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Sample records for injectable risperidone efficacy

  1. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risperdal Consta® ... Risperidone extended-release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed ... interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Risperidone extended-release injection is used alone or in ...

  2. Risperidone Long-Acting Injection: Safety and Efficacy in Elderly Patients with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Catalán; Rafael Penadés

    2011-01-01

    Antipsychotic medication is considered the cornerstone of the treatment in elderly patients with schizophrenia. Long acting risperidone injection was the first antipsychotic available for use in this group of patients. Current scientific literature revealed that long-acting risperidone is effective in treating the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and some improvements in cognition and functioning have also been found. In terms of efficacy, there is a paucity of randomized trial...

  3. Efficacy and safety of risperidone long-acting injection in elderly people with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiren Singh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dhiren Singh1,2, Daniel W O’Connor11Department of Psychological Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia; 2Peninsula Mental Health Service, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Antipsychotic medication is the mainstay of treatment in elderly patients with psychosis. In recent years, second generation antipsychotics have come to be preferred. Longacting risperidone is the first such antipsychotic available for use in this vulnerable group of patients and offers an attractive alternative to traditional medications. The available literature revealed that long-acting risperidone is generally well tolerated and is effective in treating both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Despite a lack of randomized trials and head-to-head studies, it appears to be a useful addition to the treatment armory for patients with chronic psychosis who require a depot preparation. Further research into its endocrine and metabolic side effects is needed.Keywords: risperidone, long-acting injection, old age, efficacy, safety

  4. Risperidone long-acting injection: a review of its long term safety and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K Rainer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael K RainerMemory-Clinic and Psychiatric Department, Donauspital, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: A long-acting form of the second-generation antipsychotic drug risperidone is now broadly available for the treatment of schizophrenia and closely related psychiatric conditions. It combines the advantage of previously available depot formulations for first-generation drugs with the favorable characteristics of the modern “atypical” antipsychotics, namely higher efficacy in the treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and reduced motor disturbances. Published clinical studies show an objective clinical efficacy (as per psychiatric symptom scores and relapse data that exceeds that of oral atypical antipsychotics when patients are switched to the long-acting injectable form, a low incidence of treatment-emergent extrapyramidal side effects, and very good acceptance by patients. Available data for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder show equivalence with the oral form instead of superiority, but are still limited. As it seems likely that efficacy benefits are mostly due to the fact that the injectable form reduces the demand for patient compliance to one physician visit every 2 weeks instead of self-administration on a daily or twice-daily basis, additional potential could exist in other psychiatric disorders where atypical antipsychotic drugs are of benefit but where patient adherence to treatment schedules is typically low.Keywords: risperidone, schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, patient compliance; delayed-action preparations, injections, intramuscular

  5. Risperidone long-acting injection: a review of its long term safety and efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer, Michael K

    2008-01-01

    Michael K RainerMemory-Clinic and Psychiatric Department, Donauspital, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: A long-acting form of the second-generation antipsychotic drug risperidone is now broadly available for the treatment of schizophrenia and closely related psychiatric conditions. It combines the advantage of previously available depot formulations for first-generation drugs with the favorable characteristics of the modern “atypical” antipsychotics, namely higher efficacy in the ...

  6. Efficacy and safety of risperidone long-acting injection in elderly people with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Dhiren Singh; Daniel W O’Connor

    2009-01-01

    Dhiren Singh1,2, Daniel W O’Connor11Department of Psychological Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia; 2Peninsula Mental Health Service, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Antipsychotic medication is the mainstay of treatment in elderly patients with psychosis. In recent years, second generation antipsychotics have come to be preferred. Longacting risperidone is the first such antipsychotic available for use in this vulnerable group of patients and offers an attracti...

  7. 78 FR 52777 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Risperidone Injection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ...for risperidone injection. DATES: Although...draft guidance to http://www.regulations...FDA's Web site at http://www.fda...recommendations for risperidone injection. New drug application...ANDAs for risperidone injection. It does not create...electronic comments to...

  8. Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yueren Zhao,1–3 Taro Kishi,1 Nakao Iwata,1 Manabu Ikeda3,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Okehazama Hospital Fujita Kokoro Care Center, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan Abstract: A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set, an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy. Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8% were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4% relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total scores (P = 0.0031, BPRS positive (P = 0.0451, BRPS negative (P < 0.0001, and general subscale scores (P = 0.0031, and GAF (P < 0.0001 from baseline to 6 months. In conclusion, the lower relapse rate observed in patients treated with COMPASS plus risperidone LAI than in patients treated with risperidone LAI alone suggests that COMPASS may have benefits in the treatment of schizophrenia, indicating a need for randomized, controlled trials in larger numbers of patients. Keywords: adherence, risperidone long-acting injection, psychoeducation, schizophrenia

  9. Risperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risperdal® Oral Solution ... Risperdal® Tablets ... Risperdal® M-TAB® Orally Disintegrating Tablets ... Risperidone is used to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ...

  10. Maintenance therapy with once-monthly administration of long-acting injectable risperidone in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: a pilot study of an extended dosing interval

    OpenAIRE

    Naessens Ineke; Mannaert Erik; Zhu Young; Mahmoud Ramy A; Lasser Robert A; Gearhart Natalie C; Gharabawi Georges M; Bossie Cynthia A; Kujawa Mary; Simpson George M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Several clinical studies have established the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of long-acting risperidone administered once every 2 weeks in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. This report evaluates preliminary efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for a novel (once-monthly) administration of long-acting injectable risperidone 50 mg in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Methods Clinically stable patients parti...

  11. Association of HTR2A polymorphisms with risperidone efficacy in Chinese Han schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yucai yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The 5-HT2A receptor is one of the most important serotonin receptors, serving as a major target for risperidone. Rs6311 and rs6313 polymorphisms in the HTR2A gene have been reported to be associated with response to risperidone treatment; however, many previous studies have yielded con?icting results. To confirm the importance of these polymorphisms in risperidone treatment and provide more evidence for the routine use of these pharmacogenetic biomarkers in clinical practice, we carried out an association analysis of rs6311 and rs6313 polymorphisms with risperidone efficacy in Chinese Han patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Two independent cohorts of unrelated subjects were recruited from Henan and Shanghai (95 and 113 subjects, respectively. After 4- or 8-week risperidone monotherapy, the rs6311 and rs6313 polymorphisms of these subjects were genotyped with direct DNA sequencing. Clinical improvement was measured by the reduction of the PANSS scores (including the total and subscale scores. UNIANOVA and case-control study was used to evaluate the effects of rs6311 and rs6313 polymorphisms on the therapeutic efficacy of risperidone. Results: As in previous studies, the rs6311G allele was found in complete linkage disequilibrium with the rs6313C allele. However, neither the rs6311 nor the rs6313 polymorphism significantly in?uenced clinical improvement during risperidone treatment. Neither the allele nor the genotype frequencies were significantly different between responder and non-responder subgroups. Conclusions: No significant association between HTR2A polymorphisms (rs6313 and rs6311 and risperidone efficacy was found in the present study. The relative large sample size and two independent cohorts of subjects in the present study enhance the reliability of our findings.

  12. Maintenance therapy with once-monthly administration of long-acting injectable risperidone in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: a pilot study of an extended dosing interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naessens Ineke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several clinical studies have established the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of long-acting risperidone administered once every 2 weeks in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. This report evaluates preliminary efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for a novel (once-monthly administration of long-acting injectable risperidone 50 mg in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Methods Clinically stable patients participated in a 1-year, open-label, single-arm, multicenter pilot study. During the 4-week lead-in phase, patients received long-acting risperidone 50 mg injections every 2 weeks, with 2 weeks of oral risperidone supplementation. Injections of long-acting risperidone 50 mg every 4 weeks followed for up to 48 weeks, without oral supplementation. The primary endpoint was relapse; other assessments included PANSS, CGI-S, adverse event reports, and determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone plasma concentrations. Results Twelve patients in the intent-to-treat population (n = 67 met relapse criteria (17.9%. Relapse risk at 1 year was estimated as 22.4%. Non-statistically significant improvements in symptoms (PANSS and clinical status (CGI-S at endpoint were observed. The most common adverse events included schizophrenia aggravated not otherwise specified (19.5%, anxiety (16.1%, insomnia (16.1%, and headache (11.5%. There were no unexpected safety and tolerability findings. Mean plasma concentrations for risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were generally stable during the study. Conclusion Once-monthly dosing of long-acting risperidone was well tolerated, associated with a relatively low relapse rate (similar to that reported with other antipsychotics, and maintained the clinically stable baseline status of most patients. Although the results suggest that some symptomatically stable patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder might be safely managed with long-acting risperidone 50 mg once monthly, these findings alone do not identify which patients will have a sufficient therapeutic benefit nor do they quantify comparative effects of standard and altered dosing. Study limitations (the open-label pilot study design, small sample size, and lack of a concurrent biweekly treatment arm prevent broad interpretations and extrapolations of results. Controlled studies would be required to support a recommendation for alternative dosing regimens.

  13. Successful Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa in a 10-year-old Boy with Risperidone Long-acting Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Umehara, Hidehiro; Iga, Junichi; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    Although the effectiveness of medication in the treatment of anorexia nervosa is uncertain, atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine and risperidone have been used empirically for decades. we describe the case of a 10-year-old boy with anorexia nervosa in whom remarkable improvement was seen following the administration of risperidone or risperidone long-acting injection and deterioration when these agents were ceased. Because this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report describi...

  14. Costs and efficacy ofolanzapine and risperidone in schizophrenia

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    Vittorio Mapelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: schizophrenia is a serious and long lasting psychiatric disease. The new “atypical” antipsychotic drugs, introduced in the 90s, have substantially improved the effectiveness of medical treatments, compared to previous neuroleptic drugs. Nowadays they tend to be used as first choice drugs. The ddd cost of atypicals may differ by 20% and health authorities may have an incentive to deliver the less costly drug, especially if they are generic. However the various drugs show differential effectiveness rates and a rational choice should consider both cost and effectiveness.?Objective: the purpose of this analysis is to review the existing evidence on cost-effectiveness studies of olanzapine and risperidone, the two most prescribed drugs in Italy. Six published studies were identified, but attention was focused on two articles that reported consistent and methodologically sound results.?Results: most reviewed studies are cost-minimization analyses, since effectiveness indicators show no significant statistical difference between the two drugs, and are inconclusive since the results depend on the evaluation setting. However one observational retrospective study showed a significant severity reduction over 12 months for patients treated with olanzapine (-2.46 on HoNOS scale; p<0.05, compared to a smaller non significant reduction of the risperidone group (-0.57. Despite the higher drug cost, the average total cost per reduced severity score was lower for olanzapine than for risperidone patients (€ 4,554 vs. € 10,897. The only medical and related health care costs for risperidone patients were higher than total costs for olanzapine patients. Another study comparing cohorts of patients with similar starting severity showed a significant severity reduction and global functioning increase over 12 months for olanzapine but no significant increase for risperidone patients (-0.35, p<0.01 on CGI scale; +3.66, p <0.05 on GAF scale, compared respectively to -0.27, p<0.05 and +2.00 n.s.. Again average cost per reduced severity/increased functioning score was higher for risperidone than olanzapine patients (€ 4,568 vs. € 4,170 for CGI and € 2,284 vs. € 1,139 for GAF scales respectively.?Conclusion: the use of olanzapine in the treatment of schizophrenia is the most cost-effective alternative for the SSN (Italian National health service, as it minimizes the cost per score of severity reduction or functioning increase. Even if the price of risperidone were to be reduced by 50% (becoming a generic, total 12 months treatment costs would exceed those of olanzapine in its highest ddd (30 mg.?

  15. 78 FR 52777 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Risperidone Injection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of May 31, 2007 (72 FR 30388), FDA announced the... its availability in the Federal Register of June 11, 2010 (75 FR 33311). This notice announces the... Risperdal Consta (risperidone) Long-Acting Injection was initially approved by FDA in October 2003....

  16. Emerging treatments in the management of bipolar disorder – focus on risperidone long acting injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam El-Hage

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Wissam El-Hage1, Simon A Surguladze21Inserm U930 ERL CNRS 3106, Université François Rabelais and Clinique Psychiatrique Universitaire, CHRU de Tours, Tours, France; 2Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, UKAbstract: Bipolar disorder is a life-long psychiatric illness characterized by a high frequency of relapses and substantial societal costs. Almost half of the patients are prescribed second generation antipsychotics for treatment of manic states, or as the maintenance therapy. ­Risperidone long acting injection (RLAI as a monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate for the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder was approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA in United States in May 2009. In this review we will consider the aspects of pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, safety and tolerability, and clinical trials focusing on the efficacy of RLAI in bipolar disorder. The patients’ perspective and attitudes to long-acting injections will also be discussed.Keywords: second generation, antipsychotics, patient attitudes, lithium, valproate, monotherapy

  17. Emerging treatments in the management of bipolar disorder – focus on risperidone long acting injection

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hage, Wissam; Simon A Surguladze

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a life-long psychiatric illness characterized by a high frequency of relapses and substantial societal costs. Almost half of the patients are prescribed second generation antipsychotics for treatment of manic states, or as the maintenance therapy. Risperidone long acting injection (RLAI) as a monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate for the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder was approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in United States in...

  18. Efficacy and tolerability of switching to ziprasidone from olanzapine, risperidone or haloperidol: an international, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Koksal; Hafez, Jamal; Brook, Shlomo; Akkaya, Cengiz; Tzebelikos, Errikos; Ucok, Alp; El Tallawy, Hamdy; Danaci, Aysen-Esen; Lowe, Wing; Karayal, Onur N

    2009-09-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a switch from haloperidol (N=99), olanzapine (N=82), or risperidone (N=104) to 12 weeks of treatment with 80-160 mg/day ziprasidone in patients with stable schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Stable outpatients with persistent symptoms or troublesome side effects were switched using one of three 1-week taper/switch strategies as determined by the investigator. Efficacy was assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale score, Clinical Global Impression, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and tolerability by using standard measures of weight change, extrapyramidal symptoms, and laboratory findings. Suboptimal efficacy was the primary reason for switching. The preferred switch strategy was immediate discontinuation, and the preferred dosing regimen was 120 mg/day. Completer rates were 68, 60, and 86% in the haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine pre-switch groups, respectively. At week 12, a switch to ziprasidone resulted in statistically significant improvement from baseline on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale score, Clinical Global Impression-Improvement, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, and Global Assessment of Functioning scales, reduction in extrapyramidal symptoms and a neutral impact on metabolic parameters. Switch from olanzapine and risperidone resulted in weight reduction and from haloperidol in some weight increase. In conclusion, oral ziprasidone of 80-160 mg/day with food was a clinically valuable treatment option for stable patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder experiencing suboptimal efficacy or poor tolerability with haloperidol, olanzapine, or risperidone. PMID:19531959

  19. Minimal injection site pain and high patient satisfaction during treatment with long-acting risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Jarboe, Kathleen; Bossie, Cynthia A; Zhu, Young; Mehnert, Angelika; Lasser, Robert

    2005-07-01

    Long-acting injectable antipsychotic formulations of conventional antipsychotics were developed to address the problem of partial adherence among patients with schizophrenia. Injection site pain, other skin reactions and patient satisfaction with treatment were assessed in two large, multicentre studies of long-acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal CONSTA, Janssen Pharmaceutica Products, Titusville, New Jersey, USA), the first available long-acting atypical antipsychotic agent. Patients rated injection site pain using a 100-mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and investigators rated injection site pain, redness, swelling and induration. Patient satisfaction with treatment was assessed with the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI). VAS pain ratings were low at all visits across all doses in both studies, and decreased from first to final injection. In the 12-week, double-blind study, mean +/- SD VAS scores at the first and final injections were 15.6 +/- 20.7 and 12.5 +/- 18.3 for placebo-treated patients, and 11.8 +/- 14.4 (first) and 10.0 +/- 12.4 (final) for 25 mg; 16.3+/-21.9 (first) and 13.6 +/- 21.7 (final) for 50 mg; and 16.0 +/- 17.9 (first) and 9.6 +/- 16.0 (final, P<0.01) for 75 mg of long-acting risperidone. Mean VAS scores in the 50-week, open-label study at the first and final injection were: 17.9 +/- 22.2 (first) and 9.5 +/- 16.7 (final, P<0.0001) for 25 mg; 18.1 +/- 19.7 (first) and 10.4 +/- 14.8 (final, P<0.0001) for 50 mg; and 18.5 +/- 21.6 (first) and 13.6 +/- 19.9 (final, P = 0.0001) for 75 mg of long-acting risperidone. Overall, there was no or minimal injection site pain and skin reactions were rare. Mean DAI ratings were available for the 50-week study and indicated high patient satisfaction throughout the trial (baseline = 7.30; endpoint = 7.70; P<0.0001 versus baseline). These findings may positively affect patient and clinician attitudes towards long-term therapy with long-acting injectable risperidone. PMID:15933482

  20. Use of long-acting risperidone in psychiatric disorders: focus on efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder, usually necessitating lifelong treatment. Although atypical antipsychotic agents have improved outcomes in schizophrenia, their clinical potential remains limited by patients' nonadherence to medication. Long-acting antipsychotics were developed in the 1960s to enhance treatment adherence and simplify the medication process. However, although conventional long-acting agents assure medication delivery, they are associated with similar side effects to their oral equivalents. The need for an agent combining the advantages of a long-acting formulation with those of an atypical antipsychotic was highlighted in 1997 by the American Psychiatric Association's Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Schizophrenia. The first long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta, Johnson & Johnson), has since been developed. This article discusses the efficacy, tolerability and cost-effectiveness of long-acting risperidone in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, and suggests possibilities for how its role in clinical practice may change over the next 5 years. PMID:19102665

  1. Comparative Effectiveness of Risperidone Long-Acting Injectable vs First-Generation Antipsychotic Long-Acting Injectables in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Jensen, Signe O W; Friis, Rasmus Blechingberg; Valentin, Jan Brink; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare in a generalizable sample/setting objective outcomes in patients receiving first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injectables (FGA-LAIs) or risperidone-LAI (RIS-LAI). Methods: Nationwide, retrospective inception cohort study of adults with International Classification of Diseases-10 schizophrenia using Danish registers from 1995 to 2009 comparing outcomes between clinician's/patient's choice treatment with FGA-LAIs or RIS-LAI. Primary outcome was time to psychiatric hos...

  2. Pharmacokinetics and D2 receptor occupancy of long-acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal Consta) in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefvert, Ola; Eriksson, Bo; Persson, Per; Helldin, Lars; Björner, Annika; Mannaert, Erik; Remmerie, Bart; Eerdekens, Mariëlle; Nyberg, Svante

    2005-03-01

    Thirteen patients with schizophrenia received injections of 25, 50, or 75 mg of long-acting risperidone every 2 wk. Brain D2 receptor occupancy was assessed with [11C]raclopride 2 wk after the last (fifth) injection (day 71) in seven subjects and 2 wk after the third injection (day 44) in one subject. Stable plasma concentrations were reached after the third injection and steady-state concentrations of the active moiety (risperidone + 9-hydroxyrisperidone) after the fourth injection. Steady-state plasma concentrations were maintained for 4-5 wk after the last injection and then declined rapidly. After injections of 25, 50 and 75 mg on day 44 or day 71, D2 receptor occupancy ranged from 25-48%, 59-83% and 62-72% respectively, while plasma active-moiety levels ranged from 4.4-8.8, 15.0-31.1 and 22.5-26.3 ng/ml respectively. The results indicate that brain D2 receptor occupancy at steady state after injections of long-acting risperidone was in the range found in patients effectively treated with 2-6 mg of oral risperidone. PMID:15710053

  3. [Paliperidone, risperidone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Katsuya; Sanjo, Katsumi; Sakai, Akio

    2013-04-01

    Risperidone, a serotonin-dopamine antagonist, is effective in preventing delusions and hallucinations by D2 receptor antagonism and treating negative symptoms by 5-HT2A receptor antagonism. It is less likely to produce extrapyramidal symptoms than conventional antipsychotics, enabling safe drug therapy for schizophrenia. Paliperidone, based on 9OH-risperidone(major metabolite of risperidone), was developed to make the best use of the high therapeutic efficacy of Risperdal and enable continued treatment with lower prevalence of adverse events. Its mechanism of action as an extended-release tablet ensures slow release of the active ingredient, contributing to the lower prevalence of adverse events. With these pharmacological characteristics in mind, the two drugs can serve as safe and effective drug therapy. PMID:23678595

  4. An open-label, multicenter evaluation of the long-term safety and efficacy of risperidone in adolescents with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandina Gahan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the long-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of risperidone in adolescents with schizophrenia are limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of maintenance risperidone treatment in adolescents with schizophrenia. Methods This open-label study of adolescents aged 13 to 17 years with schizophrenia was a single extension study of two short-term double-blind risperidone studies and also enrolled subjects directly in open-label risperidone treatment. The risperidone dose was flexible and ranged from 2 to 6 mg/day. Most subjects enrolled for 6 months; a subset enrolled for 12 months. Assessment tools included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total and factor scores, Clinical Global Impressions, Children’s Global Assessment Scale, adverse event (AE monitoring, vital signs, laboratory testing, and extrapyramidal symptom rating scales. Results A total of 390 subjects were enrolled; 48 subjects had received placebo in a previous double-blind study; 292 subjects had received risperidone as part of their participation in one of two previous controlled studies; and 50 subjects were enrolled directly for this study. A total of 279 subjects enrolled for 6 months of treatment, and 111 subjects enrolled for 12 months of treatment. Overall, 264 (67.7% subjects completed this study: 209 of the 279 subjects (75% in the 6-month group and 55 of the 111 subjects (50% in the 12-month group. The median mode dose was 3.8 mg/day. At 6 months, all three groups experienced improvement from open-label baseline in symptoms of schizophrenia as well as general assessments of global functioning. Improvements were generally maintained for the duration of treatment. The most common AEs (?10% of subjects were somnolence, headache, weight increase, hypertonia, insomnia, tremor, and psychosis. Potentially prolactin-related AEs (PPAEs were reported by 36 (9% subjects. The AE profile in this study was qualitatively similar to those of other studies in adult subjects with schizophrenia and in other psychiatric studies of risperidone in pediatric populations. Conclusions Risperidone maintenance treatment in adolescents over 6 to 12 months was well tolerated, consistent with related studies in this clinical population, and associated with continued efficacy. Clinical trials ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00246285 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00246285?term=NCT00246285&rank=1

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Risperidone and Quetiapine in Adolescents With Bipolar II Disorder Comorbid With Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Stawinoga, Agnieszka; Veltri, Stefania; Pisano, Simone

    2015-10-01

    Although a frequent co-occurrence between bipolar disorder (BD) and conduct disorder (CD) in youth has been frequently reported, data about pharmacological management are scarce and focused on BD type I. Second generation antipsychotics are frequently used in clinical practice, but no comparative studies are available. The aim of this exploratory study was to compare efficacy and safety of risperidone and quetiapine in a sample of adolescents presenting a BD type II comorbid with CD. Twenty-two patients diagnosed with a structured interview according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, (male/female ratio, 12/10; mean (SD) age 15.0 (1.4) years) were randomized in 2 treatment groups (quetiapine [n = 12] vs risperidone [n = 10]), treated with flexible doses, and followed up for 12 weeks. Efficacy measures assessed manic symptoms, aggression, anxiety, depression, global clinical severity, and impairment. Safety measures included body mass index, serum prolactin, extrapyramidal adverse effects, and electrocardiogram. At the end of the study, all patients improved in all efficacy measures. Both treatments showed similar efficacy in reducing manic symptoms and aggression. Quetiapine was more effective in improving anxiety and depressive symptoms. A change in body mass index was found, and in a post hoc analysis, it was significant only in the risperidone group. Prolactin significantly increased only in the risperidone group. In BD type II, CD comorbidity, quetiapine, or risperidone monotherapy may be effective and relatively safe, although the small sample size, the limited duration of the study, and the design (lack of a blind assessments and of a placebo group) make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions. PMID:26226481

  6. Efficacy and tolerability of ziprasidone versus risperidone as augmentation in patients partially responsive to clozapine: a randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Mathias; Kuwilsky, A; Krumm, B; Dressing, H

    2009-05-01

    Patients suffering from schizophrenic psychoses sometimes insufficiently respond to antipsychotic monotherapy and then combination approaches are preferred. We aimed in validating the add-on of ziprasidone and risperidone to clozapine, and we performed a randomised head-to-head trial. Patients with partial response to clozapine were randomly attributed to augmentation with ziprasidone (n = 12) or risperidone (n = 12). Efficacy assessments included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Furthermore, several safety and tolerability measures were obtained. After six weeks, both groups showed significant reductions of positive and negative symptoms. In addition, affective state, psychosocial functioning and clozapine side effects improved without significant differences between the groups. Both approaches were well tolerated. However, the ziprasidone group experienced a small elongation of the QTc interval and a reduction of extrapyramidal symptoms. Patients under clozapine-risperidone therapy developed a rise of serum prolactin levels. The clozapine augmentation with ziprasidone or risperidone resulted in significant psychopathological improvements. The side effects differed between the treatment groups. Further head-to-head comparisons of atypical antipsychotics as add-on to clozapine are necessary. PMID:18562423

  7. Effectiveness of injectable risperidone long-acting therapy for schizophrenia: data from the US, Spain, Australia, and Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Macfadden Wayne; Jacobs An; Crivera Concetta; Otten Patrick; Kozma Chris M; DeSouza Cherilyn; Peuskens Joseph; Olivares José M; Lambert Tim; Mao Lian; Rodriguez Stephen C; Dirani Riad; Akhras Kasem S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Because wide variations in mental health care utilization exist throughout the world, determining long-term effectiveness of psychotropic medications in a real-world setting would be beneficial to physicians and patients. The purpose of this analysis was to describe the effectiveness of injectable risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT) for schizophrenia across countries. Methods This was a pragmatic analysis of data from two prospective observational studies conducted in t...

  8. Risperidone long-acting injectable (Risperdal Consta®) for maintenance treatment in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, William V; Shelton, Richard C

    2010-11-01

    Poor adherence to pharmacotherapy during maintenance-phase treatment of bipolar disorder is a common occurrence, exposing patients to a high risk of illness relapses, rehospitalization and other negative outcomes. In view of this, there has been a reawakening of interest in the potential of long-acting injectable antipsychotic medications to improve treatment outcome during bipolar maintenance therapy. Indeed, long-acting injectable medications have practical advantages of assuring delivery of medication at a prescribed dose, and perhaps also making it easier to monitor adherence, at least to the long-acting drug. However, there are important limitations to the long-term use of depot typical neuroleptics in patients with bipolar disorder, including risk of extrapyramidal side effects and tardive dyskinesia, which may exceed that of patients with schizophrenia, and the potential for treatment-emergent exacerbation of depressive symptoms. Long-acting injectable risperidone (RLAI) has recently been approved for maintenance treatment in patients with bipolar I disorder. Evidence supporting the use of RLAI for this indication consists of several nonrandomized, open-label studies; one randomized, open-label trial; and two adequately powered randomized, double-blind trials. In general, these studies have shown RLAI to be effective for the prevention of relapse or hospitalization during bipolar maintenance treatment. In the double-blind studies, RLAI was associated with reduced relapse rates, increased time to relapse and greater control of clinical symptoms during maintenance treatment following initial stabilization, compared with oral medication treatment or placebo injection. RLAI appeared to be more effective for preventing manic/mixed episodes than depressive episodes. RLAI showed good tolerability across studies; however, dose-related extrapyramidal effects, sedation, weight gain and prolactin elevation may occur during long-term treatment. Responder-enriched designs and exclusion of important clinical subgroups in the double-blind trials may limit translation of these results to routine care settings. PMID:20977322

  9. A six month randomized controlled trial of long acting injectable risperidone 50 and 100mg in treatment resistant schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H Y; Lindenmayer, J-P; Kwentus, J; Share, D B; Johnson, R; Jayathilake, K

    2014-04-01

    It has been suggested that atypical antipsychotic drugs (A-APDs) other than clozapine may be effective to improve positive symptoms in some patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), if both the dose is higher, and the duration of the trial longer, than those which have been ineffective in non-TRS (NTRS) patients. This hypothesis was tested with long acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal Consta®, RLAI). One hundred sixty TRS patients selected for persistent moderate-severe delusions or hallucinations, or both, were randomized to RLAI, 50 or 100mg biweekly, in a six month, outpatient, double-blind, multicenter trial. We hypothesized that RLAI, 100mg, would be more effective than RLAI, 50mg. However, both doses produced clinically significant and equivalent improvement in PANSS Total, Positive, and Negative subscale scores, as well as key cognitive, global and functional measures, with increasing response during the course of the study, confirming the value of longer clinical trial duration for patients with TRS, but not superiority of the higher dose. The overall response rate was comparable to that previously reported for clozapine and high dose olanzapine, another A-APD, in TRS. Both doses of RLAI were equally well tolerated, producing minimal extrapyramidal side effects and few drop outs. Plasma levels of the active moiety, risperidone+9-hydroxyrisperidone, during treatment with RLAI 100mg, were comparable to those for 6-8 mg/day oral risperidone, which have not been effective in TRS. Further study of RLAI, ? 50-100mg biweekly, should compare it with clozapine and oral risperidone in TRS, with duration of treatment ? six months. PMID:24630262

  10. Clinical utility of the risperidone formulations in the management of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madaan V

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Vishal Madaan1, Durga P Bestha2, Venkata Kolli2, Saurabh Jauhari2, Roger C Burket1 1University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 2Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA Abstract: Risperidone is one of the early second-generation antipsychotics that came into the limelight in the early 1990s. Both the oral and long-acting injectable formulations have been subject to numerous studies to assess their safety, efficacy, and tolerability. Risperidone is currently one of the most widely prescribed antipsychotic medications, used for both acute and long-term maintenance in schizophrenia. Risperidone has better efficacy in the treatment of psychotic symptoms than placebo and possibly many first-generation antipsychotics. Risperidone fares better than placebo and first-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of negative symptoms. Risperidone's long acting injectable preparation has been well tolerated and is often useful in patients with medication nonadherence. Risperidone has a higher risk of hyperprolactinemia comparable to first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs but fares better than many second-generation antipsychotics with regards to metabolic side effects. In this article, we briefly review the recent literature exploring the role of risperidone formulations in schizophrenia, discuss clinical usage, and highlight the controversies and challenges associated with its use. Keywords: risperidone, schizophrenia, formulation, antipsychotic, side effects

  11. Preparation and in-vitro characterization of Risperidone-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes as a potential injectable product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shukla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study: This investigation deals with risperidone cyclodextrin (CD complexation for parenteral administration to improve its aqueous solubility which would be beneficial over immediate and sustained release formulations available in market especially for agitated and non-cooperative psychotic patients. "nMethods: The phase solubility study of the drug with ?-CD, hydroxypropyl (HP-?-CD and ?-CD was conducted and CDs with higher stability constants were selected for complexation. The complexes of Risperidone with ?-CD and HP-?-CD were prepared by precipitation and vacuum drying methods, respectively. Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for characterization of complexes. Drug precipitation study of complex's solution in water for injection and 100 ml of 0.1 M pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline and stability study in accelerated condition were also carried out. "nResults: The stability constants of the CD were in the following order: ?-CD (341.953±11.87 M-1 > HP-?-CD (170.817± 5.93 M-1 > ?-CD (93.716 ± 3.25 M-1. CDs with high stability constants were selected to prepare the drug CD complex. The complexation efficiencies of ?-CD and HP-?-CD were 95.23 ± 2.27% and 97.59 ±1.97%, respectively. Both types of CDs exhibited complexation at 1:2 molar stoichiometric ratio. The drug precipitation study indicated complete solubility (100% drug dissolution without a trace of precipitate within 5 mins. The complexes were found to be stable for a period of 3 months under accelerated stability conditions. Major conclusion:Stable complexes of risperidone were successfully formulated using both ?-CD and HP-?-CD by simple and highly efficient methods of complexation for parenteral administration.

  12. Clinical utility of the risperidone formulations in the management of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Madaan V; Bestha DP; Kolli VB; Jauhari S; Burket RC

    2011-01-01

    Vishal Madaan1, Durga P Bestha2, Venkata Kolli2, Saurabh Jauhari2, Roger C Burket1 1University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 2Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA Abstract: Risperidone is one of the early second-generation antipsychotics that came into the limelight in the early 1990s. Both the oral and long-acting injectable formulations have been subject to numerous studies to assess their safety, efficacy, and tolerability. Risperidone is currently one...

  13. Antipsychotic-induced metabolic effects in the female rat: Direct comparison between long-acting injections of risperidone and olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersland, Kari M; Skrede, Silje; Røst, Therese H; Berge, Rolf K; Steen, Vidar M

    2015-12-01

    Several antipsychotics have well-known adverse metabolic effects. Studies uncovering molecular mechanisms of such drugs in patients are challenging due to high dropout rates, previous use of antipsychotics and restricted availability of biological samples. Rat experiments, where previously unexposed animals are treated with antipsychotics, allow for direct comparison of different drugs, but have been hampered by the short half-life of antipsychotics in rodents. The use of long-acting formulations of antipsychotics could significantly increase the value of rodent models in the molecular characterization of therapeutic and adverse effects of these agents. However, as long-acting formulations have rarely been used in rodents, there is a need to characterize the basic metabolic phenotype of different antipsychotics. Using long-acting olanzapine injections as a positive control, the metabolic effects of intramuscular long-acting risperidone in female rats were investigated for the first time. Like olanzapine, risperidone induced rapid, significant hyperphagia and weight gain, with concomitant increase in several plasma lipid species. Both drugs also induced weight-independent upregulation of several genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis, but this activation was not confirmed at the protein level. Our findings shed light on the role of drug administration, drug dose and nutritional status in the development of rodent models for adverse metabolic effects of antipsychotic agents. PMID:26378122

  14. Treatment-completion rates with olanzapine long-acting injection versus risperidone long-acting injection in a 12-month, open-label treatment of schizophrenia: indirect, exploratory comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascher-Svanum H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Haya Ascher-Svanum1, William S Montgomery2, David P McDonnell3, Kristina A Coleman4, Peter D Feldman11Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, New South Wales, Australia; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Cork, Ireland; 4OptumInsight, Lilyfield, New South Wales, AustraliaBackground: Little is known about the comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in long-acting injection formulation. Due to the absence of head-to-head studies comparing olanzapine long-acting injection and risperidone long-acting injection, this study was intended to make exploratory, indirect, cross-study comparisons between the long-acting formulations of these two atypical antipsychotics in their effectiveness in treating patients with schizophrenia.Methods: Indirect, cross-study comparisons between olanzapine long-acting injection and risperidone long-acting injection used 12-month treatment-completion rates, because discontinuation of an antipsychotic for any cause is a recognized proxy measure of the medication's effectiveness in treating schizophrenia. Following a systematic review of the literature, two indirect comparisons were conducted using open-label, single-cohort studies in which subjects were stabilized on an antipsychotic medication before depot initiation. The first analysis compared olanzapine long-acting injection (one study with pooled data from nine identified risperidone long-acting injection studies. The second analysis was a “sensitivity analysis,” using only the most similar studies, one for olanzapine long-acting injection and one for risperidone long-acting injection, which shared near-identical study designs and involved study cohorts with near-identical patient characteristics. Pearson Chi-square tests assessed group differences on treatment-completion rates.Results: Comparison of olanzapine long-acting injection data (931 patients with the pooled data from the nine risperidone long-acting injection studies (3950 patients provided almost identical 12-month treatment-completion rates (72.7% versus 72.4%; P = 0.87. When the two most similar studies were compared, the 12-month completion rate for olanzapine long-acting injection was significantly higher than for risperidone long-acting injection (81.3% versus 47.0%; P < 0.001. However, any conclusions drawn from this comparison may be limited by differences in the studies' geographic catchment areas.Conclusion: Using treatment-completion rates as a proxy measure of medication effectiveness, olanzapine long-acting injection did not differ significantly from risperidone long-acting injection when including all eligible studies. However, the findings of this exploratory analysis should be interpreted with caution, considering the methodological limitations of these indirect, cross-study comparisons.Keywords: antipsychotic drugs, intramuscular injection, olanzapine, risperidone, schizophrenia

  15. Effectiveness of injectable risperidone long-acting therapy for schizophrenia: data from the US, Spain, Australia, and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macfadden Wayne

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because wide variations in mental health care utilization exist throughout the world, determining long-term effectiveness of psychotropic medications in a real-world setting would be beneficial to physicians and patients. The purpose of this analysis was to describe the effectiveness of injectable risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT for schizophrenia across countries. Methods This was a pragmatic analysis of data from two prospective observational studies conducted in the US (Schizophrenia Outcomes Utilization Relapse and Clinical Evaluation [SOURCE]; ClinicalTrials.gov registration number for the SOURCE study: NCT00246194 and Spain, Australia, and Belgium (electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry [eSTAR]. Two separate analyses were performed to assess clinical improvement during the study and estimate psychiatric hospitalization rates before and after RLAT initiation. Clinical improvement was evaluated using the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scales, and change from baseline was evaluated using paired t tests. Psychiatric hospitalization rates were analyzed using incidence densities, and the bootstrap resampling method was used to examine differences between the pre-baseline and post-baseline periods. Results The initial sample comprised 3,069 patients (US, n = 532; Spain, n = 1,345; Australia, n = 784; and Belgium, n = 408. In all, 24 months of study participation, completed by 39.3% (n = 209, 62.7% (n = 843, 45.8% (n = 359, and 64.2% (n = 262 of patients from the US, Spain, Australia, and Belgium, respectively, were included in the clinical analysis. Improvements compared with baseline were observed on both clinical assessments across countries (P P P Conclusions RLAT in patients with schizophrenia was associated with improvements in clinical and functional outcomes and decreased hospitalization rates in the US, Spain, Australia, and Belgium, despite differences in health care delivery systems.

  16. Differences in treatment effect among clinical subgroups in a randomized clinical trial of long-acting injectable risperidone and oral antipsychotics in unstable chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Sarah M; Liang, Matthew H; Krystal, John H; Lew, Robert A; Valley, Danielle; Thwin, Soe Soe; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    A long-term randomized trial of unstable patients with schizophrenia found no benefit of long-acting injectable (LAI) risperidone over oral treatment in preventing or delaying time to psychiatric hospitalizations or on clinical outcomes. The initial analyses did not examine whether benefits of LAI emerged in selected subgroups.Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who had been hospitalized within the past 2 years or judged to be at risk for hospitalization because of increasing psychiatric service use were randomly assigned to LAI risperidone 12.5 to 50 mg per injection biweekly or to the psychiatrist's choice of oral antipsychotics and followed for up to 2 years. The primary endpoint was psychiatric rehospitalization. Symptoms, quality of life, and global functioning were assessed through blinded videoconference interviews. Cox's regression and mixed effects models were used to assess difference in treatment effect within 12 subgroups defined by hospitalization at study entry, substance abuse, race, symptom severity, quality of life, body mass index, age, race or sex, or reported medication compliance.Mixed models and Cox's regression using up to 24 months of follow-up data showed no significant differences in treatment effect in 10 of 12 subgroups on psychiatric symptoms, quality of life, or time to hospitalization. With adjustment for multiple comparisons, treatment effect differed by race on substance use outcomes, with white participants showing more benefit from LAI than other groups.LAI risperidone showed no superiority to psychiatrist's choice of oral treatment in most clinically defined subgroups, although the white patients benefited more than the other groups on substance abuse outcomes. PMID:24375206

  17. Comparative Effectiveness of Risperidone Long-Acting Injectable vs First-Generation Antipsychotic Long-Acting Injectables in Schizophrenia : Results From a Nationwide, Retrospective Inception Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Jensen, Signe O W

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare in a generalizable sample/setting objective outcomes in patients receiving first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injectables (FGA-LAIs) or risperidone-LAI (RIS-LAI). Methods: Nationwide, retrospective inception cohort study of adults with International Classification of Diseases-10 schizophrenia using Danish registers from 1995 to 2009 comparing outcomes between clinician's/patient's choice treatment with FGA-LAIs or RIS-LAI. Primary outcome was time to psychiatric hospitalization using Cox-regression adjusting for relevant covariates. Secondary outcomes included time to all-cause discontinuation and psychiatric hospitalization in patients without LAI possession gap >28 days, and number of bed-days after psychiatric hospitalization. Results: Among 4532 patients followed for 2700 patient-years, 2078 received RIS-LAI and 2454 received FGA-LAIs (zuclopenthixol decanoate = 52.2%, perphenazine decanoate = 37.2%, haloperidol decanoate = 5.0%, flupenthixol decanoate = 4.4%, fluphenazine decanoate = 1.3%). RIS-LAI was similar to FGA-LAIs regarding time to hospitalization (RIS-LAI = 246.2±323.7 days vs FGA-LAIs = 276.6±383.3 days; HR = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.87-1.03, P = 0.199) and time to all-cause discontinuation (RIS-LAI = 245.8±324.0 days vs FGA-LAIs = 287.0±390.9 days; HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86-1.02, P = 0.116). Similarly, in patients without LAI discontinuation, RIS-LAI and FGA-LAIs did not differ regarding time to hospitalization (RIS-LAI = 175.0±268.1 days vs FGA-LAIs = 210.7±325.3 days; HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86-1.04, P = 0.254). Finally, duration of hospitalization was also similar (incidence rate ratio = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.78-1.19, P = 0.744). Results were unchanged when analyzing only patients treated after introduction of RIS-LAI. Conclusions: In this nationwide cohort study, RIS-LAI was not superior to FGA-LAIs regarding time to psychiatric hospitalization, all-cause discontinuation, and duration of hospitalization. Given the cost of hospitalization and second-generation antipsychotic (SGA)-LAIs, these findings require consideration when making treatment choices, but also need to be balanced with the individual relevance of adverse effects/patient centered outcomes. In future, head-to-head trials and additional nationwide database studies including other SGA-LAIs is needed.

  18. Risperidone in long-term treatment for bipolar disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Rendell, JM; Geddes, JR

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, is used to treat acute manic episodes, particularly when psychotic symptoms are present. Drugs used to treat mania are often continued as long-term treatment to prevent relapse. There is a need for evidence of the effectiveness and safety of risperidone as long-term treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the randomised evidence for the efficacy and tolerability of risperidone compared with placebo or other active pharmacological treatments as long...

  19. Pharmacology and clinical experience with risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R C; Nelson, M W

    2000-12-01

    Risperidone (Risperdal, Janssen Pharmaceutica) is a second generation antipsychotic (SGA) for the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. It is a potent antagonist of serotonin-2 (5-HT2) and dopamine-2 (D2) receptors in the brain. In comparison to conventional antipsychotics, risperidone demonstrates superior efficacy against the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and a decreased occurrence of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). Risperidone causes less weight gain than other marketed SGAs, but can increase prolactin levels and cause EPS in a dose-related manner. In a variety of pharmacoeconomic analyses, it has proven to be a cost-effective addition to the antipsychotic armamentarium. As the first SGA available for front line use, risperidone has established a new standard of care for the treatment of individuals with psychotic disorders. PMID:11249477

  20. Risperidone long-acting injection in the treatment of schizophrenia: 24-month results from the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams R

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Richard Williams,1 Ranjith Chandrasena,2 Linda Beauclair,3 Doanh Luong,4 Annette Lam4 On behalf of the e-STAR study group 1Vancouver Island Health Authority, Victoria, BC, Canada; 2Chatham-Kent Health Alliance, Chatham, ON, Canada; 3Allan Memorial Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4Janssen Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: To assess outcomes over 24 months in Canadian patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI and participating in the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR. Materials and methods: Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled from 24 sites after an independent decision to initiate RLAI. Subsequent patient management was based on usual clinical practice at each site and was not protocol-driven. Relevant data were collected retrospectively by chart review for 12 months prior to RLAI and prospectively for 24 months following RLAI initiation. Results: Patients (n=188 had a mean age of 39.2 years, were 66.3% male, and 27.7% were inpatients at baseline. Twenty-four months after initiating therapy (initial dose =28.7 mg, 34.1% (95% confidence interval 27.2%–42.2% of patients had discontinued RLAI with a mean time to discontinuation of 273.4±196 days. Over the treatment period, there were significant (P<0.001 changes from baseline in Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S; 3.48 versus [vs] 4.31 at baseline, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF; 56.1 vs 48.1, and Personal and Social Performance (PSP; 59.1 vs 46.9 scale scores. In addition, after 12 months, there were significant (P<0.001 decreases in the percentage of patients hospitalized (23.9% vs 58.5% pre-RLAI, mean length of stay (11.4 vs 30.4 days, and number of hospitalizations (0.32 vs 0.87 compared to the 12-month pre-RLAI period. Reductions in hospitalization continued into the second 12 months of therapy, when only 9% of patients were hospitalized and mean length of stay was 2.0 days. Conclusion: In a routine clinical practice setting, patients switched to RLAI showed significant improvements in clinical outcomes and in global and social functioning, and hospitalization was significantly reduced. The data confirm that RLAI provides effective long-term management of schizophrenia in Canada. Keywords: schizophrenia, Canada, risperidone long-acting injection, e-STAR

  1. Risperidone (Risperdal): clinical experience with a new antipsychosis drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keks, N A; Culhane, C

    1999-04-01

    Risperidone (Risperdal) is a benzisoxazole derivative with a high affinity for serotonin 5-HT2 and dopamine D2 receptors, and some affinity for alpha- adrenergic, histamine H1 and dopamine D1 receptors. It has no anticholinergic effects. Early studies demonstrated risperidone to be an effective medication for psychotic symptoms, probably more so than the older neuroleptics for both positive and negative symptoms. At clinically effective doses, risperidone causes no more extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) than placebo; at higher doses EPS frequency increases in a dose-dependent manner. Since it became available in 1994, extensive experience with the drug supports favourable early impressions of efficacy and tolerability. Minimal sedation, relatively little weight gain and absence of anticholinergic manifestations contribute to the relative tolerability of risperidone as compared to older neuroleptics. However, risperidone is associated with hyperprolactinaemia which can result in amenorrhoea and sexual dysfunction. Compared to older neuroleptics, pharmacoeconomic studies have shown that use of risperidone is associated with reduced hospitalisation and direct cost savings. A recent study found equivalent efficacy between risperidone and clozapine for treatment-resistant patients. Two studies comparing risperidone and olanzapine have yielded positive but conflicting findings. The overall positive experience with risperidone has resulted in the drug being widely recommended as a first line treatment option for psychoses. PMID:15992090

  2. Acute risperidone overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, G; Catalano, M C; Taylor, W

    1997-02-01

    Risperidone (Risperdal) is a recently released novel antipsychotic medication. It is different from the conventional neuroleptics, such as haloperidol, as it has both serotinergic and dopaminergic activity. It has a more tolerable side-effect profile compared with other antipsychotic medications. We review the literature regarding the side effects of risperidone use, describe a case of overdose with risperidone, and discuss the clinical sequelae and management of such an overdose. PMID:9037577

  3. Medication adherence in patients with psychotic disorders: an observational survey involving patients before they switch to long-acting injectable risperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylé, Franck Jean; Tessier, Arnaud; Bouju, Sophie; Misdrahi, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Maintaining antipsychotic therapy in psychosis is important in preventing relapse. Long-acting depot preparations can prevent covert non-adherence and thus potentially contribute to better patient outcomes. In this observational survey the main objective is to evaluate medication adherence and its determinants for oral treatment in a large sample of patients with psychosis. Methods In this cross-sectional survey medication adherence for oral treatment was assessed by patients using the patient-rated Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ). Data were collected by physicians on patients with a recent acute psychotic episode before switching to long-acting injectable risperidone. Other evaluations included disease severity (Clinical Global Impression – Severity), patients’ insight (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale item G12), treatment acceptance (clinician-rated Compliance Rating Scale), and therapeutic alliance (patient-rated 4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale). Results A total of 399 psychiatrists enrolled 1,887 patients (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; 61.6% had schizophrenia). Adherence to oral medication was “low” in 53.2% of patients, “medium” in 29.5%, and “high” in 17.3%. Of patients with psychiatrist-rated active acceptance of treatment, 70% had “medium” or “high” MAQ scores (P<0.0001). Medication adherence was significantly associated with therapeutic alliance (4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale score; P<0.0001). Patient age was significantly associated with adherence: mean age increased with greater adherence (35.6, 36.7, and 38.6 years for patients with “low”, “medium”, and “high” levels of adherence, respectively; P=0.0007), while age <40 years was associated with “low” MAQ classification (P=0.0003). Poor adherence was also associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (P=0.0083), more severe disease (Clinical Global Impression – Severity ?4; P<0.0001), and lower insight (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-G12 ?4; P<0.0001). Conclusion Self-reported adherence was low in most patients, with a strong positive association between self-reported adherence and psychiatrists’ assessment of treatment acceptance. Understanding factors associated with poor medication adherence may help physicians to better manage their patients, thereby improving outcomes. PMID:26396505

  4. Medication adherence in patients with psychotic disorders: an observational survey involving patients before they switch to long-acting injectable risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baylé FJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Franck Jean Baylé,1 Arnaud Tessier,2,3 Sophie Bouju,4 David Misdrahi2,3 1Sainte-Anne Hospital (SHU, Paris V-Descartes University, Paris, 2Hôpital Charles Perrens, Pôle de Psychiatrie Adulte, 3CNRS UMR 5287-INCIA, Bordeaux University, Bordeaux, 4Janssen-Cilag France, Issy Les Moulineaux, Paris, France Background: Maintaining antipsychotic therapy in psychosis is important in preventing relapse. Long-acting depot preparations can prevent covert non-adherence and thus potentially contribute to better patient outcomes. In this observational survey the main objective is to evaluate medication adherence and its determinants for oral treatment in a large sample of patients with psychosis.Methods: In this cross-sectional survey medication adherence for oral treatment was assessed by patients using the patient-rated Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ. Data were collected by physicians on patients with a recent acute psychotic episode before switching to long-acting injectable risperidone. Other evaluations included disease severity (Clinical Global Impression – Severity, patients’ insight (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale item G12, treatment acceptance (clinician-rated Compliance Rating Scale, and therapeutic alliance (patient-rated 4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale.Results: A total of 399 psychiatrists enrolled 1,887 patients (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; 61.6% had schizophrenia. Adherence to oral medication was “low” in 53.2% of patients, “medium” in 29.5%, and “high” in 17.3%. Of patients with psychiatrist-rated active acceptance of treatment, 70% had “medium” or “high” MAQ scores (P<0.0001. Medication adherence was significantly associated with therapeutic alliance (4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale score; P<0.0001. Patient age was significantly associated with adherence: mean age increased with greater adherence (35.6, 36.7, and 38.6 years for patients with “low”, “medium”, and “high” levels of adherence, respectively; P=0.0007, while age <40 years was associated with “low” MAQ classification (P=0.0003. Poor adherence was also associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (P=0.0083, more severe disease (Clinical Global Impression – Severity ?4; P<0.0001, and lower insight (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-G12 ?4; P<0.0001.Conclusion: Self-reported adherence was low in most patients, with a strong positive association between self-reported adherence and psychiatrists’ assessment of treatment acceptance. Understanding factors associated with poor medication adherence may help physicians to better manage their patients, thereby improving outcomes. Keywords: schizophrenia, long-acting antipsychotic, medication adherence, therapeutic alliance

  5. Risperidone alone or in combination for acute mania.

    OpenAIRE

    Rendell, JM; Gijsman, HJ; Bauer, MS; Goodwin, GM; Geddes, GR

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, is used to treat mania both alone and in combination with other medicines. OBJECTIVES: To review the efficacy and tolerability of risperidone as treatment for mania. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR-Studies December 2004), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched in December 2004. Reference ...

  6. Efficacy of adjunctive intravitreous injection with Lucentis for neovascular glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Dong Gu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical efficacy of adjunctive intravitreous injection with Lucentis for the treatment of neovascular glaucoma(NVG. METHODS: The retrospective case series study included 25 eyes of 25 patients who underwentintravitreous injection with Lucentis. Patients firstly received an intravitreous injection with Lucentis(0.5mg/0.05mL, after the regression of neovascularization of the iris, patients accepted different surgical treatments according to different etiopathogenesis condition. Iris, chamber angle neovascularization condition, intraocular pressure, and visual acuity were observed postoperatively. The follow-up duration was 3mo.RESULTS: After 3-7d of intravitreous Lucentis injecting, iris and chamber angle neovascularization was totally faded in 20 cases(20 eyesand was not completely faded in 5 cases(5 eyes. Additional treatments were compound trabeculectomy(14 cases, 14 eyes, vitrectomy(4 cases, 4 eyes. The patients' mean intraocular pressure was 43.42±10.99mmHg before treatment, which decreased rapidly when they came out of the hospital(14.26±7.64mmHg, PPCONCLUSION:Intravitreous injection with Lucentis can be used as an assisted treatment of NVG. According to different etiopathogenesis condition, it is an effective treatment to combine with other treatment methods for NVG.

  7. Risperidone Treatment in 12 Children With Developmental Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Eapen, Valsamma; Gururaj, A. K.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Risperidone is a novel antipsychotic drug that has been tried in the treatment of several child psychiatric disorders. In an open clinical study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of risperidone in children with developmental disorder and behavioral problems including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

  8. Olanzapine and risperidone disrupt conditioned avoidance responding in phencyclidine-pretreated or amphetamine-pretreated rats by selectively weakening motivational salience of conditioned stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; He, Wei; Mead, Alexa

    2009-02-01

    The rat conditioned avoidance response model is a well-established preclinical behavioral model predictive of antipsychotic efficacy. All clinically approved antipsychotic drugs disrupt conditioned avoidance responding - a feature that distinguishes them from other psychotherapeutics. We previously showed that the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol disrupts avoidance responding by progressively attenuating the motivational salience of the conditioned stimulus (CS) in normal rats. In this study, using two pharmacological rat models of schizophrenia [e.g. phencyclidine (PCP) or amphetamine sensitization], we examined whether atypicals such as olanzapine or risperidone disrupt avoidance responding through the same behavioral mechanism. Rats were first pretreated with PCP, amphetamine, or saline under one of two different injection schedules for either 1 or 3 weeks. They were then trained to acquire avoidance responding to two types of CS (CS1 and CS2) that differed in their ability to predict the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus. Finally, rats were tested repeatedly under olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or risperidone (0.33 mg/kg, subcutaneously) daily for 5 or 7 consecutive days. We found that repeated olanzapine or risperidone treatment produced a progressive across-session decline in avoidance responding to both CS1 and CS2. Olanzapine and risperidone disrupted the CS2 (a less salient CS) avoidance to a greater extent than the CS1 avoidance. Pretreatment with PCP and amphetamine did not affect the disruptive effect of olanzapine or risperidone on avoidance responding. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that the atypical drugs olanzapine and risperidone, like the typical drug haloperidol, also disrupt avoidance responding primarily by attenuating the motivational salience of the CS. PMID:19179852

  9. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of long-acting risperidone in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerdekens, Mariëlle; Van Hove, Ilse; Remmerie, Bart; Mannaert, Erik

    2004-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta) were evaluated in a multicenter, prospective, open-label, 15-week study of 86 patients with schizophrenia. Subjects stabilized on 2, 4 or 6 mg of oral risperidone once daily for at least 4 weeks were assigned to receive i.m. injections of 25, 50 or 75 mg of risperidone, respectively, every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. The 90% confidence intervals for the i.m./oral ratios of the mean steady-state plasma-AUC, corrected for dosing interval, and of the average plasma concentration of the active moiety (risperidone plus 9-hydroxyrisperidone) were within the range of 80-125%, indicating bioequivalence of the i.m. and oral formulations. However, mean steady-state peak concentrations of the active moiety were 25-32% lower with i.m. than oral dosing (P < 0.05) and fluctuations in plasma active-moiety levels were 32-42% lower with the i.m. than oral regimen. Symptoms of schizophrenia continued to improve after switching from oral to i.m. dosing. Long-acting risperidone was well tolerated locally and systematically. Although overall bioequivalence of the two formulations was established, the differences in pharmacokinetic profiles between the two formulations indicate potential benefits for long-acting risperidone. PMID:15246468

  10. [Efficacy of praziquantel injectable solution against feline and canine tapeworms.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzer, Erkut; Bilgin, Zahide; Oter, Kerem; Erçin, Süleyman; Tinar, Recep

    2010-01-01

    Praziquantel, which has been used in the treatment and control of canine and feline tapeworm infections for about 35 years, has not been tested against these parasites for a long period in Turkey. This study was performed to evaluate the current efficacy of praziquantel against dog and cat tapeworms. Praziquantel injectable solution was administered to 26 dogs (14 of them were infected with Dipylidium caninum, 8 with Taenia spp and 2 with Echinococcus granulosus, 2 with both Dipylidium caninum and Taenia spp) and 2 cats (infected with Joyeuxiella pasqualei) subcutaneously at a dose of 0.1 ml/kg (5.68 mg active ingredient/kg). After treatment, animals were put in individual cages and their feces were taken daily for examination. Feces were examined macroscopically for tapeworm segments and scolexes and microscopically for tapeworm eggs by Fülleborn's flotation and Teleman's sedimentation (for fatty stools). To confirm results of analysis the examinations after treatment were repeated until two subsequent fecal analyses were negative. The parasites disappeared from the feces of all infected animals in 2 or 3 days after the treatment and the drug was found to be 100% effective against both dog and cat tapeworms. No adverse reactions were observed in both dogs and cats treated. PMID:20340081

  11. Paliperidone ER and oral risperidone in patients with schizophrenia: a comparative database analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schooler Nina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (ER with risperidone immediate-release using propensity score methodology. Methods Six double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, short-term clinical trials for acute schizophrenia with availability of individual patient-level data were identified (3 per compound. Propensity score pairwise matching was used to balance observed covariates between the paliperidone ER and risperidone patient populations. Scores were generated using logistic regression models, with age, body mass index, race, sex, baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score and baseline Clinical Global Impressions–Severity (CGI-S score as factors. The dosage range of paliperidone ER (6-12 mg/day was compared with 2 risperidone dosage ranges: 2-4 and 4-6 mg/day. The primary efficacy measure was change in PANSS total score at week 6 end point. Tolerability end points included adverse event (AE reports and weight. AEs with rates ?5% and with a ?2% difference between paliperidone ER and risperidone were identified. Results Completion rates for placebo-treated subjects in paliperidone ER trials (n = 95 and risperidone trials (n = 122 groups were 36.8% and 51.6%, respectively; end point changes on PANSS total scores were similar (p = 0.768. Completion rates for subjects receiving paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day (n = 179, risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n = 113 or risperidone 4-6 mg/day (n = 129 were 64.8%, 54.0% and 66.7%, respectively (placebo-adjusted rates: paliperidone ER vs risperidone 2-4 mg/day, p = 0.005; paliperidone ER vs risperidone 4-6 mg/day, p = 0.159. PANSS total score improvement with paliperidone ER was greater than with risperidone 2-4 mg/day (difference in mean change score, -6.7; p Conclusions This indirect database analysis suggested that paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day may be more efficacious than risperidone 2-4 mg/day and as efficacious as risperidone 4-6 mg/day. The AE-adjusted incidence rates suggest differences between treatments that may be relevant for individual patients. Additional randomized, direct, head-to-head clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Risperidone in the treatment of behavioral disorders associated with autism in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Canitano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Canitano, Valeria ScandurraDivision of Child Neuropsychiatry, University Hospital of Siena, Siena, ItalyAbstract: This is a review of the clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD. The main clinical characteristics are impairment in social skills, communication difficulties, repetitive movements and behaviors, including stereotypies. Pharmacotherapy is mainly directed at the so-called target symptoms, ie, behavioral disorders and the various kinds of repetitions associated with ASD. According to the available data, risperidone seems to be moderately efficacious and safe for treating behavioral disorders. 4 double blind controlled trial. 3 reanalysis studies, and 12 open studies have documented the role of risperidone in children with ASD. Controlled studies have been thoroughly considered in this review.Keywords: autism, pervasive developmental disorders, risperidone

  13. Effectiveness, Good Tolerability, and High Compliance of Doses of Risperidone Long-Acting Injectable Higher Than 75 mg in People With Severe Schizophrenia: A 3-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Miranda, Juan J; Caramés-García, Victoria; Sánchez-García, Arantxa

    2015-12-01

    Tolerability and effectiveness of antipsychotics are important to increase treatment compliance in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate effectiveness, tolerability, and adherence to treatment with high doses of risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) in patients with severe schizophrenia.It is a 3-year prospective, observational study of patients with severe (Clinical Global Impression Severity scale [CGI-S] score of ?5) schizophrenia according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria. Subjects were the consecutive 60 who first underwent treatment with RLAI with doses of 75 mg or higher every 14 days to get clinical stabilization.Assessment included the following: CGI-S, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN), Medication Adherence Rating Scale, laboratory tests, weight, and hospital admissions.The mean (SD) dose of RLAI was 111.2 (9.1) mg per 14 days. Tolerability was good and there were almost no interruptions due to adverse effects or to relevant biological parameters alterations. Also, weight gain was not significant.Retention rate in treatment after 3 years was 95%. Clinical Global Impression Severity (P < 0.01) and Camberwell Assessment of Need (P < 0.01) decreased and also Disability Assessment Schedule in the 4 areas (P < 0.01). Medication Adherence Rating Scale score increased from 3.6 (0.7) to 8.9 (0.9) (P < 0.001). There were significantly few hospital admissions than during the previous 36 months (1.9 [1.3] vs 0.31 [0.2], P < 0.001).As a conclusion, we highlight that the effectiveness and tolerability of 75 mg or higher every 14 days of RLAI were high, being useful in improving treatment adherence in patients with severe schizophrenia, getting good clinical and functional outcomes. PMID:26421461

  14. Spotlight on risperidone in irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lesley J; Dhillon, Sohita

    2008-01-01

    Risperidone (Risperdal), a psychotropic atypical antipsychotic agent, is thought to act via dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism. The clinical efficacy of oral risperidone in the treatment of bipolar mania and schizophrenia in adult patients is well established. In the US, risperidone is also approved for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 5-16 years, for the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents aged 13-17 years and, as monotherapy, for the short-term treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in children and adolescents aged 10-17 years. Oral risperidone treatment was better than placebo treatment in reducing irritability and other behavioural symptoms associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents in two well designed short-term trials, with these benefits maintained in those receiving risperidone for up to 6 months. The drug had a clinically manageable tolerability profile, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate intensity. There are some aspects of treatment, such as weight gain, somnolence and hyperglycaemia, that require monitoring, and the long-term safety of risperidone in children and adolescents with autistic disorder remains to be fully determined. With these issues in mind, risperidone offers a valuable emerging option for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents. PMID:18278980

  15. A randomized, double-blind comparison of risperidone versus low-dose risperidone plus low-dose haloperidol in treating schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Kuo, Chao-Chan; Chou, Li-Shiu; Chen, Yeng-Hung; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Huang, Kuo-Hao; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2010-10-01

    Monotherapy is recommended for schizophrenia treatment, but the risk-benefit issue of antipsychotic drug combination (except for clozapine) remains unclear. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, has a lower incidence of extrapyramidal syndrome but higher risks of prolactinemia and metabolic syndrome than haloperidol, a typical agent. This study compared efficacy and safety of risperidone monotherapy versus low-dose risperidone plus low-dose haloperidol in schizophrenia. In this 6-week, double-blind study, patients were randomized to the combination group (2-mg/d risperidone plus 2-mg/d haloperidol, n = 46) or the monotherapy group (4-mg/d risperidone, n = 42). Efficacy assessments included Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and subscales, Calgary Depression Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36. Safety was rigorously monitored. Response was defined as 30% reduction in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score. The 2 treatment groups were similar in (1) demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, (2) response rate, and (3) improvement in various psychopathological measures and quality of life at end point. The monotherapy group had a higher increase in prolactin levels (P = 0.04) and Simpson-Angus Scale scores (P = 0.04) and a higher percentage of biperiden use (P = 0.045). There were no significant between-group difference in changes in weight, vital signs, corrected QT interval, liver/renal function, fasting glucose level, and lipid profiles. The findings suggest that risperidone monotherapy may yield higher prolactin levels than a combination of low-dose risperidone plus low-dose haloperidol. The 2 treatment groups are similar in efficacy, life quality, and other safety profiles. Future long-term studies are warranted. PMID:20814315

  16. Extrapyramidal Side Effects of Risperidone in Iranian Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Risperidone is one of a new generation of antipsychotic drugs with relatively fewer side effects and better efficacy. Our objects were study of relationship between the incidence of Iranian produced risperidone Extrapyramidal Side Effects (EPSE and its relationship with age, sex, dosage and duration of treatment in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. One-hundred patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders admitted in Razi hospital of Tabriz, which underwent treatment with risperidone were selected by convenience method and the incidence of EPSE was evaluated for 6 weeks; the results were analyzed statistically. Seventy-two percent of patients showed no complications and 28% of them affected by EPSE. The incidence of complications was not related significantly with age and sex of patients but there was significant relationship between the duration of medication and dosage of drug (pv<0.05. The most EPSE were rigidity, tremor and bradykynesia, but there were not any acute dystonic reaction. Risperidone is one of the new generation antipsychotic drugs with lower side effects and its EPSE are dose-dependent. It is recommended that the treatment be initiated with minimum effective dose.

