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Risperidone Long-Acting Injection: Safety and Efficacy in Elderly Patients with Schizophrenia  

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Antipsychotic medication is considered the cornerstone of the treatment in elderly patients with schizophrenia. Long acting risperidone injection was the first antipsychotic available for use in this group of patients. Current scientific literature revealed that long-acting risperidone is effective in treating the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and some improvements in cognition and functioning have also been found. In terms of efficacy, there is a paucity of randomized trial...

2011-01-01

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Efficacy and safety of risperidone long-acting injection in elderly people with schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available Dhiren Singh1,2, Daniel W O’Connor11Department of Psychological Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia; 2Peninsula Mental Health Service, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Antipsychotic medication is the mainstay of treatment in elderly patients with psychosis. In recent years, second generation antipsychotics have come to be preferred. Longacting risperidone is the first such antipsychotic available for use in this vulnerable group of patients and offers an attractive alternative to traditional medications. The available literature revealed that long-acting risperidone is generally well tolerated and is effective in treating both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Despite a lack of randomized trials and head-to-head studies, it appears to be a useful addition to the treatment armory for patients with chronic psychosis who require a depot preparation. Further research into its endocrine and metabolic side effects is needed.Keywords: risperidone, long-acting injection, old age, efficacy, safety

Dhiren Singh

2009-08-01

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Risperidone long-acting injection: a review of its long term safety and efficacy  

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Full Text Available Michael K RainerMemory-Clinic and Psychiatric Department, Donauspital, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: A long-acting form of the second-generation antipsychotic drug risperidone is now broadly available for the treatment of schizophrenia and closely related psychiatric conditions. It combines the advantage of previously available depot formulations for first-generation drugs with the favorable characteristics of the modern “atypical” antipsychotics, namely higher efficacy in the treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and reduced motor disturbances. Published clinical studies show an objective clinical efficacy (as per psychiatric symptom scores and relapse data that exceeds that of oral atypical antipsychotics when patients are switched to the long-acting injectable form, a low incidence of treatment-emergent extrapyramidal side effects, and very good acceptance by patients. Available data for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder show equivalence with the oral form instead of superiority, but are still limited. As it seems likely that efficacy benefits are mostly due to the fact that the injectable form reduces the demand for patient compliance to one physician visit every 2 weeks instead of self-administration on a daily or twice-daily basis, additional potential could exist in other psychiatric disorders where atypical antipsychotic drugs are of benefit but where patient adherence to treatment schedules is typically low.Keywords: risperidone, schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, patient compliance; delayed-action preparations, injections, intramuscular

Michael K Rainer

2008-08-01

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Paliperidone palmitate versus oral risperidone and risperidone long-acting injection in patients with recently diagnosed schizophrenia: a tolerability and efficacy comparison.  

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Early in the course of illness, patients with schizophrenia may be particularly susceptible to adverse events (AEs). In this post-hoc, subgroup analysis of a 13-week, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter study, patients recently diagnosed with schizophrenia (? 5 years) were administered once-monthly flexible-dose paliperidone palmitate (PP) (n=161; initiation doses, 150 mg eq day 1 and 100 mg eq day 8) [PP doses can be expressed as milligram equivalents (mg eq) of paliperidone or as milligrams (mg) of PP. 150 mg eq paliperidone=234 mg PP; 100 mg eq paliperidone=156 mg PP. In the USA, dosing tends to be expressed in mg] or oral risperidone [during initiation of risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) days 1-28] and biweekly flexible-dose RLAI (n=173; initial injection day 8). Assessments were performed at baseline and days 4, 15, 22, 36, 64, and 92. Because of RLAI's release profile, data through day 22 correspond to oral risperidone in the RLAI arm. During this period, the AE profile and onset of efficacy of PP and oral risperidone were similar. The overall AE rates at week 13 for PP and RLAI were 54.7 and 50.3%, respectively, for any AE; 11.2 and 8.1% for extrapyramidal symptom-related AEs; and 2.5 and 2.3% for prolactin-related AEs. No significant differences in the mean weight change, most metabolic parameters, or mean efficacy measures were observed at end point. In patients with recently diagnosed schizophrenia, the tolerability and efficacy of PP and RLAI were generally similar over 13 weeks. PMID:24113628

Fu, Dong-Jing; Bossie, Cynthia A; Sliwa, Jennifer K; Ma, Yi-Wen; Alphs, Larry

2014-01-01

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Risperidone long-acting injection: a review of its long term safety and efficacy  

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Michael K RainerMemory-Clinic and Psychiatric Department, Donauspital, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: A long-acting form of the second-generation antipsychotic drug risperidone is now broadly available for the treatment of schizophrenia and closely related psychiatric conditions. It combines the advantage of previously available depot formulations for first-generation drugs with the favorable characteristics of the modern “atypical” antipsychotics, namely higher efficacy in the treatmen...

2008-01-01

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78 FR 52777 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Risperidone Injection...  

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...on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Risperidone Injection; Availability AGENCY: Food...industry entitled ``Draft Guidance on Risperidone.'' The guidance provides specific...new drug applications (ANDAs) for risperidone injection. DATES: Although you...

2013-08-26

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Maintenance therapy with once-monthly administration of long-acting injectable risperidone in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: a pilot study of an extended dosing interval  

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Abstract Background Several clinical studies have established the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of long-acting risperidone administered once every 2 weeks in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. This report evaluates preliminary efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for a novel (once-monthly) administration of long-acting injectable risperidone 50 mg in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Methods C...

2007-01-01

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A Post-hoc comparison of paliperidone palmitate to oral risperidone during initiation of long-acting risperidone injection in patients with acute schizophrenia.  

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Objective: First-month data of a 13-week acute schizophrenia study were used to compare paliperidone palmitate to oral risperidone during initiation of long-acting injectable risperidone.Design: Double-blind, randomized study.Setting: Outpatient or inpatient.Participants: Adults with established (?1 year) schizophrenia. Those assigned to risperidone long-acting injectable (n=460) received 25mg on Days 8 and 22 with oral risperidone (l-6mg) supplementation for the first 28 days. The paliperidone palmitate group (n=453) received 150mg eq. on Day 1, l00mg eq. on Day 8, and oral placebo supplementation for the first 28 days.Measurements: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Personal and Social Performance Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity score, and responder rate (percentage of patients with ?30% reduction in PANSS total score). An analysis of covariance model estimated least-square mean differences between treatment groups. A post-hoc analysis of efficacy data for the period of interest, i.e., at the time points before and after the first 28 days, was conducted.Results: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Personal and Social Performance Scale, Clinical global Impression-Severity scores showed similar efficacy between the treatment groups during the first weeks of treatment, corresponding to the risperidone long-acting injection initiation period. Mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score at baseline was 84.7 for paliperidone palmitate and 84.4 for oral risperidone, on Day 22 was 73.6 and 74.1, respectively, and on Day 36 was 71.8 and 72.8, respectively. Overall incidence of adverse events in the first 28 days was generally similar (45% for paliperidone palmitate vs. 35% for oral risperidone), except for injection site pain (4.6% vs. 0.7%). Similar active moiety plasma concentrations were obtained during this period.Conclusion: During the first month, paliperidone palmitate without oral supplementation has similar efficacy and safety to oral risperidone (during initiation of risperidone long-acting injectable) in acutely exacerbated schizophrenia. PMID:21922067

Gopal, Srihari; Pandina, Gahan; Lane, Rosanne; Nuamah, Isaac; Remmerie, Bart; Coppola, Danielle; Hough, David

2011-08-01

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Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available Yueren Zhao,1–3 Taro Kishi,1 Nakao Iwata,1 Manabu Ikeda3,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Okehazama Hospital Fujita Kokoro Care Center, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan Abstract: A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set, an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy. Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8% were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4% relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total scores (P = 0.0031, BPRS positive (P = 0.0451, BRPS negative (P < 0.0001, and general subscale scores (P = 0.0031, and GAF (P < 0.0001 from baseline to 6 months. In conclusion, the lower relapse rate observed in patients treated with COMPASS plus risperidone LAI than in patients treated with risperidone LAI alone suggests that COMPASS may have benefits in the treatment of schizophrenia, indicating a need for randomized, controlled trials in larger numbers of patients. Keywords: adherence, risperidone long-acting injection, psychoeducation, schizophrenia

Zhao Y

2013-10-01

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Paliperidone palmitate versus risperidone long-acting injection in markedly-to-severely ill schizophrenia subjects.  

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Objective: To examine onset of efficacy of two long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotics in markedly-to-severely ill schizophrenia subjects.Methods: This subgroup analysis included 292 subjects with baseline Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scores of markedly ill or worse from a 13-week, randomized, double-dummy noninferiority study (NCT00589914). Subjects received (a) paliperidone palmitate (PP; 234mg day 1 and 156mg day 8 [corresponding to 150 and 100 milligram equivalents of paliperidone, respectively], both administered in deltoid muscle, followed by once-monthly flexible dosing in deltoid or gluteal muscle) and risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI)-matched placebo injections or (b) RLAI (25mg, days 8 and 22; followed by biweekly flexible dosing) and PP-matched placebo injections. RLAI subjects received oral risperidone days 1-28; PP subjects received oral placebo. Because of RLAI's release profile, data through day 22 correspond to oral risperidone. Assessments included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and adverse event (AE) reports. Paired t-tests assessed within-group changes.Results: LS mean (SE) PANSS total scores improved significantly (both ppaliperidone palmitate than oral risperidone at days 15 and 22 (26.1% versus 12.7%, p=.013; 41.6% versus 32.0%, p=.048, respectively).Most common AEs (?5% in either treatment group): headache (PP 6.3% and RLAI 14.0%), insomnia (10.6% and 10.7%), somnolence (7.8% and 1.3%), akathisia (7.0% and 5.3%), schizophrenia (8.4% and 5.3%), agitation (5.6% and 2.0%), and injection site pain (5.6% and 1.3%).Conclusions: Using the recommended dosing regimens for PP and RLAI, both PP and oral risperidone (used during RLAI initiation) improved symptoms of schizophrenia in markedly to severely ill subjects at days 4-22. PMID:23446197

Fu, Dong-Jing; Bossie, Cynthia A; Sliwa, Jennifer Kern; Ma, Yi-Wen; Alphs, Larry

2013-02-27

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Risperidone  

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Risperdal® Oral Solution ... Risperdal® Tablets ... Risperdal® M-TAB® Orally Disintegrating Tablets ... Risperidone is used to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ...

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Paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable in subjects with schizophrenia recently treated with oral risperidone or other oral antipsychotics  

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Full Text Available Larry Alphs,1 Cynthia A Bossie,1 Jennifer Kern Sliwa,2 Dong-Jing Fu,1 Yi-Wen Ma,3 Joseph Hulihan11CNS Medical Affairs, 2Medical Information, Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA; 3Biostatistics, B&P, Janssen Research & Development LLC, Titusville, NJ, USABackground: This post hoc subgroup analysis of a randomized, double-blind trial evaluated the response to treatment with two long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotics, ie, paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI, in subjects with schizophrenia experiencing clinically significant symptoms despite recent treatment with oral risperidone only or other oral antipsychotics.Methods: Adult subjects were eligible for the 13-week, double-blind, double-dummy trial (NCT00589914 if they had an established diagnosis of schizophrenia for at least one year and a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score of 60–120 inclusive at screening. Subjects received either paliperidone palmitate (234 mg, day 1; 156 mg, day 8; then once-monthly flexible dosing or RLAI (25–50 mg biweekly, with oral risperidone supplementation on days 1–28, plus matched placebo injections/tablets.Results: This post hoc analysis reports data on 747 subjects who, within 2 weeks of starting double-blind study medication, had reportedly received oral risperidone only (paliperidone palmitate group, n = 126; RLAI group, n = 107, other oral antipsychotics (paliperidone palmitate group, n = 199; RLAI group, n = 203, or no antipsychotic (paliperidone palmitate group, n = 56; RLAI group, n = 56. Mean PANSS total scores improved significantly at end point across all subgroups (mean change from baseline ranged from ?17.5 to ?19.5, all P < 0.0001. Clinical Global Impression-Severity and Personal and Social Performance scale measures also significantly improved from baseline (all P < 0.0001.Conclusion: Treatment with paliperidone palmitate or RLAI resulted in a significant reduction in the symptoms of schizophrenia irrespective of previous recent treatment with oral risperidone only or other oral antipsychotics. For subjects who had previously received oral risperidone only, the difference in formulation was the main change in the intervention because the molecule delivered remained the same or similar. These data support the contribution of a long-acting formulation to improving the treatment response and suggest that nonadherence may be a significant contributor to inadequate efficacy of oral formulations in subjects with schizophrenia.Keywords: paliperidone palmitate, risperidone long-acting injection, schizophrenia

Alphs L

2013-03-01

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A comparative study of paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable therapy in schizophrenia.  

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This open-label, rater-blinded, parallel-group study was designed to evaluate noninferiority of paliperidone palmitate (PP), a once-monthly injectable atypical antipsychotic, to once-biweekly risperidone long-acting injectable (RIS-LAI) in adult Chinese patients with acute schizophrenia. Eligible Chinese adults (N=452) with schizophrenia were randomized (1:1) to either PP (N=229; deltoid injections on day 1 [150 mg eq.] and day 8 [100 mg eq.]; then once-monthly deltoid or gluteal injections, flexibly dosed [50, 100, or 150 mg eq.]), or RIS-LAI (N=223; once-biweekly gluteal injections, flexibly dosed [25, 37.5 or 50 mg]). RIS-LAI-treated patients received oral risperidone supplementation (1-6 mg/day) at initiation and with RIS-LAI dose increases. Mean (SD) Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at baseline was 83.2 (12.44). Mean (SD) change from baseline to endpoint in PANSS total scores (primary efficacy measure) was: -23.6 (16.28) for PP group and -26.9 (15.43) for RIS-LAI group. PP was noninferior to RIS-LAI (least squares mean difference [95% CI]: -2.3 [-5.20; 0.63]; predetermined non-inferiority margin: -5.5). Mean (SD) change from baseline to endpoint in Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale score was: -1.5 (1.24; PP group), -1.7 (1.16; RIS-LAI group) and in Personal and Social Performance Scale scores was: 16.8 (14.76; PP group), 18.6 (13.92; RIS-LAI group). The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was similar between the two groups (73% [PP]; 75% [RIS-LAI]). The most common TEAEs were akathisia, tremor, and insomnia. The study demonstrated the noninferiority of PP (50-150 mg eq., flexibly dosed, without oral paliperidone supplementation) to risperidone-LAI (25-50 mg, flexibly dosed, with oral risperidone supplementation) for the treatment of acute schizophrenia in adult Chinese patients. PP injections were generally tolerable, and no new safety signals were detected in this population. PMID:21315787

Li, Huafang; Rui, Qing; Ning, Xiaoping; Xu, Haiyan; Gu, Niufan

2011-06-01

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The cost associated with administering risperidone long-acting injections in the Australian community  

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Abstract Background Risperidone long-acting injection (LAI) is mostly administered twice weekly to people with schizophrenia by nurses at community mental health centres (CMHC) or through mobile outreach visits. This study estimates the cost of resource utilisation associated with the administration of risperidone LAI and the potential savings from substituting two-weekly injections with a longer interval product of therapeutic equivalence. Methods A survey of m...

Dalton Andrew; Lambert Tim; Schrover Rudolf; Hertel Judy; Smith Dell

2011-01-01

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Patient perspectives on use of long-acting antipsychotics in bipolar disorder: focus on risperidone injection  

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Full Text Available L Samalin, T Charpeaud, O Lorabi, PM LlorcaCentre Hospitalier Universitaire, Clermont-Ferrand, FranceAbstract: In the last few years, oral second-generation antipsychotics have demonstrated mood-stabilizing properties and are now widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Unfortunately, treatment of this chronic and complex illness is hampered with poor adherence on the part of patients. Long-acting injectable formulations of second-generation antipsychotics could combine the effect of oral second-generation antipsychotics in patients with bipolar disorder and the benefits of depot formulation with the assurance of steady medication delivery and thereby improve adherence. In this context, the efficacy and tolerance of risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI for maintenance treatment in patients with bipolar disorder is assessed. The relevant studies found RLAI to be effective in preventive treatment of manic but not depressive recurrences in bipolar patients, with good tolerance. RLAI appeared to be particularly suitable for patients with known poor adherence to treatment or severe bipolar disorder (such as patients who relapse frequently. Lastly, if RLAI, unlike the first-generation antipsychotics, does not induce depressive symptoms, the different studies do not enable us to consider its use in monotherapy in the preventive treatment of patients with depressive polarity. Long-acting second-generation antipsychotics in bipolar patients are therefore associated with long-term benefits, but their use in clinical practice needs to be improved.Keywords: bipolar disorder, depot antipsychotics, long-acting risperidone injection, ­maintenance treatment, compliance

L Samalin

2010-08-01

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Successful Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa in a 10-year-old Boy with Risperidone Long-acting Injection  

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Although the effectiveness of medication in the treatment of anorexia nervosa is uncertain, atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine and risperidone have been used empirically for decades. we describe the case of a 10-year-old boy with anorexia nervosa in whom remarkable improvement was seen following the administration of risperidone or risperidone long-acting injection and deterioration when these agents were ceased. Because this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report describing the usefulness of risperidone long-acting injection for adolescent anorexia nervosa.

Iga, Junichi; Ohmori, Tetsuro

2014-01-01

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Successful Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa in a 10-year-old Boy with Risperidone Long-acting Injection.  

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Although the effectiveness of medication in the treatment of anorexia nervosa is uncertain, atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine and risperidone have been used empirically for decades. we describe the case of a 10-year-old boy with anorexia nervosa in whom remarkable improvement was seen following the administration of risperidone or risperidone long-acting injection and deterioration when these agents were ceased. Because this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report describing the usefulness of risperidone long-acting injection for adolescent anorexia nervosa. PMID:24851123

Umehara, Hidehiro; Iga, Junichi; Ohmori, Tetsuro

2014-04-01

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Maintenance therapy with once-monthly administration of long-acting injectable risperidone in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: a pilot study of an extended dosing interval  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Several clinical studies have established the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of long-acting risperidone administered once every 2 weeks in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. This report evaluates preliminary efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for a novel (once-monthly administration of long-acting injectable risperidone 50 mg in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Methods Clinically stable patients participated in a 1-year, open-label, single-arm, multicenter pilot study. During the 4-week lead-in phase, patients received long-acting risperidone 50 mg injections every 2 weeks, with 2 weeks of oral risperidone supplementation. Injections of long-acting risperidone 50 mg every 4 weeks followed for up to 48 weeks, without oral supplementation. The primary endpoint was relapse; other assessments included PANSS, CGI-S, adverse event reports, and determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone plasma concentrations. Results Twelve patients in the intent-to-treat population (n = 67 met relapse criteria (17.9%. Relapse risk at 1 year was estimated as 22.4%. Non-statistically significant improvements in symptoms (PANSS and clinical status (CGI-S at endpoint were observed. The most common adverse events included schizophrenia aggravated not otherwise specified (19.5%, anxiety (16.1%, insomnia (16.1%, and headache (11.5%. There were no unexpected safety and tolerability findings. Mean plasma concentrations for risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were generally stable during the study. Conclusion Once-monthly dosing of long-acting risperidone was well tolerated, associated with a relatively low relapse rate (similar to that reported with other antipsychotics, and maintained the clinically stable baseline status of most patients. Although the results suggest that some symptomatically stable patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder might be safely managed with long-acting risperidone 50 mg once monthly, these findings alone do not identify which patients will have a sufficient therapeutic benefit nor do they quantify comparative effects of standard and altered dosing. Study limitations (the open-label pilot study design, small sample size, and lack of a concurrent biweekly treatment arm prevent broad interpretations and extrapolations of results. Controlled studies would be required to support a recommendation for alternative dosing regimens.

Naessens Ineke

2007-01-01

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The cost associated with administering risperidone long-acting injections in the Australian community  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Risperidone long-acting injection (LAI is mostly administered twice weekly to people with schizophrenia by nurses at community mental health centres (CMHC or through mobile outreach visits. This study estimates the cost of resource utilisation associated with the administration of risperidone LAI and the potential savings from substituting two-weekly injections with a longer interval product of therapeutic equivalence. Methods A survey of mental health staff overseeing the administration of risperidone LAI at 253 distinct Australian CMHCs was undertaken in November 2009. For the two-week period prior to the survey, respondents were asked questions on injection time (and related tasks and, for mobile outreach visits, distance and time travelled as well as reduction in visits. Results were stratified by Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC region. Resource use was quantified and valued in Australian dollars. Results Results are derived from 74 CMHCs, representing approximately 26% of the national average risperidone LAI unit two-week sales. Stratified average injection time (including related tasks for risperidone LAI ranged from 18-29 minutes, with a national average of 20.12 minutes. For mobile outreach visits, average distance per patient ranged from 19.4 to 55.5 km for One Staff Visits and 15.2 to 218.1 km for More Than One Staff Visits, and average time travelled ranged from 34.1 to 54.5 minutes for One Staff Visits and 29.2 to 136.3 minutes for More Than One Staff visits. The upper range consistently reflected greater resource utilisation in rural areas compared to urban areas. If administration of risperidone LAI had not been required, 20% fewer mobile outreach visits would have occurred. Conclusions The national average saving per two-weekly risperidone long-acting injection avoided is $75.14. In 2009 in Australia, this would have saved ~$11 million for injection administration costs alone if all patients taking two-weekly risperidone LAI had instead been treated with a therapeutically equivalent long-acting injectable antipsychotic requiring one less injection per month.

Hertel Judy

2011-09-01

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Costs and efficacy ofolanzapine and risperidone in schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available Introduction: schizophrenia is a serious and long lasting psychiatric disease. The new “atypical” antipsychotic drugs, introduced in the 90s, have substantially improved the effectiveness of medical treatments, compared to previous neuroleptic drugs. Nowadays they tend to be used as first choice drugs. The ddd cost of atypicals may differ by 20% and health authorities may have an incentive to deliver the less costly drug, especially if they are generic. However the various drugs show differential effectiveness rates and a rational choice should consider both cost and effectiveness.?Objective: the purpose of this analysis is to review the existing evidence on cost-effectiveness studies of olanzapine and risperidone, the two most prescribed drugs in Italy. Six published studies were identified, but attention was focused on two articles that reported consistent and methodologically sound results.?Results: most reviewed studies are cost-minimization analyses, since effectiveness indicators show no significant statistical difference between the two drugs, and are inconclusive since the results depend on the evaluation setting. However one observational retrospective study showed a significant severity reduction over 12 months for patients treated with olanzapine (-2.46 on HoNOS scale; p<0.05, compared to a smaller non significant reduction of the risperidone group (-0.57. Despite the higher drug cost, the average total cost per reduced severity score was lower for olanzapine than for risperidone patients (€ 4,554 vs. € 10,897. The only medical and related health care costs for risperidone patients were higher than total costs for olanzapine patients. Another study comparing cohorts of patients with similar starting severity showed a significant severity reduction and global functioning increase over 12 months for olanzapine but no significant increase for risperidone patients (-0.35, p<0.01 on CGI scale; +3.66, p <0.05 on GAF scale, compared respectively to -0.27, p<0.05 and +2.00 n.s.. Again average cost per reduced severity/increased functioning score was higher for risperidone than olanzapine patients (€ 4,568 vs. € 4,170 for CGI and € 2,284 vs. € 1,139 for GAF scales respectively.?Conclusion: the use of olanzapine in the treatment of schizophrenia is the most cost-effective alternative for the SSN (Italian National health service, as it minimizes the cost per score of severity reduction or functioning increase. Even if the price of risperidone were to be reduced by 50% (becoming a generic, total 12 months treatment costs would exceed those of olanzapine in its highest ddd (30 mg.?

Vittorio Mapelli

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Long-acting injectable risperidone in partially adherent and nonadherent patients with schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available Mário Rodrigues Louzã1, Helio Elkis1, Sandra Ruschel2, Irismar Reis de Oliveira3, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan4, Paulo Belmonte-de-Abreu5, Hamilton Grabowski6, José Carlos Appolinário71Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo; 2Hospital Mário Kroeff, Rio de Janeiro; 3Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador; 4Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo; 5Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre; 6Hospital Bom Retiro, Curitiba; 7Janssen-Cilag Farmaceutica Ltda, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Long-acting injectable antipsychotics may improve medication adherence, thereby improving overall treatment effectiveness. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of risperidone long-acting injection in schizophrenic patients switched from oral antipsychotic medication.Methods: In a 12-month, multicenter, open-label, noncomparative study, symptomatically stable patients on oral antipsychotic medication with poor treatment adherence during the previous 12 months received intramuscular injections of risperidone long-acting injection (25 mg starting dose every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score.Results: Of the 60 patients who were screened, 53 received at least one injection (safety population, and 51 provided at least one postbaseline assessment. Mean PANSS total scores improved significantly throughout the study and at endpoint. Significant improvements were also observed in Clinical Global Impression of Severity, Personal and Social Performance, and Drug Attitude Inventory scales. Risperidone long-acting injection was safe and well-tolerated. Severity of movement disorders on the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale was reduced significantly. The most frequently reported adverse events were insomnia (22.6%, increased prolactin (17.0%, and weight gain (13.2%.Conclusion: Risperidone long-acting injection was associated with significant symptomatic improvements in stable patients with schizophrenia following a switch from previous antipsychotic medications.Keywords: patient compliance, adherence, risperidone, delayed-action preparations, schizophrenia

Louzã M

2011-06-01

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[Case of schizophrenia in which depressive and negative symptoms relapsed on switching from oral risperidone to risperidone long-acting injection].  

