *Polyamide Fibers (Quiana) *Polyaramid (Kevlar) Resin-Fibers *Polyaramid (Nomex) Resin-Fibers *Polyester Fibers *Polyethylene Fibers *Polypropylene Fibers *Polyurethane Fibers...

2010-07-01

348

Ion-exchange hollow fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

An ion-exchange hollow fiber is prepared by introducing into the wall of the fiber polymerizable liquid monomers, and polymerizing the monomers therein to form solid, insoluble, cross-linked, ion-exchange resin particles which embed in the wall of the fiber. Excess particles blocking the central passage or bore of the fiber are removed by forcing liquid through the fiber. The fibers have high ion-exchange capacity, a practical wall permeability and good mechanical strength even with very thin wall dimensions. Experimental investigation of bundles of ion-exchange hollow fibers attached to a header assembly have shown the fiber to be very efficient in removing counterions from solution.

Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Klein, Elias (Inventor)

1980-01-01

349

Low dielectric polyimide fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

A high temperature resistant polyimide fiber that has a dielectric constant of less than 3 is presented. The fiber was prepared by first reacting 2,2-bis (4-(4aminophenoxy)phenyl) hexafluoropropane with 2,2-bis (3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride in an aprotic solvent to form a polyamic acid resin solution. The polyamic acid resin solution is then extruded into a coagulation medium to form polyamic acid fibers. The fibers are thermally cured to their polyimide form. Alternatively, 2,2-bis(4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl) hexafluoropropane is reacted with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride to form a polyamic acid, and the polyamic acid is chemically converted to its polyimide form. The polyimide is then dissolved in a solvent to form a polyimide resin solution, and the polyimide resin is extruded into a coagulation medium to form a polyimide wet gel filament. In order to obtain polyimide fibers of increased tensile properties, the polyimide wet gel filaments are stretched at elevated temperatures. The tensile properties of the fibers were measured and found to be in the range of standard textile fibers. Polyimide fibers obtained by either method will have a dielectric constant similar to that of the corresponding polymer, viz., less than 3 at 10 GHz.

Dorogy, William E., Jr. (inventor); St.clair, Anne K. (inventor)

1994-01-01

350

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... in a kitchen for some good-tasting high fiber foods. - Related Consumer Updates Use Certain Laxatives with Caution A Glimpse at 'Gluten-Free' Food Labeling Eat for a Healthy Heart Nutrition Basics Help Fight Child Obesity Searching ... Fiber - Page Last Updated: 01/08/2014 Note: If ...

351

MEGARA fiber bundles  

Science.gov (United States)

MEGARA (Multi Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is the future optical Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) for the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC). MEGARA has three different fiber bundles, the Large Central Bundle covering 12.5 arcsec x 11.3 arcsec on sky, the Small Compact Bundle, of 8.5 arcsec x 6.7 arcsec, and a Fiber MOS positioner system that is able to place up to 100 mini-bundles with 7 fibers each in MOS configuration within a 3.5 arcmin x 3.5 arcmin FOV. The MEGARA focal plane subsystems are located at one of the GTC Folded Cassegrain focal stations. A field lens provides a telecentric focal plane, where the fibers are located. Micro-lenses arrays couple the telescope beam to the collimator focal ratio at the entrance of the fibers. Finally, the fibers, organized in bundles conducted the light from the focal plane to the pseudo-slit plates at the entrance of the MEGARA spectrograph, which shall be located at one of the Nasmyth platforms. This article also summarizes the prototypes already done and describes the set-up that shall be used to integrate fibers and micro-lens and characterize the fiber bundles.

Pérez-Calpena, A.; García-Vargas, María. Luisa; Arrillaga, X.; Gil de Paz, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Martínez-Delgado, I.; Carrera, M. A.; Gallego, J.; Carrasco, E.; Sánchez-Moreno, F. M.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

2014-07-01

352

Fiber-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fiber-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The fiber-based adsorbent includes polymer fibers with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight over known fibers to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. The polymer fibers include a circular morphology in some embodiments, having a mean diameter of less than 15 microns, optionally less than about 1 micron. In other embodiments, the polymer fibers include a non-circular morphology, optionally defining multiple gear-shaped, winged-shaped or lobe-shaped projections along the length of the polymer fibers. A method for forming the fiber-based adsorbents includes irradiating high surface area polymer fibers, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting the grafted fibers with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. High surface area fiber-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

Janke, Christopher J; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

2014-05-13

353

Investigation of the photosensitivity, temperature sustainability and fluorescence characteristics of several Er-doped photosensitive fibers  

CERN Document Server

Three different types of Er doped photosensitive fibers, germanium/erbium (Ge/Er) fiber, tin/germanium/erbium fiber (Sn/Er) and antimony/germanium/erbium fiber (Sb/Er) have been manufactured and studied for use in optical sensor systems. Their characteristics of photosensitivity, the temperature sustainability of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written into these fibers and the fluorescence emission from the Er dopant were investigated and compared. It has been shown in this work that these fibers all show a satisfactory degree of photosensitivity to enable the fabrication of FBGs and a significant level of fluorescence emission within the 1550 nm band for sensor use. The high temperature sustainability of the FBGs written into these fibers was investigated and seen to be quite significant at temperatures as high as 850 ^{\\circ}C, in particular for the Sn/Er and Sb/Er fibers. A fiber laser using the Sb/Er fiber as the gain medium was demonstrated, giving evidence of the strong fluorescence emission from the Er do...

Shen, Y H; Mandal, J; Sun, T; Grattan, K T V; Wade, S A; Collins, Stephen F; Baxter, Gregory W; Dussardier, Bernard; Monnom, Gérard; 10.1016/j.optcom.2004.04.004

2011-01-01

354

Developing engineering model Cobra fiber positioners for the Subaru Telescope's prime focus spectrometer  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cobra fiber positioner is being developed by the California Institute of Technology (CIT) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) instrument that will be installed at the Subaru Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. PFS is a fiber fed multi-object spectrometer that uses an array of Cobra fiber positioners to rapidly reconfigure 2394 optical fibers at the prime focus of the Subaru Telescope that are capable of positioning a fiber to within 5?m of a specified target location. A single Cobra fiber positioner measures 7.7mm in diameter and is 115mm tall. The Cobra fiber positioner uses two piezo-electric rotary motors to move a fiber optic anywhere in a 9.5mm diameter patrol area. In preparation for full-scale production of 2550 Cobra positioners an Engineering Model (EM) version was developed, built and tested to validate the design, reduce manufacturing costs, and improve system reliability. The EM leveraged the previously developed prototype versions of the Cobra fiber positioner. The requirements, design, assembly techniques, development testing, design qualification and performance evaluation of EM Cobra fiber positioners are described here. Also discussed is the use of the EM build and test campaign to validate the plans for full-scale production of 2550 Cobra fiber positioners scheduled to begin in late-2014.