  17. Dependency of chelation efficacy upon time after first DTPA injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen young adult beagles were given an intravenous injection of either 241Am(III) citrate or 239Pu(IV) citrate (labeled with 237Pu) followed by a single intravenous injection of Ca-DTPA after an interval of 1 min, 6 min, 30 min, 150 min, 8 hr, 1 day, or 3 days. Animals were sacrificed 7 days after DTPA injection. Retention of 241Am at death was influenced strongly by early treatment. Dogs given Ca-DTPA at 1, 6, and 30 min retained about 3, 10, and 29% respectively, of the injected 241Am, while the animal treated at 150 min retained 45%. Beagles given 241Am and then DTPA at 8 hr, 1 day, and 3 days, retained 58, 73, and 72%, respectively. For 241Am contamination, the first DTPA treatment should be given as soon as possible. Total-body retention of 239+237Pu was affected less dramatically be early treatment. The dogs given DTPA at 1, 6, and 30 min retained 31, 28, and 34% at death, while the Pu retention in the animal treated at 150 min was 44%, a value similar to that in the dog given 241Am and treated also at 150 min. At the later treatment times, the retention of Pu and Am seemed to be generally the same. Dogs given Pu and then DTPA at 8 hr, 1 day, and 3 days retained52, 5[, and 7[%, respectively. Even though delays of up to 30 min seemed to have little effect upon total-body retnetion after 239Pu exposure, early treatment at 1 and 6 min had a disproportionately greater effect in reducing th Pu in trabecular bone, where most osteosarcomas arise, as compared with cortical bone. Therefore, in the event of 239Pu intake by humans, treatment should begin as soon as possible. Earlier work indicates that frequent injections of Zn-DTPA should follow the initial Ca-DTPA treatment

  18. Registro Electrónico de Adherencia al Tratamiento de Esquizofrenia en Latinoamérica (e-STAR): Resultados clínicos del uso de risperidona inyectable de liberación prolongada a dos años de seguimiento / Electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry in Latin America (e-STAR): Clinical outcomes of long-acting injectable risperidone in a 2-year follow up

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogelio, Apiquian; Rodrigo, Córdoba; Mario, Louzã; Ana, Fresán.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La esquizofrenia genera elevados costos al sistema de salud. La falta de adherencia al tratamiento es una de las principales causas de recaídas y hospitalizaciones en la esquizofrenia. Lo anterior conduce a un pobre pronóstico y deterioro funcional de los pacientes. La risperidona inyectable de libe [...] ración prolongada (RILP) ha demostrado su eficacia en el tratamiento de la esquizofrenia, ofreciendo la posibilidad de que los pacientes tengan una mayor adherencia terapéutica. Objetivo Determinar la eficacia y efecto sobre la funcionalidad y el uso de recursos hospitalarios de la RILP en una muestra de pacientes con esquizofrenia de América Latina a dos años de seguimiento. Método El Registro Electrónico de Adherencia al Tratamiento de Esquizofrenia en Latinoamérica (e-STAR) es un estudio observacional del uso de la RILP en la esquizofrenia. Se reclutaron pacientes de México, Colombia y Brasil. Se registró la información clínica del paciente un año previo al inicio del tratamiento con la RILP y de forma prospectiva cada tres meses hasta cumplir los 24 meses de seguimiento. Se registraron las hospitalizaciones y el esquema de tratamiento con la RILP. La escala de Impresión Clínica Global-Gravedad (CGI-S) se utilizó como indicador de eficacia mientras que la Escala Global de Funcionamiento (GAF) y la Escala de Desempeño Personal y Social (PSP) se utilizaron para evaluar el funcionamiento. Resultados Setenta y tres pacientes completaron los dos años de seguimiento. La proporción de pacientes hospitalizados disminuyó del 16.4 al 4.1% después de dos años de tratamiento con la RILP. El 2.7% descontinuó el tratamiento debido a falta de eficacia. Se observó una mejoría significativa en cuanto a la gravedad del padecimiento y el funcionamiento global. Discusión En la práctica clínica cotidiana, la RILP resulta ser un tratamiento a largo plazo efectivo para la esquizofrenia con el beneficio adicional de una menor utilización de recursos del sistema de salud. Abstract in english Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder associated to high healthcare costs mainly driven by inpatient care. Lack of adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a common reason for relapse and rehospitalization leading to poor prognosis and global functional impairment of patients. Risperidone l [...] ong-acting injection (RLAI) has demonstrated its efficacy in treating symptoms of schizophrenia and offers the potential to improve adherence to treatment. Objective To determine clinical and functional efficacy of RLAI and use of health resources (eg., hospitalizations) in a 2-year follow up study among patients with schizophrenia from Latin America. Method The electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR) is an observational study of patients who start treatment with RLAI. Data from patients recruited in Mexico, Colombia and Brazil were collected retrospectively for one year prior to baseline, at baseline and every three months for 24 months. Hospitalization rates and treatment regime were registered. Efficacy was assessed using the Clinical Global Impression of Illness-Severity Scale (CGI-S), while the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) were used for the evaluation of functioning. Results Seventy-three patients completed the two-year follow-up. The proportion of patients hospitalized declined from 16.4% before treatment to 4.1% after 2 years of treatment with RLAI. Only 2.7% discontinued the treatment due to lack of efficacy. Significant improvements were reported in illness severity as well as in global functioning assessed by the CGI-S, GAF and PSP scales, respectively. Discussion Our results give further support of the efficacy of RLAI for the treatment of schizophrenia. Additional to symptom severity reduction and functional recovery, improved treatment adherence and reduced hospitalization rates were observed with the use of RLAI. In a real world clinical setting, RLAI offer an effective long-term treatment for patients with schiz

  19. Risperidone versus zuclopenthixol in the treatment of schizophrenia with substance abuse comorbidity: a long-term randomized, controlled, crossover study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel, Rubio; Isabel, Martínez; Ana, Recio; Guillermo, Ponce; Francisco, López-Muñoz; Cecilio, Alamo; Miguel Ángel, Jiménez-Arriero; Tomás, Palomo.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are present in more than 50% of subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, there are no controlled studies assessing the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs in this subgroup of patients. The aim of the present work was to compare the efficacy of risperidon [...] e and zuclopenthixol in a sample of schizophrenic subjects with dual diagnosis. Method: Thirty-three male were selected for treatment with risperidone, while another 33 were treated with zuclopenthixol. Substances most commonly used were alcohol, cannabis (both 82%) and cocaine (32%). Patients were randomized and treated for the first six months with one antipsychotic and the second six months with the other antipsychotic. Psychopathological and clinical scales were used every two months. Participants received training on how to reduce their consumption of substances (Substance Abuse Management Module, SAMM). Results: During the first six months risperidone group patients presented fewer positive urine tests and showed better compliance with the SAMM programme. In the second period the patients treated with risperidone significantly improved their scores on the PANSS-negative subscale. Differences between the CGIs indicated that the subjects who moved from risperidone to zuclopenthixol worsened, while those who moved from zuclopenthixol to risperidone significantly improved. Conclusions: Risperidone was more effective than zuclopenthixol in improving the symptoms of schizophrenia and substance use.

  20. Paliperidone ER versus risperidone for neurocognitive function in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized, open-label, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Chung, Young-Chul; Lee, Yo-Han; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Seon-Young; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2012-09-01

    This study aims to determine the effectiveness of paliperidone extended release (ER) on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia in comparison with risperidone. This was a 12-week, randomized, open-label study on schizophrenia patients who were receiving risperidone. The patients were randomized to a risperidone-continuation group or a paliperidone-switch group. The primary outcome measure was neurocognitive function, which was measured using a computerized battery. Secondary efficacy measures included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Social and Occupational Functioning Scale, and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. In total, 58 patients participated in this trial. Improvements in recall after an interference phase in the verbal learning test were significantly greater in the paliperidone-switch than in the risperidone-continuation group. No significant differences in changes were observed in the other six neurocognitive domains measured. Improvements in the Social and Occupational Functioning Scale were significantly greater in the paliperidone ER-switch group than in the risperidone-continuation group. In other efficacy outcome measures, no significant differences were observed between the two drugs. Paliperidone ER had a side-effect profile similar to that of risperidone, including metabolic problems and prolactin-related adverse events. In conclusion, switching from risperidone to paliperidone ER may lead to additional cognitive and social functional improvements. PMID:22809972

  1. Efficacy and cloud impacts of SO2 injections in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J. M.; Toon, O. B.; Yu, P.; Mills, M. J.; Bardeen, C.

    2014-12-01

    Injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the stratosphere to form reflective sulfate aerosols has been suggested as a leading solar radiation management idea to cool the planet. Studies with sectional aerosol models suggest limited efficacy due to aerosol growth; and studies with coupled models suggest possible impacts on stratospheric dynamics and chemistry. Modeling simulations to date have specified tropical SO2 injections at 18 km altitude or higher, which is above the flying ceiling of most existing aircraft. We simulate tropical SO2 injections at 13 km altitude (160 mb) and 20 km altitude (50 mb) and mid-latitude injections at 13 km altitude using the 60-level CAM5/CARMA model, which allows for detailed vertical resolution of the stratosphere, sectional aerosol bin representation, and interactions between aerosols, chemistry, radiation, and clouds. We quantify the resulting aerosol evolution, radiative effects, and surface temperature effects, as well as the impacts of SO2 injections on tropospheric clouds.

  2. Efficacy of first Ranibizumab intravitreal injection on macular edema caused by retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Cao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the efficacy of first Ranibizumab intravitreal injection on macular edema caused by retinal vein occlusion(RVO. METHODS: Thirty-nine eyes of 39 patients with macular edema due to RVO were treated in our hospital during June 2014 to December 2014. Patients received intravitreal injection of 0.05mL ranibizumab. Best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, central macular thickness(CMTand cube average thickness(CATwere analyzed at 2d, 2, and 4wk after injection, respectively. RESULTS: The baseline BCVA(LogMAR, CMT and CAT were 0.82±0. 45, 541±136?m and 382±107?m before treatment. After first ranibizumab intravitreal injection, mean BVCA significantly improved at 2d(0. 56±0.35,PPPPPPPPPCONCLUSION: First intravitreal injection of ranibizumab can improve macular edema caused by RVO in short-term, but long-term effects is needed further observed.

  3. Risperidone: new indication. Behavioural disorders in children with autism or mental disabilities: no progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    (1) Sedative drugs are one option when autistic or mentally disabled children have behavioural disorders that place them (or other people) in physical danger. Among the classic neuroleptics, haloperidol is the drug with the best-documented efficacy and safety. Placebo-controlled trials have also shown lithium to be effective for this use. (2) Clinical evaluation of risperidone in children with mental disabilities includes 3 placebo-controlled double-blind trials, 2 of which involved 118 and 110 children aged from 5 to 12 years who were treated for 6 weeks. All 3 trials showed a partial behavioural improvement in about 75% of children receiving risperidone, versus about 30% of children in the placebo groups. (3) Clinical evaluation of risperidone in autistic children includes 2 placebo-controlled double-blind trials involving 110 and 79 children who were treated for 8 weeks. One of these studies has been published in detail: 69% of children partially improved with risperidone, versus 12% of the children on placebo. (4) Given the absence of clinical trials comparing risperidone with haloperidol or lithium, there is no evidence that risperidone is more effective than these other treatments. (5) The principal adverse events observed in short-term trials of risperidone were drowsiness (affecting about 50% of children), weight gain (about 1.2 kg per month during the first months of treatment), and hyperprolactinaemia (affecting about 12% of children). Extrapyramidal disorders were infrequent during short-term trials, but their incidence reached about 25% after a year of risperidone treatment. (6) The impact of long-term risperidone therapy on growth and mental development is not known. (7) In France treatment is about 7 times more expensive with risperidone than with haloperidol. (8) In practice, the risk-benefit balance of risperidone in the treatment of autistic or mentally disabled children with behavioural disorders is no better overall than that of older products such as haloperidol and lithium, which, in the absence of anything better, remain the standard drugs. PMID:16602211

  4. Preparation and biological evaluation of radioiodinated risperidone and lamotrigine as models for brain imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risperidone and lamotrigine were successfully labeled with 125I via direct electrophilic substitution reaction at 80 deg C with maximum labeling yields of 89 ± 3.75 and 97.5 ± 1.0 %, respectively. Stability of 125I-risperidone was up to 6 h while that of 125I-lamotrigine was up to 24 h. Biodistribution studies showed that maximum uptakes of 125I-risperidone and 125I-lamotrigine in the brain of mice were 4.35 ± 0.17 and 2.51 ± 0.18 % of the injected activity/g tissue organ at 10 min post-injection, respectively. Both radioiodinated drugs showed higher brain uptake and stability compared to commercially available technetium-99m d,l-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime. (author)

  5. Risperidone: a review of its use in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lesley J; Dhillon, Sohita

    2007-01-01

    Risperidone (Risperdal), a psychotropic atypical antipsychotic agent, is thought to act via dopamine D(2) and serotonin (5-HT [5-hydroxytryptamine])(2A) receptor antagonism. The clinical efficacy of oral risperidone in the treatment of bipolar mania and schizophrenia in adult patients is well established. In the US, risperidone is also approved for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 5-16 years, for the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents aged 13-17 years and, as monotherapy, for the short-term treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in children and adolescents aged 10-17 years. Oral risperidone treatment was better than placebo treatment in reducing irritability and other behavioral symptoms associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents in two well designed short-term trials, with these benefits maintained in those receiving risperidone for up to 6 months. The drug had a clinically manageable tolerability profile, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate intensity. There are some aspects of treatment, such as weight gain, somnolence, and hyperglycemia, that require monitoring, and the long-term safety of risperidone in children and adolescents with autistic disorder remains to be fully determined. With these issues in mind, risperidone offers a valuable emerging option for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents. PMID:17927305

  6. THE EFFICACY OF ORAL GLUCOSE FOR RELIEVING PAIN FOLLOWING INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION IN TERM NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sajedi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Pain in neonates can be associated with various risks and it seems essential to find a simple and acceptable method for relieving pain. Pharmacologic agents are not recommended in neonates for pain relief in minor procedures but orally administered glucose solution is found to be effective. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of oral 30% glucose during intramuscular injection in term neonates. Sixty-four healthy term neonates were recruited for this study during 1 month. The inclusion criteria were gestational age 37-42 weeks, birth weight 2500-4000 gr, and Apgar score > 7. The intervention consists of administration of either 2 ml of oral 30% glucose or 2ml of sterile water 2 minutes before injection. The primary out come measure was the cumulative Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS score at 3 minutes after injection. Thirty-two neonates received 30% glucose and 32 neonates received sterile water. The cumulative NIPS score at 3 minutes after injection for neonates given 30% glucose was significantly (P = 0.000 lower than for neonates given sterile water. The heart rate immediately after injection for neonates given 30% glucose was significantly (P = 0.002 lower than for neonates given sterile water. Oral 30% glucose given 2 minutes before injection was effective in reducing neonatal pain following injection. It is a simple, safe and fast acting analgesic and should be considered for minor invasive procedures in term neonates.

  7. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment of Behavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin FAYYAZI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Fayyazi A, Salari E, Khajeh A, Ghajarpour A. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment ofBehavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn; 8(4:33-38.AbstractObjectiveMany patients with late-diagnosed phenylketonuria (PKU suffer from severe behavior problems. This study compares the effects of buspirone and risperidone on reducing behavior disorders in these patients.Materials & MethodsIn this crossover clinical trial study, patients with severe behavior disorders after medical examination were randomly divided into two groups of two 8-week crossover treatments with risperidone or buspirone. Patient behavioral disorders before and after treatment by each drug was rated by parents on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form (NCBRF, and after treatment by each drug, were assessed by a physician through clinical global impression (CGI.ResultsThirteen patients were able to complete the therapy period with these two medications.The most common psychiatric diagnoses were intellectual disability accompanied by pervasive developmental disorder NOS, and intellectual disability accompanied by autistic disorder. Risperidone was significantly effective in reducing the NCBRF subscales of hyperactivity disruptive/ stereotypic, and conduct problems. Treatment by buspirone only significantly decreased the severity of hyperactivity, but other behavior aspects showed no significant differences. Assessment of the severity of behavior disorder after treatment by risperidone and buspirone showed significant differences in reducing hyperactivity and masochistic/stereotype.ConclusionAlthough buspirone is effective in controlling hyperactivity in patients with PKU, it has no preference over risperidone. Therefore, it is recommended as an alternative to risperidone.ReferencesSmith I, Nowles JK. Behaviour in early treated phenylketonuria: a systematic review. Eur J Pediatr 2000;159:89-93.Targum SD and Lang W .Neurobehavioral Problems Associated with Phenylketonuria. Psychiatry (Edgemont 2009; 7(12:29–32.Luciana M, Hanson K L,Whitley C B.A preliminary report on dopamine system reactivity in PKU: acute effects of haloperidol on neuropsychological, physiological, and neuroendocrine functions. Psychopharmacology 2004;175: 18–25.Pappadopulos E, Woolston S, Chait A, Perkins M, Connor DF, Jensen P S. Pharmacotherapy of Aggression in Children and Adolescents: Efficacy and Effect Size. J CDN ACAD Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006; 15(1:27-39.Shea S, Turgay A, Carroll A, Schulz M, Orlik H ,Smith I and et al. Risperidone in the Treatment of Disruptive Behavioral Symptoms in Children With Autistic and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Pediatrcs 2004; 114:634-641.Miral S, Gencer O, Inal-Emiroglu F.N, Baykara B, Baykara A, Dirik E. Risperidone versus haloperidol in children and adolescents with AD: a randomized, controlled, doubleblind trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008; 17:1–8.Aman M.G, Hollway J.A, McDougle C.J, Scahill L, Tierney E, McCracken J.T and et al. Cognitive effects of risperidone in children with autism and irritable behavior. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol 2008; 18:227–236.Pandina G.J, Bossie C.A, Youssef E, Zhu Y, Dunbar F. Risperidone improves behavioral symptoms in children with autism in a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled trial. J Autism Dev Disord 2007; 37:367–373.Luby J, Mrakotsky C, Stalets M.M, Belden A, Heffelfinger A, Williams M and et al. Risperidone in preschool children with autistic spectrum disorders: an investigation of safety and efficacy. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol 2006; 16:575–587.Nagaraj R, Singhi P, Malhi P. Risperidone in children with autism: randomized, placebo controlled, double blind study. J. Child Neurol 2006; 21:450–455.Haas M, Karcher K, Pandina GJ. Treating Disruptive Behavior Disorders with Risperidone: A 1-Year, Open-Label Safety Study in Children and Adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 2008;18(4: 337–346.Jensen P, Buitelaar J, Pandina G, Binder C,

  8. Efficacy of endoscopic histoacryl injection in treatment of gastric variceal bleeding caused by regional portal hypertension

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    TANG Shanhong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo analyze the efficacy of endoscopic histoacryl injection in the treatment of gastric variceal bleeding caused by regional portal hypertension. MethodsThe endoscopic features and efficacy of endoscopic histoacryl injection were examined and compared in two groups of patients admitted to our hospital from June 2012 to December 2012. One of the groups included 6 patients with gastric variceal bleeding caused by regional portal hypertension and the other group included 6 patients with gastric variceal bleeding caused by hepatitis B cirrhosis-related portal hypertension. Between-group comparison of categorical data was made by Fisher?s test. ResultsIn patients with regional portal hypertension, five of them had severe isolated gastric varices (IGV and one had severe IGV with mild esophageal varices. All six patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis-related portal hypertension had severe IGV and the endoscopic features were similar to those of patients with regional portal hypertension. Significant differences were observed between the group with regional portal hypertension and the group with hepatitis B cirrhosis related portal hypertension in short-term response rate (1/6 vs 6/6, P=0.015 and long-term response rate (0/6 vs 5/6, P=0.015. ConclusionThe gastric varices caused by regional portal hypertension has a fast progression rate and a high bleeding risk. The efficacy of endoscopic histoacryl injection in patients with this type of gastric varices is poor.

  9. A trial of quetiapine compared with risperidone in the treatment of first onset psychosis among 15- to 18-year-old adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadi, Harith S; Craig, Brian J; Pirwani, Nabeel Z; Black, Valerie C; Buchan, Jill C; Bobier, Candace M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine in the treatment of first onset psychosis in older adolescents using risperidone as a comparator. Twenty-two patients with first onset psychosis were randomized to receive quetiapine (up to 800 mg/day) or risperidone (up to 6 mg/day) for 6 weeks. Raters blind to treatment assignment performed outcome symptom ratings. No statistical differences emerged in terms of efficacy or tolerability between the two drugs. However, there were some clinically notable differences that seem to favour the efficacy of risperidone over quetiapine. Patients taking quetiapine, although improved, showed less clinical improvement on scores for total positive and negative symptoms, clinical global severity and depression at 6 weeks than patients taking risperidone. Although both treatments were associated with weight gain and sedation, more patients on quetiapine experienced over 10% weight gain. However, fewer patients who were taking quetiapine required anticholinergic medication or experienced extrapyramidal side effects than patients taking risperidone. Risperidone was significantly more likely to be associated with elevation in serum prolactin levels in this population. In conclusion, the results in this small trial show that adolescent patients may benefit more from treatment with risperidone than quetiapine. However, those susceptible to side effects, particularly hyperprolactinaemia, may be more suitable for treatment with quetiapine. PMID:19809337

  10. Treatment-completion rates with olanzapine long-acting injection versus risperidone long-acting injection in a 12-month, open-label treatment of schizophrenia: indirect, exploratory comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Ascher-Svanum H; Montgomery WS; McDonnell DP; Coleman KA; Feldman PD

    2012-01-01

    Haya Ascher-Svanum1, William S Montgomery2, David P McDonnell3, Kristina A Coleman4, Peter D Feldman11Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, New South Wales, Australia; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Cork, Ireland; 4OptumInsight, Lilyfield, New South Wales, AustraliaBackground: Little is known about the comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in long-acting injection formulation. Due to the absence of head-to-h...

  11. Review of risperidone for the treatment of pediatric and adolescent bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

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    Jeffrey R Bishop

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey R Bishop1,2, Mani N Pavuluri21Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Pediatric Mood Disorders Program and Center for Cognitive Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Risperidone is a commonly used medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents. It has been studied as a monotherapy treatment in early onset schizophrenia and as both monotherapy and combination therapy for pediatric bipolar disorder. Studies to date indicate that risperidone is an effective treatment for positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and mania symptoms of bipolar disorder. In young patient populations, side effects such as weight gain, extrapyramidal side effects, and prolactin elevation require consideration when evaluating the risk benefit ratio for individual patients. Here we review published studies of risperidone for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents to provide practitioners with an overview of published data on the efficacy and safety of risperidone in these patient populations.Keywords: risperidone, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, children, adolescents

  12. Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Injections in the Treatment of Various Types of Facial Region Disorders

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    Arzu Çoban

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Local injection of botulinum toxin is a highly effective treatment option for a wide range of movement disorders and there are reliable sources of information on its indications, effects and safety in clinical practice. In this study, we report our experience with botulinum toxin in the treatment of facial region disorders. METHODS: Patients who had been followed in the Botulinum Toxin Outpatient Clinic of the Neurology Department were retrospectively evaluated. Two preparations of botulinum toxin type A (BT-A were used. The efficacy of BT-A injections was rated according to the improvement in symptoms as follows: marked - 75-100% improvement, good - 50-74%, moderate - 25-49%, and insufficient - less than 25% symptom relief. RESULTS: One hundred eighty-two patients (73 male, 109 female with various facial region disorders were included. The efficacy rates for patients who had very good and good improvement were high in the treatment of blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, facial synkinesis, and Meige syndrome and moderate for oromandibular dystonia and hypersalivation. Ptosis was the most common side effect. CONCLUSION: According to our results, botulinum toxin was very effective treatment for blepharospasm, Meige syndrome, hemifacial spasm and facial synkinesis, whereas it demonstrated good efficacy in oromandibular dystonia and hypersalivation.

  13. Risperidone in the treatment of conduct disorder in preschool children without intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Durak Sibel; Basay Omer; Basay Burge; Ercan Eyup S; Ozbaran Burcu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition Textrevision) highlights the especially poor outcomes of early-onset conduct disorder (CD). The strong link between the patient's age at treatment and its efficacy points the importance of early intervention. Risperidone is one of the most commonly studied medications used to treat CD in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to obtain preliminary data about the efficacy and toler...

  14. Efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab injection combined with macular grid photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema

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    Hu-Lin Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with macular grid photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema(DME.METHODS:Totally 60 eyes(60 patientswith DME were randomly divided into 2 groups: 30 eyes of simple injection group underwent intravitreal injection of ranibizumab, and 30 eyes of combined treatment group underwent intravitreal injection of ranibizumab and macular grid photocoagulation 1wk later. The best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, central macular thickness(CMTmeasured by optical coherence tomography(OCTand postoperative complications were observed.RESULTS:In simple injection group, the BCVA after operation were separately 0.390±0.075(4wk, 0.367±0.088(8wkand 0.319±0.064(12wk,the CMT after operation were separately 221.63±112.34?m(4wk, 337.73±99.56?m(8wkand 432.92±100.46?m(12wk, which were much better than pre-operation. But during follow-up, the BCVA presented down trend and the CMT was on the rise slowly. In combined treatment group, the BCVA after operation were separately 0.385±0.036(4wk, 0.382±0.079(8wkand 0.377±0.097(12wk,the CMT after operation were separately 249.77±106.55?m(4wk, 270.40±92.88?m(8wkand 275.84±97.34?m(12wk, which were satisfactory and steady during follow-up, better than simple injection group(PCONCLUSION:Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab can effectively improve visual acuity and decrease central foveal thickness for patients with DME, combining with macular grid photocoagulation can ensure therapeutic effects steady and permanent.

  15. Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) in treatment of cestode infections in domestic and laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Kee Seon; Kim, Seung Ho; Rim, Han Jong

    1988-06-01

    Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) by intramuscular (I.M.) route against cestode infections was evaluated. Total 93 domestic or laboratory animals such as dogs, cats, rats, mice, goats, deers and chickens were used. Animals were infected with Dipylidium caninum, Spirometra sp., Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis nana, Moniezia expansa, Moniezia sp. or Raillietina sp. A single dose of praziquantel, 6 mg/kg of body weight, was highly effective (97.9%) against cestodes of various kinds disregarding the host species or their intensity of infection. At high dose above 6 mg/kg, the cure rate was 100%. All the cestodes treated were expelled from the host within 48 hours. The discharged proglottids were damaged severely except Hymenolepis nana and Moniezia expansa. Intramuscular injection of this drug evoked a brief pain response in a dog, but no other side reactions were observed. PMID:12811058

  16. Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network. Background and rationale for an initial controlled study of risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougle, C J; Scahill, L; McCracken, J T; Aman, M G; Tierney, E; Arnold, L E; Freeman, B J; Martin, A; McGough, J J; Cronin, P; Posey, D J; Riddle, M A; Ritz, L; Swiezy, N B; Vitiello, B; Volkmar, F R; Votolato, N A; Walson, P

    2000-01-01

    This article has reviewed the background and rationale for the choice of risperidone as the first drug to be studied by the RUPP Autism Network. Risperidone has potent effects on 5-HT and DA neuronal systems, both of which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of autism. Unlike the typical antipsychotics, haloperidol and pimozide, which have been shown to be effective for reducing many of the maladaptive behaviors associated with autism, risperidone's 5-HT2A/DA D2 ratio of receptor blockade appears to produce a lower risk of acute and chronic extrapyramidal side effects, as well as enhanced efficacy for the "negative" symptoms of autism. Indirect clinical and preclinical evidence supports the use of risperidone to treat impaired social behavior, interfering repetitive phenomena, and aggression, targets of pharmacotherapy for many patients with autism. Numerous published open-label trials in children and adolescents with autism and related PDDs and one double-blind, placebo-controlled study in adults suggest that risperidone has promise for the treatment of children and adolescents with autism. Because most of these studies have been short-term, open-label trials in small samples, however, a large-scale controlled study of risperidone in children and adolescents with autism is needed to confirm these results. Finally, because it is likely that children who demonstrate short-term benefit from risperidone will remain on the medication indefinitely, the longer-term effectiveness and safety of risperidone in this population also needs to be determined. The design of this study and the assessments used are described separately. PMID:10674197

  17. The treatment of autistic children with risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodig-Curkovi?, Katarina; Curkovi?, Mario; Radi?, Josipa; Radi?, Mislav

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterised by impairment in social interaction and communication, with unusual behavior. In some cases the pharmacotherapy is prescribed and the most studied antipshychotic drugs include haloperidol and risperidone. In this paper we displayed the treatment of two cases of autism in boy and girl with risperidone. With the use of risperidone in girl, we have achieved reduction of psychomotor symptoms and reduction of hetero-aggressive and self-destructive behavior, and in boy we have also achieved reduction of psychomotoric symptoms, with improvement in contact with his surrounding, he had less learning problems and he has felt familiar not only with his mother, but with other persons. Research on the use of risperidone in the treatment of autistic disorders among children in Croatia are rare, given the limited use of risperidone in children younger than 15years, the question arises about the need to expand the scope of application of risperidone in younger age groups. PMID:21648351

  18. Combined use of ozone and collagenase injection for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation:comparison of therapeutic efficacy with simple ozone injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effects of combined use of ozone and collagenase injection in treating lumbar disc herniation and to make a comparison of therapeutic efficacy with simple ozone injection. Methods: Under DSA guidance,percutaneous puncturing of diseased lumbar disk with a gauge 9 needle was performed in 76 patient with lumbar disc herniation. After the needle position was confirmed in the right site simple ozone injection (control group, n=38) or combined use of ozone and collagenase injection (study group, n=38) was carried outs. The clinical results were evaluated and compared between two groups. Results: After the treatment, all 76 patients were followed up regularly at 1, 3 and 6 months. At 1, 3 and 6 months after the therapy, the effective rate of study group was 89.5%, 92.1% and 94.7% respectively, while the effective rate of control group was 86.8%, 84.2% and 81.6% respectively. Conclusion: For the treatment of lumbar disc herniation, the therapeutic effect of combined use of ozone and collagenase injection is much better than that by using simple ozone injection, moreover, it carries a quite stable long-term efficacy. (authors)

  19. Hyperprolactinaemia - a risperidone side-effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahovac, Tanja; Ruzi?, Klementina; Medved, Paola; Pavesi?-Radonja, Aristea; Dadi?-Hero, Elizabeta

    2010-03-01

    A 47 year old patient has been treated for psychotic depression for the last 5 years. The illness began manifesting through the symptoms of depressive thoughts, intrapsychic tension, projectivity, derealisation phenomena and pre-psychotic fears. She was treated with a combination of antidepressives, anxiolitics and hypnotics in ambulatory conditions. The therapy applied did not obtain the effects expected due to which an atypical antipsychotic was administered subsequently - risperidone, a 2 mg dose in the evening. After commencing the antipsychotic treatment, the symptoms started to weaken and a steady remission was obtained. Two years after a regular risperidone administration (in combination with fluoxetine, alprazolam and flurazepam) the patient reported some "bleeding" in October 2006. Hormonal blood tests were performed and high prolactin values were registered (2567.0 mIJ/L),due to which a gradual risperidone retractement was indicated. Medicamentous hyperprolactinaemia is a well known side effect of risperidone. A gradual risperidone retractement lead to a lowered and normal prolactin level within a month. PMID:20305606

  20. Double-blind comparison of ziprasidone and risperidone in the treatment of Chinese patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hongyan Zhang1, Huafang Li2, Liang Shu1, Niufan Gu2, Gang Wang3, Yongzhen Weng3, Shiping Xie4, Xinbao Zhang4, Ting Li5, Cui Ma5, Wei Yu6, Bruce Parsons7, Manjula Schou81Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing, China; 2Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai, China; 3Capital Medical University, Beijing An Ding Hospital, Beijing, China; 4Nanjing Brain Hospital, Nanjing, China; 5Guangzhou Brain Hospital, Guangzhou, China; 6Pfizer China, Beijing, China; 7Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA; 8Pfizer Australia, Sydney, AustraliaBackground: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ziprasidone versus risperidone in Chinese subjects with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.Methods: In patients meeting the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders criteria for schizophrenia and with a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score ?60 were randomly assigned to six weeks of double-blind treatment with ziprasidone 40–80 mg twice daily or risperidone 1–3 mg bid, flexibly dosed. Noninferiority was demonstrated if the upper limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval (CI for the difference in PANSS total score improvement from baseline in the evaluable population was smaller than the prespecified noninferiority margin of 10 units.Results: The intent-to-treat population comprised 118 ziprasidone-treated and 121 risperidone-treated subjects. Improvement (reduction from baseline to week 6 in PANSS total score was (-35.6 [95% CI: -38.6, -32.6] for ziprasidone and (-37.1 [95% CI: -39.9, -34.4] for risperidone. Noninferiority was demonstrated in the evaluable population with a difference score of 1.5 [95% CI: -2.5, 5.5]. Mean prolactin levels decreased at week 6 compared with baseline for ziprasidone (-3.5 ng/mL, but significantly increased for risperidone (61.1 ng/mL; P < 0.001. More risperidone-treated subjects (14.9% than ziprasidone-treated subjects (4.2% reported weight gain ?7%. Akathisia and somnolence in the ziprasidone group and akathisia and insomnia in the risperidone group were the most common side effects. Treatment-related/treatment-emergent adverse events were reported by 79.7% and 71.1% of ziprasidone-treated and risperidone-treated subjects, respectively.Conclusion: In Chinese subjects, ziprasidone was as effective as risperidone, with less weight gain and less prolactin elevation.Keywords: ziprasidone, risperidone, schizophrenia

  1. Risperidone in the treatment of behavioral disorders associated with autism in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Canitano; Valeria Scandurra

    2008-01-01

    Roberto Canitano, Valeria ScandurraDivision of Child Neuropsychiatry, University Hospital of Siena, Siena, ItalyAbstract: This is a review of the clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The main clinical characteristics are impairment in social skills, communication difficulties, repetitive movements and behaviors, including stereotypies. Pharmacotherapy is mainly directed at the so-called target...

  2. Efficacy of Silk Channel Injections with Insecticides for Management of Lepidoptera Pests of Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, A N; Gadal, L; Ni, X

    2015-08-01

    The primary Lepidoptera pests of sweet corn (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata) in Georgia are the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Management of these pests typically requires multiple insecticide applications from first silking until harvest, with commercial growers frequently spraying daily. This level of insecticide use presents problems for small growers, particularly for "pick-your-own" operations. Injection of oil into the corn ear silk channel 5-8 days after silking initiation has been used to suppress damage by these insects. Initial work with this technique in Georgia provided poor results. Subsequently, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of silk channel injections as an application methodology for insecticides. A single application of synthetic insecticide, at greatly reduced per acre rates compared with common foliar applications, provided excellent control of Lepidoptera insects attacking the ear tip and suppressed damage by sap beetles (Nitidulidae). While this methodology is labor-intensive, it requires a single application of insecticide at reduced rates applied ?2?wk prior to harvest, compared with potential daily applications at full rates up to the day of harvest with foliar insecticide applications. This methodology is not likely to eliminate the need for foliar applications because of other insect pests which do not enter through the silk channel or are not affected by the specific selective insecticide used in the silk channel injection, but would greatly reduce the number of applications required. This methodology may prove particularly useful for small acreage growers. PMID:26470329

  3. Risperidone associated paralytic ileus in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthasarathy Ramamourthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man, diagnosed with catatonic schizophrenia, was treated with risperidone and lorazepam in the general hospital psychiatry setup. He developed signs of intestinal obstruction, which was diagnosed as paralytic ileus and was treated conservatively along with stopping the offending drug. Risperidone is said to be devoid of anticholinergic side effects, but prevalence of these varies from 7% to 13% in patients receiving treatment for schizophrenia. Constipation has been reported but fatal adverse effect like paralytic ileus with risperidone is rarely reported. Timely diagnosis can save the need for surgical interventions and fatal complications. This predisposition in schizophrenia could be due to neurodevelopmentally shared abnormality of brain and gut nervous system.

  4. Comparison of Efficacy of Intercessional Injection of Glucantime and Cryotherapy with Intralesional Injection in the Treatment of Zoonotic Cutaneous leishmaniasis:a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedin Saghafipour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was done to compare the efficacy of interlesional injection of Glucantime method and cryotherapy with interlesional injection in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Qom province. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial patients were randomly allocated in the two arms of the study:one receiving interalesional Glucantime injection weekly and the other receiving biweekly cryothrapy with intralesional injections of Glucantime. At first, the lesion size and induration of lesions were recorded after 7 and 12 weeks, and treatment of lesions was monitored. Healing was defined as complete re-epithelialisation and disappearance of induration. Results: Out of a total of 197 CL patientsm 112 cases with L. major were studied. 54 cases with 116 lesions received intralesional Glucantime injection and 58 patients with 115 lesions received cryothrapy with intralesional injections of Glucantime. At 7th week after the initiation of the treatment, complete healing was observed in56 out of 116 lesions (48.1% in the group which received weekly intralesional IG injection and 83 out of 115 lesions (72.2% in the group which received biweekly GI with IG&cryothrapy. At 12th week after the initiation of the treatment, complete healing was observed in 105 out of 116 lesions (91% in the group which received weekly intralesional IG injection and 115 out of 115 lesions (%100 in the group which received biweekly GI with IG & cryothrapy. By the end of 7th week, RR (0.95CI amounted to 1.86(1.1 – 3.15 and at the end of 12th week they tapped to 3.4 (2.23- 2.27 which are statistically significant (P<0.02. The significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of complete healing rate (P<0.05. Conclusion: Based on the findings, cryothrapy with biweekly intralesional injections of Glucantime was more effective compared with weekly intercessional Glucantime injection and reduced the period of treatment.

  5. Waterborne Risperidone Decreases Stress Response in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idalencio, Renan; Kalichak, Fabiana; Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Oliveira, Tiago Acosta de; Koakoski, Gessi; Gusso, Darlan; Abreu, Murilo Sander de; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Barcellos, Heloísa Helena de Alcântara; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2015-01-01

    The presence of drugs and their metabolites in surface waters and municipal effluents has been reported in several studies, but its impacts on aquatic organisms are not yet well understood. This study investigated the effects of acute exposure to the antipsychotic risperidone on the stress and behavioral responses in zebrafish. It became clear that intermediate concentration of risperidone inhibited the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis and displayed anxiolytic-like effects in zebrafish. The data presented here suggest that the presence of this antipsychotic in aquatic environments can alter neuroendocrine and behavior profiles in zebrafish. PMID:26473477

  6. Waterborne Risperidone Decreases Stress Response in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichak, Fabiana; Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; de Oliveira, Tiago Acosta; Koakoski, Gessi; Gusso, Darlan; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Barcellos, Heloísa Helena de Alcântara

    2015-01-01

    The presence of drugs and their metabolites in surface waters and municipal effluents has been reported in several studies, but its impacts on aquatic organisms are not yet well understood. This study investigated the effects of acute exposure to the antipsychotic risperidone on the stress and behavioral responses in zebrafish. It became clear that intermediate concentration of risperidone inhibited the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis and displayed anxiolytic-like effects in zebrafish. The data presented here suggest that the presence of this antipsychotic in aquatic environments can alter neuroendocrine and behavior profiles in zebrafish. PMID:26473477

  7. Efficacy of injections of phosphatidylcholine into fat deposits-a non-surgical alternative to liposuction in body-contouring

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    Karl-G Heinrich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Injecting phosphatidylcholine has been used in South America as a non-surgical treatment in body contouring. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of injecting phosphatidylcholine in the reduction of localised fat deposits. 86 patients were included in the study. Patients received 1-3 treatments in localised fat deposits in various areas of the body using phosphatidylcholine. After treatment with phosphatidylcholine (250 mg / 5 ml, fat deposits show an average circumferential reduction per application of 2.70 cm. No patient showed irregularities, dimples or any serious side effect after treatment. Results remained stable during the time of follow up. All patients showed remarkable reductions of the fat deposits treated with phosphatidylcholine. Using the correct technique, injecting phosphatidylcholine may be a safe and efficacious alternative to liposuction in patients objecting to surgery.

  8. Risperidone in the treatment of conduct disorder in preschool children without intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durak Sibel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition Textrevision highlights the especially poor outcomes of early-onset conduct disorder (CD. The strong link between the patient's age at treatment and its efficacy points the importance of early intervention. Risperidone is one of the most commonly studied medications used to treat CD in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to obtain preliminary data about the efficacy and tolerability of risperidone treatment in otherwise typically developing preschool children with conduct disorder and severe behavioral problems. Method We recruited 12 otherwise normally developing preschoolers (ten boys and two girls with CD for this study. We could not follow up with 4 children at control visits properly; thus, 8 children (six girls, two boys; mean age: 42.4 months completed the study. We treated the patients with risperidone in an open-label fashion for 8 weeks, starting with a daily dosage of 0.125 mg/day or 0.25 mg/day depending on the patient's weight (20 kg children: 0.25 mg/day. Dosage titration and increments were performed at 2-week interval clinical assessments. The Turgay DSM-IV Based Disruptive Behavior Disorders Child and Adolescent Rating & Screening Scale (T-DSM-IV-S as well as the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI assessed treatment efficacy; the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS and laboratory evaluations assessed treatment safety. Results The mean daily dosage of risperidone at the end of 8 weeks was 0.78 mg/day (SD: 0.39 with a maximum dosage of 1.50 mg/day. Based on the CGI global improvement item, we classified all patients as "responders" (very much or much improved. Risperidone was associated with a 78% reduction in the CGI Severity score. We also detected significant improvements on all of the subscales of the T-DSM-IV-S. Tolerability was good, and serious adverse effects were not observed. We detected statistically significant prolactin level increments (p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that risperidone may be an effective and well-tolerated atypical antipsychotic for the treatment of CD in otherwise normally developing preschool children. The findings of the study should be interpreted as preliminary data considering its small sample size and open-label methodology.

  9. Efficacy of Ligustrazine Injection as Adjunctive Therapy for Angina Pectoris: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Huikai; Zhao, Lingguo; Chen, Fuchao; Zeng, Shengbo; Liu, Shengquan; Li, Jiajia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the past decades, a large number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of ligustrazine injection combined with conventional antianginal drugs for angina pectoris have been reported. However, these RCTs have not been evaluated in accordance with PRISMA systematic review standards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ligustrazine injection as adjunctive therapy for angina pectoris. MATERIAL AND METHODS The databases PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase, Sino-Med, Wanfang Databases, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Google Scholar, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the Chinese Science Citation Database were searched for published RCTs. Meta-analysis was performed on the primary outcome measures, including the improvements of electrocardiography (ECG) and the reductions in angina symptoms. Sensitivity and subgroup analysis based on the M score (the refined Jadad scores) were also used to evaluate the effect of quality, sample size, and publication year of the included RCTs on the overall effect of ligustrazine injection. RESULTS Eleven RCTs involving 870 patients with angina pectoris were selected in this study. Compared with conventional antianginal drugs alone, ligustrazine injection combined with antianginal drugs significantly increased the efficacy in symptom improvement (odds ratio [OR], 3.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.39 to 5.40) and in ECG improvement (OR, 3.42; 95% CI: 2.33 to 5.01). Sensitivity and subgroup analysis also confirmed that ligustrazine injection had better effect in the treatment of angina pectoris as adjunctive therapy. CONCLUSIONS The 11 eligible RCTs indicated that ligustrazine injection as adjunctive therapy was more effective than antianginal drugs alone. However, due to the low quality of included RCTs, more rigorously designed RCTs were still needed to verify the effects of ligustrazine injection as adjunctive therapy for angina pectoris. PMID:26615387

  10. Efficacy of oral and intraperitoneal administration of CBMIDA for removing uranium in rats after parenteral injections of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of oral administration of the chelating agent catechol-3, 6-bis(methyliminodiacetic acid) (CBMIDA) for removing uranium from rats after intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intramuscular (i.m.) injections of depleted uranium (DU) was examined and the results with those by the i.p. injection of CBMIDA were compared. In Experiment 1, after a single i.p. injection of 8 mg kg-1 of DU of rat's body weight, 35 8-week-old male rats were divided into seven groups consisting of five rats each. Three groups were administered with CBMIDA 240, 720 or 1200 mg kg-1 of rat's body weight orally once a day, and three other groups received an i.p. injection of 240, 480 or 720 mg kg-1 CBMIDA for 3 d, starting 30 min after DU injection on the first day. One DU group received no CBMIDA. The remaining five intact rats were used as a control group. Rats were killed 6 d after DU injection. In Experiment 2, the 35 male rats that received a single i.m. injection of 8 mg kg-1 DU were divided into seven groups, and the rats of each group received the same doses of CBMIDA on the same schedules of treatment as those described in Experiment 1. The results obtained in Experiment 1 indicated that orally administered CBMIDA significantly increased the excretion of uranium at doses of 720 and 1200 mg kg-1 and decreased uranium concentrations, particularly in the kidney, at all the doses tested, and the effects were almost equal to those of the i.p. injection. The lack of increases in creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in serum indicated that CBMIDA is efficacious in preventing the renal dysfunction caused by uranium. In Experiment 2, oral administration of CBMIDA significantly increased uranium excretion and significantly decreased uranium concentrations, particularly in the kidneys, at all the doses tested, and the effects were almost equal to those of the i.p. injection. However, these effects of CBMIDA on the i.m.-injected DU were lower than those of the i.p.-injected DU in Experiment 1. These results indicated that oral administration of CBMIDA has almost the same efficacy as that administered by the parenteral route. Additional study is necessary to obtain satisfactory effects for the clinical use of CBMIDA, particularly for wounds contaminated accidentally with uranium. (authors)

  11. Population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation to guide dose selection for RBP-7000, a new sustained-release formulation of risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffont, Celine M; Gomeni, Roberto; Zheng, Bo; Heidbreder, Christian; Fudala, Paul J; Nasser, Azmi F

    2015-01-01

    RBP-7000 is a long-acting formulation of risperidone designed for once-monthly subcutaneous injection for the treatment of schizophrenia. The objective was to estimate clinically effective doses of RBP-7000 based on model simulations and on the comparison with other long-acting injectable antipsychotics. A population pharmacokinetic model of RBP-7000 was developed in 90 clinically stable schizophrenic patients having received single/repeated doses of 60, 90, or 120?mg. Model simulations were conducted to compare active moiety plasma exposure after repeated RBP-7000 administrations to the published data of long-acting risperidone injection (Risperdal® Consta®) at 25 and 50?mg, and of paliperidone palmitate (Invega® Sustenna®) at 50 and 100?mg equivalent paliperidone. Predictions of dopamine D2 receptor occupancy were derived from the simulated active moiety concentrations. Simulations showed similar active moiety plasma exposure at steady-state for 90?mg of RBP-7000 and 25?mg of long-acting risperidone. In comparison to risperidone, RBP-7000 reached effective concentrations immediately after the first administration. RBP-7000 at the doses of 60 and 90?mg provided similar active moiety plasma concentrations at steady-state compared to 50 and 100?mg equivalent paliperidone, respectively. These findings provide guidance for dose selection in Phase III clinical trials and suggest potential benefits for RBP-7000 over competitors. PMID:25043337

  12. Pharmacokinetic and efficacy study of cisplatin and paclitaxel formulated in a new injectable poly(sebacic-co-ricinoleic acid) polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Nissenbaum, Etgar; Khan, Wahid; Pawar, Rajendra P; Tabakman, Rinat; Naftali, Esmira; Winkler, Ilan; Kaufman, Olga; Klapper, Leah; Domb, Abraham J

    2012-09-01

    Injectable biodegradable polymer poly(sebacic-co-ricinoleic acid), P(SA-RA) is currently under development for intratumoral (IT) delivery of drugs for treating solid tumors. This study presents formulation development, pharmacokinetic and efficacy studies of two anticancer drugs (cisplatin and paclitaxel) formulated with P(SA-RA) polymer. In pharmacokinetic study, systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic parameters of cisplatin/paclitaxel following single intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) doses of cisplatin/paclitaxel was compared with intramuscular (IM) or SC doses of cisplatin/paclitaxel formulated with P(SA-RA) polymer in male CD rat. Simultaneously, the tumor reduction effect and toxicity for these formulations were evaluated in human FaDu head and neck tumor xenograft subcutaneous nude mouse model. Pharmacokinetic data reflect the lower maximal concentrations and sustained release of polymer-cisplatin/paclitaxel formulations compared to standard cisplatin/paclitaxel administration. Regarding efficacy study, a single IT or near the tumor injection (NT) of polymer-paclitaxel or polymer-cisplatin formulation significantly reduced the tumor size, compared to the standard paclitaxel or cisplatin treatments. No death or toxicity and no effect on body weight as well as macroscopic and/or microscopic changes in or near the injected area were observed, proving biocompatibility and acceptability of polymer-formulations. In conclusion, the developed formulation demonstrated controlled release and significant efficacy in delivering these agents and exhibit potential for further clinical development. PMID:22732267

  13. A clinical evaluation of risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia: a 10-week, open-label, multicenter trial. ARCS Study Group. Assessment of Risperdal in a Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, D V; Klausner, M; Brecher, M; Clyde, C; Jones, R

    1997-06-01

    The efficacy and safety of risperidone have previously been demonstrated in controlled clinical trials in hospitalized chronic schizophrenia patients who met strict research criteria. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of risperidone in a heterogeneous patient population. Patients were enrolled in the study if they had a diagnosis of schizophrenia (DSM-III-R) with or without acute exacerbation. Of the 945 patients from 158 psychiatric centers who entered this phase IV study, 558 completed the 10-week trial. During week 1, the dose of risperidone was titrated to 6 mg/day, maintained there for 1 week, and then adjusted over a 4-week period as clinically necessary; the dose was then fixed for the final 4-week period. The mean dose of risperidone at endpoint was 5.9 mg/day. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at weeks 2, 6, and 10, using Clinical Global Impression scale, Psychotic Symptoms Assessment scale, and Global Assessment of Functioning scale. Significant improvement in mean scores was found on each of these measures at endpoint. Comparable results were obtained at week 10 in treatment-resistant and non-treatment-resistant patients. Risperidone was generally well tolerated and the severity of extrapyramidal symptoms was significantly reduced at endpoint. PMID:9203234

  14. Efficacy of a single ultrasound-guided injection for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Atchia, Ismaël

    2011-01-01

    Intra-articular injection is effective for osteoarthritis, but the best single injection strategy is not known, nor are there established predictors of response. The objectives of this study were to assess and predict response to a single ultrasound-guided injection in moderate to severe hip osteoarthritis.

  15. Efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotic drugs (quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole and paliperidone) compared with placebo or typical antipsychotic drugs for treating refractory schizophrenia: overview of systematic reviews / Eficácia e segurança dos antipsicóticos atípicos (quetiapina, risperidona, aripiprazol, paliperidona) em comparação com um placebo ou medicamentos antipsicóticos típicos no tratamento da esquizofrenia refratária: overview de revisão sistemática

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tamara, Melnik; Bernardo Garcia, Soares; Maria Eduarda dos Santos, Puga; Álvaro Nagib, Atallah.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: De acordo com alguns estudos de coorte, a prevalência da esquizofrenia refratária (ER) está entre 20-40%. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a efetividade e segurança de aripiprazol, paliperidona, quetiapina e risperidona no tratamento da esquizofrenia refratária. MÉTODOS: Avaliação crí [...] tica das revisões Cochrane publicadas na Biblioteca Cochrane e complementação com referências de ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECRs) mais atualizados sobre ER. As seguintes bases de dados foram pesquisadas: Medline (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online) (1966-2009), Ensaios Controlados da Colaboração Cochrane (2009, edição 2), Embase (Excerpta Database) (1980-2009), Lilacs (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) (1982-2009). Não houve restrição a idiomas. Ensaios clínicos randomizados, revisões sistemáticas e metanálises que avaliaram antipsicóticos atípicos no tratamento da esquizofrenia refratária foram incluídos. RESULTADOS: Sete revisões sistemáticas Cochrane e 10 ECRs complementares foram incluídos nessa revisão. No geral os dados demonstram pequenas diferenças entre os antipsicóticos atípicos avaliados e os típicos na melhora dos sintomas da doença, apesar da melhor adesão ao tratamento com os atípicos. A risperidona foi avaliada especificamente em pacientes com esquizofrenia refratária em uma das revisões sistemáticas incluídas, a qual demonstrou desfechos favoráveis, porém não definitivos quando comparada a drogas também com eficácia comprovada como amisulprida, clozapina e olanzapina. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados reforçam a dificuldade de tratar esses pacientes, com elevadas taxas de desistência do tratamento e padrões de melhora modestos nas avaliações de eficácia. Os antipsicóticos atípicos têm vantagens sobre os típicos principalmente pelo melhor perfil de segurança, o que leva a melhor adesão ao tratamento. A associação de antipsicóticos também pode ser uma opção em alguns pacientes refratários ao tratamento. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: According to some cohort studies, the prevalence of refractory schizophrenia (RS) is 20-40%. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of aripiprazole, paliperidone, quetiapine and risperidone for treating RS. METHODS: This was a critical appraisal of Cochrane revie [...] ws published in the Cochrane Library, supplemented with reference to more recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on RS. The following databases were searched: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline) (1966-2009), Controlled Trials of the Cochrane Collaboration (2009, Issue 2), Embase (Excerpta Medica) (1980-2009), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs) (1982-2009). There was no language restriction. Randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses evaluating atypical antipsychotics for treating RS were included. RESULTS: Seven Cochrane systematic reviews and 10 additional RCTs were included in this review. The data generally showed minor differences between the atypical antipsychotics evaluated and typical antipsychotics, regarding improvement in disease symptoms, despite better adherence to treatment with atypical antipsychotics. Risperidone was specifically evaluated in patients with RS in one of the systematic reviews included, with favorable outcomes, but without definitive superiority compared with other drugs of proven efficacy, like amisulpride, clozapine and olanzapine. CONCLUSIONS: The findings underscore the difficulty in treating these patients, with high dropout rates and treatment patterns of modest improvement in assessments of effectiveness. Atypical antipsychotics have advantages over typical antipsychotics mainly through their better safety profile, which leads to better adherence to treatment. A combination of antipsychotics may also be an option for some refractory patients.

  16. Risperidone in the treatment of bipolar mania

    OpenAIRE

    Sajatovic, Martha; Subramoniam, Madhusoodanan; Fuller, Matthew A

    2006-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic medications have assumed growing importance for the treatment of bipolar disorder, an illness that affects approximately 1.2%–3.7% of the general population in a given year. Current practice guidelines for the treatment of bipolar mania support the use of atypical antipsychotic medications as monotherapy or as a component of polytherapy, and in clinical settings the use of atypical antipsychotics to treat bipolar disorder is widespread. Risperidone is an atypical antips...

  17. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma versus hyaluronic acid for hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Milva; Guaraldi, Federica; Vannini, Francesca; Rossi, Giuseppe; Timoncini, Antonio; Buda, Roberto; Giannini, Sandro

    2013-12-01

    Intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) represent efficacious medical treatments for osteoarthritis (OA), although no comparative study on long-term efficacy in hip OA exists. The goals of the current study were to compare the clinical efficacy of PRP vs HA at 12 months of follow-up in patients with hip OA and evaluate the influence of the type of infiltration and patient age, sex, body mass index, and degree of OA on temporal clinical evolution. One hundred patients with chronic unilateral symptomatic hip OA were consecutively enrolled and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: group A received PRP and group B received HA administered via intra-articular ultrasound-guided injections. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months using the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and visual analog scale (VAS). An overall improvement was detected in both groups between 1- and 3-month follow-up. Despite a slightly progressive worsening between 6- and 12-month follow-up, the final clinical scores remained higher compared with baseline (P<.0005), with no significant differences between PRP and HA. Regarding clinical temporal evolution, multivariate analysis showed that HHS was not influenced by the type of infiltration, patient age, sex, body mass index, or degree of OA, whereas a significant association was detected between OA grade IV and VAS evolution (P<.0005). Intra-articular injections of PRP are efficacious in terms of functional improvement and pain reduction but are not superior to HA in patients with symptomatic hip OA at 12-month follow-up. PMID:24579221

  18. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Risperidone for the Treatment of Adolescents and Young Adults with Anorexia Nervosa: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Jennifer; Gralla, Jane; Sigel, Eric; Ellert, Swan; Dodge, Mindy; Gardner, Rick; O'Lonergan, Teri; Frank, Guido; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory pilot study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of risperidone for the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Method: Forty female subjects 12 to 21 years of age (mean, 16 years) with primary anorexia nervosa in an eating disorders program were randomized to receive…

  19. Behavioral HIV Risk Reduction among People Who Inject Drugs: Meta-Analytic Evidence of Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael M. Copenhaver; Johnson, Blair T.; Lee, I-Ching; Harman, Jennifer J.; CAREY, MICHAEL P.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate behavioral HIV-risk reduction interventions targeting people who inject drugs. We included 37 RCTs evaluating 49 independent HIV-risk reduction interventions with 10,190 participants. Compared to controls, intervention participants reduced injection-and non-injection drug use, increased drug treatment entry, increased condom use, and decreased trading sex for drugs. Interventions were more successful at reducing i...

  20. Efficacy and safety of 10,600-nm carbon dioxide fractional laser on facial skin with previous volume injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Hélou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractionated carbon dioxide (CO 2 lasers are a new treatment modality for skin resurfacing. The cosmetic rejuvenation market abounds with various injectable devices (poly-L-lactic acid, polymethyl-methacrylate, collagens, hyaluronic acids, silicone. The objective of this study is to examine the efficacy and safety of 10,600-nm CO 2 fractional laser on facial skin with previous volume injections. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study including 14 patients treated with fractional CO 2 laser and who have had previous facial volume restoration. The indication for the laser therapy, the age of the patients, previous facial volume restoration, and side effects were all recorded from their medical files. Objective assessments were made through clinical physician global assessment records and improvement scores records. Patients? satisfaction rates were also recorded. Results: Review of medical records of the 14 patients show that five patients had polylactic acid injection prior to the laser session. Eight patients had hyaluronic acid injection prior to the laser session. Two patients had fat injection, two had silicone injection and one patient had facial thread lift. Side effects included pain during the laser treatment, post-treatment scaling, post-treatment erythema, hyperpigmentation which spontaneously resolved within a month. Concerning the previous facial volume restoration, no granulomatous reactions were noted, no facial shape deformation and no asymmetry were encountered whatever the facial volume product was. Conclusion: CO 2 fractional laser treatments do not seem to affect facial skin which had previous facial volume restoration with polylactic acid for more than 6 years, hyaluronic acid for more than 0.5 year, silicone for more than 6 years, or fat for more than 1.4 year. Prospective larger studies focusing on many other variables (skin phototype, injected device type are required to achieve better conclusions.