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I report a case of schizophrenia in which depressive and negative symptoms relapsed on switching from oral risperidone to risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI). The patient, with a 31-year history of schizophrenia, did not fully understand his disease. Therefore, adherence to medication had been extremely poor. The discontinuation of medication led to the recurrence of the disease. After hospital treatment, he was discharged to a group home. From then, the disease had been kept in remission by risperidone at 4 mg/day, and RLAI was introduced for the purpose of further social reintegration and QOL improvement. After starting RLAI at 25 mg, however, a stiff expression and irritability appeared. Therefore, RLAI was increased up to 50 mg, but depressive and negative symptoms relapsed. Subsequently, RLAI was discontinued and oral risperidone was re-administered, and the above mental symptoms improved in a relatively rapid manner. The difference in the ratio of plasma and brain concentrations between each active moiety, risperidone and 9-OH risperidone (paliperidone), resulting from the difference in administration routes, was suggested to be involved as the main factor. In this case, it is likely that positive symptoms did not relapse because plasma concentrations of the active moiety itself were well maintained by introducing RLAI. However, depressive and negative symptoms relapsed possibly as a result of reduced affinity for the alpha2A receptor with relatively decreased plasma concentrations of 9-OH risperidone when compared to oral administration. Another possibility is that negative symptoms were secondary induced by excess administration of antipsychotics, but there has been no such report on RLAI so far. For the reason noted above, careful follow-up is considered necessary when switching from oral risperidone to RLAI because mental symptoms might get worse. PMID:22187885

Mori, Takatoshi

2011-01-01

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Clinical outcomes of long-acting injectable risperidone in patients with schizophrenia: six-month follow-up from the Electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry in Latin America  

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Rogelio Apiquian1, Rodrigo Córdoba2, Mario Louzã31Americas University, Behavior and Development Sciences Division, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Nervous System Research Center-CISNE, Bogota, Colombia; 3Schizophrenia Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) has been shown to be efficacious, improve compliance, and increase long-term retention rate on therapy. The aim of this ...

2010-01-01

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A randomized trial of paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable in schizophrenia.  

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Paliperidone palmitate (PP) is a recently (USA) approved injectable new-generation antipsychotic. This 53-wk, Phase-III double-blind study was designed to assess the non-inferiority of PP to risperidone long-acting injectable (RIS-LAI) in schizophrenia treatment. Acutely symptomatic patients (n=749), with a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score between 60 and 120 were randomly allocated to gluteal injections of either (a) PP: 50 mg eq. on days 1 and 8, and flexible dosing [25-100 mg eq. (i.e. 39-156 mg USA dosing)] once-monthly; or (b) RIS-LAI: bi-weekly injections of 25 mg on days 8 and 22, and flexible dosing (25-50 mg) starting from day 36, with allowed oral supplementation. Patients (n=747) were 59% men, 92% white, mean (s.d.) age of 41 (11.95) yr and 45% (n=339) completed the study. Mean (s.d.) change from baseline to endpoint in PANSS total score was: -11.6 (21.22) PP; and -14.4 (19.76) RIS-LAI (per-protocol analysis set, primary measure); least-squares means difference was -2.6 (95% CI -5.84 to 0.61), with a prespecified 5-point non-inferiority margin. PP's suboptimal dosing regimen (<150 mg eq. initial dose) resulted in lower median plasma levels of the active moiety in PP-treated vs. RIS-LAI-treated patients. Insomnia was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event, with a similar incidence in both groups (15%). PP did not demonstrate comparable efficacy to RIS-LAI, which may be attributable to the initiation dosing strategy employed. Tolerability of both treatments was comparable to previous studies, with no new safety signals detected. PMID:21777507

Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Gopal, Srihari; Lane, Rosanne; Gassmann-Mayer, Cristiana; Lim, Pilar; Hough, David; Remmerie, Bart; Eerdekens, Marielle

2012-02-01

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Minimal injection site pain and high patient satisfaction during treatment with long-acting risperidone.  

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Long-acting injectable antipsychotic formulations of conventional antipsychotics were developed to address the problem of partial adherence among patients with schizophrenia. Injection site pain, other skin reactions and patient satisfaction with treatment were assessed in two large, multicentre studies of long-acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal CONSTA, Janssen Pharmaceutica Products, Titusville, New Jersey, USA), the first available long-acting atypical antipsychotic agent. Patients rated injection site pain using a 100-mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and investigators rated injection site pain, redness, swelling and induration. Patient satisfaction with treatment was assessed with the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI). VAS pain ratings were low at all visits across all doses in both studies, and decreased from first to final injection. In the 12-week, double-blind study, mean +/- SD VAS scores at the first and final injections were 15.6 +/- 20.7 and 12.5 +/- 18.3 for placebo-treated patients, and 11.8 +/- 14.4 (first) and 10.0 +/- 12.4 (final) for 25 mg; 16.3+/-21.9 (first) and 13.6 +/- 21.7 (final) for 50 mg; and 16.0 +/- 17.9 (first) and 9.6 +/- 16.0 (final, P<0.01) for 75 mg of long-acting risperidone. Mean VAS scores in the 50-week, open-label study at the first and final injection were: 17.9 +/- 22.2 (first) and 9.5 +/- 16.7 (final, P<0.0001) for 25 mg; 18.1 +/- 19.7 (first) and 10.4 +/- 14.8 (final, P<0.0001) for 50 mg; and 18.5 +/- 21.6 (first) and 13.6 +/- 19.9 (final, P = 0.0001) for 75 mg of long-acting risperidone. Overall, there was no or minimal injection site pain and skin reactions were rare. Mean DAI ratings were available for the 50-week study and indicated high patient satisfaction throughout the trial (baseline = 7.30; endpoint = 7.70; P<0.0001 versus baseline). These findings may positively affect patient and clinician attitudes towards long-term therapy with long-acting injectable risperidone. PMID:15933482

Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Jarboe, Kathleen; Bossie, Cynthia A; Zhu, Young; Mehnert, Angelika; Lasser, Robert

2005-07-01

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Use of long-acting risperidone in psychiatric disorders: focus on efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness.  

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Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder, usually necessitating lifelong treatment. Although atypical antipsychotic agents have improved outcomes in schizophrenia, their clinical potential remains limited by patients' nonadherence to medication. Long-acting antipsychotics were developed in the 1960s to enhance treatment adherence and simplify the medication process. However, although conventional long-acting agents assure medication delivery, they are associated with similar side effects to their oral equivalents. The need for an agent combining the advantages of a long-acting formulation with those of an atypical antipsychotic was highlighted in 1997 by the American Psychiatric Association's Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Schizophrenia. The first long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta, Johnson & Johnson), has since been developed. This article discusses the efficacy, tolerability and cost-effectiveness of long-acting risperidone in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, and suggests possibilities for how its role in clinical practice may change over the next 5 years. PMID:19102665

Keith, Samuel

2009-01-01

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Changes in prolactin levels and sexual functioning after switching from long-acting injectable risperidone to paliperidone palmitate in young psychotic patients: a case series  

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Statement of the problem : Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics have been developed to increase compliance in schizophrenia. Risperidone-LAI was the first LAI atypical antipsychotic, as a biweekly injection. Paliperidone Palmitate (PP) is a recently developed LAI atypical antipsychotic that is administered monthly. PP is hydrolized to paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone), the primary active metabolite of risperidone. Although both risperidone and paliperidone are associated with increas...

Itziar Montalvo; Laura Ortega; Pez, Xavi L. X. F.; Montse Solé; Rosa Monseny; Joan Franch; Javier Labad

2012-01-01

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Paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable in subjects with schizophrenia recently treated with oral risperidone or other oral antipsychotics  

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Larry Alphs,1 Cynthia A Bossie,1 Jennifer Kern Sliwa,2 Dong-Jing Fu,1 Yi-Wen Ma,3 Joseph Hulihan11CNS Medical Affairs, 2Medical Information, Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA; 3Biostatistics, B&P, Janssen Research & Development LLC, Titusville, NJ, USABackground: This post hoc subgroup analysis of a randomized, double-blind trial evaluated the response to treatment with two long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotics, ie, paliperidone palmitate and risperidone lo...

Alphs L; Ca, Bossie; Jk, Sliwa; Dj, Fu; Yw, Ma; Hulihan J

2013-01-01

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Pharmacokinetics and D2 receptor occupancy of long-acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal Consta) in patients with schizophrenia.  

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Thirteen patients with schizophrenia received injections of 25, 50, or 75 mg of long-acting risperidone every 2 wk. Brain D2 receptor occupancy was assessed with [11C]raclopride 2 wk after the last (fifth) injection (day 71) in seven subjects and 2 wk after the third injection (day 44) in one subject. Stable plasma concentrations were reached after the third injection and steady-state concentrations of the active moiety (risperidone + 9-hydroxyrisperidone) after the fourth injection. Steady-state plasma concentrations were maintained for 4-5 wk after the last injection and then declined rapidly. After injections of 25, 50 and 75 mg on day 44 or day 71, D2 receptor occupancy ranged from 25-48%, 59-83% and 62-72% respectively, while plasma active-moiety levels ranged from 4.4-8.8, 15.0-31.1 and 22.5-26.3 ng/ml respectively. The results indicate that brain D2 receptor occupancy at steady state after injections of long-acting risperidone was in the range found in patients effectively treated with 2-6 mg of oral risperidone. PMID:15710053

Gefvert, Ola; Eriksson, Bo; Persson, Per; Helldin, Lars; Björner, Annika; Mannaert, Erik; Remmerie, Bart; Eerdekens, Mariëlle; Nyberg, Svante

2005-03-01

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Efficacy and safety of risperidone oral solution in agitation associated with dementia in the elderly  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD contribute to caregiver burden and institutionalization of elderly. Neuroleptics are prescribed to control agitation. Side effects of typical neuroleptics are harmful, making atypical neuroleptics an indication. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of risperidone oral solution (ROS given once daily to demented elderly outpatients with BPSD (agitation. METHOD: Patients (n=26, 76.35±8.63 years, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. (DSM-IV criteria for dementia. RSO was given, starting dose of 0.25 mg and increments of 0.25 mg every week. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE assessed cognitive status, Behavioral and Emotional Activities Manifested in Dementia (BEAM-D and Clinical Global Impression (CGI measured BPSD, Extrapiramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS evaluated extrapyramidal symptoms. Cardiovascular side effects were evaluated clinically. RESULTS: There was a 26% reduction in agitation and no cardiovascular side effects in the range from 1.0 to 1.25 mg. Side effects were more prevalent above 2.5 mg. CONCLUSION: Risperidone oral solution improved agitation with good tolerability from 0.5 to 1.25 mg. A single dose with increments of 0.25 mg may be more acceptable to patients and caregivers.

Laks Jerson

2001-01-01

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An open-label, multicenter evaluation of the long-term safety and efficacy of risperidone in adolescents with schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the long-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of risperidone in adolescents with schizophrenia are limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of maintenance risperidone treatment in adolescents with schizophrenia. Methods This open-label study of adolescents aged 13 to 17 years with schizophrenia was a single extension study of two short-term double-blind risperidone studies and also enrolled subjects directly in open-label risperidone treatment. The risperidone dose was flexible and ranged from 2 to 6 mg/day. Most subjects enrolled for 6 months; a subset enrolled for 12 months. Assessment tools included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total and factor scores, Clinical Global Impressions, Children’s Global Assessment Scale, adverse event (AE monitoring, vital signs, laboratory testing, and extrapyramidal symptom rating scales. Results A total of 390 subjects were enrolled; 48 subjects had received placebo in a previous double-blind study; 292 subjects had received risperidone as part of their participation in one of two previous controlled studies; and 50 subjects were enrolled directly for this study. A total of 279 subjects enrolled for 6 months of treatment, and 111 subjects enrolled for 12 months of treatment. Overall, 264 (67.7% subjects completed this study: 209 of the 279 subjects (75% in the 6-month group and 55 of the 111 subjects (50% in the 12-month group. The median mode dose was 3.8 mg/day. At 6 months, all three groups experienced improvement from open-label baseline in symptoms of schizophrenia as well as general assessments of global functioning. Improvements were generally maintained for the duration of treatment. The most common AEs (?10% of subjects were somnolence, headache, weight increase, hypertonia, insomnia, tremor, and psychosis. Potentially prolactin-related AEs (PPAEs were reported by 36 (9% subjects. The AE profile in this study was qualitatively similar to those of other studies in adult subjects with schizophrenia and in other psychiatric studies of risperidone in pediatric populations. Conclusions Risperidone maintenance treatment in adolescents over 6 to 12 months was well tolerated, consistent with related studies in this clinical population, and associated with continued efficacy. Clinical trials ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00246285 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00246285?term=NCT00246285&rank=1

Pandina Gahan

2012-06-01

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[Paliperidone, risperidone].  

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Risperidone, a serotonin-dopamine antagonist, is effective in preventing delusions and hallucinations by D2 receptor antagonism and treating negative symptoms by 5-HT2A receptor antagonism. It is less likely to produce extrapyramidal symptoms than conventional antipsychotics, enabling safe drug therapy for schizophrenia. Paliperidone, based on 9OH-risperidone(major metabolite of risperidone), was developed to make the best use of the high therapeutic efficacy of Risperdal and enable continued treatment with lower prevalence of adverse events. Its mechanism of action as an extended-release tablet ensures slow release of the active ingredient, contributing to the lower prevalence of adverse events. With these pharmacological characteristics in mind, the two drugs can serve as safe and effective drug therapy. PMID:23678595

Takeuchi, Katsuya; Sanjo, Katsumi; Sakai, Akio

2013-04-01

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Risperidone long-acting injectable (Risperdal Consta®) for maintenance treatment in patients with bipolar disorder.  

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Poor adherence to pharmacotherapy during maintenance-phase treatment of bipolar disorder is a common occurrence, exposing patients to a high risk of illness relapses, rehospitalization and other negative outcomes. In view of this, there has been a reawakening of interest in the potential of long-acting injectable antipsychotic medications to improve treatment outcome during bipolar maintenance therapy. Indeed, long-acting injectable medications have practical advantages of assuring delivery of medication at a prescribed dose, and perhaps also making it easier to monitor adherence, at least to the long-acting drug. However, there are important limitations to the long-term use of depot typical neuroleptics in patients with bipolar disorder, including risk of extrapyramidal side effects and tardive dyskinesia, which may exceed that of patients with schizophrenia, and the potential for treatment-emergent exacerbation of depressive symptoms. Long-acting injectable risperidone (RLAI) has recently been approved for maintenance treatment in patients with bipolar I disorder. Evidence supporting the use of RLAI for this indication consists of several nonrandomized, open-label studies; one randomized, open-label trial; and two adequately powered randomized, double-blind trials. In general, these studies have shown RLAI to be effective for the prevention of relapse or hospitalization during bipolar maintenance treatment. In the double-blind studies, RLAI was associated with reduced relapse rates, increased time to relapse and greater control of clinical symptoms during maintenance treatment following initial stabilization, compared with oral medication treatment or placebo injection. RLAI appeared to be more effective for preventing manic/mixed episodes than depressive episodes. RLAI showed good tolerability across studies; however, dose-related extrapyramidal effects, sedation, weight gain and prolactin elevation may occur during long-term treatment. Responder-enriched designs and exclusion of important clinical subgroups in the double-blind trials may limit translation of these results to routine care settings. PMID:20977322

Bobo, William V; Shelton, Richard C

2010-11-01

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Relapse Prevention in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder with Risperidone Long-Acting Injectable vs Quetiapine: Results of a Long-Term, Open-Label, Randomized Clinical Trial  

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Chronic management of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders is frequently complicated by symptomatic relapse. An open-label, randomized, active-controlled, 2-year trial evaluated 710 patients with schizophrenia or related disorders who were switched from stable treatment with oral risperidone, olanzapine, or conventional neuroleptics to risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) or oral quetiapine. Primary effectiveness evaluation was time-to-relapse. Safety evaluations included adverse ...

2010-01-01

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Are the long-acting intramuscular formulations of risperidone or paliperidone palmitate associated with post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome? An assessment of safety databases.  

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Long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations of antipsychotics are valuable treatment alternatives for patients with psychotic disorders, and understanding their safe use is critical. Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS) has been reported following treatment with one atypical antipsychotic LAI. Clinical databases of risperidone LAI and paliperidone palmitate were explored to identify if cases of PDSS had been observed. No cases of PDSS were identified in 15 completed trials of 3,164 subjects (approximately 115,000 injections) or the postmarketing safety database of risperidone LAI. Only one case of PDSS was identified among 10 completed trials (3,817 subjects, 33,906 injections) of paliperidone palmitate-that case having been reported in a patient randomized to treatment with placebo. Examination of these prospective databases finds no evidence that risperidone LAI and paliperidone palmitate are associated with PDSS and suggest that findings seen with another antipsychotic LAI are not generalizable. PMID:21047303

Alphs, Larry; Gopal, Srihari; Karcher, Keith; Kent, Justine; Sliwa, Jennifer Kern; Kushner, Stuart; Nuamah, Isaac; Singh, Jaskaran

2011-02-01

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A six month randomized controlled trial of long acting injectable risperidone 50 and 100mg in treatment resistant schizophrenia.  

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It has been suggested that atypical antipsychotic drugs (A-APDs) other than clozapine may be effective to improve positive symptoms in some patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), if both the dose is higher, and the duration of the trial longer, than those which have been ineffective in non-TRS (NTRS) patients. This hypothesis was tested with long acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal Consta®, RLAI). One hundred sixty TRS patients selected for persistent moderate-severe delusions or hallucinations, or both, were randomized to RLAI, 50 or 100mg biweekly, in a six month, outpatient, double-blind, multicenter trial. We hypothesized that RLAI, 100mg, would be more effective than RLAI, 50mg. However, both doses produced clinically significant and equivalent improvement in PANSS Total, Positive, and Negative subscale scores, as well as key cognitive, global and functional measures, with increasing response during the course of the study, confirming the value of longer clinical trial duration for patients with TRS, but not superiority of the higher dose. The overall response rate was comparable to that previously reported for clozapine and high dose olanzapine, another A-APD, in TRS. Both doses of RLAI were equally well tolerated, producing minimal extrapyramidal side effects and few drop outs. Plasma levels of the active moiety, risperidone+9-hydroxyrisperidone, during treatment with RLAI 100mg, were comparable to those for 6-8 mg/day oral risperidone, which have not been effective in TRS. Further study of RLAI, ? 50-100mg biweekly, should compare it with clozapine and oral risperidone in TRS, with duration of treatment ? six months. PMID:24630262

Meltzer, H Y; Lindenmayer, J-P; Kwentus, J; Share, D B; Johnson, R; Jayathilake, K

2014-04-01

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Clinical utility of the risperidone formulations in the management of schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available Vishal Madaan1, Durga P Bestha2, Venkata Kolli2, Saurabh Jauhari2, Roger C Burket1 1University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 2Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA Abstract: Risperidone is one of the early second-generation antipsychotics that came into the limelight in the early 1990s. Both the oral and long-acting injectable formulations have been subject to numerous studies to assess their safety, efficacy, and tolerability. Risperidone is currently one of the most widely prescribed antipsychotic medications, used for both acute and long-term maintenance in schizophrenia. Risperidone has better efficacy in the treatment of psychotic symptoms than placebo and possibly many first-generation antipsychotics. Risperidone fares better than placebo and first-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of negative symptoms. Risperidone's long acting injectable preparation has been well tolerated and is often useful in patients with medication nonadherence. Risperidone has a higher risk of hyperprolactinemia comparable to first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs but fares better than many second-generation antipsychotics with regards to metabolic side effects. In this article, we briefly review the recent literature exploring the role of risperidone formulations in schizophrenia, discuss clinical usage, and highlight the controversies and challenges associated with its use. Keywords: risperidone, schizophrenia, formulation, antipsychotic, side effects

Madaan V

2011-10-01

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Clinical outcomes of long-acting injectable risperidone in patients with schizophrenia: six-month follow-up from the Electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry in Latin America  

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Full Text Available Rogelio Apiquian1, Rodrigo Córdoba2, Mario Louzã31Americas University, Behavior and Development Sciences Division, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Nervous System Research Center-CISNE, Bogota, Colombia; 3Schizophrenia Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI has been shown to be efficacious, improve compliance, and increase long-term retention rate on therapy. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of RLAI on clinical outcome and hospitalization rate in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder enrolled in the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry in Latin America.Methods: Data were collected at baseline, retrospectively for the 12 months prior to baseline, and prospectively every three months for 24 months. Hospitalization prior to therapy was assessed by a retrospective chart review. Efficacy and functioning were evaluated using Clinical Global Impression of Illness Severity (CGI-S, Personal and Social Performance (PSP, and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scores. Relapse and treatment were also registered.Results: Patients were recruited in Mexico (n = 53, Brazil (n = 11, and Colombia (n = 15. Sixty-five percent (n = 52 were male, and mean age was 32.9 years. Patients were classified as having schizophrenia (n = 73 or schizoaffective disorder (n = 6. The mean dose of RLAI at six months was 34.1 mg (standard deviation = 10.2 mg. The percentage of hospitalized patients before treatment was 28.2% and 5.1% at six months after initiating RLAI (P < 0.001. Significant changes were registered on CGI-S, GAF, and PSP scores.Conclusions: RLAI was associated with an improvement in clinical symptoms and functioning, and a greater reduction in hospitalization.Keywords: long-acting, risperidone, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, Latin America

Mario Louzã

2010-12-01

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Are the Long-Acting Intramuscular Formulations of Risperidone or Paliperidone Palmitate Associated with Post-Injection Delirium/Sedation Syndrome? An Assessment of Safety Databases  

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Long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations of antipsychotics are valuable treatment alternatives for patients with psychotic disorders, and understanding their safe use is critical. Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS) has been reported following treatment with one atypical antipsychotic LAI. Clinical databases of risperidone LAI and paliperidone palmitate were explored to identify if cases of PDSS had been observed.

Alphs, Larry; Gopal, Srihari; Karcher, Keith; Kent, Justine; Kern Sliwa, Jennifer; Kushner, Stuart; Nuamah, Isaac; Singh, Jaskaran

2011-01-01

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Preparation and in-vitro characterization of Risperidone-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes as a potential injectable product  

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Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study: This investigation deals with risperidone cyclodextrin (CD complexation for parenteral administration to improve its aqueous solubility which would be beneficial over immediate and sustained release formulations available in market especially for agitated and non-cooperative psychotic patients. "nMethods: The phase solubility study of the drug with ?-CD, hydroxypropyl (HP-?-CD and ?-CD was conducted and CDs with higher stability constants were selected for complexation. The complexes of Risperidone with ?-CD and HP-?-CD were prepared by precipitation and vacuum drying methods, respectively. Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for characterization of complexes. Drug precipitation study of complex's solution in water for injection and 100 ml of 0.1 M pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline and stability study in accelerated condition were also carried out. "nResults: The stability constants of the CD were in the following order: ?-CD (341.953±11.87 M-1 > HP-?-CD (170.817± 5.93 M-1 > ?-CD (93.716 ± 3.25 M-1. CDs with high stability constants were selected to prepare the drug CD complex. The complexation efficiencies of ?-CD and HP-?-CD were 95.23 ± 2.27% and 97.59 ±1.97%, respectively. Both types of CDs exhibited complexation at 1:2 molar stoichiometric ratio. The drug precipitation study indicated complete solubility (100% drug dissolution without a trace of precipitate within 5 mins. The complexes were found to be stable for a period of 3 months under accelerated stability conditions. Major conclusion:Stable complexes of risperidone were successfully formulated using both ?-CD and HP-?-CD by simple and highly efficient methods of complexation for parenteral administration.

D Shukla

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Clinical utility of the risperidone formulations in the management of schizophrenia  

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Vishal Madaan1, Durga P Bestha2, Venkata Kolli2, Saurabh Jauhari2, Roger C Burket1 1University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 2Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA Abstract: Risperidone is one of the early second-generation antipsychotics that came into the limelight in the early 1990s. Both the oral and long-acting injectable formulations have been subject to numerous studies to assess their safety, efficacy, and tolerability. Risperidone is currently one...

2011-01-01

42

Atypical presentation of tardive dyskinesia associated with risperidone long-acting injection as maintenance treatment in bipolar affective disorder: a case report.  

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Second-generation antipsychotics have been growingly implicated in the acute and maintenance treatment for bipolar affective disorder (BAD). Risperidone long-acting injection (LAI) has been the first second-generation depot indicated for its maintenance treatment. However, its long-term motor side-effects, especially tardive dyskinesia (TD), has not been commonly reported or studied. The case reported here a bipolar patient with atypical presentation of TD involving only the crico-hyoid region of the neck associated with the use of risperidone LAI in adjunct to lithium and sodium valproate as maintenance therapy. PMID:22663952

Chung, Albert K K

2012-02-01

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Paliperidone palmitate injection: Its efficacy, safety and tolerability in schizophrenia.  

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Intramuscular paliperidone palmitate is a long-acting atypical antipsychotic, which is currently marketed in the U.S. for the acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adults. Paliperidone is the active 9-hydroxy metabolite of risperidone. After intramuscular injection, paliperidone palmitate is slowly hydrolyzed to paliperidone with a mean half-life of 24-49 days, depending on the dose. Four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of 9-13-weeks duration, demonstrated the efficacy of paliperidone palmitate (25-150 mg equivalents [eq.]) in improving the symptoms of acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. As maintenance therapy, paliperidone palmitate (25-100 mg eq.) was significantly more effective than placebo in delaying the time to first relapse in stable schizophrenia patients. Overall, paliperidone palmitate was shown to be well tolerated. It is available as prefilled syringes embracing a wide dose range (25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mg eq.), and requires no refrigeration, reconstitution or oral antipsychotic supplementation. PMID:20683501

Owen, R T

2010-07-01

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Efficacy and safety of long acting injectable atypical antipsychotics: a review.  