Fisher, Charles; Morantz, Chaz; Braun, David; Seiffert, Michael; Aghazarian, Hrand; Partos, Eamon; King, Matthew; Hovland, Larry E.; Schwochert, Mark; Kaluzny, Joel; Capocasale, Christopher; Houck, Andrew; Gross, Johannes; Reiley, Daniel; Mao, Peter; Riddle, Reed; Bui, Khanh; Henderson, David; Haran, Todd; Culhane, Robert; Piazza, Daniele; Walkama, Eric

2014-07-01

355

Electrooptic polymer voltage sensor and method of manufacture thereof  

Science.gov (United States)

An optical voltage sensor utilizing an electrooptic polymer is disclosed for application to electric power distribution systems. The sensor, which can be manufactured at low cost in accordance with a disclosed method, measures voltages across a greater range than prior art sensors. The electrooptic polymer, which replaces the optical crystal used in prior art sensors, is sandwiched directly between two high voltage electrodes. Voltage is measured by fiber optical means, and no voltage division is required. The sample of electrooptic polymer is fabricated in a special mold and later mounted in a sensor housing. Alternatively, mold and sensor housing may be identical. The sensor housing is made out of a machinable polymeric material and is equipped with two opposing optical windows. The optical windows are mounted in the bottom of machined holes in the wall of the mold. These holes provide for mounting of the polarizing optical components and for mounting of the fiber optic connectors. One connecting fiber is equipped with a light emitting diode as a light source. Another connecting fiber is equipped with a photodiode as a detector.

Gottsche, Allan (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

356

FIBERBOARD MANUFACTURED WITHOUT RESIN USING THE FENTON REACTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resin-free fiberboards were manufactured using industrial fiber from Pinus radiata activated by an oxidative treatment using the Fenton reaction (H(20(2/ Fe(II. A multivariate analysis was used to study the effect of fiber moisture content (MC, press temperature (T, and the H(20(2/Fe(II ratio on the board internal bond strength (IB. Using response surface methodology, a set of máximum IB conditions was obtained. Validation of these conditions which included 25% MC, 170°C press temperature and a H(20(2/Fe(II relation of 25 produced an optimal board with an IB strength of 0.888 MPa. Without the addition of sizing agents or other additives, the dimensional stability properties were 16% of thickness swell and 40% of the water absorption of control boards.

JUAN RIQUELME-VALDÉS

2008-12-01

357

FIBERBOARD MANUFACTURED WITHOUT RESIN USING THE FENTON REACTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Resin-free fiberboards were manufactured using industrial fiber from Pinus radiata activated by an oxidative treatment using the Fenton reaction (H(2)0(2)/ Fe(II)). A multivariate analysis was used to study the effect of fiber moisture content (MC), press temperature (T), and the H(2)0(2)/Fe(II) rat [...] io on the board internal bond strength (IB). Using response surface methodology, a set of máximum IB conditions was obtained. Validation of these conditions which included 25% MC, 170°C press temperature and a H(2)0(2)/Fe(II) relation of 25 produced an optimal board with an IB strength of 0.888 MPa. Without the addition of sizing agents or other additives, the dimensional stability properties were 16% of thickness swell and 40% of the water absorption of control boards.

JUAN, RIQUELME-VALDÉS; ESTEBAN, RAMÍREZ; DAVID, CONTRERAS; JUANITA, FREER; JAIME, RODRÍGUEZ.

1722-17-01

358

FIBERBOARD MANUFACTURED WITHOUT RESIN USING THE FENTON REACTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Resin-free fiberboards were manufactured using industrial fiber from Pinus radiata activated by an oxidative treatment using the Fenton reaction (H(2)0(2)/ Fe(II)). A multivariate analysis was used to study the effect of fiber moisture content (MC), press temperature (T), and the H(2)0(2)/Fe(II) rat [...] io on the board internal bond strength (IB). Using response surface methodology, a set of máximum IB conditions was obtained. Validation of these conditions which included 25% MC, 170°C press temperature and a H(2)0(2)/Fe(II) relation of 25 produced an optimal board with an IB strength of 0.888 MPa. Without the addition of sizing agents or other additives, the dimensional stability properties were 16% of thickness swell and 40% of the water absorption of control boards.

JUAN, RIQUELME-VALDÉS; ESTEBAN, RAMÍREZ; DAVID, CONTRERAS; JUANITA, FREER; JAIME, RODRÍGUEZ.

359

77 FR 27029 - The Manufacturing Council: Teleconference Meeting of the Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Teleconference Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade...open teleconference meeting of the Manufacturing Council (Council). The agenda...

2012-05-08

360

75 FR 60411 - The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration...SUMMARY: The Manufacturing Council will hold a meeting to...

2010-09-30

 
 
 
 
361

75 FR 10216 - The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration...SUMMARY: The Manufacturing Council will hold a meeting to...

2010-03-05

362

75 FR 80039 - The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration...SUMMARY: The Manufacturing Council will hold a meeting to...

2010-12-21

363

76 FR 57714 - The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration...SUMMARY: The Manufacturing Council will hold a meeting to hear...

2011-09-16

364

75 FR 36421 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Postapproval Manufacturing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Postapproval Manufacturing Changes Reportable in Annual Reports...industry entitled ``CMC Postapproval Manufacturing Changes Reportable in Annual...