  1. Comparing effectiveness of risperidone with first-generation antipsychotic medications in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Alvin; Verma, Swapna; Lye Yin Poon; Edimansyah, Abdin; Subramaniam, Mythily; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Siow Ann Chong

    2010-07-01

    This naturalistic retrospective study aims to compare effectiveness of a second-generation antipsychotic medication, risperidone, with first-generation antipsychotic medications (haloperidol and trifluoperazine) in an Asian population with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. A total of 261 patients were assessed for time to discontinuation for any reason and specific reasons of discontinuation, controlling for baseline differences between groups. Some 90% of patients discontinued their antipsychotic medications before 18 months. Median time to discontinuation for any reason in risperidone was 69 days versus first-generation antipsychotic medications of 27 days. Specifically, the risperidone group had a longer time to discontinuation for any reason than haloperidol (HR = 0.61, p = 0.005) and trifluoperazine groups (HR = 0.63, p = 0.03), as well as a longer time to discontinuation due to intolerability of side effects than haloperidol (HR = 0.50, p = 0.008) and trifluoperazine groups (HR = 0.26, p = 0.001). There were no significant differences between medications for time to discontinuation due to lack of efficacy, patient's/family's decisions or other reasons. We conclude that there is a very high rate of discontinuation of the initial antipsychotic medications for various reasons, with risperidone having an overall longer time to discontinuation compared with first-generation antipsychotic medications. PMID:19965942

  2. Short- and long-term efficacy of intra-articular injections with betamethasone as part of a treat-to-target strategy in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete Lund; Østergaard, Mikkel; Ejbjerg, Bo; Jacobsen, Søren Knak; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Junker, Peter; Lottenburger, Tine; Hansen, Ib Tønder; Andersen, Lis Smedegaard; Tarp, Ulrik; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Pedersen, Jens Kristian; Skjødt, Henrik; Ellingsen, Torkell Juulsgaad; Lindegaard, Hanne; Pødenphant, Jan; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the short-term and long-term efficacy of intra-articular betamethasone injections, and the impact of joint area, repeated injections, MRI pathology, anticyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) and immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) status in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  3. Effects of Environmental Manipulations and Treatment with Bupropion and Risperidone on Choice between Methamphetamine and Food in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical and human laboratory choice procedures have been invaluable in improving our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms of drug reinforcement and in the drug development process for candidate medications to treat drug addiction. However, little is known about the neuropharmacological mechanisms of methamphetamine vs food choice. The aims of this study were to develop a methamphetamine vs food choice procedure and determine treatment effects with two clinically relevant compounds: the monoamine uptake inhibitor bupropion and the dopamine antagonist risperidone. Rhesus monkeys (n=6) responded under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio (FR) 100 schedule) and intravenous methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, FR10 schedule) during 7-day bupropion (0.32-1.8 mg/kg/h) and risperidone (0.001-0.0056 mg/kg/h) treatment periods. For comparison, effects of removing food pellets or methamphetamine injections and FR response requirement manipulations were also examined. Under saline treatment conditions, food was preferred over no methamphetamine or small unit methamphetamine doses (0.01-0.032 mg/kg/injection). Larger methamphetamine doses resulted in greater methamphetamine preference and 0.32 mg/kg/injection methamphetamine maintained near exclusive preference. Removing food availability increased methamphetamine choice, whereas removing methamphetamine availability decreased methamphetamine choice. Methamphetamine choice was not significantly altered when the FR response requirements for food and drug were the same (FR100:FR100 or FR10:FR10). Risperidone treatment increased methamphetamine choice, whereas bupropion treatment did not alter methamphetamine choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant behavior. Overall, these negative results with bupropion and risperidone are concordant with previous human laboratory and clinical trials and support the potential validity of this preclinical methamphetamine vs food choice model. PMID:25742872

  4. Effects of risperidone augmentation in patients with treatment-resistant depression: Results of open-label treatment followed by double-blind continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, Mark Hyman; Gharabawi, Georges M; Canuso, Carla M; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Keller, Martin B; Bossie, Cynthia A; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Lasser, Robert A; Loescher, Amy; Bouhours, Philippe; Dunbar, Fiona; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2006-11-01

    Approximately one-third of persons with depression do not respond to antidepressant monotherapy. Studies suggest that atypical antipsychotic augmentation may benefit these patients. We investigated the longer-term efficacy of risperidone augmentation of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor treatment for resistant depression. In 57 in- and outpatient centers in three countries, we conducted a three-phase study with 4-6 weeks of open-label citalopram monotherapy, 4-6 weeks of open-label risperidone augmentation, and a 24-week double-blind, placebo-controlled discontinuation phase. A total of 489 patients with major depressive disorder and 1-3 documented treatment failures entered the citalopram monotherapy phase (20-60 mg/day). Patients with <50% reduction in HAM-D-17 scores entered the risperidone augmentation phase (0.25-2.0 mg/day). Patients with HAM-D-17< or =7 or CGI-S < or = 2 were randomized to risperidone or placebo augmentation. The primary outcome was time to relapse during the double-blind phase. During citalopram monotherapy, 434 patients had <50% HAM-D-17 reduction; 299 (68.9%) were fully nonresponsive (<25% reduction) and 135 were partially nonresponsive (25-49% reduction). Of the 386 nonresponders who entered the augmentation phase, 243 remitted and 241 entered the double-blind phase. Median time to relapse was 102 days with risperidone augmentation and 85 days with placebo (NS); relapse rates were 53.3 and 54.6%, respectively. In a post hoc analysis of patients fully nonresponsive to citalopram monotherapy, median time to relapse was 97 days with risperidone augmentation and 56 with placebo (p = 0.05); relapse rates were 56.1 and 64.1%, respectively (p < or = 0.05). Open-label risperidone augmentation substantially enhanced response in treatment-resistant patients, but the longer-term benefits of augmentation were not demonstrated in this study. PMID:16760927

  5. Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection for unilateral cervical radiculopathy: Comparison of midline and paramedian approaches for efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Young; Kwon, Jong Won; Yoon, Young Cheol [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Seok [School of Business Administration, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of the cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection (CIESI) for unilateral radiculopathy by the midline or paramedian approaches and to determine the prognostic factors of CIESI. We retrospectively analyzed 182 patients who underwent CIESI from January 2009 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria were no previous spinal steroid injection, presence of a cross-sectional image, and presence of follow-up records. Exclusion criteria were patients with bilateral cervical radiculopathy and/or dominant cervical axial pain, combined peripheral neuropathy, and previous cervical spine surgery. Short-term clinical outcomes were evaluated at the first follow-up after CIESI. We compared the clinical outcomes between the midline and paramedian approaches. Possible prognostic factors for the outcome, such as age, gender, duration of radiculopathy, and cause of radiculopathy were also analyzed. Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections were effective in 124 of 182 patients (68.1%) at the first follow-up. There was no significant difference in the clinical outcomes of CIESI, between midline (69.6%) and paramedian (63.7%) approaches (p = 0.723). Cause of radiculopathy was the only significant factor affecting the efficacy of CIESI. Patients with disc herniation had significantly better results than patients with neural foraminal stenosis (82.9% vs. 56.0%) (p < 0.001). There is no significant difference in treatment efficacy between the midline and paramedian approaches in CIESI, for unilateral radiculopathy. The cause of the radiculopathy is significantly associated with the treatment efficacy; patients with disc herniation experience better pain relief than those with neural foraminal stenosis.

  6. Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection for unilateral cervical radiculopathy: Comparison of midline and paramedian approaches for efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of the cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection (CIESI) for unilateral radiculopathy by the midline or paramedian approaches and to determine the prognostic factors of CIESI. We retrospectively analyzed 182 patients who underwent CIESI from January 2009 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria were no previous spinal steroid injection, presence of a cross-sectional image, and presence of follow-up records. Exclusion criteria were patients with bilateral cervical radiculopathy and/or dominant cervical axial pain, combined peripheral neuropathy, and previous cervical spine surgery. Short-term clinical outcomes were evaluated at the first follow-up after CIESI. We compared the clinical outcomes between the midline and paramedian approaches. Possible prognostic factors for the outcome, such as age, gender, duration of radiculopathy, and cause of radiculopathy were also analyzed. Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections were effective in 124 of 182 patients (68.1%) at the first follow-up. There was no significant difference in the clinical outcomes of CIESI, between midline (69.6%) and paramedian (63.7%) approaches (p = 0.723). Cause of radiculopathy was the only significant factor affecting the efficacy of CIESI. Patients with disc herniation had significantly better results than patients with neural foraminal stenosis (82.9% vs. 56.0%) (p < 0.001). There is no significant difference in treatment efficacy between the midline and paramedian approaches in CIESI, for unilateral radiculopathy. The cause of the radiculopathy is significantly associated with the treatment efficacy; patients with disc herniation experience better pain relief than those with neural foraminal stenosis.

  7. The Efficacy of Local Injection of Methylprednisolone and Lidocaine with and Without Splint, in Treating Patients with De Quervain's Tenosynovitis

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    Saleh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suffering from de Quervain's tenosynovitis due to repetitive and routine activities leads to considerable referrals to orthopedic clinics and increasing health care costs and wasting of patients' time. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of local injection of methylprednisolone with and without splint for treatment of patients suffering from de Quervain's tenosynovitis. Methods: In a clinical trial study, 72 patients with de Quervain's tenosynovitis were selected in 2010 and were randomly divided into two groups. Therapeutic intervention in the first group was injection of 40 mg methylprednisone and 1 ml lidocaine with splint, and in the second group it was injection 40 mg methylprednisone and 1ml lidocaine without splint. Both groups followed this treatment for three periods(21 day. The related data were collected by visual analogue scale. Then data was analyzed by SPSS (ver. 16 using Fisher exact test and t test. Results: The findings of this study revealed that after the 3-week period of treatment the mean reduced pain intensity and improvement in the first group was significantly lower than the second group(p<0/05. Conclusion: Therefore, local injection of methylprednisone and lidocaine with splint is an effective method in the treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis.

  8. Intra-articular steroid injection for temporomandibular joint arthritis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis : A systematic review on efficacy and safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Peter; Kristensen, Kasper D

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the current level of evidence for the use of intra-articular corticosteroid injections (IACI) against temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) with a particular focus on clinical and radiological improvements and safety profile. METHODS: A comprehensive electronic search strategy was performed in all major medical databases in February 2012. Studies were selected independently by two reviewers in accordance with a pre-specified protocol and a risk of bias assessment for all included studies. RESULTS: Ninety-four unique citations were identified of which seven remained after the inclusion criteria were applied and all of these were assessed to have a high risk of bias. The current limited level of evidence suggests potential beneficial properties of IACI in patients with TMJ arthritis-related symptoms and/or MRI-verified signs of TMJ inflammation. Currently, no scientific evidence substantiates the effect of IACI in terms of (I) improving maximal mouth opening capacity significantly, (II) reducing radiological disease progression, (III) normalising/improving mandibular growth, and (IV) increasing efficacy upon repeated injections. CONCLUSION: The current level of evidence allows only very limited conclusions on the effect of IACI therapy in patients with TMJ arthritis. Knowledge on the long-term impact of IACI on mandibular growth is not available. Future studies designed in accordance with evidence-based standards are needed to allow a more general conclusion on efficacy and safety of this treatment modality in patients with TMJ arthritis.

  9. Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A injection in treatment of Congenital Esotropia

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    Azarish A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud and Objective: Congenital esotropia is one of most common ocular disorder in children with genetic origin. Amblyopia, decreased streopsis and cosmetic problems are its complication that affect person's fate in terms of career psychological issues. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of botulinum toxin A (Dysport injection in subconjunctival space near medial rectus insertion of both eyes for treatment of congenital esotropia.Subjects and Methods: Thirty babies (aged 6-54 months with congenital esotropia who were otherwise systemically and neurologically normal were enrolled in this study. Ten units of toxin (Dysport were injected (under sedation into the subconjunctival space near medial rectus insertion of both eyes. The angle of deviation was measured six times: after 3 days, 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after injection.Results: Twelve months after injection ,angle of deviation decreased from 52 ± 17 PD to 27.8 ± 21.29 PD in 86.3% of patients . Success of treatment achieved in 23.3% of patients ( P=0.008 .In seventeen cases (56.6% with angle of deviation? 45 PD (before injection improvement was better (p=0.030, 41.1% of this group after 1 month , 70% after 3 months , 76% after 6 months, and 41.1% after 12 months follow up achieved orthophoria.Conclusion: Botulinum toxin A injection into subconjunctival space near medial rectus insertion is a safe method that is not only effective transiently for eye alignment but also can reduce total deviation. Long term improvement seems to be achievable in cases with small angle deviation (equal or less than of 45 PD. Sci Med J 2011; 10(2:179-186

  10. Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine needles with an end hole or multiple side holes have traditionally been used for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) of hepatomas. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of PEI of unresectable medium-to-large (3.5-9 cm) hepatomas using a multipronged needle and with conscious sedation. Twelve patients, eight men and four women (age 51-77 years; mean: 69) received PEI for hepatomas, mostly subcapsular or exophytic in location with average tumor size of 5.6 cm (range: 3.5-9.0 cm). Patients were consciously sedated and an 18G retractable multipronged needle (Quadrafuse needle; Rex Medical, Philadelphia, PA) was used for injection under real-time ultrasound guidance. By varying the length of the prongs and rotating the needle, the alcohol was widely distributed within the tumor. The progress of ablation was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after each weekly injection and within a month after the final (third) injection and 3 months thereafter. An average total of 63 mL (range: 20-154 ml) of alcohol was injected per patient in an average of 2.3 sessions. Contrast-enhanced CT, ultrasound, or MRI was used to determine the degree of necrosis. Complete necrosis was noted in eight patients (67%), near-complete necrosis (90-99%) in two (16.7%), and partial success (50-89%) in two (16.7%). Follow-up in the first 9 months showed local recurrence in two patients and new lesions in another. There was no mortality. One patient developed renal failure, liver failure, and localized perforation of the stomach. He responded to medical treatment and surgery was not required for the perforation. One patient had severe postprocedural abdominal pain and fever, and another had transient hyperbilirubinemia; both recovered with conservative treatment. PEI with a multipronged needle is a new, safe, and efficacious method in treating medium-to-large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma under conscious sedation. Its survival benefits require further investigations

  11. Efficacy and safety of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection in an elderly patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Raj, Palaniraj; Lewis, Matthew; Macfarlane, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We present detailed data on the efficacy and safety profile of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly long acting injectable (PP1M-LAI) in the treatment of schizophrenia in an elderly Caucasian woman. PP1M-LAI was initiated with starting doses of 150 and 100?mg on treatment days 1 and 8, respectively. Subsequent 100?mg doses of PP1M-LAI were then administered at 4-weekly intervals. The primary efficacy variable was the change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score from baseline. Safety assessment variables included assessment of treatment emergent adverse events, clinical laboratory tests, vital sign measurements, ECG, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), mini-mental status examination, Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS), Simpson-Angus Scale for the Assessment of Extrapyramidal Side Effects (SAS) and WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHO-QOL-BREF). The aforementioned variables were all monitored for changes from baseline over a period of 28?weeks. A reduction of PANSS total score was noted over the 28?weeks, demonstrating the efficacy of PP1M-LAI for the treatment of schizophrenia in our patient. Improvements were also noted in the BARS score, SAS score and WHO-QOL-BREF. Negative findings were observed with regard to several pre-established safety variables such as blood glucose levels, prolactin levels, QTC intervals and weight. Overall, the addition of PP1M-LAI to the treatment regime improved the control of psychotic symptoms. However, iatrogenic consequences arising from the use of PP1M-LAI need to be considered and balanced against the primary efficacy of the medication. PMID:26311017

  12. Safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin injection therapy for esophageal achalasia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Tsuruoka, Nanae; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Shimoda, Ryo; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Iwakiri, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    Botulinum toxin injection is an accepted treatment modality for esophageal achalasia in western countries. This pilot study aimed to clarify the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection for esophageal achalasia in Japanese patients. We enrolled 10 patients diagnosed with esophageal achalasia between 2008 and 2014. A total of 100 U botulinum toxin A was divided into eight aliquots and injected around the esophagogastric junction. We compared the lower esophageal sphincter pressure before and 1 week after treatment. Scores of subjective symptoms for esophageal achalasia were assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) before and after 1 week of follow-up of treatment. Barium passage was improved in barium esophagography and passage of contrast agent was also improved. Mean Eckardt score was reduced from 5.5 to 1.6 after treatment (p<0.001). By esophageal manometric study, mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure was reduced from 46.9 to 29.1 mmHg after treatment (p = 0.002). One week after treatment, mean VAS score was reduced from 10 to 3.9 (p<0.001). There were no side effects in any cases. Botulinum toxin injection for esophageal achalasia was safe and effective with few complications. Therefore, botulinum toxin could be used as minimally invasive therapy for esophageal achalasia in Japan. PMID:26566311

  13. The efficacy of pemetrexed and bevacizumab intrapleural injection for malignant pleural mesothelioma-mediated malignant pleural effusion

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    D Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed chemotherapy combined with intrapleural injection of pemetrexed and bevacizumab in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM-mediated malignant pleural effusion, and analyze the objective response rate (ORR, the median progression-free survival (PFS and the median overall survival (OS. Methods: We analyzed the clinical data of 23 MPM patients with pleural effusion who were treated with a combination chemotherapy of pemetrexed at 500 mg/m 2 , on day 1 plus cisplatin (DDP at 20 mg/m 2 on day 1-5 of each 21 days cycle, and concurrently, intrapleural injection of pemetrexed 0.5 g and bevacizumab 300 mg was administered on day 3 or day 4 after complete effusion drainage. ELISA test was applied to detect the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF level in the pleural effusion and serum, and assess the ORR and survival. Results: In the 23 evaluable patients, the VEGF level in the pleural effusion and serum was significantly decreased, P < 0.01, pleural effusion of 20 patients (86.96% was controlled effectively. There were 8 complete responses, 7 partial responses, 5 stable disease and 3 progressive disease, the ORR was 65.21%, the disease control rate was 86.96%, the median PFS was 6 months, the median OS was 14.5 months, and the 1-year survival rate was 41.22%. Toxicities were generally mild and manageable; the major toxicities included myelosuppression, fatigue, and anemia, mainly were grade 1-2 which could be managed by symptomatic treatments. Conclusion: The combination of pemetrexed chemotherapy with intrapleural injection of pemetrexed and bevacizumab is efficacious and safe for MPM pleural effusion, and results of the present study demonstrate some improvement in the PFS and OS. The expression of VEGF in the pleural effusion and serum plays a guiding role in monitoring the efficacy of bevacizumab in the treatment of malignant pleural effusion.

  14. Efficacy evaluation of Shengmai Injection in treating coronary heart disease based on random walk model

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    Zhu-ye GAO

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of Shengmai Injection in treating coronary heart disease (CHD based on correct syndrome differentiation and incorrect syndrome differentiation.Methods: The patients' information was collected by a system of individual diagnosis and treatment of CHD. The score of main symptoms was calculated and recorded during the treatment. Patients were divided into two groups (incorrect syndrome and correct syndrome groups on the basis of syndrome differentiation treatment or not. The clinical therapeutic effects of the two treatments were evaluated based on statistic theory combined with random walk method.Results: There were 273 patients in the correct syndrome group and 4 patients died (case-fatality rate was 1.47%. There were 297 patients in the incorrect syndrome group and 7 patients died (case-fatality rate was 2.36%. In the correct syndrome group, random fluctuation peak of comprehensive evaluation index, walk steps, positive growth rate of walk, ratio, random fluctuation power-law, increase rate and record times of comprehensive evaluation index were 1 472, 13 617, 0.108 1, 9.25, 0.674 2, 0.470 6 and 3 128 respectively, while in the incorrect syndrome group, 1 030, 14 588, 0.070 6, 14.16, 0.660 6, 0.312 8 and 3 293 respectively. The random fluctuation power-law in both groups exceeded 0.5.Conclusion: There is a long-range correlation between the comprehensive evaluation index and therapeutic method as the CHD patients were treated with Shengmai Injection. The clinical therapeutic effects of Shengmai Injection under correct syndrome differentiation are better than the effects of Shengmai Injection under incorrect syndrome differentiation.

  15. Short- and long-term efficacy of intra-articular injections with betamethasone as part of a treat-to-target strategy in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete Lund; Østergaard, Mikkel; Ejbjerg, Bo; Jacobsen, Søren; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Junker, Peter; Lottenburger, Tine; Hansen, Ib Tønder; Andersen, Lis Smedegaard; Tarp, Ulrik; Svendsen, Anders; Pedersen, Jens Kristian; Skjødt, Henrik; Ellingsen, Torkell; Lindegaard, Hanne; Pødenphant, Jan; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short-term and long-term efficacy of intra-articular betamethasone injections, and the impact of joint area, repeated injections, MRI pathology, anticyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) and immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) status in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).METHODS: During 2 years of follow-up in the CIMESTRA trial, 160 patients received intra-articular betamethasone in up to four swollen joints/visit in combination with disease-modifyi...

  16. A comparison of low-dose risperidone to paroxetine in the treatment of panic attacks: a randomized, single-blind study

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    Galynker Igor I

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because a large proportion of patients with panic attacks receiving approved pharmacotherapy do not respond or respond poorly to medication, it is important to identify additional therapeutic strategies for the management of panic symptoms. This article describes a randomized, rater-blind study comparing low-dose risperidone to standard-of-care paroxetine for the treatment of panic attacks. Methods Fifty six subjects with a history of panic attacks were randomized to receive either risperidone or paroxetine. The subjects were then followed for eight weeks. Outcome measures included the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (Ham-A, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D, the Sheehan Panic Anxiety Scale-Patient (SPAS-P, and the Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI. Results All subjects demonstrated a reduction in both the frequency and severity of panic attacks regardless of treatment received. Statistically significant improvements in rating scale scores for both groups were identified for the PDSS, the Ham-A, the Ham-D, and the CGI. There was no difference between treatment groups in the improvement in scores on the measures PDSS, Ham-A, Ham-D, and CGI. Post hoc tests suggest that subjects receiving risperidone may have a quicker clinical response than subjects receiving paroxetine. Conclusion We can identify no difference in the efficacy of paroxetine and low-dose risperidone in the treatment of panic attacks. Low-dose risperidone appears to be tolerated equally well as paroxetine. Low-dose risperidone may be an effective treatment for anxiety disorders in which panic attacks are a significant component. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT100457106

  17. The evaluation of efficacy of subtenon triamcinolone injection combined with focal laser photocoagulation in diabetic macular edema

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    Hüseyin Öksüz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate efficacyand safety of subtenon triamcinolone (ST in combinationwith focal laser photocoagulation in diabetic macularedema (DME.Materials and methods: Medical records of patients withDME, treated with 40 mg subtenon injection of triamcinoloneacetonid prior to focal laser photocoagulation wereretrospectively analyzed. Seventeen eyes of 17 patientswith DME were enrolled in the study. All patients underwenta comprehensive ophthalmological examinationbefore the treatment. Efficacy of the treatment after STinjection was evaluated by visual acuity and flouresceinangiography (FA. Follow-up visits were performed at 1st,3rd, 6th and 12th months. Repeated measures ANOVA wasused for statistical analysis.Results: The mean age was 61.5 ± 8.7 years and themean visual acuity in the study eyes was 0.22 ± 0.13 beforethe treatment, 0.39 ± 0.15 at 1st month, 0.36 ± 0.18at 3rd month, 0.33 ± 0.15 at 6th month and 0.34 ± 0.16 at12th month. The differences in the visual acuity before thetreatment and follow-up visits were significant (p ?0.05.Visual acuity was increased in 13 (%76,4 patients, decreasedin 1 (%5,8 and unchanged in 3 (%17,6.Conclusion: Injection of 40 mg of triamsinolon via subtenonroute combined with focal laser photocoagulation isa safe and beneficial treatment in cases of DME

  18. Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerance of a New Injection Technique for High- and Low-Molecular-Weight Hyaluronic Acid Hybrid Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Beniamino; Coacci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Facial aging is characterized by skin laxity and loss of skin elasticity. Hyaluronic acid, a biological component of the extracellular matrix, whose level decreases during aging, plays structural, rheological, and physiological roles in the skin. Hyaluronic acid may possess different molecular weights: low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (from 50 kDa) and high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (just up to 2 million kDa). This monocentric, retrospective, observational study investigates the efficacy, security, and tolerability of a new injective low- and high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid for facial skin rejuvenation. Methods: Eleven women received once a month, for 2 months, 2 mL of the product in the subcutaneous layer of the right and left malar/submalar areas. Facial skin echography, facial skin hydration, elasticity, and transepidermal water loss were assessed before (T0), after 1 month (T1), and after 3 months of treatment (T2). The injective features of the product, physician subjective satisfaction, and patient satisfaction were also reported. Results: Facial face hydration, elasticity, and transepidermal water loss values significantly improved at T1 and T2 (P < .01). Patients were very satisfied at the end of the treatment, and the compound's profit evaluated by the physician was optimal in the absence of local side effects. Conclusions: This treatment represents a good treatment option to restore vitality and turgidity of skin presenting the signs of aging in the absence of intolerance symptoms. PMID:26491508

  19. Efficacy of doramectin injectable against Oestrus ovis and gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep in the southwestern region of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchies, P; Jacquiet, P; Bergeaud, J P; Duranton, C; Prévot, F; Alzieu, J P; Gossellin, J

    2001-03-20

    A study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of doramectin administered intramuscularly at a dose rate of 200 microg/kg to sheep harbouring naturally acquired infections of gastrointestinal nematodes and Oestrus ovis in the southwestern region of France. On day 0, 24 sheep were selected on the basis of positive faecal egg counts (>100 EPG) and positive assessment of O. ovis infection (including positive O. ovis antibody level and positive clinical score). The sheep were randomly allocated to a non-medicated control group (T1) or a doramectin-treated group (T2) of 12 animals each. On day 0, sheep in group T2 received a single intramuscular injection of doramectin (200 microg/kg), whereas those in group T1 received an intramuscular injection of saline solution (sodium chloride, 0.02ml/kg). Individual faecal egg counts were performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 14. Between days 14 and 16, all sheep were slaughtered, and worm and O. ovis burdens were determined. In doramectin-treated sheep, faecal egg counts had decreased to zero by day 4 for all recovered types of nematode eggs: strongyles, Nematodirus sp., Trichuris sp., and Rhabditidae sp. For strongyles, Nematodirus sp., and Rhabditidae, the percentage reductions in faecal egg counts (geometric means) of doramectin-treated sheep, compared to the non-medicated control sheep were 100% from days 4-7. For Trichuris sp., they were 100, 99.7, 99.9, and 100% on days 4, 5, 6, and 7, respectively. On day 14, percentage reductions were 100% for Nematodirus sp. and Rhabditidae, and 99.8 and 99.1% for strongyles and Trichuris sp., respectively. At necropsy, only adult nematodes and mainly first-stage O. ovis larvae were recovered. Doramectin was highly efficacious against the adult stages of Teladorsagia circumcincta (100%), Nematodirus battus (100%), Nematodirus filicollis (99.9%), Oesophagostomum venulosum (99.8%), and Trichuris sp. (99.3%). It was also 100% efficacious against first-stage larvae of O. ovis. No abnormal clinical signs or adverse reactions in any of the sheep treated with doramectin were observed. PMID:11230921

  20. Anti-depressive effectiveness of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone: a pragmatic, randomized trial

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    Løberg Else-Marie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficacy studies indicate anti-depressive effects of at least some second generation antipsychotics (SGAs. The Bergen Psychosis Project (BPP is a 24-month, pragmatic, industry-independent, randomized, head-to-head comparison of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone in patients acutely admitted with psychosis. The aim of the study is to investigate whether differential anti-depressive effectiveness exists among SGAs in a clinically relevant sample of patients acutely admitted with psychosis. Methods Adult patients acutely admitted to an emergency ward for psychosis were randomized to olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone and followed for up to 2 years. Participants were assessed repeatedly using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale - Depression factor (PANSS-D and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS. Results A total of 226 patients were included. A significant time-effect showing a steady decline in depressive symptoms in all medication groups was demonstrated. There were no substantial differences among the SGAs in reducing the PANSS-D score or the CDSS sum score. Separate analyses of groups with CDSS sum scores > 6 or ?6, respectively, reflecting degree of depressive morbidity, revealed essentially identical results to the primary analyses. There was a high correlation between the PANSS-D and the CDSS sum score (r = 0.77; p Conclusions There was no substantial difference in anti-depressive effectiveness among olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone in this clinically relevant sample of patients acutely admitted to hospital for symptoms of psychosis. Based on our findings we can make no recommendations concerning choice of any particular SGA for targeting symptoms of depression in a patient acutely admitted with psychosis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/: NCT00932529

  1. Effectiveness of haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine in the treatment of first-episode non-affective psychosis: results of a randomized, flexible-dose, open-label 1-year follow-up comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Pérez-Iglesias, Rocío; Mata, Ignacio; Ramirez-Bonilla, Mariluz; Martínez-Garcia, Obdulia; Pardo-Garcia, Gema; Caseiro, Olalla; Pelayo-Terán, Jose Maria; Vázquez-Barquero, José L

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effectiveness and efficacy of haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. This was a prospective, randomized, open-label study. Data for the present investigation were obtained from a large epidemiological and 3-year longitudinal intervention programme of first-episode psychosis conducted at the University Hospital Marques de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain. One hundred and seventy-four patients were randomly assigned to haloperidol (N?=?56), olanzapine (N?=?55), or risperidone (N?=?63) and followed up for 1 year. The primary effectiveness measure was all causes of treatment discontinuation. Effectiveness analyses were based on intend-to-treat populations. In addition, an analysis based on per protocol populations was conducted in the analysis for clinical efficacy. The treatment discontinuation rate for any cause was higher with haloperidol than with risperidone and olanzapine (?(2)?=?8.517; p?=?0.014). The difference in discontinuation rate between risperidone and olanzapine was not significant (?(2)?=?0.063; p?=?0.802). There were no significant advantages of any of the three treatments in reducing the severity of psychopathology. Risperidone and olanzapine demonstrated higher effectiveness relative to haloperidol, but the three antipsychotics were equally effective in reducing the severity of psychopathology. Specific clinical programmes and the use of second-generation antipsychotics may enhance the effectiveness of antipsychotic treatments. PMID:21292922

  2. Clinical efficacy of intra-articular injections in knee osteoarthritis: a prospective randomized study comparing hyaluronic acid and betamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trueba Davalillo CA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cesáreo Ángel Trueba Davalillo,1,2 Cesáreo Trueba Vasavilbaso,2 José Mario Navarrete Álvarez,2 Pilar Coronel Granado,3 Ozcar Alejandro García Jiménez,2 Mercedes Gimeno del Sol,3 Félix Gil Orbezo2 1School of Medicine (UNAM, México DF, Mexico; 2Orthopedic Service, Hospital Español de México, México DF, Mexico; 3Scientific Department, TEDEC-MEIJI FARMA,SA, Alcalá de Henares, Spain Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common joint disease and leading cause of disability. Intra-articular (IA administration of hyaluronic acid (HA or corticosteroids (CS have been previously studied, though using insufficient number of patients or short follow-up periods.Objective: We evaluate HA and CS in patients with knee OA in terms of clinical efficacy over 12 months.Methods: We used a prospective, randomized study with parallel groups. Randomized patients received IA injections of HA or betamethasone (BM. The primary outcomes were improvement in pain using Visual Analog Scale and function in the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (Likert scale. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months.Results: A total of 200 patients were included. Pain was significantly reduced in both groups at the first follow-ups. At 12 months, the mean pain reduction in the HA group was 33.6% (95% CI: 31.1–36.1 compared to 8.2% (95% CI: 5.2–11.1 in BM (P<0.0001. Function improvement was higher in HA through every visit, and mean improvement at 12 months was 47.5% (95% CI: 45.6–49.3 in HA patients vs 13.2% (95% CI: 11.4–14.9 in the BM group (P<0.0001. All patients from both groups achieved the Minimal Clinically Important Improvement (MCII for both pain and function up to 6 months. At 9 months and 12 months, the MCII figures were higher in HA group with ?80% compared to ?10% in BM group (P<0.0001. Adverse reactions were rare and related to the administration procedure.Conclusion: Both treatments effectively controlled OA symptoms. BM showed higher short-term effectiveness, while HA showed better long-term effectiveness, maintaining clinical efficacy in a large number of patients 1 year after administration.Keywords: viscosupplementation, corticosteroids, knee injection, joint disease

  3. RP-HPLC estimation of risperidone in tablet dosage forms

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    Bladania S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the estimation of risperidone in tablet dosage forms. A Phenomenex Gemini C-18, 5 µm column having 250x4.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing methanol: acetonitrile: 50 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (80:10:10 v/v was used. The flow rate was 1.3 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 234 nm. Clozapine was used as an internal standard. The retention time of risperidone and clozapine were 2.5 min and 3.3 min, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, robustness and stability. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for estimation of risperidone was found to be 500 ng/ml and 990 ng/ml, respectively. Recovery of risperidone was found to be in the range of 99.02-101.68%. Proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of risperidone in tablet formulations.

  4. One-Shot Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Liver Tumors Under General Anesthesia: Preliminary Data on Efficacy and Complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To verify the efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided injection of large amounts of ethanol into large or multiple liver lesions, in a single session under general anesthesia (one-shot PEI) for percutaneous ablation of hepatic tumors. Methods: Twenty-nine patients (27 with 51 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodules on cirrhosis, diameter range 1.0-9.0 cm; two patients with a single metastasis from the gastroenteric tract, 5.0 and 9.0 cm, respectively, in diameter) were treated with one-shot PEI. Results: The total volume of alcohol delivered per patient ranged from 16 to 210 ml. Mean ethanol volume in all patients was 49 ml. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) examination showed complete necrosis in 41 of 50 lesions. Two patients died of hypovolemic shock due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 3 and 7 days, respectively, after the interventional procedure. All the remaining patients are alive (follow-up 5-14 months) except one who died of liver failure 5 months after. New HCC nodules occurred in six patients within 6 months and one intralesional relapse was recorded. Conclusion: In this preliminary experience, one-shot PEI is as effective in inducing liver tumor necrosis as traditional PEI; its advantages are shorter treatment time and the capability of treating larger and multiple liver lesions

  5. 18 month observational study on efficacy of intraarticular hyaluronic acid (Hylan G-F 20 injections under ultrasound guidance in hip osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Padalino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and the tolerability of viscosupplementation (VS with hyaluronic acid (Hylan GF 20 in a cohort of 36 patients affected by hip osteoarthritis through a 18 months follow-up. Methods: Viscosupplementation was performed with an anteriorsagittal approach, under ultrasound guidance. 36 patients were administered hyaluronic acid intraarticularly in the hip, with a unique injection of Hylan G-F20, which could be repeated after at least 3 months. Treatment efficacy was assessed by functional index WOMAC, pain evaluation on a visual analogue scale and NSAID consumption. All such parameters were recorded at the time of the first injection and then 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months later. Results: Statistically significant reduction of all parameters was observed three months after the injection, and was still maintained at the timepoints 6, 9, 12 and 18 months. No local side effects have been observed, nor systemic complications. Conclusions: Our data show that viscosupplementation is a promising approach for hip osteoarthritis, providing beneficial effects in a long-tern follow up. Yet, the topic deserves further and wider studies, so to define the number of injections to administer and suggest a fit interval between subsequent injections.

  6. Risperidone: a review of its use in the treatment of bipolar mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Caroline; Scott, Lesley J

    2005-01-01

    Risperidone (Risperdal) is an atypical antipsychotic with high affinity for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A, dopamine D2 and alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors. Risperidone is now approved in the UK and the US for use in bipolar mania. Risperidone < or =6 mg/day, as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy with first-line mood stabilisers, significantly improves moderate and severe bipolar mania and improves global functioning over 3 weeks. Improvements in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores in double-blind trials were greater with risperidone than with placebo over 3 weeks, and similar to those with haloperidol over 3 and 12 weeks. Risperidone was reasonably well tolerated. Limited data are available on the combination of risperidone and carbamazepine. Risperidone, as monotherapy or combined therapy with lithium or valproate semisodium, is an effective treatment option in bipolar mania. PMID:15907153

  7. Treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, flexible-dose subgroup analysis of patients treated with extended-release quetiapine fumarate or risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Siegfried; Montagnani, Gino; Trespi, Graziella; Di Fiorino, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The present analysis assessed the efficacy of extended-release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) versus risperidone in patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms [Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score?20 and a HAM-D item 1 score?2]. This was a subanalysis of patients with schizophrenia from a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, flexible-dose study (NCT00640562) that also enrolled patients with schizoaffective disorder. The primary endpoint of this noninferiority study was change from baseline to week 12 in Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia score (per protocol population). Overall, 114 patients received quetiapine XR (n=60; 400-800?mg/day) or risperidone (n=54; 4-6?mg/day). Change in Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia score was greater for quetiapine XR than for risperidone [least squares means: -7.2 vs. -4.8; treatment difference 2.4 (95% confidence interval 0.3-4.6; Pprolactin levels were reported for 57.6 and 8.1% of patients receiving risperidone and quetiapine XR, respectively. Quetiapine XR was superior to risperidone at reducing depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25356632

  8. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics: focus on olanzapine pamoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP Lindenmayer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available JP LindenmayerDepartment of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York NY, USAAbstract: Medication non-adherence in patients with schizophrenia continues to be a significant problem and threatens successful treatment outcomes. Medication non-adherence is often associated with negative consequences, including symptom exacerbation, more frequent emergency room visits, re-hospitalizations and relapse. Long-acting injectable (LAI forms of antipsychotics allow for rapid identification of non-adherence, obviate the need for the patient to take the medication on a daily basis and increase adherence to some significant degree. Eli Lilly has developed a long-acting depot formulation of olanzapine, olanzapine pamoate, which has recently been approved by the FDA for the US market, and which will be reviewed here. Olanzapine LAI appears to be an effective antipsychotic at dosages of 210 mg every 2 weeks, 300 mg every 2 weeks and 405 mg every 4 weeks in patients with acute schizophrenia, and at 150 mg every 2 weeks, 300 mg every 2 weeks and at 405 mg every 4 weeks for the maintenance treatment of stable patients. Oral supplementation appears not to be needed, particularly not at the onset of treatment with the LAI as is necessary with risperidone LAI. Its efficacy is in general comparable to the efficacy seen with oral olanzapine at a corresponding dose. The side effect profile is also comparable to the side effects observed with oral olanzapine, including lower rates of extrapyramidal symptoms, prolactin elevation and cardiovascular side effects, but significant metabolic effects. The latter include significant weight gain, lipid abnormalities and glucose dysregulation. While the injection site adverse events are overall mild, the most significant serious adverse event is the post-injection delirium sedation syndrome (PDSS. While rare, this syndrome results from inadvertent intravascular injection of olanzapine LAI and can cause a range of olanzapine overdose-type of symptoms. Olanzapine LAI needs therefore to be administered by trained personnel in settings where a post-injection observation period for at least 3 hours by medical personnel is available. The overall use of olanzapine LAI will probably be limited by the possibility of a PDSS event. Patients who have a history of good response to oral olanzapine and are in need of assured medication administration may present a good indication for its use, provided that the appropriate mental health delivery setting is available.Keywords: olanzapine, risperidone, schizophrenia

  9. Clinical result of intra-arterial lymphocyte injection therapy for treatment of lymphedema and the evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy. Quantitative analysis by an injection of 111In-labeled lymphocytes and by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have employed the intra-arterial lymphocytes injection therapy for treatment of lymphedema of the limbs with various causes. In the present study, we observed the clinical outcome of our therapy in 38 patients with lymphedema of the limbs. Results showed that the therapy was effective in 26 of 38 patients (68% of the total). Moreover, a marked efficacy was obtained in 13 of 38 patients (34% of the total). In the latest 5 patients, to evaluate the efficacy of our therapy, we examined the distribution of the 111In-oxine labeled lymphocytes injected into the proximal artery of the affected limb. The radioactivities of the affected limbs were apparently higher than that of the healthy limbs in effective cases. Moreover, MR imaging showed that the reduction of STIR ratio and T2 ratio well correlate with the results of clinical course. Thus, the efficacy of the lymphocyte injection therapy is able to be evaluated by radiolabeled lymphocytes and MR imaging. (author)

  10. 18 month observational study on efficacy of intraarticular hyaluronic acid (Hylan G-F 20) injections under ultrasound guidance in hip osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Padalino; Emilia Carloni; Luis Severino Martin Martin; Umberto Massafra; Sandro Tormenta; Alberto Migliore; Andrea Alimonti; Mauro Granata

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and the tolerability of viscosupplementation (VS) with hyaluronic acid (Hylan GF 20) in a cohort of 36 patients affected by hip osteoarthritis through a 18 months follow-up. Methods: Viscosupplementation was performed with an anteriorsagittal approach, under ultrasound guidance. 36 patients were administered hyaluronic acid intraarticularly in the hip, with a unique injection of Hylan G-F20, which could be repeated after at least 3 months. Treatment efficac...

  11. Comparison of the efficacy of weekly vs. twice a week intralesional injections of meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khamesipour

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially when caused by L. tropica, is challenging. Meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime® is used as the standard treatment, but multiple injectiond are necessary. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of weekly intralesional injections with twice weekly injections of Glucantime for the treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL."n"nMethods: This randomized open clinical trial was conducted, in Bam, Kerman province, Iran. 96 eligible patients according to inclusion and exclusion criteria who were willing to participate were included. The included patients were randomly assigned into two groups, one group treated with weekly intralesional injections of Glucantime® and the other group treated with intralesional Glucantime® twice a week. Type and size of each lesion (induration, ulcer and scar were recorded weekly. Complete healing was defined as complete re-epithelialization and absence of induration in all lesions and was considered as the primary outcome measure."n"nResults: A total of 48 patients completed the study; complete cure was seen in 24 of 27 (89% patients who received weekly intralesional MA with a mean duration of healing equals to 70±10 days. Complete cure was seen in 24 of 31 (77% patients who received intralesional MA twice a week, the mean duration of healing in the latter group was 58±5 days. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.23."n"nConclusion: It seems that the efficacy of intralesional injections of Glucantime® once a week is similar to efficacy of twice a week Glucantime® injections.

  12. Hyperprolactinemia in Thai children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder treated with risperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongkaew, Yaowaluck; Ngamsamut, Nattawat; Puangpetch, Apichaya; Vanwong, Natchaya; Srisawasdi, Pornpen; Chamnanphon, Montri; Chamkrachchangpada, Bhunnada; Tan-kam, Teerarat; Limsila, Penkhae; Sukasem, Chonlaphat

    2015-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during pharmacotherapy with risperidone. The main aim of this study was to investigate important clinical factors influencing the prolactin response in risperidone-treated Thai ASD. A total of 147 children and adolescents (127 males and 20 females) aged 3–19 years with ASD received risperidone treatment (0.10–6.00 mg/day) for up to 158 weeks. Prolactin levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. The clinical data of patients collected from medical records – age, weight, height, body mass index, dose of risperidone, duration of treatment, and drug-use pattern – were recorded. Hyperprolactinemia was observed in 66 of 147 (44.90%) subjects. Median prolactin level at the high doses (24.00, interquartile range [IQR] 14.30–29.20) of risperidone was significantly found to be higher than at the recommended (16.20, IQR 10.65–22.30) and low (11.70, IQR 7.51–16.50) doses of risperidone. There was no relationship between prolactin levels and duration of risperidone treatment. Dose-dependence is identified as a main factor associated with hyperprolactinemia in Thai children and adolescents with ASD treated with risperidone. This study suggests that risperidone treatment causes prolactin elevations and the effects of risperidone on prolactin are probably dose-related in pediatric patients. PMID:25653528

  13. Comparison of haemostatic efficacy for endoscopic injection therapy of epinephrine and combination therapy of epinephrine and hemoclips for bleeding peptic ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grgov Saša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endoscopic injection therapy of epinephrine is safe and effective in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer, but with high risk of rebleeding. The combination therapy of epinephrine and hemoclips could lead to a reduction of rebleeding and a potential reduction in mortality. Objective. To investigate the efficacy and safety of epinephrine injection therapy and combination therapy with epinephrine and hemoclips in treating bleeding peptic ulcers. Methods. A prospective randomized study included 58 patients with bleeding gastric or duodenal ulcer. In 30 patients endoscopic injection therapy with diluted epinephrine was applied (group I, while in 28 patients combination therapy of epinephrine and hemoclips was applied (group II. Results. Initial haemostasis was achieved in most patients treated with epinephrine injection therapy (93.3% and patients treated with combination therapy of epinephrine and hemoclips (96.4%. After initial haemostasis was achieved rebleeding was significantly more frequent in the patients treated with epinephrine (28.5% than in the patients treated with combination therapy (3.7%, p<0.05. Two patients treated with epinephrine injection therapy were subjected to surgical intervention, whereas no patient treated with combination therapy needed surgery. Lethal ending occurred in one patient treated with epinephrine and in one patient treated with combination therapy. The difference between the two groups of patients in need for surgical intervention and mortality was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Combination therapy with epinephrine and hemoclips is more efficient than epinephrine alone in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers.

  14. Efficacy and safety of cross-linked hyaluronic acid single injection on osteoarthritis of the knee: a post-marketing phase IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashaireh K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Khaldoon Bashaireh,1 Ziad Naser,2 Khaled Al Hawadya,2 Sorour Sorour,2 Rami Nabeel Al-Khateeb3 1Department of Orthopedics Surgery, King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 2Private Clinic, 3Elaf Medical Supplies Company, Amman, Jordan Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and duration of action of viscosupplementation with Crespine® Gel over a 9-month period.Materials and methods: The study was a post-marketing phase IV study. A total of 109 participants with osteoarthritis of the knee (grades 1–4 in the tibio–femoral compartment were recruited in Jordan. Data were collected from each participant during the baseline visit. Each participant received Crespine® Gel injection, and follow-up visits took place at 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months post-injection.Main outcome measure(s: An assessment of participants by phone was conducted at 1 month, 2 months, 4 months, 5 months, 7 months, and 8 months post-injection. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index questionnaires were completed during each visit. A 72-hour visit questionnaire was used to assess the safety of the injection. Statistical analysis included a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference between pain scores across visits, and the percent change from baseline was calculated.Main results: The full analysis included 84 participants who gave their informed consent and finished the necessary baseline and follow-up visits needed to assess efficacy and safety. Peak improvement was noted at 5 months post-injection, when pain and physical performance scores had decreased to 2.60 and 9.90, respectively, and the stiffness score was 0.33. The peak improvement in stiffness was noted at 8 months post-injection, when the stiffness score had decreased to 0.32. Significant improvements were still apparent at 9 months post-injection, when the pain score was 3.36, the stiffness score was 0.42, and the physical performance score was 11.5. All side effects were local and transient, and included pain, swelling, and redness of the knee. Most side effects were treated.Conclusion: Hyaluronan should be encouraged as an alternative or adjunct treatment to oral analgesics to reduce their required doses, and delay potential future surgical intervention. Keywords: osteoarthritis, hyaluronic acid, intra-articular injection, Crespine® Gel

  15. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF EXTENDED RELEASE MINI TABLETS OF RISPERIDONE

    OpenAIRE

    B.Vishnu Vardhan Reddy; G. Dinesh Babu; A.Premswaroop; M. Chandra Sekhar; Ramya.Y

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to formulate Risperidone mini tablets filled into hard gelatin capsule, as it is administered for the treatment of psychosis. The preformulation studies of Risperidone were carried out and drug –polymer compatibility studies were performed by FT-IR spectra analysis. The precompression parameters revealed that all the 6 formulations had good flow Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose within the limit. Risperidone is formulated with different concen...

  16. Hyperprolactinemia in Thai children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder treated with risperidone

    OpenAIRE

    Hongkaew, Yaowaluck; Ngamsamut, Nattawat; Puangpetch, Apichaya; Vanwong, Natchaya; Srisawasdi, Pornpen; Chamnanphon, Montri; Chamkrachchangpada, Bhunnada; Tan-kam, Teerarat; Limsila, Penkhae; SUKASEM, Chonlaphat

    2015-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during pharmacotherapy with risperidone. The main aim of this study was to investigate important clinical factors influencing the prolactin response in risperidone-treated Thai ASD. A total of 147 children and adolescents (127 males and 20 females) aged 3–19 years with ASD received risperidone treatment (0.10–6.00 mg/day) for up to 158 weeks. Prolactin levels were measured by chemiluminescen...

  17. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Song, Xueqin; Ai, Xiaoqing; Gu, Xiaojing; Huang, Guangbiao; Li, Xue; Pang, Lijuan; Ding, Minli; Ding, Shuang; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU) were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8. Results One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group). PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003) and week 8 (P = 0.007) compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005) and week 8 (PDensity Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups. Conclusions Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Trial Registration chictr.org ChiCTR-IOR-15006278 PMID:26448615

  18. Efficacy and safety of cross-linked hyaluronic acid single injection on osteoarthritis of the knee: a post-marketing Phase IV study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaireh, Khaldoon; Naser, Ziad; Hawadya, Khaled Al; Sorour, Sorour; Al-Khateeb, Rami Nabeel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and duration of action of viscosupplementation with Crespine® Gel over a 9-month period. Materials and methods The study was a post-marketing Phase IV study. A total of 109 participants with osteoarthritis of the knee (grades 1–4) in the tibio–femoral compartment were recruited in Jordan. Data were collected from each participant during the baseline visit. Each participant received Crespine® Gel injection, and follow-up visits took place at 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months post-injection. Main outcome measure(s) An assessment of participants by phone was conducted at 1 month, 2 months, 4 months, 5 months, 7 months, and 8 months post-injection. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index questionnaires were completed during each visit. A 72-hour visit questionnaire was used to assess the safety of the injection. Statistical analysis included a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference between pain scores across visits, and the percent change from baseline was calculated. Main results The full analysis included 84 participants who gave their informed consent and finished the necessary baseline and follow-up visits needed to assess efficacy and safety. Peak improvement was noted at 5 months post-injection, when pain and physical performance scores had decreased to 2.60 and 9.90, respectively, and the stiffness score was 0.33. The peak improvement in stiffness was noted at 8 months post-injection, when the stiffness score had decreased to 0.32. Significant improvements were still apparent at 9 months post-injection, when the pain score was 3.36, the stiffness score was 0.42, and the physical performance score was 11.5. All side effects were local and transient, and included pain, swelling, and redness of the knee. Most side effects were treated. Conclusion Hyaluronan should be encouraged as an alternative or adjunct treatment to oral analgesics to reduce their required doses, and delay potential future surgical intervention. PMID:25897212

  19. Multi-drug overdose risperidone, ziprasidone, valproate, trihexyphenidyl, and clonazepam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajamani, Anto Praveen Rajkumar; Jebaraj, P

    2007-01-01

    Risperidone and ziprasidone are commonly used as first line drugs for the treatment of psychotic disorders and overdose with these agents is increasingly being reported. Relatively few of these reports have involved co-ingestion of multiple psychotropic agents. We report a case of overdose with risperidone, ziprasidone, valproate, trihexyphenidyl and clonazepam in a 25 years female, who recovered uneventfully with supportive management. Notwithstanding the benign outcome in this instance, age, co-ingested drugs, active metabolites and medical co-morbidity are critical issues in overdose with atypical antipsychotics. As prescription of these drugs continues to increase in developing countries, systematic studies evaluating their clinical toxicity and management are necessary. The issues associated with overdose of multiple psychotropic agents and appropriate management policies are highlighted.

  20. Oral risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine versus haloperidol in psychotic agitation

    OpenAIRE

    Bogetto, Filippo; Rocca, Paola; MONTEMAGNI, Cristiana

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Acute agitation is a common presentation in emergency departments and is often secondary to an underlying psychotic condition. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three second generation antipsychotics (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine) versus haloperidol in the treatment of psychotic agitation for up to 72 h. General Methods: We recruited 101 patients with acute psychosis who were admitted at the Mental Health Department 1 South of Turin, Psychiatric Eme...

  1. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Chih-Hsun; Hsu Chih-Wei; Tsao Tang-Yi; Chou Jason

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8120093785928228

  2. Case Report: Valproic Acid and Risperidone Treatment Leading to Development of Hyperammonemia and Mania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Teri; Reynolds, Charles A.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes two children who developed hyperammonemia together with frank manic behavior during treatment with a combination of valproic acid and risperidone. One child had been maintained on valproic acid for years and risperidone was added. In the second case, valproic acid was introduced to a child who had been treated with…

  3. Efficacy of hyaluronic acid or steroid injections for the treatment of a rat model of rotator cuff injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Sasaki, Yu; Kijima, Takehiro; Hashimoto, Eiko; Sasaki, Yasuhito; Kenmoku, Tomonori; Yamazaki, Hironori; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ohtori, Seiji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated dorsal root ganglia from C3-C7, analyzed gait, and compared the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) which was a marker of inflammatory pain in a rat rotator cuff tear model in which the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons were detached; comparisons were made to a sham group in which only the tendons were exposed. Fluorogold was injected into the glenohumeral joint 21 days after surgery in both groups, and saline, steroids, or hyaluronic acid was injected into the glenohumeral joint in the rotator cuff tear group 26 days after surgery. The proportions of CGRP-immunoreactive neurons were higher and the gait parameters were impaired in the rotator cuff tear group compared to in the sham group. However, the CGRP expression was reduced and the gait was improved with steroid or hyaluronic acid injection compared to saline, suggesting that both hyaluronic acid and steroid injections suppressed of inflammation which thought to be provided pain relief. While there were no significant differences, the suppression of CGRP expression and the improved gait after hyaluronic acid and steroid injections suggested that both methods were effective for rat rotator cuff tear model. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1861-1867, 2015. PMID:26147720

  4. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental X-tip intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in patients with irreversible pulpitis: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atool Chandra Bhuyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain management remains the utmost important qualifying criteria in minimizing patient agony and establishing a strong dentist-patient rapport. Symptomatic irreversible pulpitis is a painful condition necessitating immediate attention and supplemental anesthetic techniques are often resorted to in addition to conventional inferior alveolar nerve block. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, in mandibular posterior teeth, using 4% Articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline as local anesthetic, when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block proved ineffective. Materials and Methods: X-tip system was used to administer 1.7 ml of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in 30 patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular posterior teeth with moderate to severe pain on endodontic access after administration of an inferior alveolar nerve block. Results: The results of the study showed that 25 X-tip injections (83.33% were successful and 5 X-tip injections (16.66% were unsuccessful. Conclusion: When the inferior alveolar nerve block fails to provide adequate pulpal anesthesia, X-tip system using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline was successful in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  5. A comparison of the oral application and injection routes using the Onderstepoort Biological Products Fowl Typhoid vaccine, its safety, efficacy and duration of protection in commercial laying hens

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, Purchase; J, Picard; R, McDonald; S P R, Bisschop.

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to establish whether the Onderstepoort Biological Products Fowl Typhoid (OBPft) vaccine registered as an injectable vaccine was effective and safe when administered orally to commercial layers. Its efficacy and duration of protection were compared with application by intram [...] uscular injection. Commercial brown layer hens were used as they were found to be highly susceptible to Salmonella gallinarum infections. In the vaccine safety trial birds were euthanased at timed intervals spanning 4 weeks postvaccination. Necropsies were performed and samples were taken and tested. No clinical signs or mortalities could be attributed to the OBPft vaccine nor could active shedding of the vaccine strain be detected. Slight pathological changes were noted with both routes of vaccination; however, these changes were transient, returning to normal within the observation period. The injected groups showed a better serological response with the rapid serum plate agglutination (RSPA) test than the orally vaccinated groups. In the duration of protection trial, birds were challenged at 3-8-week intervals post-vaccination. All unvaccinated birds died. Protection 8 and 16 weeks after vaccination was above 60 %, by 24 weeks after challenge, the vaccine protection was below 30 %. It was found that there was no significant difference (P

  6. Dose-associated changes in safety and efficacy parameters observed in a 24-week maintenance trial of olanzapine long-acting injection in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Susan B

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a recently published 24-week maintenance study of olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI in schizophrenia (Kane et al., 2010, apparent dose-associated changes were noted in both efficacy and safety parameters. To help clinicians balance safety and efficacy when choosing a dose of olanzapine LAI, we further studied these changes. Methods Outpatients with schizophrenia who had maintained stability on open-label oral olanzapine for 4 to 8 weeks were randomly assigned to "low" (150 mg/2 weeks; N = 140, "medium" (405 mg/4 weeks; N = 318, or "high" (300 mg/2 weeks; N = 141 dosages of olanzapine LAI for 24 weeks. Potential relationships between dose and several safety or efficacy measures were examined via regression analysis, the Jonckheere-Terpstra test (continuous data, or the Cochran-Armitage test (categorical data. Results Safety parameters statistically significantly related to dose were mean weight change (low: +0.67 [SD = 4.38], medium: +0.89 [SD = 3.87], high: +1.70 [SD = 4.14] kg, p = .024; effect size [ES] = 0.264 high vs. low dose, mean change in prolactin (low: -5.61 [SD = 12.49], medium: -2.76 [SD = 19.02], high: +3.58 [SD = 33.78] ?g/L, p = .001; ES = 0.410 high vs. low dose, fasting triglycerides change from normal at baseline to high (low: 3.2%, medium: 6.0%, high: 18.9%, p = .001; NNT = 7 high vs. low dose and fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol change from normal at baseline to low (low: 13.8%, medium: 19.6%, high: 30.7%, p = .019; NNT = 6 high vs. low dose. Efficacy measures significantly related to dose included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score mean change (low: +2.66 [SD = 14.95], medium: -0.09 [SD = 13.47], high: -2.19 [SD = 13.11], p Conclusions Analyses of several safety and efficacy parameters revealed significant associations with dose of olanzapine LAI, with the highest dose generally showing greater efficacy as well as greater adverse changes in metabolic safety measures. When considering olanzapine LAI, as with all antipsychotics, it is important to carefully consider the potential benefits and risks for an individual patient. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00088491

  7. RP-HPLC Estimation of Risperidone in Tablet Dosage Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Bladania S; Bhatt K; Mehta R; Shah D

    2008-01-01

    A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the estimation of risperidone in tablet dosage forms. A Phenomenex Gemini C-18, 5 µm column having 250x4.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing methanol: acetonitrile: 50 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (80:10:10 v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1.3 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 234 nm. Clozapine was used as an internal standard. The...