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Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe and recurrent brain disorder that requires continuous, long-term treatment with antipsychotic medication to minimize relapse and provide clinical benefit to patients. For patients with schizophrenia, non-adherence to medication is a major risk factor for relapse and re-hospitalization. Long-acting injectable formulations of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs-LAIs) provide constant medication delivery and the potential for improved adherence. Currently, three drugs are available for the treatment of schizophrenia, risperidone longacting injectable, olanzapine pamoate and paliperidone palmitate. Several studies have also demonstrated efficacy and safety of such drugs in patients with acute schizophrenia. In the present paper the literature on LAI atypical antipsychotics will be reviewed and practical advice will be given concerning the use of these drugs in the clinical practice. PMID:23343445

De Berardis, Domenico; Marini, Stefano; Carano, Alessandro; Lang, Antonella Padovan; Cavuto, Marilde; Piersanti, Monica; Fornaro, Michele; Perna, Giampaolo; Valchera, Alessandro; Mazza, Monica; Iasevoli, Felice; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

2013-08-01

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A double-blind study of paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable in adults with schizophrenia.  

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This 13-week double-blind study was designed to assess noninferiority of the recently approved (in the U.S.) injectable atypical antipsychotic paliperidone palmitate (PP) versus risperidone long-acting injectable (RIS-LAI) in adult patients with schizophrenia. Patients (N=1220) were randomized (1:1) to either a) PP: deltoid injections on day 1 (150 mg eq.), day 8 (100 mg eq.), and once-monthly flexible dosing as deltoid or gluteal injections on day 36 (50 mg eq. or 100 mg eq.) and day 64 (50 mg eq. or 100 mg eq. or 150 mg eq.) or b) RIS-LAI: gluteal injections days 8 and 22 (25mg), days 36, 50 (25 or 37.5mg) and days 64, 78 (25, 37.5 or 50mg). RIS-LAI-treated patients received oral supplementation with RIS 1-6 mg/day (days 1 to 28), and PP-treated patients received oral placebo. The safety analysis set (n=1214) included 58% men, 78% white, with mean (SD) baseline PANSS total score: PP, 84.1 (12.09); and RIS-LAI, 83.6 (11.28). Mean (SD) change from baseline to endpoint in PANSS total score decreased similarly in both groups; PP (-18.6 [15.45]) and RIS-LAI (-17.9 [14.24]). PP treatment was noninferior to RIS-LAI (point estimate [95% CI]: 0.4 [-1.62;2.38], per-protocol analysis set [primary analysis]). The tolerability and safety of PP was generally similar to RIS-LAI with no new safety or tolerability findings. PMID:21092748

Pandina, Gahan; Lane, Rosanne; Gopal, Srihari; Gassmann-Mayer, Cristiana; Hough, David; Remmerie, Bart; Simpson, George

2011-01-15

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Treatment-completion rates with olanzapine long-acting injection versus risperidone long-acting injection in a 12-month, open-label treatment of schizophrenia: indirect, exploratory comparisons  

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Full Text Available Haya Ascher-Svanum1, William S Montgomery2, David P McDonnell3, Kristina A Coleman4, Peter D Feldman11Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, New South Wales, Australia; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Cork, Ireland; 4OptumInsight, Lilyfield, New South Wales, AustraliaBackground: Little is known about the comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in long-acting injection formulation. Due to the absence of head-to-head studies comparing olanzapine long-acting injection and risperidone long-acting injection, this study was intended to make exploratory, indirect, cross-study comparisons between the long-acting formulations of these two atypical antipsychotics in their effectiveness in treating patients with schizophrenia.Methods: Indirect, cross-study comparisons between olanzapine long-acting injection and risperidone long-acting injection used 12-month treatment-completion rates, because discontinuation of an antipsychotic for any cause is a recognized proxy measure of the medication's effectiveness in treating schizophrenia. Following a systematic review of the literature, two indirect comparisons were conducted using open-label, single-cohort studies in which subjects were stabilized on an antipsychotic medication before depot initiation. The first analysis compared olanzapine long-acting injection (one study with pooled data from nine identified risperidone long-acting injection studies. The second analysis was a “sensitivity analysis,” using only the most similar studies, one for olanzapine long-acting injection and one for risperidone long-acting injection, which shared near-identical study designs and involved study cohorts with near-identical patient characteristics. Pearson Chi-square tests assessed group differences on treatment-completion rates.Results: Comparison of olanzapine long-acting injection data (931 patients with the pooled data from the nine risperidone long-acting injection studies (3950 patients provided almost identical 12-month treatment-completion rates (72.7% versus 72.4%; P = 0.87. When the two most similar studies were compared, the 12-month completion rate for olanzapine long-acting injection was significantly higher than for risperidone long-acting injection (81.3% versus 47.0%; P < 0.001. However, any conclusions drawn from this comparison may be limited by differences in the studies' geographic catchment areas.Conclusion: Using treatment-completion rates as a proxy measure of medication effectiveness, olanzapine long-acting injection did not differ significantly from risperidone long-acting injection when including all eligible studies. However, the findings of this exploratory analysis should be interpreted with caution, considering the methodological limitations of these indirect, cross-study comparisons.Keywords: antipsychotic drugs, intramuscular injection, olanzapine, risperidone, schizophrenia

Ascher-Svanum H

2012-05-01

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DELUSIONAL PARASITOSIS RESPONDING TO RISPERIDONE  

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Delusional parasitosis (DP) appears to be common in India. This condition is more prevalent in elderly people. Currently used treatment pimozide, a high potency antipsychotic, has disadvantage of extra-pyramidal symptoms & tardive dyskinesia in this age group. Hence there is a need to evaluate the use of high potency atypical antipsychotic risperidone in DP. This case report documents the efficacy of risperidone in DP.

Gowda, B. S. Narayana; Heebbar, S.; Sathyanarayana, M. T.

2002-01-01

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Changes in prolactin levels and sexual function in young psychotic patients after switching from long-acting injectable risperidone to paliperidone palmitate.  

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Hyperprolactinaemia is a significant side effect of antipsychotic medications and may cause sexual dysfunction. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of switching from long-acting injectable (LAI) risperidone to paliperidone palmitate (PP) on sexual function and prolactin levels in patients with psychosis. We carried out a prospective observational study during a 3-month period that involved 11 patients with psychosis treated with risperidone-LAI who suffered from hyperprolactinaemia and who were then switched to PP. Two assessments were completed: the first one before the switch and the second one 3 months after the switch. These assessments measured sexual function using the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale and assessed prolactin levels. Our results showed a significant decrease in serum prolactin levels (P=0.041). We observed a four-fold reduction in clinically significant sexual dysfunction that is suggestive of benefit, although the sample size is too small to be sure. Our study suggests that prolactin levels seem to decrease after switching from risperidone-LAI to PP in patients with a psychotic disorder. PMID:23232756

Montalvo, Itziar; Ortega, Laura; López, Xavi; Solé, Montse; Monseny, Rosa; Franch, Joan; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

2013-01-01

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Effectiveness of injectable risperidone long-acting therapy for schizophrenia: data from the US, Spain, Australia, and Belgium  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Because wide variations in mental health care utilization exist throughout the world, determining long-term effectiveness of psychotropic medications in a real-world setting would be beneficial to physicians and patients. The purpose of this analysis was to describe the effectiveness of injectable risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT for schizophrenia across countries. Methods This was a pragmatic analysis of data from two prospective observational studies conducted in the US (Schizophrenia Outcomes Utilization Relapse and Clinical Evaluation [SOURCE]; ClinicalTrials.gov registration number for the SOURCE study: NCT00246194 and Spain, Australia, and Belgium (electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry [eSTAR]. Two separate analyses were performed to assess clinical improvement during the study and estimate psychiatric hospitalization rates before and after RLAT initiation. Clinical improvement was evaluated using the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scales, and change from baseline was evaluated using paired t tests. Psychiatric hospitalization rates were analyzed using incidence densities, and the bootstrap resampling method was used to examine differences between the pre-baseline and post-baseline periods. Results The initial sample comprised 3,069 patients (US, n = 532; Spain, n = 1,345; Australia, n = 784; and Belgium, n = 408. In all, 24 months of study participation, completed by 39.3% (n = 209, 62.7% (n = 843, 45.8% (n = 359, and 64.2% (n = 262 of patients from the US, Spain, Australia, and Belgium, respectively, were included in the clinical analysis. Improvements compared with baseline were observed on both clinical assessments across countries (P P P Conclusions RLAT in patients with schizophrenia was associated with improvements in clinical and functional outcomes and decreased hospitalization rates in the US, Spain, Australia, and Belgium, despite differences in health care delivery systems.

Macfadden Wayne

2011-04-01

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Risperidone and Pregnancy  

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... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Risperidone and Pregnancy This sheet talks about the risks ... advice from your health care provider. What is risperidone? Risperidone is a medication used in the treatment ...

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Effects of Risperidone and Paliperidone Pretreatment on Locomotor Response Following Prenatal Immune Activation  

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Aim Limited data are available regarding pharmacological characteristics of effective interventions for psychosis prevention. Enrollment challenges in psychosis prevention trials impede screening diverse interventions for efficacy. Relevant animal models could help circumvent this barrier. We previously described prevention with risperidone of abnormal behavior following neonatal hippocampal lesion. We aimed to extend those findings evaluating risperidone and paliperidone following prenatal immune activation, a developmental model of a schizophrenia risk factor. We evaluated a later developmental time point to determine persistent effects of drug treatment. Methods Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with poly I:C or saline on gestational day 14. Offspring of poly I:C and saline treated dams received risperidone (0.45 mg/kg/d), paliperidone (0.05 mg/kg/d), or vehicle from postnatal days 35 to 70. Locomotor responses to novelty, saline injection, and amphetamine (1 and 5 mg/kg) were determined at three months, i.e., 21 days following antipsychotic discontinuation. Results Risperidone and paliperidone had persistent effects on behavioral response to amphetamine (1 mg/kg) at 3 months, ameliorating the impact of prenatal immune activation on offspring of poly I:C-treated dams. Risperidone, but not paliperidone, also exerted persistent effects in offspring of saline-treated dams on locomotor response to saline and amphetamine (5 mg/kg) injection. Conclusions Risperidone and paliperidone pretreatment of poly I:C offspring during peri-pubertal development stabilized response to amphetamine exposure persisting into early adulthood. Prenatal immune activation provides a model for evaluating effects of an environmental risk factor for schizophrenia, and has potential utility for identifying pharmacological approaches to early intervention.

Richtand, Neil M.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul; Stanford, Kevin; Bronson, Stefanie L.; McNamara, Robert K.

2011-01-01

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Efficacy and safety of risperidone oral solution in agitation associated with dementia in the elderly Eficácia e segurança de risperidona solução oral na agitação associada a demência em idosos  

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BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) contribute to caregiver burden and institutionalization of elderly. Neuroleptics are prescribed to control agitation. Side effects of typical neuroleptics are harmful, making atypical neuroleptics an indication. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of risperidone oral solution (ROS) given once daily to demented elderly outpatients with BPSD (agitation). METHOD: Patients (n=26), 76.35±8.63 years, Diagnostic and ...

Jerson Laks; Eliasz Engelhardt; Valeska Marinho; Marcia Rozenthal; Souza, Fernando Castro E.; Josué Bacaltchuk; Alberto Stoppe Jr.; Ferreira, R. C. R.; Cassio Bottino; Mônica Scalco

2001-01-01

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Pharmacology and clinical experience with risperidone.  

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Risperidone (Risperdal, Janssen Pharmaceutica) is a second generation antipsychotic (SGA) for the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. It is a potent antagonist of serotonin-2 (5-HT2) and dopamine-2 (D2) receptors in the brain. In comparison to conventional antipsychotics, risperidone demonstrates superior efficacy against the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and a decreased occurrence of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). Risperidone causes less weight gain than other marketed SGAs, but can increase prolactin levels and cause EPS in a dose-related manner. In a variety of pharmacoeconomic analyses, it has proven to be a cost-effective addition to the antipsychotic armamentarium. As the first SGA available for front line use, risperidone has established a new standard of care for the treatment of individuals with psychotic disorders. PMID:11249477

Love, R C; Nelson, M W

2000-12-01

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Risperidone long-acting injection in the treatment of schizophrenia: 24-month results from the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry in Canada  

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Full Text Available Richard Williams,1 Ranjith Chandrasena,2 Linda Beauclair,3 Doanh Luong,4 Annette Lam4 On behalf of the e-STAR study group 1Vancouver Island Health Authority, Victoria, BC, Canada; 2Chatham-Kent Health Alliance, Chatham, ON, Canada; 3Allan Memorial Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4Janssen Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: To assess outcomes over 24 months in Canadian patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI and participating in the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR. Materials and methods: Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled from 24 sites after an independent decision to initiate RLAI. Subsequent patient management was based on usual clinical practice at each site and was not protocol-driven. Relevant data were collected retrospectively by chart review for 12 months prior to RLAI and prospectively for 24 months following RLAI initiation. Results: Patients (n=188 had a mean age of 39.2 years, were 66.3% male, and 27.7% were inpatients at baseline. Twenty-four months after initiating therapy (initial dose =28.7 mg, 34.1% (95% confidence interval 27.2%–42.2% of patients had discontinued RLAI with a mean time to discontinuation of 273.4±196 days. Over the treatment period, there were significant (P<0.001 changes from baseline in Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S; 3.48 versus [vs] 4.31 at baseline, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF; 56.1 vs 48.1, and Personal and Social Performance (PSP; 59.1 vs 46.9 scale scores. In addition, after 12 months, there were significant (P<0.001 decreases in the percentage of patients hospitalized (23.9% vs 58.5% pre-RLAI, mean length of stay (11.4 vs 30.4 days, and number of hospitalizations (0.32 vs 0.87 compared to the 12-month pre-RLAI period. Reductions in hospitalization continued into the second 12 months of therapy, when only 9% of patients were hospitalized and mean length of stay was 2.0 days. Conclusion: In a routine clinical practice setting, patients switched to RLAI showed significant improvements in clinical outcomes and in global and social functioning, and hospitalization was significantly reduced. The data confirm that RLAI provides effective long-term management of schizophrenia in Canada. Keywords: schizophrenia, Canada, risperidone long-acting injection, e-STAR

Williams R

2014-02-01

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Acute risperidone overdose.  

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Risperidone (Risperdal) is a recently released novel antipsychotic medication. It is different from the conventional neuroleptics, such as haloperidol, as it has both serotinergic and dopaminergic activity. It has a more tolerable side-effect profile compared with other antipsychotic medications. We review the literature regarding the side effects of risperidone use, describe a case of overdose with risperidone, and discuss the clinical sequelae and management of such an overdose. PMID:9037577

Catalano, G; Catalano, M C; Taylor, W

1997-02-01

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Risperidone long-acting injection in the treatment of schizophrenia: 24-month results from the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry in Canada  

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Objective To assess outcomes over 24 months in Canadian patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) and participating in the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR). Materials and methods Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled from 24 sites after an independent decision to initiate RLAI. Subsequent patient management was based on usual clinical practice at each site and was not protocol-driven. Relevant data were collected retrospectively by chart review for 12 months prior to RLAI and prospectively for 24 months following RLAI initiation. Results Patients (n=188) had a mean age of 39.2 years, were 66.3% male, and 27.7% were inpatients at baseline. Twenty-four months after initiating therapy (initial dose =28.7 mg), 34.1% (95% confidence interval 27.2%–42.2%) of patients had discontinued RLAI with a mean time to discontinuation of 273.4±196 days. Over the treatment period, there were significant (PPSP; 59.1 vs 46.9) scale scores. In addition, after 12 months, there were significant (P<0.001) decreases in the percentage of patients hospitalized (23.9% vs 58.5% pre-RLAI), mean length of stay (11.4 vs 30.4 days), and number of hospitalizations (0.32 vs 0.87) compared to the 12-month pre-RLAI period. Reductions in hospitalization continued into the second 12 months of therapy, when only 9% of patients were hospitalized and mean length of stay was 2.0 days. Conclusion In a routine clinical practice setting, patients switched to RLAI showed significant improvements in clinical outcomes and in global and social functioning, and hospitalization was significantly reduced. The data confirm that RLAI provides effective long-term management of schizophrenia in Canada.

Williams, Richard; Chandrasena, Ranjith; Beauclair, Linda; Luong, Doanh; Lam, Annette

2014-01-01

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Risperidone or Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents with Autism and/or Intellectual Disability: A Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Efficacy and Secondary Effects  

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Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) induce frequent adverse effects in children and adolescents with each compound appearing to have a specific adverse effect profile. Aripiprazole and risperidone are FDA-approved medications for behavioral disturbances associated with autism and/or intellectual disabilities (ID) in children and adolescents.…

Cohen, David; Raffin, Marie; Canitano, Roberto; Bodeau, Nicolas; Bonnot, Olivier; Perisse, Didier; Consoli, Angele; Laurent, Claudine

2013-01-01

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Efficacy of adjunctive intravitreous injection with Lucentis for neovascular glaucoma  

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Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical efficacy of adjunctive intravitreous injection with Lucentis for the treatment of neovascular glaucoma(NVG. METHODS: The retrospective case series study included 25 eyes of 25 patients who underwentintravitreous injection with Lucentis. Patients firstly received an intravitreous injection with Lucentis(0.5mg/0.05mL, after the regression of neovascularization of the iris, patients accepted different surgical treatments according to different etiopathogenesis condition. Iris, chamber angle neovascularization condition, intraocular pressure, and visual acuity were observed postoperatively. The follow-up duration was 3mo.RESULTS: After 3-7d of intravitreous Lucentis injecting, iris and chamber angle neovascularization was totally faded in 20 cases(20 eyesand was not completely faded in 5 cases(5 eyes. Additional treatments were compound trabeculectomy(14 cases, 14 eyes, vitrectomy(4 cases, 4 eyes. The patients' mean intraocular pressure was 43.42±10.99mmHg before treatment, which decreased rapidly when they came out of the hospital(14.26±7.64mmHg, PPCONCLUSION:Intravitreous injection with Lucentis can be used as an assisted treatment of NVG. According to different etiopathogenesis condition, it is an effective treatment to combine with other treatment methods for NVG.

Rui-Dong Gu

2014-06-01

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Extrapyramidal Side Effects of Risperidone in Iranian Schizophrenic Patients  

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Risperidone is one of a new generation of antipsychotic drugs with relatively fewer side effects and better efficacy. Our objects were study of relationship between the incidence of Iranian produced risperidone Extrapyramidal Side Effects (EPSE) and its relationship with age, sex, dosage and duration of treatment in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. One-hundred patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders admitted in Razi hospital of Tabriz, which underwent...

2008-01-01

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RISPERIDONE VERSUS HALOPERIDOL IN ACUTE AND TRANSIENT PSYCHOTIC DISORDER  

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The mechanism of action of a relatively new antipsychotic drug-Risperidone differs from conventional antipsychotics like Haloperidol. We compared low dosages of Risperidone with near equivalent dosages of Haloperidol in first episode drug naive Acute and Transient Psychotic disorder. A single blind randomised four-week study protocol was employed. Highly significant and comparable efficacy as assessed by Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale was seen at the...

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Adult Rats Treated with Risperidone during Development Are Hyperactive  

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Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug approved for use in children, but little is known about the long-term effects of early-life risperidone treatment. In animals, prolonged risperidone administration during development increases forebrain dopamine receptor expression immediately upon the cessation of treatment. A series of experiments was performed to ascertain whether early-life risperidone administration altered locomotor activity, a behavior sensitive to dopamine receptor function, in adult rats. One additional behavior modulated by forebrain dopamine function, spatial reversal learning, was also measured during adulthood. In each study, Long-Evans rats received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or one of two doses of risperidone (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg per day) from postnatal days 14 – 42. Weight gain during development was slightly yet significantly reduced in risperidone-treated rats. In the first two experiments, early-life risperidone administration was associated with increased locomotor activity at one week post-administration through approximately nine months of age, independent of changes in weight gain. In a separate experiment, it was found that the enhancing effect of early-life risperidone on locomotor activity occurred in males and female rats. A final experiment indicated that spatial reversal learning was unaffected in adult rats administered risperidone early in life. These results indicate that locomotor activity during adulthood is permanently modified by early-life risperidone treatment. The findings suggest that chronic antipsychotic drug use in pediatric populations (e.g., treatment for the symptoms of autism) could modify brain development and alter neural set-points for specific behaviors during adulthood.

Bardgett, Mark E.; Franks-Henry, Julie M.; Colemire, Kristin R.; Juneau, Kathleen R.; Stevens, Rachel M.; Marczinski, Cecile A.; Griffith, Molly S.

2014-01-01

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Pimavanserin, a selective serotonin (5-HT)2A-inverse agonist, enhances the efficacy and safety of risperidone, 2mg/day, but does not enhance efficacy of haloperidol, 2mg/day: comparison with reference dose risperidone, 6mg/day.  

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Most atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs), e.g. risperidone (RIS), produce more extensive blockade of brain serotonin (5-HT)(2A) than dopamine (DA) D(2) receptors. This distinguishes them from typical APDs, e.g. haloperidol (HAL). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that augmentation of low doses of RIS or HAL (2mg/day) with pimavanserin (PIM), a selective 5-HT(2A) inverse agonist, to enhance 5-HT(2A) receptor blockade, can achieve efficacy comparable to RIS, 6mg/day, but with lesser side effects. In a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, 6week trial, 423 patients with chronic schizophrenia experiencing a recent exacerbation of psychotic symptoms were randomized to RIS2mg+placebo (RIS2PBO), RIS2mg+PIM20mg (RIS2PIM), RIS6mg+PBO (RIS6PBO), HAL2mg+PBO (HAL2PBO), or HAL2mg+PIM20mg (HAL2PIM). Improvement in psychopathology was measured by the PANSS and CGI-S. The reduction in PANSS Total Score with RIS2PIM at endpoint was significantly greater than RIS2PBO: -23.0 vs. -16.3 (p=0.007), and not significantly different from the RIS6PBO group: -23.2 points. The percentage of patients with ?20% improvement at day 15 in the RIS2PIM group was 62.3%, significantly greater than the RIS6PBO (42.1%; p=0.01) and the RIS2PBO groups (37.7%; p=0.002). Weight gain and hyperprolactinemia were greater in the RIS6PBO group than the RIS2PIM group but there was no difference in extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). HAL2PBO and HAL2PIM were not significantly different from each other in efficacy but HAL2PIM had less EPS at end point. Both HAL groups and RIS6PBO showed equal improvement in psychopathology at endpoint, indicating HAL 2mg/day is effective to treat an acute exacerbation in chronic schizophrenia patients. In conclusion, a sub-effective RIS dose combined with PIM to enhance 5-HT(2A) receptor blockade provided faster onset of action, and at endpoint, equal efficacy and better safety, compared to standard dose RIS. These results support the conclusion that 5-HT(2A) receptor blockade is a key component of the action of some atypical APDs and can reduce EPS due to a typical APD. PMID:22954754

Meltzer, Herbert Y; Elkis, Helio; Vanover, Kimberly; Weiner, David M; van Kammen, Daniel P; Peters, Perry; Hacksell, Uli

2012-11-01

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Risperidone Treatment in 12 Children With Developmental Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

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Background: Risperidone is a novel antipsychotic drug that has been tried in the treatment of several child psychiatric disorders. In an open clinical study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of risperidone in children with developmental disorder and behavioral problems including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

2005-01-01

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Efficacy of Endoscopic Injection Sclerotherapy for Rectal Varices  

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Full Text Available AIM: The study's aim was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopicinjection sclerotherapy (EIS in treating rectal varices.METHODS: Data from 32 consecutive patients who underwentEIS for rectal varices were analyzed the clinical outcomes, includingcomplications related to EIS. EIS was performed weekly using 5%ethanolamine oleate with iopamidol, which was injected to rectalvarices intermittently under fluoroscopy.RESULTS: In all 32 patients, EIS was performed weekly 2 to 5times (mean, 2.7, and the total amount of sclerosant ranged from3.2 to 12.0 mL (mean, 5.3 mL. After EIS, colonoscopy revealedshrinkage of the rectal varices in all 32 patients. There were noserious complications such as portal thrombosis and peritonitis.Colonoscopy revealed oozing bleeding from ulcers after EIS,however, no additional treatments were required. The recurrence ratefor rectal varices was 6 of 25 (24.0% receiving EIS, over a 1-yearfollow-up period. The recurrence of bleeding was only one patient.CONCLUSION: EIS is useful and safety treatment for rectal variceswith regard to effectiveness and complications.

Takahiro Sato

2013-01-01

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Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of long-acting risperidone in schizophrenia.  

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The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta) were evaluated in a multicenter, prospective, open-label, 15-week study of 86 patients with schizophrenia. Subjects stabilized on 2, 4 or 6 mg of oral risperidone once daily for at least 4 weeks were assigned to receive i.m. injections of 25, 50 or 75 mg of risperidone, respectively, every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. The 90% confidence intervals for the i.m./oral ratios of the mean steady-state plasma-AUC, corrected for dosing interval, and of the average plasma concentration of the active moiety (risperidone plus 9-hydroxyrisperidone) were within the range of 80-125%, indicating bioequivalence of the i.m. and oral formulations. However, mean steady-state peak concentrations of the active moiety were 25-32% lower with i.m. than oral dosing (P < 0.05) and fluctuations in plasma active-moiety levels were 32-42% lower with the i.m. than oral regimen. Symptoms of schizophrenia continued to improve after switching from oral to i.m. dosing. Long-acting risperidone was well tolerated locally and systematically. Although overall bioequivalence of the two formulations was established, the differences in pharmacokinetic profiles between the two formulations indicate potential benefits for long-acting risperidone. PMID:15246468

Eerdekens, Mariëlle; Van Hove, Ilse; Remmerie, Bart; Mannaert, Erik

2004-09-01

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Effectiveness of long-acting injectable risperidone versus oral antipsychotics in the treatment of recent-onset schizophrenia: a case-control study.  