2010-06-25

365

EDF's surveillance on fuel manufacturing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

efinition which takes into account as far as possible the critical characteristics. - The demonstration of the efficiency, in terms of results, of complex manufacturing or controls steps (equipment qualification) included in the global manufacturing process (efficiency which depends on parameters that need to be defined and determined). - The definition of manufacturing processes (manufacturing quality plan) and the demonstration of their efficiency (qualification of manufacturing processes) to produce components that meet safety requirements (efficiency which depends on parameters that need to be defined and determined). - The relevancy of the justifications of usability of non-conforming products, taking into account the fact that any manufacturing process can normally produce some from time to time. - The continuous improvement of the manufacturing processes which are in fact not always as robust as expected to segregate non-conforming products (abnormal manufacturing event). The first three aspects contribute to obtain in a complementary way components that meet all the safety requirements given the fact that those requirements sometimes cannot be guaranteed for economic reasons by means of direct controls but only indirectly by the fulfillment of specific parameters. EDF surveys consequently: - The definition of the requirements in the technical file. - The initial qualifications of complex equipment, and subsequently during the manufacturing, the compliance with the parameters that guarantee the validity of the results of this equipment. - The initial qualification of the manufacturing processes, and subsequently during the manufacturing, the compliance within the parameters that need to be applied in order for the components to meet the safety requirements. The fourth aspect strongly involves EDF, given its responsibility as operator. The justification of usability when they have an impact on safety cannot be handled unilaterally by a supplier. - EDF surveys that the justification of usability of non-conform products are submitted for validation when the non-conformity has an impact on safety. - EDF verifies the relevancy of those justifications. The last aspect deals with the feedback needed for the continuous improvement of the robustness of the manufacturing processes. EDF asks its suppliers to declare the abnormal manufacturing events detected at the plants given the fact that non-conform products may have been supplied without knowing. According to this: - EDF discuss and validate the corrective actions proposed by suppliers to secure their manufacturing processes when abnormal events have an impact on critical characteristics of the fuel. - EDF surveys (sampling) the declaration of the abnormal manufacturing event by checking the non-conformities in the plants. - EDF controls (systematic) the implementation of the corrective actions in the manufacturing plants. One can observe that some surveillance activities consist in documentary work and some others consist in verification in the field. To take this into account, EDF did organize its surveillance as follows: - The field surveillance is conducted by a team of inspectors dedicated to fuel manufacturing. The inspectors are mobile in France and abroad. Their activity is to verify that the requirements are implemented in reality. - The documentary surveillance is conducted by a small team of engineers specializing in manufacturing technology, non-destructive tests and materials related to fuel. The engineering team also defines the surveillance plans and the guides applied in the plants by the inspectors. This team is needed because of the extent and the complexity of the technologies involved in the manufacturing of fuel. I would be difficult to rely on specialized inspectors to cover all activities. EDF' surveillance organization has to be pragmatic and responsive because of industrial realities but also relevant in terms of analysis to fulfill its mission. The interactions are needed between the two type of job and can be a source of efficiency for the sta

366

Manufacturability considerations for DSA  

Science.gov (United States)

Implementation of Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) as a viable lithographic technology for high volume manufacturing will require significant efforts to co-optimize the DSA process options and constraints with existing work flows. These work flows include established etch stacks, integration schemes, and design layout principles. The two foremost patterning schemes for DSA, chemoepitaxy and graphoepitaxy, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Chemoepitaxy is well suited for regular repeating patterns, but has challenges when non-periodic design elements are required. As the line-space polystyrene-block-polymethylmethacrylate chemoepitaxy DSA processes mature, considerable progress has been made on reducing the density of topological (dislocation and disclination) defects but little is known about the existence of 3D buried defects and their subsequent pattern transfer to underlayers. In this paper, we highlight the emergence of a specific type of buried bridging defect within our two 28 nm pitch DSA flows and summarize our efforts to characterize and eliminate the buried defects using process, materials, and plasma-etch optimization. We also discuss how the optimization and removal of the buried defects impacts both the process window and pitch multiplication, facilitates measurement of the pattern roughness rectification, and demonstrate hard-mask open within a back-end-of-line integration flow. Finally, since graphoepitaxy has intrinsic benefits in terms of design flexibility when compared to chemoepitaxy, we highlight our initial investigations on implementing high-chi block copolymer patterning using multiple graphoepitaxy flows to realize sub-20 nm pitch line-space patterns and discuss the benefits of using high-chi block copolymers for roughness reduction.

Farrell, Richard A.; Hosler, Erik R.; Schmid, Gerard M.; Xu, Ji; Preil, Moshe E.; Rastogi, Vinayak; Mohanty, Nihar; Kumar, Kaushik; Cicoria, Michael J.; Hetzer, David R.; DeVilliers, Anton

2014-03-01

367

Treatment and characterization of fiber licuri for synthesis of polymeric composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural fibers are materials of increasing use of polymeric composites, due to several advantageous properties compared to synthetic fibers: low cost, density, toxicity and excellent biodegradability. Licuri fiber is widely used in the manufacture of handicrafts, with a wide range of possible applications. Before this, characterize the properties of the fiber is of great interest economic, technological and social. This study characterized the fibers in nature, which were washed with water, treated with 5% H2SO4 or 5% NaOH. Techniques were used FTIR, DSC, TGA and XRD, as well as analysis of surface reactivity of the acid and base. All treatments altered the surface of licuri, exposing reactive sites. It was observed that sodium hydroxide licuri changed significantly, as expected. These results are very significant for the recovery of a natural fiber (licuri), abundant in poor regions of the country. (author)

368

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN. In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo

2013-02-01

369

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACFs are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF which receive an additional activation process and can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN. In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo

2012-01-01

370

Influence of thermal treatment on porosity formation on carbon fiber from textile PAN  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) are known as an excellent adsorbent material due to their particular characteristics such as their high speed adsorption rate and for being easy to handle. The ACFs are commercially manufactured from carbon fibers (CF) which receive an additional activation process and [...] can be produced from celluloses, phenolic resin, pitch and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the present work, the oxidized 5.0 dtex textile PAN fiber was carbonized to CFs formation. During the carbonization process in different heating rates, the topographic features changes on fibers were monitored in order to determine the best carbonization condition for CFs production to be used as raw material for ACF. Different heating rates and maximum temperature of treatment were tested and the results indicated that it is possible to produce poorly activated carbon fiber, directly from oxidized textile PAN fiber, by one single step production process.

Jossano Saldanha, Marcuzzo; Choyu, Otani; Heitor Aguiar, Polidoro; Satika, Otani.