  8. Controlled release formulations of risperidone antipsychotic drug in novel aliphatic polyester carriers: Data analysis and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siafaka, Panoraia I; Barmpalexis, Panagiotis; Lazaridou, Maria; Papageorgiou, George Z; Koutris, Efthimios; Karavas, Evangelos; Kostoglou, Margaritis; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2015-08-01

    In the present study a series of biodegradable and biocompatible poly(?-caprolactone)/poly(propylene glutarate) (PCL/PPGlu) polymer blends were investigated as controlled release carriers of Risperidone drug (RISP), appropriate for transdermal drug delivery. The PCL/PPGlu carriers were prepared in different weight ratios. Miscibility studies of blends were evaluated through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Hydrolysis studies were performed at 37°C using a phosphate buffered saline solution. The prepared blends have been used for the preparation of RISP patches via solvent evaporation method, containing 5, 10 and 15wt% RISP. These formulations were characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC and WAXD in order to evaluate interactions taking place between polymer matrix and drug, as well as the dispersion and the physical state of the drug inside the polymer matrix. In vitro drug release studies were performed using as dissolution medium phosphate buffered saline simulating body fluids. It was found that in all cases controlled release formulations were obtained, while the RISP release varies due to the properties of the used polymer blend and the different levels of drug loading. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) were used for dissolution behaviour modelling showing increased correlation efficacy compared to Multi-Linear-Regression (MLR). PMID:26159838

  9. Comparison of efficacy of lignocaine anesthesia of vocal cords by spray as you go through a bronchoscope with lignocaine injection through the cricothyroid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess and compare the efficacy of lignocaine anesthesia of vocal cords by spray as you go through a bronchoscope with lignocaine injection through the cricothyroid membrane. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study:This study was done in Combined Military Hospital Peshawar form May 2009 to June 2010. Material and method: Thirty patients in each group were given local anesthesia to the vocal cords. With lignocaine either via intratracheal instillation through the cricothyroid membrane or through a fibreoptic bronchoscope spray as you go. A cough score was calculated by recording the number of coughs as the bronchoscope was advanced through the cords into the trachea. A twenty point unpleasantness score was marked by the patient 2 hours after the procedure. Result: Cough score and unpleasantness score was compared among the two groups using SPSS version 19. Median unpleasantness score was 6 (Inter quartile range (IQR) 4-8) whereas median cough score was 2(IQR 0-3). The difference was statistically significant among the two groups for both cough and unpleasant scores (p< 0.001 and p< 0.001 respectively). Conclusion: Intratracheal injection of lignocaine is more comfortable for the patient. It induces much less cough and irritability to the patient than the spray as you go technique. (author)

  10. Efficacy of orally administered amphipathic poly-aminocarboxylic acid chelators for the removal of plutonium and americium: Comparison with injected Zn-DTPA in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelators are used to promote excretion of actinides and some other metals, but few are orally effective. The relative efficacies of orally administered triethylenetetramine-pentaacetic acids (TT) with varying lipophilic properties on the removal of 241Am and 239Pu and comparison with parenteral Zn-DTPA was determined. The actinides were administered to adult rats 2 weeks prior to initiation of 30 d of chelation treatment. The TT compounds were given orally while Zn-DTPA was given twice weekly by injection. Total body content of 241Am was measured before and during the treatment period and organ contents of 241Am and 239Pu were measured at the end of the study. Significant reductions in 241Am occurred within the first week, with Zn-DTPA being the most effective. By 3 weeks, the most lipophilic chelator, C22TT was as effective as Zn-DTPA. After 30 d, reductions in organ content of 239Pu and 241Am directly correlated with increasing lipophilicity of the TT chelators. Oral C22TT was as effective as injected Zn-DTPA in liver and bone, the major organs of actinide deposition. The removal of 239Pu from the liver and reduction of redeposition of 239Pu in newly formed bone by C22TT was confirmed by neutron-induced autoradiographs. The amphipathic TT chelators may be useful as orally administered alternatives to current parenteral DTPA for the removal of actinide elements from the body, particularly for longer-term therapeutic applications. (authors)

  11. Microsphere delivery of Risperidone as an alternative to combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Susan; Faraj, Jabar; DeLuca, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a parenteral delivery system of Risperidone that would provide initial and extended drug release and thereby avoid the need for co-administration of oral tablets. Key formulation parameters utilized to achieve desired therapeutic levels in vivo were particle size and drug loading. Three poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere formulations (Formulations A, B, and C) that encapsulated Risperidone were prepared by varying particle size (19-49 ?m) and drug loading parameters (31-37%) but with a uniform bulk density (0.66-0.69)g/cc and internal porosity, utilizing the solvent extraction/evaporation method. The microspheres were characterized for drug content by HPLC, particle size by laser diffractometry, surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in vivo drug release. In vivo studies were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and levels of the active moiety (Risperidone and its metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone) were assessed. In vivo release profiles from the three microsphere formulations were dependent on particle size and drug loading. The smaller sized microspheres (Formulation A) exhibited a large initial burst and a shorter duration of action, while the larger particles exhibited a smaller initial burst (Formulations B and C) but released drug for a much longer period in vivo. Extended duration of drug release was ascribed to higher drug content in the microspheres. A biweekly simulation of multiple dosing revealed that Formulation C, the selected formulation, with a high load and large particle size would provide adequate initial and maintenance levels of the active moiety (Risperidone and its metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone). A comparison of biweekly dosing in vivo of Formulation C with the marketed product showed that at steady state, though average concentrations for both preparations were similar, the time taken to achieve steady state was much faster for Formulation C. The delay in attaining steady state with Risperdal Consta® was attributed to the 3 week latency in drug release from the microspheres and was in accordance with previous studies indicating a good corroboration with clinical findings. Calculated cumulative AUC (area under the curve) levels for Formulation C were similar to the Risperdal Consta®, though there were marked differences in AUC levels at the early time points. Comparison of Risperidal Consta® and Formulation C by multiple dosing in vivo experiments revealed that the marketed preparation demonstrated a substantial delay in providing an initial loading dose, continuous circulating levels, and attainment of steady state; all of which were observed rapidly with Formulation C. Findings from the current study strongly suggest that a microsphere dosage form of Risperidone can be formulated with an optimum particle size and drug loading to provide an initial bolus followed by maintenance levels, thereby eliminating combination therapy and improving patient compliance. PMID:23892159

  12. Comparison of the Efficacy of Oral and Injectable Forms of Prophylactic Antibiotics in Grade Ii Traumatic Ulcers in Emergency Wards of University Hospitals of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Hajiesmaieli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic ulcers are one of the most common causes of referral to emergency wards and interfere with wound healing. Even in a complete sterile condition, all of the ulcers may be contaminated with bacteria, but a few of them progress and cause clinical manifestations. There is a controversy on the use prophylactic antibiotics in traumatic ulcers. In this study we compare the efficacy of oral and injectable forms of antibiotics in prophylaxis of infection. Methods: In this clinical trial study, 237 cases suffering from grade II traumatic ulcers were selected by simple random method and divided into 2 groups; first group was administered 1 gram cephazoline prior to suturing and received no other antibiotics , while the second group received 500 mg cephalexin capsule before suturing and continued the treatment for 24 hours. (500 mg QID .Patients were followed up on day 7, 10 and 30 after discharge from hospital for infection of the wounds. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS 11 software using Chi-squire and Fisher exact tests. Results: According to the findings, confounding variables such as sex, age, width of the wound, traumatic cause and site and also the time course until referral to the emergency ward were similar in both groups. Prevalence of infection in the group receiving oral and injection forms of antibiotic was 2.5% and 1.7%, respectively, difference of which was not significant.(P=0.683 Conclusion: As the prevalence of wound infection is similar in both groups, oral forms of antibiotics can be used instead of injectable forms for wound infection prophylaxis.

  13. Critical appraisal of the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of hydroxyprogesterone caproate injection to reduce the risk of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidaeff AC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alex C Vidaeff, Michael A BelfortDivision of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Prevention of preterm delivery is a major desiderate in contemporary obstetrics and a societal necessity. The means to achieve this goal remain elusive. Progesterone has been used in an attempt to prevent preterm delivery since the 1970s, but the evidence initially accumulated was fraught by mixed results and was based on mostly underpowered studies with variable eligibility criteria, including history of spontaneous abortion as an indication for treatment. More recent randomized controlled clinical trials restimulated the interest in progesterone supplementation, suggesting that progesterone may favorably influence the rate of preterm delivery. Preterm delivery is a complex disorder and consequently it is unlikely that one generalized prevention strategy will be effective in all patients. Further, an additional impediment in accepting progesterone as the "magic bullet" in the prevention of preterm delivery is that its mechanism of action is not fully understood and the optimal formulations, route of administration, and dose have yet to be established. We have concerned ourselves in this review with the most recent status of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OH-PC supplementation for prevention of preterm delivery. Our intention is to emphasize the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of this intervention, based on a comprehensive and unbiased review of the available literature. Currently there are insufficient data to suggest that 17OH-PC is superior or inferior to natural progesterone. Based on available evidence, we suggest a differential approach giving preferential consideration to either 17OH-PC or other progestins based on obstetric history and cervical surveillance. Progestin therapy for risk factors other than a history of preterm birth and/or a short cervix in the current pregnancy is not currently supported by the published evidence. The experience to date with 17OH-PC indicates that there are population subgroups that may be harmed by administration of 17OH-PC. Therefore, extending the use of 17OH-PC to unstudied populations or for indications that are not evidence-based is inadvisable outside of a research protocol.Keywords: preterm delivery, prevention, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, efficacy, safety, acceptability

  14. Normalization of Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia with the Addition of Aripiprazole

    OpenAIRE

    Shores, Larry E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor metabolic changes, including hyperprolactinemia, in adolescents medicated with atypical antipsychotics, especially when polypharmacy is involved. This study specifically followed risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in adolescents (14 male patients and 2 female patients) after aripiprazole was added to begin transitioning to another atypical antipsychotic. No other changes were made in the medication regimen. Risperidone was continued at the previo...

  15. Development of novel risperidone implants using blends of polycaprolactones and in vitro in vivo correlation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Navitha, Aerrolla; Jogala, Satheesh; Krishnamohan, Chinnala; Aukunuru, Jithan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel implant containing risperidone intended for long-term treatment in Schizophrenia utilizing in vitro in vivo correlation (IVIVC) studies. Different implants (F1-F8) containing an antipsychotic drug, risperidone, were prepared using a hot melt extrusion technique by taking polycaprolactones of different molecular weights (Mwt. 15000, 45000, 80000) either alone or as their blends, and PLGA (75:25). The implants contained 40% of the drug. After f...

  16. Short- and long-term efficacy of intra-articular injections with betamethasone as part of a treat-to-target strategy in early rheumatoid arthritis : impact of joint area, repeated injections, MRI findings, anti-CCP, IgM-RF and CRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete Lund; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short-term and long-term efficacy of intra-articular betamethasone injections, and the impact of joint area, repeated injections, MRI pathology, anticyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) and immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) status in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).METHODS: During 2 years of follow-up in the CIMESTRA trial, 160 patients received intra-articular betamethasone in up to four swollen joints/visit in combination with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Short-term efficacy was assessed by EULAR good response. Long-term efficacy by Kaplan-Meier plots of the joint injection survival (ie, the time between injection and renewed flare). Potential predictors of joint injection survival were tested.RESULTS: 1373 Unique joints (ankles, elbows, knees, metacarpophalangeal (MCP), metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal (PIP), shoulders, wrists) were injected during 2 years. 531 Joints received a second injection, and 262 a third. At baseline, the median numbers of injections (dose of betamethasone) was 4 (28 mg), declining to 0 (0 mg) at subsequent visits. At weeks 2, 4 and 6, 50.0%, 58.1% and 61.7% had achieved a EULAR good response. After 1 and 2 years, respectively, 62.3% (95% CI 58.1% to 66.9%) and 55.5% (51.1% to 60.3%) of the joints injected at baseline had not relapsed. All joint areas had good 2-year joint injection survival, longest for the PIP joints: 73.7% (79.4% to 95.3%). 2-Year joint injection survival was higher for first injections: 56.6% (53.7% to 59.8%) than for the second: 43.4% (38.4% to 49.0%) and the third: 31.3% (25.0% to 39.3%). Adverse events were mild and transient. A high MRI synovitis score of MCP joints and anti-CCP-negativity were associated with poorer joint injection survival, whereas IgM-RF and C-reactive protein were not.CONCLUSION: In early RA, intra-articular injections of betamethasone in small and large peripheral joints resulted in rapid, effective and longlasting inflammatory control. The cumulative dose of betamethasone was low, and the injections were well tolerated.

  17. Evaluating the effect of risperidone on speech: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Vandana, V P; Lewis, Nikita Vincent; Jayaram, M; Enderby, Pamela

    2015-06-01

    Speech subsystems are susceptible to the effects of several factors including medications. The atypical antipsychotics can also adversely affect the speech because of its action on serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitters. The present study aims to analyze the speech characteristics associated with atypical antipsychotic risperidone. Speech of 92 patients on risperidone with or without trihexyphenidyl and/or clonazepam were compared with that of 31 persons who were not on any psychotropic medicines. Compared to control group, maximum phonation duration, sequential motion rate of diadochokinesia was reduced by about 3s and 1syllable/s respectively and s/z ratio was increased by 0.16 in patients with risperidone. Performance of larynx, lips and tongue sub-system and intelligibility of speech were also significantly reduced in risperidone group. Risperidone did impact the phonation and articulation sub-systems of speech mildly, which was independent of tardive dyskinesia and extrapyramidal symptoms. Randomized controlled prospective study looking into impact on speech and related effect on drug adherence, functioning and quality of life needs to be conducted with risperidone and other atypical antipsychotics. PMID:26013669

  18. In vitro-in vivo correlation of parenteral risperidone polymeric microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Choi, Stephanie; Qu, Wen; Wang, Yan; Burgess, Diane J

    2015-11-28

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether an in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) can be established for polymeric microspheres that are equivalent in formulation composition but prepared with different manufacturing processes. Risperidone was chosen as a model therapeutic and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with similar molecular weight as that used in the commercial product Risperdal® Consta® was used to prepare risperidone microspheres. Various manufacturing processes were investigated to produce the risperidone microspheres with similar drug loading (approx. 37%) but distinctly different physicochemical properties (e.g. porosity, particle size and particle size distribution). In vitro release of the risperidone microspheres was investigated using different release testing methods (such as sample-and-separate and USP apparatus 4). In vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of the risperidone microsphere formulations following intramuscular administration were determined using a rabbit model. Furthermore, the obtained pharmacokinetic profiles were deconvoluted using the Loo-Riegelman method and the calculated in vivo release was compared with the in vitro release of these microspheres. Level A IVIVCs were established and validated for the compositionally equivalent risperidone microspheres based on the in vitro release data obtained using USP apparatus 4. The developed IVIVCs demonstrated good predictability and were robust. These results showed that the developed USP apparatus 4 method was capable of discriminating PLGA microspheres that are equivalent in formulation composition but with manufacturing differences and predicting their in vivo performance in the investigated animal model. PMID:26423236

  19. A Comparison of the Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Morphine with Marcaine in Patients to Relief the Pain Associated with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Shafiei,

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available . *AbstractBackground and purpose: Knee arthroscopy is an approved technique for the diagnosis and treatment of intra-articular lesions. Moderate to severe pain is experienced after surgery; thus, relieving pain post arthroscopy, will help patients in performing their daily activities as soon as possible. Many studies have been performed for reducing pain after arthroscopy. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of intra-articular injection of morphine with marcaine in patients for pain relief after arthroscopy.Materials and Methods: 30 patients were considered for arthroscopic surgery, due to the tearing of the menisci. In this simple non-probability trial, patients were divided in two groups. The first group received 7cc intra-articular marcaine at 0.5% and the second group received 10mg of intra-articular morphine after the arthroscopy. The response was measured by VAS in hours 6, 12, 18, 24 postoperatively and by flexion, extension and walking.Results: The results showed that there was no significant statistical difference between the two groups, except in hour 6 after surgery, indicating marcaine is more effective than morphine. There were no side effects experienced within the two groups. Age, gender, height and weight also had no effect in reducing the pain in patients.Conclusion: Intra-articular Injection of marcaine is more effective than morphine six hours after surgery; however, there are no differences between them after that time frame. More research is needed in order to reduce pain after arthroscopy. Key words:

  20. MK-801-induced deficits in social recognition in rats: reversal by aripiprazole, but not olanzapine, risperidone, or cannabidiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, Serena; Watanabe, Akihito; Yamasaki, Yuki; Amada, Naoki; Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Stott, Colin; Riedel, Gernot

    2015-12-01

    Deficiencies in social activities are hallmarks of numerous brain disorders. With respect to schizophrenia, social withdrawal belongs to the category of negative symptoms and is associated with deficits in the cognitive domain. Here, we used the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) for induction of social withdrawal in rats and assessed the efficacy of several atypical antipsychotics with different pharmacological profiles as putative treatment. In addition, we reasoned that the marijuana constituent cannabidiol (CBD) may provide benefit or could be proposed as an adjunct treatment in combination with antipsychotics. Hooded Lister rats were tested in the three-chamber version for social interaction, with an initial novelty phase, followed after 3?min by a short-term recognition memory phase. No drug treatment affected sociability. However, distinct effects on social recognition were revealed. MK-801 reduced social recognition memory at all doses (>0.03?mg/kg). Predosing with aripiprazole dose-dependently (2 or 10?mg/kg) prevented the memory decline, but doses of 0.1?mg/kg risperidone or 1?mg/kg olanzapine did not. Intriguingly, CBD impaired social recognition memory (12 and 30?mg/kg) but did not rescue the MK-801-induced deficits. When CBD was combined with protective doses of aripiprazole (CBD-aripiprazole at 12?:?1 or 5?:?2?mg/kg) the benefit of the antipsychotic was lost. At the same time, activity-related changes in behaviour were excluded as underlying reasons for these pharmacological effects. Collectively, the combined activity of aripiprazole on dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT1A receptors appears to provide a significant advantage over risperidone and olanzapine with respect to the rescue of cognitive deficits reminiscent of schizophrenia. The differential pharmacological properties of CBD, which are seemingly beneficial in human patients, did not back-translate and rescue the MK-801-induced social memory deficit. PMID:26287433

  1. Influence of aripiprazole, risperidone, and amisulpride on sensory and sensorimotor gating in healthy 'low and high gating' humans and relation to psychometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csomor, Philipp A; Preller, Katrin H; Geyer, Mark A; Studerus, Erich; Huber, Theodor; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2014-09-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders with atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), there is still need for compounds with improved efficacy/side-effect ratios. Evidence from challenge studies suggests that the assessment of gating functions in humans and rodents with naturally low-gating levels might be a useful model to screen for novel compounds with antipsychotic properties. To further evaluate and extend this translational approach, three AAPs were examined. Compounds without antipsychotic properties served as negative control treatments. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject design, healthy males received either single doses of aripiprazole and risperidone (n=28), amisulpride and lorazepam (n=30), or modafinil and valproate (n=30), and placebo. Prepulse inhibiton (PPI) and P50 suppression were assessed. Clinically associated symptoms were evaluated using the SCL-90-R. Aripiprazole, risperidone, and amisulpride increased P50 suppression in low P50 gaters. Lorazepam, modafinil, and valproate did not influence P50 suppression in low gaters. Furthermore, low P50 gaters scored significantly higher on the SCL-90-R than high P50 gaters. Aripiprazole increased PPI in low PPI gaters, whereas modafinil and lorazepam attenuated PPI in both groups. Risperidone, amisulpride, and valproate did not influence PPI. P50 suppression in low gaters appears to be an antipsychotic-sensitive neurophysiologic marker. This conclusion is supported by the association of low P50 suppression and higher clinically associated scores. Furthermore, PPI might be sensitive for atypical mechanisms of antipsychotic medication. The translational model investigating differential effects of AAPs on gating in healthy subjects with naturally low gating can be beneficial for phase II/III development plans by providing additional information for critical decision making. PMID:24801767

  2. Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Percutaneous Ethanol Injection with or without Combined Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinomas in High Risk Locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) alone and combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in high risk locations. We performed PEI for HCCs in RFA-high risk locations, either alone or in combination with RFA. There were 20 HCCs (1.7 ± 0.9 cm) in 20 patients (PEI group: n = 12; PEI + RFA group: n = 8). We evaluated technical success, local tumor progression and complications in both groups. Technical success was achieved in all HCCs in both groups. During follow-up, local tumor progression was found in 41.7% (5/12) in the PEI group, whereas 12.5% (1/8) for the PEI + RFA group (p = 0.32). Bile duct dilatation was the most common complication, especially when the tumors were in periportal locations; 55% (5/9) in the PEI group and 50% (2/4) in the PEI + RFA group (p = 1.00). One patient in the PEI group developed severe biliary stricture and upstream dilatation that resulted in atrophy of the left hepatic lobe. One patient treated with PEI + RFA developed cholangitis and an abscess. Combined PEI and RFA treatment has a tendency to be more effective than PEI alone for managing HCCs in high risk locations, although the difference is not statistically significant. Even though PEI is generally accepted as a safe procedure, it may cause major biliary complications for managing HCCs adjacent to the portal vein

  3. Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Percutaneous Ethanol Injection with or without Combined Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinomas in High Risk Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Dong Ik; Lee, Min Woo; Rhim, Hyunchul; Choi, Dongil; Kim, Young-sun; Lim, Hyo K. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) alone and combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in high risk locations. We performed PEI for HCCs in RFA-high risk locations, either alone or in combination with RFA. There were 20 HCCs (1.7 ± 0.9 cm) in 20 patients (PEI group: n = 12; PEI + RFA group: n = 8). We evaluated technical success, local tumor progression and complications in both groups. Technical success was achieved in all HCCs in both groups. During follow-up, local tumor progression was found in 41.7% (5/12) in the PEI group, whereas 12.5% (1/8) for the PEI + RFA group (p = 0.32). Bile duct dilatation was the most common complication, especially when the tumors were in periportal locations; 55% (5/9) in the PEI group and 50% (2/4) in the PEI + RFA group (p = 1.00). One patient in the PEI group developed severe biliary stricture and upstream dilatation that resulted in atrophy of the left hepatic lobe. One patient treated with PEI + RFA developed cholangitis and an abscess. Combined PEI and RFA treatment has a tendency to be more effective than PEI alone for managing HCCs in high risk locations, although the difference is not statistically significant. Even though PEI is generally accepted as a safe procedure, it may cause major biliary complications for managing HCCs adjacent to the portal vein.

  4. Time resolved analysis of risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone in hair using LC/MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Serge; Sibille, Estelle; Yegles, Michel; Neels, Hugo; Wennig, Robert; Mühe, Annette

    2009-08-15

    Risperidone (RSP) is a second generation anti-psychotic drug used for the treatment of schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. In the last decades, clinical applications of hair analysis have received an increasing attention, because of its wide surveillance window. In this work, we describe a simple and fast method for detection and quantification of RSP and its major metabolite, 9-OH-risperidone (9-OH-RSP), in human hair. The validated method (cv of interday precision, intraday precision and accuracy0.98, limit of detection (LOD) was 0.90 pg/mg hair (RSP) and 1.52 pg/mg hair (9-OH-RSP), the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were 1.8 and 4.56 pg/mg, respectively, extraction yield were 86.9% for RSP and 86.7% for 9-OH-RSP) was successfully applied to quantify both substances in the hair of psychiatric patients treated with RSP. After washing, pulverisation, incubation in an ultrasound bath and liquid/liquid extraction of the hair samples, quantification was performed using LC/MS-MS in selected reaction monitoring mode with methaqualone as internal standard. Concentrations for RSP and its major metabolite ranged from 36 to 4765 pg/mg and from 14 to 57 pg/mg, respectively in the different hair segments. These preliminary results indicate a better relationship between the administered dose and hair concentration for 9-OH-RSP than for the parent drug. Furthermore, the RSP/9-OH-RSP ratio varied from 1 to 83. PMID:19595645

  5. A Randomized Open Label Comparison of the Effects ofRisperidone and Haloperidol on Sexual Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jaber Mousavi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "nSexual dysfunction in patients who take antipsychotics causes adecline in their quality of life and medication acceptance. Considering the restrictions in cross sectional design of many earlier researches, we used a clinical trial aimed at assessing sexual dysfunction by substituting Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, with Haloperidol, a typical one . "n "n "nMethod: This clinical trial was conducted on 51 patients who had been using Risperidone with a minimum dose of 2 mg/daily for at least 2 months. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. The first group continued taking Risperidone, whereas the second group was given Haloperidol. Sexual function prior to and after the drug substitution was assessed using a sexual questionnaire designed to assess four stages of sexual function . "nResults: Compared to those who changed their medication to Haloperidol, the patients who remained on Risperidone therapy suffered from more sexual dysfunction, especially in their tendency towards having sexual activities (P= 0.01, post menstrual sexual activity (P= 0.002, and reaching orgasm in their sexual activities (P= 0.04; however in the Haloperidol group, no significant difference was observed before and after the change in medication . "nConclusion: Although Risperidone and Haloperidol can both disturb patients'sexual function, the side effects of Risperidone are stronger. Hence toprevent the decline of medication acceptance or irregular consumption by patients which may lead to possible relapse, substitution of Risperidone withanother drug with fewer side effects on sexual activities is definitely to the advantage of the patients .

  6. A Placebo-Controlled Study of Raloxifene Added to Risperidone in Men with Chronic Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Khodaie-Ardakani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs such as raloxifene have already shown beneficial effects on negative, positive and general psychopathology symptoms in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the efficacy of raloxifene as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of men with chronic schizophrenia in an 8-week double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. In a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study, forty-six male patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR, were randomized to either raloxifene (120 mg/day or placebo in addition to risperidone (6 mg/day for eight weeks. The assessment was performed using the positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS at baseline, and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Extrapyramidal symptom rating scale (ESRS at baseline, weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS at baseline and week 8 were also used to assess extrapyramidal symptoms and depression simultaneously. Forty-two patients completed the trial. The raloxifene group showed significantly greater improvement on the negative subscale (P<0.001, the general psychopathology subscale (P=0.002 and total PANSS score (P<0.001 in comparison to the placebo group at the endpoint. There was no significant difference in the reduction of positive symptoms score between the two group (P=0.525. Extrapyramidal symptom rating scale and Hamilton depression rating scale and frequency of other adverse effects were comparable between two groups.This study indicates raloxifene as a potential adjunctive treatment strategy for chronic schizophrenia in men.

  7. Clinical overview of children with mucopolysaccharidosis type III A and effect of Risperidone treatment on children and their mothers psychological status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan Ucar, Sema; Ozbaran, Burcu; Demiral, Nagehan; Yuncu, Zeki; Erermis, Serpil; Coker, Mahmut

    2010-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive mental deterioration and severe behavioral problems. We conducted an open-label, crossover study of the efficacy and safety of Risperidone on behavioral disorder in children with MPS IIIA. A total of 12 patients (5.5+/-2.2 years) with enzymatic diagnosis of MPS IIIA were randomly assigned to receive Risperidone (0.125-2mg/d) for 6 months. The hyperactivity and disruptive behavior level of children before and after treatment was evaluated regarding the scores from Turgay DSM IV Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S). Clinic Global Impression Scale - Severity (CGIS-S) was used for all cases for determining the psychiatric disorder severity. The anxiety and depression levels of mothers before and after treatment were evaluated using Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The adverse effects were evaluated by monitoring weight, serum prolactin, glucose and lipid levels. The response to the treatment was measured by decrease in values of CGI-S (from 6+/-1.12 to 2.91+/-0.66, p=0.001). According to T-DSM-IV-S scores the best improvement was observed in hyperactivity scores (16.25+/-8.57/11.58+/-7.26, p=0.001), followed by opposition/defiance (6.66+/-5.92/5.08+/-4.88, p=0.032), and conduct disorder scores (1.00+/-1.85/0.41+/-.99, p=0.67). No clinically relevant elevations in weight and serum prolactin, glucose or lipid levels have been documented (p>0.05). There was a significant decrease in anxiety and depression scores of mothers (HAM-A: 20.33+/-8.28/17.91+/-6.89, BDI: 23.58+/-7.14/20.5+/-5.93, p<0.001). To our knowledge, research on the pharmacological treatment of MPS IIIA with Risperidone has not been reported. According to our data, Risperidone appeared to be safe and effective in MPS IIIA patients. PMID:19217229

  8. The efficacies of pure LICAM(C) and DTPA on the retention of plutonium-238 and americium-241 in rats after their inhalation as nitrate and intravenous injection as citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stradling, G.N.; Stather, J.W.; Gray, S.A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK)) (and others)

    1989-10-01

    The pure carboxylated catechoyl amide LICAM(C) and the calcium and zinc salts of diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA), were tested for efficacy for removing {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am from rats after inhalation of the nitrate or intravenous injection of the citrate. The results were compared with the efficacy of methylated LICAM(C) used in previous experiments. It was shown that: (1) after inhalation of {sup 238}Pu nitrate, DTPA was far superior to pure LICAM(C); (2) after intravenous injection of {sup 238}Pu citrate, the infusion of DTPA plus LICAM(C) was only marginally more effective than DTPA alone; and (3) after inhalation or intravenous injection of {sup 238}Pu plus {sup 241}Am, the efficacy of pure LICAM(C) was only marginally more effective than the methylated form and neither form was effective for the decorporation of {sup 241}Am. It was concluded that DTPA, at present, remains the chelating agent of choice for treating persons accidentally contaminated with transportable forms of Pu and Am. (author).

  9. The efficacies of pure LICAM(C) and DTPA on the retention of plutonium-238 and americium-241 in rats after their inhalation as nitrate and intravenous injection as citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradling, G N; Stather, J W; Gray, S A; Moody, J C; Ellender, M; Hodgson, A; Volf, V; Taylor, D M; Wirth, P; Gaskin, P W

    1989-10-01

    The pure carboxylated catechoyl amide LICAM(C) and the calcium and zinc salts of diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA), were tested for efficacy for removing 238Pu and 241Am from rats after inhalation of the nitrate or intravenous injection of the citrate. The results were compared with the efficacy of methylated LICAM(C) used in previous experiments. It was shown that: (1) after inhalation of 238Pu nitrate, DTPA was far superior to pure LICAM(C); (2) after intravenous injection of 238Pu citrate, the infusion of DTPA plus LICAM(C) was only marginally more effective than DTPA alone; and (3) after inhalation or intravenous injection of 238Pu plus 241Am, the efficacy of pure LICAM(C) was only marginally more effective than the methylated form and neither form was effective for the decorporation of 241Am. It was concluded that DTPA, at present, remains the chelating agent of choice for treating persons accidentally contaminated with transportable forms of Pu and Am. PMID:2571662

  10. The efficacies of pure LICAM(C) and DTPA on the retention of plutonium-238 and americium-241 in rats after their inhalation as nitrate and intravenous injection as citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pure carboxylated catechoyl amide LICAM(C) and the calcium and zinc salts of diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA), were tested for efficacy for removing 238Pu and 241Am from rats after inhalation of the nitrate or intravenous injection of the citrate. The results were compared with the efficacy of methylated LICAM(C) used in previous experiments. It was shown that: (1) after inhalation of 238Pu nitrate, DTPA was far superior to pure LICAM(C); (2) after intravenous injection of 238Pu citrate, the infusion of DTPA plus LICAM(C) was only marginally more effective than DTPA alone; and (3) after inhalation or intravenous injection of 238Pu plus 241Am, the efficacy of pure LICAM(C) was only marginally more effective than the methylated form and neither form was effective for the decorporation of 241Am. It was concluded that DTPA, at present, remains the chelating agent of choice for treating persons accidentally contaminated with transportable forms of Pu and Am. (author)

  11. Risperidone and NAP protect cognition and normalize gene expression in a schizophrenia mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisburd, Sinaya; Shemer, Zeev; Yeheskel, Adva; Giladi, Eliezer; Gozes, Illana

    2015-01-01

    Mutated disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a microtubule regulating protein, leads to schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses. It is hypothesized that microtubule stabilization may provide neuroprotection in schizophrenia. The NAP (NAPVSIPQ) sequence of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) contains the SxIP motif, microtubule end binding (EB) protein target, which is critical for microtubule dynamics leading to synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. Bioinformatics prediction for FDA approved drugs mimicking SxIP-like motif which displace NAP-EB binding identified Risperidone. Risperidone or NAP effectively ameliorated object recognition deficits in the mutated DISC1 mouse model. NAP but not Risperidone, reduced anxiety in the mutated mice. Doxycycline, which blocked the expression of the mutated DISC1, did not reverse the phenotype. Transcripts of Forkhead-BOX P2 (Foxp2), a gene regulating DISC1 and associated with human ability to acquire a spoken language, were increased in the hippocampus of the DISC1 mutated mice and were significantly lowered after treatment with NAP, Risperidone, or the combination of both. Thus, the combination of NAP and standard of care Risperidone in humans may protect against language disturbances associated with negative and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:26553741

  12. Risperidone – Solid-state characterization and pharmaceutical compatibility using thermal and non-thermal techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Josiane Souza Pereira; Veronez, Isabela Pianna; Rodrigues, Larissa Lopes [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Trevisan, Marcello G. [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); National Institute of Bioanalytics Science and Technology – INCTBio, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, 13084-653, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Garcia, Jerusa Simone, E-mail: jerusa.garcia@unifal-mg.edu.br [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • DSC was used to characterize Risperidone and study its compatibility with excipients. • FT-IR associated with PCA was used to complement DSC data. • LC analyzes confirmed the DSC and FT-IR/PCA results. • Risperidone was incompatible with three among five excipients evaluated. - Abstract: A full solid-state characterization of risperidone was conducted using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine its physicochemical properties and polymorphism. The primary aim of this work was to study the compatibility of risperidone with pharmaceutical excipients using DSC to obtain and compare the curves of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the excipients with their 1:1 (w/w) binary mixtures. These same binary mixtures were turned to room temperature and analyzed by FT-IR combined with principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate solid-state incompatibilities. The chemical incompatibilities of these samples were verified using a stability-indicating liquid chromatography (LC) method to assay for the API and evaluate the formation of degradation products. All of these methods showed incompatibilities between risperidone and the excipients magnesium stearate, lactose and cellulose microcrystalline.

  13. Risperidone – Solid-state characterization and pharmaceutical compatibility using thermal and non-thermal techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • DSC was used to characterize Risperidone and study its compatibility with excipients. • FT-IR associated with PCA was used to complement DSC data. • LC analyzes confirmed the DSC and FT-IR/PCA results. • Risperidone was incompatible with three among five excipients evaluated. - Abstract: A full solid-state characterization of risperidone was conducted using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine its physicochemical properties and polymorphism. The primary aim of this work was to study the compatibility of risperidone with pharmaceutical excipients using DSC to obtain and compare the curves of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the excipients with their 1:1 (w/w) binary mixtures. These same binary mixtures were turned to room temperature and analyzed by FT-IR combined with principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate solid-state incompatibilities. The chemical incompatibilities of these samples were verified using a stability-indicating liquid chromatography (LC) method to assay for the API and evaluate the formation of degradation products. All of these methods showed incompatibilities between risperidone and the excipients magnesium stearate, lactose and cellulose microcrystalline

  14. Polipectomía endoscópica de colon: efectividad y seguridad de la técnica de inyectar y cortar / Efficacy and safety of the inject and cut technique for endoscopic colonic polypectomy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    William, Otero R; Alejandro, Concha M; Martín, Gómez Z.

    2013-03-30

    Full Text Available La polipectomía de colon es el más importante instrumento para detener la secuencia adenoma-cáncer. La técnica de inyectar y cortar ha demostrado eficacia y seguridad en estudios realizados en otros países. En nuestro país no se han reportado datos sobre el desempeño de esta técnica por lo que se ha [...] ce necesario describir la experiencia de una unidad de gastroenterología de un centro universitario. Objetivos: Describir las características demográficas y operativas de la polipectomía endoscópica de colon por medio de la técnica de inyectar y cortar. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron todos los pacientes a quienes se les realizó polipectomía endoscópica colon en la unidad de gastroenterología de la Clínica Fundadores de Bogotá, desde enero de 2003 hasta septiembre de 2011; los datos se procesaron en el paquete estadístico PASW statistics 18 versión 18,8 (SPSS-IBM). Resultados: A 420 pacientes se les realizó polipectomía con un total de 548 pólipos resecados. Promedio de edad 56,3años (14-93), 201 masculinos y 219 femeninos. Localización más común en colon izquierdo (238/64,4%), promedio de tamaño 1,6 cm, 83,8% pediculados, 13,3% sésiles y 2,85% planos. Hubo sangrado intraprocedimiento en 36 casos (8,6%). No hubo relación entre esta complicación y el tamaño de los pólipos ( 20 mm); OR: 0,44 (IC 0,19-1,01), como tampoco con número de pólipos resecados (1 vs. > 1) OR: 1,44; (IC 95%: 0,65-3,2). Todos los casos de sangrado fueron controlados endoscópicamente sin complicaciones adicionales. No hubo necesidad de cirugía. No hubo recurrencias locales durante el seguimiento. Conclusiones: En el presente estudio se demostró que la técnica de inyectar y cortar es práctica y efectiva, económica y fácil de ejecutar para remover los pólipos del colon. Hasta el momento es la serie más grande publicada en nuestro medio sobre el tema. Abstract in english Colonic polypectomy is the most important tool for stopping adenoma-cancer, and the inject and cut technique has demonstrated efficacy and safety in studies conducted in other countries. Since in our country there are no reported data on performance of this technique, it is necessary to describe the [...] experience of a gastroenterology unit of a university. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to describe operational characteristics of endoscopic colonic polypectomy using the inject and cut technique and to describe demographic characteristics of patients undergoing this procedure. Materials and Methods: We included all patients who underwent endoscopic colonic polypectomies in the gastroenterology unit of the Clínica Fundadores in Bogotá from January 2003 to September 2011. Data were processed using SPSS version 18 18.8 (SPSS-IBM) statistical package. Results: 420 patients underwent polypectomies which resected a total of 548 polyps. Mean patient age was 56.3 years (range 14 to 93), 201 patients were male, and 219 were female. Polyps were most commonly located in the left colon (238/64.4%). Average size was 1.6 cm. 83.8% were pedunculated, 13.3% were sessile, and 2.85% were flat. Intraoperative bleeding occurred in 36 cases (8.6%). There was no relationship between this complication and the size of polyps ( 20 mm), OR: 0.44 (CI 0.19-1.01), nor with the number of resected polyps (1Vs> 1) OR: 1.44, (95%:0.65-3 .2). All cases of bleeding were controlled endoscopically without further complications. There was no need for surgery. There were no local recurrences during follow-up. Conclusions: This study showed that the inject and cut technique is a practical, effective, economical and easy to perform technique for removal of colonic polyps. To date this is the largest series published in our country on the subject

  15. Hyperprolactinemia associated with risperidone: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboraya, Ahmed; Fullen, Jennifer E; Ponieman, Barbara L; Makela, Eugene H; Latocha, Melissa

    2004-11-01

    This case report describes a 19-year-old Caucasian woman who presented to a state psychiatric facility with symptoms of depression and auditory hallucinations. She was diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder, depressed type, and was treated with risperidone and sertraline. Soon after initiation of drug therapy, the patient developed galactorrhea and dysmenorrhea, and her prolactin level was 171.6ng/mL (normal level 2.8-29.2ng/mL in adult women). Upon discontinuation of risperidone, the prolactin level dropped to 17.2ng/mL within one week. The patient was treated with quetiapine and titrated up to 800mg daily. Repeated prolactin levels continued to be normal during treatment with quetiapine. This case report and others from literature suggest that risperidone is associated with hyperprolactinemia, and that quetiapine is less likely to be associated with hyperprolactinemia. PMID:21191524

  16. Relationship between Addiction Relapse and Self-Efficacy Rates in Injection Drug Users Referred to Maintenance Therapy Center of Sari, 1391

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Abdollahi; Fatemeh Taghizadeh; Zeinab Hamzehgardeshi; Olia Bahramzad

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Self-efficacy is the belief that one has the ability to implement the behaviors needed to produce a desired effect. There has been growing interest in the role of self-efficacy as a predictor and/or mediator of treatment outcome in number of domains. In numerous studies of substance abuse treatment, self-efficacy has emerged as an important predictor of outcome, or as a mediator of treatment effects. In the event of a slip, highly self-efficacious persons are inclined ...

  17. Correlates of weight gain during long-term risperidone treatment in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calarge Chadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most clinical trials of antipsychotics in children are brief, failing to address their long-term safety, particularly when taken concurrently with other psychotropics. This hypothesis-generating analysis evaluates potential correlates of weight gain in children receiving extended risperidone treatment. Methods Medically healthy 7–17?year-old patients treated with risperidone for six months or more were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements were conducted. Developmental and medication history was obtained from the medical record. Information related to birth weight, dietary intake, physical activity, and parental weight was collected. Mixed regression analyses explored the contribution of various demographic and clinical factors to age- and sex-adjusted weight and body mass index (BMI z scores over the treatment period. Results The sample consisted of 110 patients (89% males with a mean age of 11.8?years (sd?=?2.9 upon enrollment. The majority had an externalizing disorder and received 0.03?mg/kg/day (sd?=?0.02 of risperidone, for 2.5?years (sd?=?1.7, to primarily target irritability and aggression (81%. Polypharmacy was common with 71% receiving psychostimulants, 50% selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, and 32% ?2-agonists. Weight and BMI z score were positively correlated with baseline weight at the start of risperidone, treatment duration, and the weight-adjusted dose of risperidone but inversely associated with the weight-adjusted dose of psychostimulants and the concurrent use of SSRIs and ?2-agonists. The effect of risperidone dose appeared to attenuate as treatment extended while that of psychostimulants became more significant. The rate of change in weight (or BMI z score prior to and within the first 12?weeks of risperidone treatment did not independently predict future changes neither did birth weight, postnatal growth, dietary intake, physical activity, or parental weight. Conclusions This comprehensive analysis exploring correlates of long-term weight (or BMI change in risperidone-treated youths revealed that pharmacotherapy exerts significant but complex effects. Trial Registration Not applicable.

  18. Hyperprolactinemia Associated with Risperidone: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Aboraya, Ahmed; Fullen, Jennifer E.; Ponieman, Barbara L.; Makela, Eugene H.; Latocha, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    This case report describes a 19-year-old Caucasian woman who presented to a state psychiatric facility with symptoms of depression and auditory hallucinations. She was diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder, depressed type, and was treated with risperidone and sertraline. Soon after initiation of drug therapy, the patient developed galactorrhea and dysmenorrhea, and her prolactin level was 171.6ng/mL (normal level 2.8–29.2ng/mL in adult women). Upon discontinuation of risperidone, the prolac...

  19. Schizophrenia relapse and the clinical usefulness of once-monthly aripiprazole depot injection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Sheng-Min; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Prakash S.; Pae, Chi-Un

    2014-01-01

    Improving medication adherence is critical to improving outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. A long-acting injectable (depot) antipsychotic is one of the most effective methods for improving treatment adherence and decreasing rehospitalization rates in patients with schizophrenia. Until recently, only three second-generation antipsychotics were available in a long-acting injectable formulation (risperidone, paliperidone, and olanzapine). In this respect, the emergence of long-acting aripi...

  20. Low-Dose Risperidone-Induced Oculogyric Crises in an Adolescent Male with Autism, Tourette's and Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masliyah, Tamara; Ad-Dab'bagh, Yasser

    2011-08-01

    This article will review the case of a young patient with mental retardation, autistic disorder, and Tourette Syndrome who exhibited a favourable treatment response preferentially to risperidone. His presentation, however, was complicated by an exquisite sensitivity to risperidone displayed in the form of recurrent oculogyric crises. In this article, we will outline a review of the case, a survey of the incidence and risk factors of oculogyric crises, as well as a review of the literature on risperidone sensitivity, followed by a review of alternate options for the prevention of oculogyric crises. PMID:21804851

  1. A pharmaco-economic analysis of patients with schizophrenia switching to generic risperidone involving a possible compliance loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Möller Hans-Jürgen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As schizophrenia patients are typically suspicious of, or are hostile to changes they may be reluctant to accept generic substitution, possibly affecting compliance. This may counteract drug costs savings due to less symptom control and increased hospitalization risk. Although compliance losses following generic substitution have not been quantified so far, one can estimate the possible health-economic consequences. The current study aims to do so by considering the case of risperidone in Germany. Methods An existing DES model was adapted to compare staying on branded risperidone with generic substitution. Differences include the probability of non-compliance and medication costs. Incremental probability of non-compliance after generic substitution was varied between 2.5% and 10%, while generic medication costs were assumed to be 40% lower. Effect of medication price was assessed as well as the effect of applying compliance losses to all treatment settings. The probability of staying on branded risperidone being cost-effective was calculated for various outcomes of a hypothetical study that would investigate non-compliance following generic substitution of risperidone. Results If the incremental probability of non-compliance after generic substitution is 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% respectively, incremental effects of staying on branded risperidone are 0.004, 0.007, 0.011 and 0.015 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs. Incremental costs are €757, €343, -€123 and -€554 respectively. Benefits of staying on branded risperidone include improved symptom control and fewer hospitalizations. If generic substitution results in a 5.2% higher probability of non-compliance, the model predicts staying on branded risperidone to be cost-effective (NICE threshold of ?30,000 per QALY gained. Compliance losses of more than 6.9% makes branded risperidone the dominant alternative. Results are sensitive to the locations at which compliance loss is applied and the price of generic risperidone. The probability that staying on branded risperidone is cost-effective would increase with larger compliance differences and more patients included in the hypothetical study. Conclusion The model predicts that it is cost-effective to keep a patient with schizophrenia in Germany on branded risperidone instead of switching him/her to generic risperidone (assuming a 40% reduction in medication costs, if the incremental probability of becoming non-compliant after generic substitution exceeds 5.2%.

  2. Risperidone treatment for ADHD in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Biederman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Biederman, Paul Hammerness, Robert Doyle, Gagan Joshi, Megan Aleardi, Eric MickPediatric Psychopharmacology Research Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USAObjective: Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are also at high risk of having comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objective of this study was to estimate improvement in ADHD symptoms in children with bipolar disorder.Methods: This was an open-label, study of risperidone monotherapy for the treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder. Thirty-one children and adolescents 4–15 years of age (7.2 ± 2.8 years of both sexes (71%, N = 22 male with pediatric bipolar disorder (YMRS score = 32.9 ± 8.8 and ADHD (ADHD-RS score = 37.9 ± 8.9 were included in these analyses.Results: Improvement in ADHD symptoms was contingent on improvement in manic symptoms. Although both hyperactive/impulsive (?7.5 ± 5.5.6, p < 0.05 and inattentive (?6.8 ± 5.0, p < 0.05 ADHD symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone, improvement was modest, and only 29% of subjects (N = 6 showed a 30% reduction in ADHD rating scale scores and had a CGI-I ? 2.Conclusions: These results suggest that that treatment with risperidone is associated with tangible but generally modest improvement of symptoms of ADHD in children with bipolar disorder.Keywords: ADHD, bipolar disorder, children, risperidone

  3. Tic Reduction with Risperidone Versus Pimozide in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Donald L.; Batterson, J. Robert; Sethuraman, Gopalan; Sallee, Floyd R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the tic suppression, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, weight gain, and side effect profiles of pimozide versus risperidone in children and adolescents with tic disorders. Method: This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover (evaluable patient analysis) study. Nineteen children aged 7 to 17 years with Tourette's or chronic…

  4. Polypyrrole Film as a Drug Delivery System for the Controlled Release of Risperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirskis, Darren; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Rodgers, Anthony; Garg, Sanjay

    2009-07-01

    Conducting polymers are finding applications in medicine including drug delivery systems, biosensors and templates for the regeneration of nervous pathways. We aim to develop a novel system where the drug release rate can be controlled by electrical stimulation. Polypyrrole (PPY) is being used as a drug delivery system due to its inherent electrical conductivity, ease of preparation and apparent biocompatibility. Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug used in the treatment of psychosis and related disorders, including schizophrenia. PPY was synthesised using p-toluene sulfonic acid as a primary dopant, in the presence of risperidone. A validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method was used to quantify risperidone release. It has been demonstrated that the release rate of risperidone can be altered through the application, or absence, of electrical stimulation. Technology such as this would find use in drug-delivering implants where the dose could be adjusted through application of external stimulus, optimising benefit to side effect ratio, while simultaneously ensuring patient adherence (which is a particular challenge in mental health conditions).

  5. Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Y.; Kishi T; Iwata N.; Ikeda M

    2013-01-01

    Yueren Zhao,1–3 Taro Kishi,1 Nakao Iwata,1 Manabu Ikeda3,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Okehazama Hospital Fujita Kokoro Care Center, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan Abstract: A recent ...

  6. Emerging treatments in the management of bipolar disorder – focus on risperidone long acting injection

    OpenAIRE

    Wissam El-Hage; Simon A Surguladze

    2010-01-01

    Wissam El-Hage1, Simon A Surguladze21Inserm U930 ERL CNRS 3106, Université François Rabelais and Clinique Psychiatrique Universitaire, CHRU de Tours, Tours, France; 2Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, UKAbstract: Bipolar disorder is a life-long psychiatric illness characterized by a high frequency of relapses and substantial societal costs. Almost half of the patients are prescribed second generation antipsychotics for treatment of manic states, or...

  7. Low-Dose Risperidone-Induced Oculogyric Crises in an Adolescent Male with Autism, Tourette’s and Developmental Delay

    OpenAIRE

    Masliyah, Tamara; Ad-Dab’bagh, Yasser

    2011-01-01

    This article will review the case of a young patient with mental retardationa, autistic disorder, and Tourette Syndrome who exhibited a favourable treatment response preferentially to risperidone. His presentation, however, was complicated by an exquisite sensitivity to risperidone displayed in the form of recurrent oculogyric crises. In this article, we will outline a review of the case, a survey of the incidence and risk factors of oculogyric crises, as well as a review of the literature on...

  8. Polypharmacy in the management of patients with schizophrenia on risperidone in a tertiary-care hospital in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, SA; Ibrahim, MI Mohamed; Mohammed, F.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted primarily to determine the occurrence of polypharmacy in patients with schizophrenia on risperidone. The secondary aim was to ascertain the incidence of inappropriate prescribing with anticholinergics. A retrospective review of the medical records of all patients who were being followed up at the out-patient clinic of a tertiary-care hospital in Malaysia was conducted. Only patients who were being prescribed risperidone between 1 June 2008 and 31 December 2008 ...

  9. Use of a Direct Observational Measure in a Trial of Risperidone and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Handen, Benjamin L.; JOHNSON, CYNTHIA R.; Butter, Eric M; LECAVALIER, LUC; Scahill, Lawrence; AMAN, MICHAEL G.; MCDOUGLE, CHRISTOPHER J.; Arnold, L Eugene; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; James A. Mulick; White, Susan W.; Bearss, Karen; Hollway, Jill A.; STIGLER, KIMBERLY A.

    2012-01-01

    A Structured Observational Analog Procedure (SOAP), an analogue measure of parent-child interactions, was used to assess treatment outcome in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and serious behavior problems. It served as a secondary outcome measure in a 24-week, randomized trial of risperidone (MED; N=49) versus risperidone plus parent training (COMB; n=75) (ages 4–13 years). At 24-weeks, there was 28 % reduction in child inappropriate behavior during a Demand Condition (p=.0002) and 12 %...

  10. DFT calculation of geometrical structure and electronic absorption spectra for neutral, mono-, and diprotonated forms of Risperidone (Risperdal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alparone, A.

    2012-09-01

    Vertical electronic transitions to singlet valence states of an antipsychotic drug, Risperidone (Risperdal), in its neutral, mono-, and diprotonated forms have been calculated within the time-dependent density functional theory using the PBE0 hybrid functional with the 6-31+G* basis set. The results of the computations show that the lowest-energy allowed ?-?* electronic excitation is affected by protonation effects, the spectral shifts of this transition being potentially useful to individuate the different forms of risperidone

  11. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Clozapine and Risperidone Monotherapy on Lipid Profile in Nigerian Patients with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    O.I. Iribhogbe; O. Okhiai; U. Akpamu; O.O. Festus; O.B. Idonije; G.B.S. Iyalomhe

    2012-01-01

    Although antipsychotic drugs are known to have an array of adverse effects, they also exhibit significant differences in causing these effects. The atherogenic effects of clozapine and risperidone have not been fully investigated among schizophrenics in Nigeria hence this research work. This study therefore investigated the extent to which monotherapy with clozapine and risperidone (atypical antipsychotic drugs) influence lipid profile in patients with schizophrenia. The study population comp...

  12. Evaluating the Effect of 8-Week Treatment With Risperidone On Fasting Blood Glucose of Patients with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Firouzeh Raisi; Hadi Okhovatpoor; Simin Dashti-Khavidaki; Hossein Khalili; Padideh Ghaeli

    2007-01-01

     Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of risperidone on fasting blood glucose (FBG) in patients with Schizophrenia .  Method: Seventy five non-diabetic patients with Schizophrenia (based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria) entered this cross-sectional study. Patients did not receive any medications (Including risperidone) affecting serum FBG levels for at least 2 weeks prior to the initiation of the study. Patients...

  13. A case of resistant schizophrenia responding at a higher than recommended dose of risperidone without significant side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Ray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient, diagnosed with schizophrenia, non-responsive to two atypical antipsychotics and partially responsive to the third (risperidone in therapeutic dose, ultimately showed complete response without any unacceptable side-effect in a dose (20mg that was untried previously. This case makes an important observation that high dose of risperidone can be tried in a patient with good results if his clinical condition permits.

  14. Evaluating the Effect of 8-Week Treatment With Risperidone On Fasting Blood Glucose of Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Raisi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of risperidone on fasting blood glucose (FBG in patients with Schizophrenia .  Method: Seventy five non-diabetic patients with Schizophrenia (based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria entered this cross-sectional study. Patients did not receive any medications (Including risperidone affecting serum FBG levels for at least 2 weeks prior to the initiation of the study. Patients received the mean dose of 4.5mg (range 2-12mg risperidone for 8 weeks. Pregnant women, patients with diabetes mellitus and a history of any major heart disease were excluded from this study.Additionally, none of the patients should have received electroconvulsive therapy within 6 months prior to the initiation of the antiphsychotics.FBG levels were measured at the initiation and 8 weeks after starting risperidone.  Results: Fifty one patients completed the study. The mean FBG level was increased from 88.9mg/dL (baseline to 94.4 mg/dL at week 8 (P =0.003. This 8-week study showed that FBG levels may increase in schizophrenic patients receiving risperidone.  Conclusion: Measuring and monitoring FBG before the initiation and during the treatment with risperidone is suggested.

  15. A randomised, double-masked phase III/IV study of the efficacy and safety of Avastin® (Bevacizumab intravitreal injections compared to standard therapy in subjects with choroidal neovascularisation secondary to age-related macular degeneration: clinical trial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunce Catey

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD has been transformed by the introduction of agents delivered by intravitreal injection which block the action of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (anti-VEGF agents. One such agent in widespread use is bevacizumab which was initially developed for use in oncology. Most of the evidence supporting the use of bevacizumab for nAMD has come from interventional case series and this clinical trial was initiated because of the increasing and widespread use of this agent in the treatment of nAMD (an off-label indication despite a lack of definitive unbiased safety and efficacy data. Methods and design The Avastin® (bevacizumab for choroidal neovascularisation (ABC trial is a double-masked randomised controlled trial comparing intravitreal bevacizumab injections to standard therapy in the treatment of nAMD. Patients are randomised to intravitreal bevacizumab or standard therapy available at the time of trial initiation (verteporfin photodynamic therapy, intravitreal pegaptanib or sham treatment. Ranibizumab treatment was not included in the control arm as it had not been licensed for use at the start of recruitment for this trial. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients gaining ? 15 letters of visual acuity at 1 year and secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients with stable vision and mean visual acuity change. Discussion The ABC Trial is the first double-masked randomised control trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab in the treatment of nAMD. This trial fully recruited in November 2007 and results should be available in early 2009. Important design issues for this clinical trial include (a defining the control group (b use of gain in vision as primary efficacy end-point and (c use of pro re nata treatment using intravitreal bevacizumab rather than continuous therapy. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN83325075

  16. Comparison between risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic agent and haloperidol, a conventional agent used to treat schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An observational and comparative study was conducted to compare the functional outcome between the patients treated with conventional antipsychotic agent haloperidol and typical antipsychotic agent, Risperidone (Risperidal). A total of 32 patients were included in the study with established schizophrenia according to (DSM iv). The data was processed on SSPE 10th version. The primary outcome measure was the improvement of negative symptoms of schizophrenia and secondary outcome measure was to observe the superiority of the atypical drug Risperid one over conventional agent haloperidol regarding side effects. Patients were assessed at baseline, 2nd and 8th week, using four tools of assessment. For treatment group receiving haloperidol mean was 47.2+-11.50 at 8th week and for Risperidone treatment group mean was 43+-14.68. The P values for all the parameters in the Clozapine group were significant as compared to haloperidol. (author)

  17. An Open-label Trial of Risperidone and Fluoxetine in Children with Autistic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Desousa Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Various studies have shown the effectiveness of risperidone and fluoxetine in the management of behavioral problems in autism. Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare these two drugs in the management of behavioral problems in autism. Materials and Methods: Forty children with autism were divided into 2 groups in a 16-week open trial that compared these two drugs. Parents rated the children using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Conners? Parent Rating Scal...

  18. Risperidone treatment for ADHD in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Biederman; Paul Hammerness; Robert Doyle; Gagan Joshi; Megan Aleardi; Eric Mick

    2008-01-01

    Joseph Biederman, Paul Hammerness, Robert Doyle, Gagan Joshi, Megan Aleardi, Eric MickPediatric Psychopharmacology Research Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USAObjective: Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are also at high risk of having comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this study was to estimate improvement in ADHD symptoms in children with bipolar disorder.Methods: This was an open-label, study of risperidone monot...

  19. Development of novel risperidone implants using blends of polycaprolactones and in vitro in vivo correlation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navitha, Aerrolla; Jogala, Satheesh; Krishnamohan, Chinnala; Aukunuru, Jithan

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel implant containing risperidone intended for long-term treatment in Schizophrenia utilizing in vitro in vivo correlation (IVIVC) studies. Different implants (F1-F8) containing an antipsychotic drug, risperidone, were prepared using a hot melt extrusion technique by taking polycaprolactones of different molecular weights (Mwt. 15000, 45000, 80000) either alone or as their blends, and PLGA (75:25). The implants contained 40% of the drug. After fabrication, the implants were characterized for various in vitro properties such as drug release and physical strength. Prior to conducting drug release studies, optimum drug release method was developed based on IVIVC studies. An optimized formulation based on drug release and physical strength at the end of fabrication was selected from the various implants fabricated. The bioactivity, reversibility, and IVIVC of optimized formulation were determined using pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Short-term stability studies were conducted with optimized formulation. Drug release depended on polymer molecular weight. Implant fabricated using 50:50 polycaprolactone 45,000 and polycaprolactone 80,000 was considered optimized implant. Optimized formulation selected released the drug for 3-months in vitro and was physically rigid. The optimized implant was able to release the drug in vivo for a period of 3 months, the implants are reversible throughout the delivery interval and, a 100% IVIVC was achieved with optimized implant, suggesting the development of 3-month drug-releasing implant for risperidone. The optimized implant was stable for 6 months at room temperature (25°C) and 45°C. A novel implant for risperidone was successfully prepared and evaluated. PMID:24959417

  20. Developing In Vitro–In Vivo Correlation of Risperidone Immediate Release Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    Saibi, Yardi; Sato, Hitoshi; Tachiki, Hidehisa

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed to predict the absorption profile of a risperidone immediate release tablet (IR) and to develop the level A in vitro–in vivo correlation (IVIVC) of the drug using the gastrointestinal simulation based on the advanced compartmental absorption and transit model implemented in GastroPlus™. Plasma concentration data, physicochemical, and pharmacokinetic properties of the drug were used in building its absorption profile in the gastrointestinal tract. Since the fraction...

  1. Review of risperidone for the treatment of pediatric and adolescent bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Jeffrey R; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2008-01-01

    Jeffrey R Bishop1,2, Mani N Pavuluri21Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Pediatric Mood Disorders Program and Center for Cognitive Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Risperidone is a commonly used medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents. It has been studied as a monotherapy treatment in ...

  2. Rapid High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Risperidone in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohsen Foroutan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method for the determination of risperidone in human plasma was developed. An HPLC system based on a Nucleosil C8 column (150×4 mm and a UV detector (?= 280 nm were used. A mixture of sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (55:45, v/v adjusted to pH 6.0 at a flow rate of 1.5 ml min-1 was used as mobile phase. The proteins were precipitated with an acetonitrilesolution containing diltiazem as internal standard and the average recovery was 93.9±3.4%.The detection limit for risperidone in plasma was 0.5 ngml-1. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 2-50 ngml-1. The inter-day and intra-day assay coefficients of variation were found to be less than 5%. The present validated method was successfully used for pharmacokinetic studies of risperidone in human subjects.

  3. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF EXTENDED RELEASE MINI TABLETS OF RISPERIDONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Vishnu Vardhan Reddy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to formulate Risperidone mini tablets filled into hard gelatin capsule, as it is administered for the treatment of psychosis. The preformulation studies of Risperidone were carried out and drug –polymer compatibility studies were performed by FT-IR spectra analysis. The precompression parameters revealed that all the 6 formulations had good flow Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose within the limit. Risperidone is formulated with different concentration of polymers like HPMCK100M, HPMCK15M, filler like lactose and with other excipients. A total number of 6 formulations (F1,F2,F3,F4,F5 and F6were carried and evaluated. In all the formulations thickness varies between 3.90-3.94mm and the hardness of the optimized batch was found to be 3.18kg/cm2.No variation in the hardness was found in the optimized formulation that showed powder blending was uniform. Among 6 formulations, F1, F2, F3 and F6 trials were done using K100M polymer and F4, F5 with K15M polymer using optimized quantity of lactose, best batch among those is F1 because it had 90% drug release and it could sustain its action until 20thhr, and is very economical.

  4. Intractable hiccups (singultus) abolished by risperidone, but not by haloperidol

    OpenAIRE

    Nishikawa, Tadashi; Araki, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Hiccups or singulata are rhythmic involuntary movements of the diaphragm, caused by a variety of conditions that interfere with the functions of the nerve nuclei in the medulla and supra-spinal hiccup center. Although neurotransmitters and receptors involved in the pathophysiology of hiccups are not defined well, dopamine has been considered to play an important role. In some cases, chlorpromazine or other antipsychotics are used for the treatment of intractable hiccups but their efficacy is ...