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Long-acting injectable antipsychotics may offer a relevant improvement in treatment adherence in recent-onset psychosis, leading to a decreased rate of hospital readmission, a better rate of clinical remission and improved psychosocial adjustment. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical remission rates, number of hospital readmissions and personal and social functioning after 2 years between patients with recent-onset schizophrenia (patients with recent-onset schizophrenia receiving oral antipsychotics. This is a case-control study comparing patients with recent-onset schizophrenia who initiated RLAI treatment between 2004 and 2008 (n=26) with a control group matched for age and sex, diagnosed with recent-onset schizophrenia and treated with oral antipsychotics (n=26). Study assessments included sociodemographic variables, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Personal and Social Functioning Scale, the number of hospital readmissions and the Andreasen remission criteria. To assess the effect of treatment on each dependent variable, separate generalized estimating equations models were constructed. After 2 years of treatment, and adjusting for educational level, the RLAI group showed a greater reduction in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scale [mean (SD)=47.7 (12.0) vs. 66.2 (18.5); mean difference =-17.56; 95% confidence interval (CI)=-27.11 to -8.00; Pratio 0.28; 95% CI=0.06-1.35; P=0.114) and more illness remissions (adjusted odds ratio 3.24; 95% CI=0.20-11.93; P=0.077) in the RLAI group. Treatment with RLAI instead of oral antipsychotics in recent-onset schizophrenia might improve clinical symptoms and social functioning. The efficacy of RLAI treatment on remission and readmission rates should be researched further. PMID:23587986

Barrio, Pablo; Batalla, Albert; Castellví, Pere; Hidalgo, Diego; García, Marta; Ortiz, Ana; Grande, Iria; Pons, Alexandre; Parellada, Eduard

2013-07-01

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Risperidone Improves Behavioral Symptoms in Children with Autism in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial  

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Subgroup analysis of children (5-12 years) with autism enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of risperidone for pervasive developmental disorders. The primary efficacy measure was the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale. Data were available for 55 children given risperidone (n = 27) or placebo (n =…

Pandina, Gahan J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.; Youssef, Eriene; Zhu, Young; Dunbar, Fiona

2007-01-01

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Efficacy and safety of risperidone oral solution in agitation associated with dementia in the elderly / Eficácia e segurança de risperidona solução oral na agitação associada a demência em idosos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: Sintomas psicológicos e do comportamento nas demências (BPSD) contribuem para a sobrecarga dos cuidadores e institucionalização dos idosos. Neurolépticos são prescritos para agitação. Efeitos colaterais dos típicos são prejudiciais, sendo os atípicos indicáveis. OBJETIVO: Avaliar eficác [...] ia e tolerabilidade da risperidona solução oral (RSO), dose única diária, em idosos demenciados ambulatoriais com BPSD (agitação). MÉTODO: Pacientes (n=26), 76,35±8,63 anos, critérios do Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais 4.ed. (DSM-IV) para demência. RSO administrada, com dose inicial de 0,25 mg e incrementos de 0,25 mg toda semana. Foram utilizados mini-mental (MEEM) para estado cognitivo, behavioral and emotional activities manifested in dementia (BEAM-D) e clinical and global impression (CGI) para BPSD, extrapyramidal symptom rating scale (ESRS) para sintomas extrapiramidais. Efeitos colaterais cardiovasculares foram avaliados clinicamente. RESULTADOS: Houve redução de 26% na agitação, sem efeitos colaterais cardiovasculares, numa faixa de 1,0 a 1,25 mg. Efeitos colaterais foram mais prevalentes acima de 2,5 mg. CONCLUSÃO: Risperidona melhorou agitação com boa tolerabilidade entre 0,5 e 1,25 mg. Dose única diária e aumentos de 0,25 mg podem ser mais aceitáveis para pacientes e cuidadores. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) contribute to caregiver burden and institutionalization of elderly. Neuroleptics are prescribed to control agitation. Side effects of typical neuroleptics are harmful, making atypical neuroleptics an indication. OBJECTIVES: To eval [...] uate efficacy and tolerability of risperidone oral solution (ROS) given once daily to demented elderly outpatients with BPSD (agitation). METHOD: Patients (n=26), 76.35±8.63 years, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria for dementia. RSO was given, starting dose of 0.25 mg and increments of 0.25 mg every week. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) assessed cognitive status, Behavioral and Emotional Activities Manifested in Dementia (BEAM-D) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) measured BPSD, Extrapiramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS) evaluated extrapyramidal symptoms. Cardiovascular side effects were evaluated clinically. RESULTS: There was a 26% reduction in agitation and no cardiovascular side effects in the range from 1.0 to 1.25 mg. Side effects were more prevalent above 2.5 mg. CONCLUSION: Risperidone oral solution improved agitation with good tolerability from 0.5 to 1.25 mg. A single dose with increments of 0.25 mg may be more acceptable to patients and caregivers.

Jerson, Laks; Eliasz, Engelhardt; Valeska, Marinho; Marcia, Rozenthal; Fernando de Castro e, Souza; Josué, Bacaltchuk; Alberto, Stoppe Jr.; R.C.R., Ferreira; Cassio, Bottino; Mônica, Scalco.

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A Case of Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Risperidone Treatment  

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Acute pancreatitis with antipsychotic treatment is rare but sometimes causes a fatal adverse effect. Most cases of acute pancreatitis due to atypical antipsychotic agents are reported to occur within six months of starting antipsychotic administration. Acute pancreatitis caused by risperidone is rare. The patient had a high fever, stomachache and vomiting. The results of the abdominal computed tomograhpy scan were negative. The results of the abdominal ultrasonography were positive for gallstones in gallbladder and distention of the common bile duct. She had been fasting and received antibiotic intravenous injections. Amylase and lipase titers were high. After risperidone discontinuation, both the levels of the amylase and the lipase were gradually decreased. Three months later, the patient still maintains a good clinical balance. Although atypical antipsychotic-induced pancreatitis has been reported in conjunction with hyperglycemia, the pathophysiologic mechanism of these adverse events remains unclear. This case got pancreatitis 6 month after risperidone treatment. Using the antipsychotic agents, it is necessary to monitor pancreas function.

Ueno, Shu-ichi

2014-01-01

70

Paliperidone ER and oral risperidone in patients with schizophrenia: a comparative database analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (ER with risperidone immediate-release using propensity score methodology. Methods Six double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, short-term clinical trials for acute schizophrenia with availability of individual patient-level data were identified (3 per compound. Propensity score pairwise matching was used to balance observed covariates between the paliperidone ER and risperidone patient populations. Scores were generated using logistic regression models, with age, body mass index, race, sex, baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score and baseline Clinical Global Impressions–Severity (CGI-S score as factors. The dosage range of paliperidone ER (6-12 mg/day was compared with 2 risperidone dosage ranges: 2-4 and 4-6 mg/day. The primary efficacy measure was change in PANSS total score at week 6 end point. Tolerability end points included adverse event (AE reports and weight. AEs with rates ?5% and with a ?2% difference between paliperidone ER and risperidone were identified. Results Completion rates for placebo-treated subjects in paliperidone ER trials (n = 95 and risperidone trials (n = 122 groups were 36.8% and 51.6%, respectively; end point changes on PANSS total scores were similar (p = 0.768. Completion rates for subjects receiving paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day (n = 179, risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n = 113 or risperidone 4-6 mg/day (n = 129 were 64.8%, 54.0% and 66.7%, respectively (placebo-adjusted rates: paliperidone ER vs risperidone 2-4 mg/day, p = 0.005; paliperidone ER vs risperidone 4-6 mg/day, p = 0.159. PANSS total score improvement with paliperidone ER was greater than with risperidone 2-4 mg/day (difference in mean change score, -6.7; p Conclusions This indirect database analysis suggested that paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day may be more efficacious than risperidone 2-4 mg/day and as efficacious as risperidone 4-6 mg/day. The AE-adjusted incidence rates suggest differences between treatments that may be relevant for individual patients. Additional randomized, direct, head-to-head clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

Schooler Nina

2011-02-01

71

Risperidone in the treatment of behavioral disorders associated with autism in children and adolescents  

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Full Text Available Roberto Canitano, Valeria ScandurraDivision of Child Neuropsychiatry, University Hospital of Siena, Siena, ItalyAbstract: This is a review of the clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD. The main clinical characteristics are impairment in social skills, communication difficulties, repetitive movements and behaviors, including stereotypies. Pharmacotherapy is mainly directed at the so-called target symptoms, ie, behavioral disorders and the various kinds of repetitions associated with ASD. According to the available data, risperidone seems to be moderately efficacious and safe for treating behavioral disorders. 4 double blind controlled trial. 3 reanalysis studies, and 12 open studies have documented the role of risperidone in children with ASD. Controlled studies have been thoroughly considered in this review.Keywords: autism, pervasive developmental disorders, risperidone

Roberto Canitano

2008-09-01

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POST MARKETING SURVEILLANCE STUDY ON RISPERIDONE IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM SCHIZOPHRENIA  

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Schizophrenia is one of the commonest psychiatric ailments. It has been estimated that approximately 1% of the population and 15% of the adults suffers from this disease. Risperidone, atypical antipsychotic, acts mainly by 5HT2 blockade action. Produce virtually no extra pyramidal side effects at low dose, has a broad efficacy. But extra pyramidal dysfunction can appear at higher doses. We conducted a post marketing surveillance study on risperidone in 40 patients suffering from schizophrenia...

2011-01-01

73

Efficacy of injectable and oral paste formulations of ivermectin against gastrointestinal parasites in ponies.  

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A controlled test was used in ponies to compare the antiparasitic efficacy of ivermectin (22,23-dihydro-avermectin B1) in an injectable micelle solution administered IM with the efficacy of the same drug in an oral paste formulation. Parasite infections were naturally acquired in southern Louisiana. The drug was tested in both formulations at a dosage level of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight. Ivermectin in both formulations tested had an efficacy greater than 98% against Gasterophilus intestinalis and G nasalis larvae. Trichostrongylus axei, Habronema spp, Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, and species of small strongyles present. Efficacy of ivermectin against Oxyuris equi larvae was 100% in the paste formulation and 93% in the injectable formulation. The ponies were less uniformly infected with S equinus, Draschia megastoma, Parascaris equorum, O equi adults, Anoplocephala perfoliata, and A magna. However, observations indicated that the drug in either formulation was also effective against these parasites, except Anoplocephala spp. PMID:6896613

Torbert, B J; Kramer, B S; Klei, T R

1982-08-01

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Efficacy of Sublingual Immunotherapy versus Subcutaneous Injection Immunotherapy in Allergic Patients  

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While it is generally accepted that Subcutaneous Injection Immunotherapy (SCIT) and Sublingual Immunotherapy (SLIT) are both efficacious, there is not yet a significant amount of information regarding their comparative efficacy. In this paper, we performed a retrospective chart review and compared treatment results in two groups of patients (both with nasal allergies with or without asthma) that were treated either with SCIT or SLIT. Both treatment modalities were found to be of similar effic...

Saporta, Diego

2012-01-01

75

Spotlight on risperidone in irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.  

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Risperidone (Risperdal), a psychotropic atypical antipsychotic agent, is thought to act via dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism. The clinical efficacy of oral risperidone in the treatment of bipolar mania and schizophrenia in adult patients is well established. In the US, risperidone is also approved for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 5-16 years, for the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents aged 13-17 years and, as monotherapy, for the short-term treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in children and adolescents aged 10-17 years. Oral risperidone treatment was better than placebo treatment in reducing irritability and other behavioural symptoms associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents in two well designed short-term trials, with these benefits maintained in those receiving risperidone for up to 6 months. The drug had a clinically manageable tolerability profile, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate intensity. There are some aspects of treatment, such as weight gain, somnolence and hyperglycaemia, that require monitoring, and the long-term safety of risperidone in children and adolescents with autistic disorder remains to be fully determined. With these issues in mind, risperidone offers a valuable emerging option for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents. PMID:18278980

Scott, Lesley J; Dhillon, Sohita

2008-01-01

76

Risperidone versus zuclopenthixol in the treatment of schizophrenia with substance abuse comorbidity: a long-term randomized, controlled, crossover study  

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Background: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are present in more than 50% of subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, there are no controlled studies assessing the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs in this subgroup of patients. The aim of the present work was to compare the efficacy of risperidone and zuclopenthixol in a sample of schizophrenic subjects with dual diagnosis. Method: Thirty-three male were selected for treatment with risperidone, while another 33 were treated with zuclopenth...

2006-01-01

77

RISPERIDONE INDUCED TARDIVE DYSKINESIA - A CASE REPORT  

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Risperidone is a serotonin - dopamine antagonist which has got less propensity to cause tardive dyskinesia than conventional antipsychotics. There have been few reports of tardive dyskinesia induced by risperidone. This is a report of a case of risperidone induced tardive dyskinesia. A 56 year old female with a 6 months history of paranoid schizophrenia, developed bucco-oro-masticatory abnormal involuntary movements after receiving risperidone 8 mg/day for about 1 year. She had some of the ri...

2002-01-01

78

Extrapyramidal Side Effects of Risperidone in Iranian Schizophrenic Patients  

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Full Text Available Risperidone is one of a new generation of antipsychotic drugs with relatively fewer side effects and better efficacy. Our objects were study of relationship between the incidence of Iranian produced risperidone Extrapyramidal Side Effects (EPSE and its relationship with age, sex, dosage and duration of treatment in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. One-hundred patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders admitted in Razi hospital of Tabriz, which underwent treatment with risperidone were selected by convenience method and the incidence of EPSE was evaluated for 6 weeks; the results were analyzed statistically. Seventy-two percent of patients showed no complications and 28% of them affected by EPSE. The incidence of complications was not related significantly with age and sex of patients but there was significant relationship between the duration of medication and dosage of drug (pv<0.05. The most EPSE were rigidity, tremor and bradykynesia, but there were not any acute dystonic reaction. Risperidone is one of the new generation antipsychotic drugs with lower side effects and its EPSE are dose-dependent. It is recommended that the treatment be initiated with minimum effective dose.

2008-01-01

79

Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).  

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Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees. Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles. Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment. Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus colonized trees injected with ethanol. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection. Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks. Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests. Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio. Armorex, Armorex + Permethrin, and Veggie Pharm + Permethrin suppressed attacks in Tennessee. The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. germanus in one Ohio experiment, and cumulative total ambrosia beetle attacks in Virginia. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees. PMID:23448043

Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Ranger, Christopher M; Youssef, Nadeer N

2013-02-01

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Risperidone versus zuclopenthixol in the treatment of schizophrenia with substance abuse comorbidity: a long-term randomized, controlled, crossover study  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Background: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are present in more than 50% of subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, there are no controlled studies assessing the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs in this subgroup of patients. The aim of the present work was to compare the efficacy of risperidon [...] e and zuclopenthixol in a sample of schizophrenic subjects with dual diagnosis. Method: Thirty-three male were selected for treatment with risperidone, while another 33 were treated with zuclopenthixol. Substances most commonly used were alcohol, cannabis (both 82%) and cocaine (32%). Patients were randomized and treated for the first six months with one antipsychotic and the second six months with the other antipsychotic. Psychopathological and clinical scales were used every two months. Participants received training on how to reduce their consumption of substances (Substance Abuse Management Module, SAMM). Results: During the first six months risperidone group patients presented fewer positive urine tests and showed better compliance with the SAMM programme. In the second period the patients treated with risperidone significantly improved their scores on the PANSS-negative subscale. Differences between the CGIs indicated that the subjects who moved from risperidone to zuclopenthixol worsened, while those who moved from zuclopenthixol to risperidone significantly improved. Conclusions: Risperidone was more effective than zuclopenthixol in improving the symptoms of schizophrenia and substance use.

Gabriel, Rubio; Isabel, Martínez; Ana, Recio; Guillermo, Ponce; Francisco, López-Muñoz; Cecilio, Alamo; Miguel Ángel, Jiménez-Arriero; Tomás, Palomo.

 
 
 
 
81

Risperidone versus zuclopenthixol in the treatment of schizophrenia with substance abuse comorbidity: a long-term randomized, controlled, crossover study  

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Full Text Available Background: Substance use disorders (SUDs are present in more than 50% of subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, there are no controlled studies assessing the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs in this subgroup of patients. The aim of the present work was to compare the efficacy of risperidone and zuclopenthixol in a sample of schizophrenic subjects with dual diagnosis. Method: Thirty-three male were selected for treatment with risperidone, while another 33 were treated with zuclopenthixol. Substances most commonly used were alcohol, cannabis (both 82% and cocaine (32%. Patients were randomized and treated for the first six months with one antipsychotic and the second six months with the other antipsychotic. Psychopathological and clinical scales were used every two months. Participants received training on how to reduce their consumption of substances (Substance Abuse Management Module, SAMM. Results: During the first six months risperidone group patients presented fewer positive urine tests and showed better compliance with the SAMM programme. In the second period the patients treated with risperidone significantly improved their scores on the PANSS-negative subscale. Differences between the CGIs indicated that the subjects who moved from risperidone to zuclopenthixol worsened, while those who moved from zuclopenthixol to risperidone significantly improved. Conclusions: Risperidone was more effective than zuclopenthixol in improving the symptoms of schizophrenia and substance use.

Gabriel Rubio

2006-09-01

82

Valproate-Risperidone versus Valproate-Lithium combination in acute mania  

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Full Text Available Background: We evaluated the efficacy of valproate plus risperidone versus valproate plus lithium combination in the treatment of acute mania. Methods: In 2-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study, 46 acute manic patients according to DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned to receive combination of valproate 20 mg/ kg/day plus risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n=23 or lithium600-1200 mg/day (n=23. The assessment of efficacy measures were according to Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S and Improvement (CGI-I scale. Other effectiveness measures included YMRS response (YMRS reduction >50 % and YMRS remission (YMRS total scores <12. Results: In each group, 16 of 23 patients (70 % completed the study. YMRS response, CGI-Improvement, and reduction in the total scores of YMRS and CGI-S observed in both groups, significantly greater for valproate-risperidone than valproate-lithium combination group (P=0.006, P=0.015, P=0.004, and P=0.007, respectively.YMRS remission were shown in both groups without statistical significance (P=0.073. The total scores of YMRS at 4th, 8th, and 14th days of trial were lower in valproate-risperidone than valproate-lithium combination group (P=0.017, P=0.005, and P=0.004, respectively. The rate of adverse events and mean weight gain in both groups were not statistically different. Conclusion: In acute manic patients, both combinations of valproate with lithium or with risperidone had efficacy in acutely manic patients, but valproate-risperidone combination was more effective. Both treatments were safe and well tolerated. Considering the small sample size and limited period of observation, further studies need to be conducted to find out the best combination in the treatment of acute mania. Key words: Acute mania, Valproate, Risperidone, Lithium, Combination Therapy

M Barekatain

2005-09-01

83

Safety and efficacy of percutaneous injection of polyurethane elastomer (MPU) plugs for vas occlusion in man.  

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This report describes the safety and efficacy of the procedure for percutaneous injection of medical-grade polyurethane elastomer (MPU) to form plugs in the vas deferens. The injection of 0.16-0.22 ml MPU in 53 men resulted in occlusion and azoospermia in 85% of the men after 12 months; 96% achieved azoospermia by 2 years. The success rate of the method and the rate of sperm suppression to azoospermia depended on the shapes of the plugs; this was determined by palpation after insertion. There were few complications and the results are discussed in terms of the reversibility potential of this method. PMID:1483736

Chen, Z W; Gu, Y Q; Liang, X W; Wu, Z G; Yin, E J; Li-Hong

1992-12-01

84

Efficacy of Acupuncture versus Local Methylprednisolone Acetate Injection in De Quervain's Tenosynovitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  

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There is no consensus on the management of De Quervain's tenosynovitis, but local corticosteroid injection is considered the mainstay of treatment. However, some patients are reluctant to take steroid injections. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of acupuncture versus corticosteroid injection for the treatment of this disease. Thirty patients were consequently treated in two groups. The acupuncture group received five acupuncture sessions of 30 minutes duration on classic points of LI-5, LU-7, and LU-9 and on ahshi points. The injection group received one methylprednisolone acetate injection in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist. The degree of disability and pain was evaluated by using the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Q-DASH) scale and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at baseline and at 2 weeks and 6 weeks after the start of treatment. The baseline means of the Q-DASH and the VAS scores were 62.8 and 6.9, respectively. At the last follow-up, the mean Q-DASH scores were 9.8 versus 6.2 in the acupuncture and injection groups, respectively, and the mean VAS scores were 2 versus 1.2. We demonstrated short-term improvement of pain and function in both groups. Although the success rate was somewhat higher with corticosteroid injection, acupuncture can be considered as an alternative option for treatment of De Quervain's tenosynovitis. PMID:24929455

Hadianfard, Mohammadjavad; Ashraf, Alireza; Fakheri, Maryamsadat; Nasiri, Aref

2014-06-01

85

Efficacy of the topical anesthetic cream, EMLA, in alleviating both needle insertion and injection pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the efficacy of the topical anesthetic cream, EMLA, in alleviating the pain produced by infiltration of local anesthetic prior to surgical skin biopsies, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on 54 patients undergoing 162 excisional biopsies. Both pain induced by needle insertion and pain induced by local injection were significantly diminished after topical application of EMLA cream. However, part of the effect was placebo, because the placebo ointment (Vaseline) also produced significant pain alleviation. PMID:8748337

Raveh, T; Weinberg, A; Sibirsky, O; Caspi, R; Alfie, M; Moor, E V; Stein, Y; Wexler, M R; Lipton, H A; Neuman, A

1995-12-01

86

Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.  

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In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

1997-01-01

87

Individualizing clozapine and risperidone treatment for schizophrenia patients.  

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Schizophrenia is a severe disorder that significantly affects the quality of life and total functioning of patients and their caregivers. Clozapine is the first atypical antipsychotic with fewer adverse effects and established efficacy. As a rule of thumb, risperidone is one of the most reliable and effective antipsychotics for newly diagnosed and chronic schizophrenics. Pharmacogenetic studies have identified genomic variants of candidate genes that seem to be important in the way a patient responds to treatment. The recent progress made in pharmacogenomics will improve the quality of treatment, since drug doses will be tailored to the special needs of each patient. In this article, we review the available literature attempting to delineate the role of genomic variations in clozapine and risperidone response in schizophrenic patients of various ethnicities. We conclude that pharmacogenomics for these two drugs is still not ready for implementation in the clinic. PMID:24329194

Tsermpini, Evangelia Eirini; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Bartsakoulia, Marina; Iconomou, Gregoris; Papadima, Eleni Merkouri; Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Squassina, Alessio; Patrinos, George P

2014-01-01

88

Regional brain distribution of risperidone and its active metabolite 9-hydroxy-risperidone in the rat.  