2013-02-01

371

Longitudinally Graded Optical Fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Described herein, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, are optical fibers possessing significant compositional gradations along their length due to longitudinal control of the core glass composition. More specifically, MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers were fabricated that exhibited a gradient of up to about 0.55 weight percent GeO2 per meter. These gradients are about 1900 times greater than previously reported for fibers possessing longitudinal changes in composition. The refractive index difference is shown to change by about 0.001, representing a numerical aperture change of about 10%, over a fiber length of less than 20 m. The lowest attenuation measured from the present longitudinally-graded fiber (LGF) was 82 dB/km at a wavelength of 1550 nm, though this is shown to result from extrinsic process-induced factors and could be reduced with further optimization. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectrum from the LGF exhibited a 4.4 dB increase in the spectral width, and thus reduction in Brillouin gain, relative to a standard commercial single mode fiber, over a fiber length of only 17 m. Fibers with longitudinally uniform (i.e., not gradient) refractive index profiles but differing chemical compositions among various core layers were also fabricated to determine acoustic effects of the core slug method. The refractive index of the resulting preform varies by about +/- 0.00013 from the average. Upon core drilling, it was found that the core slugs had been drilled off-center from the parent preform, resulting in semi-circular core cross sections that were unable to guide light. As a result, optical analysis could not be conducted. Chemical composition data was obtained, however, and is described herein. A third fiber produced was actively doped with ytterbium (Yb3 ) and fabricated similarly to the previous fibers. The preforms were doped via the solution doping method with a solution of 0.015 M Yb 3 derived from ytterbium chloride hexahydrate and 0.30 M Al 3 derived from aluminum chloride hexahydrate. The doped preform was engineered to have two core layers of differing chemical composition, resulting in both a gradient refractive index profile as well as a gradient acoustic profile. While exhibiting higher loss than the original LGF, the Yb 3-doped fiber showed slightly better SBS suppression with preliminary calculations showing at least 6 dB reduction in Brillouin gain. Lastly, reported here is a straight-forward and flexible method to fabricate silica optical fibers of circular cladding cross-section and rectilinear cores whose aspect ratio and refractive index profile changes with position along the fiber in a deterministic way. Specifically, a modification to the process developed to produce longitudinally-graded optical fibers, was employed. Herein reported are MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers with rectangular cores where the aspect ratio changes by nearly 200 % and the average refractive index changed by about 5 %. Fiber losses were measured to be about 50 dB/km. Such rectangular core fibers are useful for a variety of telecommunication and biomedical applications and the dimensional and optical chirp provides a deterministic way to control further the modal properties of the fiber. Possible applications of longitudinally graded optical fibers and future improvements are also discussed. The methods employed are very straight-forward and technically simple, providing for a wide variety of longitudinal refractive index and acoustic velocity profiles, as well as core shapes, that could be especially valuable for SBS suppression in high energy laser systems. Next generation analogs, with longitudinally-graded compositional profiles that are very reasonable to fabricate, are shown computationally to be more effective at suppressing SBS than present alternatives, such as externally-applied temperature or strain gradients.

Evert, Alexander George

372

Time for a forum on terms used for textile fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The advances in manufactured fibers and textiles have garnered interest and excitement of textile artists and consumers alike for a myriad of reasons, including health, environmental, and fashion. The chemical and molecular nature of these advances, however leads to confusion and misunderstanding of the new fibers in the materials. This is exacerbated by the current climate of distrust for chemical words and desire for "green" products and the unregulated (misinformation and marketing on the web. Textile artists, consumers, and the clothing and household textile industry need clear names and labels to identify the materials they are using.

Zawistoski, P. S.

2012-11-01

373

SERIAL SECTIONS THROUGH A CONTINUOUS FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The microstructure of a unidirectional glass-fiber composite material is described seeking especially for the influence of the stitching perpendicular to the reinforcement. Serial cuts are performed through the composite and the microstructure is quantified using global parameters and linear morphological analysis. A key result is that the stitching induces variations in fibers spacing within the yarns and in the matrix volume between the yarns. This can affect noticeably the flow of the resin during the manufacturing process and also the mechanical properties of the composite.

Laurent Bizet

2011-05-01

374

Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

King, Kenneth L.; Dean, Rashe A.; Akbar, Shahzad; Kouzes, Richard T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2010-08-10

375

ICPOES and SEM-EDX analysis of metal fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Composition of metal fiber is important because it influences mechanical, chemical and physical properties of materials. Metal fibers are present in clothing but also in different composites used for manufacturing concrete, strings, airplanes, space crafts and other items. In this work results of direct analysis of solid samples by scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive x-ray analysis system (SEM-EDX) and results obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICPOES) after solid samples dissolution in acidic solutions are presented. ICPOES offered lower LOD and better precision, while SEM-EDX provided important information about the sample layer compositions. (author)

376

Fiber-optical systems in physical experiment technique. Part 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of fiber-optic systems (FOS) application in modern physical experiment automatization systems mainly oriented to functional monitoring electrophysical installations (EPI), beams, plasma, targets diagnostics as well as experiment environment investigation is considering. Questions of the FOS functioning in high and low pressure; high and cryogenic temperature; pulsed, SHF and radiational fields, high potentials are discussed. Attention is attached to designing, manufacturing and servicing FOS, their metrological support. There are functioning concepts of FOS, and modern component base: fiber and optical cabels, connectors, and couplers, spectral devices, optical sources and photodetectors, transmitter and receiver devices. 191 refs.; 19 figs.; 9 tabs

377

Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

378

Characterisation of pulsed Carbon fiber illuminators for FIR instrument calibration  

CERN Document Server

We manufactured pulsed illuminators emitting in the far infrared for the Planck-HFI bolometric instrument ground calibrations. Specific measurements have been conducted on these light sources, based on Carbon fibers, to understand and predict their properties. We present a modelisation of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity and the calorific capacitance of the fibers. A comparison between simulations and bolometer data is given, that shows the coherence of our model. Their small time constants, their stability and their emission spectrum pointing in the submm range make these illuminators a very usefull tool for calibrating FIR instruments.

Henrot-Versillé, S; Couchot, F

2007-01-01

379

Ultrashort pulsed fiber laser welding and sealing of transparent materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, methods of welding and sealing optically transparent materials using an ultrashort pulsed (USP) fiber laser are demonstrated which overcome the limit of small area welding of optical materials. First, the interaction of USP fiber laser radiation inside glass was studied and single line welding results with different laser parameters were investigated. Then multiline scanning was used to obtain successful area bonding. Finally, complete four-edge sealing of fused silica substrates with a USP laser was demonstrated and the hermetic seal was confirmed by water immersion test. This laser microwelding technique can be extended to various applications in the semiconductor industry and precision optic manufacturing. PMID:22614601

Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Liu, Jian

2012-05-20

380

Mechanical integrity of dye-sensitized photovoltaic fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of photovoltaic (PV) devices based on dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2}-coated Ti fibers has opened up exciting possibilities for novel PV textile applications. The cohesion and adhesion of the TiO{sub 2} layer are identified as crucial factors in maintaining PV efficiency during textile manufacture and weaving operations. The present work describes a systematic investigation of the corresponding damage mechanisms and their influence on the overall PV fiber performance during mechanical deformation. The results confirm that with proper control of the tension of the weft and in the warp, high PV efficiency woven textures are feasible using this technology. (author)