  5. Safety and efficacy findings from a non-interventional study of a new hyaluronic acid/sorbitol formulation (GO-ON® matrix) for intra-articular injection to relieve pain and disability in osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, J; Kipshoven, C

    2013-09-01

    This non-interventional study was intended to examine the efficacy and tolerability of intra-articular injections with the GO-ON® matrix, a new viscosupplement product made of non-animal sodium hyaluronate combined with the oxygen free radical scavenger sorbitol, when used in routine clinical practice. A total of 1 147 patients (43.5% male, 53,5% female, 3% missing) aged on average 63.3 years with osteoarthritis were enrolled in 398 centers and treated with the product. The most commonly treated joint was the knee (92.9%) with a Kellgren-Lawrence classification of Grade I (6.7%), Grade II (31.4%), Grade III (48.0%), and Grade IV (13.9%).Most patients (58-66%, imputing for missing data) received 1 injection, 29-40% received 3 injections. Using a Likert scale to asses pain, the mean change in pain due to osteoarthritis was a reduction of 56.5% from baseline (2.61±0.80) to 6 months (1.07±0.86). At baseline, 56.2% of patients reported severe/very severe pain versus 5.9% after 6 months. Accordingly, 6.8% of patients reported no pain/mild pain at baseline vs. 67.1% after 6 months. At baseline, 28.9% reported no pain/mild pain vs. to 66.4% after 6 months. At baseline, 29.1% of patients reported severe/very severe functional impairment vs. 3.9% 6 months after the first injection. The 3 and 6 month results were comparable.Adverse reactions were rare and confined to musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders. No infections were reported in any treated joints. The results confirm that the GO-ON matrix® treatment is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of symptoms due to osteoarthritis. PMID:23599036

  6. Eficácia da aplicação da pomada EMLA® no alivio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A no tratamento do blefaroespasmo essencial benigno / Efficacy of EMLA® cream application for pain relief of periocular botulinum toxin injections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nadia Ajub, Moysés; Nilson Lopes da, Fonseca Júnior; José Ricardo Carvalho Lima, Rehder.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a eficácia da aplicação da pomada EMLA® (EMLA) no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A (BTX) no tratamento do blefaroespasmo essencial benigno (BEB). MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, com a participação de 13 pacientes submetidos à aplicação de toxina b [...] otulínica na região periocular bilateral no tratamento de BEB. Aplicou-se a pomada EMLA na região periocular direita e placebo na esquerda antes das aplicações. Após a aplicação solicitou-se ao paciente uma nota de 0 a 10 referente à intensidade da dor. RESULTADOS: No lado em que foi aplicada a pomada EMLA, a média da intensidade da dor referida pelo paciente foi de 5,77±3,00 enquanto que no lado em que foi aplicado placebo, foi de 5,62±2,63 (p=0,92). CONCLUSÃO: Não se obteve uma redução estatisticamente significante da dor referida durante a aplicação de BTX em pacientes portadores de BEB após a aplicação da pomada EMLA. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of EMLA® (EMLA) cream for pain relief before periocular botulinum toxin injection (BTX) on the treatment of essential benign blepharospasm (BEB). METHODS: In this prospective study, 13 patients given bilateral periocular botulinum injections for blepharospasm tre [...] atment were included. Prior to the injections, EMLA cream was applied to the right periocular side and placebo to the left side. Relative pain score from 0 to 10 was recorded after the procedure. RESULTS: The average pain score on the side where EMLA was applied was 5,77±3,00, whereas it was 5,62±2,63 on the placebo side (p=0,92). CONCLUSION: No statistically significant decrease in the pain score associated with BTX injection for BEB was noted after EMLA skin application.

  7. Review of the efficacy of placebo in comparative clinical trials between typical and atypical antipsychotics Revisão da eficácia do placebo nos ensaios clínicos que comparam antipsicóticos típicos e atípicos

    OpenAIRE

    Irismar Reis de Oliveira; Paulo Menezes Nunes; Domingos Macedo Coutinho; Eduardo Pondé de Sena

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy of placebo in comparison with atypical and typical antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder and to evaluate the pertinence of using placebo in clinical trials with antipsychotics. METHOD: Trials in which the atypical antipsychotics were compared with typical antipsychotics and placebo were included. A search was conducted using the terms "amisulpride", "aripiprazole", "clozapine", "olanzapine", "quetiapine", "risperidone"...

  8. Safety, Biodistribution, and Efficacy of an AAV-5 Vector Encoding Human Interferon-Beta (ART-I02) Delivered via Intra-Articular Injection in Rhesus Monkeys with Collagen-Induced Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevaart, Lisette; Aalbers, Caroline J; Vierboom, Michel P M; Broekstra, Niels; Kondova, Ivanela; Breedveld, Elia; Hauck, Bernd; Wright, J Fraser; Tak, Paul Peter; Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J

    2015-06-01

    Preclinical studies to assess biodistribution, safety, and initial efficacy of ART-I02, an adeno-associated type 5 (rAAV5) vector expressing human interferon ? (hIFN-?), were performed in a total of 24 rhesus monkeys with collagen-induced arthritis. All monkeys were naïve or showed limited neutralizing antibody (Nab) titers to AAV5 at the start of the study. Animals were injected with a single intra-articular dose of ART-I02 or placebo, consisting of 3.2×10(13) vg (Dose A=maximum feasible dose), 4.58×10(12) vg (Dose B), or placebo in the first affected finger joint, the ipsilateral knee, and ankle joint at the same time point. Animals were monitored for clinical parameters and well-being with a maximum of 4 weeks, with the option that the severity of arthritis could necessitate an earlier time point of sacrifice. No adverse events were noted after injection of ART-I02. No abnormalities were observed after histological evaluation of all organs. At both dose levels, immunohistochemical staining indicated expression of hIFN-?. In animals injected with Dose A, we observed stabilization or a reduction in swelling in the finger joint in which vector was administered. The highest copy numbers of vector DNA were detected in synovial tissue of the injected joint and the draining lymph node of the injected knee. High titers of Nab to rAAV5 were observed at the end of the study. Five monkeys developed an rAAV5-specific T-cell response. Two monkeys developed Nab to hIFN-?. In conclusion, intra-articular injection of ART-I02 was well-tolerated and did not induce adverse events. After administration of Dose A of ART-I02, we observed a beneficial effect on joint swelling, substantiated by decreased histological inflammation and bone erosion scores. A GMP vector for clinical application has been manufactured and is currently being tested in GLP rodent studies, with the aim to move forward to a clinical trial. PMID:26086763

  9. Comparison of efficacy of intralesional injection of meglumine anti-moniate once-weekly with twice-weekly in the treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mashhad: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Firooz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is endemic in Iran, where it is one of the most important health problems. Both anthroponotic CL (ACL caused by L. tropica and zoonotic CL (ZCL caused by L. major are reported. Antimoniate derivatives as the standard therapy for CL need multiple injections and are not easy to tolerate for the patients. This study was conducted in Mashhad to compare the efficacy of weekly versus twice a week intralesional injections of meglumine antimoniate (MA in the treatment of ACL."n"nMethods: This randomised controlled trial was performed during 2006 to 2008 in Mashhad, Iran. Using computerized sequence of random numbers, participants were randomly allocated in the two arms of the study: one receiving weekly and the other receiving twice-a-week intralesional injections of MA. The lesion size, induration and healing rate were assessed, recorded and compared. Healing was defined as complete re-epithelialisation and disappearance of induration."n"nResults: A total of 252 suspected CL patients with 372 lesions were screened. 82 parasitologically proven cases with 121 lesions caused by L. tropica were included and 74 patients with 113 lesions completed the study. At 12th week after initiation of treatment, complete healing was observed in 38 out of 44 lesions (86.4% in the group which received weekly intralesional MA injection. The median time-to-heal in this group was 36 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32.0-39.9. Complete healing was recorded in 60 out of 69 lesions (86.9% in the group which received twice a week intralesional injections of MA with a median time-to-heal of 25 days (95% CI: 20.9-29.1. While no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of complete healing rate (P=0.999, time-to-heal was significantly different between the 2 groups (P=0.003."n"nConclusion: It seems that the effectiveness of twice-weekly intralesional injections of MA is similar to once-weekly regimen while the former regimen causes more rapid healing of lesions.

  10. Soft tissue injections

    OpenAIRE

    Inês, Luís P. B. S.; Silva, José António P. da

    2005-01-01

    Soft tissue rheumatism includes a wide spectrum of common lesions of the tendons, enthesis, tendon sheaths, bursae, ligaments and fasciae as well as nerve compression syndromes. Studies on the pathogenesis of these lesions do not support a major role for inflammation, thus questioning the rationale for glucocorticoid injections. This chapter reviews current indications for local glucocorticoid injections and available evidence on its efficacy, as well as contraindications and potential risks....

  11. Effectiveness of second-generation antipsychotics: a naturalistic, randomized comparison of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentzel-Larsen Tore

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No clear recommendations exist regarding which antipsychotic drug should be prescribed first for a patient suffering from psychosis. The primary aims of this naturalistic study were to assess the head-to-head effectiveness of first-line second-generation antipsychotics with regards to time until drug discontinuation, duration of index admission, time until readmission, change of psychopathology scores and tolerability outcomes. Methods Patients ? 18 years of age admitted to the emergency ward for symptoms of psychosis were consecutively randomized to risperidone (n = 53, olanzapine (n = 52, quetiapine (n = 50, or ziprasidone (n = 58, and followed for up to 2 years. Results A total of 213 patients were included, of which 68% were males. The sample represented a diverse population suffering from psychosis. At admittance the mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score was 74 points and 44% were antipsychotic drug naïve. The primary intention-to-treat analyses revealed no substantial differences between the drugs regarding the times until discontinuation of initial drug, until discharge from index admission, or until readmission. Quetiapine was superior to risperidone and olanzapine in reducing the PANSS total score and the positive subscore. Quetiapine was superior to the other drugs in decreasing the PANSS general psychopathology subscore; in decreasing the Clinical Global Impression - Severity of Illness scale score (CGI-S; and in increasing the Global Assessment of Functioning - Split version, Functions scale score (GAF-F. Ziprasidone was superior to risperidone in decreasing the PANSS positive symptoms subscore and the CGI-S score, and in increasing the GAF-F score. The drugs performed equally with regards to most tolerability outcomes except a higher increase of hip-circumference per day for olanzapine compared to risperidone, and more galactorrhoea for risperidone compared to the other groups. Conclusions Quetiapine appears to be a good starting drug candidate in this sample of patients admitted to hospital for symptoms of psychosis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/: NCT00932529

  12. Safe and Efficacious Use of Automated Bolus Advisors in Individuals Treated With Multiple Daily Insulin Injection (MDI) Therapy: Lessons Learned From the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Christopher G; Barnard, Katharine; Hinnen, Deborah A

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies have shown that use of integrated automated bolus advisors (BAs) provides significant benefits to individuals using insulin pump devices, including improved glycemic control and greater treatment satisfaction. Within the past few years, BA devices have been developed specifically for individuals treated with multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy; however, many clinicians who treat these individuals may be unfamiliar with insulin pump therapy and, thus, BA use. Findings from the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS) revealed that BA use can be efficacious and clinically meaningful in MDI therapy, and that most patients are willing and able to use this technology appropriately when adequate clinical support is provided. The purpose of this article is to review key learnings from ABACUS and provide practical advice for initiating BA use and monitoring therapy. PMID:25795641

  13. Parenteral nanoemulsions as promising carriers for brain delivery of risperidone: Design, characterization and in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?or?evi?, Sanela M; Ceki?, Nebojša D; Savi?, Miroslav M; Isailovi?, Tanja M; Ran?elovi?, Danijela V; Markovi?, Bojan D; Savi?, Saša R; Stameni?, Tamara Timi?; Daniels, Rolf; Savi?, Snežana D

    2015-09-30

    This paper describes design and evaluation of parenteral lecithin-based nanoemulsions intended for brain delivery of risperidone, a poorly water-soluble psychopharmacological drug. The nanoemulsions were prepared through cold/hot high pressure homogenization and characterized regarding droplet size, polydispersity, surface charge, morphology, drug-vehicle interactions, and physical stability. To estimate the simultaneous influence of nanoemulsion formulation and preparation parameters-co-emulsifier type, aqueous phase type, homogenization temperature-on the critical quality attributes of developed nanoemulsions, a general factorial experimental design was applied. From the established design space and stability data, promising risperidone-loaded nanoemulsions (mean size about 160nm, size distribution emulsifier, were produced by hot homogenization and their ability to improve risperidone delivery to the brain was assessed in rats. Pharmacokinetic study demonstrated erratic brain profiles of risperidone following intraperitoneal administration in selected nanoemulsions, most probably due to their different droplet surface properties (different composition of the stabilizing layer). Namely, polysorbate 80-costabilized nanoemulsion showed increased (1.4-7.4-fold higher) risperidone brain availability compared to other nanoemulsions and drug solution, suggesting this nanoemulsion as a promising carrier worth exploring further for brain targeting. PMID:26209070

  14. Subjective response to antipsychotic treatment and compliance in schizophrenia. A naturalistic study comparing olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol (EFESO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacristán Jose A

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to compare the effectiveness of different antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia it is very important to evaluate subjective response and compliance in patient cohorts treated according to routine clinical practice. Method Outpatients with schizophrenia entered this prospective, naturalistic study when they received a new prescription for an antipsychotic drug. Treatment assignment was based on purely clinical criteria, as the study did not include any experimental intervention. Patients treated with olanzapine, risperidone or haloperidol were included in the analysis. Subjective response was measured using the 10-item version of the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10, and treatment compliance was measured using a physician-rated 4 point categorical scale. Results A total of 2128 patients initiated treatment (as monotherapy with olanzapine, 417 with risperidone, and 112 with haloperidol. Olanzapine-treated patients had significantly higher DAI-10 scores and significantly better treatment compliance compared to both risperidone- and haloperidol-treated patients. Risperidone-treated patients had a significantly higher DAI-10 score compared to haloperidol-treated patients. Conclusion Subjective response and compliance were superior in olanzapine-treated patients, compared to patients treated with risperidone and haloperidol, in routine clinical practice. Differences in subjective response were explained largely, but not completely, by differences in incidence of EPS.

  15. Comparison of the efficacy of saline, local anesthetics, and steroids in epidural and facet joint injections for the management of spinal pain: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Nampiaparampil, Devi E.; Manchikanti, Kavita N.; Falco, Frank J.E.; Singh, Vijay; Benyamin, Ramsin M.; Kaye, Alan D.; Sehgal, Nalini; Soin, Amol; Simopoulos, Thomas T.; Bakshi, Sanjay; Gharibo, Christopher G.; Gilligan, Christopher J.; Hirsch, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of epidural and facet joint injections has been assessed utilizing multiple solutions including saline, local anesthetic, steroids, and others. The responses to these various solutions have been variable and have not been systematically assessed with long-term follow-ups. Methods: Randomized trials utilizing a true active control design were included. The primary outcome measure was pain relief and the secondary outcome measure was functional improvement. The quality of each individual article was assessed by Cochrane review criteria, as well as the criteria developed by the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) for assessing interventional techniques. An evidence analysis was conducted based on the qualitative level of evidence (Level I to IV). Results: A total of 31 trials met the inclusion criteria. There was Level I evidence that local anesthetic with steroids was effective in managing chronic spinal pain based on multiple high-quality randomized controlled trials. The evidence also showed that local anesthetic with steroids and local anesthetic alone were equally effective except in disc herniation, where the superiority of local anesthetic with steroids was demonstrated over local anesthetic alone. Conclusion: This systematic review showed equal efficacy for local anesthetic with steroids and local anesthetic alone in multiple spinal conditions except for disc herniation where the superiority of local anesthetic with steroids was seen over local anesthetic alone. PMID:26005584

  16. Efficacy of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) for decorporation of Pu,Am and U from rats injected intramuscularly with high-fired particles of MOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) for reducing uranium, plutonium and americium in rats after intramuscular injection of (U-Pu)O2 particles (MOX). Sixteen rats were contaminated by intramuscular injection of a 1 mg MOX suspension and then treated daily for 7 d with LIHOPO (30 or 200 ?mol kg-1) or DTPA (30 ?mol kg-1). LIHOPO was inefficient for removing Pu, Am and U from the wound site. However, it reduced Pu retention in carcass and liver by factors of 2 and 6 respectively, and Am retention in carcass and liver by factors of 10 and 30. In contrast, the effect of LIHOPO on U was to decrease the retention in kidneys by a factor of 75. These results confirm that LIHOPO is a good candidate for use after contamination with MOX, in combination with localised wound lavage or surgical treatment aimed at removing most of the contaminant at the wound site. (author)

  17. Eficácia do resfriamento da pele no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A nas distonias faciais Skin cooling efficacy on pain relief in periocular injections with botulinum toxin A in facial dystonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Barros Bandeira de Mello Monteiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do resfriamento da pele com gelo no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A na região periocular em pacientes portadores de distonia facial. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo prospectivo, 13 pacientes receberam injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A em região glabelar (m. prócero e periocular (m. orbicular para tratamento de distonia facial. Antes das aplicações, um lado da região glabelar foi resfriado com gelo durante 5 minutos, enquanto no outro lado foi aplicada pomada Epitezan®, funcionando como placebo. A aplicação foi feita primeiramente no lado resfriado. Após a aplicação em cada um dos lados os pacientes foram instruídos a dar uma nota para a dor desencadeada pela injeção, em uma escala de 0 a 10 onde 0 era ausência de dor e 10 a dor mais intensa. RESULTADOS: A média das notas dadas pelos pacientes à dor desencadeada pela injeção no lado onde foi aplicado placebo foi 3,92 ± 3,28. No local onde foi aplicado gelo a média das notas foi de 2,92 ± 2,18 (p PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of skin cooling with ice on pain relief in periocular injection with botulinum toxin type A in patients with facial dystonias. METHODS: In this prospective study, 13 patients received botulinum toxin type A injection in glabela (procerus m. and periocular region (orbicular m. for facial dystonias treatment. Before the injections, one side of the glabela was submitted to a 5-minute cooling period, while the opposite side had Epitezan® cream applied, as a placebo. The application was done at the cooled side first. After the application on each side the patients were instructed to rate the pain associated with the injection on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 indicating no pain and 10 the worst pain. RESULTS: The average pain score on the side where cold was applied was 3,92 ± 3,28, while on the control side the average pain score was 2,92 ± 2,18 (p < 0,0166. CONCLUSION: In this study, skin cooling with ice cubes was efficient in pain relief in periocular botulinum toxin injections in patients with facial dystonias.

  18. A Network Meta-Analysis of Efficacy and Evaluation of Safety of Subcutaneous Pegylated Interferon Beta-1a versus Other Injectable Therapies for the Treatment of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, Keith; Hutchinson, Michael; You, Xiaojun; Wang, Ping; Sperling, Bjoern; Taneja, Ankush; Siddiqui, Mohammed Kashif; Kinter, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous pegylated interferon beta-1a (peginterferon beta-1a [PEG-IFN]) 125 ?g every two or four weeks has been studied in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients in the pivotal Phase 3 ADVANCE trial. In the absence of direct comparative evidence, a network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to provide an indirect assessment of the relative efficacy, safety, and tolerability of PEG-IFN versus other injectable RRMS therapies. Systematic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, and conference proceedings from relevant annual symposia were hand-searched. Included studies were randomized controlled trials evaluating ?1 first-line treatments including interferon beta-1a 30, 44, and 22 ?g, interferon beta-1b, and glatiramer acetate in patients with RRMS. Studies were included based on a pre-specified protocol and extracted by a team of independent reviewers and information scientists, utilizing criteria from NICE and IQWiG. In line with ADVANCE findings, NMA results support that PEG-IFN every 2 weeks significantly reduced annualized relapse rate, and 3- and 6-month confirmed disability progression (CDP) versus placebo. There was numerical trend favoring PEG-IFN every 2 weeks versus other IFNs assessed for annualized relapse rate, and versus all other injectables for 3- and 6-month CDP (6-month CDP was significantly reduced versus IFN beta-1a 30 ?g). The safety and tolerability profile of PEG-IFN beta-1a 125 ?g every 2 weeks was consistent with that of other evaluated treatments. Study limitations for the NMA include variant definitions of relapse and other systematic differences across trials, assumptions that populations were sufficiently similar, and inability to perform NMA of adverse events. With similar efficacy compared to other RRMS treatments in terms of annualized relapse rate and 3- and 6-month CDP, a promising safety profile, and up to 93% reduction in number of injections (which may improve adherence), PEG-IFN every 2 weeks offers a valuable alternative treatment option for patients with RRMS. PMID:26039748

  19. Schizophrenia relapse and the clinical usefulness of once-monthly aripiprazole depot injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Min; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Prakash S; Pae, Chi-Un

    2014-01-01

    Improving medication adherence is critical to improving outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. A long-acting injectable (depot) antipsychotic is one of the most effective methods for improving treatment adherence and decreasing rehospitalization rates in patients with schizophrenia. Until recently, only three second-generation antipsychotics were available in a long-acting injectable formulation (risperidone, paliperidone, and olanzapine). In this respect, the emergence of long-acting aripiprazole injection (ALAI), approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in 2013, is timely. ALAI is a lyophilized powder of aripiprazole, and the aripiprazole molecule is unmodified. The initial and target dosage of ALAI is 400 mg once monthly, but it could be reduced to 300 mg if adverse reactions occur with 400 mg. When first administering ALAI, it is recommended to continue treatment with oral aripiprazole (10-20 mg/day) or another oral antipsychotic for 2 weeks in order to maintain therapeutic antipsychotic concentrations. The primary clearance route for ALAI is hepatic, ie, cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 and CYP3A4, so dose adjustment is required in poor CYP2D6 metabolizers. The efficacy of ALAI was demonstrated in three studies. A randomized controlled trial that formed the basis for approval of ALAI in the treatment of schizophrenia showed that ALAI significantly delayed time to impending relapse when compared with placebo (Ppsychiatric hospitalization rates were significantly lower after switching from oral antipsychotics to ALAI. Another randomized controlled trial presented in poster form suggested that ALAI 400 mg was comparable with oral aripiprazole 10-30 mg in preventing relapse. ALAI was generally well tolerated during both short-term and long-term studies. Its tolerability profile, including extrapyramidal symptoms and clinically relevant metabolic parameters, was similar to placebo. However, insomnia, headache, anxiety, akathisia, weight gain, injection site pain, and tremor need clinical attention. These studies suggest that ALAI is a viable treatment option for patients with schizophrenia, but direct head-to-head comparisons between ALAI and other long-acting injectable antipsychotics are needed to elucidate its risk-benefit profile. PMID:25210454

  20. Unilateral tremor induced by risperidone in a patient with acute mania: Vitamin B12 deficiency as possible mediating factor

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    Shivanand Kattimani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification and management of drug-induced movement disorders is a clinical challenge, more so when the clinical presentation is atypical. A young male with acute mania was under treatment with sodium valproate and risperidone. He developed tremors of right hand and neck. These were present at rest and exacerbated by mental activity, when under observation and during voluntarily initiated activity. There were no associated extra pyramidal symptoms or cerebellar signs. Investigations for other common causes of tremors did not reveal any evidence except for low value of serum vitamin B12 levels. The tremors persisted after the withdrawal of valproate, but resolved following the withdrawal of risperidone. It is a common dictum that drug-induced tremors are bilateral. This may not be true always as we found out in our case. These movements were probably induced by risperidone. This atypical presentation could be due to concurrent use of valproate and low serum vitamin B12 levels.

  1. Risperidone regulates Dopamine D2-like receptors expression in rat brain in a time-dependent manner

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ni, Peiyan; Liang, Linhui; Wang, Yingcheng; Wei, Jinxue; Gu, Xiaochu; Zhao, liansheng; Ma, Xiaohong; Li, Tao.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antipsychotics can elicit dopamine super-sensitivity by up-regulation of D2-like receptors (DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4) expression. Nevertheless, the expression profile of dopamine D2-like receptors in different brain regions and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and c [...] hanges following risperidone administration were still unclear. In this study, we would investigate the expression of D2-like receptors mRNA in different brain regions and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in rats after 2, 6 weeks risperidone administration. Methods: The experimental rats were given risperidone (0.25mg/kg/day, i.p.), and the control rats were given 0.9% NaCl. The rats were sacrificed at 0 week, 2 weeks and 6 weeks after the drug administration. Expression of the dopamine D2-like receptors was quantified by Real-time PCR method. Results: Dopamine D2-like receptors expressed in all the examined regions of rat brain. Their expression significantly increased 2weeks after risperidone administration in different brain regions. However, the changed expression of DRD2 and DRD3 turned back to the basal level 6weeks later, while the increased DRD4 expression remained in left parietal cortex. Meanwhile, DRD2 and DRD3 but not DRD4 expressed in PBMCs, however, the risperidone could not affect their expression. Conclusions: The risperidone could change the dopamine D2-like receptors expression in a time-dependent manner in different brain regions, which might guide the clinical use in the near future.

  2. Review of the safety, efficacy, costs and patient acceptability of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone for injection in assisting ovulation induction in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Nahuis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Marleen Nahuis1,2,3, Fulco van der Veen1, Jur Oosterhuis2, Ben Willem Mol1, Peter Hompes3, Madelon van Wely11Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (H4-205, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Free Medical University, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: Anovulation is a common cause of female subfertility. Treatment of anovulation is aimed at induction of ovulation. In women with clomiphene-citrate resistant WHO group II anovulation, one of the treatment options is ovulation induction with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH or follitropin. FSH is derived from urine or is produced as recombinant FSH. Two forms of recombinant FSH are available – follitropin alpha and follitropin beta. To evaluate the efficacy, safety, costs and acceptability of recombinant FSH, we performed a review to compare recombinant FSH with urinary-derived FSH products. Follitropin alpha, beta and urinary FSH products appeared to be equally effective in terms of pregnancy rates. Patient safety was also found to be comparable, as the incidence of side effects including multiple pregnancies was similar for all FSH products. In practice follitropin alpha and beta may be more convenient to use due to the ease of self-administration, but they are also more expensive than the urinary products.Keywords: follitropin apha, follitropin beta, urinary gonadotropins, polycystic ovary syndrome

  3. Eficácia do resfriamento da pele no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A nas distonias faciais / Skin cooling efficacy on pain relief in periocular injections with botulinum toxin A in facial dystonias

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula Barros Bandeira de Mello, Monteiro; Nilson Lopes da, Fonseca Júnior; José Ricardo Carvalho Lima, Rehder.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do resfriamento da pele com gelo no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A na região periocular em pacientes portadores de distonia facial. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo prospectivo, 13 pacientes receberam injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A em regiã [...] o glabelar (m. prócero) e periocular (m. orbicular) para tratamento de distonia facial. Antes das aplicações, um lado da região glabelar foi resfriado com gelo durante 5 minutos, enquanto no outro lado foi aplicada pomada Epitezan®, funcionando como placebo. A aplicação foi feita primeiramente no lado resfriado. Após a aplicação em cada um dos lados os pacientes foram instruídos a dar uma nota para a dor desencadeada pela injeção, em uma escala de 0 a 10 onde 0 era ausência de dor e 10 a dor mais intensa. RESULTADOS: A média das notas dadas pelos pacientes à dor desencadeada pela injeção no lado onde foi aplicado placebo foi 3,92 ± 3,28. No local onde foi aplicado gelo a média das notas foi de 2,92 ± 2,18 (p Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of skin cooling with ice on pain relief in periocular injection with botulinum toxin type A in patients with facial dystonias. METHODS: In this prospective study, 13 patients received botulinum toxin type A injection in glabela (procerus m.) and periocular region (o [...] rbicular m.) for facial dystonias treatment. Before the injections, one side of the glabela was submitted to a 5-minute cooling period, while the opposite side had Epitezan® cream applied, as a placebo. The application was done at the cooled side first. After the application on each side the patients were instructed to rate the pain associated with the injection on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 indicating no pain and 10 the worst pain. RESULTS: The average pain score on the side where cold was applied was 3,92 ± 3,28, while on the control side the average pain score was 2,92 ± 2,18 (p

  4. Bioequivalence study of a generic Risperidone (Iperdal® in healthy Thai male volunteers

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    Werawath Mahatthanatrakul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the rate and extent of absorption of a generic risperidone (Iperdal® with a reference formulation (Risperdal® when given orally. The study was an open label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence,single dose cross-over design with a 2 weeks washout period in 16 healthy Thai male volunteers. Single oral dose of two 2-mg tablets of risperidone were administered and serial blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and at0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12, 24 and 48 hours post dose. Risperidone plasma concentrations were assayed using a validated High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC-UV method modified from Avenosoet al. (2000. Pharamcokinetic parameters i.e. Cmax, AUC0à48 and Tmax were analyzed by noncompartment analysis. Variations of the data were analyzed by ?Two Way Analysis of Variance? (ANOVA. Statistics were tested as stated in USP 28 guidelinefor bioequivalence study. The maximum concentration (Cmax, ng/ml of risperidone for the innovator and the generic product were 31.11±17.24 (range 5.64-56.78 and 32.58±19.77 (range 5.29-84.56 ng/ml, respectively. The area under theplasma concentration-time curve (AUC0®48 of the innovator and the generic product were 160.64±152.89 (range 18.57- 550.32 and 144.03±127.37 (range 16.27-456.0 ng.hr/ml, respectively. The time to maximum concentration (Tmax of theinnovator and the generic product were 0.97±0.41(range 0.5-2 and 1.02±0.32 (range 0.5-1.5 hr, respectively. The 90% confidence interval of the ratio of the ln-transformed of Cmax and AUC0à48 of both preparations were 89.39-112.99% and80.02-107.28% respectively which were within the acceptance range of 80.00-125.00%. Therefore, it can be concluded that both preparations used in this study are bioequivalent in terms of both the rate and extent of absorption.

  5. Safety and efficacy of botox injection in alleviating post-operative pain and improving quality of life in lower extremity limb lengthening and deformity correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finley Allen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distraction osteogenesis is the standard treatment for the management of lower limb length discrepancy of more than 3 cm and bone loss secondary to congenital anomalies, trauma or infection. This technique consists of an osteotomy of the bone to be lengthened, application of an external fixator, followed by gradual and controlled distraction of the bone ends. Although limb lengthening using the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis principle yields excellent results in most cases, the technique has numerous problems and is not well tolerated by many children. The objective of the current study is to determine if Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-A, which is known to possess both analgesic and paralytic actions, can be used to alleviate post-operative pain and improve the functional outcome of children undergoing distraction osteogenesis. Methods/Design The study design consists of a multi centre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Patients between ages 5–21 years requiring limb lengthening or deformity correction using distraction will be recruited from 6 different sites (Shriners Hospital for Children in Montreal, Honolulu, Philadelphia and Portland as well as DuPont Hospital for Children in Wilmington, Delaware and Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ont. Approximately 150 subjects will be recruited over 2 years and will be randomized to either receive 10 units per Kg of BTX-A or normal saline (control group intraoperatively following the surgery. Functional outcome effects will be assessed using pain scores, medication dosages, range of motion, flexibility, strength, mobility function and quality of life of the patient. IRB approval was obtained from all sites and adverse reactions will be monitored vigorously and reported to IRB, FDA and Health Canada. Discussion BTX-A injection has been widely used world wide with no major side effects reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time BTX-A is being used under the context of limb lengthening and deformity correction. Trial Registration NCT00412035

  6. A single-arm, investigator-initiated study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravitreal aflibercept injection in subjects with exudative age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab (ASSESS study: 12-month analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh RP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rishi P Singh, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers, Fabiana Q Silva, Rumneek Bedi, Andrew P Schachat, Peter K Kaiser Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Summary statement: In subjects with active exudative age-related macular degeneration, treating with a fixed intravitreal aflibercept injection dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints from baseline.Purpose: Switching therapies in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD may offer an advantage for some patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI in subjects previously treated with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab.Methods: Subjects (n=26 were given monthly 2 mg of IAI for 3 months, followed by 2 mg once in every 2 months for up to 12 months. The mean absolute change from baseline in central subfield thickness (CST measured by optical coherence tomography and the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA early treatment in diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS letter score were obtained. Additionally, the percentage of subjects who gained or lost ?15 letters of vision and the percentage of subjects who are 20/40 or better or 20/200 or worse were evaluated.Results: There was a mean decrease in CST of -50.3  µm (P<0.001 and a mean increase in ETDRS BCVA of +9.2 letters (P<0.001. Twenty-seven percent of subjects experienced a  ?15-letter improvement in visual acuity, and no subject lost ?3 lines of vision from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects were 20/40 or better, and 11.5% of subjects were 20/200 or worse at month 12.Conclusion: Fixed IAI dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints in subjects with active exudative AMD. Keywords: aflibercept, age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, vascular endothelial growth factors

  7. A single-arm, investigator-initiated study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravitreal aflibercept injection in subjects with exudative age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab (ASSESS study): 12-month analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rishi P; Srivastava, Sunil K; Ehlers, Justis P; Silva, Fabiana Q; Bedi, Rumneek; Schachat, Andrew P; Kaiser, Peter K

    2015-01-01

    Summary statement In subjects with active exudative age-related macular degeneration, treating with a fixed intravitreal aflibercept injection dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints from baseline. Purpose Switching therapies in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may offer an advantage for some patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) in subjects previously treated with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab. Methods Subjects (n=26) were given monthly 2 mg of IAI for 3 months, followed by 2 mg once in every 2 months for up to 12 months. The mean absolute change from baseline in central subfield thickness (CST) measured by optical coherence tomography and the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) early treatment in diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) letter score were obtained. Additionally, the percentage of subjects who gained or lost ?15 letters of vision and the percentage of subjects who are 20/40 or better or 20/200 or worse were evaluated. Results There was a mean decrease in CST of ?50.3 ?m (P<0.001) and a mean increase in ETDRS BCVA of +9.2 letters (P<0.001). Twenty-seven percent of subjects experienced a ?15-letter improvement in visual acuity, and no subject lost ?3 lines of vision from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects were 20/40 or better, and 11.5% of subjects were 20/200 or worse at month 12. Conclusion Fixed IAI dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints in subjects with active exudative AMD. PMID:26445522

  8. A role for risperidone in the treatment of communication disorder and comorbid mental health problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreton, Adam; Imran, Shermin

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the co-occurrence of a psychiatric disorder with a specific communication disorder in a teenage girl who presented to youth mental health services in crisis, posing a significant risk of harm to herself and others. Description of this case would be of interest to practitioners in youth mental health in relation to the assessment and treatment of young people with similar difficulties. We present the case of a 17-year-old girl previously admitted to an inpatient adolescent unit. Her diagnosis was reformulated 4?months into her second admission to include a specific communication disorder with both receptive and expressive difficulties, evident from her pragmatic use of language. She was started on risperidone in month eight; following this, a significant improvement was seen and the patient was discharged a month later. Prior to the start of risperidone, a referral had been made to low secure adolescent services for further assessment and advice on management, due to the patient's challenging presentation and poor engagement with treatment. PMID:26607198

  9. An open-label trial of risperidone and fluoxetine in children with autistic disorder

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    Desousa Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Various studies have shown the effectiveness of risperidone and fluoxetine in the management of behavioral problems in autism. Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare these two drugs in the management of behavioral problems in autism. Materials and Methods: Forty children with autism were divided into 2 groups in a 16-week open trial that compared these two drugs. Parents rated the children using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC and the Conners? Parent Rating Scale - Revised (CPRS-R. The author rated the children using the Children?s Psychiatric Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impression (CGI Scale. Results: The risperidone group showed significant improvement in areas like irritability and hyperactivity, while the fluoxetine group showed significant improvement in speech deviance, social withdrawal and stereotypy. When the two drugs were compared, fluoxetine showed greater improvement in stereotypy, while both drugs showed improvement on the general autism scale; and on anger, hyperactivity and irritability scales. Conclusions : In this open trial, both drugs were well tolerated and appeared to be beneficial in the treatment of common behavioral problems in children with autism. Further controlled and double-blind studies in larger samples are warranted.

  10. Near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of drug-loading rate and particle size of risperidone microspheres by improved chemometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia; Xie, Jing; Li, Chenliang; Lu, Jia-Hui; Meng, Qing-Fan; Yang, Zhaogang; Lee, Robert J; Wang, Di; Teng, Le-Sheng

    2014-09-10

    Microspheres have been developed as drug carriers in controlled drug delivery systems for years. In our present study, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is applied to analyze the particle size and drug loading rate in risperidone poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. Various batches of risperidone PLGA microspheres were designed and prepared successfully. The particle size and drug-loading rate of all the samples were determined by a laser diffraction particle size analyzer and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. Monte Carlo algorithm combined with partial least squares (MCPLS) method was applied to identify the outliers and choose the numbers of calibration set. Furthermore, a series of preprocessing methods were performed to remove signal noise in NIR spectra. Moving window PLS and radical basis function neural network (RBFNN) methods were employed to establish calibration model. Our data demonstrated that PLS-developed model was only suitable for drug loading analysis in risperidone PLGA microspheres. Comparatively, RBFNN-based predictive models possess better fitting quality, predictive effect, and stability for both drug loading rate and particle size analysis. The correlation coefficients of calibration set (Rc(2)) were 0.935 and 0.880, respectively. The performance of optimum RBFNN models was confirmed by independent verification test with 15 samples. Collectively, our method is successfully performed to monitor drug-loading rate and particle size during risperidone PLGA microspheres preparation. PMID:24954726

  11. Effects of risperidone on core symptoms of autistic disorder based on childhood autism rating scale: An open label study

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    Padideh Ghaeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone in patients afflicted by autistic disorder especially with regards to its three core symptoms, including "relating to others", "communication skills", and "stereotyped behaviors" based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. Materials and Methods: An 8-week open-label study of risperidone for treatment of autistic disorder in children 4-17 years old was designed. Risperidone dose titration was as follow: 0.02 mg/kg/day at the first week, 0.04 mg/kg/day at the second week, and 0.06 mg/kg/day at the third week and thereafter. The outcome measures were scores obtained by CARS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I scale. Results: Fifteen patients completed this study. After 8 weeks, CARS total score decreased significantly, (P=0.001. At the end of the study, social interactions and verbal communication skills of the patients were significantly improved (P<0.001, P=0.03, respectively. However, stereotypic behaviors did not show any significant change in this study. Increase in appetite and somnolence were the most reported side effects. Conclusion: This study suggests that risperidone may be an effective treatment for the management of core symptoms of autistic disorder.

  12. Occupancy of central neurotransmitter receptors by risperidone, clozapine and haloperidol, measured ex vivo by quantitative autoradiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotte, A; Janssen, P F; Megens, A A; Leysen, J E

    1993-12-24

    Risperidone (Risperdal) is a novel antipsychotic drug, with beneficial effects on both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and with a low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). These particular properties have been attributed to the predominant and very potent serotonin 5-HT2 receptor antagonism of the drug combined with less potent dopamine D2 antagonism. In order to provide data on the degree to which various central neurotransmitter receptors are occupied in vivo, we performed ex vivo receptor occupancy studies with risperidone in comparison with clozapine and haloperidol in rats and guinea pigs. Various types of receptors, to which the compounds were known to bind to in vitro, were investigated precisely using receptor autoradiography in sections of the same rat brain except for histamine H1 receptors that were measured in the guinea-pig cerebellum. Risperidone (2 h after s.c. treatment) occupied 5-HT2 receptors at very low doses (ED50 = 0.067 mg/kg). Nearly full occupancy (> 80%) was achieved before H1, D2, alpha 1 and alpha 2 receptors became occupied (ED50 = 0.45, 0.66, 0.75 and 3.7 mg/kg, respectively). Clozapine displayed occupancy of H1 and alpha 1 receptors at low doses (ED50 = 0.15 and 0.58 mg/kg, respectively) and of 5-HT2, 5-HT1C, D2, alpha 2, cholinergic muscarinic and 5-HT1A receptors at higher doses (ED50 = 1.3, 1.8, 9.0, 9.5, 11 and 15 mg/kg, respectively). Haloperidol occupied D2 and alpha 1 receptors at low doses (ED50 = 0.13 and 0.42 mg/kg, respectively) and 5-HT2 receptors at a higher dose (ED50 = 2.6 mg/kg). Occupancy of receptor types occurred with similar ED50-values in various brain areas, e.g. D2 receptors in striatum and mesolimbic areas. The ED50-values for the ex vivo measured occupancy of 5-HT2 and D2 receptors were in good agreement with ED50-values for functional effects putatively mediated by these central receptors. The dose-dependent occupancy of D2 receptors proceeded more gradually with risperidone (slope in the caudate-putamen: 0.85) than with clozapine (slope: 1.44) or haloperidol (slope: 1.51). It has previously been suggested that partial D2 receptor occupancy may suffice to control the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, whereas higher D2 receptor occupancy would induce extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). The dose ratio for high (75%) vs. low (25%) D2 receptor occupancy in the caudate-putamen, was 37.3 for risperidone, 8.4 for clozapine, and 7.9 for haloperidol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7510574

  13. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Clozapine and Risperidone Monotherapy on Lipid Profile in Nigerian Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Iribhogbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although antipsychotic drugs are known to have an array of adverse effects, they also exhibit significant differences in causing these effects. The atherogenic effects of clozapine and risperidone have not been fully investigated among schizophrenics in Nigeria hence this research work. This study therefore investigated the extent to which monotherapy with clozapine and risperidone (atypical antipsychotic drugs influence lipid profile in patients with schizophrenia. The study population comprised 29 Schizophrenic patients from Psychiatric Hospital, Uselu, Benin city, Nigeria. They were placed on typical antipsychotics for six weeks: 10 patients were on risperidone (1-4 mg day-1 in divided doses and 19 patients were on clozapine (25-300 mg day-1 in divided doses. The control group comprised 30 apparently healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected from all subjects on the first day before the commencement of treatment with antipsychotic drug and 24 h after the last administration of antipsychotics at the end of week 6 for analyses of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and very low density Lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL using standard methods. Comparing with the control, the basal serum TC, TG, LDL and VLDL of the clozapine treated group were not significantly different except for HDL which was significantly reduced and the atherogenic indices (TC/HDL and LDL/HDL which were significantly increased. However the risperidone treatment group showed significantly higher TC, TG, LDL and VLDL levels while HDL was significantly reduced. At the end of week 6, there was significant increase in serum TC, TG, HDL and VLDL and a significant decrease in HDL in both treatment groups compared to the control except VLDL that was not significantly different in the clozapine group. Comparing the two treatment groups, risperidone caused a more significant increase on lipid profile and atherogenic indeces than clozapine. This effect was about two times or greater with risperidone than clozapine. Conclusively, additional prospective clinical trials are required to support a specific therapeutic approach for managing dyslipidaemia that are present in clozapine and risperidone treated schizophrenic patients in an attempt to avoid its consequent adverse effects.

  14. Paliperidone palmitate in non-acute patients with schizophrenia previously unsuccessfully treated with risperidone long-acting therapy or frequently used conventional depot antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, A; Bergmans, P; Cherubin, P; Keim, S; Llorca, P-M; Cosar, B; Petralia, A; Corrivetti, G; Hargarter, L

    2015-08-01

    PALMFlexS, a prospective multicentre, open-label, 6-month, phase IIIb interventional study, explored tolerability, safety and treatment response in adults (n = 231) with non-acute but symptomatic schizophrenia switching to flexibly dosed paliperidone palmitate (PP) after unsuccessful treatment with risperidone long-acting injectable therapy (RLAT) or conventional depot antipsychotics (APs). Treatment response was measured by change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score from baseline (BL) to last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF) endpoint (EP). Safety and tolerability assessments included Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS) total score and treatment-emergent adverse events. Significant reductions in mean PANSS total score were observed for all groups (-7.5 to -10.6; p ? 0.01 [BL to LOCF EP]). After switching to PP, more than 50% of all patients achieved ?20% and one-third of RLAT-treated patients even achieved ?50% improvement in PANSS total score. Across groups, there were significant improvements (p medication satisfaction, and patient functioning with PP. PP was generally well tolerated. Clinically relevant benefits were observed in non-acute patients with schizophrenia switched from RLAT or conventional depot APs to PP. PMID:25999398

  15. Do users of risperidone who switch brands because of generic reference pricing fare better or worse than non-switchers? A New Zealand natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, Charon; Ashton, Toni; Davis, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated patient health outcomes and any impact on healthcare costs consequent to the implementation of generic reference-pricing of risperidone in New Zealand using national datasets. Reference pricing risperidone reduced the price of the originator brand by 50 % as well as overall expenditure on risperidone tablets. Half of all patients made a single switch to generic risperidone, with the remainder making multiple switches between brands. 1.5 % made a switch-back to the originator brand. No difference was found in use of healthcare services between switchers and non-switchers of the originator brand or versus the comparator group. This refutes the available literature on brand-to-generic and generic-to-generic switching. PMID:25331449

  16. A Phase IIb, Multicenter, Open-Label, Safety, and Efficacy Study of High-Dose, Propylene Glycol-Free Melphalan Hydrochloride for Injection (EVOMELA) for Myeloablative Conditioning in Multiple Myeloma Patients Undergoing Autologous Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Parameswaran; Aljitawi, Omar S; Arce-Lara, Carlos; Nath, Rajneesh; Callander, Natalie; Bhat, Gajanan; Allen, Lee F; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith

    2015-12-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) after high-dose melphalan conditioning is considered a standard of care procedure for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Current formulations of melphalan (eg, Alkeran for Injection [melphalan hydrochloride]; GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA) have marginal solubility and limited chemical stability upon reconstitution. Alkeran requires the use of propylene glycol as a co-solvent, which itself has been reported to cause such complications as metabolic/renal dysfunction and arrhythmias. EVOMELA (propylene glycol-free melphalan HCl; Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) is a new i.v. melphalan formulation that incorporates Captisol (Ligand Pharmaceuticals, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA), a specially modified cyclodextrin that improves the solubility and stability of melphalan and eliminates the need for propylene glycol. This new formulation has been shown to be bioequivalent to Alkeran. EVOMELA (200 mg/m(2)) was administered as 2 doses of 100 mg/m(2) each in a phase IIb, open-label, multicenter study to confirm its safety and efficacy as a high-dose conditioning regimen for patients with MM undergoing ASCT. At 5 centers, 61 patients (26 women) with a median age of 62 years (range, 32-73) were enrolled. All patients achieved myeloablation with a median time of 5 days post-ASCT, and all successfully achieved neutrophil and platelet engraftment with median times of 12 days post-ASCT and 13 days post-ASCT, respectively; treatment-related mortality on day 100 was 0%. Overall response rate (according to independent, blinded review) was high (100%), with an overall complete response rate of 21% (13% stringent complete response; 8% complete response) and overall partial response rate of 79% (61% very good partial response; 18% partial response). The incidence of grade 3 mucositis and stomatitis was low (10% and 5%, respectively) with no grade 4 mucositis or stomatitis reported (graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events). Based on investigators' assessment of mucositis using the World Health Organization (WHO) oral toxicity scale, 75% of patients had a shift in mucositis score from WHO grade 0 at baseline to a higher grade on study, of which 13% of patients reported WHO grade 3 as the worst post-treatment mucositis over the course of the study; there were no reports of WHO grade 4 mucositis during the study. This study confirms the efficacy and acceptable safety profile of EVOMELA, a new propylene glycol-free melphalan formulation, as a high-dose conditioning regimen for ASCT in patients with MM. PMID:26327631

  17. Combined therapeutic efficacy of 188Re-liposomes and sorafenib in an experimental colorectal cancer liver metastasis model by intrasplenic injection of C26-luc murine colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANG, YA-JEN; HSU, WEI-HSIN; CHANG, CHIH-HSIEN; LAN, KENG-LI; TING, GANN; LEE, TE-WEI

    2014-01-01

    Rhenium-188 (188Re) displays abundant intermediate energy ? emission and possesses a physical half-life of 16.9 h. Sorafenib is an orally available multikinase inhibitor that targets Raf kinases and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). Sorafenib has demonstrated preclinical and clinical activity against several types of tumors, such as renal cell and colorectal carcinoma. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of radiotherapeutics of 188Re-liposomes combined with sorafenib in a C26-luc metastatic colorectal liver tumour mouse model. Liver metastases were established by intrasplenic injection of C26-luc murine colon cancer cells. Based on the results of the toxicity assessment, an administration dose of 80% the maximum tolerated dose was selected. 188Re-liposomes were administered on day 1, when metastases of several hundred micrometers in diameter were observed. In the combination therapy group, 10 mg/kg sorafenib (co-developed and co-marketed by Bayer and Onyx Pharmaceuticals as Nexavar) was administered every other day for 1 week and the survival of mice was assessed. The tumor growth was more significantly inhibited in the 188Re-liposome plus sorafenib group compared with the 188Re-liposome alone, sorafenib alone and untreated normal saline groups (P=0.0000). Furthermore, 188Re-liposomes combined with sorafenib achieved higher survival rates compared with the 188Re-liposome alone, sorafenib alone and untreated normal saline groups (P=0.0000). These results support the use of combined radio-chemotherapy with 188Re-liposomes plus sorafenib as a viable treatment option in the adjuvant setting for liver metastases of colorectal cancer. PMID:24772304

  18. Combined therapeutic efficacy of (188)Re-liposomes and sorafenib in an experimental colorectal cancer liver metastasis model by intrasplenic injection of C26-luc murine colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Jen; Hsu, Wei-Hsin; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Lan, Keng-Li; Ting, Gann; Lee, Te-Wei

    2014-05-01

    Rhenium-188 ((188)Re) displays abundant intermediate energy ? emission and possesses a physical half-life of 16.9 h. Sorafenib is an orally available multikinase inhibitor that targets Raf kinases and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). Sorafenib has demonstrated preclinical and clinical activity against several types of tumors, such as renal cell and colorectal carcinoma. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of radiotherapeutics of (188)Re-liposomes combined with sorafenib in a C26-luc metastatic colorectal liver tumour mouse model. Liver metastases were established by intrasplenic injection of C26-luc murine colon cancer cells. Based on the results of the toxicity assessment, an administration dose of 80% the maximum tolerated dose was selected. (188)Re-liposomes were administered on day 1, when metastases of several hundred micrometers in diameter were observed. In the combination therapy group, 10 mg/kg sorafenib (co-developed and co-marketed by Bayer and Onyx Pharmaceuticals as Nexavar) was administered every other day for 1 week and the survival of mice was assessed. The tumor growth was more significantly inhibited in the (188)Re-liposome plus sorafenib group compared with the (188)Re-liposome alone, sorafenib alone and untreated normal saline groups (P=0.0000). Furthermore, (188)Re-liposomes combined with sorafenib achieved higher survival rates compared with the (188)Re-liposome alone, sorafenib alone and untreated normal saline groups (P=0.0000). These results support the use of combined radio-chemotherapy with (188)Re-liposomes plus sorafenib as a viable treatment option in the adjuvant setting for liver metastases of colorectal cancer. PMID:24772304

  19. Role of Long-Acting Injectable Second-Generation Antipsychotics in the Treatment of First-Episode Schizophrenia: A Clinical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Radovan P?ikryl; Hana P?ikrylová Ku?erová; Michaela Vrzalová; Eva ?ešková

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 80% of patients with the first-episode schizophrenia reach symptomatic remission after antipsychotic therapy. However, within two years most of them relapse, mainly due to low levels of insight into the illness and nonadherence to their oral medication. Therefore, although the formal data available is limited, many experts recommend prescribing long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics (mostly risperidone or alternatively paliperidone) in the early stages of schizo...

  20. Estrogen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot ... should consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the ...

  1. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lungs, skin, bones, joints, stomach area, blood, female reproductive organs, and urinary tract. Cefotetan injection is also ... you are using cefotetan injection.If you are diabetic, use Clinistix or TesTape (not Clinitest) to test ...

  2. Levoleucovorin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  3. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and abdominal (stomach area), skin, blood, bone, joint, female genital tract, and urinary tract infections. Ceftazidime injection ... ceftazidime injection decreases the effectiveness of some oral contraceptives ('birth control pills). You will need to use ...

  4. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloramphenicol injection is used to treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Hydromorphone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydromorphone injection is used to relieve pain. Hydromorphone injection is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics. It works by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond ...

  6. Ipilimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipilimumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with ... has spread to other parts of the body. Ipilimumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Tacrolimus Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacrolimus injection is used along with other medications to prevent rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by ... who have received kidney, liver, or heart transplants. Tacrolimus injection should only be used by people who ...

  8. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal cl...

  9. Risperidone: Stuttering

    OpenAIRE

    Generali, Joyce A; Cada, Dennis J

    2014-01-01

    This Hospital Pharmacy feature is extracted from Off-Label Drug Facts, a publication available from Wolters Kluwer Health. Off-Label Drug Facts is a practitioner-oriented resource for information about specific drug uses that are unapproved by the US Food and Drug Administration. This new guide to the literature enables the health care professional or clinician to quickly identify published studies on off-label uses and determine if a specific use is rational in a patient care scenario. Re...

  10. Risperidone: stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generali, Joyce A; Cada, Dennis J

    2014-03-01

    This Hospital Pharmacy feature is extracted from Off-Label Drug Facts, a publication available from Wolters Kluwer Health. Off-Label Drug Facts is a practitioner-oriented resource for information about specific drug uses that are unapproved by the US Food and Drug Administration. This new guide to the literature enables the health care professional or clinician to quickly identify published studies on off-label uses and determine if a specific use is rational in a patient care scenario. References direct the reader to the full literature for more comprehensive information before patient care decisions are made. Direct questions or comments regarding Off-Label Drug Uses to jgeneral@ku.edu. PMID:24715742

  11. Validation of an analytical method applicable to study of 1 mg/mL oral Risperidone solution stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A validated analytical method by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applicable to study of 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution stability. The above method was linear, accurate, specific and exact. A stability study of the 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution was developed determining its expiry date. The shelf life study was conducted for 24 months at room temperature; whereas the accelerated stability study was conducted with product under influence of humidity and temperature; analysis was made during 3 months. Formula fulfilled the quality specifications described in Pharmacopeia. The results of stability according to shelf life after 24 months showed that the product maintains the parameters determining its quality during this time and in accelerated studies there was not significant degradation (p> 0.05) in the product. Under mentioned conditions expiry date was of 2 years

  12. Drug Induced Parkinsonism Caused by the Concurrent Use of Donepezil and Risperidone in a Patient With Traumatic Brain Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Si Hyun; Kim, Don-kyu

    2013-01-01

    A 69-year-old male patient with previous history of traumatic brain injury 5 months ago was admitted to the Department of Neuropsychiatry because of aggressive behavior and delusional features. After starting on 2 mg of risperidone per day, his delusion, anxiety, and aggressive behavior gradually improved. Two weeks later, he was given 10 mg of donepezil per day for his mild cognitive impairment. After 6 weeks of admission in the Department of Neuropsychiatry, he showed parkinsonian features ...

  13. Atypical antipsychotic drugs: current issues of safety and efficacy in the management of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohora, Divya

    2007-07-01

    This review focuses on the comparative safety and efficacy profile of nine atypical antipsychotic drugs (amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone and zotepine), which may ultimately affect the therapeutic options available for patients with schizophrenia. These antipsychotic compounds differ markedly in their potential to impact a number of quality-of-life measures. Furthermore, their differential effects on anxiety disorders, treatment-resistant depressive illness, cognitive functions and manic disorders may influence the selection of atypical antipsychotics for conditions associated with schizophrenia. The possible relevance of these parameters in evaluating the risk/benefit equation and probable involvement of varying receptor mechanisms is also discussed. PMID:17659473

  14. Spectroscopic properties of neuroleptics: IR and Raman spectra of Risperidone (Risperdal) and of its mono- and di-protonated forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alparone, Andrea

    2011-10-01

    Structures and IR and Raman spectra of Risperidone in its neutral, mono- and di-protonated forms were calculated in gas phase by DFT-B3LYP/6-31G* level. Mono-protonation occurs at the nitrogen atom of the piperidine ring, while nitrogen atom of the pyrimidine ring is the preferred site for the second protonation. The lowest-energy structure of the mono-protonated Risperidone is characterized by formation of a strong seven-membered O(pyrimidine ring)⋯ +H-N(piperidine ring) intramolecular hydrogen-bonded cycle. In the high-energy spectral region (3500-2500 cm -1), the bands of the N-H + stretches and the changes in wavenumbers and IR intensities of the C-H stretches near to the piperidine nitrogen atom (Bohlmann effect) are potentially useful to discriminate conformations and protonation states. Di-protonated structures can be identified by the presence of an isolated absorption peak located in the low-energy IR region (660-690 cm -1), attributed to the out-of-plane N-H +(pyrimidine ring) bending deformation. The most intense Raman band of neutral Risperidone placed at ca. 1500 cm -1, assigned to C dbnd C(pyrimidine ring) stretch + C dbnd N(pyrimidine ring) stretch, can be a useful vibrational marker to distinguish the neutral from the protonated forms.

  15. Forum for Injection Techniques, India: The First Indian Recommendations for Best Practice in Insulin Injection Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P.; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B.; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Kumar, K.M. Prasanna; Modi, Sonal; Pitale, Shailesh; Shukla, Rishi; Sahay, Rakesh; Sundaram, Annamalai; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G; Wangnoo, Subhash K.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in the treatment of diabetes have led to an increase in the number of injectable therapies, such as human insulin, insulin analogues, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues. The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique, among many other factors. Good injection technique is vital in achieving glycemic control and thus preventing complications of diabetes. From the patients’ and health-care providers’ perspective, it is essential to have guideline...

  16. Assessment of strategies for switching patients from olanzapine to risperidone: A randomized, open-label, rater-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Sally A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical practice, physicians often need to change the antipsychotic medications they give to patients because of an inadequate response or the presence of unacceptable or unsafe side effects. However, there is a lack of consensus in the field as to the optimal switching strategy for antipsychotics, especially with regards to the speed at which the dose of the previous antipsychotic should be reduced. This paper assesses the short-term results of strategies for the discontinuation of olanzapine when initiating risperidone. Methods In a 6-week, randomized, open-label, rater-blinded study, patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, on a stable drug dose for more than 30 days at entry, who were intolerant of or exhibiting a suboptimal symptom response to more than 30 days of olanzapine treatment, were randomly assigned to the following switch strategies (common risperidone initiation scheme; varying olanzapine discontinuation: (i abrupt strategy, where olanzapine was discontinued at risperidone initiation; (ii gradual 1 strategy, where olanzapine was given at 50% entry dose for 1 week after risperidone initiation and then discontinued; or (iii gradual 2 strategy, where olanzapine was given at 100% entry dose for 1 week, then at 50% in the second week, and then discontinued. Results The study enrolled 123 patients on stable doses of olanzapine. Their mean age was 40.3 years and mean (± standard deviation (SD baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score of 75.6 ± 11.5. All-cause treatment discontinuation was lowest (12% in the group with the slowest olanzapine dose reduction (gradual 2 and occurred at half the discontinuation rate in the other two groups (25% in abrupt and 28% in gradual 1. The relative risk of early discontinuation was 0.77 (confidence interval 0.61–0.99 for the slowest dose reduction compared with the other two strategies. After the medication was changed, improvements at endpoint were seen in PANSS total score (-7.3; p p p = 0.171 and anxiety/depression (-1.4; p = 0.0005 subscale scores. Severity of movement disorders and weight changes were minimal. Conclusion When switching patients from olanzapine to risperidone, a gradual reduction in the dose of olanzapine over 2 weeks was associated with higher rates of retention compared with abrupt or less gradual discontinuation. Switching via any strategy was associated with significant improvements in positive and anxiety symptoms and was generally well tolerated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00378183

  17. Romiplostim Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide. ... about the risks of receiving romiplostim injection.Romiplostim injection may cause ... program online [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [ ...

  18. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide. ... or giving levofloxacin injection to your child.Levofloxacin injection may cause ... program online [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [ ...

  19. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide. ... or giving ciprofloxacin injection to your child.Ciprofloxacin injection may cause ... program online [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [ ...

  20. Naloxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the instructions, or visit the manufacturer's website at http://www.evzio.com/pdfs/NDA%20205787%20Approval%2003apr14-2%20PPI%20and%20IFU.pdf to get the instructions. In case of emergency, even a person who has not been trained to inject naloxone should still try to inject the medication. ...

  1. Injection MD

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Drosdal, L; Gianfelice, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Papaphilippou, Y; Vanbavinckhove, G

    2012-01-01

    This note summarizes the results obtained at injection during the 2nd MD block and the floating MD block in July. Highlights are presented for injection in the LHC with the Q20 SPS optics, influence of the supercycle and injection with 25 ns bunch spacing. Beams were successfully injected into the LHC using the Q20 optics [1, 3]. Small corrections were needed to steer the beam in the transfer lines. Dispersion measurements were conducted for both beams. The horizontal normalized dispersion in TI2 was a factor 2 smaller for Q20 with respect to Q26, for TI8 on the other hand the opposite was observed. The results for injection loss dependency on super cycle composition show only a small increase in losses for beam 2. The losses observed must therefore mainly come from other sources such as shot-by-shot stability or quality of scraping. For the injection with 25 ns bunch spacing bunches were injected for both beams. For B1 up to the maximum of 288 bunches. For B2 on the other only up to 144 bunches were injected...

  2. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications called glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP- ... gain difficulty breathing Teduglutide injection may make abnormal cells in your ... [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [1-800-332-1088].