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Risperidone is a new benzisoxazole antipsychotic. 9-Hydroxy-risperidone is the major plasma metabolite of risperidone. The pharmacological properties of 9-hydroxy-risperidone were studied and appeared to be comparable to those of risperidone itself, both in respect of the profile of interactions with various neurotransmitters and its potency, activity, and onset and duration of action. The absorption, plasma levels and regional brain distribution of risperidone, metabolically formed 9-hydroxy-risperidone and total radioactivity were studied in the male Wistar rat after single subcutaneous administration of radiolabelled risperidone at 0.02 mg/kg. Concentrations were determined by HPLC separation, and off-line determination of the radioactivity with liquid scintillation counting. Risperidone was well absorbed. Maximum plasma concentrations were reached at 0.5-1 h after subcutaneous administration. Plasma concentrations of 9-hydroxy-risperidone were higher than those of risperidone from 2h after dosing. In plasma, the apparent elimination half-life of risperidone was 1.0 h, and mean residence times were 1.5 h for risperidone and 2.5 h for its 9-hydroxy metabolite. Plasma levels of the radioactivity increased dose proportionally between 0.02 and 1.3 mg/kg. Risperidone was rapidly distributed to brain tissues. The elimination of the radioactivity from the frontal cortex and striatum--brain regions with high concentrations of 5-HT2 or dopamine-D2 receptors--became more gradual with decreasing dose levels. After a subcutaneous dose of 0.02 mg/kg, the ED50 for central 5-HT2 antagonism in male rats, half-lives in frontal cortex and striatum were 3-4 h for risperidone, whereas mean residence times were 4-6 h for risperidone and about 12 h for 9-hydroxy-risperidone. These half-lives and mean residence times were 3-5 times longer than in plasma and in cerebellum, a region with very low concentrations of 5-HT2 and D2 receptors. Frontal cortex and striatum to plasma concentration ratios increased during the experiment. The distribution of 9-hydroxy-risperidone to the different brain regions, including frontal cortex and striatum, was more limited than that of risperidone itself. This indicated that 9-hydroxy-risperidone contributes to the in vivo activity of risperidone, but to a smaller extent than would be predicted from plasma levels. AUCs of both active compounds in frontal cortex and striatum were 10-18 times higher than those in cerebellum. No retention of metabolites other than 9-hydroxy-risperidone was observed in any of the brain regions investigated. PMID:7531352

van Beijsterveldt, L E; Geerts, R J; Leysen, J E; Megens, A A; Van den Eynde, H M; Meuldermans, W E; Heykants, J J

1994-02-01

89

Risperidone: a review of its use in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Risperidone (Risperdal), a psychotropic atypical antipsychotic agent, is thought to act via dopamine D(2) and serotonin (5-HT [5-hydroxytryptamine])(2A) receptor antagonism. The clinical efficacy of oral risperidone in the treatment of bipolar mania and schizophrenia in adult patients is well established. In the US, risperidone is also approved for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 5-16 years, for the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents aged 13-17 years and, as monotherapy, for the short-term treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in children and adolescents aged 10-17 years. Oral risperidone treatment was better than placebo treatment in reducing irritability and other behavioral symptoms associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents in two well designed short-term trials, with these benefits maintained in those receiving risperidone for up to 6 months. The drug had a clinically manageable tolerability profile, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate intensity. There are some aspects of treatment, such as weight gain, somnolence, and hyperglycemia, that require monitoring, and the long-term safety of risperidone in children and adolescents with autistic disorder remains to be fully determined. With these issues in mind, risperidone offers a valuable emerging option for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents. PMID:17927305

Scott, Lesley J; Dhillon, Sohita

2007-01-01

90

Preparation and biological evaluation of radioiodinated risperidone and lamotrigine as models for brain imaging agents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Risperidone and lamotrigine were successfully labeled with 125I via direct electrophilic substitution reaction at 80 deg C with maximum labeling yields of 89 ± 3.75 and 97.5 ± 1.0 %, respectively. Stability of 125I-risperidone was up to 6 h while that of 125I-lamotrigine was up to 24 h. Biodistribution studies showed that maximum uptakes of 125I-risperidone and 125I-lamotrigine in the brain of mice were 4.35 ± 0.17 and 2.51 ± 0.18 % of the injected activity/g tissue organ at 10 min post-injection, respectively. Both radioiodinated drugs showed higher brain uptake and stability compared to commercially available technetium-99m d,l-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime. (author)

2014-07-01

91

Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Dystonia  

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Full Text Available Local chemodenervation with botulinum toxin (BoNT injections to relax abnormally contracting muscles has been shown to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment in a variety of movement disorders and other neurological and non-neurological disorders. Despite almost 30 years of therapeutic use, there are only few studies of patients treated with BoNT injections over long period of time. These published data clearly support the conclusion that BoNT not only provides safe and effective symptomatic relief of dystonia but also long-term benefit and possibly even favorably modifying the natural history of this disease. The adverse events associated with chronic, periodic exposure to BoNT injections are generally minor and self-limiting. With the chronic use of BoNT and an expanding list of therapeutic indications, there is a need to carefully examine the existing data on the long-term efficacy and safety of BoNT. In this review we will highlight some of the aspects of long-term effects of BoNT, including efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity.

Juan Ramirez-Castaneda

2013-02-01

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Long-Term Effects of Risperidone in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Placebo Discontinuation Study  

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Objective: The short-term benefit of risperidone in ameliorating severe disruptive behavior in pediatric patients with autism spectrum disorders is well established; however, only one placebo-controlled, long-term study of efficacy is available. Method: Thirty-six children with an autism spectrum disorder (5-17 years old) accompanied by severe…

Troost, Pieter W.; Lahuis, Bertine E.; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Ketelaars, Cees E. J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Engeland, Herman; Scahill, Lawrence; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

2005-01-01

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A Crossover Study of Risperidone in Children, Adolescents and Adults with Mental Retardation  

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Risperidone has shown safety and efficacy for aggressive and destructive behaviors in short-term studies. This longer-duration study includes a broad sample. Forty subjects, aged 8-56 years (mean=22), all with mental retardation and 36 with autism spectrum disorders participated in this 22-week crossover study, with 24 weeks of open maintenance…

Hellings, Jessica A.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Reese, R. Matthew; Valdovinos, Maria G.; Marquis, Janet G.; Fleming, Kandace K.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

2006-01-01

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Efficacy of musculoskeletal injections by primary care providers in the office: a retrospective cohort study  

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Full Text Available Anjali Bhagra,1 Husnain Syed,1 Darcy A Reed,1 Thomas H Poterucha,1 Stephen S Cha,2 Tammy J Baumgartner,1 Paul Y Takahashi1 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Background: Musculoskeletal joint pain of varied etiology can be diagnosed and treated with joint and soft-tissue corticosteroid injections. Purpose: The purpose of our study was to compare patients’ bodily pain and quality of life (QOL, in addition to the procedural benefit and patient satisfaction, before and after musculoskeletal injections in the office setting. Patients and methods: Patients were eligible for recruitment if they were over age 18 and had an injection for musculoskeletal pain from a primary care provider in an office procedural practice. Included in our analysis were knee joint/bursa, trochanteric bursa, and shoulder joint/bursa injection sites. The variables measured were pain, benefit from the injection, QOL physical and mental components, and patient satisfaction. This was a retrospective cohort study approved by the institutional review board. Results: Patients’ pain was assessed by the patients using a six-point Likert scale (none, very mild, mild, moderate, severe, and very severe. We noted that self-perception of pain decreased from 3.10 (± standard deviation at baseline 0.96 before to 2.36 (± standard deviation after the infection 1.21 (P = 0.0001 after the injection. In terms of the impact on QOL, our patients had a pre-injection physical score of 37.25 ± 8.39 and a mental score at 52.81 ± 8.98. After the injections, the physical score improved to 42.35 ± 9.07 (P = 0.0001 and the mental to 53.54 ± 8.20 (P = 0.0001 for the overall group. Ninety-six percent of the patients reported they were satisfied or extremely satisfied in the procedure clinic. Conclusion: In this study, we found significant pain relief and improved physical QOL in patients undergoing an injection in the knee joint/bursa, shoulder joint/bursa, or trochanteric bursa by primary care providers in the office setting. Keywords: injections, musculoskeletal, quality of life, joints, efficacy

Bhagra A

2013-04-01

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Efficacy of florfenicol injection in the treatment of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae induced respiratory disease in pigs.  

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This study investigated the efficacy of a single intramuscular injection of a new formulation of florfenicol to treat clinical respiratory disease following experimental Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection. M. hyopneumoniae-free piglets were allocated to three groups, namely, a treatment group (TG) and a positive control group (PCG), which were both inoculated endotracheally with a highly virulent isolate of M. hyopneumoniae, and a negative control group. At the onset of clinical disease, the TG received a single injection of florfenicol (30 mg/kg). All pigs were euthanased 4 weeks post-infection. Clinical symptoms were significantly reduced in the TG in comparison with the PCG. Average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, mortality and lung lesions were improved in the TG compared to the PCG, but the differences were not statistically significant. PMID:22609150

Del Pozo Sacristán, R; Thiry, J; Vranckx, K; López Rodríguez, A; Chiers, K; Haesebrouck, F; Thomas, E; Maes, D

2012-12-01

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An Open-Label Study of Risperidone in the Improvement of Quality of Life and Treatment of Symptoms of Violent and Self-Injurious Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability  

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Background: We examined the benefits of risperidone, including quality of life (QoL), in the treatment of violent and self-injurious behaviour in adults with moderate, severe or profound intellectual disability. Methods: Twenty-four participants received open-label, oral, flexible-dose risperidone of 0.5-6 mg/day for 12 weeks. Efficacy was…

Read, Stephen G.; Rendall, Maureen

2007-01-01

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Review of risperidone for the treatment of pediatric and adolescent bipolar disorder and schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available Jeffrey R Bishop1,2, Mani N Pavuluri21Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Pediatric Mood Disorders Program and Center for Cognitive Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Risperidone is a commonly used medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents. It has been studied as a monotherapy treatment in early onset schizophrenia and as both monotherapy and combination therapy for pediatric bipolar disorder. Studies to date indicate that risperidone is an effective treatment for positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and mania symptoms of bipolar disorder. In young patient populations, side effects such as weight gain, extrapyramidal side effects, and prolactin elevation require consideration when evaluating the risk benefit ratio for individual patients. Here we review published studies of risperidone for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents to provide practitioners with an overview of published data on the efficacy and safety of risperidone in these patient populations.Keywords: risperidone, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, children, adolescents

Jeffrey R Bishop

2008-03-01

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Efficacy of intralesional injection of mumps-measles-rubella vaccine in patients with wart  

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Background: In the previous studies, it has been shown that mumps-measles-rubella (MMR) vaccine resulted in regression of warts via immunomodulatory effect and induction of immune system. Due to the high prevalence of warts in various populations, we evaluated the efficacy of MMR vaccine injection in the treatment of cutaneous warts. Materials and Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in Hazrat-e-Rasoul Hospital in Tehran in 2011-2012 on 24 patients with warts who were allocated to two groups including MMR group and normal saline group. MMR vaccine was injected intralesionally in the MMR group, whereas normal saline was injected into the lesions in the second group. These injections were repeated every 2 weeks intervals for maximum 3 injections. All patients were followed up every 15-day interval up to 45 days and then up to 6 months regarding relapses and finally, side effects, probable relapse, and therapeutic outcomes were evaluated and compared. Results: At the end of follow-up period, therapeutic outcomes in the MMR group included no cure in 2 cases, relative cure in 4 cases, and complete cure in 18 cases. In normal saline group, these rates included no cure in seven cases, relative cure in nine cases, and complete cure in six cases (P < 0.001). No significant complication occurred in the two groups. Conclusion: MMR vaccine may result in desirable therapeutic response. The hypothesis that is considered here is that MMR vaccine, via induction of cellular and humoral immune system, accelerates the destruction of virus and infected host cells.

Zamanian, Abbas; Mobasher, Pezhman; Jazi, Ghazaleh Ahmadi

2014-01-01

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POST MARKETING SURVEILLANCE STUDY ON RISPERIDONE IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM SCHIZOPHRENIA  

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Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the commonest psychiatric ailments. It has been estimated that approximately 1% of the population and 15% of the adults suffers from this disease. Risperidone, atypical antipsychotic, acts mainly by 5HT2 blockade action. Produce virtually no extra pyramidal side effects at low dose, has a broad efficacy. But extra pyramidal dysfunction can appear at higher doses. We conducted a post marketing surveillance study on risperidone in 40 patients suffering from schizophrenia at Psychiatric department of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad. In this study we specially studied its efficacy and safety. The results of this study are consistent with phase III clinical studies on risperidone carried out in Indian patients except its effects on food intake. As far as the efficacy of risperidone in patient with schizophrenia is concerned, it provided good symptomatic relief In term of safety, 7 patients out of 40, experience adverse effects like decrease appetite, constipation, insomnia, EPS and NMS. Patient with NMS was admitted in hospital and was died later on. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 34-36

J R Zaveri

2011-04-01

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Efficacy of submucosal injection of different solutions inclusive blood components on mucosa elevation for endoscopic resection  

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Full Text Available Oliver H Al-Taie1, Yildiz Bauer2, Christoph G Dietrich3, Wolfgang Fischbach21Department of Internal Medicine, Sankt Elisabeth-Hospital, Gütersloh, 2Department of Internal Medicine II, Klinikum Aschaffenburg, Aschaffenburg, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Bethlehem-Hospital, Stolberg, GermanyBackground: Endoscopic resection has become the standard treatment for noninvasive gastrointestinal malignancies. In flat mucosal tumors, normal saline is frequently used for submucosal fluid injection in order to reduce the risk of complications during endoscopic resection. Recent studies have demonstrated longer-lasting mucosa elevation by injection of agents such as hyaluronic acid or glyceol, rather than normal saline. We investigated the efficacy of different blood components in comparison with other solutions for use as a submucosal fluid cushion.Methods: Normal saline, sodium hyaluronate, glyceol, hydroxyethyl starch, serum, plasma, and whole blood were evaluated for their effectiveness in creating a submucosal cushion. One milliliter of each solution was injected into the submucosa of 5 × 5 cm specimens of resected porcine stomach. Mucosa elevation was measured before and up to 60 minutes after injection.Results: The shortest duration of mucosa elevation was observed after injection of normal saline, glyceol, and 0.125% hyaluronic acid. A significantly longer duration was obtained after injection of hydroxyethyl starch, 0.25% and 0.5% hyaluronic acid, serum, and plasma. However, whole blood generated a longer-lasting mucosa elevation than all other agents.Conclusion: The results of the current study suggest that whole blood is more effective in generating long-lasting mucosa elevation than any other commonly used solution. Because autologous blood is readily available at almost no cost, this seems to be an optimal agent for creating the mucosa elevation needed for endoscopic resection. Further in vivo studies in humans are needed to clarify the potential role of autologous blood for long-lasting endoscopic mucosa resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection.Keywords: submucosal injection, blood components, sodium hyaluronate, glycerol, normal saline, endoscopic mucosal resection

Al-Taie OH

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
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The Efficacy of Intradiscal Steroid Injections in Degenerative Lumbar Disc Disease  

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Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of intradiscal steroid injection in patients with chronic low back pain due to degenerative disc disease.Materials and Methods: A total of 18 patients (9 female, 9 male with chronic low back pain of discogenic origin were enrolled in the study. The intervertebral disc level which met the diagnostic criteria for provocative discography was defined as discogenic pain level. After identification of positive disc level, 1 cc betamethasone was injected into the disc. The outcome measures (visual analog pain scale and Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale scores, finger-tip-to-floor distance and duration of sitting without pain were assessed before the treatment and at second week and third month post injection. Results: The reduction in low back pain intensity between the baseline and second week, and between the baseline and third month was statistically significant (p=0.001 and p=0.002. Besides, statistically significant improvement was observed in Quebec Disability Scores between the baseline and second week, and between the baseline and third month (p=0.001 and p=0.002. The finger-tip-to-floor distance between the baseline and second week, and between the baseline and third month showed a statistically significant improvement (p=0.002 and p=0.02. The duration of sitting without pain between the baseline and second week, and between the baseline and third month showed a statistically significant increase (p=0.001 and p=0.009. Conclusion: As a result, we suggest that intradiscal steroid injection may be effective in short-term and mid-term for reducing the intensity of spinal pain and the proportion of disability due to chronic discogenic low back pain in patients who do not respond to conservative treatment. Turk J Phys Med Re­hab 2012;58:88-92.

Ferdi Yavuz

2012-06-01

102

Combination Treatment of Tamoxifen with Risperidone in Breast Cancer  

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Tamoxifen has long been used and still is the most commonly used endocrine therapy for treatment of both early and advanced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in pre- and post-menopause women. Tamoxifen exerts its cytotoxic effect primarily through cytostasis which is associated with the accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Apoptotic activity can also be exerted by tamoxifen which involves cleavage of caspase 9, caspase 7, caspase 3, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak have also been observed. In addition, stress response protein of GRP 94 and GRP 78 have also been induced by tamoxifen in our study. However, side effects occur during tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer patients. Researching into combination regimen of tamoxifen and drug(s) that relieves tamoxifen-induced hot flushes is important, because drug interactions may decrease tamoxifen efficacy. Risperidone has been shown to be effective in reducing or eliminating hot flushes on women with hormonal variations. In this present study, we demonstrated that combination of tamoxifen with risperidone did not interfered tamoxifen-induced cytotoxic effects in both in vitro and in vivo models, while fluoxetine abrogated the effects of tamoxifen. This is the first paper suggesting the possibility of combination treatment of tamoxifen with risperidone in breast cancer patients, providing a conceivable resolution of tamoxifen-induced side effects without interfering the efficacy of tamoxifen against breast cancer.

Yeh, Wei-Lan; Lin, Hui-Yi; Wu, Hung-Ming; Chen, Dar-Ren

2014-01-01

103

Effectiveness of risperidone in psychogenic stiff neck.  

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A 48-year-old woman suffering from treatment-resistant psychogenic stiff neck and severe depression had been treated with a varied regimen of medications, including antidepressants, neuroleptics, and antiepileptics. These treatments did not result in improvement. Therefore, she was treated with a combination of sertraline and risperidone. Depressive symptoms decreased within a few weeks of treatment initiation. The psychogenic stiff neck, which had begun to improve within the first 2 weeks, had disappeared completely after 6 months of treatment with risperidone alone. This case report suggests that risperidone may be effective in some neurological motor disorders comorbid with mood disorders. PMID:15908897

Marazziti, Donatella; Dell'Osso, Bernardo

2005-06-01

104

Combined use of ozone and collagenase injection for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation:comparison of therapeutic efficacy with simple ozone injection  

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Objective: To observe the therapeutic effects of combined use of ozone and collagenase injection in treating lumbar disc herniation and to make a comparison of therapeutic efficacy with simple ozone injection. Methods: Under DSA guidance,percutaneous puncturing of diseased lumbar disk with a gauge 9 needle was performed in 76 patient with lumbar disc herniation. After the needle position was confirmed in the right site simple ozone injection (control group, n=38) or combined use of ozone and collagenase injection (study group, n=38) was carried outs. The clinical results were evaluated and compared between two groups. Results: After the treatment, all 76 patients were followed up regularly at 1, 3 and 6 months. At 1, 3 and 6 months after the therapy, the effective rate of study group was 89.5%, 92.1% and 94.7% respectively, while the effective rate of control group was 86.8%, 84.2% and 81.6% respectively. Conclusion: For the treatment of lumbar disc herniation, the therapeutic effect of combined use of ozone and collagenase injection is much better than that by using simple ozone injection, moreover, it carries a quite stable long-term efficacy. (authors)

2011-01-01

105

Extended-release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) versus risperidone in the treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, flexible-dose study.  

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Depressive symptoms are associated with poor outcomes, increased risk of relapse, and high suicide rates in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. This randomized, open-label, parallel-group, flexible-dose study (NCT00640562) assessed the efficacy of quetiapine extended release (XR) versus risperidone on depressive symptoms in this patient population. Noninferiority of quetiapine XR versus risperidone from baseline to week 12 was assessed by least squares mean (LSM) reduction in the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Noninferiority was indicated if the difference in CDSS reductions between quetiapine XR and risperidone had a 95% confidence interval (CI) lower limit of more than -2.7. Overall, 216 patients received quetiapine XR (n = 109; 400-800 mg/day) or risperidone (n = 107; 4-6 mg/day). In the per-protocol population, LSM CDSS reductions for quetiapine XR and risperidone were 8.4 and 6.2 points, respectively (95% CI 0.8-3.7). As the lower limit of the 95% CI was more than -2.7 and the LSM reduction for quetiapine XR was 2.2 points higher than that for risperidone, noninferiority of quetiapine XR versus risperidone was demonstrated. Adverse events for quetiapine XR and risperidone were comparable. In this study, quetiapine XR was noninferior to risperidone at reducing depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. PMID:24681810

Di Fiorino, Mario; Montagnani, Gino; Trespi, Graziella; Kasper, Siegfried

2014-05-01

106

Efficacy and Tolerability of Fixed-Dose Combination of Dexketoprofen and Dicyclomine Injection in Acute Renal Colic  

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Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed-dose combination of dexketoprofen and dicyclomine (DXD) injection in patients with acute renal colic. Patients and Methods. Two hundred and seventeen patients were randomized to receive either DXD (n = 109) or fixed-dose combination of diclofenac and dicyclomine injection (DLD; n = 108), intramuscularly. Pain intensity (PI) was self-evaluated by patients on visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. E...

Porwal, A.; Mahajan, A. D.; Oswal, D. S.; Erram, S. S.; Sheth, D. N.; Balamurugan, S.; Kamat, V.; Enadle, R. P.; Badadare, A.; Bhatnagar, S. K.; Walvekar, R. S.; Dhorepatil, S.; Naik, R. C.; Basu, I.; Kshirsagar, S. N.

2012-01-01

107

Efficacy of oral, injectable and pour-on formulations of moxidectin against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle in New Zealand.  

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The efficacy of moxidectin administered by different routes, against naturally acquired infections of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of cattle, was compared using faecal egg count reduction tests on 14 commercial farms throughout New Zealand. On each farm, groups of 15 calves were sampled for faecal nematode egg count and then treated with ivermectin administered orally, or with moxidectin administered either by the oral, subcutaneous injection or topical (pour-on) route. Samples were again collected 14 days after treatment and efficacy was calculated as the percentage reduction in-group mean egg count between the pre- and post-treatment samples. In addition, efficacy was calculated for individual animals, in order to compare the variability of the different treatments. On four farms untreated control groups were run and five animals from each of the control and all of the moxidectin-treated groups were bled over time to estimate plasma-moxidectin concentrations. Averaged across all tests, the reduction in faecal egg count was significantly greater after treatment with moxidectin oral (91.1%) than following treatment with moxidectin injection (55.5%) or with moxidectin pour-on (51.3%). Low efficacies were invariably against Cooperia oncophora. The oral treatments were significantly less variable in efficacy than the injection and pour-on treatments. Moxidectin concentrations in plasma were highest following subcutaneous injection and lowest following pour-on administration. Plasma levels following oral administration were intermediate, being significantly lower than post-injection and significantly higher than post-pour-on. There was no evidence of transfer of moxidectin to untreated animals through licking. Based on these results, along with those of other studies, it is proposed that oral administration of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics results in higher concentrations of active reaching the target worms in the gastrointestinal tract than following either administration by injection or by pour-on. PMID:23063773

Leathwick, D M; Miller, C M

2013-01-31

108

A pharmacogenetic study of risperidone on chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in Chinese Han schizophrenia patients.  

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Previous observations of the pathophysiological distribution and pharmacological profile of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) have indicated its potential role in antipsychotic drug actions. More information on the pharmacogenetics of CCL2 may therefore be useful in developing individualized therapy. However, to our knowledge, rare studies have been reported in this area. This investigation was attempted to clarify whether CCL2 polymorphism could affect risperidone efficacy. We genotyped four SNPs (rs4795893, rs1024611, rs4586 and rs2857657) distributed throughout the CCL2 gene and examined them for association using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score in two independent cohorts of Chinese schizophrenic patients (n = 208) from two different geographic areas, following an 8-week period of risperidone monotherapy. We found that all genotyped SNPs were significantly associated with risperidone treatment (rs4795893: p = 1.66E-04, rs4586: p = 0.001, rs2857657: p = 0.004, at week 4, in ANOVA). Our results indicate that there may be some effect of variations in the CCL2 gene on therapeutic efficacy of risperidone, and the associated polymorphisms may be a potential genetic marker for predicting the therapeutic effect of risperidone. PMID:24495780

Xiong, Yuyu; Wei, Zhiyun; Huo, Ran; Wu, Xi; Shen, Lu; Li, Yang; Gong, Xueli; Wu, Zhenqiang; Feng, Guoyin; Li, Wenqiang; He, Lin; Xing, Qinghe; Qin, Shengying

2014-06-01

109

Efficacy of moxidectin 6-month injectable and milbemycin oxime/lufenuron tablets against naturally acquired trichuris vulpis infections in dogs.  

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Efficacy of moxidectin injection (ProHeart 6 Sustained Release Injectable for Dogs, Fort Dodge Animal Health) against naturally acquired infections of Trichuris vulpis was compared with that of milbemycin oxime/lufenuron tablets (Sentinel Flavor Tabs, Novartis Animal Health). Eighteen dogs infected with T. vulpis were ranked by egg counts and randomly allocated to treatment with moxidectin (170 micro g/kg), milbemycin (500 micro g/kg)/lufenuron (10 mg/kg), or to an untreated control group (six dogs per treatment). Dogs were euthanized for worm counting 7 days after treatment. Efficacy of milbemycin/lufenuron against T. vulpis was 99.6 %, compared with 67.5 % for moxidectin. The commercial formulation of milbemycin oxime/lufenuron provided excellent control of whipworm infection, whereas moxidectin demonstrated variable efficacy against this parasite. PMID:12447836

Bowman, Dwight D; Legg, Walter; Stansfield, David G

2002-01-01

110

Efficacy of injections of phosphatidylcholine into fat deposits-a non-surgical alternative to liposuction in body-contouring  

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Full Text Available Injecting phosphatidylcholine has been used in South America as a non-surgical treatment in body contouring. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of injecting phosphatidylcholine in the reduction of localised fat deposits. 86 patients were included in the study. Patients received 1-3 treatments in localised fat deposits in various areas of the body using phosphatidylcholine. After treatment with phosphatidylcholine (250 mg / 5 ml, fat deposits show an average circumferential reduction per application of 2.70 cm. No patient showed irregularities, dimples or any serious side effect after treatment. Results remained stable during the time of follow up. All patients showed remarkable reductions of the fat deposits treated with phosphatidylcholine. Using the correct technique, injecting phosphatidylcholine may be a safe and efficacious alternative to liposuction in patients objecting to surgery.