Ramier, J.; Plummer, C.J.G.; Leterrier, Y.; Maanson, J.-A.E. [Laboratoire de Technologie des Composites et Polymeres (LTC), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) Station 12, CH 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Eckert, B.; Gaudiana, R. [KONARKA Technologies AG, 116 John Street, Lowell, MA 01852 (United States)

2008-02-15

 
 
 
 
381

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Composites for Propulsion Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a critical review of the processing techniques for fabricating continuous fiber-reinforced CMCs for possible applications at elevated temperatures. Some of the issues affecting durability of the composite materials such as fiber coatings and cracking of the matrix because of shrinkage in PIP-process are also examined. An assessment of the potential inexpensive processes is also provided. Finally three potential routes of manufacturing C/SiC composites using a technology that NC A&T developed for carbon/carbon composites are outlined. Challenges that will be encountered are also listed.

Shivakumar, Kunigal; Argade, Shyam

2003-01-01

382

Developing Gradient Metal Alloys through Radial Deposition Additive Manufacturing  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has dramatically expanded in the last several years, owing to the paradigm shift that the process provides over conventional manufacturing. Although the vast majority of recent work in AM has focused on three-dimensional printing in polymers, AM techniques for fabricating metal alloys have been available for more than a decade. Here, laser deposition (LD) is used to fabricate multifunctional metal alloys that have a strategically graded composition to alter their mechanical and physical properties. Using the technique in combination with rotational deposition enables fabrication of compositional gradients radially from the center of a sample. A roadmap for developing gradient alloys is presented that uses multi-component phase diagrams as maps for composition selection so as to avoid unwanted phases. Practical applications for the new technology are demonstrated in low-coefficient of thermal expansion radially graded metal inserts for carbon-fiber spacecraft panels.

Hofmann, Douglas C.; Roberts, Scott; Otis, Richard; Kolodziejska, Joanna; Dillon, R. Peter; Suh, Jong-Ook; Shapiro, Andrew A.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Borgonia, John-Paul

2014-06-01

383

Developing gradient metal alloys through radial deposition additive manufacturing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has dramatically expanded in the last several years, owing to the paradigm shift that the process provides over conventional manufacturing. Although the vast majority of recent work in AM has focused on three-dimensional printing in polymers, AM techniques for fabricating metal alloys have been available for more than a decade. Here, laser deposition (LD) is used to fabricate multifunctional metal alloys that have a strategically graded composition to alter their mechanical and physical properties. Using the technique in combination with rotational deposition enables fabrication of compositional gradients radially from the center of a sample. A roadmap for developing gradient alloys is presented that uses multi-component phase diagrams as maps for composition selection so as to avoid unwanted phases. Practical applications for the new technology are demonstrated in low-coefficient of thermal expansion radially graded metal inserts for carbon-fiber spacecraft panels. PMID:24942329

Hofmann, Douglas C; Roberts, Scott; Otis, Richard; Kolodziejska, Joanna; Dillon, R Peter; Suh, Jong-ook; Shapiro, Andrew A; Liu, Zi-Kui; Borgonia, John-Paul

2014-01-01

384

Process simulations for manufacturing of thick composites  

Science.gov (United States)

The availability of manufacturing simulations for composites can significantly reduce the costs associated with process development. Simulations provide a tool for evaluating the effect of processing conditions on the quality of parts produced without requiring numerous experiments. This is especially significant in parts that have troublesome features such as large thickness. The development of simulations for thick walled composites has been approached by examining the mechanics of resin flow and fiber deformation during processing, applying these evaluations to develop simulations, and evaluating the simulation with experimental results. A unified analysis is developed to describe the three-dimensional resin flow and fiber preform deformation during processing regardless of the manufacturing process used. It is shown how the generic governing evaluations in the unified analysis can be applied to autoclave molding, compression molding, pultrusion, filament winding, and resin transfer molding. A comparison is provided with earlier models derived individually for these processes. The evaluations described for autoclave curing were used to produce a one-dimensional cure simulation for autoclave curing of thick composites. The simulation consists of an analysis for heat transfer and resin flow in the composite as well as bleeder plies used to absorb resin removed from the part. Experiments were performed in a hot press to approximate curing in an autoclave. Graphite/epoxy laminates of 3 cm and 5 cm thickness were cured while monitoring temperatures at several points inside the laminate and thickness. The simulation predicted temperatures fairly closely, but difficulties were encountered in correlation of thickness results. This simulation was also used to study the effects of prepreg aging on processing of thick composites. An investigation was also performed on filament winding with prepreg tow. Cylinders were wound of approximately 12 mm thickness with pressure gages at the mandrel-composite interface. Cylinders were hoop wound with tensions ranging from 13-34 N. An analytical model was developed to calculate change in stress due to relaxation during winding. Although compressive circumferential stresses occurred throughout each of the cylinders, the magnitude was fairly low.

Kempner, Evan A.

385

Fiber optic spanner  

Science.gov (United States)

Rotation is a fundamental function in nano/biotechnology and is being useful in a host of applications such as pumping of fluid flow in microfluidic channels for transport of micro/nano samples. Further, controlled rotation of single cell or microscopic object is useful for tomographic imaging. Though conventional microscope objective based laser spanners (based on transfer of spin or orbital angular momentum) have been used in the past, they are limited by the short working distance of the microscope objective. Here, we demonstrate development of a fiber optic spanner for rotation of microscopic objects using single-mode fiber optics. Fiber-optic trapping and simultaneous rotation of pin-wheel structure around axis perpendicular to fiber-optic axis was achieved using the fiber optic spanner. By adjusting the laser beam power, rotation speed of the trapped object and thus the microfluidic flow could be controlled. Since this method does not require special optical or structural properties of the sample to be rotated, three-dimensional rotation of a spherical cell could also be controlled. Further, using the fiber optic spanner, array of red blood cells could be assembled and actuated to generate vortex motion. Fiber optical trapping and spinning will enable physical and spectroscopic analysis of microscopic objects in solution and also find potential applications in lab- on-a-chip devices.