  3. Schizophrenia relapse and the clinical usefulness of once-monthly aripiprazole depot injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang SM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sheng-Min Wang,1 Changsu Han,2 Soo-Jung Lee,5 Ashwin A Patkar,3 Prakash S Masand,4 Chi-Un Pae3,5 1International Health Care Center, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 4Global Medical Education, New York, NY, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Bucheon St Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Improving medication adherence is critical to improving outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. A long-acting injectable (depot antipsychotic is one of the most effective methods for improving treatment adherence and decreasing rehospitalization rates in patients with schizophrenia. Until recently, only three second-generation antipsychotics were available in a long-acting injectable formulation (risperidone, paliperidone, and olanzapine. In this respect, the emergence of long-acting aripiprazole injection (ALAI, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in 2013, is timely. ALAI is a lyophilized powder of aripiprazole, and the aripiprazole molecule is unmodified. The initial and target dosage of ALAI is 400 mg once monthly, but it could be reduced to 300 mg if adverse reactions occur with 400 mg. When first administering ALAI, it is recommended to continue treatment with oral aripiprazole (10–20 mg/day or another oral antipsychotic for 2 weeks in order to maintain therapeutic antipsychotic concentrations. The primary clearance route for ALAI is hepatic, ie, cytochrome P450 (CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, so dose adjustment is required in poor CYP2D6 metabolizers. The efficacy of ALAI was demonstrated in three studies. A randomized controlled trial that formed the basis for approval of ALAI in the treatment of schizophrenia showed that ALAI significantly delayed time to impending relapse when compared with placebo (P<0.0001, log-rank test. An open-label, mirror study demonstrated that total psychiatric hospitalization rates were significantly lower after switching from oral antipsychotics to ALAI. Another randomized controlled trial presented in poster form suggested that ALAI 400 mg was comparable with oral aripiprazole 10–30 mg in preventing relapse. ALAI was generally well tolerated during both short-term and long-term studies. Its tolerability profile, including extrapyramidal symptoms and clinically relevant metabolic parameters, was similar to placebo. However, insomnia, headache, anxiety, akathisia, weight gain, injection site pain, and tremor need clinical attention. These studies suggest that ALAI is a viable treatment option for patients with schizophrenia, but direct head-to-head comparisons between ALAI and other long-acting injectable antipsychotics are needed to elucidate its risk–benefit profile. Keywords: aripiprazole, schizophrenia, depot, long-acting injectable, relapse, treatment

  4. Risperidone and the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 improve probabilistic reversal learning in BTBR T + tf/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Dionisio A; Jones, Joshua H; Sweeney, John A; Ragozzino, Michael E

    2014-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interactions with restricted interests and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). RRBs can severely limit daily living and be particularly stressful to family members. To date, there are limited options for treating this feature in ASD. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, is approved to treat irritability in ASD, but less is known about whether it is effective in treating "higher order" RRBs, for example cognitive inflexibility. Risperidone also has multiple receptor targets in which only a subset may be procognitive and others induce cognitive impairment. 5HT2A receptor blockade represents one promising and more targeted approach, as various preclinical studies have shown that 5HT2A receptor antagonists improve cognition. The present study investigated whether risperidone and/or M100907, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist, improved probabilistic reversal learning performance in the BTBR T + tf/J (BTBR) mouse model of autism. The effects of these treatments were also investigated in C57BL/6J (B6) mice as a comparison strain. Using a spatial reversal learning test with 80/20 probabilistic feedback, similar to one in which ASD individuals exhibit impairments, both risperidone (0.125 mg) and M100907 (0.01 and 0.1 mg) improved reversal learning in BTBR mice. Risperidone (0.125 mg) impaired reversal learning in B6 mice. Improvement in probabilistic reversal learning performance resulted from treatments enhancing the maintenance of the newly correct choice pattern. Because risperidone can lead to unwanted side effects, treatment with a specific 5HT2A receptor antagonist may improve cognitive flexibility in individuals with ASD while also minimizing unwanted side effects. PMID:24894823

  5. Forum for injection techniques, India: The first Indian recommendations for best practice in insulin injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the treatment of diabetes have led to an increase in the number of injectable therapies, such as human insulin, insulin analogues, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues. The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique, among many other factors. Good injection technique is vital in achieving glycemic control and thus preventing complications of diabetes. From the patients? and health-care providers? perspective, it is essential to have guidelines to understand injections and injection techniques. The abridged version of the First Indian Insulin Injection technique guidelines developed by the Forum for Injection Technique (FIT India presented here acknowledge good insulin injection techniques and provide evidence-based recommendations to assist diabetes care providers in improving their clinical practice.

  6. Clindamycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clindamycin injection is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections, including infections of the lungs, skin, ... bones, joints, female reproductive organs, and internal organs. Clindamycin is in a class of medications called lincomycin ...

  7. Adalimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.Talk to your doctor about the risks of using adalimumab injection.

  8. Albiglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.Talk to your doctor about the risks of using albiglutide injection.

  9. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving omalizumab injection.

  10. Mipomersen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.Talk to your doctor about the risks of using mipomersen injection.

  11. Etanercept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.Talk to your doctor about the risks of using etanercept injection.

  12. Tocilizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.Talk to your doctor about the risks of using tocilizumab injection.

  13. Infliximab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.Talk to your doctor about the risks of using infliximab injection.

  14. Metoclopramide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) to obtain the Medication Guide.Talk to your doctor about the risk of receiving metoclopramide injection.

  15. Liraglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.Talk to your doctor about the risks of using liraglutide injection.

  16. Dulaglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.Talk to your doctor about the risks of using dulaglutide injection.

  17. Exenatide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.Talk to your doctor about the risks of using exenatide injection.

  18. Eculizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving eculizumab injection.

  19. Rituximab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.Talk to your doctor about the risks of using rituximab injection.

  20. Telavancin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.Talk to your doctor about the risks of using telavancin injection.

  1. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections; and urinary tract, abdominal (stomach area), female reproductive organs, blood, bone, joint, and skin infections. Cefoxitin ... you are taking cefoxitin injection.If you are diabetic and test your urine for glucose, use Clinistix ...

  2. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spinal cord infections; and abdominal (stomach area), female reproductive organs, skin, blood, bone, joint, and urinary tract ... you are taking cefotaxime injection.If you are diabetic and test your urine for sugar, use Clinistix ...

  3. Belatacept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are receiving belatacept injection.plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight, tanning beds, and ...

  4. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transmitted disease); and skin, blood, bone, joint, and urinary tract infections. Cefuroxime injection may also be used before, during, ... this medication.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. ...

  5. Midazolam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stiffening and jerking of the arms and legs aggression seizures uncontrollable rapid eye movements hives rash itching difficulty breathing or swallowing Midazolam injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you ...

  6. Gemcitabine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with surgery. Gemcitabine is also used to treat cancer of the pancreas that has spread to other parts of the ... 4 weeks. When gemcitabine is used to treat cancer of pancreas it may be injected once every week. The ...

  7. Octreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features; joint pain; and other symptoms) who cannot be treated with surgery, radiation, or another medication. Octreotide immediate-release injection ...

  8. Intrathymic Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Sugata; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Intrathymic injection is used in several T cell-associated immunological studies to deliver cells or other substances directly into the thymus. Here, we describe the intrathymic injection procedure involving surgical incision of the mouse with or without a thoracotomy. Though this procedure can result in poor recovery, postsurgical complications, and distress to the animal, it is actually a simple procedure that can be carried out relatively easily and quickly with experience. PMID:26294410

  9. Cardiac-related findings at autopsy in people with severe mental illness treated with clozapine or risperidone

    OpenAIRE

    Deanna L. Kelly; Wehring, Heidi J.; Linthicum, Jared; Feldman, Stephanie; Robert P. McMahon; Love, Raymond C.; Wagner, Tara; Shim, Joo Cheol; Fowler, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Clozapine is a superior agent for treatment-refractory patients with schizophrenia, but is underutilized in the US, likely due to the risk of side effects. This study examined all available autopsy data on cardiac disease and risk factors in people with schizophrenia in a sample of deceased persons with severe mental illness who had received clozapine (N = 62) or risperidone (N = 42). The mean body mass index (BMI) at the time of death was 31.4 ± 8.8 kg/m2 and 27.1 ± 8.2 kg/m2 in the clozapin...

  10. Oral Haloperidol or Risperidone Treatment in Rats: Temporal Effects on Nerve Growth Factor Receptors, Cholinergic Neurons, and Memory Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, Alvin V.; Gearhart, Debra A.; Warner, Samantha E.; Zhang, Guodong; Bartlett, Michael G.; Middlemore, Mary-Louise; Beck, Wayne D.; Mahadik, Sahebarao P.; Waller, Jennifer L

    2007-01-01

    First and second generation antipsychotics (FGAs and SGAs) ameliorate psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia, however, their chronic effects on information processing and memory function (i.e., key determinants of long term functional outcome) are largely unknown. In this rodent study the effects of different time periods (ranging from two weeks to six months) of oral treatment with the FGA, haloperidol (2.0 mg/kg/day), or the SGA, risperidone (2.5 mg/kg/day) on a water maze repeated acquisition...

  11. Combination of Risperidone and Paroxetine for Inappropriate Sexual Behaviors in an Adolescent with Autism and Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri HERGÜNER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate hypersexual behaviors have been frequently reported in subjects with autism, however, literature on management of such behaviors in this group is very limited. In this paper, we describe an adolescent with autistic disorder and mental retardation who developed severe inappropriate sexual behaviors and has been treated successfully with risperidone-paroxetine combination. As presence of hypersexual behaviors in individuals with autism is a distressing factor for their family and social environment, appropriate management seems to be essential. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2012; 49: 311-313

  12. A Randomized Comparison of Aripiprazole and Risperidone for the Acute Treatment of First-Episode Schizophrenia and Related Disorders: 3-Month Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Delbert G; Gallego, Juan A; John, Majnu; Petrides, Georgios; Hassoun, Youssef; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Lopez, Leonardo; Braga, Raphael J; Sevy, Serge M; Addington, Jean; Kellner, Charles H; Tohen, Mauricio; Naraine, Melissa; Bennett, Natasha; Greenberg, Jessica; Lencz, Todd; Correll, Christoph U; Kane, John M; Malhotra, Anil K

    2015-11-01

    Research findings are particularly important for medication choice for first-episode patients as individual prior medication response to guide treatment decisions is unavailable. We describe the first large-scale double-masked randomized comparison with first-episode patients of aripiprazole and risperidone, 2 commonly used first-episode treatment agents. One hundred ninety-eight participants aged 15-40 years with schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder or psychotic disorder Not Otherwise Specified, and who had been treated in their lifetime with antipsychotics for 2 weeks or less were randomly assigned to double-masked aripiprazole (5-30mg/d) or risperidone (1-6mg/d) and followed for 12 weeks. Positive symptom response rates did not differ (62.8% vs 56.8%) nor did time to response. Aripiprazole-treated participants had better negative symptom outcomes but experienced more akathisia. Body mass index change did not differ between treatments but advantages were found for aripiprazole treatment for total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, and prolactin levels. Post hoc analyses suggested advantages for aripiprazole on depressed mood. Overall, if the potential for akathisia is a concern, low-dose risperidone as used in this trial maybe a preferred choice over aripiprazole. Otherwise, aripiprazole would be the preferred choice over risperidone in most situations based upon metabolic outcome advantages and some symptom advantages within the context of similar positive symptom response between medications. PMID:26338693

  13. Effect of pretreatment with risperidone on phencyclidine-induced disruptions in object recognition memory and prefrontal cortex parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Claire E; Jenkins, Trisha A; Adams, Hayley N; Harte, Michael K; Reynolds, Gavin P

    2010-03-17

    Sub-chronic administration of phencyclidine to the rat induces enduring cognitive and pathophysiological changes that resemble some features of schizophrenia. The present study aimed to determine if concurrent administration of the atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, could attenuate the effect of phencyclidine on object recognition memory and parvalbumin-containing neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Rats were administered phencyclidine at a dose of 2mg/kg i.p. bi-daily for 1 week, or vehicle. Half of the phencyclidine group was concurrently treated with risperidone (0.5mg/kg i.p.) twice daily for 10 days, beginning 3 days before the start of phencyclidine administration. Novel object recognition memory and subsequent brain analysis were assessed 6 weeks post-phencyclidine treatment. Phencyclidine produced a deficit in object recognition memory as measured by the discrimination ratio. In addition, 6 weeks post-phencyclidine, analysis of brains showed a reduction in expression of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in the prefrontal cortex, with specific deficits observed in the prelimbic region, but not infralimbic or cingulate cortices. Concurrent administration of risperidone showed no protective effects against these deficits. These results show the importance of the sub-chronic phencyclidine rat in modelling cognitive and prefrontal pathophysiology observed in schizophrenia, but suggest that concurrent risperidone is not neuroprotective in this model. PMID:19914297

  14. Long-term, naturalistic treatment with olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, or haloperidol monotherapy: 24-month results from the Intercontinental Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes (IC-SOHO) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Phil; Eung Kim, Chul; Yoon Kim, Chang; Lin, Wei-Wen; Habil, Hussain; Dyachkova, Yulia; Mcbride, Margaret; Dossenbach, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effectiveness of olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, or haloperidol monotherapy in patients with schizophrenia who were treated in routine clinical practice settings for a period of 2 years. The incidence and persistence of adverse events encountered during long-term therapy are also reported. Method. Outpatients with schizophrenia who entered this 3-year, prospective, observational study were classified according to their initially prescribed antipsychotic monotherapy: olanzapine (n=3222), risperidone (n=1116), quetiapine (n=189), or haloperidol (n=256). Patients were included in the analysis for as long as this treatment was maintained. Results. Over 2 years, olanzapine recipients had significantly (P?0.001) greater reduction in overall CGI-S score (and the negative, depressive, and cognitive symptoms domains), lower incidence of sexual and motor dysfunction, and greater odds of response compared to risperidone or haloperidol-treated patients. However, olanzapine patients gained more weight than patients in other treatment groups. The incidence of motor dysfunction was significantly (P?0.001) greater in haloperidol-treated patients, relative to the atypical treatment groups. Conclusion. The results of this observational study indicate that, in these patients with schizophrenia, long-term monotherapy with olanzapine may offer benefits over risperidone and haloperidol, but the potential for weight gain should be considered in the clinical management of these patients. PMID:24931661

  15. Oxytocin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider immediately: chest pain or difficulty breathing confusion fast or irregular heartbeat severe headache irritation at the injection site If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  16. Naltrexone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or the manufacturer's website http://www.vivitrol.com to obtain the Medication Guide. ... or throat hoarseness difficulty swallowing chest pain Naltrexone injection may ... program online [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [ ...

  17. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) to obtain the Medication Guide. ... flu-like symptoms pale skin fast heartbeat Ketorolac injection may cause other ... program online [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [ ...

  18. Golimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm)or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving golimumab injection.

  19. Ustekinumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with ustekinumab injection. Read the information carefully and ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions. You can also visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) or ...

  20. Tositumomab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (toe' sih too moe' mab)Tositumomab injection may cause serious or life-threatening allergic reactions. Tell your doctor if you are allergic to medications made from murine (mouse) proteins, or if you are not sure if a medication you are allergic to is made ...

  1. Mitoxantrone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test before each treatment. You must have a negative pregnancy test before the start of each treatment.tell your doctor if you are breastfeeding. Do not breastfeed while you are using mitoxantrone injection.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist ...

  2. Ibritumomab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with other medications. Ibritumomab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It ... cells) and myelodysplastic syndrome (condition in which blood cells do not ... [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [1-800-332-1088].

  3. Spectroscopic and thermal investigations on the charge transfer interaction between risperidone as a schizophrenia drug with some traditional ?-acceptors: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Habeeb, Abeer A.; Al-Saif, Foziah A.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2013-03-01

    The focus of present investigation was to assess the utility of non-expensive techniques in the evaluation of risperidone (Ris) in solid and solution states with different traditional ?-acceptors and subsequent incorporation of the analytical determination into pharmaceutical formulation for a faster release of risperidone. Charge-transfer complexes (CTC) of risperidone with picric acid (PA), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinon (DDQ), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetracyano ethylene (TCNE), tetrabromo-p-quinon (BL) and tetrachloro-p-quinon (CL) have been studied spectrophotometrically in absolute methanol at room temperature. The stoichiometries of the complexes were found to be 1:1 ratio by the photometric molar ratio between risperidone and the ?-acceptors. The equilibrium constants, molar extinction coefficient (?CT) and spectroscopic-physical parameters (standard free energy (?Go), oscillator strength (f), transition dipole moment (?), resonance energy (RN) and ionization potential (ID)) of the complexes were determined upon the modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation. Risperidone in pure form was applied in this study. The results indicate that the formation constants for the complexes depend on the nature of electron acceptors and donor, and also the spectral studies of the complexes were determined by (infrared, Raman, and 1H NMR) spectra and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The most stable mono-protonated form of Ris is characterized by the formation of +Nsbnd H (pyrimidine ring) intramolecular hydrogen bonded. In the high-wavenumber spectral region ˜3400 cm-1, the bands of the +Nsbnd H stretching vibrations and of the pyrimidine nitrogen atom could be potentially useful to discriminate the investigated forms of Ris. The infrared spectra of both Ris complexes are confirming the participation of +Nsbnd H pyrimidine ring in the donor-acceptor interaction.

  4. Risperidone Attenuates Modified Stress-Re-stress Paradigm-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Apoptosis in Rats Exhibiting Post-traumatic Stress Disorder-Like Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabadu, Debapriya; Ahmad, Ausaf; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria play a significant role in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Risperidone and paroxetine were evaluated for their effect on mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in discrete brain regions in modified stress re-stress (SRS) animal model of PTSD. Male rats were subjected to stress protocol of 2 h restraint and 20 min forced swim followed by halothane anesthesia on day 2 (D-2). Thereafter, rats were exposed to re-stress (forced swim) on D-8 and at 6-day intervals on D-14, D-20, D-26, and D-32. The rats were treated with risperidone (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg p.o.) and paroxetine (10.0 mg/kg p.o.) from D-8 to D-32. Risperidone at median dose and paroxetine ameliorated modified SRS-induced depressive-like symptom (increase in immobility period) in forced swim, anxiety-like behavior (decrease in percentage of open arm entries and time spent) in elevated plus maze and cognitive deficits (loss in spatial recognition memory) in Y-maze tests on D-32. Risperidone, but not paroxetine, attenuated modified SRS-induced decreases in plasma corticosterone levels. Risperidone ameliorated increase in the activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex (I, II, IV, and V), decreases in the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome-C and caspase-9 in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, pre-frontal cortex, and amygdala. However, both drugs attenuated modified SRS-induced increase in the number of apoptotic cells and caspase-3 levels in all the brain regions indicating anti-apoptotic activity of these drugs. Hence, these results suggest that anti-apoptotic activity could be a common mechanism for anti-PTSD-like effect irrespective of the pathways of apoptosis in the modified SRS model. PMID:25750029

  5. The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Thiothixene and Risperidone as a Combination with Lithium for the Treatment of Patients with Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Parvaresh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effectiveness of various atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of acute mania is reported repeatedly, but those for typical antipsychotics are restricted to haloperidol and chlorpromazine. As there is a comparative importance of side effects for typical and atypical antipsychotics, we decided to compare the therapeutic effect of thiothixene and risperidone as a combination with lithium for the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. Materials and Methods: In 8 week double-blind clinical trial, 84 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder were randomized for treatment with lithium plus thiothixene (N=42 or lithium plus risperidone (N=42. Manic, positive-negative symptoms, anxiety and depression were measured bi-weekly with Young Mania Rating, positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS and Hamilton rating scale score. Fasting blood sugar, weight, general side effects and extrapyramidal symptoms were also evaluated. The measures analyzed using SPSS-17 software. To compare demographic characteristics t-test, ?2 test and fixed effects method were used. A fixed effects method was applied to omit missing data effects. Results: There was no significant difference between the thiothixene and risperidone groups in Young mania rating scale and other outcome measures during the 8 week trial. There was no significant difference in weight, blood sugar and clinical global impression (CGI between groups. Conclusion: Thiothixene is as effective as risperidone in the improvement of manic and psychotic symptoms. There was no significant difference with risperidone in developing extrapyramidal symptoms, so it can be used as an appropriate combination with lithium for the treatment of bipolar patients in psychotic manic episode.

  6. Combined therapeutic efficacy of 188Re-liposomes and sorafenib in an experimental colorectal cancer liver metastasis model by intrasplenic injection of C26-luc murine colon cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Ya-Jen; Hsu, Wei-Hsin; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Lan, Keng-Li; Ting, Gann; Lee, Te-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Rhenium-188 (188Re) displays abundant intermediate energy ? emission and possesses a physical half-life of 16.9 h. Sorafenib is an orally available multikinase inhibitor that targets Raf kinases and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). Sorafenib has demonstrated preclinical and clinical activity against several types of tumors, such as renal cell and colorectal carcinoma. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of radiotherapeutics of 188Re-liposomes combined with sorafe...

  7. Avaliação em camundongo da eficácia do antiveneno administrado no local da inoculação intramuscular do veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus Evaluation in mice, of the antivenom efficacy injected at the same place of the intramuscular inoculation of the Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindioneza Adriano Ribeiro

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available A eficácia do antiveneno crotálico por via intramuscular (im no local da inoculação, também im, do veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus foi avaliada em camundongos. Em três experimentos inocularam-se duas DLSO do veneno por via im e administrou-se o antiveneno de três formas: metade da DE50 por via intraperitoneal (ip e metade por via im, no mesmo local, imediatamente após (1º e 30' após (2º a inoculação do veneno; quatro quintos de DE50 por via ip e um quinto por via im, no mesmo local e 30' após a inoculação do veneno (3º. O antiveneno ofereceu, por via ip, maior proteção aos camundongos (menor taxa de óbito em 48 horas do que quando foi administrado, em parte, por via im, no local da inoculação do veneno (pThe efficacy of the Crotalus durissus terrificus antivenom administration by intramuscular (im injection at the same place of the im inoculation, of the C. d. terrificus venom was evaluated in mice. In three experiments two DL50 of the venom were inoculated and the antivenom was administered in three differents ways: half of the ED50 by intraperitoneal (ip administration and half by injection, at the same place, immediatelly after the venom inoculation and thirty minutes after the im venom inoculation; four fifth of ED50 by ip administration and one fifth by injection, at the same place and thirty minutes after the venom inoculation. The antivenom that was administred by intraperitoneal route provided a higher protection to mice (a lower death rate in a 48 hours period than when it was administred in parts, by intramuscular injection, at the same place of the venom inoculation (p<0,05. Therefore, it is concluded that this should not be used in human beings bitten by snakes.

  8. LEP injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have commenced on an injector for LEP, the CERN 100 GeV e+-e- storage ring design. The minimum energy for injection is 20 GeV, and a synchrotron injector is chosen in preference to a linac for cost reasons and to obtain faster ring filling. Factors involved in the design of the injector synchrotron are discussed and 2 alternative schemes are outlined for the filling of the 32 e+ and 32 e- LEP bunches

  9. Adverse effects associated with second-generation antipsychotic long-acting injection treatment: a comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2013-10-01

    As second-generation antipsychotic long-acting injections (SGA-LAIs) are rapidly replacing depot first-generation antipsychotics as first-line agents in treating schizophrenia spectrum disorders, a systematic assessment of their adverse effects is timely. English-language, peer-reviewed articles reporting original data on the safety and tolerability of SGA-LAIs were identified electronically by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and DARE databases and the Cochrane Library (January 2001-April 2013). In addition to second-generation (atypical) antipsychotics and long-acting injection (depot) antipsychotics, a separate search was performed for each available drug: aripiprazole LAI, olanzapine pamoate, paliperidone palmitate, and risperidone LAI. Articles were excluded if they were review articles, post hoc analyses, analyses of subsets of patients enrolled in previous trials, single case reports, case series studies, small naturalistic studies (involving less than 50 patients), studies providing no safety data, and studies lasting less than 8 weeks. Of 181 articles identified from the search, 140 were excluded; thus, 41 articles met the inclusion criteria. Predictably, the reviewed information revealed that SGA-LAIs have safety profiles consistent with their oral parent formulations. However, they seem to also show unforeseen and worrisome safety signals. Indeed, the routine use of olanzapine-LAI in clinical practice could be limited not only by the well-known risk of postinjection syndrome, whose clinical management remains a matter of concern, but also by the risk of worsening of psychosis. The reviewed information seems to suggest that worsening of psychotic symptoms and depression could also be associated with both risperidone-LAI and paliperidone palmitate. The leading cause of death among patients enrolled in risperidone-LAI studies was suicide. Given the exponential growth in the clinical use of SGA-LAIs, further studies must be urgently performed in order to confirm or exclude the potential safety signals associated with such drugs. PMID:23776129

  10. Frequency of sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects in patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or haloperidol: the results of the EIRE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, J; Garc A-Portilla, M P; Rejas, J; Hern Ndez, G; Garcia-Garcia, M; Rico-Villademoros, F; Porras, A

    2003-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics seem to differ mainly in their tolerability profile. The aim of this cross-sectional study, the Estudio de Investigaci n de Resultados en Esquizofrenia (Outcomes Research Study in Schizophrenia; EIRE study), was to assess in a clinical setting the frequency of several side-effects related to haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine. This article addresses sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects (gynecomastia, menorrhage, amenorrhea, and galactorrhea). We recruited outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria and who had received a single antipsychotic (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or haloperidol) for at least 4 weeks. During a single visit, we collected data, including demographic and clinical characteristics, current antipsychotic and concomitant treatment, and adverse effects listed in a modified version of the UKU Scale. We used a Chi-squared test to determine pairs comparisons of the frequency of adverse reactions between treatments. To estimate risk of a given adverse reaction with a given treatment, we used a logistic regression method. We assessed 636 evaluable patients out of 669 recruited. Frequency of sexual dysfunction was high with haloperidol (38.1%) and also with olanzapine (35.3%), quetiapine (18.2%), and risperidone (43.2%). We found the frequency of other reproductive side-effects to be relatively low with all four drugs: haloperidol (6.9%), olanzapine (6.4%), quetiapine (2.7%), and risperidone (11.7%). Sexual dysfunction appeared to be dose-related with haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine. Risperidone and olanzapine showed a higher risk of sexual dysfunction and other reproductive sideeffects than haloperidol. Quetiapine showed a lower risk of sexual dysfunction during short-term treatment ( 12 weeks) are lacking. Our results suggest that none of the atypical antipsychotics that we studied significantly improved sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects of the conventional antipsychotic, haloperidol, in stabilized patients during long-term treatment. Quetiapine appears to improve this profile during short-term treatment; however, longterm data, with larger samples, are required with this latter drug. PMID:12623765

  11. Estudio de estabilidad de tabletas de risperidona 3 mg Study of stability of Risperidone (3 mg tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Margarita García Peña

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló el estudio de estabilidad de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg y se determinó su fecha de vencimiento. Este estudio se realizó por los métodos de vida de estante y de estabilidad acelerada mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia, validados en el Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Medicamentos. El estudio de vida de estante se desarrolló por un periodo de 24 meses a temperatura ambiente; mientras que el estudio de estabilidad acelerada se efectuó sometiendo el producto a la influencia de la luz, la humedad y la temperatura; se realizó el análisis durante 3 meses, para los 2 primeros y durante 6 meses para el estudio de la temperatura. La formulación de risperidona tabletas 3 mg cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad descritas en la Farmacopea. Los resultados del estudio de estabilidad por vida de estante después de transcurridos los 24 meses indican que el producto mantiene los parámetros que determinan su calidad durante ese tiempo, y en los estudios acelerados no se observó degradación del producto. Se estableció 2 años como fecha de vencimiento en las condiciones señaladas.Stability study was conducted of 3 mg Risperidone tablets determining its caducity date and using the shelf life methods and of accelerated stability by high-performance liquid chromatography validated in Drug Development and Research Center. The shelf life study was developed during 24 months at room temperature; whereas the accelerated stability study was performed subjecting the product to light, humidity and temperature influence. The 3 mg Risperidone tablets formula fulfilled the quality specifications described in Pharmacopeia. Results from shelf life study after 24 months show that the product maintains the parameters determining its quality during that time and in accelerated studies product degradation was noted. Under conditions signaled 2 years was established as the expiry date.

  12. Estudio de estabilidad de tabletas de risperidona 3 mg / Study of stability of Risperidone (3 mg) tablets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caridad Margarita, García Peña; Antonio, Iraizoz Barrios; Vivian, Martínez Espinosa.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló el estudio de estabilidad de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg y se determinó su fecha de vencimiento. Este estudio se realizó por los métodos de vida de estante y de estabilidad acelerada mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia, validados en el Centro de Investigación y Desar [...] rollo de Medicamentos. El estudio de vida de estante se desarrolló por un periodo de 24 meses a temperatura ambiente; mientras que el estudio de estabilidad acelerada se efectuó sometiendo el producto a la influencia de la luz, la humedad y la temperatura; se realizó el análisis durante 3 meses, para los 2 primeros y durante 6 meses para el estudio de la temperatura. La formulación de risperidona tabletas 3 mg cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad descritas en la Farmacopea. Los resultados del estudio de estabilidad por vida de estante después de transcurridos los 24 meses indican que el producto mantiene los parámetros que determinan su calidad durante ese tiempo, y en los estudios acelerados no se observó degradación del producto. Se estableció 2 años como fecha de vencimiento en las condiciones señaladas. Abstract in english Stability study was conducted of 3 mg Risperidone tablets determining its caducity date and using the shelf life methods and of accelerated stability by high-performance liquid chromatography validated in Drug Development and Research Center. The shelf life study was developed during 24 months at ro [...] om temperature; whereas the accelerated stability study was performed subjecting the product to light, humidity and temperature influence. The 3 mg Risperidone tablets formula fulfilled the quality specifications described in Pharmacopeia. Results from shelf life study after 24 months show that the product maintains the parameters determining its quality during that time and in accelerated studies product degradation was noted. Under conditions signaled 2 years was established as the expiry date.

  13. LEP injection

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, J R J; Gray, D A; Harold, M R; Maidment, J R; Rees, G H; Weldon, A G

    1977-01-01

    Studies have commenced of an injector for LEP, the CERN 100 GeV e/sup +/-e/sup -/ storage ring design. The minimum energy for injection is 20 GeV, and a synchrotron injector is chosen in preference to a linac for cost reasons and to obtain faster ring filling. Factors involved in the design of the injector synchrotron are discussed and 2 alternative schemes are outlined for the filling of the 32 e/sup +/ and 32 d/sup -/ LEP bunches. (4 refs.).

  14. Efficacy of different Anthelmintic formulations against Helminth Infestation in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    S. Nasreen, M. R. Khan, S. Peerzada and S. A. Andrabia

    2008-01-01

    A study of comparative efficacy of six different commercial anthelmintic formulations against natural helminth infestations in sheep was conducted. Pre and post-treatment EPG (eggs per gram) values were recorded and efficacies compared. Results showed that a combination of Ivermectin and Clorsulon in injectable form gave the overall highest curative rate against the parasites studied.

  15. Resource utilization in patients with schizophrenia who initiated risperidone long-acting therapy: results from the Schizophrenia Outcomes Utilization Relapse and Clinical Evaluation (SOURCE)

    OpenAIRE

    Mao Lian; Dirani Riad D; Kozma Chris M; DeSouza Cherilyn; Crivera Concetta; Macfadden Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a chronic mental health disorder associated with increased hospital admissions and excessive utilization of outpatient services and long-term care. This analysis examined health care resource utilization from a 24-month observational study of patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT). Methods Schizophrenia Outcomes Utilization Relapse and Clinical Evaluation (SOURCE) was a 24-month observational study designed to exami...

  16. Treatment-resistant bipolar depression: a STEP-BD equipoise randomized effectiveness trial of antidepressant augmentation with lamotrigine, inositol, or risperidone.

    OpenAIRE

    Nierenberg, AA; Ostacher, MJ; Calabrese, JR; Ketter, TA; Marangell, LB; Miklowitz, DJ; Miyahara, S.; Bauer, MS; Thase, ME; Wisniewski, SR; Sachs, GS

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinicians have few evidence-based options for the management of treatment-resistant bipolar depression. This study represents the first randomized trial of competing options for treatment-resistant bipolar depression and assesses the effectiveness and safety of antidepressant augmentation with lamotrigine, inositol, and risperidone. METHOD: Participants (N=66) were patients with bipolar I or bipolar II disorder enrolled in the NIMH Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipo...

  17. Relapse prevention and remission attainment in first-episode non-affective psychosis. A randomized, controlled 1-year follow-up comparison of haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Pérez-Iglesias, Rocío; Mata, Ignacio; Caseiro, Olalla; Martínez-Garcia, Obdulia; Pardo, Gema; Ramirez-Bonilla, Mariluz; Pelayo-Terán, Jose Maria; Vázquez-Barquero, José L

    2011-06-01

    The effectiveness of antipsychotics in preventing relapses and attaining symptomatic remission is a relevant topic of psychopharmacological research. The purpose of the present study was to compare the relapse and symptomatic remission rates during the first year of treatment between low doses of haloperidol and SGAs (olanzapine and risperidone) in drug-naïve first-episode non-affective psychosis individuals. This is a prospective, randomized, open-label study conducted from February 2001 to February 2006. Data for the present investigation were obtained from a large epidemiologic and 3-year longitudinal intervention program of first-episode psychosis (DSM-IV criteria) conducted at the University Hospital Marques de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain. One hundred and seventy four patients were randomly assigned to haloperidol (N = 56), olanzapine (N = 55), or risperidone (N = 63) and followed up for 1 year. Primary effectiveness measures were the time up to relapse and rates of relapse and symptomatic remission. There were no significant differences in the relapse rate between treatments (11.1% haloperidol; 18.5% olanzapine, and 13.8% risperidone) (?(2) = 1.230; p = 0.541) or in the time up to relapse (Log Rank ?(2) = 0.308; p = 0.857). The rates of relapse for adherent (11.2%) and non-adherent (26.9%) patients were significantly different (?(2) = 4.215; df = 1; p = 0.040). The remission rate did not differ significantly between treatment groups (?(2) = 2.760; p = 0.252) and adherence to medication did not seem to significantly influence remission rates. We conclude that haloperidol, olanzapine and risperidone show a similar effectiveness in relapse prevention or in remission attainment during the first year of treatment. PMID:21106207

  18. Incidence of Tardive Dyskinesia with Risperidone or Olanzapine in the Elderly: Results from a 2-Year, Prospective Study in Antipsychotic-Naïve Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Woerner, Margaret G; Correll, Christoph U.; Alvir, Jose Ma. J.; Greenwald, Blaine; Delman, Howard; John M. Kane

    2011-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) rates with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are considered to be low relative to first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), even in the particularly vulnerable elderly population. However, risk estimates are unavailable for patients naïve to FGAs. Therefore, we aimed to determine the TD incidence in particularly vulnerable, antipsychotic-naïve elderly patients treated with the SGA risperidone or olanzapine. The present work describes a prospective inception cohort ...

  19. Estudio de biodisponibilidad comparativa de dos formulaciones de risperidona existentes en el mercado chileno A comparative bioavailability study of two formulations of risperidone available in the Chilean market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo E Gaete

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bioavailability of a particular drug can vary according to the formulation used. Therefore, studies of comparative bioavailability of different formulations of a same drug are worthwhile. Aim: To compare the bioavailability of two risperidone formulations available in the Chilean market. Material and methods: The bioavailability of a local risperidone formulation (Spiron® was compared with the original formulation of the drug (Risperdal® in 12 healthy volunteers, aged 19±1 years. A single dose of 3 mg was given orally, using a randomized double blind protocol in two periods. Fifteen blood samples were obtained at regular intervals, until 24 h after drug administration. Risperidone plasma levels were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a computer program that is independent of compartmental analysis. Results: The area under the curve of plasma concentration versus time, from 0 to infinite (ABC0-? and from 0 to 24 h (ABC0-24, early exposure (ABC from 0 to maximal time and maximal plasma concentrations were significantly lower for Spiron®. Half life time and time to achieve the maximal concentration were similar for the two formulations. Conclusions: According to bioequivalence tests suggested by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA of the United States (90% confidence interval for the difference of log transformed mean pharmacokinetic parameters, the formulations Risperdal® and Spiron®, cannot be considered interchangeable (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 527-34.

  20. Estudio de biodisponibilidad comparativa de dos formulaciones de risperidona existentes en el mercado chileno / A comparative bioavailability study of two formulations of risperidone available in the Chilean market

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo E, Gaete; Jaime, Solís G; Pablo, Venegas F; Mitzy J, Carrillo C; Oscar, Schatloff B; Iván, Saavedra S.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Bioavailability of a particular drug can vary according to the formulation used. Therefore, studies of comparative bioavailability of different formulations of a same drug are worthwhile. Aim: To compare the bioavailability of two risperidone formulations available in the Chilean market. [...] Material and methods: The bioavailability of a local risperidone formulation (Spiron®) was compared with the original formulation of the drug (Risperdal®) in 12 healthy volunteers, aged 19±1 years. A single dose of 3 mg was given orally, using a randomized double blind protocol in two periods. Fifteen blood samples were obtained at regular intervals, until 24 h after drug administration. Risperidone plasma levels were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a computer program that is independent of compartmental analysis. Results: The area under the curve of plasma concentration versus time, from 0 to infinite (ABC0-?) and from 0 to 24 h (ABC0-24), early exposure (ABC from 0 to maximal time) and maximal plasma concentrations were significantly lower for Spiron®. Half life time and time to achieve the maximal concentration were similar for the two formulations. Conclusions: According to bioequivalence tests suggested by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States (90% confidence interval for the difference of log transformed mean pharmacokinetic parameters), the formulations Risperdal® and Spiron®, cannot be considered interchangeable (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 527-34).

  1. Second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotic agents: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    For over 40 years, antipsychotic drugs have been used as long-term maintenance treatment to control symptoms and reduce relapse rates in patients with schizophrenia. 'First-generation' oral agents such as haloperidol and chlorpromazine are associated with high levels of unwanted neurological effects and poor rates of patient adherence.1,2 Long-acting ('depot') injections of antipsychotics were developed to try to improve adherence. 'Second-generation' antipsychotic agents (also known as atypical antipsychotics) were introduced into clinical practice over 16 years ago. Although these agents have a lower propensity to cause extrapyramidal side effects, they are associated with a range of other unwanted effects (e.g. weight gain and its sequelae).1,3,4 Initially, second-generation agents were only available as orally administered medicines. Three long-acting injectable formulations of second-generation antipsychotics are now available in the UK: olanzapine embonate injection (ZypAdhera), paliperidone injection (Xeplion) and risperidone injection (Risperdal Consta). In this article we review the evidence for these agents and discuss the practical implications of their use. PMID:22966099

  2. Injection Laryngoplasty Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Haldun Oðuz

    2013-01-01

    Injection laryngoplasty is one of the treatment options for voice problems. In the recent years, more safe and more biocompatible injection materials are available on the market. Long and short term injection materials are discussed in this review.

  3. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipuleucel-T injection is used to treat certain types of advanced prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T injection is in a class of medications called ... Sipuleucel-T injection comes as a suspension (liquid) to be injected over about 60 minutes into a vein by ...

  4. Therapeutic drug monitoring of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in serum with solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M C; Hoffman, D W

    1997-06-01

    This laboratory developed a simple and efficient solid-phase extraction method that is combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for rapid and precise therapeutic monitoring of risperidone (Risperdal) in blood concentrations. The solid-phase extraction uses a mixed bed column. Sensitivity of the chromatographic method is 0.5 ng/ml (180 pmol/ml) of drug in serum, and separations can be performed in a 15-minute chromatographic run. Advantages of this approach include enhanced speed, sensitivity, and efficiency. A high level of sensitivity may be achieved because of the absence of interference from other drugs, metabolites, or serum components. PMID:9200776

  5. The staying safe intervention: training people who inject drugs in strategies to avoid injection-related HCV and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Guarino, Honoria; Sandoval, Milagros; Cleland, Charles M; Jordan, Ashly; Hagan, Holly; Lune, Howard; Friedman, Samuel R

    2014-04-01

    This pilot study explores the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the Staying Safe Intervention, an innovative, strengths-based program to facilitate prevention of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus and with the hepatitis C virus among people who inject drugs (PWID). The authors explored changes in the intervention's two primary endpoints: (a) frequency and amount of drug intake, and (b) frequency of risky injection practices. We also explored changes in hypothesized mediators of intervention efficacy: planning skills, motivation/self-efficacy to inject safely, skills to avoid PWID-associated stigma, social support, drug-related withdrawal symptoms, and injection network size and risk norms. A 1-week, five-session intervention (10 hours total) was evaluated using a pre- versus 3-month posttest design. Fifty-one participants completed pre- and posttest assessments. Participants reported significant reductions in drug intake and injection-related risk behavior. Participants also reported significant increases in planning skills, motivation/self-efficacy, and stigma management strategies, while reducing their exposure to drug withdrawal episodes and risky injection networks. PMID:24694328

  6. Avaliação da eficácia do antiveneno botrópico administrado no local da inoculação intramuscular do veneno de Bothrops jararaca: estudo experimental em camundongos Assessment of the efficacy of antivenom injection at the site of the intramuscular inoculation of Bothrops jararaca venom in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lilian Agostini Utescher

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinada, em camundongos de 18 a 20 g, a dose efetiva 50% do antiveneno botrópico, por via intraperitoneal (ip, imediatamente (DE50 Oh e 30 minutos (DE50 30' após a inoculação de 2 DL50 do veneno de B. jararaca, por via intramuscular (im. A DE50 30' foi três vezes maior do que a DE50 Oh. A eficácia do antiveneno administrado no local da inoculação do veneno foi avaliada inoculando-se duas DL50 do veneno, por via im, e administrando-se a DE50 do antiveneno imediatamente (DE50 Oh e 30 minutos após (DE50 30', de duas formas a saber: totalmente por via ip (1ª e metade por via ip e metade por via im (2ª, no mesmo local da inoculação do veneno. O antiveneno ofereceu, por via ip, maior proteção aos camundongos (menor taxa de óbito em 48 horas do que quando metade do mesmo foi administrado, por via im, no local da inoculação do veneno. Conclui-se que, neste modelo experimental, quando se inicia o tratamento tardiamente há necessidade de maior dose de antiveneno botrópico e que não há benefício em administrá-lo no local da picada.The 50% effective intraperitoneal (ip dose of Bothrops jararaca antivenom (ED50 was assessed in mice immediately (ED50 Oh and thirty minutes (ED50 30' after the intramuscular (im injection of two 50% lethal dose (LD50 of Bothrops jararaca venom. The efficacy of the antivenom injected at the venom inoculation site was assessed by the inoculation of two LD50 of the venom by im route, followed immediately (ED50 Oh and 30 minutes later (ED50 30' by administration of the ED50 of the antivenom either entirely by the ip route or 50 percent ip plus 50 percent im, at the same inoculation site. It was shown that the ED50 30' was 3 times greater, than the ED50 Oh and that the antivenom was more protective to mice (lower death rate in 48 hours when given entirely ip. It was concluded that, in this experimental model, a higher dose of bothropic antivenom is needed when the treatment is started lately, and that there is no benefit in its administration at the venom inoculation site.

  7. Biodegradable poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres for sustained release of risperidone: Zero-order release formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zheng-Xing; Shi, Ya-Nan; Teng, Le-Sheng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Le-xi; Meng, Qing-Fan; Teng, Li-Rong; Li, You-Xin

    2011-08-01

    The preparation and investigation of sustained-release risperidone-encapsulated microspheres using erodible poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) of lower molecular weight were performed and compared to that of commercial Risperdal Consta™ for the treatment of schizophrenia. The research included screening and optimizing of suitable commercial polymers of lower molecular weight PLGA50/50 or the blends of these PLGA polymers to prepare microspheres with zero-order release kinetics properties. Solvent evaporation method was applied here while studies of the risperidone loaded microsphere were carried out on its drug encapsulation capacity, morphology, particle size, as well as in vitro release profiles. Results showed that microspheres prepared using 50504A PLGA or blends of 5050-type PLGAs exerted spherical and smooth morphology, with a higher encapsulation efficiency and nearly zero-order release kinetics. These optimized microspheres showed great potential for a better depot preparation than the marketed Risperdal Consta™, which could further improve the patient compliance. PMID:20370594

  8. One-year, randomized, open trial comparing olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone effectiveness in antipsychotic-naive patients with a first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Luis; Arranz, Belen; Perez, Victor; Safont, Gemma; Corripio, Iluminada; Ramirez, Nicolas; Dueñas, Rosa; Alvarez, Enric

    2012-12-30

    The aim of this study was to compare the 12-month effectiveness of several second-generation antipsychotic drugs, with that of haloperidol in never-treated patients with first-episode psychosis. In total, 114 patients without life time exposure to any psychotropic medication were randomized to haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine or ziprasidone. Primary outcome was time to all-cause discontinuation. Secondary outcomes included discontinuation rates and symptom change as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The overall discontinuation rate 64%. At 12 months, the proportion of patients discontinuing treatment was 40.0% for olanzapine, 56.5% for quetiapine, 64.0% for risperidone, 80.0% for ziprasidone and 85.7% for haloperidol. Mean time to antipsychotic discontinuation was higher in patients randomized to second-generation antipsychotics than in those taking haloperidol. Significantly lower discontinuation was noted in patients on olanzapine than on haloperidol, or ziprasidone. Our results suggest that olanzapine might lead to longer treatment continuation in treatment naïve FEP patients than haloperidol and, possibly ziprasidone. Global psychopathology was significantly less reduced by haloperidol than with each individual SGA in this earliest phase of treatment. PMID:22954905

  9. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  11. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or ICSI, is a form of in vitro fertilization in which fertilization occurs outside of the ... laboratory dish. Within a few hours, a single sperm is injected through a fine needle into the ...

  12. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  13. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  14. Hiperprolactinemia y disfunción sexual en el primer episodio psicótico tratado con risperidona Hiperprolactinaemia and sexual disfunction in first psychotic episode treated with risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Cavieres F

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La hiperprolactinemia y las disfunciones sexuales son complicaciones frecuentes, pero poco estudiadas del tratamiento con risperidona. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de hiperprolactinemia y disfunciones sexuales en un grupo de personas jóvenes con esquizofrenia, tratadas con risperidona. Métodos: Un total de 40 pacientes (19 mujeres, edad promedio: 27 años completaron el Cuestionario de Funcionamiento Sexual del Hospital General de Massachussets y el Cuestionario sobre Calidad de Vida: Satisfacción y Placer. Todos los pacientes fueron evaluados con las escalas PANSS y UKU y se determinó su nivel plasmático de prolactina. Resultados: El 90% de los pacientes presenta hiperprolactinemia, con valores significativamente más altos para las mujeres. El 62,5% de los pacientes, informó padecer alguna disfunción sexual, sin diferencias con la contraparte no afectada, en cuanto a género, edad ni tiempo de tratamiento. Aunque no se encontró relación con la prolactinemia, ni con la dosis de risperidona, quienes reportaron alguna disfunción sexual obtuvieron mayores puntajes de efectos adversos psíquicos y neurológicos en la escala UKU. Las disfunciones sexuales se asociaron con los síntomas negativos y generales de la PANSS y con menores puntajes en las subescalas de salud física y ánimo del Cuestionario sobre Calidad de Vida: Satisfacción y Placer. Conclusiones: Los resultados confirman la elevada frecuencia de disfunciones sexuales e hiperprolactinemia en las personas enfermas de esquizofrenia. Nuevos estudios se requieren para clarificar, en la práctica clínica habitual, la asociación entre disfunción sexual y el empleo de la risperidona, y su impacto en la calidad de vida de los pacientes.Hyperprolactinemia and Sexual dysfunction arefrequent, yetseldom studied, complications of the use of risperidone Objectives: To determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunctions and hyperprolactinemia in a sample of youngpeople with schizophrenia treated with risperidone Methods: 40 outpatients (19females; mean age: 27years with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, participated in the study Sexual dysfunction and quality oflife were assessed with the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q, respectively Allpatients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the UKU side effect rating scale. Blood samples were analyzed for prolactine. Results: Hyperprolactinemia was found in 90% ofpatients, with levéis significantly higher in women. Sexual dysfunctions occurred in 25 (62.5% patients. Patients with and without sexual dysfunction, did not significantly differ in gender, age or years of treatment. Although no association was found with prolactinemia or the dose of risperidone, patients with sexual dysfunction reported more psychic and neurologic side effects, and had higher scores in the negative symptoms and general psychopatology subscales ofthe PANSS and lower scores in the physical health and mood items of the Q-LES-Q. Conclusions: Results confirm the high prevalence of hyperprolactinemia and sexual dysfunctions in people with schizophrenia. Further study is warranted in order to clarify the association between sexual dysfunction and risperidone treatment in clinical practice and its impact in the quality oflife ofthe patients.

  15. Hiperprolactinemia y disfunción sexual en el primer episodio psicótico tratado con risperidona / Hiperprolactinaemia and sexual disfunction in first psychotic episode treated with risperidone

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alvaro, Cavieres F.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La hiperprolactinemia y las disfunciones sexuales son complicaciones frecuentes, pero poco estudiadas del tratamiento con risperidona. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de hiperprolactinemia y disfunciones sexuales en un grupo de personas jóvenes con esquizofrenia, tratadas con risperidona. Métod [...] os: Un total de 40 pacientes (19 mujeres, edad promedio: 27 años) completaron el Cuestionario de Funcionamiento Sexual del Hospital General de Massachussets y el Cuestionario sobre Calidad de Vida: Satisfacción y Placer. Todos los pacientes fueron evaluados con las escalas PANSS y UKU y se determinó su nivel plasmático de prolactina. Resultados: El 90% de los pacientes presenta hiperprolactinemia, con valores significativamente más altos para las mujeres. El 62,5% de los pacientes, informó padecer alguna disfunción sexual, sin diferencias con la contraparte no afectada, en cuanto a género, edad ni tiempo de tratamiento. Aunque no se encontró relación con la prolactinemia, ni con la dosis de risperidona, quienes reportaron alguna disfunción sexual obtuvieron mayores puntajes de efectos adversos psíquicos y neurológicos en la escala UKU. Las disfunciones sexuales se asociaron con los síntomas negativos y generales de la PANSS y con menores puntajes en las subescalas de salud física y ánimo del Cuestionario sobre Calidad de Vida: Satisfacción y Placer. Conclusiones: Los resultados confirman la elevada frecuencia de disfunciones sexuales e hiperprolactinemia en las personas enfermas de esquizofrenia. Nuevos estudios se requieren para clarificar, en la práctica clínica habitual, la asociación entre disfunción sexual y el empleo de la risperidona, y su impacto en la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Abstract in english Hyperprolactinemia and Sexual dysfunction arefrequent, yetseldom studied, complications of the use of risperidone Objectives: To determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunctions and hyperprolactinemia in a sample of youngpeople with schizophrenia treated with risperidone Metho [...] ds: 40 outpatients (19females; mean age: 27years) with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, participated in the study Sexual dysfunction and quality oflife were assessed with the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ) and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), respectively Allpatients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the UKU side effect rating scale. Blood samples were analyzed for prolactine. Results: Hyperprolactinemia was found in 90% ofpatients, with levéis significantly higher in women. Sexual dysfunctions occurred in 25 (62.5%) patients. Patients with and without sexual dysfunction, did not significantly differ in gender, age or years of treatment. Although no association was found with prolactinemia or the dose of risperidone, patients with sexual dysfunction reported more psychic and neurologic side effects, and had higher scores in the negative symptoms and general psychopatology subscales ofthe PANSS and lower scores in the physical health and mood items of the Q-LES-Q. Conclusions: Results confirm the high prevalence of hyperprolactinemia and sexual dysfunctions in people with schizophrenia. Further study is warranted in order to clarify the association between sexual dysfunction and risperidone treatment in clinical practice and its impact in the quality oflife ofthe patients.

  16. Optimising corticosteroid injection for lateral epicondylalgia with the addition of physiotherapy: A protocol for a randomised control trial with placebo comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks Peter; Connelly Luke B; Bisset Leanne; Coombes Brooke K; Vicenzino Bill

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Corticosteroid injection and physiotherapy are two commonly prescribed interventions for management of lateral epicondylalgia. Corticosteroid injections are the most clinically efficacious in the short term but are associated with high recurrence rates and delayed recovery, while physiotherapy is similar to injections at 6 weeks but with significantly lower recurrence rates. Whilst practitioners frequently recommend combining physiotherapy and injection to overcome harmful...

  17. Geothermal injection monitoring project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, L.

    1981-04-01

    Background information is provided on the geothermal brine injection problem and each of the project tasks is outlined in detail. These tasks are: evaluation of methods of monitoring the movement of injected fluid, preparation for an eventual field experiment, and a review of groundwater regulations and injection programs. (MHR)

  18. Eficácia e segurança dos antipsicóticos atípicos nas demências: uma revisão sistemática Efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotics in dementia: a sistematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Guarieiro Ramos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O emprego de antipsicóticos atípicos (AA no tratamento de sintomas psicológicos e comportamentais das demências (SPCD tem sido alvo de discussão em relação à eficácia e à segurança. O objetivo deste artigo é propiciar atualização sobre o tema. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura publicada nos últimos dez anos com ênfase em metanálises e ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR controlados com placebo. RESULTADOS: Três metanálises e nove ensaios clínicos foram analisados. Há evidências de eficácia clínica para risperidona (1mg/dia, olanzapina (5 a 10mg/dia e aripiprazol (2 a 15mg/dia no tratamento de agressividade e/ou SPCD em geral, e para risperidona (1mg/dia no tratamento de sintomas psicóticos associados à demência. Os eventos adversos comuns com o uso de AA foram sonolência, sintomas extrapiramidais (SEP, incontinência ou infecção do trato urinário e alterações de marcha. O tratamento com AA associou-se a maior risco de eventos cerebrovasculares e de mortalidade em idosos com demência. CONCLUSÃO: Baixas dosagens de risperidona, olanzapina e aripiprazol são eficazes na redução de agressividade e/ou SPCD globais; risperidona é eficaz na redução de sintomas psicóticos associados à demência. Em virtude de esses tratamentos associarem-se a pequeno aumento no risco de eventos cerebrovasculares e mortalidade, seu uso deve ser reservado para sintomatologia moderada/grave.OBJECTIVE: Concerns have been raised about efficacy and adverse events of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD. This paper is an update on current evidence of this theme. METHODS: Review of published meta-analysis and randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs in the last ten years. RESULTS: Three meta-analysis and nine RCTs were evaluated. Evidence suggests that risperidone (1mg/day, olanzapine (5 to 10mg/day, and aripiprazole (2 to 15mg/day are effective in treating aggression and/or BPSD overall; risperidone (1mg/day reduces psychosis. Adverse events were mainly somnolence, extrapyramidal symptoms, urinary tract infection or incontinence, and abnormal gait with drug treatment. Atypical antipsychotics were associated with increased risk for cerebrovascular adverse events and mortality in elderly patients with dementia. CONCLUSION: Low doses of risperidone, olanzapine, and aripiprazole are effective in treating aggression and/or BPSD overall, and risperidone reduces psychosis associated with dementia. In view of the increased risk of cerebrovascular adverse events and mortality, the use of atypical antipsychotics in individuals with dementia should be reserved for patients with moderate/severe behavioural symptoms.

  19. Eficácia e segurança dos antipsicóticos atípicos nas demências: uma revisão sistemática / Efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotics in dementia: a sistematic review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Melissa Guarieiro, Ramos; Fábio Lopes, Rocha.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O emprego de antipsicóticos atípicos (AA) no tratamento de sintomas psicológicos e comportamentais das demências (SPCD) tem sido alvo de discussão em relação à eficácia e à segurança. O objetivo deste artigo é propiciar atualização sobre o tema. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura publicada nos [...] últimos dez anos com ênfase em metanálises e ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) controlados com placebo. RESULTADOS: Três metanálises e nove ensaios clínicos foram analisados. Há evidências de eficácia clínica para risperidona (1mg/dia), olanzapina (5 a 10mg/dia) e aripiprazol (2 a 15mg/dia) no tratamento de agressividade e/ou SPCD em geral, e para risperidona (1mg/dia) no tratamento de sintomas psicóticos associados à demência. Os eventos adversos comuns com o uso de AA foram sonolência, sintomas extrapiramidais (SEP), incontinência ou infecção do trato urinário e alterações de marcha. O tratamento com AA associou-se a maior risco de eventos cerebrovasculares e de mortalidade em idosos com demência. CONCLUSÃO: Baixas dosagens de risperidona, olanzapina e aripiprazol são eficazes na redução de agressividade e/ou SPCD globais; risperidona é eficaz na redução de sintomas psicóticos associados à demência. Em virtude de esses tratamentos associarem-se a pequeno aumento no risco de eventos cerebrovasculares e mortalidade, seu uso deve ser reservado para sintomatologia moderada/grave. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Concerns have been raised about efficacy and adverse events of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This paper is an update on current evidence of this theme. METHODS: Review of published meta-analysis and randomized placeb [...] o-controlled trials (RCTs) in the last ten years. RESULTS: Three meta-analysis and nine RCTs were evaluated. Evidence suggests that risperidone (1mg/day), olanzapine (5 to 10mg/day), and aripiprazole (2 to 15mg/day) are effective in treating aggression and/or BPSD overall; risperidone (1mg/day) reduces psychosis. Adverse events were mainly somnolence, extrapyramidal symptoms, urinary tract infection or incontinence, and abnormal gait with drug treatment. Atypical antipsychotics were associated with increased risk for cerebrovascular adverse events and mortality in elderly patients with dementia. CONCLUSION: Low doses of risperidone, olanzapine, and aripiprazole are effective in treating aggression and/or BPSD overall, and risperidone reduces psychosis associated with dementia. In view of the increased risk of cerebrovascular adverse events and mortality, the use of atypical antipsychotics in individuals with dementia should be reserved for patients with moderate/severe behavioural symptoms.

  20. Intersphincteric injected silicone biomaterial implants: a treatment for faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Møller; Lundby, L; Buntzen, S; Laurberg, S

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional efficacy of intersphincteric injected silicone biomaterial (PTQ) in patients with faecal incontinence. METHOD: Prospective study of 33 consecutively included patients (male-female ratio: 9:24); median age 53 years (range: 21-75 years) with faecal incontinence of varied aetiology. The PTQ was injected under general anaesthesia with antibiotic cover. All patients had anorectal manometry, endoanal ultrasonography and responded to fa...

  1. Injection in CRYING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents ten turn horizontal injection in CRYRING. Computer simulations and the design of the injection section will be presented. The efficiency calculations are made with a Monte-Carlo method where the injected ions are Gaussian distributed. The injection efficiency will be about 85%. The losses depend mainly on the large dispersion, 1.6 m. In order not to exceed the space charge limit the vertical emittance might have to be enlarged. The closed orbit will be shifted locally at the injection section with electrostatic kickers

  2. Risperidone ameliorates post-traumatic stress disorder-like symptoms in modified stress re-stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Sairam; Garabadu, Debapriya; Joy, Keerikkattil P

    2013-12-01

    The management for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves chronic administration of drugs. We have modified the stress re-stress (SRS) model to study the effect of chronic administration of risperidone (RIS) after induction of PTSD in rats. On day-1 (D-1) rats underwent training session for elevated-plus maze (EPM) test. On D-2, rats were subjected to stress protocol of 2 h restraint and 20 min forced-swim test (FST) followed by halothane anesthesia. The rats were exposed to re-stress (FST) on D-8 and at six day intervals on D-14, D-20, D-26 and D-32. The rats were treated with RIS (0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg; p.o.) and standard drug, paroxetine (PAX; 10.0 mg/kg; p.o.) from D-8 to D-32. RIS (0.1 mg/kg) and PAX ameliorated SRS-induced immobility. RIS in median dose reversed SRS-induced hypocorticosteronemia both in urine and plasma. RIS in median dose improved SRS-induced behavioral perturbations such as memory impairment and anxiety-like behavior in EPM and Y-maze tests. RIS (0.1 mg/kg) reversed SRS-induced increase in amygdalar serotonin level. RIS (0.1 mg/kg) increased the expression of hippocampal MR thereby reversing the SRS-induced decrease in MR/GR ratio. Pearson's analysis of data on D-32 showed that there was significant correlation of plasma corticosterone, amygdalar serotonin and hippocampal ratio of mineralocorticoid (MR)/glucocorticoid receptor (GR) with SRS-induced behavioral abnormalities. Hence, median dose of RIS shows anti-PTSD-like effect in the modified SRS model. PAX had earlier onset of action in ameliorating behavioral effects of PTSD compared to RIS. However, RIS showed anti-PTSD like effect in sub-therapeutic dose. The mode of anti-PTSD action of RIS seems to involve the HPA-axis and serotonergic system, whereas PAX did not show any significant action on these pathways. The effect of repeated treatment of drugs for PTSD can be evaluated using the modified SRS model. PMID:23891637

  3. Concurrent Oral Antipsychotic Drug Use Among Schizophrenia Patients Initiated on Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics Post-Hospital Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Jalpa A; Pettit, Amy R; Stoddard, Jeffrey J; Zummo, Jacqueline; Marcus, Steven C

    2015-08-01

    Pharmacological treatment is central to effective management of schizophrenia. Prescribing clinicians have an increasing array of options from which to choose, and oral antipsychotic polypharmacy is common in routine clinical practice. Practice guidelines recommend long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations, typically viewed as monotherapeutic alternatives, for patients with established nonadherence. Yet there are limited data on the prevalence and nature of concurrent oral antipsychotic prescriptions in patients receiving LAIs. Our observational, claims-based study examined the frequency and duration of concurrent oral prescriptions in 340 Medicaid patients receiving LAI therapy. Specifically, we examined patients with a recent history of nonadherence and hospitalization for schizophrenia and included both first-generation antipsychotic depot medications (fluphenazine decanoate, haloperidol decanoate) and more recently available second-generation injectables (LAI risperidone, paliperidone palmitate). Of all patients initiated on LAIs, 75.9% had a concurrent oral antipsychotic prescription in the 6 months post-hospital discharge. Patients receiving concurrent prescriptions were frequently prescribed an oral formulation of their LAI agent, but many first-generation LAI users received a concurrent second-generation oral medication. The lowest rate of concurrent prescribing (58.8%) was found with paliperidone palmitate, whereas the highest rate was with LAI risperidone (88.9%). Overlap in oral and LAI prescriptions typically occurred for a substantial period of time (ie, >30 days) and for a notable percentage of the days covered by LAIs (often 50% or more). Our findings highlight the need to further examine such prescribing patterns, to probe the reasons for them, and to clarify the optimal roles of different antipsychotic treatments in clinical practice. PMID:26075492

  4. Autowart injection therapy for recalcitrant warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Warts are caused by various strains of Human Papilloma Virus. They involve the epithelium of the skin and mucus membrane. Various treatment options are available, but extensive and recalcitrant warts not only cause distress to the patient cosmetically and psychologically but also pose a therapeutic challenge to the treating dermatologist. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of autowart injection as a treatment option for extensive and recalcitrant warts. Materials and Methods: Autowart injection was prepared by removing 3 to 4 mm size wart with radiocautery which was crushed under aseptic condition and injected in the gluteal region by suspending in water for injection. Result: Results were evaluated in 53 available patients who turned up for follow-up; 35 patients (66.03% had complete resolution in 2 months time, 12 patients (22.64% showed partial improvement, whereas six patients (11.32% had no improvement. Conclusion: Autowart injection is suggested as an effective and noninvasive therapeutic option in extensive and recalcitrant warts where most of the available therapies are inconvenient for both patient and treating dermatologist.