Karl-G Heinrich

2005-01-01

111

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy vs Risperidone for Augmenting Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

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IMPORTANCE Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the world’s most disabling illnesses according to the World Health Organization. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are the only medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat OCD, but few patients achieve minimal symptoms from an SRI alone. In such cases, practice guidelines recommend adding antipsychotics or cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP). OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of these 2 SRI augmentation strategies vs pill placebo for the first time, to our knowledge, in adults with OCD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized clinical trial (conducted January 2007–August 2012) at 2 academic outpatient research clinics that specialize in OCD and anxiety disorders. Patients (aged 18–70 years) were eligible if they had OCD of at least moderate severity despite a therapeutic SRI dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Of 163 who were eligible, 100 were randomized (risperidone, n = 40; EX/RP, n = 40; and placebo, n = 20), and 86 completed the trial. INTERVENTIONS While continuing their SRI at the same dose, patients were randomized to the addition of 8 weeks of risperidone (up to 4 mg/d), EX/RP (17 sessions delivered twice weekly), or pill placebo. Independent assessments were conducted every 4 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) to measure OCD severity. RESULTS Patients randomized to EX/RP had significantly greater reduction in week 8 Y-BOCS scores based on mixed-effects models (vs risperidone: mean [SE], ?9.72 [1.38]; P<.001 vs placebo: mean [SE], ?10.10 [1.68]; P < .001). Patients receiving risperidone did not significantly differ from those receiving placebo (mean [SE], ?0.38 [1.72]; P=.83). More patients receiving EX/RP responded (Y-BOCS score decrease ?25%: 80% for EX/RP, 23% for risperidone, and 15% for placebo; P < .001). More patients receiving EX/RP achieved minimal symptoms (Y-BOCS score ?12: 43% for EX/RP, 13% for risperidone, and 5% for placebo; P = .001). Adding EX/RP was also superior to risperidone and placebo in improving insight, functioning, and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Adding EX/RP to SRIs was superior to both risperidone and pill placebo. Patients with OCD receiving SRIs who continue to have clinically significant symptoms should be offered EX/RP before antipsychotics given its superior efficacy and less negative adverse effect profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00389493.

Simpson, Helen Blair; Foa, Edna B.; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Huppert, Jonathan D.; Cahill, Shawn; Maher, Michael J.; McLean, Carmen P.; Bender, James; Marcus, Sue M.; Williams, Monnica T.; Weaver, Jamie; Vermes, Donna; Van Meter, Page E.; Rodriguez, Carolyn I.; Powers, Mark; Pinto, Anthony; Imms, Patricia; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Campeas, Raphael

2014-01-01

112

Comparison of Risperidone and Methylphenidate for Reducing ADHD Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Moderate Mental Retardation.  

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Objective: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and tolerability of risperidone and methylphenidate for reducing symptoms related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents with moderate mental retardation. Method: In a 4-week, single-blind, parallel-group trial, 45 subjects with moderate mental retardation and…

Filho, Alceu Gomes Correia; Bodanese, Rafael; Silva, Tatiana Laufer; Alvares, Julia Paglioza; Aman, Michael; Rohde, Luis Augusto

2005-01-01

113

Double-blind comparison of ziprasidone and risperidone in the treatment of Chinese patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available Hongyan Zhang1, Huafang Li2, Liang Shu1, Niufan Gu2, Gang Wang3, Yongzhen Weng3, Shiping Xie4, Xinbao Zhang4, Ting Li5, Cui Ma5, Wei Yu6, Bruce Parsons7, Manjula Schou81Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing, China; 2Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai, China; 3Capital Medical University, Beijing An Ding Hospital, Beijing, China; 4Nanjing Brain Hospital, Nanjing, China; 5Guangzhou Brain Hospital, Guangzhou, China; 6Pfizer China, Beijing, China; 7Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA; 8Pfizer Australia, Sydney, AustraliaBackground: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ziprasidone versus risperidone in Chinese subjects with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.Methods: In patients meeting the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders criteria for schizophrenia and with a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score ?60 were randomly assigned to six weeks of double-blind treatment with ziprasidone 40–80 mg twice daily or risperidone 1–3 mg bid, flexibly dosed. Noninferiority was demonstrated if the upper limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval (CI for the difference in PANSS total score improvement from baseline in the evaluable population was smaller than the prespecified noninferiority margin of 10 units.Results: The intent-to-treat population comprised 118 ziprasidone-treated and 121 risperidone-treated subjects. Improvement (reduction from baseline to week 6 in PANSS total score was (-35.6 [95% CI: -38.6, -32.6] for ziprasidone and (-37.1 [95% CI: -39.9, -34.4] for risperidone. Noninferiority was demonstrated in the evaluable population with a difference score of 1.5 [95% CI: -2.5, 5.5]. Mean prolactin levels decreased at week 6 compared with baseline for ziprasidone (-3.5 ng/mL, but significantly increased for risperidone (61.1 ng/mL; P < 0.001. More risperidone-treated subjects (14.9% than ziprasidone-treated subjects (4.2% reported weight gain ?7%. Akathisia and somnolence in the ziprasidone group and akathisia and insomnia in the risperidone group were the most common side effects. Treatment-related/treatment-emergent adverse events were reported by 79.7% and 71.1% of ziprasidone-treated and risperidone-treated subjects, respectively.Conclusion: In Chinese subjects, ziprasidone was as effective as risperidone, with less weight gain and less prolactin elevation.Keywords: ziprasidone, risperidone, schizophrenia

Hongyan Zhang

2011-03-01

114

Risperidone Mono - Therapy as Prophylaxis in Bipolar Affective Disorders  

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Risperidone has been found to be useful in the treatment of acute bipolar disorders. This is a case report where risperidone mono therapy has been found to be effective in prophylaxis of bipolar affective disorder. The pharmacological and clinical implications of risperidone in the management of BPAD are discussed

2004-01-01

115

Effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of risperidone in adolescents with schizophrenia: an open-label study.  

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Data on risperidone's efficacy and tolerability in adolescents with schizophrenia are scarce. We found only one prospective, open-label study in this population. The aim of this open-label, prospective study was to estimate the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of risperidone treatment in adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia. Subjects were adolescent inpatients diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition) first-episode schizophrenia by the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present Episode version. Most of the patients (10/11) were drug naïve. Improvement was assessed during the first 6 weeks of treatment using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale. Side effects were monitored using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale, the Simpson-Angus Scale, the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale, and the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale. Eleven adolescents between 15.5 and 20 years of age (mean = 17.27, SD = 1.27 years) were included in this study. Risperidone in an average dose of 3.14 mg/day (SD = 1.60 mg/day) produced a significant improvement on the total PANSS score (28%, p PANSS. The major side effects were extrapyramidal side effects, somnolence, depression, and weight gain. In conclusion risperidone appears to be a safe, acceptably tolerated, and effective antipsychotic medication for the treatment of adolescent-onset schizophrenia. PMID:14642020

Zalsman, Gil; Carmon, Einat; Martin, Andrés; Bensason, Daniela; Weizman, Abraham; Tyano, Samuel

2003-01-01

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Assessment And Comparing The Efficacy Of Propofol Pretreatment With Dexamethasone In Prevalence And Severity Of Its Pain On Injection.  

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Full Text Available Background: One of the disturbing complications of propofol is pain on venous injection. Some investigators had reported that corticosteroids effectively induce and prolong the duration of local anesthetics. The aim of this study was to assess and comparing the efficacy of propofol pretreatment with dexamethasone in prevalence and severity of its pain on injection. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled prospective study, 90ASA I and II, 20 to 60 years-old patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled. In all patients, one of the veins of both hands was catheterized with a 20 G catheter. Then randomly, and simultaneously 2 ml dexamethasone (8 mg was injected to one of them and 2 ml of normal saline was injected to other. After 30 seconds, 2 ml propofol (20 mg was injected to both hands, at the same time in 30 seconds. Pain intensity was measured using VAS system. Results: The age mean was 32.87±5.61. Twenty nine patients were male (32.2%. The mean of pain during propofol injection was significantly lower in dexamethasone group than normal saline group (1.61 vs.4.21 respectively, p 0.05. Conclusion: Intravenous administration of 8 mg dexamethasone before propofol IV injection significantly decreases the pain on injection of propofol.

Shoeibi G

2005-05-01

117

Paliperidone ER and oral risperidone in patients with schizophrenia: a comparative database analysis  

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Abstract Background To compare the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (ER) with risperidone immediate-release using propensity score methodology. Methods Six double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, short-term clinical trials for acute schizophrenia with availability of individual patient-level data were identified (3 per compound). Propensity score pairwise matching was used to balance observed covariates between the paliperidone ER...

2011-01-01

118

Haloperidol and risperidone in the treatment of delirium and its subtypes  

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Background and Objectives: To compare the safety and efficacy of haloperidol and risperidone in the treatment of delirium and its subtypes Methods: We collected sociodemographic data and medical variables in addition to systematically rating all patients with delirium with the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS), Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPS) and abbreviated Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU) at baseline (T1), 2-3 days (T2) and 4-7 days (T3) and created an IRB-approved d...

Soenke Boettger; William Breitbart; Steven Passik

2011-01-01

119

Postmortem Femoral Blood Concentrations of Risperidone  

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Postmortem femoral blood concentrations of the antipsychotic drug risperidone and the active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined by an achiral LC-MS/MS method in 38 cases. The cause of death was classified as unrelated to risperidone in 30 cases, in which the sum of the concentration of the drug and metabolite ranged from below the limit of quantification to 0.058 mg/kg (median 0.0098 mg/kg). This concentration range, which largely corresponds to published in vivo plasmalevels under therapy, may serve as a reference for judgment of postmortem cases involving risperidone. In one case, risperidone was judged to be a contributing factor to death, and the sum of concentrations was 0.29 mg/kg. This concentration is of the same order of magnitude as observed for plasma levels in clinical intoxication cases. For the remaining seven cases, the cause of death was unclear. The measurements observed here do not suggest that risperidone is subject to major postmortem redistribution.

Linnet, Kristian; Johansen, Sys Stybe

2014-01-01

120

11 Efficacy and Tolerability of HDM Injective Immunotherapy With Monomeric Allergoid  

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Background Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is an effective treatment of respiratory allergy and carbamylated monomeric allergoids (monoids), by virtue of their reduced IgE-binding activity, resulted clinically safe by sublingual administration. Purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of immunotherapy with house dust mites (HDM) monoid administered by injective route in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR). Methods A preparation of 0.70 mL of 10 BU/mL containing modified extract with 50% Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and 50% Dermatophagoides farinae (amount of major allergen: 4 ?g of group 1 per milliliter) was delivered monthly for 12 months, following a 5-week build-up induction phase (0.10–0.20–0.30–0.50–0.70 mL), to 58 patients (60% males, mean age 25.1 ± 12.7) suffering from AR due to mites for at least 2 years, whereas 60 patients with similar baseline characteristics were observed as controls. All patients were allowed to assume traditional drug therapy for their condition. At the end of the study changes from baseline in symptoms scores, in number of days with drug assumption, in severity of AR (according to ARIA classification) were compared between the 2 groups; moreover an overall assessment of clinical efficacy and tolerability was based on patients' and physicians' judgements (unsatisfactory, mild, good, optimal). Results In respect to baseline both groups showed, after 1 year, an improvement in symptoms score (P < 0.001) with a significant difference in favour of SCIT group (P < 0.05). Days of drug intake were significantly lower in patients receiving SCIT (P < 0.05). The number of patients with severe AR decreased in the first group while no variation was observed in controls. The subjective clinical overall assessment was optimal in 31 cases and good in 24 according to physicians' and patients' judgements; similarly 38 patients judged tolerability as optimal and 18 as good, whereas according to physicians it was optimal in 37 patients and good in 19; in only 1 patient the treatment was considered unsatisfactory. Conclusions In this prospective controlled study, SCIT with HDM carbamylated allergoid was associated with a significant clinical benefit observed through objective and subjective outcomes; the traditional safety of monomeric allergoids was confirmed by the subjective judgements of tolerability.

Compalati, Enrico; Atzeni, Isabella; Cabras, Sergio; Fancello, Paolo; Gaspardini, Giulio; Longo, Rocco; Patella, Vincenzo; Tore, Giorgio

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Efficacy of moxidectin 6-month injectable and milbemycin oxime/lufenuron tablets against naturally acquired toxocara canis infections in dogs.  

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The efficacy of moxidectin injection (ProHeart 6 Sustained Release Injectable for Dogs, Fort Dodge Animal Health) against naturally acquired infections of Toxocara canis was compared with that of milbemycin oxime/lufenuron tablets (Sentinel Flavor Tabs, Novartis Animal Health). Eighteen dogs with naturally acquired infections of T. canis were ranked by egg counts and randomly assigned to treatment with moxidectin (170 micro g/kg), milbemycin (500 micro g/kg)/lufenuron (10 mg/kg), or to an untreated control group (six dogs per treatment). Dogs were euthanized 7 days after treatment for recovery, identification, and enumeration of parasites by species. There was no apparent efficacy for moxidectin against T. canis. Conversely, milbemycin oxime/lufenuron was 91.5 % effective against naturally occurring infections of this canine parasite. PMID:12447835

Bowman, Dwight D; Legg, Walter; Stansfield, David G

2002-01-01

122

Risperidone in the treatment of conduct disorder in preschool children without intellectual disability  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition Textrevision highlights the especially poor outcomes of early-onset conduct disorder (CD. The strong link between the patient's age at treatment and its efficacy points the importance of early intervention. Risperidone is one of the most commonly studied medications used to treat CD in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to obtain preliminary data about the efficacy and tolerability of risperidone treatment in otherwise typically developing preschool children with conduct disorder and severe behavioral problems. Method We recruited 12 otherwise normally developing preschoolers (ten boys and two girls with CD for this study. We could not follow up with 4 children at control visits properly; thus, 8 children (six girls, two boys; mean age: 42.4 months completed the study. We treated the patients with risperidone in an open-label fashion for 8 weeks, starting with a daily dosage of 0.125 mg/day or 0.25 mg/day depending on the patient's weight (20 kg children: 0.25 mg/day. Dosage titration and increments were performed at 2-week interval clinical assessments. The Turgay DSM-IV Based Disruptive Behavior Disorders Child and Adolescent Rating & Screening Scale (T-DSM-IV-S as well as the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI assessed treatment efficacy; the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS and laboratory evaluations assessed treatment safety. Results The mean daily dosage of risperidone at the end of 8 weeks was 0.78 mg/day (SD: 0.39 with a maximum dosage of 1.50 mg/day. Based on the CGI global improvement item, we classified all patients as "responders" (very much or much improved. Risperidone was associated with a 78% reduction in the CGI Severity score. We also detected significant improvements on all of the subscales of the T-DSM-IV-S. Tolerability was good, and serious adverse effects were not observed. We detected statistically significant prolactin level increments (p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that risperidone may be an effective and well-tolerated atypical antipsychotic for the treatment of CD in otherwise normally developing preschool children. The findings of the study should be interpreted as preliminary data considering its small sample size and open-label methodology.

Durak Sibel

2011-04-01

123

Pharmacokinetic and efficacy study of cisplatin and paclitaxel formulated in a new injectable poly(sebacic-co-ricinoleic acid) polymer.  

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Injectable biodegradable polymer poly(sebacic-co-ricinoleic acid), P(SA-RA) is currently under development for intratumoral (IT) delivery of drugs for treating solid tumors. This study presents formulation development, pharmacokinetic and efficacy studies of two anticancer drugs (cisplatin and paclitaxel) formulated with P(SA-RA) polymer. In pharmacokinetic study, systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic parameters of cisplatin/paclitaxel following single intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) doses of cisplatin/paclitaxel was compared with intramuscular (IM) or SC doses of cisplatin/paclitaxel formulated with P(SA-RA) polymer in male CD rat. Simultaneously, the tumor reduction effect and toxicity for these formulations were evaluated in human FaDu head and neck tumor xenograft subcutaneous nude mouse model. Pharmacokinetic data reflect the lower maximal concentrations and sustained release of polymer-cisplatin/paclitaxel formulations compared to standard cisplatin/paclitaxel administration. Regarding efficacy study, a single IT or near the tumor injection (NT) of polymer-paclitaxel or polymer-cisplatin formulation significantly reduced the tumor size, compared to the standard paclitaxel or cisplatin treatments. No death or toxicity and no effect on body weight as well as macroscopic and/or microscopic changes in or near the injected area were observed, proving biocompatibility and acceptability of polymer-formulations. In conclusion, the developed formulation demonstrated controlled release and significant efficacy in delivering these agents and exhibit potential for further clinical development. PMID:22732267

Levy-Nissenbaum, Etgar; Khan, Wahid; Pawar, Rajendra P; Tabakman, Rinat; Naftali, Esmira; Winkler, Ilan; Kaufman, Olga; Klapper, Leah; Domb, Abraham J

2012-09-01

124

Efficacy and tolerability of fixed-dose combination of dexketoprofen and dicyclomine injection in acute renal colic.  

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Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed-dose combination of dexketoprofen and dicyclomine (DXD) injection in patients with acute renal colic. Patients and Methods. Two hundred and seventeen patients were randomized to receive either DXD (n = 109) or fixed-dose combination of diclofenac and dicyclomine injection (DLD; n = 108), intramuscularly. Pain intensity (PI) was self-evaluated by patients on visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. Efficacy parameters were proportion of responders, difference in PI (PID) at 8 hours, and sum of analogue of pain intensity differences (SAPID). Tolerability was assessed by patients and physicians. Results. DXD showed superior efficacy in terms of proportion of responders (98.17% versus 81.48; P < 0.0001), PID at 8 hours (P = 0.002), and SAPID(0-8?hours) (P = 0.004). The clinical global impression for change in pain was significantly better for DXD than DLD. The incidence of adverse events was comparable in both groups. However, global assessment of tolerability was rated significantly better for DXD. Conclusion. DXD showed superior efficacy and tolerability than DLD in patients clinically diagnosed to be suffering from acute renal colic. PMID:22577544

Porwal, A; Mahajan, A D; Oswal, D S; Erram, S S; Sheth, D N; Balamurugan, S; Kamat, V; Enadle, R P; Badadare, A; Bhatnagar, S K; Walvekar, R S; Dhorepatil, S; Naik, R C; Basu, I; Kshirsagar, S N; Keny, J V; Sengupta, S

2012-01-01

125

Efficacy and Tolerability of Fixed-Dose Combination of Dexketoprofen and Dicyclomine Injection in Acute Renal Colic  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed-dose combination of dexketoprofen and dicyclomine (DXD) injection in patients with acute renal colic. Patients and Methods. Two hundred and seventeen patients were randomized to receive either DXD (n = 109) or fixed-dose combination of diclofenac and dicyclomine injection (DLD; n = 108), intramuscularly. Pain intensity (PI) was self-evaluated by patients on visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. Efficacy parameters were proportion of responders, difference in PI (PID) at 8 hours, and sum of analogue of pain intensity differences (SAPID). Tolerability was assessed by patients and physicians. Results. DXD showed superior efficacy in terms of proportion of responders (98.17% versus 81.48; P < 0.0001), PID at 8 hours (P = 0.002), and SAPID0–8?hours (P = 0.004). The clinical global impression for change in pain was significantly better for DXD than DLD. The incidence of adverse events was comparable in both groups. However, global assessment of tolerability was rated significantly better for DXD. Conclusion. DXD showed superior efficacy and tolerability than DLD in patients clinically diagnosed to be suffering from acute renal colic.

Porwal, A.; Mahajan, A. D.; Oswal, D. S.; Erram, S. S.; Sheth, D. N.; Balamurugan, S.; Kamat, V.; Enadle, R. P.; Badadare, A.; Bhatnagar, S. K.; Walvekar, R. S.; Dhorepatil, S.; Naik, R. C.; Basu, I.; Kshirsagar, S. N.; Keny, J. V.; Sengupta, S.

2012-01-01

126

Behavioral HIV Risk Reduction among People Who Inject Drugs: Meta-Analytic Evidence of Efficacy  

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We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate behavioral HIV-risk reduction interventions targeting people who inject drugs. We included 37 RCTs evaluating 49 independent HIV-risk reduction interventions with 10,190 participants. Compared to controls, intervention participants reduced injection-and non-injection drug use, increased drug treatment entry, increased condom use, and decreased trading sex for drugs. Interventions were more successful at reducing i...

2006-01-01

127

Better efficacy of methotrexate given by intramuscular injection than orally in patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

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Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of methotrexate and tolerance to the drug in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were switched from intramuscular to oral administration because of a shortage of the intramuscular preparation.

2004-01-01

128

Efficacy of first-time steroid injection for painful heel syndrome.  

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of a single injection of corticosteroids in patients with painful heel syndrome. Twenty-seven heels in 24 patients were injected with a combination of 1 ml of lidocaine and 1 ml of betamethasone (6 mg). These patients had never previously received an injection to their heels and had continued symptoms of pain after a trial of other nonoperative treatment modalities. After the injection, patients were seen and surveyed periodically for a period of 5 months to 8 months. The amount of pain relief that they obtained, the length of time this lasted, and the amount of heel pain present at the final follow-up were recorded. Based on the results of our study, we believe that a steroid injection is a reasonable adjunct in the treatment of painful heel syndrome, but that it is unlikely to provide permanent pain relief. PMID:8574371

Miller, R A; Torres, J; McGuire, M

1995-10-01

129

Efficacy of Methylprednisolone Acetate Injection for the Treatment of Plantar Heel Pain  

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Full Text Available Background: To assess the short term results of local methyl prednisolone acetate injection for the treatment of heel pain syndrome. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out on 109 patients with plantar heel pain who were treated by local methyl prednisolone acetate injection. Reduction of pain and tenderness were the primary measurement outcome.Results: Rest pain, walking pain and tenderness at 3 weeks was relived in 70 and 67 and 74 patients, and after 3 months in 72, 68 and 81 patients respectively. Mean patient's pain score was 8.2±2.2 before injection, 4.1±1.5 at 3 weeks, and 3.9±1.4 at 3 months after injection.Conclusion: Local injection of methyl prednisolone acetate was associated with a fairly high satisfactory short term results in the treatment of heel pain.

S. Abdolhossein Mehdi-Nasab

130

The efficacy of periarticular multimodal drug injection for postoperative pain management in total knee or hip arthroplasty.  

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The efficacy of periarticular multimodal drug injection (PMDI) to reduce pain after total knee or hip arthroplasty (TKA or THA) still remains controversial. Our study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of PMDI after TKA or THA. A fully recursive literature search was conducted to identify relevant randomized controlled trials. Ultimately, 21 studies were included in the analysis. Pooled results showed that the PMDI group had better pain relief, less opioid consumption, larger range of motion, and lower rates of nausea and vomiting than the placebo group. No significant difference was seen in regard to the length of hospital stay between the two groups. In conclusion, PMDI should be recommended for the pain management after TKA or THA. PMID:23910819

Jiang, Jin; Teng, Yuanjun; Fan, Zhenzhen; Khan, Md Shahidur; Cui, Zhaohui; Xia, Yayi

2013-12-01

131

Efficacy of aspiration and autogenous bone marrow injection in the treatment of simple bone cysts  

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Twenty eight patients with simple bone cyst that were treated by aspiration and percutaneous autogenous bone marrow injection were reviewed to evaluate the treatment outcome. There were 18 boys and ten girls. Their mean age was 10.9?±?2.75 years. Single injection was performed for 16 patients; the rest had double or triple injections. There were no operative complications. The mean follow-up was 34.7?±?6.87 months. The procedure succeeded in obtaining healing in 23 cysts (82%). Cy...

Zamzam, Mohammed M.; Abak, Alshahid A.; Bakarman, Khalid A.; Al-jassir, Fawzi F.; Khoshhal, Khalid I.; Zamzami, Marwan M.

2009-01-01

132

A clinical evaluation of risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia: a 10-week, open-label, multicenter trial. ARCS Study Group. Assessment of Risperdal in a Clinical Setting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy and safety of risperidone have previously been demonstrated in controlled clinical trials in hospitalized chronic schizophrenia patients who met strict research criteria. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of risperidone in a heterogeneous patient population. Patients were enrolled in the study if they had a diagnosis of schizophrenia (DSM-III-R) with or without acute exacerbation. Of the 945 patients from 158 psychiatric centers who entered this phase IV study, 558 completed the 10-week trial. During week 1, the dose of risperidone was titrated to 6 mg/day, maintained there for 1 week, and then adjusted over a 4-week period as clinically necessary; the dose was then fixed for the final 4-week period. The mean dose of risperidone at endpoint was 5.9 mg/day. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at weeks 2, 6, and 10, using Clinical Global Impression scale, Psychotic Symptoms Assessment scale, and Global Assessment of Functioning scale. Significant improvement in mean scores was found on each of these measures at endpoint. Comparable results were obtained at week 10 in treatment-resistant and non-treatment-resistant patients. Risperidone was generally well tolerated and the severity of extrapyramidal symptoms was significantly reduced at endpoint. PMID:9203234

Jeste, D V; Klausner, M; Brecher, M; Clyde, C; Jones, R

1997-06-01

133

The long-term efficacy of corticosteroid injection into the acromioclavicular joint using a dynamic fluoroscopic method  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Accuracy and efficacy of an intra-articular infiltration of corticosteroid and local anesthetic in the symptomatic acromioclavicular joint were studied in 44 patients. Methods: Accuracy of the infiltration was studied using a blind technique with a dynamic fluoroscopic control. Results: Accuracy of the blind infiltration technique was only 50% and the dynamic fluoroscopic technique remains our preferred technique in the clinical setting. On average patients reported a 65% decrease in the intensity of the pain following the injection. At an average follow-up of forty-two months, 59% had undergone surgery, 14% of patients reported more than three months of symptoms relief. Conclusions: Despite the poor long-term results of injecting the acromioclavicular joint, it remains a valuable technique. It has a low cost, minor risks of complications and has high diagnostic value. All but one patients reporting short-term pain relief. Level of Evidence: Level III, case control study.

Bain G

2007-01-01

134

The Efficacy of Artecoll Injections for the Augmentation of Nipple Projection in Breast Reconstruction  

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Introduction: Various techniques have been used in an attempt to achieve long-term nipple projection following nipple-areolar reconstruction. A common setback, however, is the diminution of projection overtime; this phenomenon is particularly evident following implant-based breast reconstruction. Artecoll may be suitable for injection into the nipple complex to maintain permanent, 3-dimensional projection. Artecoll is an injectable substance that is biocompatible and immunologically inert and...