Black, Bryan; Mohanty, Samarendra

2011-10-01

386

Fiber optic hydrogen sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

1991-01-01

387

The VIRMOS mask manufacturing tools: (b) Mask manufacturing and handling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe the VIRMOS Mask Manufacturing Unit (MMU) configuration, composed of two units:the Mask Manufacturing Machine (with its Control Unit) and the Mask Handling Unit (inclusive of Control Unit, Storage Cabinets and robot for loading of the Instrument Cabinets). For both VIMOS and NIRMOS instruments, on the basis of orders received by the Mask Preparation Software (see paper (a) in same proceedings), the function of the MMU is to perform an off-line mask cutting and ide...

Conti, G.; Chiappetti, L.; Mattaini, E.; Maccagni, D.; Fevre, O. Le; Saisse, M.; Vettolani, G.

1999-01-01

388

Energy Efficient Manufacturing from Machine Tools to Manufacturing Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Energy efficiency is one of the key drivers for sustainability. Within manufacturing environments, energy efficiency importance has grown, and it is now considered among other decision-making factors such as productivity, cost and flexibility. However, in most cases the energy consumption of the various components of the manufacturing systems, such as machine tools, are considered using average energy consumption models for the needs of discrete event simulation. The paper presents an overvie...

Salonitis, Konstantinos; Ball, Peter D.

2013-01-01

389

Exploring manufacturing solutions for SMEs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This exploratory study provides an overview over current state of manufacturing solutions in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in region of Southern Denmark. Building on manufacturing paradigms, this paper reveals relevant aspects for the development and implementation of improving SMEs’ automation processes. The paper presents an embedded case study based on 10 low- and medium-tech Danish companies. Based on the development of production paradigms and the presented study, this research helps to understand key determinants and processes for SMEs’ exploration of future directions of manufacturing solutions, which are required to increase their competitiveness and assure sustainable growth.

Radziwon, Agnieszka; Blichfeldt, Henrik

390

Molded optics design and manufacture  

CERN Document Server

While several available texts discuss molded plastic optics, none provide information on all classes of molded optics. Filling this gap, Molded Optics: Design and Manufacture presents detailed descriptions of molded plastic, glass, and infrared optics. Since an understanding of the manufacturing process is necessary to develop cost-effective, producible designs, the book extensively covers various manufacturing methods, design guidelines, trade-offs, best practices, and testing of critical parameters. It also discusses topics that often arise when designing systems with molded optics, such as

Schaub, Michael

2007-01-01

391

Support given by the manufacturer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As regards German NPP, the purchaser has the control function and the manufacturer the role of a general planner binding together all supply lots. Therefore the manufacturer possesses a very broad and thorough detailed knowledge of the plant functioning and becomes a life-long important partner of the plant. Such partnership requires from the manufacturer to provide continuously available and economical services to the plant; he must work purposefully in a quality-conscious and innovative way. This is his vision, and he will comply with it over the whole service life of the plant. The importance of services is illustrated by a large number of examples. (orig./DG)

392

Kinetics of stress fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

Stress fibers are contractile cytoskeletal structures, tensile actomyosin bundles which allow sensing and production of force, provide cells with adjustable rigidity and participate in various processes such as wound healing. The stress fiber is possibly the best characterized and most accessible multiprotein cellular contractile machine. Here we develop a quantitative model of the structure and relaxation kinetics of stress fibers. The principal experimentally known features are incorporated. The fiber has a periodic sarcomeric structure similar to muscle fibers with myosin motor proteins exerting contractile force by pulling on actin filaments. In addition the fiber contains the giant spring-like protein titin. Actin is continuously renewed by exchange with the cytosol leading to a turnover time of several minutes. In order that steady state be possible, turnover must be regulated. Our model invokes simple turnover and regulation mechanisms: actin association and dissociation occur at filament ends, while actin filament overlap above a certain threshold in the myosin-containing regions augments depolymerization rates. We use the model to study stress fiber relaxation kinetics after stimulation, as observed in a recent experimental study where some fiber regions were contractile and others expansive. We find that two distinct episodes ensue after stimulation: the turnover overlap system relaxes rapidly in seconds, followed by the slow relaxation of sarcomere lengths in minutes. For parameter values as they have been characterized experimentally, we find the long time relaxation of sarcomere length is set by the rate at which actin filaments can grow or shrink in response to the forces exerted by the elastic and contractile elements. Consequently, the stress fiber relaxation time scales inversely with both titin spring constant and the intrinsic actin turnover rate. The model's predicted sarcomere velocities and contraction expansion kinetics are in good quantitative agreement with experiment.

Stachowiak, Matthew R.; O'Shaughnessy, Ben

2008-02-01

393

Kinetics of stress fibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stress fibers are contractile cytoskeletal structures, tensile actomyosin bundles which allow sensing and production of force, provide cells with adjustable rigidity and participate in various processes such as wound healing. The stress fiber is possibly the best characterized and most accessible multiprotein cellular contractile machine. Here we develop a quantitative model of the structure and relaxation kinetics of stress fibers. The principal experimentally known features are incorporated. The fiber has a periodic sarcomeric structure similar to muscle fibers with myosin motor proteins exerting contractile force by pulling on actin filaments. In addition the fiber contains the giant spring-like protein titin. Actin is continuously renewed by exchange with the cytosol leading to a turnover time of several minutes. In order that steady state be possible, turnover must be regulated. Our model invokes simple turnover and regulation mechanisms: actin association and dissociation occur at filament ends, while actin filament overlap above a certain threshold in the myosin-containing regions augments depolymerization rates. We use the model to study stress fiber relaxation kinetics after stimulation, as observed in a recent experimental study where some fiber regions were contractile and others expansive. We find that two distinct episodes ensue after stimulation: the turnover-overlap system relaxes rapidly in seconds, followed by the slow relaxation of sarcomere lengths in minutes. For parameter values as they have been characterized experimentally, we find the long time relaxation of sarcomere length is set by the rate at which actin filaments can grow or shrink in response to the forces exerted by the elastic and contractile elements. Consequently, the stress fiber relaxation time scales inversely with both titin spring constant and the intrinsic actin turnover rate. The model's predicted sarcomere velocities and contraction-expansion kinetics are in good quantitative agreement with experiment.