  5. Autologus Blood Injection for Recurrent Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dehghani, M.D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Tennis elbow is a common complaint. Several treatment strategies, such as corticosteroid injections and physical terapy and braces have been described with no predictable efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prospectively the result of refractory lateral epicondylitis with autologus blood injections.Materials and Methods: Twenty two patients with lateral epicondylitis were injected with 2 mL of autologous blood under the extensor carpi radialis brevis. All patients had failed the two previous non surgical treatments including all or combination of physical therapy, splintinge, non steroidal anti-inflammatory medication and prior steroid injection. The patients were evaluated with patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE.Results: The average fallow-up period was 7.3 months (range, 4-10mo. After autologus blood injection, the average pain score decreased from 43.7 to 9.1 (P-value < 0.001. The average functional score decreased from 42.4 to 10.1 (P-value <0.001.Conclusion: On the basis of this study, this minimally invasive treatment advocates refractory Tennis elbow.

  6. EZVI Injection Field Test Leads to Pilot-Scale Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testing and monitoring of emulsified zero-valent ironTM (EZVI) injections was conducted at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station’s Launch Complex 34, FL, in 2002 to 2005 to evaluate the technology’s efficacy in enhancing in situ dehalogenation of dense nonaqueous-phase liquid (DNAPL) ...

  7. Splitting of a Dexamethasone Implant (Ozurdex) following the Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Osman Saatci; Aylin Yaman; Melih Parlak; Oya Donmez

    2013-01-01

    In this brief report, we share our observations on a splitted Dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) which we discovered a week after the injection. It is likely that implant splitting neither changes the efficacy of the implant nor creates a mishap for the patient.

  8. Splitting of a Dexamethasone Implant (Ozurdex) following the Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Oya; Parlak, Melih; Yaman, Aylin; Saatci, Ali Osman

    2013-01-01

    In this brief report, we share our observations on a splitted Dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) which we discovered a week after the injection. It is likely that implant splitting neither changes the efficacy of the implant nor creates a mishap for the patient. PMID:23984139

  9. Long-acting injectable aripiprazole: how might it fit in our tool box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishna, Ganesh; Aggarwal, Arpit; Lauriello, John

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness with a lifetime prevalence of approximately one percent worldwide. Maintenance antipsychotic treatment has been effective in preventing relapses in long-term follow-up studies. Logically it can be proposed that long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAI) might reduce both unintentional and intentional nonadherence. Long-acting injectable aripiprazole was approved for the treatment of schizophrenia by the U.S. FDA on 28th February 2013 and will be marketed under the name Abilify Maintena. Aripiprazole LAI (ALAI) is a lyophilized powder that needs to be reconstituted with sterile water to form an injectable suspension without affecting the original molecule. The monthly injection interval is very attractive since patients prefer fewer injections. From a tolerability perspective, ALAI appears to be both weight neutral and lacking metabolic side effects. This can confer an advantage over the other currently available second-generation antipsychotic LAIs. Simple constitution with sterile water and no requirement to refrigerate make storage and administration easier. Like all medications, there are always potential disadvantages to ALAI. There is a period of oral coverage, while not as long as for long-acting risperidone microspheres (RLAI), that is required. Care must be taken to review concomitant medications for the presence of metabolic inducers and inhibitors. One would also expect some patients to be sensitive to extrapyramidal symptoms, especially akathisia which is well documented in the oral preparation. All things considered, we welcome our new tool, ALAI, to our work-place and predict both clinical practice and post marketing analysis and studies will discover its true value. PMID:23644169

  10. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  11. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder - related nightmares and other sleep disturbances with risperidone in combat veterans and victims of domestic and childhood abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Khachiyants

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances including nightmares are often reported as hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The literature related to the pharmacological treatment of PTSD-related nightmares is sparse and inconclusive. After reviewing the literature it was obvious that currently a limited data on studies supporting the use of antipsychotic medications for the treatment of PTSD are published. Moreover, even more limited scientific evidence is now available to formulate evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of PTSD-related nightmares which are often reported as the most intrusive and disruptive symptom. Objective for this study is to review comprehensively the current research literature which reflects use of antipsychotic medication risperidone for the treatment of PTSD-related nightmares of different etiology.

  12. A Systemic Review and Experts’ Consensus for Long-acting Injectable Antipsychotics in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yuan Hwa; Chu, Po-Chung; Wu, Szu-Wei; Lee, Jen-Chin; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Sun, I-Wen; Chang, Chen-Lin; Huang, Chien-Liang; Liu, I-Chao; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Yen, Yung-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric disorder that is easily misdiagnosed. Patient adherence to a treatment regimen is of utmost importance for successful outcomes in BD. Several trials of antipsychotics suggested that depot antipsychotics, including long-acting first- and second-generation agents, are effective in preventing non-adherence, partial adherence, and in reducing relapse in BD. Various long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are available, including fluphenazine decanoate, haloperidol decanoate, olanzapine pamoate, risperidone microspheres, paliperidone palmitate, and aripiprazole monohydrate. Due to the increasing number of BD patients receiving LAI antipsychotics, treatment guidelines have been developed. However, the clinical applicability of LAI antipsychotics remains a global cause for concern, particularly in Asian countries. Expert physicians from Taiwan participated in a consensus meeting, which was held to review key areas based on both current literature and clinical practice. The purpose of this meeting was to generate a practical and implementable set of recommendations for LAI antipsychotic use to treat BD; target patient groups, dosage, administration, and adverse effects were considered. Experts recommended using LAI antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia, rapid cycling BD, BD I, and bipolar-type schizoaffective disorder. LAI antipsychotic use was recommended in BD patients with the following characteristics: multiple episodes and low adherence; seldom yet serious episodes; low adherence potential per a physician’s clinical judgment; preference for injectable agents over oral agents; and multiple oral agent users still experiencing residual symptoms. PMID:26243837

  13. Pure Baer injective modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada M. Al Thani

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we generalize the notion of pure injectivity of modules by introducing what we call a pure Baer injective module. Some properties and some characterization of such modules are established. We also introduce two notions closely related to pure Baer injectivity; namely, the notions of a ∑-pure Baer injective module and that of SSBI-ring. A ring R is an SSBI-ring if and only if every smisimple R-module is pure Baer injective. To investigate such algebraic structures we had to define what we call p-essential extension modules, pure relative complement submodules, left pure hereditary rings and some other related notions. The basic properties of these concepts and their interrelationships are explored, and are further related to the notions of pure split modules.

  14. Efficacy of different steam distribution systems against five soil-borne pathogens under controlled laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Garibaldi, Angelo; GULLINO, Maria Lodovica; GILARDI, Giovanna; RICAUDA AIMONINO, Davide

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of three steam application techniques (steam injection, iron pan and sheet steaming) was evaluated against five soilborne pathogens under controlled laboratory conditions. Injection and pan steam systems proved to be efficient and feasible alternatives to traditional sheet steaming for suppressing Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici at 60% moisture field capacity in sandy-loam soil. Injecting steam was the best technique to suppress F. oxysporum f. sp. b...

  15. Efficacy markers in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Harmer, CJ; Cowen, PJ; Goodwin, GM

    2011-01-01

    Current antidepressant agents are similar in efficacy to the original drugs discovered in the 1950s. The development of new treatments for depression is, however, limited by the absence of validated human biomarker models to predict efficacy, clinical profile and dosing. Such models need to meet key criteria for biomarkers including sensitivity, specificity and relevance to depression. Here we review studies exploring whether early changes in emotional processing with antidepressant drug admi...

  16. Intramuscular injections into the buttocks: Are they truly intramuscular?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, V.O. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Colville, J. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Persaud, T. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Buckley, O. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Hamilton, S. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)]. E-mail: William.Torreggiani@amnch.ie

    2006-06-15

    Aim: To radiologically determine if intramuscular (IM) injections into the buttocks are truly intramuscular. Materials and methods: This was a prospective study conducted during a 6 month period beginning in October 2004. Fifty inpatients were recruited from a single tertiary referral hospital. Approval was obtained from the hospital research ethics committee and informed written consent was acquired from all participants. Prior to computerised tomography (CT), each patient received an IM injection of their prescribed medication along with 1 mL of air into the upper outer quadrant of the buttocks. CT images were subsequently analyzed by two radiologists to determine the position of the injected air bubble and to assess whether it was intramuscular or subcutaneous in position. Body mass index (BMI), distance to injection site, subcutaneous fat and muscle thickness were also measured. Results: Overall, only 32% (n = 16/50) of patients had intramuscular injections, with the majority of injections (68%, n = 34/50) being subcutaneous. When analysed by gender, 56% (n = 14/25) of males had intramuscular injections while in females, the efficacy rate was significantly lower at 8% (n = 2/25). Conclusion: The majority of assumed intramuscular injections are actually subcutaneous.

  17. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Marcic

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion ...

  18. Hip joint injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 5. Malfair D. Therapeutic and diagnostic joint injections. Radiologic Clinics of North America. 2008;46,(3):439-453.PMID: 18707956. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18707956 .

  19. Ampicillin and Sulbactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by bacteria, including infections of the skin, female reproductive organs, and abdomen (area between the chest and ... using ampicillin and sulbactam injection. If you are diabetic, use Clinistix or TesTape (not Clinitest) to test ...

  20. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shave your underarms and not to use nonprescription deodorants or antiperspirants for 24 hours before the test. ... to any other medications or any of the ingredients in onabotulinumtoxinA injection. Ask your pharmacist or check ...

  1. NEEDLE FREE INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapolu Bharath Kumar and Zuheb Ur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Needle-free injection systems are novel ways to introduce various medicines into patients without piercing the skin with a conventional needle. Needle-free technology offers the very obvious benefit of reducing patient concern about the use of needle. Needle free injection gives very effective injections for a wide range of drugs and bioequivalent to syringe and needle, results in less pain, and is strongly preferred by patients. Additional benefits include very fast injection compared with conventional needles and no needle disposal issues. Not only it can benefit the pharmaceutical industry in increasing product sales, it has the added potential to increase compliance with dosage regimens and improved outcomes. Today, they are a steadily developing technology that promises to make the administration of medicine more efficient and less painful.

  2. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive index of the nanostructured surfaces was estimated from atomic force micrographs and the theoretical reflectance was calculated using the transfer matrix method and effective medium theory. The measured reflectance shows good agreement with the theory of graded index antireflective nanostructures. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Premixed direct injection disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  4. Giving an insulin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    To give an insulin injection, you need to fill the right syringe with the right amount of medicine, decide where to give the ... of each medicine to give. The type of insulin should match the type of syringe: U-100 ...

  5. Meperidine Hydrochloride Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug will be either injected into a large muscle (such as your buttock or hip) or added ... lung or thyroid disease, heart disease, seizures, prostatic hypertrophy, or urinary problems.tell your doctor if you ...

  6. Morphine Sulfate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug will be either injected into a large muscle (such as your buttock or hip) or added ... alcoholism, lung or thyroid disease, heart disease, prostatic hypertrophy, or lung or urinary problems.tell your doctor ...

  7. Subcutaneous (SQ) injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dry your hands with a clean paper towel. Clean your skin at the injection site with an alcohol pad. ... site and use a new syringe. Remember to clean the skin at your new site with alcohol. If you ...

  8. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (a thickening of tissue [plaque] inside the penis that causes the penis to curve). Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is in ... the plaque of thickened tissue and allows the penis to be straightened.

  9. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  10. Injection facility Nuclotron upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injection facility Nuclotron is intended to inject into Nuclotron the beams of light and heavy ions with charge to mass ratio q/A?1/3 at the energy 5 MeV/nucleon and the protons at the energy 20 MeV. The basic upgrade directions of laser ion source of light elements and the source of heavy elements KRION, production of new source of polarized particles SPI, preaccelerator's reconstruction plans are described

  11. LDAP Injection Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Maria ALONSO; Antonio GUZMAN; Marta BELTRAN; Rodolfo BORDON

    2009-01-01

    The increase in the number of databases accessed only by some applications has made code injection attacks an important threat to almost any current system. If one of these applications accepts inputs from a client and executes these inputs without first validating them, the attackers are free to execute their own queries and therefore, to extract, modify or delete the content of the database associated to the application. In this paper a deep analysis of the LDAP injection techniques is pres...

  12. Clinical consequences of switching from olanzapine to risperidone and vice versa in outpatients with schizophrenia: 36-month results from the worldwide schizophrenia outpatients health outcomes (W-SOHO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jihyung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With many atypical antipsychotics now available in the market, it has become a common clinical practice to switch between atypical agents as a means of achieving the best clinical outcomes. This study aimed to examine the impact of switching from olanzapine to risperidone and vice versa on clinical status and tolerability outcomes in outpatients with schizophrenia in a naturalistic setting. Methods W-SOHO was a 3-year observational study that involved over 17,000 outpatients with schizophrenia from 37 countries worldwide. The present post hoc study focused on the subgroup of patients who started taking olanzapine at baseline and subsequently made the first switch to risperidone (n=162 and vice versa (n=136. Clinical status was assessed at the visit when the first switch was made (i.e. before switching and after switching. Logistic regression models examined the impact of medication switch on tolerability outcomes, and linear regression models assessed the association between medication switch and change in the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia (CGI-SCH overall score or change in weight. In addition, Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox-proportional hazards models were used to analyze the time to medication switch as well as time to relapse (symptom worsening as assessed by the CGI-SCH scale or hospitalization. Results 48% and 39% of patients switching to olanzapine and risperidone, respectively, remained on the medication without further switches (p=0.019. Patients switching to olanzapine were significantly less likely to experience relapse (hazard ratio: 3.43, 95% CI: 1.43, 8.26, extrapyramidal symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 4.02, 95% CI: 1.49, 10.89 and amenorrhea/galactorrhea (OR: 8.99, 95% CI: 2.30, 35.13. No significant difference in weight change was, however, found between the two groups. While the CGI-SCH overall score improved in both groups after switching, there was a significantly greater change in those who switched to olanzapine (difference of 0.29 points, p=0.013. Conclusion Our study showed that patients who switched from risperidone to olanzapine were likely to experience a more favorable treatment course than those who switched from olanzapine to risperidone. Given the nature of observational study design and small sample size, additional studies are warranted.

  13. Efeitos cardiotóxicos resultantes da interação da risperidona com diuréticos tiazídicos / Cardiotoxic effects resulting from the interaction between risperidone and thiazide diuretics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Costa, Barcelos; Andreia Mota, Trein; Gustavo Santos, Sousa; Luciano, Fleury Neto; Leonardo, Baldaçara.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Antipsicóticos atípicos têm sua ação em doses que podem produzir efeitos colaterais importantes. A risperidona é o antipsicótico atípico de nova geração mais utilizado na atualidade e seu uso está associado a tratamento de esquizofrenia, transtornos psicóticos, episódio [...] s de mania e nos distúrbios de comportamento, entre outros. Os efeitos adversos mais importantes estão relacionados ao sistema nervoso central e autônomo, sistema endócrino e sistema cardiovascular. Neste último, pode haver efeitos inotrópicos negativos e alterações no eletrocardiograma, como prolongamento do intervalo QT, podendo causar taquicardia e arritmias. Relatamos um caso de um homem de 48 anos com história de delírio persecutório após ser ameaçado no trabalho, que estava sendo tratado com risperidona e paroxetina. Por não haver melhora, suas doses foram aumentadas e o paciente apresentou alargamento do intervalo QTc, com diminuição da amplitude da onda T e aumento da onda U, e hipocalemia. Além disso, o paciente era hipertenso e estava em uso de hidroclorotiazida. A risperidona tem o potencial de bloquear o componente rápido do canal cardíaco de potássio e isso prolonga o processo de repolarização dos ventrículos, podendo causar torsade de pointes, morte súbita e arritmias. Já a hidroclorotiazida causa hipocalemia, provocando alterações na contração e relaxamento do miocárdio. Houve interação medicamentosa grave entre duas drogas com potencial arritmogênico, o que levou às alterações no eletrocardiograma e produziu sintomas danosos ao paciente. A troca do antipsicótico atípico para um típico e da hidroclorotiazida por um diurético que não causa hipocalemia trouxe melhoras ao paciente. Abstract in english Atypical antipsychotics have their actions in doses that can cause important side effects. The risperidone is the new generation atypical antipsychotic most widely used these days and it is related to the treatment of schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, manic episodes a [...] nd behavioral disorder, among others. The most significant side effects are associated with the central and autonomic nervous system, endocrine system and cardiovascular system. Considering the latter, negative inotropic effects and changes on eletrocardiograma can occur, with QT-interval prolongation, which can cause tachycardia and arrhythmias. We reported a case of a 48 years old man with history of persecutory delusion after being threatened at work, treated with risperidone and paroxetine. Since there was no improvement, the doses were increased and the patient showed QTc-interval prolongation, with a T-wave amplitude decrease and an increase on the U-wave, in addition to hypokalemia. Besides, the patient was hypertensive and was using hydrochlorothiazide. Risperidone has the potential to block the fast component of the cardiac potassium channel and it extends the repolarization process of the ventricles, which can lead to torsade de pointes, sudden cardiac death and arrhythmias. Also hydrochlorothiazide can cause hypokalemia, with disturbances on the myocardium depolarization and repolarization. There was a serious drug interaction with two potentially arrhythmogenic drugs, which led to the alterations on the electrocardiogram and generated hurtful symptoms to the patient. The shift of the atypical antipsychotic to one typical and of the hydrochlorothiazide to a diuretic that does not cause hypokalemia brought improvements to the patient.

  14. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump injection equipment. It was shown that the penetration of the DME spray can be predicted with the methods developed for diesel fuel by Hiroyasu and co-workers. Some anomalies in spray shape, such as rapid lateral spreading at the base of the spray and spray bifurcation have been observed.The compressibility effects of DME in high pressure injection have also been observed. DME has a higher compressibility than diesel fuel, resulting in larger pressure oscillations in the injection system during the injection process. The oscillations with DME also have a slower delay rate than those of diesel fuel in the same system. As a first attempt to simulate combustion of DME in Diesel engines, the results of the spray studies have been incorporated into a simplified spray combustion model. A turbulent jet structure was adjusted to fit the penetration rates of the observed sprays. The observed spray widths agreed with the model. This spray model was then adapted to a combustion model similar to that of Hiroyasu and co-workers. In the DME model, the chemical reactions were assumed to be much faster than the mixing related processes. Combustion rates calculated on the basis of the spray correlations were found to agree well with the experimentally observed combustion rates during the mixing controlled portions of the combustion in a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine.

  15. Botulinum toxin injection: a review of injection principles and protocols

    OpenAIRE

    David E. Rapp; Alvaro Lucioni; Bales, Gregory T.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the favorable outcomes seen using botulinum toxin (BTX) for voiding dysfunction using BTX, a standardized technique and protocol for toxin injection is not defined. We reviewed the current literature on intravesical BTX injection for DO (detrusor overactivity). Specific attention was placed on defining optimal injection protocol, including dose, volume, and injection sites. In addition, we sought to describe a standard technique to BTX injection.

  16. Syringe-injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100??m. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  17. Clinical evaluation of gadodiamide injection in paediatric MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety and efficacy of intravenous gadodiamide injection, 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, have been evaluated in an open label, non-comparative as to drug, phase III clinical trial in 50 children from 6 months to 13 years of age, referred for MRI requiring the injection of a contrast medium. The central nervous system and other body areas were examined with T1 sequences before and after intravenous injection of the contrast medium. Overall safety was very good and no clinically relevant changes were evident as regards heart rate and venous blood oxygen saturation after injection. No adverse event or discomfort was experienced by conscious patients that could with certainty be related to the contrast medium, but slight movements were observed in two sedated patients that could be related to the injection. Comparing pre- and post-injection images, additional diagnostic information could be obtained from the latter in 41 patients (82 %). In these images, the number of lesions detected increased and they were generally better delineated and their size more easily estimated. The results of this trial indicate that gadodiamide injection is safe and effective for MRI examinations in children. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Efficacy of different DTPA treatment schedules for removal of 234Th from simulated wounds in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The translocation of 234Th from a simulated wound site and the efficacy of DTPA administration, as a function of the thorium compound injected as well as the DTPA treatment schedule, have been investigated in rats. Much more 234Th injected as citrate was translocated from the injection site than after administration as nitrate, whereas the distribution pattern of 234Th translocated to the various tissues was nearly identical for both 234Th compounds. Combined local and systematic treatment with DTPA was equally or more effective than each of the treatments alone in reducing the retention of 234Th at the injection site and in the organs. (author)

  19. Injection of Deuterium Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Andersen, P.; Andersen, S. A.; Andersen, Verner; Nielsen, Arne Nordskov; Sass, Bjarne Ove; Weisberg, Knud-Vilhelm

    1984-01-01

    A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Some details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated to velocities above 1400 m/s, deuterium pellets to velocities above 1300 m/s and neon pellets to velocities above 500 m/s. Finally, a new acceleration method where a pellet should be accelerated by means of a magn...

  20. Trigger point injection in myofscial pain syndrom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülten Arslan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Myofascial pain syndrome is a disorder characterized by hypersensitive sites called trigger points at one or more muscles and/or connective tissue, leading to pain, muscle spasm, sensitivity, rigor, weakness. The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy of lidocain and steroid in myofascial pain syndrome. Material and Methods: One hundred and sixty-four patients with myofascial pain syndrome were recruited into the study. Patients received lidocaine 2% (5ml+NaCl 0.9% (5ml onto the trigger points at first day. Lidocaine 2% (5ml+triamsinolone 40mg (1ml+NaCl 0.9% (4ml were injected to the patients at fourth and eighth day. Pain was evaluated with visual analogue score (VAS, palpable muscle spasm scoring (PMSS and number of trigger point at baseline, first and second month. Results: Pain control values with treatment were statistically better compared with pretreatment values. VAS scores, PMSS and number of trigger points significantly reduced 1 and 2 months after lidocaine and triamsinolone injection at the trigger point (p<0.01. Conclusion: The local anesthetic and steroid injection at the trigger point seems to be beneficial in myofascial pain syndrome. In conclusion, this therapy may be a alternative to other methods in the management of myofascial pain syndrome.

  1. Resource utilization in patients with schizophrenia who initiated risperidone long-acting therapy: results from the Schizophrenia Outcomes Utilization Relapse and Clinical Evaluation (SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Lian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a chronic mental health disorder associated with increased hospital admissions and excessive utilization of outpatient services and long-term care. This analysis examined health care resource utilization from a 24-month observational study of patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT. Methods Schizophrenia Outcomes Utilization Relapse and Clinical Evaluation (SOURCE was a 24-month observational study designed to examine real-world treatment outcomes by prospectively following patients with schizophrenia initiated on RLAT. At baseline visit, prior hospitalization and ER visit dates were obtained for the previous 12 months and subsequent hospitalization visit dates were obtained at 3-month visits, if available. The health care resource utilization outcomes measures observed in this analysis were hospitalizations for any reason, psychiatric-related hospitalizations, and emergency room (ER visits. Incidence density analysis was used to assess pre-event and postevent rates per person-year (PY. Results The primary medical resource utilization analysis included 435 patients who had a baseline visit, ?1 postbaseline visits after RLAT initiation, and valid hospitalization dates. The number of hospitalizations and ER visits per PY declined significantly (p p Conclusion The results suggest that treatment with RLAT may result in decreased hospitalizations for patients with schizophrenia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00246194

  2. CT-guided cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections: technical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, John T; Maus, Timothy P; Diehn, Felix E; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Morris, Jonathan M; Murthy, Naveen S; Thielen, Kent R

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies have described the safety and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections with both the anterolateral and posterior approach. Although fluoroscopy is the most common form of image guidance for these procedures, CT guidance offers many advantages. However, some key features of CT guidance in these procedures need to be considered to ensure safe and technically successful outcomes. PMID:24074559

  3. Epidemiological assessment of vaccine efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Asokan, G. V.

    2009-01-01

    The success of an epidemiological program against infectious diseases depends on an effective prophylactic vaccine. Although efficacy and effectiveness are used interchangeably, effectiveness depends upon efficacy. Few methods are in use to assess the efficacy of the vaccine, a randomized double blind controlled trial is the least ambiguous method for evaluation. Observational designs for vaccine efficacy include cohort and case control and are useful when comparing vaccines with very large e...

  4. Ampicillin Sodium Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your doctor has ordered ampicillin, an antibiotic, to help treat your infection. The drug will be either injected into a large muscle (such as your ... 30 minutes, four to six times a day.Ampicillin eliminates bacteria that cause many kinds of infection, ...

  5. Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... botulinum neurotoxin as much art as it is science. It is in your best interest to locate the most well-trained and experienced doctor you can find. Before making an appointment to receive botulinum neuro toxin injections, ask the office personnel which doctor ...

  6. Oxygen injection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compressor introduces air as a starting material and sends it to a dust removing device, a dehumidifying device and an adsorption/separation system disposed downstream. The facility of the present invention is disposed in the vicinity of an injection point and installed in a turbine building of a BWR type reactor having a pipeline of a feedwater system to be injected. The adsorbing/separation system comprises an adsorbing vessel and an automatic valve, and the adsorbing vessel is filled with an adsorbent for selectively adsorbing nitrogen. Zeolite is used as the adsorbent. Nitrogen in the air passing through the adsorbing vessel is adsorbed and removed under a pressurized condition, and a highly concentrated oxygen gas is formed. The direction of the steam of the adsorbed nitrogen is changed by an opening/closing switching operation of an automatic valve and released to the atmosphere (the pressure is released). Generated oxygen gas is stored under pressure in a tank, and injected to the pipeline of the feedwater system by an oxygen injection conduit by way of a flow rate control valve. In the adsorbing vessel, steps of adsorption, separation and storage under pressure are repeated successively. (I.N.)

  7. SPS injection kicker

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The 5-cell, lumped-delay-line structure of the first-generation SPS injection kickers. For a more detailed description see 7502072X. See also 7502073X and Annual Report 1975, p.162. To the left: Roland Tröhler; to the right: Giacomo Busetta.

  8. SPS injection kicker magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    One of the first-generation SPS injection kicker magnets. Lifting the tank-lid reveals the inner structure. For a more detailed description see 7502072X. See also 7502074X and Annual Report 1975, p.162. To the left: Roland Tröhler; to the right: Giacomo Busetta.

  9. Long-term result of endoscopic Histoacryl (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) injection for treatment of gastric varices

    OpenAIRE

    Eun Jung Kang, Soung Won Jeong, Jae Young Jang, Joo Young Cho, Sae Hwan Lee, Hyun Gun Kim, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim, Young Koog Cheon, Young Deok Cho, Hong Soo Kim, Boo Sung Kim

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of endoscopic obliteration with Histoacryl® for treatment of gastric variceal bleeding and prophylaxis.METHODS: Between January 1994 and March 2010 at SoonChunHyang University Hospital, a total of 127 patients with gastric varices received Histoacryl® injections endoscopically. One hundred patients underwent endoscopic Histoacryl® injections because of variceal bleeding, the other 27 patients received such injections as a prophylactic procedu...

  10. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay.R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of tetracycline gutta percha (TGP and calcium hydroxide impregnated gutta percha against Enterococcus faecalis, an invitro study. Methodology: Inocula of E.faecalis were spread onto trypticase soy agar medium using sterile glass spreaders. Tetracycline gutta percha, Calcium hydroxide gutta percha and traditional gutta percha cones were aseptically transferred onto each of the inoculated plates using sterile forceps separately. The plates were incubated for 24, 48 and 72 hours at 370 Celsius aerobically. Following incubation the diameters of zone of bacterial inhibition (clear zone were measured in millimeter for each period of time. Results: Tetracycline gutta percha had the maximum antibacterial efficacy, exhibiting broader zones of inhibition, where as calcium hydroxide gutta percha had no effect on test bacteria. Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study tetracycline gutta percha offers maximum antibacterial advantage over Calcium hydroxide and traditional gutta percha.

  11. Ultrasound-guided sacroiliac joint injection technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, Dominic

    2008-07-01

    We describe a case report and technique for using a portable ultrasound scanner and a curvilinear transducer (4-5MHz) (SonoSite Micromaxx SonoSite, Inc. 21919 30th Drive SE Bothwell W. A.) to guide sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injection. A 42-year-old male presented with chronic lower back pain centered on his left SIJ. His pain averaged 7 out of 10 (numerical rating scale). For the ultrasound-guided SIJ injection the patient was placed in the prone position. The ultrasound transducer was oriented in a transverse orientation at the level of the sacral hiatus. Here the sacral cornuae were identified. Moving the transducer laterally from here, the lateral edge of the sacrum was identified. This bony edge was followed in a cephalad direction with the transducer maintained in a transverse orientation. A second bony contour, the ileum, was identified. The cleft between both bony contours represented the sacroiliac joint. This was found at 4.5 cm depth. Real-time imaging was used to direct a 22G spinal needle into the SIJ, where solution was injected under direct vision. The patient\\'s pain intensity decreased to a 2 out of 10 (numerical rating scale). Function improved and the patient was able to return to work. These improvements were maintained at 16 weeks. Ultrasound guidance does not expose patients and personnel to radiation and is readily accessible. Ultrasound-guided SIJ injections may have particular applications in the management of chronic lower back pain in certain clinical scenarios (e.g. pregnancy). Future studies to demonstrate efficacy and reproducibility are needed.

  12. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay.R; Suman Makam; Shashikala K

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of tetracycline gutta percha (TGP) and calcium hydroxide impregnated gutta percha against Enterococcus faecalis, an invitro study. Methodology: Inocula of E.faecalis were spread onto trypticase soy agar medium using sterile glass spreaders. Tetracycline gutta percha, Calcium hydroxide gutta percha and traditional gutta percha cones were aseptically transferred onto each of the inoculated plates using sterile forceps sep...

  13. Studies of Efficacy and Liver Toxicity Related to Adeno-Associated Virus–Mediated RNA Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Cheng-Pu; Wu, Tzu-Hui; Chen, Chun-Chi; Wu, Ping-Yi; Shih, Yao-Ming; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Tao, Mi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)–mediated RNA interference shows promise as a therapy for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but its low efficacy and hepatotoxicity pose major challenges. We have generated AAV vectors containing different promoters and a panel of HBV-specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to investigate factors that contribute to the efficacy and pathogenesis of AAV-mediated RNA interference. HBV transgenic mice injected with high doses of AAV vectors containing the U6 prom...

  14. Efficacy and Tolerability of Intramuscular Dexketoprofen in Postoperative Pain Management following Hernia Repair Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kolte, S. S.; Bhagat, H.; R. Irpatgire; Dhorepatil, S.; Bhagtani, K.; Karmarkar, P. S.; Kamat, V. V.; S. S. Erram; J. V. Shinde; A Porwal; P. T. Jamdade; P. A. Shirure

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intramuscular dexketoprofen for postoperative pain in patients undergoing hernia surgery. Methodology. Total 202 patients received single intramuscular injection of dexketoprofen 50?mg or diclofenac 50?mg postoperatively. The pain intensity (PI) was self-evaluated by patients on VAS at baseline 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. The efficacy parameters were number of responders, difference in PI (PID) at 8?hours, sum of analogue of pain intensity differ...

  15. Injection of Deuterium Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, H.; Andersen, P.

    1984-01-01

    A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Some details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated to velocities above 1400 m/s, deuterium pellets to velocities above 1300 m/s and neon pellets to velocities above 500 m/s. Finally, a new acceleration method where a pellet should be accelerated by means of a magnetically stabilised electrical discharge is discussed, and a set up for measuring of the pellet size by means of a microwave cavity is outlined.

  16. SPS injection kicker magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    One of the first-generation SPS injection kicker magnets, view of the complete tank. First proton beam from the PS was injected into the SPS in 1976, at a beam momentum of 10 GeV/c. These kickers served until the end of 1979 and were replaced at the beginning of 1980 by stronger ones, in preparation for the SPS as a proton-antiproton collider. For this, transfer momentum from the PS to the SPS was raised to 26 GeV/c, so as to avoid acceleration of the dense p and pbar bunches through SPS transition energy. Bearded Roland Tröhler is at the left, Giacomo Busetta smiles at the right. See also 7502073X, 7502074X and Annual Report 1975, 162.

  17. Injection of deuterium pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion is given of the work done at Riso National Laboratory on the design and construction of deuterium pellet injectors. A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Next some of the details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated to velocities above 1400 m/s, deuterium pellets to velocities above 1300 m/s and neon pellets to velocities above 550 m/s. Finally, a new acceleration method where a pellet should be accelerated by means of a magnetically stabilised electrical discharge is discussed, and a set up for measuring of the pellet size by means of a microwave cavity is outlined

  18. Rehospitalization rates of patients with schizophrenia discharged on haloperidol, risperidone or clozapine Taxas de re-hospitalização de pacientes após alta hospitalar em uso de haloperidol, risperidona ou clozapina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Werneck de Castro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rehospitalization rates of patients discharged from the Institute of Psychiatry of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade de São Paulo Medical School while being treated with haloperidol, risperidone or clozapine. METHOD: This is a naturalistic study designed to monitor rehospitalization rates for patients discharged on haloperidol (n = 43, risperidone (n = 22 or clozapine (n = 31. Time to readmission over the course of three years was measured by the product-limit (Kaplan-Meier method. Risk factors associated with rehospitalizations were examined. RESULTS: At 36 months, remained in the community 74% of the haloperidol-treated patients, 59% of the risperidone-treated patients and 84% of the clozapine-treated patients. The haloperidol group showed a higher proportion of women, a late age of onset and shorter length of illness than the other groups, whereas the opposite was observed in the clozapine group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the rehospitalization rates of patients taking clozapine are lower than the rate for patients treated with haloperidol and risperidone. However confounding variables such as gender distribution and age of onset represent limitations that should be taken into account for the interpretation of the results.OBJETIVO: O propósito desse estudo foi observar as taxas de re-hospitalização de pacientes com esquizofrenia que receberam alta do Instituto de Psiquiatria do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo em uso de haloperidol, risperidona ou clozapina. MÉTODO: Este foi um estudo naturalístico conduzido de forma a observar as taxas de re-hospitalizações dos pacientes que receberam alta em uso de haloperidol (n = 43, risperidona (n = 22 ou clozapina (n = 31. O tempo de re-hospitalização foi analisado de acordo com a fórmula produto-limite (Kaplan-Meier por três anos. Fatores de risco associados à internação foram examinados. RESULTADOS: Aos 36 meses, permaneceram em seguimento extra-hospitalar 74% dos pacientes em uso de haloperidol, 59% em uso de risperidona e 84% em uso de clozapina. O grupo tratado com haloperidol apresentou predomínio do gênero feminino, idade de início mais tardia e menor tempo de doença que os demais grupos, enquanto o oposto ocorreu em relação ao grupo com clozapina. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes em uso de clozapina apresentaram taxas de re-hospitalização menores que aqueles em uso de haloperidol e risperidona. No entanto, variáveis tais como distribuição de gênero e idade de início da doença podem representar limitações importantes que devem ser levadas em consideração na interpretação dos resultados.

  19. Rehospitalization rates of patients with schizophrenia discharged on haloperidol, risperidone or clozapine / Taxas de re-hospitalização de pacientes após alta hospitalar em uso de haloperidol, risperidona ou clozapina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Paula Werneck de, Castro; Helio, Elkis.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O propósito desse estudo foi observar as taxas de re-hospitalização de pacientes com esquizofrenia que receberam alta do Instituto de Psiquiatria do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo em uso de haloperidol, risperidona ou clozapina. MÉTODO: Este foi [...] um estudo naturalístico conduzido de forma a observar as taxas de re-hospitalizações dos pacientes que receberam alta em uso de haloperidol (n = 43), risperidona (n = 22) ou clozapina (n = 31). O tempo de re-hospitalização foi analisado de acordo com a fórmula produto-limite (Kaplan-Meier) por três anos. Fatores de risco associados à internação foram examinados. RESULTADOS: Aos 36 meses, permaneceram em seguimento extra-hospitalar 74% dos pacientes em uso de haloperidol, 59% em uso de risperidona e 84% em uso de clozapina. O grupo tratado com haloperidol apresentou predomínio do gênero feminino, idade de início mais tardia e menor tempo de doença que os demais grupos, enquanto o oposto ocorreu em relação ao grupo com clozapina. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes em uso de clozapina apresentaram taxas de re-hospitalização menores que aqueles em uso de haloperidol e risperidona. No entanto, variáveis tais como distribuição de gênero e idade de início da doença podem representar limitações importantes que devem ser levadas em consideração na interpretação dos resultados. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rehospitalization rates of patients discharged from the Institute of Psychiatry of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade de São Paulo Medical School while being treated with haloperidol, risperidone or clozapine. METHOD: This is a natur [...] alistic study designed to monitor rehospitalization rates for patients discharged on haloperidol (n = 43), risperidone (n = 22) or clozapine (n = 31). Time to readmission over the course of three years was measured by the product-limit (Kaplan-Meier) method. Risk factors associated with rehospitalizations were examined. RESULTS: At 36 months, remained in the community 74% of the haloperidol-treated patients, 59% of the risperidone-treated patients and 84% of the clozapine-treated patients. The haloperidol group showed a higher proportion of women, a late age of onset and shorter length of illness than the other groups, whereas the opposite was observed in the clozapine group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the rehospitalization rates of patients taking clozapine are lower than the rate for patients treated with haloperidol and risperidone. However confounding variables such as gender distribution and age of onset represent limitations that should be taken into account for the interpretation of the results.

  20. Fault Injection Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Guilley, Sylvain; Sauvage, Laurent; Danger, Jean-Luc; Selmane, Nidhal

    2010-01-01

    Fault injections constitute a major threat to the security of embedded systems. The errors in the cryptographic algorithms have been shown to be extremely dangerous, since powerful attacks can exploit few of them to recover the full secrets. Most of the resistance techniques to fault attacks have relied so far on the detection of faults. We present in this paper another strategy, based on the resilience against fault attacks. The core idea is to allow an erroneous result to be outputted, but ...

  1. Dihydroergotamine Injection and Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migranal® Nasal Spray ... inject subcutaneously (under the skin) and as a spray to be used in the nose. It is ... that you know how to use the nasal spray or administer the injection correctly. After that, you ...

  2. Intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane for the treatment of vitreomacular traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Wan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the efficacy of a single intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane(C3F8in releasing vitreomacular traction. METHODS: Twelve eyes of 12 consecutive patients with vitreomacular traction received a single intravitreal injection of 0.3mL 100%(C3F8were retrospectively analyzed. The best corrected vision acuity and the neural epithelium thickness of central macular were observed. RESULTS: One month following treatment, vitreomacular traction was released in 5 eyes(42%, mean final visual acuity(VAimproved 0.04 and mean central foveal thickness decreased by 69?m. The vision acuity before and after treatment were 0.20±0.07, 0.25±0.04 respectively.CONCLUSION: Intravitreal C3F8 injection could offer a minimally invasive alternative to pars plana vitrectomy in patients with vitreomacular traction.

  3. Snowplow Injection Front Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Buzulukova, N.; Collinson, G. A.; Kepko, E. L.; Garcia-Sage, K. S.; Henderson, M. G.; Sitnov, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    As the Polar spacecraft apogee precessed through the magnetic equator in 2001, Polar encountered numerous substorm events in the region between geosynchronous orbit and 10 RE geocentric distance; most of them in the plasma sheet boundary layers. Of these, a small number was recorded near the neutral sheet in the evening sector. Polar/Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment provides a unique perspective on the lowest-energy ion plasma, showing that these events exhibited a damped wavelike character, initiated by a burst of radially outward flow transverse to the local magnetic field at approximately 80 km/s. They then exhibit strongly damped cycles of inward/outward flow with a period of several minutes. After one or two cycles, they culminated in a hot plasma electron and ion injection, quite similar to those observed at geosynchronous orbit. Cold plasmaspheric plasmas comprise the outward flow cycles, while the inward flow cycles contain counterstreaming field-parallel polar wind-like flows. The observed wavelike structure, preceding the arrival of an earthward moving substorm injection front, suggests an outward displacement driven by the inward motion at local times closer to midnight, that is, a "snowplow" effect. The damped in/out flows are consistent with interchange oscillations driven by the arrival at the observed local time by an injection originating at greater radius and local time.

  4. A randomised, double-masked phase III/IV study of the efficacy and safety of Avastin® (Bevacizumab) intravitreal injections compared to standard therapy in subjects with choroidal neovascularisation secondary to age-related macular degeneration: clinical trial design

    OpenAIRE

    Bunce Catey; Patel Praveen J; Tufail Adnan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) has been transformed by the introduction of agents delivered by intravitreal injection which block the action of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (anti-VEGF agents). One such agent in widespread use is bevacizumab which was initially developed for use in oncology. Most of the evidence supporting the use of bevacizumab for nAMD has come from interventional case series and this clinical trial was initi...

  5. RANIBIZUMAB (LUCENTIS®) INJECTION BY ANTERIOR CHAMBER IN APHAKIC EYES WITH MYOPIC CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    F. Petrarchini; Luca, M.; Frezzotti, P; M. Alegente; M.E. Latronico; G. Esposti

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. macular choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is one of the most vision-threatening complications of myopia, which can lead to severe vision loss. Our purpose was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of trans-corneal injection of ranibizumab in the treatment of myopic CNV in aphakic patients. Materials and Methods. ten eyes of 10 aphakic patients with CNV secondary to pathologic myopia treated with three trans- corneal injection of ranibizumab were evaluated. A complete ophthalmologic ex...

  6. A randomised controlled comparison of injection, thermal, and mechanical endoscopic methods of haemostasis on mesenteric vessels

    OpenAIRE

    Hepworth, C; Kadirkamanathan, S; Gong, F; Swain, C

    1998-01-01

    Background and aims—A randomised controlled comparison of haemostatic efficacy of mechanical, injection, and thermal methods of haemostasis was undertaken using canine mesenteric vessels to test the hypothesis that mechanical methods of haemostasis are more effective in controlling haemorrhage than injection or thermal methods. The diameter of arteries in human bleeding ulcers measures up to 3.45 mm; mesenteric vessels up to 5 mm were therefore studied. ?Methods—Mesenteric vess...

  7. Corticosteroid versus placebo injection for plantar fasciitis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zonghuan; Yu, Aixi; Qi, Baiwen; Zhao, Yong; WANG, WEIYANG; Li, Ping; Ding, Junhui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the efficacy of corticosteroid versus placebo injection for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Databases (Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar) and study references were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing corticosteroid with placebo injection for plantar fasciitis. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected for the analysis. The risk of bias tool was used for the methodological assessment. Outcomes...

  8. Il trattamento dei disturbi psicotici con olanzapina, risperidone e neurolettici tipici: una valutazione comparativa di costo/efficacia in una realtà psichiatrica locale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Filippelli

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several clinical trials demonstrated that atypical antipsychotics are more effective but also more expensive (as drug cost compared with the typical neuroleptics by treating psychotic disorders. The present study aimed to evaluate this result using an observational approach which better reflects the real clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical effectiveness (including work and social functioning and overall direct costs in a group of patients affected by psychotic disorders (schizophrenia and bipolar and treated with typical and atypical (olanzapine and risperidone antipsychotics. METHODS: With a multicentre observational design - two years long - 89 patients (in charge by Psychiatric Centers of Regione Campania - Italy were assessed using CGI (Clinical Global Impression and GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning scales. Moreover economic data were collected with reference to pharmacological and non-pharmacological (hospitalization, medical/nurse visits, etc. resources consumption. The pharmacoeconomic analysis were conducted choosing the perspective of the local Psychiatric Services for costs attribution. RESULTS: Considering the treatment outcomes, the use of the atypical drugs provided better performances with reference to the patients quality of life. The results in terms of work and social functioning indicated an advantage in the olanzapine group of patients. Overall direct costs of treatment (drugs and healthcare resources didn’t generate significant differences among the groups of therapy despite the pharmacological cost evidentiated an economic advantage (p<0,05 in the typical group due to the cheaper cost of these drugs. The use of olanzapine was associated to a lower number of hospitalizations and showed a general reduction (- 16% of total treatment costs between 1st and 2nd year of observation. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of side effects, the improvement in work and social functioning, associated to a more efficient use of total healthcare resources seems to be at the basis of the better pharmacoeconomic profile for olanzapine compared with the other antipsychotic therapies.

  9. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berteau C

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cecile Berteau,1 Orchidée Filipe-Santos,1 Tao Wang,2 Humberto E Rojas,2 Corinne Granger,1 Florence Schwarzenbach1 1Becton-Dickinson Medical Pharmaceutical Systems, Le Pont de Claix, France; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Aim: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC injection pain tolerance. Methods: The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s. All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain. The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results: Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003. Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm than medium (VAS =16.6 mm or low (VAS =22.1 mm viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002. Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89. Slow (0.02 mL/s or fast (0.30 mL/s injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79. In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain. Keywords: injection viscosity, injection speed, injection volume, subcutaneous, pain

  10. Deformational injection rate measuring method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar?i?, Milan

    2002-09-01

    After completing the diesel engine endurance testing, we detected various traces of thermal load on the walls of combustion chambers located in the engine pistons. The engines were fitted with ? combustion chambers. The thermal load of different intensity levels occurred where the spray of fuel, fuel vapor, and air interacted with the combustion chamber wall. The uneven thermal load distribution of the combustion chamber wall results from varying injection rates in each injection nozzle hole. The most widely applied controlling methods so far for injection rate measurement, such as the Zeuch and Bosch concepts, allow measurement of only the total injection rate in multihole nozzles, without providing any indication whatsoever of the injection rate differences in individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the article allows the injection rate to be measured in each hole of the multihole nozzle. The results of the measurements using this method showed that the differences occurred in injection rates of individual injection nozzle holes. These differences may be the cause of various thermal loads on the combustion chamber walls. The criterion for injection rate is the deformation of the membrane due to an increase in the fuel quantity in the measuring space and due to the pressure waves resulting from the fuel being injected into the measuring space. The membrane deformation is measured using strain gauges, glued to the membrane and forming the Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the temperature compensation of the Wheatstone's bridge and the membrane, heated up during the measurements.

  11. MKI UFOs at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Drosdal, L; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2011-01-01

    During the MD, the production mechanism of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) was studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs on a gap in the circulating beam, which led to an increased number of UFOs. In total 43 UFO type beam loss patterns at the MKIs were observed during the MD. The MD showed that pulsing the MKIs directly induces UFO type beam loss patterns. From the temporal characteristics of the loss profile, estimations about the dynamics of the UFOs are made.

  12. Water injection profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of neutron-gamma logging is described, in which water, injected in a cased well borehole with peforations, is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV or greater, and subsequent gamma radiation is detected by a pair of detectors along the borehole. Counting rates of detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. Linear flow velocity of fluid moving downward within the casing is used in conjunction with count rate data to determine volume flow rates of water moving in other directions. Apparatus includes a sonde with a neutron source and appropriate gamma sensors

  13. SQL Injection Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nystrom, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut introduces you to how SQL injection vulnerabilities work, what makes applications vulnerable, and how to protect them. It helps you find your vulnerabilities with analysis and testing tools and describes simple approaches for fixing them in the most popular web-programming languages. This Short Cut also helps you protect your live applications by describing how to monitor for and block attacks before your data is stolen. Hacking is an increasingly criminal enterprise, and web applications are an attractive path to identity theft. If the applications you build, manage, or guar

  14. LEP injection (at CERN)

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, J R J; Gray, D A; Harold, M R; Maidment, J R M; Rees, G H; Wheldon, A G

    1977-01-01

    Studies have commenced of an injector for LEP, the CERN 100 GeV e/sup +/-e/sup -/ storage ring design. The minimum energy for injection is 20 GeV, and a synchrotron injector is chosen in preference to a linac for cost reasons and to obtain faster ring filling. Factors involved in the design of the injector synchrotron are discussed and 2 alternative schemes are outlined for the filling of the 32 e/sup +/ and 32 e/sup -/ LEP bunches. (4 refs).

  15. Increasing the Efficacy of Oncolytic Adenovirus Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. M. Wold

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic adenovirus (Ad vectors present a new modality to treat cancer. These vectors attack tumors via replicating in and killing cancer cells. Upon completion of the vector replication cycle, the infected tumor cell lyses and releases progeny virions that are capable of infecting neighboring tumor cells. Repeated cycles of vector replication and cell lysis can destroy the tumor. Numerous Ad vectors have been generated and tested, some of them reaching human clinical trials. In 2005, the first oncolytic Ad was approved for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer by the Chinese FDA. Oncolytic Ads have been proven to be safe, with no serious adverse effects reported even when high doses of the vector were injected intravenously. The vectors demonstrated modest anti-tumor effect when applied as a single agent; their efficacy improved when they were combined with another modality. The efficacy of oncolytic Ads can be improved using various approaches, including vector design, delivery techniques, and ancillary treatment, which will be discussed in this review.

  16. Botulinum toxin injections for the treatment of hemifacial spasm over 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgun, Mine Hayriye; Yilmaz, Rezzak; Akin, Yusuf Alper; Mercan, Fatma Nazli; Akbostanci, Muhittin Cenk

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and side effects of botulinum toxin (BTX) in the treatment of hemifacial spasm (HFS). We also focused on the divergence between different injection techniques and commercial forms. We retrospectively evaluated 470 sessions of BTX injections administered to 68 patients with HFS. The initial time of improvement, duration and degree of improvement, and frequency and duration of adverse effects were analysed. Pretarsal and preseptal injections and Botox (Allergan, Irvine, CA, USA) and Dysport (Ipsen Biopharmaceuticals, Paris, France) brands were compared in terms of efficacy and side effects, accompanied by a review of papers which reported BTX treatment of HFS. An average of 34.5 units was used per patient. The first improvement was felt after 8 days and lasted for 14.8 weeks. Patients experienced a 73.7% improvement. In 79.7% of injections, no adverse effect was reported, in 4.9% erythema, ecchymosis, and swelling in the injection area, in 3.6% facial asymmetry, in 3.4% ptosis, in 3.2% diplopia, and in 2.3% difficulty of eye closure was detected. Patients reported 75% improvement on average after 314 sessions of pretarsal injections and 72.7% improvement after 156 sessions of preseptal injections (p=0.001). The efficacy and side effects of Botox and Dysport were similar. BTX is an effective and safe treatment option for HFS. No difference was determined between Botox and Dysport, and pretarsal injection is better than preseptal injection regarding the reported degree of improvement. PMID:26100157

  17. Selective water injection completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldaz Cifuentes, Santiago [Schlumberger Smith Completions, Celle (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    This article presents the development and applications of modern completion systems for Selective Water Injection. It is based on a field study performed in Argentina adding records of successful technology application and development over time as well as benefits for the oil industry. A Selective Completion System used and developed by Schlumberger Smith Completions is defined as a set of tools characterized by isolating a single or more zones of interest along the oil well in order to take absolute control of the zone of interest. The principle of the technological development is based on replacing traditional mechanical packers by hydraulic systems bringing a new generation of tools developed for challenging well architecture. A Selective Completion System also implies the interaction of logging tools, tubing conveyed perforations and proper reservoir management systems. This article also highlights reservoir management concepts and water injection benefits for recovery factor improvements based on development from simple completion systems up to selective completion systems as part of the successful operational development of Schlumberger Smith Completions in Argentina. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Aim The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. Methods The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain. PMID:26635489

  19. Behavioral, hormonal and central serotonin modulating effects of injected leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Haque, Zeba; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Ikram, Huma; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin is viewed as an important target for developing novel therapeutics for obesity, depression/anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions. The present study therefore concerns behavioral, hormonal and central serotonin modulating effects of systemically injected leptin. Pharmacological doses (100 and 500?g/kg) of leptin injected systemically decreased 24h cumulative food intake and body weight in freely feeding rats and improved acquisition and retention of memory in Morris water maze test. Potential anxiety reducing, hormonal and serotonin modulating effects of the peptide hormone were determined in a separate experiment. Animals injected with 100 or 500?g/kg leptin were tested for anxiety in an elevated plus maze test 1h later. A significant increase in the number of entries and time passed in open arm of the elevated plus maze in leptin injected animals suggested pronounced anxiety reducing effect. Moreover, circulating levels of leptin correlated significantly with anxiety reducing effects of the peptide hormone. Serum serotonin increased and ghrelin decreased in leptin injected animals and correlated, positively and negatively respectively, with circulating leptin. Corticosterone increased at low dose and levels were normal at higher dose. Serotonin metabolism in the hypothalamus and hippocampus decreased only at higher dose of leptin. The results support a role of leptin in the treatment of obesity, anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions. It is suggested that hormonal and serotonin modulating effects of leptin can alter treatment efficacy in particularly comorbid conditions. PMID:26456504

  20. Efficacy of antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, G T; Johnson, E S

    1976-03-01

    The magnitude of the fall in blood-pressure in response to an antihypertensive drug depends on the level of the pretreatment pressure, and there is a direct relationship between the two in that the higher the pretreatment pressure the greater the fall in pressure in response to treatment. This simple relationship is inherent in the practical situation of titrating the diastolic blood-pressures of a group of hypertensive patients to a predetermined level. It is assumed that notionally the dose of an antihypertensive drug can be increased in all patients until the diastolic pressure is reduced to the predetermined level. When the fall in diastolic pressure (deltaD.P.) is plotted against pretreatment diastolic pressure (P.T.D.P.), the points for all patients lie on a straight line of slope unity and negative deltaD.P.-intercept numerically equal to the predetermined diastolic-pressure level. This straight-line relationship is termed the predetermined ideal response line. Analysis of data from clinical trials shows that, despite the variability inherent in the practical situation, the data appear to conform to this straight-line relationship. The method of assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive agents is essentially a comparison of each experimental point with the theoretical predetermined response line. In its simplest form the method consists in constructing a scatter diagram of deltaD.P. against P.T.D.P. for all patients. Patients can then be classified as responders or non-responders according to their position on the diagram relative to the predetermined response line. This method of assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive agents has several advantages, the most important of which is that it provides a simple method for displaying all the relevant information in a readily comparable form. PMID:55786

  1. Injectable Foams for Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Edna M.; Page, Jonathan M.; Harmata, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The design of injectable biomaterials has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Many injectable biomaterials, such as hydrogels and calcium phosphate cements, have nanoscale pores that limit the rate of cellular migration and proliferation. While introduction of macroporosity has been suggested to increase cellular infiltration and tissue healing, many conventional methods for generating macropores often require harsh processing conditions that preclude their use in injectable foa...

  2. Intraperitoneal injection into adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkel, Mary D; Eames, Stefani C; Philipson, Louis H; Prince, Victoria E

    2010-01-01

    A convenient method for chemically treating zebrafish is to introduce the reagent into the tank water, where it will be taken up by the fish. However, this method makes it difficult to know how much reagent is absorbed or taken up per fish. Some experimental questions, particularly those related to metabolic studies, may be better addressed by delivering a defined quantity to each fish, based on weight. Here we present a method for intraperitoneal (IP) injection into adult zebrafish. Injection is into the abdominal cavity, posterior to the pelvic girdle. This procedure is adapted from veterinary methods used for larger fish. It is safe, as we have observed zero mortality. Additionally, we have seen bleeding at the injection site in only 5 out of 127 injections, and in each of those cases the bleeding was brief, lasting several seconds, and the quantity of blood lost was small. Success with this procedure requires gentle handling of the fish through several steps including fasting, weighing, anesthetizing, injection, and recovery. Precautions are required to minimize stress throughout the procedure. Our precautions include using a small injection volume and a 35G needle. We use Cortland salt solution as the vehicle, which is osmotically balanced for freshwater fish. Aeration of the gills is maintained during the injection procedure by first bringing the fish into a surgical plane of anesthesia, which allows slow operculum movements, and second, by holding the fish in a trough within a water-saturated sponge during the injection itself. We demonstrate the utility of IP injection by injecting glucose and monitoring the rise in blood glucose level and its subsequent return to normal. As stress is known to increase blood glucose in teleost fish, we compare blood glucose levels in vehicle-injected and non-injected adults and show that the procedure does not cause a significant rise in blood glucose. PMID:20834219

  3. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  4. Study on effects of an atypical antipsychotic, risperidone on regional cerebral blood flow with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in drug-naive and unmedicated schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the underlying mechanisms of intracerebral or clinical actions of the atypical antipsychotic, risperidone (RIS), the effects of RIS on absolute regional cerebral blood flows (rCBFs) measured with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT and correlations between the rCBFs and psychotic symptoms assessed with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) were investigated in 10 drug-naive and unmedicated schizophrenic patients with acute hallucinatory and delusional state. Both the SPECT and PANSS were repeated before and after oral 2-week administration of RIS 3 mg/day in all of the 10 patients and after subsequent 2-week administration of RIS 4-6 mg/day in half of the patients. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the left precentral gyrus alone after the low dose of RIS 3 mg/day in comparison with before the RIS dose. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the right cingulate, postcentral, inferior parietal gyri and the left inferior temporal gyrus after the high dose of RIS 4-6 mg/day in comparison with before the low dose of RIS 3 mg/day. The psychiatric assessment with PANSS showed an improvement of positive and negative symptoms after the low RIS dose and still more after the high RIS dose. Statistical analyses on relationships between the rCBF values and PANSS scores before and after the low RIS dose showed a positive correlation between the rCBF values in the right middle temporal gyrus and hallucinations (mainly auditory hallucination). These results suggest that chronic RIS administration dose-dependently produces a decrease of rCBF in the cerebral cortex in the manner that the low dose decreases rCBF in a few restricted cortical regions, while the high dose induces the rCBF reduction in more widespread cortical regions. The RIS-induced rCBF decrease in the cerebral cortex is considered to be attributable to a secondary inactivation in the cerebral cortex due to D2 dopamine receptor blockade of RIS in the striatum through the cortico-striatal thalamic pathway. Furthermore, the positive correlation between the rCBF values in the right middle temporal gyrus and hallucinations suggests that functional changes of the temporal lobe correlate with fluctuation of the hallucinations. (author)

  5. Método analítico para la cuantificación y ensayo de disolución de risperidona tabletas 3 mg / Analytical method for quantification and dissolution essay of 3 mg tablets of Risperidone

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caridad Margarita, García Peña; Lissette, Martínez Miranda; Antonio, Iraizoz Barrios; Vivian, Martínez Espinosa; Matilde, Torres García; Gissel María, León Guerrero.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para la cuantificación y el ensayo de disolución de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg. El método se basó en la separación del principio activo a través una columna cromatográfica Lichrosorb RP-18 (5 µm) (250 x 4 mm), con d [...] etección UV a 278 nm, para lo cual se empleó una fase móvil compuesta por acetonitrilo:buffer fosfato de potasio 0,05 M, de proporción 45:55. El método para la cuantificación del principio activo fue validado a través de la linealidad del sistema, especificad, exactitud y precisión. Mientras que en la validación del ensayo de disolución se evaluó la linealidad, precisión, especificidad e influencia del filtrado. Ambos métodos fueron sencillos, rápidos y económicos; además de específicos, lineales, precisos y exactos en el rango de concentraciones estudiadas. El método analítico alternativo desarrollado para la cuantificación y disolución de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg, se comparó estadísticamente con el método propuesto en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos 30, y se demostró que no existían diferencias significativas entre los resultados obtenidos por cada método. Abstract in english A high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method was developed for quantification and in dissolution assay of 3 mg Risperidone tablets. Method was based in active principle separation through a Lichrosorb RP-18 (250 x 4 mm) chromatographic column with UV detection to 278 nm using a mobile [...] phase composed of 0.05 potassium phosphate buffer:acetonitrile, of 45:55 ratio. Method for active principle quantification was validated through linearity, specificity, precision and accuracy of system. Whereas in dissolution assay validation the linearity, precision, specificity and filtrate influence was assessed. Both methods were simple, fast and economic as well as specific, linear, precise and exact within the study concentrations rank. The alternative analytical method developed for 3 mg Risperidona tablets quantification and dissolution was statistically compared to method proposed by USA Pharmacopeia demonstrating that there were not significant differences among the results achieved by each method.

  6. Método analítico para la cuantificación y ensayo de disolución de risperidona tabletas 3 mg Analytical method for quantification and dissolution essay of 3 mg tablets of Risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Margarita García Peña

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para la cuantificación y el ensayo de disolución de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg. El método se basó en la separación del principio activo a través una columna cromatográfica Lichrosorb RP-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm, con detección UV a 278 nm, para lo cual se empleó una fase móvil compuesta por acetonitrilo:buffer fosfato de potasio 0,05 M, de proporción 45:55. El método para la cuantificación del principio activo fue validado a través de la linealidad del sistema, especificad, exactitud y precisión. Mientras que en la validación del ensayo de disolución se evaluó la linealidad, precisión, especificidad e influencia del filtrado. Ambos métodos fueron sencillos, rápidos y económicos; además de específicos, lineales, precisos y exactos en el rango de concentraciones estudiadas. El método analítico alternativo desarrollado para la cuantificación y disolución de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg, se comparó estadísticamente con el método propuesto en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos 30, y se demostró que no existían diferencias significativas entre los resultados obtenidos por cada método.A high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method was developed for quantification and in dissolution assay of 3 mg Risperidone tablets. Method was based in active principle separation through a Lichrosorb RP-18 (250 x 4 mm chromatographic column with UV detection to 278 nm using a mobile phase composed of 0.05 potassium phosphate buffer:acetonitrile, of 45:55 ratio. Method for active principle quantification was validated through linearity, specificity, precision and accuracy of system. Whereas in dissolution assay validation the linearity, precision, specificity and filtrate influence was assessed. Both methods were simple, fast and economic as well as specific, linear, precise and exact within the study concentrations rank. The alternative analytical method developed for 3 mg Risperidona tablets quantification and dissolution was statistically compared to method proposed by USA Pharmacopeia demonstrating that there were not significant differences among the results achieved by each method.

  7. MR epidurography: distribution of injectate at caudal epidural injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection. Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina. Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected. Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level. (orig.)