Mccarthy, Colleen M.; Vanlaeken, Nancy; Lennox, Peter; Scott, Amie M.; Pusic, Andrea L.

2010-01-01

135

Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Celecoxib in a Rabbit Model of Osteoarthritis  

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Introduction: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It is a slowly progressive joint disease typically seen in middle-age to elderly people. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is a well-documented treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Celebrex® (celecoxib) is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which could help to reduce inflammation and to reduce pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intra-articular injection of celecoxib in a rabbit osteo...

Dinghua Jiang; Jun Zou; Lixin Huang; Qin Shi; Xuesong Zhu; Genlin Wang; Huilin Yang

2010-01-01

136

Adjunctive long-acting risperidone in patients with bipolar disorder who relapse frequently and have active mood symptoms  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this exploratory analysis was to characterize efficacy and onset of action of a 3-month treatment period with risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI, adjunctive to an individual's treatment regimen, in subjects with symptomatic bipolar disorder who relapsed frequently and had significant symptoms of mania and/or depression. Methods Subjects with bipolar disorder with ?4 mood episodes in the past 12 months entered the open-label stabilization phase preceding a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Subjects with significant depressive or manic/mixed symptoms at baseline were analyzed. Significant depressive symptoms were defined as Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS ?16 and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS t tests; categorical differences were assessed using Fisher exact test. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. Results 162 subjects who relapsed frequently met criteria for significant mood symptoms at open-label baseline; 59/162 (36.4% had depressive symptoms, 103/162 (63.6% had manic/mixed symptoms. Most subjects (89.5% were receiving ?1 medication for bipolar disorder before enrollment. Significant improvements were observed for the total population on the CGI-BP-S, MADRS, and YMRS scales (p Conclusions Exploratory analysis of changes in overall clinical status and depression/mania symptoms in subjects with symptomatic bipolar disorder who relapse frequently showed improvements in each of these areas after treatment with RLAI, adjunctive to a subject's individualized treatment. Prospective controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Haskins John T

2011-10-01

137

Functional efficacy of dystrophin expression from plasmids delivered to mdx mice by hydrodynamic limb vein injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

In these studies we delivered by hydrodynamic limb vein (HLV) injection plasmid DNA (pDNA) expressing the full-length mouse dystrophin gene to skeletal muscles throughout the hind limbs of the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We evaluated the levels and stability of dystrophin expression and measured the resulting muscle protection, using Evans blue dye (EBD) to mark the damaged myofibers. Plasmid delivery was as efficient in the dystrophic mice as in wild-type mice and equally efficient in young adult and old mice, as long as the dose of pDNA was adjusted for the target muscle weight. The HLV gene delivery procedure was tolerated well by the dystrophic mice and repeat injections could be performed over an extended period of time. Multiple gene deliveries additively increased the amount of dystrophin protein and also increased the percentages of dystrophin-expressing myofibers. Plasmids expressing dystrophin from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter construct containing the HMG1 intron provided stable dystrophin expression for the life of the mouse and provided significant benefit to the limbs. EBD staining showed that dystrophin gene delivery preserved myofibers in the CMV-HMGi-mDys-injected leg by 2.5- to 5-fold in large groups of muscles and by 2.5-fold throughout the injected legs, compared with the contralateral control legs injected with a nonexpressing plasmid. A similar degree of protection was measured in young adult mice evaluated soon after the last gene delivery and in aged mice injected over an extended period of time. This degree of protection resulted from 18 to 20% of the normal level of dystrophin protein, with 11-16% dystrophin-expressing myofibers. These studies show promise for the use of HLV injections to deliver therapeutic doses of full-length dystrophin-expressing plasmids for long-lasting protection of skeletal muscles in patients with DMD. PMID:19788386

Zhang, Guofeng; Wooddell, Christine I; Hegge, Julia O; Griffin, Jacob B; Huss, Thierry; Braun, Serge; Wolff, Jon A

2010-02-01

138

Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Celecoxib in a Rabbit Model of Osteoarthritis  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It is a slowly progressive joint disease typically seen in middle-age to elderly people. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is a well-documented treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Celebrex® (celecoxib is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which could help to reduce inflammation and to reduce pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intra-articular injection of celecoxib in a rabbit osteoarthritis model. Methods: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits underwent unilateral knee joint surgery using the Hulth technique. Six weeks post-surgery, the animals were randomly divided into three groups, and each group was respectively given weekly intra-articular injections with Celebrex®, hyaluronic acid and saline. On the sixth week, the results were assessed in rabbit models by gross observation, histological evaluation, and expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, MMP-3. Results: In the group given Celebrex® and hyaluronic acid, the pathological changes in the rabbit articular cartilage improved significantly, much more than in the saline group. The statistically significant suppression of IL-1?, TNF-?, MMP-3 was shown in the Celebrex group. No significant differences were detected between two treatment groups. Conclusions: Intra-articular injection of celecoxib is beneficial for knee osteoarthritis. It might repair and protect early osteoarthritis cartilage by delaying cartilage degeneration and impairing the function of inflammatory mediators, therefore, intra-articular injection of celecoxib can be used as an alternative to the current treatment of osteoarthritis.

Huilin Yang

2010-10-01

139

Intra-articular steroid injection for temporomandibular joint arthritis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis : A systematic review on efficacy and safety  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the current level of evidence for the use of intra-articular corticosteroid injections (IACI) against temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) with a particular focus on clinical and radiological improvements and safety profile. METHODS: A comprehensive electronic search strategy was performed in all major medical databases in February 2012. Studies were selected independently by two reviewers in accordance with a pre-specified protocol and a risk of bias assessment for all included studies. RESULTS: Ninety-four unique citations were identified of which seven remained after the inclusion criteria were applied and all of these were assessed to have a high risk of bias. The current limited level of evidence suggests potential beneficial properties of IACI in patients with TMJ arthritis-related symptoms and/or MRI-verified signs of TMJ inflammation. Currently, no scientific evidence substantiates the effect of IACI in terms of (I) improving maximal mouth opening capacity significantly, (II) reducing radiological disease progression, (III) normalising/improving mandibular growth, and (IV) increasing efficacy upon repeated injections. CONCLUSION: The current level of evidence allows only very limited conclusions on the effect of IACI therapy in patients with TMJ arthritis. Knowledge on the long-term impact of IACI on mandibular growth is not available. Future studies designed in accordance with evidence-based standards are needed to allow a more general conclusion on efficacy and safety of this treatment modality in patients with TMJ arthritis.

Stoustrup, Peter; Kristensen, Kasper D

2013-01-01

140

Association between a COMT polymorphism and clinical response to risperidone treatment: a pharmacogenetic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 130 Chinese schizophrenic patients (45 male, 85 female) were enrolled in the study. Clinical efficacy was determined using Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores. We genotyped 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the catechol-O-methyl transferase gene (COMT) in our patients and re-examined them for association with changes in BPRS scores after 8 weeks of risperidone monotherapy. COMT is one of the genes that confer susceptibility to schizophrenia, both because of its role in neurotransmitter metabolism and because of its location in the high-risk schizophrenia-related region 22q11. Recent studies also found that COMT functional polymorphisms influenced individual response to antipsychotic medication. Our aim in this study was to explore the influence of COMT polymorphisms on pharmacological response to risperidone in the Chinese population. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between an upstream COMT SNP, rs9606186, and scores reduction of BPRS in all patients and in the male subgroup but not in the female subgroup (allele analysis: P=0.055 for all, P=0.012 for male patients; genotype analysis: P=0.046 for all, P=0.020 for male patients, uncorrected, odds ratio=3.95). The COMT gene polymorphism, SNP rs9606186, is associated with risperidone therapy efficiency in the Chinese population. This association exhibited a sexually dimorphic difference, which may shed light on the genetics of COMT and its enzymatic sex-dependent mechanism. PMID:22935916

Zhao, Qing-Zhu; Liu, Bao-Cheng; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Lei; Li, Xing-Wang; Wang, Yang; Ji, Jue; Yang, Feng-Ping; Wan, Chun-Ling; Xu, Yi-Feng; Feng, Guo-Yin; He, Lin; He, Guang

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A injection in treatment of Congenital Esotropia  

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Full Text Available Backgroud and Objective: Congenital esotropia is one of most common ocular disorder in children with genetic origin. Amblyopia, decreased streopsis and cosmetic problems are its complication that affect person's fate in terms of career psychological issues. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of botulinum toxin A (Dysport injection in subconjunctival space near medial rectus insertion of both eyes for treatment of congenital esotropia.Subjects and Methods: Thirty babies (aged 6-54 months with congenital esotropia who were otherwise systemically and neurologically normal were enrolled in this study. Ten units of toxin (Dysport were injected (under sedation into the subconjunctival space near medial rectus insertion of both eyes. The angle of deviation was measured six times: after 3 days, 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after injection.Results: Twelve months after injection ,angle of deviation decreased from 52 ± 17 PD to 27.8 ± 21.29 PD in 86.3% of patients . Success of treatment achieved in 23.3% of patients ( P=0.008 .In seventeen cases (56.6% with angle of deviation? 45 PD (before injection improvement was better (p=0.030, 41.1% of this group after 1 month , 70% after 3 months , 76% after 6 months, and 41.1% after 12 months follow up achieved orthophoria.Conclusion: Botulinum toxin A injection into subconjunctival space near medial rectus insertion is a safe method that is not only effective transiently for eye alignment but also can reduce total deviation. Long term improvement seems to be achievable in cases with small angle deviation (equal or less than of 45 PD. Sci Med J 2011; 10(2:179-186

Azarish A

2011-05-01

142

A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Risperidone for the Treatment of Adolescents and Young Adults with Anorexia Nervosa: A Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory pilot study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of risperidone for the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Method: Forty female subjects 12 to 21 years of age (mean, 16 years) with primary anorexia nervosa in an eating disorders program were randomized to receive…

Hagman, Jennifer; Gralla, Jane; Sigel, Eric; Ellert, Swan; Dodge, Mindy; Gardner, Rick; O'Lonergan, Teri; Frank, Guido; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.

2011-01-01

143

Haloperidol and risperidone in the treatment of delirium and its subtypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Background and Objectives: To compare the safety and efficacy of haloperidol and risperidone in the treatment of delirium and its subtypes Methods: We collected sociodemographic data and medical variables in addition to systematically rating all patients with delirium with the Memorial Delirium Asse [...] ssment Scale (MDAS), Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPS) and abbreviated Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU) at baseline (T1), 2-3 days (T2) and 4-7 days (T3) and created an IRB-approved delirium database. For this secondary analysis we extracted all data containing haloperidol (HAL) and risperidone (RIS). Results: We were able to retrieve 32 patients treated with haloperidol (HAL) and risperidone (RIS) each. Both samples did not significantly differ in respect to age, cancer diagnoses or etiologies. The MDAS scores at baseline were higher in HAL treated subjects (20.2) compared to RIS treated subjects (17.7). The treatment results between HAL and RIS were not significantly different: Over the course of treatment MDAS scores improved from 20.2 to 8.3 (HAL) and 17.7 to 7.5 in (RIS), delirium resolution rates were 68.8% (HAL) and 84.4% (RIS). In hypoactive delirium the MDAS scores improved from 18.5 to 9.3 (HAL) and from 15.3 to 6.6 (RIS), delirium resolution rates were 64.3% (HAL) and 91.3% (RIS). In hyperactive delirium the MDAS scores improved from 22.5 to 6.6 (HAL) and 20.1 to 8.4 (RIS), delirium resolution rates were 72.2% (HAL) and 75% (RIS). There were no significant differences in KPS scores at all observation times. Treatment with HAL caused more EPS. Conclusions: Both haloperidol and risperidone may be equally effective in the treatment of delirium and its subtypes. Treatment with haloperidol resulted in more side effects.

Soenke, Boettger; William, Breitbart; Steven, Passik.

144

Haloperidol and risperidone in the treatment of delirium and its subtypes  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: To compare the safety and efficacy of haloperidol and risperidone in the treatment of delirium and its subtypes Methods: We collected sociodemographic data and medical variables in addition to systematically rating all patients with delirium with the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS, Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPS and abbreviated Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU at baseline (T1, 2-3 days (T2 and 4-7 days (T3 and created an IRB-approved delirium database. For this secondary analysis we extracted all data containing haloperidol (HAL and risperidone (RIS. Results: We were able to retrieve 32 patients treated with haloperidol (HAL and risperidone (RIS each. Both samples did not significantly differ in respect to age, cancer diagnoses or etiologies. The MDAS scores at baseline were higher in HAL treated subjects (20.2 compared to RIS treated subjects (17.7. The treatment results between HAL and RIS were not significantly different: Over the course of treatment MDAS scores improved from 20.2 to 8.3 (HAL and 17.7 to 7.5 in (RIS, delirium resolution rates were 68.8% (HAL and 84.4% (RIS. In hypoactive delirium the MDAS scores improved from 18.5 to 9.3 (HAL and from 15.3 to 6.6 (RIS, delirium resolution rates were 64.3% (HAL and 91.3% (RIS. In hyperactive delirium the MDAS scores improved from 22.5 to 6.6 (HAL and 20.1 to 8.4 (RIS, delirium resolution rates were 72.2% (HAL and 75% (RIS. There were no significant differences in KPS scores at all observation times. Treatment with HAL caused more EPS. Conclusions: Both haloperidol and risperidone may be equally effective in the treatment of delirium and its subtypes. Treatment with haloperidol resulted in more side effects.

Soenke Boettger

2011-06-01

145

Preparation and Biological Evaluation of Radioiodinated Risperidone and Lamotrigine as Models for Brain Imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brain imaging technology is becoming an important tool in both research and clinical care. Due to the sensitivity of brain imaging technology, neuroscientists are able to visualize brain structure and function from the level of individual molecules to the whole brain, recognize and diagnose neurological disorders, develop new strategies for treatment and determine how therapies work. The study aimed to take advantages from drugs that are able to cross the brain barrier for the development of potential radiopharmaceuticals for non-invasive brain imaging. Risperidone and lamotrigine were successfully labeled with 125I via direct electrophilic substitution reaction at 80 degree C. The reaction parameters affecting the preparation process were studied. 125I-risperidone and 125I-lamotrigine gave maximum labeling yield of 89 % ± 3.75 and 97.5 % ± 1.0 %, respectively and their stability were up to 6 and 24 h, respectively. Biodistribution studies showed that maximum uptake of 125I-risperidone and 125I-lamotrigine in the brain of mice were 4.27 % ± 0.38 and 2.45 % ± 0.18 of the injected activity/g tissue organ, at 10

2014-02-01

146

Anxiolytic-like property of risperidone and olanzapine as examined in multiple measures of fear in rats  

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Atypical antipsychotics are also used in the treatment of anxiety-related disorders. Clinical and preclinical evidence regarding their intrinsic anxiolytic efficacy has been mixed. In this study, we examined the potential anxiolytic-like effects of risperidone and olanzapine, and compared them with haloperidol, chlordiazepoxide (a prototype of sedative-anxiolytic drug) or citalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor). We used a composite of two-way avoidance conditioning and acoustic ...

Sun, Tao; He, Wei; Hu, Gang; Li, Ming

2010-01-01

147

RISPERIDONE - INDUCED TARDIVE DYSKINESIA : CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE  

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Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic with broad spectrum of antipsychotic activity and lower potential for extrapyramidal side effects at therapeutic doses. This case report illustrates the development of tardive dyskinesia with therapeutic dose of risperidone in a paranoid schizophrenic patient who was not on any antipsychotic medication previously.

2001-01-01

148

Perbedaan Efektifitas Risperidon Dan Haloperidol Terhadap Simtom Positif Pasien Skizofrenik  

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Latar Belakang : Beberapa penelitian membuat sub kategori dari simtom skizofrenia ke dalam lima bagian yaitu simtom positif, simtom negatif, simtom kognitif, simtom agresif dan depresif/cemas. Beberapa penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa risperidon adalah sediaan yang mempunyai keefektifan tinggi untuk simtom positif skizofrenia dan juga memperbaiki simtom negatif skizofrenia lebih baik daripada antipsikotik konvensional. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk melihat perbandingan efek risperidon dan halo...

2011-01-01

149

Interaction between escitalopram and risperidone  

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The ever-increasing use of psychotropic drugs in clinical practice today is a blessing for the patient who can hope to achieve faster remission and possibly a higher rate of cure. However, the flip side is that the use of polypharmacy increases the potential for drug–drug interactions. Escitalopram is a novel antidepressant and there are several reports on its efficacy in the treatment of depression. Reports about its interactions with the cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) enzyme system are relativ...

2005-01-01

150

Efficacy of submucosal injection of different solutions inclusive blood components on mucosa elevation for endoscopic resection  

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Oliver H Al-Taie1, Yildiz Bauer2, Christoph G Dietrich3, Wolfgang Fischbach21Department of Internal Medicine, Sankt Elisabeth-Hospital, Gütersloh, 2Department of Internal Medicine II, Klinikum Aschaffenburg, Aschaffenburg, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Bethlehem-Hospital, Stolberg, GermanyBackground: Endoscopic resection has become the standard treatment for noninvasive gastrointestinal malignancies. In flat mucosal tumors, normal saline is frequently used for submucosal fluid inject...

2012-01-01

151

Factors associated with uptake, adherence, and efficacy of hepatitis C treatment in people who inject drugs: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Viktor Mrav?ík,1,2 Lisa Strada,3 Josef Štolfa,4,5 Vladimir Bencko,6 Teodora Groshkova,7 Jens Reimer,3 Bernd Schulte3 1National Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2Department of Addictology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Centre for Interdisciplinary Addiction Research, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; 4Department of General Practice, Institute for Postgraduate Medical Education in Prague, 5Department of General Practice, Second Faculty of Medicine, 6Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 7European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon, Portugal Introduction and methods: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are highly prevalent amongst people who inject drugs (PWID. Despite well documented evidence of its effectiveness, suggested cost-effectiveness, and potential to reduce HCV prevalence rates, the uptake of antiviral HCV treatment by PWID is low. This nonsystematic literature review describes factors associated with the uptake, adherence, and efficacy of HCV treatment among PWID and discusses strategies to increase their uptake of treatment. Results: Low HCV treatment uptake among PWID is associated with a number of patient-related and provider-related barriers. Beliefs and fears about low efficacy and adverse effects on the patient’s part are common. A substantial number of factors are associated with the chaotic lifestyle and altered social functioning of PWID, which are often associated with decompensation or relapsing into drug addiction. This may lead to perceived low adherence with treatment and low efficacy on the provider’s part too, where lack of support, inadequate management of addiction, and other drug-related problems and poor treatment of side effects have been described. Practical issues such as the accessibility of treatment and finances also play a role. Strategies to improve the HCV treatment rate among PWID involve pretreatment management and assessment, a multidisciplinary approach, management of side effects, and enhanced education and counseling. Conclusion: Specific factors are associated with poorer treatment outcomes in PWID on the side of both the patient and the treatment system. However, given that PWID can achieve treatment adherence and sustained virologic response rates comparable with those in nondrug users, drug use per se should not be considered a criterion for exclusion from treatment. Further development of measures leading to higher uptake of treatment and adherence in PWID and appropriate adaptation of HCV treatment guidelines represent important tools in this regard. Keywords: hepatitis C virus, people who inject drugs, treatment uptake, adherence, efficacy

Mrav?ík V

2013-10-01

152

Paliperidone ER in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of Efficacy and Tolerability  

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Antipsychotics are recommended for the treatment of impulsive dyscontrol and cognitive perceptual symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Three reports supported the efficacy of oral risperidone on BPD psychopathology. Paliperidone ER is the metabolite of risperidone with a similar mechanism of action, and its osmotic release reduces plasmatic fluctuations and antidopaminergic effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER in BPD patients. 18 o...

Bellino, Silvio; Bozzatello, Paola; Rinaldi, Camilla; Bogetto, Filippo

2011-01-01

153

Paliperidone ER in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: a pilot study of efficacy and tolerability  

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Antipsychotics are recommended for the treatment of impulsive dyscontrol and cognitive perceptual symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Three reports supported the efficacy of oral risperidone on BPD psychopathology. Paliperidone ER is the metabolite of risperidone with a similar mechanism of action, and its osmotic release reduces plasmatic fluctuations and antidopaminergic effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER in BPD patie...

Bogetto, Filippo; Bozzatello, Paola; Rinaldi, Camilla; Bellino, Silvio

2011-01-01

154

Once-monthly paliperidone injection for the treatment of schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Delia BisharaPharmacy Department, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United KingdomAbstract: Paliperidone palmitate is a new long-acting antipsychotic injection for the treatment of acute and maintenance therapy in schizophrenia. Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone is the major active metabolite of risperidone and acts at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT2A receptors. As with other atypical antipsychotics, it exhibits a high 5HT2A:D2 affinity ratio. It also has binding activity as an antagonist at ?1- and ?2 adrenergic receptors and H1 histaminergic receptors, but has virtually no affinity for cholinergic receptors. Paliperidone palmitate has been shown to be effective in reducing Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores in four short-term trials in acute schizophrenia. It was also effective as maintenance therapy in a long-term trial in which time to recurrence of symptoms was significantly longer in paliperidone-treated patients compared with placebo. In addition, paliperidone was shown to be noninferior to risperidone long-acting injection in one study, but this noninferiority was not established in another longer study comparing the two drugs. Treatment should be initiated with 234 mg on day 1 and 156 mg on day 8, followed by a recommended monthly maintenance dose of 39–234 mg based on efficacy and tolerability. Paliperidone palmitate is generally well tolerated, although it can cause weight gain and a rise in prolactin levels, which is generally greater in women than in men. Overall, paliperidone palmitate may have advantages over other currently available long-acting injections, and therefore may be a useful alternative for the treatment of schizophrenia, although further long-term trials comparing it with active treatments are warranted.Keywords: paliperidone palmitate, injection, schizophrenia, long-acting

Delia Bishara

2010-09-01

155

Comparison of the efficacy of weekly vs. twice a week intralesional injections of meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis: a randomized clinical trial  

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"nBackground and Aim: Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially when caused by L. tropica, is challenging. Meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®) is used as the standard treatment, but multiple injectiond are necessary. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of weekly intralesional injections with twice weekly injections of Glucantime for the treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL)."n"nMethods: This randomized open clinical trial was conducted, in Bam...

Ali Khamesipour; Alireza Khatami; Iraj Sharifi; Mahdie Bahrami; Amir Javadi; Seyed Ebrahim Eskandari; Alireza Firooz; Alireza Fekri; Mohammadr Reza Aflatoonian

2010-01-01

156

A comparison of the oral application and injection routes using the Onderstepoort Biological Products Fowl Typhoid vaccine, its safety, efficacy and duration of protection in commercial laying hens  

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This study was undertaken to establish whether the Onderstepoort Biological Products Fowl Typhoid (OBPft) vaccine registered as an injectable vaccine was effective and safe when administered orally to commercial layers. Its efficacy and duration of protection were compared with application by intramuscular injection. Commercial brown layer hens were used as they were found to be highly susceptible to Salmonella gallinarum infections. In the vaccine safety trial birds were euthanased at timed ...

2008-01-01

157

Efficacy of moxidectin injectable and pour-on formulations in a pilot control program against bovine hypodermosis in Southern Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine hypodermosis is a myiasis caused by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera, Oestridae) larvae, which has a severe economic impact on the livestock industry. Though myiasis is widespread throughout Italy, no nationwide eradication program has ever been planned, unlike in other European Countries. With a view to setting up a national control program, a pilot study was carried out in Southern Italy on 9939 cattle bred in an area with a high prevalence of cattle hypodermosis, using moxidectin 0.5% pour-on (Cydectin, Fort Dodge) and 1% injectable (Cydectin, Fort Dodge) formulations. At the recommended dosage, moxidectin displayed efficacy levels of 99.9% in the pour-on and 100% in the injectable formulation, whereas the microdose (1 mg per head regardless of body weight) was less effective (65.7%). This trial contributed to a significant reduction in infestation rates in the study area and represented the first step through which a national program for eradicating warble fly infestation in Italy. PMID:15899303

Otranto, Domenico; Lia, Riccardo P; Agostini, Alessandro; Traversa, Donato; Milillo, Piermarino; Capelli, Gioia

2005-06-10

158

The evaluation of efficacy of subtenon triamcinolone injection combined with focal laser photocoagulation in diabetic macular edema  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate efficacyand safety of subtenon triamcinolone (ST in combinationwith focal laser photocoagulation in diabetic macularedema (DME.Materials and methods: Medical records of patients withDME, treated with 40 mg subtenon injection of triamcinoloneacetonid prior to focal laser photocoagulation wereretrospectively analyzed. Seventeen eyes of 17 patientswith DME were enrolled in the study. All patients underwenta comprehensive ophthalmological examinationbefore the treatment. Efficacy of the treatment after STinjection was evaluated by visual acuity and flouresceinangiography (FA. Follow-up visits were performed at 1st,3rd, 6th and 12th months. Repeated measures ANOVA wasused for statistical analysis.Results: The mean age was 61.5 ± 8.7 years and themean visual acuity in the study eyes was 0.22 ± 0.13 beforethe treatment, 0.39 ± 0.15 at 1st month, 0.36 ± 0.18at 3rd month, 0.33 ± 0.15 at 6th month and 0.34 ± 0.16 at12th month. The differences in the visual acuity before thetreatment and follow-up visits were significant (p ?0.05.Visual acuity was increased in 13 (%76,4 patients, decreasedin 1 (%5,8 and unchanged in 3 (%17,6.Conclusion: Injection of 40 mg of triamsinolon via subtenonroute combined with focal laser photocoagulation isa safe and beneficial treatment in cases of DME

Hüseyin Öksüz

2012-06-01

159

Does intratympanic gadolinium injection predict efficacy of gentamicin partial chemolabyrinthectomy in Menière's disease patients?  