Stachowiak, Matthew R; O' Shaughnessy, Ben [Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)], E-mail: bo8@columbia.edu

2008-02-15

394

Kinetics of stress fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stress fibers are contractile cytoskeletal structures, tensile actomyosin bundles which allow sensing and production of force, provide cells with adjustable rigidity and participate in various processes such as wound healing. The stress fiber is possibly the best characterized and most accessible multiprotein cellular contractile machine. Here we develop a quantitative model of the structure and relaxation kinetics of stress fibers. The principal experimentally known features are incorporated. The fiber has a periodic sarcomeric structure similar to muscle fibers with myosin motor proteins exerting contractile force by pulling on actin filaments. In addition the fiber contains the giant spring-like protein titin. Actin is continuously renewed by exchange with the cytosol leading to a turnover time of several minutes. In order that steady state be possible, turnover must be regulated. Our model invokes simple turnover and regulation mechanisms: actin association and dissociation occur at filament ends, while actin filament overlap above a certain threshold in the myosin-containing regions augments depolymerization rates. We use the model to study stress fiber relaxation kinetics after stimulation, as observed in a recent experimental study where some fiber regions were contractile and others expansive. We find that two distinct episodes ensue after stimulation: the turnover-overlap system relaxes rapidly in seconds, followed by the slow relaxation of sarcomere lengths the slow relaxation of sarcomere lengths in minutes. For parameter values as they have been characterized experimentally, we find the long time relaxation of sarcomere length is set by the rate at which actin filaments can grow or shrink in response to the forces exerted by the elastic and contractile elements. Consequently, the stress fiber relaxation time scales inversely with both titin spring constant and the intrinsic actin turnover rate. The model's predicted sarcomere velocities and contraction-expansion kinetics are in good quantitative agreement with experiment

395

Automated fiber pigtailing technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The high cost of optoelectronic (OE) devices is due mainly to the labor-intensive packaging process. Manually pigtailing such devices as single-mode laser diodes and modulators is very time consuming with poor quality control. The Photonics Program and the Engineering Research Division at LLNL are addressing several issues associated with automatically packaging OE devices. A furry automated system must include high-precision fiber alignment, fiber attachment techniques, in-situ quality control, and parts handling and feeding. This paper will present on-going work at LLNL in the areas of automated fiber alignment and fiber attachment. For the fiber alignment, we are building an automated fiber pigtailing machine (AFPM) which combines computer vision and object recognition algorithms with active feedback to perform sub-micron alignments of single-mode fibers to modulators and laser diodes. We expect to perform sub-micron alignments in less than five minutes with this technology. For fiber attachment, we are building various geometries of silicon microbenches which include on-board heaters to solder metal-coated fibers and other components in place; these designs are completely compatible with an automated process of OE packaging. We have manually attached a laser diode, a thermistor, and a thermo-electric heater to one of our microbenches in less than 15 minutes using the on-board heaters for solder reflow; an automated process could perform this same exercise in only a few minutes. Automated packaging techniques such as these will help lower the costs of OE devices.

Strand, O. T.; Lowry, M. E.; Lu, S. Y.; Nelson, D. C.; Nikkel, D. J.; Pocha, M. D.; Young, K. D.

1994-02-01

396

Integrated flexible manufacturing program for manufacturing automation and rapid prototyping  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Inc., as part of the Integrated Flexible Manufacturing Program (IFMP), is developing an integrated manufacturing environment. Several systems are being developed to produce standards and automation tools for specific activities within the manufacturing environment. The Advanced Manufacturing Development System (AMDS) is concentrating on information standards (STEP) and product data transfer; the Expert Cut Planner system (XCUT) is concentrating on machining operation process planning standards and automation capabilities; the Advanced Numerical Control system (ANC) is concentrating on NC data preparation standards and NC data generation tools; the Inspection Planning and Programming Expert system (IPPEX) is concentrating on inspection process planning, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection standards and CMM part program generation tools; and the Intelligent Scheduling and Planning System (ISAPS) is concentrating on planning and scheduling tools for a flexible manufacturing system environment. All of these projects are working together to address information exchange, standardization, and information sharing to support rapid prototyping in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) environment.

Brooks, S. L.; Brown, C. W.; King, M. S.; Simons, W. R.; Zimmerman, J. J.

1993-02-01

397

Fiber Optic Cables  

Science.gov (United States)

This brief interactive activity, by the Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty, is an easy-to-use introduction to fiber optic cables and their uses. Students are able to reveal each section at their leisure as they click through the helpful illustrations and animations on fiber optic cable components, LEDâÂÂs, multi-mode and single-mode cables, and cable connectors. Three review questions wrap up the slide show to test knowledge gained. This would be a great resource for teachers to help introduce the topic to students, or for students to have a comprehensive overview of fiber optic cables.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-28

398

Fiber optic communication links  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fiber optics is a new, emerging technology which offers relief from many of the problems which limited past communications links. Its inherent noise immunity and high bandwidth open the door for new designs with greater capabilities. Being a new technology, certain problems can be encountered in specifying and installing a fiber optic link. A general fiber optic system is discussed with emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages. It is not intended to be technical in nature, but a general discussion. Finally, a general purpose prototype Sandia communications link is presented.

Meyer, R. H.

1980-01-01

399

Random Fiber Laser  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the effects of two dimensional confinement on the lasing properties of a classical random laser system operating in the incoherent feedback (diffusive) regime. A suspension of 250nm rutile (TiO2) particles in a Rhodamine 6G solution was inserted into the hollow core of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) generating the first random fiber laser and a novel quasi-one-dimensional RL geometry. Comparison with similar systems in bulk format shows that the random fiber laser presents an efficiency that is at least two orders of magnitude higher.

de Matos, Christiano J S; Brito-Silva, Antônio M; Gámez, M A Martinez; Gomes, Anderson S L; de Araújo, Cid B

2007-01-01

400

All-glass optical fibers derived from sapphire  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing power levels and novel applications are demanding from fibers performance capabilities that have, to date, not been realized. One such example arises from the nascent push towards the 10-kW power threshold for narrow linewidth fiber lasers designed for applications including coherently-phased laser arrays and spectroscopic lidars. It is well-known that Brillouin scattering still restricts continued power scaling in these systems, despite several recent advances in acoustic-wave Brillouin management. Accordingly, novel fibers possessing a Brillouin gain coefficient 10 dB or more less than previously demonstrated would be of great practical benefit if they comprise novel materials in simple geometries and are manufactured using industry-accepted methods. Introducing a new and effective approach to the management of Brillouin scattering, we present on all-glass optical fibers derived from silica-clad sapphire with alumina concentrations up to 55 mole percent; considerably greater than conventionally possible enabling the design of optical fiber possessing a series of essential properties. Markedly, a Brillouin gain coefficient of 3.1 × 10-13 m/W was measured for a fiber with an average alumina concentration of 54 mole percent. This value is nearly 100 times lower than standard commercial single-mode fiber and is likely the lowest ever specified value. This reduction in Brillouin gain is enabled by a number of key material properties of the alumina-silica system, amazingly even leading to a predicted, but not yet demonstrated, composition with zero Brillouin gain. Optical fiber materials with these and other crucial properties will be discussed in the context high energy fiber laser systems.