  8. MR epidurography: distribution of injectate at caudal epidural injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Darra T. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); St Paul' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Moynagh, Michael R.; Eustace, Stephen [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7 (Ireland); Poynton, Ashley; Chan, Vikki O. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland)

    2014-08-02

    To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection. Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina. Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected. Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level. (orig.)

  9. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.

    2007-08-15

    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  10. 300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

    2009-06-30

    The objective of the treatability test was to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. A test site consisting of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells was installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. This report summarizes the work on the polyphosphate injection project, including bench-scale laboratory studies, a field injection test, and the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the results. Previous laboratory tests have demonstrated that when a soluble form of polyphosphate is injected into uranium-bearing saturated porous media, immobilization of uranium occurs due to formation of an insoluble uranyl phosphate, autunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•nH2O]. These tests were conducted at conditions expected for the aquifer and used Hanford soils and groundwater containing very low concentrations of uranium (10-6 M). Because autunite sequesters uranium in the oxidized form U(VI) rather than forcing reduction to U(IV), the possibility of re-oxidation and subsequent re-mobilization is negated. Extensive testing demonstrated the very low solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of autunite. In addition to autunite, excess phosphorous may result in apatite mineral formation, which provides a long-term source of treatment capacity. Phosphate arrival response data indicate that, under site conditions, the polyphosphate amendment could be effectively distributed over a relatively large lateral extent, with wells located at a radial distance of 23 m (75 ft) reaching from between 40% and 60% of the injection concentration. Given these phosphate transport characteristics, direct treatment of uranium through the formation of uranyl-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., autunite) could likely be effectively implemented at full field scale. However, formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases using the selected three-phase approach was problematic. Although amendment arrival response data indicate some degree of overlap between the reactive species and thus potential for the formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., apatite formation), the efficiency of this treatment approach was relatively poor. In general, uranium performance monitoring results support the hypothesis that limited long-term treatment capacity (i.e., apatite formation) was established during the injection test. Two separate overarching issues affect the efficacy of apatite remediation for uranium sequestration within the 300 Area: 1) the efficacy of apatite for sequestering uranium under the present geochemical and hydrodynamic conditions, and 2) the formation and emplacement of apatite via polyphosphate technology. In addition, the long-term stability of uranium sequestered via apatite is dependent on the chemical speciation of uranium, surface speciation of apatite, and the mechanism of retention, which is highly susceptible to dynamic geochemical conditions. It was expected that uranium sequestration in the presence of hydroxyapatite would occur by sorption and/or surface complexation until all surface sites have been depleted, but that the high carbonate concentrations in the 300 Area would act to inhibit the transformation of sorbed uranium to chernikovite and/or autunite. Adsorption of uranium by apatite was never considered a viable approach for in situ uranium sequestration in and of itself, because by definition, this is a reversible reaction. The efficacy of uranium sequestration by apatite assumes that the adsorbed uranium would subsequently convert to autunite, or other stable uranium phases. Because this appears to not be the case in the 300 Area aquifer, even in locations near the river, apatite may have limited efficacy for the retention and long-term immobilization of uranium at the 300 Area site..

  11. Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1979-02-14

    The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

  12. Greater Drug Injecting Risk for HIV, HBV, and HCV Infection in a City Where Syringe Exchange and Pharmacy Syringe Distribution are Illegal

    OpenAIRE

    Neaigus, Alan; Zhao, Mingfang; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Cisek, Linda; Samuel R. Friedman; Baxter, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    Comparing drug-injecting risk between cities that differ in the legality of sterile syringe distribution for injection drug use provides a natural experiment to assess the efficacy of legalizing sterile syringe distribution as a structural intervention to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other parenterally transmitted infections among injection drug users (IDUs). This study compares the parenteral risk for HIV and hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection among IDUs in Newark, NJ,...

  13. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  14. Modeling the effects of prior infection on vaccine efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S.; Ackley, D.H. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    We performed computer simulations to study the effects of prior infection on vaccine efficacy. We injected three antigens sequentially. The first antigen, designated the prior, represented a prior infection or vaccination. The second antigen, the vaccine, represented a single component of the trivalent influenza vaccine. The third antigen, the epidemic, represented challenge by an epidemic strain. For a fixed vaccine to epidemic strain cross-reactivities to the vaccine and to the epidemic strains. We found that, for many cross-reactivities, vaccination, when it had been preceded by a prior infection, provided more protection than vaccination alone. However, at some cross-reactivities, the prior infection reduced protection by clearing the vaccine before it had the chance to produce protective memory. The cross-reactivities between the prior, vaccine and epidemic strains played a major role in determining vaccine efficacy. This work has applications to understanding vaccination against viruses such as influenza that are continually mutating.

  15. Assessment of self-injection experience in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: psychometric validation of the Self-Injection Assessment Questionnaire (SIAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keininger Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subcutaneous self-injection of medication has benefits for the patient and healthcare system, but there are barriers such as dexterity problems and injection anxiety that can prevent self-injection being used effectively. An accurate method of evaluating patients' experiences with self-injection would enable assessment of their success in giving self-injections and the likelihood of them adhering to a self-injection regimen. The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire to measure overall patient experience with subcutaneous self-injection (the Self-Injection Assessment Questionnaire [SIAQ], and to investigate its psychometric properties. Methods The construct validity and reliability of the SIAQ were tested in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who volunteered to inject certolizumab pegol using a standard syringe during an open-label multinational extension trial of the long-term safety and efficacy of this drug. The SIAQ PRE module was self-completed before the first self-injection, and the POST module was self-completed following each of three fortnightly self-injections. Results Ninety-seven patients completed the SIAQ. All items correlated well with their respective domains in confirmatory factor analysis. As predicted, compared with other participants, patients with very low scores (less than 3 out of 10 in PRE causal domains (Feelings about injections and Self-confidence were significantly less satisfied with their first self-injection, as were patients with a very low score in any POST causal domain (Self-confidence, Feelings about injections, Injection-site reactions and Ease of use, demonstrating known-groups validity. Causal domain scores generally correlated most strongly with the Satisfaction with self-injection domain, supporting convergent validity. The SIAQ demonstrated internal consistency and reproducibility; Cronbach's ? and the test-retest coefficient were > 0.70 for all domains. Sensitivity and responsiveness were also shown, where measurable. Each language version showed structural validity. Conclusion The SIAQ was demonstrated to be a valid, reliable tool in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Corticosteroid versus platelet-rich plasma injection in epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (LE) is often considered an inflammatory disease characterized by tendon microtears that are followed by an incomplete reparative response that leads to chronic pain and decreased function on the upper extremity. A modality that is commonly used for the treatment of LE is the injection of corticosteroids. Evidence supports corticosteroid injections to be an effective short-term intervention that lacks intermediate and long-term relief as well as having negative effects on tenocyte proliferation, which is essential in the tissue healing process. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to be more effective, providing longer positive results with a lower recurrence rate. PRP's powerful growth factor stimulates tissue repair and protects tenocytes from the cytotoxic effects caused by corticosteroids. Unfortunately, the efficacy of PRP has been questioned because of past study designs. Nevertheless, recent studies provide practice-changing evidence that supports the use of PRP for the treatment of LE. PMID:25233205

  17. Optimization of injection law for direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes how different timing and shape of the injection law can influence pollutant emission of a direct injection diesel engine. The study was carried out making use of a multizone thermodynamic model as regards the closed valve phase, and a filling-emptying one as regards the open valve phase. After being calibrated by comparison with experimental data, the abovementioned model was used for injection law optimization as regards minimum pollutant concentration (NOx and soot) in the exhaust gases with the smallest engine performance reduction possible

  18. Development of intralesional therapy with fluorouracil/adrenaline injectable gel for management of condylomata acuminata: two phase II clinical studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Swinehart, J M; Skinner, R B; McCarty, J M; Miller, B. H.; Tyring, S. K.; Korey, A; Orenberg, E K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a sustained release chemotherapy for treating condylomata acuminata with an injectable gel containing fluorouracil and adrenaline (5-FU/adrenaline gel). Study 1-- To assess contributions of the components of 5-FU/adrenaline gel to efficacy. Study 2--To assess therapeutic contribution of adrenaline and safety and efficacy of the formulations. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled studies. SETTING: Private practices and university clinics in the United Sta...

  19. Efficacy of Moxidectin against strongylin nematodes in naturally infected horses

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLANBER, Aynur; TÜZER, Erkut; GARGILI, Ay?en; TOPARLAK, Müfit; EF?L, ?lker; Kele?, Vedat; ULUTA?, Meltem

    1998-01-01

    Twenty naturally infected horses were divided into two groups (10 control and 10 experimental) according to EPG values. An injectable formulation of moxidectin, in a dose of 0.3 mg/kg, was given to the horses orally in jam syrup. The evaluation of drug efficacy was based on EPG values. The same dose of the drug was applied to an additional 25 horses to test for side effects. The drug was found to be highly effective (100%) against strongylin parasites on days 7, 14. and 21. No side effects...

  20. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer A. Robinson; Anne E. Burke

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating alter...

  1. Targeted endomyocardial injections of therapeutic cells using x-ray fused with MRI guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Luis F.; de Silva, Ranil; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Lederman, Robert J.

    2006-03-01

    The utility of X-ray fused with MRI (XFM) using external fiducial markers to perform targeted endomyocardial injections in infarcted hearts of swine was tested. Endomyocardial injections of feridex-labeled mesenchymal stromal cells (Fe-MSC) were performed in the previously infarcted hearts of 12 Yucatan miniswine (33-67 kg). Animals had pre-injection cardiac MRI, XFM-guided endomyocardial injection of Fe-MSC suspension spiked with tissue dye, and post-injection MRI. 24 hours later, after euthanasia, the hearts were excised, sliced and stained with TTC. During the injection procedure, operators were provided with 3D surfaces of endocardium, epicardium, myocardial wall thickness and infarct registered with live XF images to facilitate device navigation and choice of injection location. 130 injections were performed in hearts where diastolic wall thickness ranged from 2.6 to 17.7 mm. Visual inspection of the pattern of dye staining on TTC stained heart slices correlated (r=0.98) with XFM-derived injection locations mapped onto delayed hyperenhancement MRI and the susceptibility artifacts seen on the post-injection T2*-weighted gradient echo MRI. The in vivo target registration error was 3.17+/-2.61 mm (n=64) and 75% of injections were within 4 mm of the predicted location. 3D to 2D registration of XF and MR images using external fiducial markers enables accurate targeted endomyocardial injection in a swine model of myocardial infarction. The present data suggest that the safety and efficacy of this approach for performing targeted endomyocardial delivery should be evaluated further clinically.

  2. Single intramuscular injection of diclofenac sodium in febrile pediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Yeol; Cho, Jun Hwi; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Ohk, Taek Geun; Lee, Hui Young; Park, Chan Woo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: There are few reports on the effectiveness and safety of intramuscular (IM) antipyretic injections in pediatric patients. This study reports the efficacy and adverse effects of a single IM injection of diclofenac sodium in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: This was an observational study in which records of febrile pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department were analyzed. Subjects included pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department with a temperature of 38°C or higher. Infants under 12 months of age were excluded. Patients were excluded if they received antipyretics within 4 h prior to presenting to the emergency department. Body temperature was measured at 30–60 min intervals following diclofenac sodium injections. Fever alleviation was defined as the temperature decline to 1°C below the temperature at presentation. Patients who received diclofenac sodium twice or more on different days were observed for side effects such as allergic reaction. Records from the emergency department and outpatient clinics were analyzed. Results: The dose of diclofenac sodium injected was approximately 2 mg/kg. The average time elapsed until antipyresis was 69.1 ± 23.8 min. The average temperature reduction after 1 h was 1.1 ± 0.6°C. The average proportion of temperature change after 1 h was 40.6 ± 22.2%. During the period at the emergency department, there were no reported serious side effects. Conclusions: A single dose of diclofenac sodium provided effective antipyresis in pediatric patients. Serious side effects were not observed. PMID:26069364

  3. HIV vaccine trial willingness among injection and non-injection drug users in two urban centres, Barcelona and San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, M Florencia; Lum, Paula J; Evans, Jennifer L; Sanchez, Emilia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Sierra, Ernesto; Gatell, José M; Page, Kimberly; Joseph, Joan

    2011-02-24

    Being able to recruit high-risk volunteers who are also willing to consider future participation in vaccine trials are critical features of vaccine preparedness studies. We described data from two cohorts of injection- and non-injection drug users in Barcelona, Spain [Red Cross centre] and in San Francisco, USA, [UFO-VAX study] at high risk of HIV/HCV infection to assess behaviour risk exposure and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. We successfully identified drug-using populations that would be eligible for future HIV vaccine efficacy trials, based on reported levels of risk during screening and high levels of willingness to participate. In both groups, Red Cross and UFO-VAX respectively, HCV infection was highly prevalent at baseline (41% and 34%), HIV baseline seroprevalence was 4.2% and 1.5%, and high levels of willingness were seen (83% and 78%). PMID:21241735

  4. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Marcic

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped withmulti-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changinghydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individualinjection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paperallows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injectionrates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today knownmeasuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate indiesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possibledifferences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformationalmeasuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation ofmembrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. Thepressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For eachhole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into whichfuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. Duringmeasurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain anoverpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into thegraduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.Themembrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane andforming the full Wheatstone’s bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shapeand temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  5. Validación del método analítico aplicable al estudio de estabilidad de risperidona solución oral 1 mg/mL Validation of an analytical method applicable to study of 1 mg/mL oral Risperidone solution stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Abreu Álvarez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se validó un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, aplicable al estudio de estabilidad de risperidona solución oral 1 mg/mL. El método analítico validado resultó lineal, preciso, específico y exacto. Se desarrolló el estudio de estabilidad de la solución oral de risperidona 1 mg/mL y se determinó su fecha de vencimiento. El estudio de vida de estante se desarrolló por un periodo de 24 meses a temperatura ambiente; mientras que el estudio de estabilidad acelerada se efectuó sometiendo el producto a la influencia de la humedad y la temperatura; se realizó el análisis durante 3 meses. La formulación cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad descritas en la Farmacopea. Los resultados del estudio de estabilidad por vida de estante después de transcurridos los 24 meses indicaron que el producto mantiene los parámetros que determinan su calidad durante ese tiempo, y en los estudios acelerados no se observó degradación significativa (p> 0,05 del producto. Se estableció 2 años como fecha de vencimiento en las condiciones señaladas.A validated analytical method by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was applicable to study of 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution stability. The above method was linear, accurate, specific and exact. A stability study of the 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution was developed determining its expiry date. The shelf life study was conducted for 24 months at room temperature; whereas the accelerated stability study was conducted with product under influence of humidity and temperature; analysis was made during 3 months. Formula fulfilled the quality specifications described in Pharmacopeia. The results of stability according to shelf life after 24 months showed that the product maintains the parameters determining its quality during this time and in accelerated studies there was not significant degradation (p> 0.05 in the product. Under mentioned conditions expiry date was of 2 years.

  6. Validación del método analítico aplicable al estudio de estabilidad de risperidona solución oral 1 mg/mL / Validation of an analytical method applicable to study of 1 mg/mL oral Risperidone solution stability

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maikel, Abreu Álvarez; Caridad Margarita, García Peña; Lissette, Martínez Miranda; Adriana, Muñoz Cernada; Mirna, Fernández Cervera; Vivian, Martínez Espinosa.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se validó un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, aplicable al estudio de estabilidad de risperidona solución oral 1 mg/mL. El método analítico validado resultó lineal, preciso, específico y exacto. Se desarrolló el estudio de estabilidad de la solución oral de risperidona [...] 1 mg/mL y se determinó su fecha de vencimiento. El estudio de vida de estante se desarrolló por un periodo de 24 meses a temperatura ambiente; mientras que el estudio de estabilidad acelerada se efectuó sometiendo el producto a la influencia de la humedad y la temperatura; se realizó el análisis durante 3 meses. La formulación cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad descritas en la Farmacopea. Los resultados del estudio de estabilidad por vida de estante después de transcurridos los 24 meses indicaron que el producto mantiene los parámetros que determinan su calidad durante ese tiempo, y en los estudios acelerados no se observó degradación significativa (p> 0,05) del producto. Se estableció 2 años como fecha de vencimiento en las condiciones señaladas. Abstract in english A validated analytical method by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applicable to study of 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution stability. The above method was linear, accurate, specific and exact. A stability study of the 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution was developed determining its e [...] xpiry date. The shelf life study was conducted for 24 months at room temperature; whereas the accelerated stability study was conducted with product under influence of humidity and temperature; analysis was made during 3 months. Formula fulfilled the quality specifications described in Pharmacopeia. The results of stability according to shelf life after 24 months showed that the product maintains the parameters determining its quality during this time and in accelerated studies there was not significant degradation (p> 0.05) in the product. Under mentioned conditions expiry date was of 2 years.

  7. Intra-arterial and intravenous applications of Iosimenol 340 injection, a new non-ionic, dimeric, iso-osmolar radiographic contrast medium: phase 2 experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniado, Michael; Hosten, Norbert; Kelsch, Bettina; Hogstrom, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Background Iosimenol 340 injection is a new, dimeric, iso-osmolar, iodinated contrast medium for X-ray angiography. Purpose To compare the safety and efficacy of iosimenol injection to iodixanol injection in two randomized, controlled phase 2 trials. Material and Methods One hundred and forty-four adult patients were enrolled in the two trials, one for evaluation during arteriography and the other for evaluation during computed tomography. Safety was compared by assessing adverse events, vital signs, ECGs, and laboratory parameters. Efficacy was assessed as X-ray attenuation in the computed tomography (CT) trial and as the quality of contrast enhancement in the arteriography trial. Results There were no statistically significant differences in terms of safety or efficacy between the two contrast media. Both were well tolerated upon intravenous as well as intra-arterial injection. The most common adverse event was a feeling of warmth (observed in 35.1% of the patients with Iosimenol injection and 44.3% with iodixanol injection). Conclusion Iosimenol upon intravenous as well as upon intra-arterial injection exhibits a safety profile and shows an efficacy similar to that of iodixanol. PMID:24938661

  8. Site-Specific Impact of a Regional Hydrodynamic Injection: Computed Tomography Study during Hydrodynamic Injection Targeting the Swine Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Yokoo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A hemodynamic study of hydrodynamic gene delivery (HGD from the tail vein in rodents has inspired a mechanism and an approach to further improve the efficacy of this procedure. However, there is no report on the hemodynamics of a regional HGD, which is an inevitable approach in large animals. Here, we report the hemodynamics of a regional hydrodynamic injection in detail based on 3D volume data and the dynamism of tissue intensity over time by using computed tomography (CT both during and after a regional hydrodynamic injection that targeted the liver of a pig weighing 15.6 kg. Contrast medium (CM was injected at a steady speed of 20 mL/s for 7.5 s under the temporal balloon occlusion of the hepatic vein (HV. A retrograde flow formed a wedge-shaped strong enhancement area downstream of the corresponding HV within 2.5 s, which was followed by drainage into another HV beginning from the target area and the portal vein (PV toward a non-target area of the liver. After the injection, the CM was readily eliminated from the PV outside the target area. These data suggest that an interventional radiology approach is effective in limiting the hydrodynamic impacts in large animals at a target area and that the burden overflowing into the PV is limited. A further investigation that simultaneously evaluates gene delivery efficiency and hemodynamics using CT is needed to establish feasible parameters for a regional HGD in large animals.

  9. Intravitreal injection with ranibizumab combined with triamcinolone acetonide sub-Tenon injection for macular edema due to CRVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal injection with Ranibizumab combined with sub-Tenon injection with Triamcinolone acetonide(TAfor macular edema(MEdue to central retinal venous occlusions(CRVO.METHODS:Forty-six patients(46 eyeswere diagnosed ischemic CRVO with significant macular edema by fundus fluorescence-angiography(FFAand optical coherence tomography(OCT. All the patients had panretinal photocoagulation(PRP, a week after the four times therapies. Twenty-three patients(23 eyesin group A were randomly chosen to receive intravitreal injection with ranibizumab(IVR, another 23 patients(23 eyesin group B to treat with both IVR and sub-Tenon injection with TA(PSTT. There was no significant difference on macular edema and best corrected visual activity(BCVAbetween the two groups. The changes in BCVA and central macular thickness(CMTbefore and 1wk; 1, 3, 6mo after treatments were analyzed.RESULTS: One week after the treatment: the BCVA increased while the CMT decreased compared with that of pretreatment in groups A and B(PPPPPP>0.05.CONCLUSION: Not only IVR can decrease ME caused by CRVO and increase the BCVA, but also IVR combined with PSTT can. But combined therapies can be more rapidly and have more positive effect on decreasing the ME and protecting the visual function.

  10. Steroid injection for painful shoulder: Usefulness of ultrasound-guided approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the efficacy of steroid injection into the subacromial bursa and biceps tendon sheath for painful shoulders and the usefulness of ultrasound-guided approach. Seventeen shoulders of twelve patients with shoulder pain and limited motion were included, and these patient were clinically diagnosed as a painful arc syndrome. Under ultrasound guidance, steroid injection was performed into the subacormial bursa (13 cases) and biceps tendon sheath (4 cases). In 7 cases, 1 mL of steroid was used while the remaining six patients received a mixture of 1 mL of steroid and 1 ml of lidocaine. Both shoulders of two patients received 0.5 mL of steroid. The location of needle and injection duration of fluid were continuously monitored, and complications such as leakage of steroid were recorded. Medical records were reviewed for the presence of pain relief and increasing range of motion following the injection. On ultrasonogram, the needle within the subacromial bursa and biceps tendon sheath was seen as a linear echogenic structure, and injected fluid was identified. There was neither the leakage of steroid injection nor any other complications. In 16 (94%) of 17 shoulders, there was decreased intensity of shoulder pain while increased range of motion was noted in three patients following the injection. Steroid injection into the subacormial bursa and biceps tendon sheath is effective in treating shoulder pain and limited range of motion of the shoulder, and ultrasound is useful guiding method.

  11. Beam Injection in Recirculator SALO

    CERN Document Server

    Guk, Ivan S; Dovbnya, Anatoly N; Kononenko, Stanislav; Peev, Fedor; Tarasenko, Alexander; Van der Wiel, Marnix

    2005-01-01

    Possible antetypes of injectors for electron recirculator SALO,* intended for nuclear-physical research, are analyzed. The plan injection of beams in recirculator is offered. Expected parameters of beams are designed.

  12. Aluminium and injection site reactions.

    OpenAIRE

    Culora, G A; Ramsay, A D; Theaker, J M

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To alert pathologists to the spectrum of histological appearances that may be seen in injection site reactions related to aluminium. METHODS: Four cases of injection site reaction were examined microscopically using routine staining with haematoxylin and eosin, electron microscopy and by electron probe microanalysis. RESULTS: As in previous reports, all four cases included collections of histiocytes which contained faint granular brownish refractile material within their cytoplasm; ultr...

  13. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction with a buried heterostructure. Self-consistent laser-diode simulations reveal that the lateral injection scheme with a buried heterostructure achieves the best lasing characteristics at a low current, whereas the ...

  14. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical injection schemes have been compared: vertical pi- n junction through a current post structure as in1 and lateral p-i-n junction with either uniform material as in2 or with a buried heterostructure (BH) as ...

  15. Patient Safety: An Injectable Education

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold William Klein

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the effects of all injectable filling agents were temporary and very rarely associated with permanent problems. In the past, the permanent injectable silicone had been used but had been so problematic that the Justice Department filed injunctions against certain physicians on behalf of the FDA. After 2000 a dangerous pattern grew in the corridors of Washington DC, where politics and money changed the face of America and the field of aesthetics to the detriment of the face...

  16. The Art of Fault Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Benso, Alfredo; Di Carlo, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Classical greek philosopher considered the foremost virtues to be temperance, justice, courage, and prudence. In this paper we relate these cardinal virtues to the correct methodological approaches that researchers should follow when setting up a fault injection experiment. With this work we try to understand where the "straightforward pathway" lies, in order to highlight those common methodological errors that deeply influence the coherency and the meaningfulness of fault injection experimen...

  17. A Conceptual Model of Referee Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    DeborahLFeltz; FélixGuillén

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model of referee efficacy, defines the concept, proposes sources of referee specific efficacy information, and suggests consequences of having high or low referee efficacy. Referee efficacy is defined as the extent to which referees believe they have the capacity to perform successfully in their job. Referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to be influenced by mastery experiences, referee knowledge/education, support from significant others, physical/mental...

  18. Efectividad y seguridad de la viscosuplementación con dosis única de ácido hialurónico estabilizado de origen no animal (NASHA para el tratamiento del dolor secundario a gonartrosis Efficacy and safety of single intra-articular injection of non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA for gonarthrosis pain treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Monerris Tabasco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: valorar la efectividad y seguridad de la inyección de dosis única de ácido hialurónico estabilizado de origen no animal (NASHA para el tratamiento del dolor secundario a gonartrosis. Material y métodos: se han incluido un total de 37 pacientes afectos de gonartrosis diagnosticada previamente por el Traumatólogo/Reumatólogo en los que ha fracasado el tratamiento conservador y/o que no son tributarios de tratamiento quirúrgico. Se les ha efectuado una infiltración en dosis única de ácido hialurónico estabilizado no animal (NASHA, Durolane®. Se han recogido datos demográficos, efectos adversos e intensidad del dolor (valorada mediante escala verbal numérica y puntuación en los cuestionarios Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoartritis Index (WOMAC y Barthel -basal, a las 2 semanas, a los 3 meses y a los 6 meses de la infiltración-. Se ha considerado efectiva una disminución ? 30% durante más de 3 meses en las puntuaciones basales. Resultados: los pacientes son mayoritariamente mujeres (83,8%, con una edad media de 72,8 años (desviación típica -S- = 8,4 e índice de masa corporal medio (IMC 31,9 (S = 6,9. La rodilla infiltrada es izquierda en el 51,7%, derecha en el 41,4% y bilateral en el 6,9% de los pacientes. Han presentado efectos adversos en forma de artralgias bien toleradas el 11,1% de los pacientes. En base a los resultados, la infiltración con dosis única de ácido hialurónico estabilizado de origen no animal (NASHA por gonalgia de origen artrósico provoca una reducción estadísticamente significativa en la intensidad del dolor (escala verbal numérica y WOMAC y de la capacidad funcional (WOMAC en todos los intervalos valorados. Se ha producido una reducción ? 30% en la intensidad del dolor en el 54% (valor que coincide con la reducción en la puntuación WOMAC de dolor, en la rigidez en el 62,1% y en la capacidad funcional en el 48,6% de los pacientes. Conclusiones: en nuestros pacientes, la viscosuplementación intrarticular con dosis única de ácido hialurónico estabilizado de origen no animal (NASHA, Durolane® para el tratamiento del dolor secundario a gonartrosis ha resultado efectiva y segura y supone un arma más para el manejo del dolor y la invalidez que genera la gonartrosis.Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of single-dose injection of stabilized hyaluronic acid of non-animal origin (NASHA for the treatment of pain related to knee osteoarthritis. Material and methods: we included a total of 37 patients with previously diagnosed gonarthritis by the Orthopedist/Rheumatologist in which conservative treatment has failed and/or who are not candidates for surgery. They carried out a single-dose injection of non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (Durolane®. We collected demographic data, adverse effects and pain intensity (assessed by verbal numeric scale and scores on the questionnaires Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC and Barthel -baseline, at 2 weeks, at 3 months and 6 months of infiltration-. It has been considered effective a decrease ? 30% for more than 3 months at baseline scores. Results: patients are predominantly female (83.8% with a mean age of 72.8 years (standard deviation = -S-8.4 and mean body mass index (BMI 31.9 (S = 6.9. The left knee is infiltrated in 51.7%, 41.4% right and bilateral in 6.9% of patients. Adverse effects have occurred as well tolerated arthralgia 11.1% of patients. Based on the results, the infiltration with single dose of stabilized hyaluronic acid of non-animal origin for osteoarthritic source gonalgia caused a statistically significant reduction in pain intensity (numerical verbal scale and WOMAC and functional capacity (WOMAC at all measured intervals. There has been a ? 30% reduction in pain intensity in 54% (value that matches the reduction in WOMAC pain score in 62.1% stiffness and functional capacity in 48.6% of patients. Conclusion: in our patients, intra-articular viscosupplementation single dose of stabilized hyaluron

  19. Efectividad y seguridad de la viscosuplementación con dosis única de ácido hialurónico estabilizado de origen no animal (NASHA) para el tratamiento del dolor secundario a gonartrosis / Efficacy and safety of single intra-articular injection of non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) for gonarthrosis pain treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. M., Monerris Tabasco; I., Martí Acebedo; G., Roca Amatria; R. M., Rincón Párraga; M., Hinojosa Zaguirre; Y., Jiménez Capel; D., Samper Bernal.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: valorar la efectividad y seguridad de la inyección de dosis única de ácido hialurónico estabilizado de origen no animal (NASHA) para el tratamiento del dolor secundario a gonartrosis. Material y métodos: se han incluido un total de 37 pacientes afectos de gonartrosis diagnosticada previam [...] ente por el Traumatólogo/Reumatólogo en los que ha fracasado el tratamiento conservador y/o que no son tributarios de tratamiento quirúrgico. Se les ha efectuado una infiltración en dosis única de ácido hialurónico estabilizado no animal (NASHA), Durolane®. Se han recogido datos demográficos, efectos adversos e intensidad del dolor (valorada mediante escala verbal numérica) y puntuación en los cuestionarios Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoartritis Index (WOMAC) y Barthel -basal, a las 2 semanas, a los 3 meses y a los 6 meses de la infiltración-. Se ha considerado efectiva una disminución ? 30% durante más de 3 meses en las puntuaciones basales. Resultados: los pacientes son mayoritariamente mujeres (83,8%), con una edad media de 72,8 años (desviación típica -S- = 8,4) e índice de masa corporal medio (IMC) 31,9 (S = 6,9). La rodilla infiltrada es izquierda en el 51,7%, derecha en el 41,4% y bilateral en el 6,9% de los pacientes. Han presentado efectos adversos en forma de artralgias bien toleradas el 11,1% de los pacientes. En base a los resultados, la infiltración con dosis única de ácido hialurónico estabilizado de origen no animal (NASHA) por gonalgia de origen artrósico provoca una reducción estadísticamente significativa en la intensidad del dolor (escala verbal numérica y WOMAC) y de la capacidad funcional (WOMAC) en todos los intervalos valorados. Se ha producido una reducción ? 30% en la intensidad del dolor en el 54% (valor que coincide con la reducción en la puntuación WOMAC de dolor), en la rigidez en el 62,1% y en la capacidad funcional en el 48,6% de los pacientes. Conclusiones: en nuestros pacientes, la viscosuplementación intrarticular con dosis única de ácido hialurónico estabilizado de origen no animal (NASHA, Durolane®) para el tratamiento del dolor secundario a gonartrosis ha resultado efectiva y segura y supone un arma más para el manejo del dolor y la invalidez que genera la gonartrosis. Abstract in english Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of single-dose injection of stabilized hyaluronic acid of non-animal origin (NASHA) for the treatment of pain related to knee osteoarthritis. Material and methods: we included a total of 37 patients with previously diagnosed gonarthritis by the Ort [...] hopedist/Rheumatologist in which conservative treatment has failed and/or who are not candidates for surgery. They carried out a single-dose injection of non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (Durolane®). We collected demographic data, adverse effects and pain intensity (assessed by verbal numeric scale) and scores on the questionnaires Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Barthel -baseline, at 2 weeks, at 3 months and 6 months of infiltration-. It has been considered effective a decrease ? 30% for more than 3 months at baseline scores. Results: patients are predominantly female (83.8%) with a mean age of 72.8 years (standard deviation = -S-8.4) and mean body mass index (BMI) 31.9 (S = 6.9). The left knee is infiltrated in 51.7%, 41.4% right and bilateral in 6.9% of patients. Adverse effects have occurred as well tolerated arthralgia 11.1% of patients. Based on the results, the infiltration with single dose of stabilized hyaluronic acid of non-animal origin for osteoarthritic source gonalgia caused a statistically significant reduction in pain intensity (numerical verbal scale and WOMAC) and functional capacity (WOMAC) at all measured intervals. There has been a ? 30% reduction in pain intensity in 54% (value that matches the reduction in WOMAC pain score) in 62.1% stiffness and functional capacity in 48.6% of patients. Conclusion: in our patients, intra-articular viscosupplem

  20. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  1. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External ion sources for cyclotrons are needed for polarised and heavy ions. This calls for injection systems, either radial or axial. Radial injection is also needed when a cyclotron works as a booster after another cyclotron or a linear accelerator (usually tandem). Requirements for injection differ from separated sector cyclotrons where there is plenty of room to house inflectors and/or strippers, to superconducting cyclotrons where the space is limited by a small magnet gap, and high magnetic field puts other limitations to the inflectors. Several extraction schemes are used in cyclotrons. Stripping injection is used for H- and also for heavy ions where the q/m ratio is usually doubled. For other cases, electric and magnetic deflection has to be used. To increase the turn separation before the first deflector, both resonant and non-resonant schemes are used. In this lecture, external injection systems are surveyed and some rules to thumb for injection parameters are given. Extraction schemes are also reviewed. (orig.)

  2. Formulation and evaluation of saquinavir injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahar M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS pandemic is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. With the development of antiretroviral therapy, the count of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected people may decrease to a certain extent. Presently available formulations for this disease are found not to be very useful due to poor bioavailability, leading to poor efficacy, various side effects and high cost. In the present investigation, it was proposed to formulate the aqueous injection of saquinavir, which should definitely be more effective, economical, safe and with the least side effects as compared to its existing dosage forms, e.g., hard and soft gelatin capsule. The solubilization of saquinavir (antiHIV drug, practically insoluble in water, by means of physiologically active hydrotropes and cosolvents has been investigated. The results indicate that enhancement in solubility of saquinavir in the presence of hydrotrope at low concentration is due to weak ionic interaction. At higher concentrations (>0.4 M, complexation is found to be the probable mechanism for solubility enhancement by nicotinamide but nature of complex formed is not clear; whereas for ascorbic acid, self-association is the probable mechanism at these concentrations. Using these two approaches, various formulations of saquinavir were developed, and haemolysis study and dilution study of these formulations were carried out. Formulation containing nicotinamide as hydrotrope showed promising results.

  3. Where do injectable stem cell treatments apply in treatment of muscle, tendon, and ligament injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, Kenneth; Blazuk, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Treatment options for muscle, tendon, and ligament injuries span a constantly evolving spectrum. For years, treatments focused on symptomatic relief. Closer scrutiny of symptomatic treatment suggests that the provision of transient relief of symptoms may have caused more harm than good. Cortisone injections provide a trade-off of short-term relief for poorer long-term outcomes. When conventional treatment failed, patients have faced limited options including surgery, which has increased risk and limited efficacy. Regenerative injections offer a more robust option for soft tissue disease. Basic science and clinical studies show conflicting results to support the use of platelet-rich plasma injections for soft tissue disorders, and even fewer trials have focused on injectable stem cells with limited findings. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential benefits of this regenerative therapy. PMID:25864658

  4. Jabs in the dark: injecting equipment found in prisons, and the risks of viral transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamark, R; Gaughwin, M

    1994-03-01

    Injecting drug users in prisons may reuse and share contaminated injecting equipment, increasing their risk of infection with blood-borne viruses. We examined 58 syringes found in three metropolitan Adelaide prisons during a one-year period: 95 per cent were one millilitre volume; blood was visible in 24 per cent; 58 per cent indicated repeated use; 33 per cent were wrapped in plastic; and 26 per cent had detachable needles, allowing more blood to be trapped in the dead space between the syringe barrel and needle than with the fixed-needle variety. The nature and condition of some of these syringes suggested they might transmit contaminated blood. The ineffectiveness of present approaches to keeping injecting equipment out of prisons demands a more enlightened approach to harm minimisation. With doubts cast on the efficacy of bleach, education should be supported by practical means to reduce transmission of viruses. Provision of sterile injecting equipment is a possible option. PMID:8068783

  5. Buprenorphine + naloxone: new combination. Opiate dependence: no proof of reduced risk of self-administered injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    (1) Two drugs with similar efficacy are available in France for heroin replacement therapy: methadone and buprenorphine. (2) Buprenorphine is sold in the form of sublingual tablets, but some patients dissolve and inject them. Methadone is the main alternative for these patients. Other intravenous opiate derivatives can also be tried, although they have not been approved for this indication. (3) In order to help prevent patients from injecting themselves with buprenorphine, a sublingual combination of buprenorphine + naloxone is to be marketed in France. (4) From a pharmacological point of view, this combination makes sense. Naloxone, an opiate antagonist, is very poorly absorbed with sublingual administration, but if it is injected intravenously, it will antagonise the effects of buprenorphine. However, clinical studies are needed to determine whether or not this prevents injection. (5) A double-blind trial in 326 patients compared replacement therapy with buprenorphine 16 mg + naloxone 4 mg/day versus buprenorphine 16 mg + placebo. The addition of naloxone did not reduce the efficacy of sublingual buprenorphine, but the frequency with which patients injected the drugs was not studied in this trial. (6) This combination of buprenorphine + naloxone has not been directly compared with methadone. (7) In addition to the classical adverse effects of opiates, buprenorphine can cause hepatic adverse effects. (8) Little evidence is available on the effects of intravenous injection of buprenorphine + naloxone. According to an epidemiological survey conducted in Finland, where the combination is also marketed, about 8% of patients regularly inject it intravenously. (9) Patients who are likely to inject buprenorphine should be switched to methadone. PMID:18087797

  6. Firocoxib efficacy preventing urate-induced synovitis, pain, and inflammation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drag, Marlene; Kunkle, Bruce N; Romano, Davida; Hanson, Peter D

    2007-01-01

    This positive-control study evaluated the efficacy of firocoxib versus carprofen, deracoxib, and meloxicam for the prevention of pain and inflammation in a urate crystal synovitis model of lameness. Lameness scoring and force plate gait analysis were used to assess efficacy. The resulting lameness scores and force plate ground reaction forces after urate crystal injection were not significantly different among the groups. Relative to each group's baseline (nonlame) score, only the firocoxib group was not significantly lame, based on lameness score, at the model's peak effect. PMID:17447224

  7. MR arthrography: pharmacology, efficacy and safety in clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte-Altedorneburg, G.; Gebhard, M.; Wohlgemuth, W.A.; Fischer, W.; Zentner, J.; Bohndorf, K. [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Augsburg, Stenglinstrasse 2, 86156 Augsburg (Germany); Wegener, R.; Balzer, T. [Clinical Development Diagnostics and Radiopharmaceuticals II, Schering AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out of clinical trials published between 1987 and 2001 in respect of the clinical pharmacology and safety as well as the diagnostic efficacy of gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) for direct intra-articular injection before MRI examination.Design. Scientific papers (clinical, postmortem and experimental studies) and information from the manufacturer regarding intra-articular injection of Gd-DTPA that addressed questions of mode of action, optimal concentration and dose, elimination and safety were reviewed. Clinical studies were classified according to their study design. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MR arthrography (MRA) were compared with a ''gold standard'' (arthroscopy, arthrotomy) and other radiological evidence for different joints.Results. Fifty-two clinical studies of the overall 112 studies addressed aspects of diagnostic efficacy of MRA in patients or in healthy volunteers. The shoulder was the most assessed joint (29 of 52 studies). Good (>80%) or even excellent (90-100%) sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were found for MRA in most indications, especially for the shoulder and knee joints and induced extension of rotator cuff lesions, labrum abnormalities and postoperative meniscal tears. Two millimoles per liter has proven to be the best concentration for intra-articular administration of Gd-DTPA. After passive complete diffusion from the joint within 6-24 h, complete and rapid renal elimination takes place after intra-articular injection. Local safety proved to be excellent after intra-articular administration of Gd-DTPA. Regarding systemic tolerance almost no side effects have been reported, but the same safety considerations apply for intra-articular administration of Gd-DTPA as for intravenous injection.Conclusions. The diagnostic efficacy of intra-articular MRA in most clinical conditions affecting major joints is greater than that of plain MRI. In some diagnostic problems MRA achieves almost the same sensitivity and specificity as the surgical gold standard. Given a sterile application, the intra-articular administration of Gd-DTPA in a concentration of 2 mmol/l prior to MRI is a safe procedure. (orig.)

  8. MR arthrography: pharmacology, efficacy and safety in clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A meta-analysis was carried out of clinical trials published between 1987 and 2001 in respect of the clinical pharmacology and safety as well as the diagnostic efficacy of gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) for direct intra-articular injection before MRI examination.Design. Scientific papers (clinical, postmortem and experimental studies) and information from the manufacturer regarding intra-articular injection of Gd-DTPA that addressed questions of mode of action, optimal concentration and dose, elimination and safety were reviewed. Clinical studies were classified according to their study design. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MR arthrography (MRA) were compared with a ''gold standard'' (arthroscopy, arthrotomy) and other radiological evidence for different joints.Results. Fifty-two clinical studies of the overall 112 studies addressed aspects of diagnostic efficacy of MRA in patients or in healthy volunteers. The shoulder was the most assessed joint (29 of 52 studies). Good (>80%) or even excellent (90-100%) sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were found for MRA in most indications, especially for the shoulder and knee joints and induced extension of rotator cuff lesions, labrum abnormalities and postoperative meniscal tears. Two millimoles per liter has proven to be the best concentration for intra-articular administration of Gd-DTPA. After passive complete diffusion from the joint within 6-24 h, complete and rapid renal elimination takes place after intra-articular injection. Local safety proved to be excellent after intra-articular administration of Gd-DTPA. Regarding systemic tolerance almost no side effects have been reported, but the same safety considerations apply for intra-articular administration of Gd-DTPA as for intravenous injection.Conclusions. The diagnostic efficacy of intra-articular MRA in most clinical conditions affecting major joints is greater than that of plain MRI. In some diagnostic problems MRA achieves almost the same sensitivity and specificity as the surgical gold standard. Given a sterile application, the intra-articular administration of Gd-DTPA in a concentration of 2 mmol/l prior to MRI is a safe procedure. (orig.)

  9. Treatment of actinide exposures: a review of Ca-DTPA injections inside CEA-COGEMA plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium diethylenetriamine pent-acetate (Ca-DTPA) has been used for medical treatment of plutonium and americium contaminations in the CEA and COGEMA plants from 1970 to 2003. This paper is a survey of the injections Ca-DTPA administered as a chelating molecule and it will be a part of the authorization process for Ca-DTPA by intravenous administration. Out of 1158 injections administered to 469 persons, 548 events of possible or confirmed contamination were reported. These employees were followed by occupational physicians according to the current French regulations. These incidents took place at work, were most often minor, not requiring follow-up treatment. The authors present (1) a synthesis of the most recent findings. Due to its short biological half-time and its limited action in the blood, Ca-DTPA does not chelate with plutonium and americium as soon as these elements are deposited in the target organs. It justifies an early treatment, even in cases of suspected contamination followed by additional injections if necessary (2) data concerning these 1158 injections (route of contamination, dosage, adverse effects, etc.) The authors also investigated a study on the efficacy of the product on a group of persons having received five or more injections. These results were compared with the efficacy estimated theoretically. Dosages and therapeutic schemes were proposed based on these observations. This synthesis is the result of a collective work having mobilized the occupational medicine departments, the medical laboratories inside a working group CEA-COGEMA-SPRA. (authors)

  10. Double batch injection into LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, P

    1996-01-01

    LEP is now routinely filled from two elementary injector cycles, one positron and one electron. During each of these cycles, 8 bunches are accelerated in the PS accelerator, then the SPS and then injected into 4 bunches in LEP. Two SPS bunches being injected into the same LEP bucket. This mode of operation has become possible as a result of synchrotron injection. The time between successive injections into the same LEP bucket is presently 6 LEP turns. This value is optimum for the present synchrotron tune used at injection in LEP. The LEP injectors normally run with a 14.4 second cycle repetition, of which four 1.2 second elementary cycles were traditionally dedicated to LEP filling. However with the new scheme only two elementary cycles (each lasting 1.2 seconds) are needed for LEP. The time saved, amounting to one sixth of the total injector cycle time has become available for other users. During the last year these have included extra physics cycles in the PS and heavy ion and LHC machine development cycle...

  11. A conceptual model of referee efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeborahLFeltz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual model of referee efficacy, defines the concept, proposes sources of referee specific efficacy information, and suggests consequences of having high or low referee efficacy. Referee efficacy is defined as the extent to which referees believe they have the capacity to perform successfully in their job. Referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to be influenced by mastery experiences, referee knowledge/education, support from significant others, physical/mental preparedness, environmental comfort, and perceived anxiety. In turn, referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to influence referee performance, referee stress, athlete rule violations, athlete satisfaction, and co-referee satisfaction.

  12. Single injection of platelet-rich plasma in a rat Achilles tendon tear model

    OpenAIRE

    Parafioriti, Antonina; Armiraglio, Elisabetta; Del Bianco, Silvia; Tibalt, Elisabetta; OLIVA, Francesco; Berardi, Anna C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) 1-injection during an Achilles tendon rat tear model. 80 male adult imbreded rats (Wistar Kyoto), underwent under surgical tendon rupture. 40 Animal (PRP group rats) were given a local injection with 0,25 mL of PRP, and 40 animal (control group) were given the same quantity of control solution. The rats were sacrified at 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks (each time point, 20 rats of the each group) after surgical tear and...

  13. Serum sickness reaction with skin involvement induced by bee venom injection therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Junehyuk

    2015-10-01

    Bee venom injection therapy is an alternative treatment sometimes used for chronic inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, to reduce pain. Several chemical components of bee venom have anti-inflammatory effects, and apitoxin, one of the mixed components, has been used for pain prevention therapy. However, there have been no large-scale investigations regarding the efficacy or side effects or apitoxin. In this study, a case of serum sickness reaction that developed after receiving bee venom injection therapy is reported. PMID:26539406

  14. Study of glue extrusion after endoscopic N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injection on gastric variceal bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Mei Wang, Liu-Fang Cheng, Nan Li, Kai Wu, Jun-Shan Zhai, Ya-Wen Wang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate glue extrusion after endoscopic N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injection on gastric variceal bleeding and to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of this therapy.METHODS: A total of 148 cirrhotic patients in our hospital with esophagogastric variceal bleeding (EGVB) were included in this study. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate was mixed with lipiodol in a 1:1 ratio and injected as a bolus of 1-3 mL according to variceal size. Patients underwent endoscopic follow-up the next week, fo...

  15. Study of disbudding goat kids following injection of clove oil essence in horn bud region

    OpenAIRE

    Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafavi, Ali; Kheirandish, Reza; AZARI, Omid; Shaddel, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During t...

  16. Serum sickness reaction with skin involvement induced by bee venom injection therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Bee venom injection therapy is an alternative treatment sometimes used for chronic inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, to reduce pain. Several chemical components of bee venom have anti-inflammatory effects, and apitoxin, one of the mixed components, has been used for pain prevention therapy. However, there have been no large-scale investigations regarding the efficacy or side effects or apitoxin. In this study, a case of serum sickness reaction that developed after receiving bee venom injection therapy is reported. PMID:26539406

  17. DSA-guided percutaneous injection of hypertonic glucose or ethanol for sclerotherapy of giant hepatic cysts: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the 3-month, 6-month and 12-month therapeutic efficacy of DSA-guided percutaneous injection of hypertonic glucose or ethanol combined with catheter directed drainage for the treatment of giant hepatic cysts. Methods: A total of seventy-three cases of single hepatic cysts with complete clinical data were retrospectively selected. Injection of hypertonic glucose was employed for sclerotherapy in 27 patients (group A), while sclerotherapy with ethanol injection was adopted in 46 patients (group B). Cyst diameters ranged from 8.3 cm to 15.8 cm. Under DSA guidance, puncturing injection of sclerotic agents and catheter directed drainage and aspiration were carried out for all lesions. The therapeutic efficacy at 3, 6 and 12 months were evaluated and the results were compared between the two groups. Results: The therapeutic procedure was successfully accomplished in all 73 cases. The puncturing success rate of the hepatic cysts was 100%. No significant difference in the 3-month, 6-month and 12-month therapeutic efficacy existed between the two groups, and the P values were 0.526, 0.713 and 0.613, respectively (P>0.05). Conclusion: In treating giant hepatic cysts with sclerotherapy, the 3-month, 6-month and 12-month therapeutic efficacy of using hypertonic glucose as sclerotic agent are not significantly different from those of using ethanol as sclerotic agent. As the use of hypertonic glucose carries less disagreeable feeling it is more suitable for the debilitated and aged patients. (authors)

  18. Prevention of Propofol Injection Pain in Children: A Comparison of Pretreatment with Tramadol and Propofol-Lidocaine Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Borazan, Hale; Sahin, Osman; Kececioglu, Ahmet; Uluer, M.Selcuk; Et, Tayfun; Otelcioglu, Seref

    2012-01-01

    Background: The pain on propofol injection is considered to be a common and difficult to eliminate problem in children. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficacy of pretreatment with tramadol 1 mg.kg-1and propofol-lidocaine 20 mg mixture for prevention of propofol induced pain in children.

  19. Characterization of Injection Molded Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Ling; SØgaard, Emil

    Microscopy has been widely applied to understand surface structures of solid samples. According to the instrumental methodology, there are different microscopy methods: optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and scanning probe microscopy (SPM). These microscopy methods have individual advantages and limitations. Therefore, it would be difficult to characterize complex, especially hierarchical structures by using only one method. Here we present a combined optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning probe microscopy study on injection molded structures. These structures are used for different applications. We show how to correlate the structures of the polymer replicas with respect to their functionalities. Furthermore, we introduce how we coordinate with all partners in the “Nanoplast” project, and how we utilize the existing facilities of each method to understand structure-properties relationship of the injection molded polymer samples. These results are very important in optimizing injection molding parameters.

  20. Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Thrombin Injection in Iatrogenic Arterial Pseudoaneurysms: Effectiveness and Complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Young Hwan [Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Min, Seung Kee [Gachon Medical School, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    To evaluate and describe the efficacy and side effects of a percutaneous thrombin injection under ultrasonography guidance for the treatment of iatrogenic pseudo aneurysms Eighteen consecutive iatrogenic pseudo aneurysm cases were treated with a thrombin injection. The thrombin was injected into the pseudo aneurysm cavity using a 22-gauge needle under ultrasonographic guidance. The causes of the pseudo aneurysms are as follows: post coronary angiography (9 cases), percutaneous coronary balloon angioplasty (5 cases), cerebral angiography (1 case), transhepatic chemo embolization (1 case), percutaneous trans femoral arterial stent insertion (1 case) and bone marrow aspiration for a marrow transplant (1 case). Only one case required a secondary thrombin injection due to recurrent flow in the pseudo aneurysm lumen, which was detected at the follow up Doppler ultrasound. Other seventeen cases were successfully treated on the first trial. There were no technical failures or complication related to the procedure. The average amount of thrombin injected was 733 IU. Nine out of 18 treated patients (50%) showed mild reactions to the thrombin including mild fever (4 cases), chilling sensation (3 cases), a chilling sensation with mild dyspnea (1 case), mild chest discomfort (1 case) after the thrombin injection. All these side effects were transient and improved several hours later. All the iatrogenic pseudo aneurysms were treated successfully with an ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection. There was a high rate of hypersensitivity to the bovine thrombin, which precaution should be taken to prevent more serious side effects

  1. Selective segmental sclerotherapy of the liver by transportal absolute ethanol injection: an animal experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of selective segmental sclerotherapy (SSS) of the liver by transportal absolute ethanol injection with an animal experimental study, and to discuss several technical points involved in this method. Methods: Thirty dogs received SSS of the liver by transportal absolute ethanol injection with the injection dose of 0.2-1.0 ml/kg, repeated examinations of blood ethanol level, WBC, and liver functions were done, and CT and pathological examinations of the liver were performed. Results: All dogs treated with SSS survived during the study. The maximum elevation of blood ethanol values occurred in group F. Its average value was (1.603 ± 0.083) mg/ml, which was much lower than that of death level. Transient elevations of blood WBC and ALT were seen. The average values of WBC and ALT were (46.36 ± 7.28) x 109 and (827.36 ± 147.25) U/L, respectively. CT and pathological examinations proved that the dogs given SSS by transportal absolute ethanol injection with the injection dose of 0.3-1.0 ml/kg had a complete wedge-shaped necrosis in the liver. Conclusion: Selective segmental sclerotherapy of the liver by transportal ethanol injection was quite safe and effective if the proper dose of ethanol was injected. SSS may be useful in the treatment of HCC

  2. Study of disbudding goat kids following injection of clove oil essence in horn bud region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafavi, Ali; Kheirandish, Reza; Azari, Omid; Shaddel, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids. PMID:25992247

  3. Early cyclosporin A treatment retards axonal degeneration in an experimental peripheral nerve injection injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Erkutlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury to peripheral nerves during injections of therapeutic agents such as penicillin G potassium is common in developing countries. It has been shown that cyclosporin A, a powerful immunosuppressive agent, can retard Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve crush injury. However, few studies are reported on the effects of cyclosporin A on peripheral nerve drug injection injury. This study aimed to assess the time-dependent efficacy of cyclosporine-A as an immunosuppressant therapy in an experimental rat nerve injection injury model established by penicillin G potassium injection. The rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the length of time after nerve injury induced by penicillin G potassium administration (30 minutes, 8 or 24 hours. The compound muscle action potentials were recorded pre-injury, early post-injury (within 1 hour and 4 weeks after injury and compared statistically. Tissue samples were taken from each animal for histological analysis. Compared to the control group, a significant improvement of the compound muscle action potential amplitude value was observed only when cyclosporine-A was administered within 30 minutes of the injection injury (P < 0.05; at 8 or 24 hours after cyclosporine-A administration, compound muscle action potential amplitude was not changed compared with the control group. Thus, early immunosuppressant drug therapy may be a good alternative neuroprotective therapy option in experimental nerve injection injury induced by penicillin G potassium injection.

  4. Precision Efficacy Analysis for Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Gordon P.

    When multiple linear regression is used to develop a prediction model, sample size must be large enough to ensure stable coefficients. If the derivation sample size is inadequate, the model may not predict well for future subjects. The precision efficacy analysis for regression (PEAR) method uses a cross- validity approach to select sample sizes…

  5. The standard model of spin injection

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, Jaroslav; Zutic, Igor

    2009-01-01

    1 Introduction 2 Simple model of spin injection 3 Spin-polarized transport: concepts and definitions 4 The standard model of spin injection: F/N junction 5 Nonequilibrium resistance and spin bottleneck 6 Transparent and tunnel contacts, conductivity mismatch 7 Silsbee-Johnson spin-charge coupling 8 Spin injection in F/N/F junctions 9 Nonlocal spin-injection geometry: Johnson-Silsbee spin injection experiment

  6. Pellet injection and toroidal confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of a technical committee meeting on pellet injection and toroidal confinement, held in Gut Ising, Federal Republic of Germany, 24-26 October, 1988, are given in this report. Most of the major fusion experiments are using pellet injectors; these were reported at this meeting. Studies of confinement, which is favorably affected, impurity transport, radiative energy losses, and affects on the ion temperature gradient instability were given. Studies of pellet ablation and effects on plasma profiles were presented. Finally, several papers described present and proposed injection guns. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  8. Effect of Intratumoral Injection on the Biodistribution, the Therapeutic Potential of HPMA Copolymer-Based Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twan Lammers

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct intratumoral (i.t. injection of anticancer agents has been evaluated extensively in the past few decades. Thus far, however, it has failed to become established as an alternative route of administration in routine clinical practice. In the present report, the impact of i.t. injection on the biodistribution, the therapeutic potential of N-(2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA copolymer-based drug delivery systems was investigated. It was found that, compared to intravenous injection, both the tumor concentrations, the tumor-to-organ ratios of carriers improved substantially. In addition, compared to intravenously, intratumorally applied free doxorubicin, to intravenously applied poly(HPMA-glycylphenylalanylleucylglycine- doxorubicin, intratumorally injected poly(HPMA-glycylphenylalanylleucylglycine-doxorubicin presented a significantly increased antitumor efficacy, as well as an improved therapeutic index. Based on these findings, we propose intratumorally injected carrier-based chemotherapy as an interesting alternative to routinely used chemotherapy regimens, routes of administration.

  9. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R., E-mail: russell.young@gwh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Harding, J. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Coventry, Coventry (United Kingdom); Kingsly, A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Bristol Institue of Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bradley, M. [Department of Radiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  10. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  11. Cervical spinal cord injection of epidural corticosteroids; comprehensive longitudinal study including multiparametric MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen-Adad, Julien; Buchbinder, Bradley; Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread use, the efficacy of epidural corticosteroid injections (ESI) for osteoarthritis-associated neck or radicular pain remains uncertain, so even rare serious complications enter into discussions about use. However various factors impede investigation and publication of serious adverse events. To that end, we developed new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for spinal cord white-matter quantification and employed best-available physiological tests to characterize a cer...

  12. Physicochemical and biological properties of a novel injectable polyurethane system for root canal filling

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jian; Zuo, Yi; Zhao, Minghui; Jiang, Jiaxing; Man, Yi; Wu, Jun; Hu, Yunjiu; Liu, Changlei; Li, Yubao; LI, JIDONG

    2015-01-01

    A root canal sealer with antibacterial activity can be efficacious in preventing reinfection that results from residual microorganisms and/or the leakage of microorganisms. In the present study, a series of injectable, self-curing polyurethane (PU)-based antibacterial sealers with different concentrations of silver phosphate (Ag3PO4) were fabricated. Subsequently, their physicochemical properties, antibacterial abilities, and preliminary cytocompatibilities were evaluated. The results indicat...

  13. Meta-analysis of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation versus ethanol injection in hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Saz-Parkinson Zuleika; Alcázar Raimundo; López-Cuadrado Teresa; Bouza Carmen; Amate José

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has gained popularity in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its role versus other conventional minimally invasive therapies is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this work is to analyse the efficacy and safety of RFA versus that of ethanol injection (PEI), the percutaneous standard approach to treat nonsurgical HCC. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised or quasi-randomised controlle...

  14. Selective laser trabeculoplasty for elevated intraocular pressure following subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide

    OpenAIRE

    Kenya Yuki; Makoto Inoue; Daisuke Shiba; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Kenya Yuki1, Makoto Inoue1,2, Daisuke Shiba1, Ryosuke Kawamura1, Susumu Ishida1, Yuichiro Ohtake11Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, 2Kyorin Eye Center, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To report on the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) for elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) following subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide.Method: SLT was performed on four of 148 eyes in which IOP was elevated after a subt...

  15. Microseismic imaging of steam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Shawn [Schlumberger (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Microseismic monitoring has become a valuable tool for visualizing strain and surface deformation in heavy oil recovery wells. This presentation is concerned with the different applications of microseismic monitoring as a way to determine relevant values of parameters to be later included in simulations of steam injection chambers. A quick introduction presents the different applications of microseismic monitoring to detect casing failures, deformation of wells, or more generally, imaging of steam injection wells and the geomechanics involved. These monitoring results can then be used for calibrating a geomechanical model, which would be useful for predictions of strain or leakages in the wells, depending on steam temperature and pressure. Incorporated into a geomechanical model, this can be used to better understand the micromechanics inside a steam chamber and the causes and effects of geomechanical deformation in the chamber. Microseismic monitoring, a maturing heavy oil industry technology, is becoming an important tool for geomechanical modelling and understanding injection chamber deformations and it can also be used in other injection processes.

  16. Preface to the injection tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve groups of dogs received intravenous injections of various doses of 226Ra, 239Pu, 228Ra, 228Th, 90Sr, 241Am, 249Cf, or 252Cf at approximately 17 months of age. The animals were euthanized when death appeared imminent. Data are presented on the calculated radiation dose to the skeleton and pathological changes observed at autopsy

  17. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical injection schemes have been compared: vertical pi- n junction through a current post structure as in1 and lateral p-i-n junction with either uniform material as in2 or with a buried heterostructure (BH) as in3. To allow a direct comparison of the three schemes the same active material composition consisting of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations is the analyses of advantages and disadvantages of different electrical injection schemes for the development of the optimal device design for the future generation of electrically pumped nanolasers for terabit communication.

  18. Singapore High School Students' Creativity Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ai-Girl; Ho, Valerie; Yong, Lim-Chyi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Singapore education adopted nurturing creativity and developing creativity efficacy among their students and children. This study investigated Singapore high school students' creativity efficacy based on the contemporary model of creativity (Amabile, 1983, 1996), self efficacy (Bandura, 1989, 1997) and inclusion education. Aims:…

  19. The antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine administered through the drinking water of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, L; Bjerrum, Ole Jannik; Christensen, Sten

    2007-01-01

    Postoperative pain management in laboratory animals is important for animal welfare and required under law in many countries. Frequent injection of analgesics to rodents after surgery is stressful for the animals and labour-intensive for animal care personnel. An alternative dosing scheme such as administration of analgesics in the drinking water would be desirable. However, the efficacy of a chronic oral analgesic treatment via this route has not yet been documented. This study investigated the...

  20. Efficacy of terbinafine and itraconazole on a experimental model of systemic sporotrichosis

    OpenAIRE

    Meinerz, Ana Raquel Mano; Xavier, Melissa O.; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Nobre, Márcia Oliveira; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    2008-01-01

    Itraconazole is currently considered the drug of choice to treat the diverse clinical presentation of sporotrichosis. On the other hand terbinafine by virtue of its excellent in vitro activity is under comparative evaluation for its therapeutic potential for a wide range of fungal infections. In this study, our aim was to determine the in vivo efficacy of terbinafine and itraconazole on a experimental model of systemic sporotrichosis. 120 rats Wistar received an injection of 2×103 S. schen...