Dragic, Peter D.; Hawkins, Thomas; Foy, Paul; Morris, Stephanie; Ballato, John

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
401

Natural Fiber Composites: A Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The need for renewable fiber reinforced composites has never been as prevalent as it currently is. Natural fibers offer both cost savings and a reduction in density when compared to glass fibers. Though the strength of natural fibers is not as great as gl...

K. L. Simmons, L. S. Fifield, M. P. Westman, S. G. Laddha, T. A. Kafentzis

2010-01-01

402

77 FR 66179 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...particularly seeking the representation of small- and medium-sized enterprises. During the 2012-2014 charter term of the...factors that impact the long-term strategic challenges faced by the manufacturing sector in the...

2012-11-02

403

77 FR 69794 - Manufacturing Council  

Science.gov (United States)

...particularly seeking the representation of small- and medium-sized enterprises. During the 2012-2014 charter term of the...factors that impact the long-term strategic challenges faced by the manufacturing sector in the...

2012-11-21

404

Manufacturing method of organic whiskers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manufacturing method of organic whiskers is achieved by adding, desirably, hardening agent and/or polymerization promoter to polymeric organic low molecular compound or its composition, then in vacuum, irradiating energy ray. The synthesis of epoxy resins is discussed

405

Optical Absorption in Commercial Single Mode Optical Fibers in a High Energy Physics Radiation Field  

CERN Document Server

This paper reports on the radiation induced attenuation of light at 1310 nm and 1550 nm in 12 commercially available single mode (SM) optical fibers. The fiber samples are exposed to gamma rays from a 60Co source and to a high energy physics radiation field. The attenuation is studied as a function of total dose, dose rate, light power and temperature. Radiation hard fibers from one manufacturer show an extraordinary low attenuation for light at 1310 nm that does not exceed 5 dB/km even after a total dose of 1 MGy. 2500 km of this type of fiber have been produced by the manufacturer and quality assurance measurements of the production batches are presently ongoing.

Wijnands, T; Kuhnhenn, J; Hoeffgen, S K; Weinand, U

2008-01-01

406

76 FR 79655 - Manufacturing Council Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council Meeting AGENCY: International...SUMMARY: The Manufacturing Council will hold a meeting to hear...other issues affecting the U.S. manufacturing sector and to determine the...

2011-12-22

407

Trends in manufacturing execution systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Today's manufacturing plants are equipped with heterogeneous software systems for different types of tasks, both manufacturing operations and factory planning. On the operating level software systems are neither yet integrated and thus support separate tasks such as production monitoring, sequence planning, work piece identification, maintenance order management, worker information and others. Nor are MES-systems parts of the integrated industrial engineering chain from mechanical engineering...

Sauer, O.

2010-01-01

408

On Strategy and Manufacturing Flexibility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The era when customers bought what companies produced is long gone. The situation is now reversed and companies must produce what customers want; while the customers' preferences are, furthermore, becoming increasingly diverse. This has forced companies to adopt a new mode of thinking in order to survive. The strategy, by necessity, has become to manufacture flexibly. This thesis focuses on strategy and manufacturing flexibility. It includes a frame of reference and eight ...

Nilsson, Carl-henric

1995-01-01

409

Developing high performance manufacturing systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The work detailed in this dissertation relates to thedevelopment of high performance manufacturing systems. Theperformance factor aimed for is especially flexibility, butthere is an intention of making the results adaptable to focuson performance factors of the readers or users choice. Thefocus of the presented research is not only to provide meansfor accomplishing manufacturing that can handle changes butalso to accomplish flexibility in another area. The resultsshould be applicable in many ...

Karlsson, Anders

2002-01-01

410

Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Solar Collector Manufacturing Activity 1990 report prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents summary and detailed data provided by domestic manufacturers on shipments of solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the period 1974 through 1990. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the period 1982 through 1990. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1990

411

MANUFACTURING E-BUSINESS MODEL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The issue of this thesis is to introduce manufacturer model of electronics business in Dell, Jaguar and Nike companies. Electronic business, business models and manufacturer model of electronic business are presented. In the introduction we defined and described the problem of the topic in this research. The theory of the electronic business, the definition and development, are described in the second chapter. We continued with the presentation of strengths and weaknesses, types, security...

Beti, Andrej

2010-01-01

412

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... kitchen for some good-tasting high fiber foods. - Related Consumer Updates Use Certain Laxatives with Caution A ... Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training and Continuing Education Inspections/Compliance State & Local ...

413

Fiber based optofluidic biosensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal diagnosis requires the development of innovative devices allowing the detection of small amounts of biological species. Among the large variety of available biosensors, the ones based on fluorescence phenomenon are really promising. Here, we show a prototype of the basic unit of a multi-sensing biosensor combining optics and microfluidics benefits. This unit makes use of two crossed optical fibers: the first fiber is used to carry small probe molecules droplets and excite fluorescence, while the second one is devoted to target molecules droplets transport and fluorescence detection. Within this scheme, the interaction takes place in each fiber node. The main benefits of this detection setup are the absence of fibers functionalization, the use of microliter volumes of target and probe species, their separation before interaction, and a better detection limit compared to cuvettes setups.

Lismont, M.; Vandewalle, N.; Joris, B.; Dreesen, L.

2014-09-01

414

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home ... Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Kids 'n Fiber Search the ...

415

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices ... Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Kids 'n Fiber Search the Consumer Updates Section ...

416

Fiber optic gas sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

417

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical ... Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Kids 'n Fiber Search the Consumer Updates ...

418

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting ... Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Kids 'n Fiber Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates by ...

419

Fiber reinforced ceramic material  

Science.gov (United States)

A strong and tough SiC/RBSN composite material is comprised of silicon fibers and a reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) matrix. This composite material may be used at elevated temperatures up to at least 1400 C.

Bhatt, Ramakrishna T. (inventor)

1988-01-01

420

Kids 'n Fiber  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Child Obesity Searching Online for 'Hemorrhoids'? - - For More Information FDA Flickr Photostream - Kids 'n Fiber - Page Last ... 08/2014 Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...