Science.gov (United States)

Using actual diagnostic criteria, the diagnosis of certain Menière's disease remains impossible during life without histopathologic confirmation. Assessing the value of a diagnostic test is difficult due to the lack of a gold standard. Recent studies reported on the use of MRI after intratympanic gadolinium injection to demonstrate endolymphatic hydrops in vivo. We evaluate whether MRI after intratympanic gadolinium administration is useful for predicting the effect and outcome of intratympanic gentamicin therapy. The correlation between transtympanic electrocochleographic (TT-ECoG) results and hydrops grade on MRI images is also investigated. Twelve definite Menière's disease patients with incapacitating vertigo attacks, not responding to drug and behavioral treatment, were selected for partial chemolabyrinthectomy with intratympanic gentamicin. All patients underwent transtympanic electrocochleography followed by surgical middle ear inspection, partial chemolabyrinthectomy (gentamicin solution 40 mg/ml applied during 60 min) and intratympanic gadolinium injection with clear exposure of the round window membrane. The MR images were reviewed and a hydrops grade was assigned. Correlation between the hydrops grade and the electrocochleographic data was assessed. Only 5 of 12 patients showed gadolinium enhancement in the inner ear. However, 6 of the 7 patients that did not show postoperative intracochlear or intralabyrinthine gadolinium distribution did report the clinical improvement after intratympanic gentamicin therapy. Hydrops grade correlated with the result of transtympanic electrocochleography in four of five cases that showed gadolinium enhancement. We conclude that the use of intratympanic gadolinium has no added value in predicting the clinical outcome of intratympanic gentamicin application. However, based on these data, a correlation between the result of TT-ECoG and hydrops grading on MRI images can be suggested. PMID:21626123

Claes, Gerd; Van den Hauwe, Luc; Wuyts, Floris; Van de Heyning, Paul

2012-02-01

160

Efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotic drugs (quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole and paliperidone) compared with placebo or typical antipsychotic drugs for treating refractory schizophrenia: overview of systematic reviews Eficácia e segurança dos antipsicóticos atípicos (quetiapina, risperidona, aripiprazol, paliperidona) em comparação com um placebo ou medicamentos antipsicóticos típicos no tratamento da esquizofrenia refratária: overview de revisão sistemática  

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CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: According to some cohort studies, the prevalence of refractory schizophrenia (RS) is 20-40%. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of aripiprazole, paliperidone, quetiapine and risperidone for treating RS. METHODS: This was a critical appraisal of Cochrane reviews published in the Cochrane Library, supplemented with reference to more recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on RS. The following databases were searched: Medical Literature Analysis and Re...

Tamara Melnik; Bernardo Garcia Soares; Maria Eduarda dos Santos Puga; Álvaro Nagib Atallah

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Comparison of risperidone oral solution and intramuscular haloperidol with the latter shifting to oral therapy for the treatment of acute agitation in patients with schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This randomized, parallel-group, open study investigated the efficacy and safety of risperidone oral solution (RIS-OS) in combination with clonazepam and intramuscular haloperidol for the treatment of acute agitation in patients with schizophrenia, and the study explored the possibility of decreasing the efficacy of an acute 6-week treatment by switching intramuscular haloperidol injection to RIS-OS. Two hundred and five agitation-exhibiting schizophrenic inpatients at six hospitals were originally included in the study. The 47-day trial consisted of 5 days (session I) of receiving either oral treatment (RIS-OS plus clonazepam) or intramuscular treatment (intramuscular haloperidol) and a 42-day (session II) period of either withdrawing from clonazepam or shifting from intramuscular haloperidol to a RIS-OS period. The primary efficacy outcome was measured as the change in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component (PANSS-EC) in session I and the change in the PANSS in session II. Safety was assessed by the frequency of the adverse events. Mean PANSS-EC improvement was significant after 5 days of treatment in both groups (P>0.05) and was similar between the two treatment groups (P0.05). However, combination treatment exhibited greater efficacy, and adverse events, especially extrapyramidal symptoms, were lower with the oral treatment than with the intramuscular treatment in session I. These results show that RIS-OS in combination with clonazepam is an effective treatment, comparable with intramuscular haloperidol, and is well-tolerated for acute agitation in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:22233697

Fang, Maosheng; Chen, Honghui; Li, Le-Hua; Wu, Renrong; Li, Yi; Liu, Lianzhong; Ye, Meng; Huang, Jizhong; Zhu, Suoyu; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qinge; Zheng, Hongbo; Zhang, Lulu; Wang, Bo; Zhou, Jianchu; Zhao, Jing-Ping

2012-03-01

162

Co-injection of a targeted, reversibly masked endosomolytic polymer dramatically improves the efficacy of cholesterol-conjugated small interfering RNAs in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective in vivo delivery of small interfering (siRNA) has been a major obstacle in the development of RNA interference therapeutics. One of the first attempts to overcome this obstacle utilized intravenous injection of cholesterol-conjugated siRNA (chol-siRNA). Although studies in mice revealed target gene knockdown in the liver, delivery was relatively inefficient, requiring 3 daily injections of 50?mg/kg of chol-siRNA to obtain measurable reduction in gene expression. Here we present a new delivery approach that increases the efficacy of the chol-siRNA over 500-fold and allows over 90% reduction in target gene expression in mice and, for the first time, high levels of gene knockdown in non-human primates. This improved efficacy is achieved by the co-injection of a hepatocyte-targeted and reversibly masked endosomolytic polymer. We show that knockdown is absolutely dependent on the presence of hepatocyte-targeting ligand on the polymer, the cognate hepatocyte receptor, and the cholesterol moiety of the siRNA. Importantly, we provide evidence that this increase in efficacy is not dependent on interactions between the chol-siRNA with the polymer prior to injection or in the bloodstream. The simplicity of the formulation and efficacy of this mode of siRNA delivery should prove beneficial in the use of siRNA as a therapeutic. PMID:23181701

Wong, So C; Klein, Jason J; Hamilton, Holly L; Chu, Qili; Frey, Christina L; Trubetskoy, Vladimir S; Hegge, Julia; Wakefield, Darren; Rozema, David B; Lewis, David L

2012-12-01

163

Once-monthly paliperidone injection for the treatment of schizophrenia.  

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Paliperidone palmitate is a new long-acting antipsychotic injection for the treatment of acute and maintenance therapy in schizophrenia. Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone) is the major active metabolite of risperidone and acts at dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5HT(2A) receptors. As with other atypical antipsychotics, it exhibits a high 5HT(2A):D(2) affinity ratio. It also has binding activity as an antagonist at ?(1)-and ?(2) adrenergic receptors and H(1) histaminergic receptors, but has virtually no affinity for cholinergic receptors. Paliperidone palmitate has been shown to be effective in reducing Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores in four short-term trials in acute schizophrenia. It was also effective as maintenance therapy in a long-term trial in which time to recurrence of symptoms was significantly longer in paliperidone-treated patients compared with placebo. In addition, paliperidone was shown to be noninferior to risperidone long-acting injection in one study, but this noninferiority was not established in another longer study comparing the two drugs. Treatment should be initiated with 234 mg on day 1 and 156 mg on day 8, followed by a recommended monthly maintenance dose of 39-234 mg based on efficacy and tolerability. Paliperidone palmitate is generally well tolerated, although it can cause weight gain and a rise in prolactin levels, which is generally greater in women than in men. Overall, paliperidone palmitate may have advantages over other currently available long-acting injections, and therefore may be a useful alternative for the treatment of schizophrenia, although further long-term trials comparing it with active treatments are warranted. PMID:20856919

Bishara, Delia

2010-01-01

164

Efficacy and long-term evaluation of intramyocardial injection of autologous CD34-enriched PBMSC in old myocardial infarction  

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Full Text Available Aims: We have shown that autologous transplant of CD34+-enriched peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMSC could restore depressed myocardial function, and sustain adequate myocardial function 12 months after surgery in patients with old (>one year-old myocardial infarction. Our aim is to report the long-term morbidity and mortality efficacy of this procedure. Methods and results: Seventy patients with an old anteroseptal myocardial infarction were followed for 2 to 7 years, 35 had a revascularization procedure and received an intra-myocardial injection of autologous CD34+-enriched PBMSC (8 × 108 mononuclear cells/ml including 3 × 107 CD34+ cells/ml(Group A. Group B patients only had the revascularization. Abnormal pre-surgical values of LVEF (33.2% ± 4.8%, LVDV (178 ± 13.7 ml, LVSV (120 ± 16 m, LVDD (58.9 ± 3.84 mm, E and A waves without contractility in infarction area in group A patients improved to approximate normal values (50% ± 3% for LVEF; 90 ± 9.3 ml for LVDV; 80 ± 9.9 ml for LVSV; 55.3 ± 3 mm for LVDD; 5.2 ± 0.5 cm/s for E wave and 4.18 ± 0.3 cm/s for A wave 1 year after the procedure and have remained unaltered for all the follow-up period. All the patients remain alive. Only seven patients have been readmitted to the hospital for non-myocardial related events. Group B only 11 patients continued alive to 5 years after surgery and LEVF never increased more than 6%, all of them with many hospitalizations (n ? 10 by heart failure events. Conclusion: Intramyocardial injection of CD34+ highly enriched PBSC represent an encouraging alternative for patients with severely scarred and dysfunctional myocardium.

José Luis Aceves

2012-10-01

165

Risperidone and Corrected QT-interval Prolongation in Surface Electrocardiogram  

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Risperidone is an antipsychotic medication suspected of causing QT prolongation and several cases are reported in this regard. However, available information with respect to its effect on QT interval is limited especially from different settings. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of risperidone in lengthening QT interval among psychotic patients referred to a psychiatric ward in North West of Iran. A controlled cohort study was conducted on psychotic patients referred to Ra...

2012-01-01

166

One-Shot Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Liver Tumors Under General Anesthesia: Preliminary Data on Efficacy and Complications  

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Purpose: To verify the efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided injection of large amounts of ethanol into large or multiple liver lesions, in a single session under general anesthesia (one-shot PEI) for percutaneous ablation of hepatic tumors. Methods: Twenty-nine patients (27 with 51 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodules on cirrhosis, diameter range 1.0-9.0 cm; two patients with a single metastasis from the gastroenteric tract, 5.0 and 9.0 cm, respectively, in diameter) were treated with one-shot PEI. Results: The total volume of alcohol delivered per patient ranged from 16 to 210 ml. Mean ethanol volume in all patients was 49 ml. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) examination showed complete necrosis in 41 of 50 lesions. Two patients died of hypovolemic shock due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 3 and 7 days, respectively, after the interventional procedure. All the remaining patients are alive (follow-up 5-14 months) except one who died of liver failure 5 months after. New HCC nodules occurred in six patients within 6 months and one intralesional relapse was recorded. Conclusion: In this preliminary experience, one-shot PEI is as effective in inducing liver tumor necrosis as traditional PEI; its advantages are shorter treatment time and the capability of treating larger and multiple liver lesions

1996-11-01

167

Risperidone implicated in the onset of tardive dyskinesia in a young woman  

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The aim of this case report is to highlight that risperidone may cause and ameliorate tardive dyskinesia. A 16 year old white women with a 12 month history of schizophrenia, developed buccolingual masticatory tardive dyskinesia after receiving risperidone 6 mg. She had received small dosages of typical antipsychotics before and during receiving risperidone for short periods. Recommencement of risperidone with 2 mg and increasing to 6 mg resulted in improvement in tardive dyskinesia and u...

2000-01-01

168

Paliperidone palmitate injection for the acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adults  

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Full Text Available Shiyun Kim,1 Hugo Solari,2 Peter J Weiden,2 Jeffrey R Bishop11Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAPurpose: To review the use of paliperidone palmitate in treatment of patients with schizophrenia.Methods: Published clinical trial data for the development and utilization of paliperidone palmitate for the treatment of schizophrenia were assessed in this review. Four short-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigated the efficacy of paliperidone palmitate in acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. Paliperidone palmitate was also studied as a maintenance treatment to prevent or delay relapse in stable schizophrenia. In addition, paliperidone palmitate was compared to risperidone long-acting injection for noninferiority in three studies.Results: Paliperidone palmitate has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores in the four acute treatment studies. In the maintenance treatment studies, paliperidone palmitate was found to be more effective than placebo in preventing or delaying the time to first relapse in stable schizophrenia patients. In addition, paliperidone palmitate was shown to be noninferior to risperidone long-acting injection in two studies. It was shown to be reasonably well tolerated in all clinical trials. Acute treatment phase should be initiated with a dose of 234 mg on day one and 156 mg on day eight, followed by a recommended monthly maintenance dose of 39–234 mg based on efficacy and tolerability results from the clinical studies.Conclusion: Providing an optimal long-term treatment can be challenging. Paliperidone palmitate can be used as an acute treatment even in outpatient setting, and it has shown to be well tolerated by patients. Also, it does not require overlapping oral antipsychotic supplementation while being initiated, and is dosed once per month.Keywords: schizophrenia, antipsychotic, long-acting injection, paliperidone

Kim S

2012-07-01

169

Effects of Risperidone on Cognitive-Motor Performance and Motor Movements in Chronically Medicated Children  

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This study was designed to explore the placebo-controlled effects of risperidone on cognitive-motor processes, dyskinetic movements, and behavior in children receiving maintenance risperidone therapy. Sixteen children aged 4-14 years with disruptive behavior were randomly assigned to drug order in a crossover study of risperidone and placebo for 2…

Aman, Michael G.; Hollway, Jill A.; Leone, Sarah; Masty, Jessica; Lindsay, Ronald; Nash, Patricia; Arnold, L. Eugene

2009-01-01

170

Citrus/Cydonia Compositum Subcutaneous Injections versus Nasal Spray for Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial on Efficacy and Safety  

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Background. Clinical experiences in vitro and clinical studies have demonstrated the curative potency and safety of Citrus/Cydonia compositum in seasonal allergic rhinitis treatment. Objectives. To compare the efficacy and safety of two routes of administration (nasal spray versus subcutaneous injections). Methodology: Design. a national, randomised, comparative clinical trial with two parallel groups. Participants. 23 patients fulfilled the study requirements. Intervention. after a one- or t...

Baars, Erik W.; Jong, Miek; Nierop, Andreas F. M.; Boers, Inge; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.

2011-01-01

171

Long-acting injectable antipsychotics: focus on olanzapine pamoate  

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Full Text Available JP LindenmayerDepartment of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York NY, USAAbstract: Medication non-adherence in patients with schizophrenia continues to be a significant problem and threatens successful treatment outcomes. Medication non-adherence is often associated with negative consequences, including symptom exacerbation, more frequent emergency room visits, re-hospitalizations and relapse. Long-acting injectable (LAI forms of antipsychotics allow for rapid identification of non-adherence, obviate the need for the patient to take the medication on a daily basis and increase adherence to some significant degree. Eli Lilly has developed a long-acting depot formulation of olanzapine, olanzapine pamoate, which has recently been approved by the FDA for the US market, and which will be reviewed here. Olanzapine LAI appears to be an effective antipsychotic at dosages of 210 mg every 2 weeks, 300 mg every 2 weeks and 405 mg every 4 weeks in patients with acute schizophrenia, and at 150 mg every 2 weeks, 300 mg every 2 weeks and at 405 mg every 4 weeks for the maintenance treatment of stable patients. Oral supplementation appears not to be needed, particularly not at the onset of treatment with the LAI as is necessary with risperidone LAI. Its efficacy is in general comparable to the efficacy seen with oral olanzapine at a corresponding dose. The side effect profile is also comparable to the side effects observed with oral olanzapine, including lower rates of extrapyramidal symptoms, prolactin elevation and cardiovascular side effects, but significant metabolic effects. The latter include significant weight gain, lipid abnormalities and glucose dysregulation. While the injection site adverse events are overall mild, the most significant serious adverse event is the post-injection delirium sedation syndrome (PDSS. While rare, this syndrome results from inadvertent intravascular injection of olanzapine LAI and can cause a range of olanzapine overdose-type of symptoms. Olanzapine LAI needs therefore to be administered by trained personnel in settings where a post-injection observation period for at least 3 hours by medical personnel is available. The overall use of olanzapine LAI will probably be limited by the possibility of a PDSS event. Patients who have a history of good response to oral olanzapine and are in need of assured medication administration may present a good indication for its use, provided that the appropriate mental health delivery setting is available.Keywords: olanzapine, risperidone, schizophrenia

JP Lindenmayer

2010-05-01

172

Potential bias in testing for hyperprolactinemia and pituitary tumors in risperidone-treated patients: a claims-based study  

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Abstract Background A reporting association of risperidone with pituitary tumors has been observed. Because such tumors are highly prevalent, there may be other reasons why they were revealed in association with risperidone treatment. We assessed two potential explanations: disproportionately more prolactin assessment and head/brain imaging in risperidone-treated patients vs patients treated with other antipsychotics. Methods Treatment episodes with risperidone,...

2009-01-01

173

Comparison of the efficacy of weekly vs. twice a week intralesional injections of meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis: a randomized clinical trial  

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Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially when caused by L. tropica, is challenging. Meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime® is used as the standard treatment, but multiple injectiond are necessary. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of weekly intralesional injections with twice weekly injections of Glucantime for the treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL."n"nMethods: This randomized open clinical trial was conducted, in Bam, Kerman province, Iran. 96 eligible patients according to inclusion and exclusion criteria who were willing to participate were included. The included patients were randomly assigned into two groups, one group treated with weekly intralesional injections of Glucantime® and the other group treated with intralesional Glucantime® twice a week. Type and size of each lesion (induration, ulcer and scar were recorded weekly. Complete healing was defined as complete re-epithelialization and absence of induration in all lesions and was considered as the primary outcome measure."n"nResults: A total of 48 patients completed the study; complete cure was seen in 24 of 27 (89% patients who received weekly intralesional MA with a mean duration of healing equals to 70±10 days. Complete cure was seen in 24 of 31 (77% patients who received intralesional MA twice a week, the mean duration of healing in the latter group was 58±5 days. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.23."n"nConclusion: It seems that the efficacy of intralesional injections of Glucantime® once a week is similar to efficacy of twice a week Glucantime® injections.

Ali Khamesipour

2010-12-01

174

RP-HPLC estimation of risperidone in tablet dosage forms  

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Full Text Available A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the estimation of risperidone in tablet dosage forms. A Phenomenex Gemini C-18, 5 µm column having 250x4.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing methanol: acetonitrile: 50 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (80:10:10 v/v was used. The flow rate was 1.3 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 234 nm. Clozapine was used as an internal standard. The retention time of risperidone and clozapine were 2.5 min and 3.3 min, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, robustness and stability. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for estimation of risperidone was found to be 500 ng/ml and 990 ng/ml, respectively. Recovery of risperidone was found to be in the range of 99.02-101.68%. Proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of risperidone in tablet formulations.

Bladania S

2008-01-01

175

A Case of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Associated with Risperidone Treatment  

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Full Text Available The association between schizophrenia and diabetes has been previously documented. Case reports have also demonstrated that initiation of atypical antipsychotic agents may induce or exacerbate diabetes mellitus. A 26-year-old man without a family history of diabetes mellitus presented with deep coma after 5 months of treatment with risperidone. He was diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis, was given insulin and saline infusion, and his antipsychotic agent was changed from risperidone to ziprasidone.Insulin therapy and oral agent was discontinued within two months of follow-up. The rapid onset of diabetes, and the disappearance of hyperglycemia after discontinuation of the drug suggested that risperidone had been a factor in his diabetic ketoacidosis. During three years of subsequent follow-up, testing revealed no evidence of elevated serum glucose levels or impaired glucose tolerance. In our opinion psychiatrists should routinely ask patients treated with antipsychotic agents such as risperidone for diabetic symptoms, weight loss, lethargy, polydipsia and/or polyuria, and monitor serum glucose levels. Although there is no consensus on the best way to switch from one antipsychotic drug to another, for those patients who develop diabetes during therapy with risperidone a change to ziprasidone treatment may maintain normal glucose levels.

Zeynel Beyhan

2008-12-01

176

Risperidone: a review of its use in the treatment of bipolar mania.  

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Risperidone (Risperdal) is an atypical antipsychotic with high affinity for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A, dopamine D2 and alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors. Risperidone is now approved in the UK and the US for use in bipolar mania. Risperidone < or =6 mg/day, as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy with first-line mood stabilisers, significantly improves moderate and severe bipolar mania and improves global functioning over 3 weeks. Improvements in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores in double-blind trials were greater with risperidone than with placebo over 3 weeks, and similar to those with haloperidol over 3 and 12 weeks. Risperidone was reasonably well tolerated. Limited data are available on the combination of risperidone and carbamazepine. Risperidone, as monotherapy or combined therapy with lithium or valproate semisodium, is an effective treatment option in bipolar mania. PMID:15907153

Fenton, Caroline; Scott, Lesley J

2005-01-01

177

Risperidone and Corrected QT-interval Prolongation in Surface Electrocardiogram  

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Full Text Available Risperidone is an antipsychotic medication suspected of causing QT prolongation and several cases are reported in this regard. However, available information with respect to its effect on QT interval is limited especially from different settings. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of risperidone in lengthening QT interval among psychotic patients referred to a psychiatric ward in North West of Iran. A controlled cohort study was conducted on psychotic patients referred to Razi Hospital from April 2010-2011. The treatment cohort groups were 120 patients receiving risperidone for the first time during their treatment. The comparison cohort included 60 control patients who were not receiving risperidone. An electrocardiogram was obtained from all the study participants at admission time, one week afterwards and at discharge. Corrected QT interval (QTc was determined using Bazett’s formula. QTc dispersion was calculated as MaxQTc-MinQTc. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software package. The mean change in QTc measures over time was not statistically significant in control group. However, QTc increment was statistically significant over time in V1 and V3 leads in risperidone group. Multivariate longitudinal data analysis, using between-effects model, to manage multiple measurements over time found the overall QTc trend to be different between the groups (p<0.01. Risperidone may have significant effects on QT interval and QT dispersion. Physicians and psychiatrists should be aware that prolonged QTc interval is a potential indicator of cardiovascular risk and should be cautious in prescribing potentially QT-prolonging medications, at least to certain patients.

N.M. Ahmadi

2012-01-01

178

Risperidone and corrected QT-interval prolongation in surface electrocardiogram.  

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Risperidone is an antipsychotic medication suspected of causing QT prolongation and several cases are reported in this regard. However, available information with respect to its effect on QT interval is limited especially from different settings. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of risperidone in lengthening QT interval among psychotic patients referred to a psychiatric ward in North West of Iran. A controlled cohort study was conducted on psychotic patients referred to Razi Hospital from April 2010-2011. The treatment cohort groups were 120 patients receiving risperidone for the first time during their treatment. The comparison cohort included 60 control patients who were not receiving risperidone. An electrocardiogram was obtained from all the study participants at admission time, one week afterwards and at discharge. Corrected QT interval (QTc) was determined using Bazett's formula. QTc dispersion was calculated as Max(QTc)-Min(QTc). Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software package. The mean change in QTc measures over time was not statistically significant in control group. However, QTc increment was statistically significant over time in V1 and V3 leads in risperidone group. Multivariate longitudinal data analysis, using between-effects model, to manage multiple measurements over time found the overall QTc trend to be different between the groups (p < 0.01). Risperidone may have significant effects on QT interval and QT dispersion. Physicians and psychiatrists should be aware that prolonged QTc interval is a potential indicator of cardiovascular risk and should be cautious in prescribing potentially QT-prolonging medications, at least to certain patients. PMID:24187905

Ranjbar, F; Akbarzadeh, F; Ahmadi, N M; Abbasnejhad, M

2012-05-15

179

Efficacy of the computed tomographic scanning (CT) with contrast media injection from foot vein for abdominal mass of the child  

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CT with contrast media injection from forearm vein revealed poor information about the inferior vena cava (IVC), in two cases of neuroblastoma from the right adrenal gland. While, CT with contrast media injection from foot vein well demonstrated the tumor extension around the IVC in one case of neuroblastoma, and the tumor, thrombus in the IVC in two cases of Wilms' tumor. Bolus injection from foot vein is helpful to evaluate the extension of malignant tumor around the IVC.

Aoki, Katsuhiko; Ohba, Satoshi; Kohno, Sumio; Arai, Takeo; Uemura, Sadatoshi; Ohya, Toshiki; Itoh, Shinichi

1988-04-01

180

Safety and efficacy of a novel injectable filler in the treatment of nasolabial folds: Polymethylmethacrylate and cross-linked dextran in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.  

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Abstract Nasolabial folds are a sign of aging and increasing number of people want filler injections in their nasolabial folds to look younger. Various dermal fillers are used for the correction of nasolabial folds. Recently, a novel injectible filler, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and cross-linked dextran in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, was introduced for facial contouring. This study was designed as a six-month, prospective, single-blinded, and open-label study in two centers located in Korea. Nineteen Korean patients received the novel filler injections on both nasolabial folds. At Weeks 4, 12, and 24, the efficacy and safety of the dermal filler were evaluated by blinded-investigators using clinical photographs. The mean Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale revealed significant decrease after dermal filler injections at each study visit. The decreased Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale was maintained for 6 months (p filler injection. The novel dermal filler, PMMA, and cross-linked dextran in hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose, can be another safe and effective treatment option in the treatment of nasolabial folds. PMID:24684547

Lee, Young Bok; Song, Eun Jong; Kim, Sang Seok; Kim, Jin Wou; Yu, Dong Soo

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Comparison of haemostatic efficacy for endoscopic injection therapy of epinephrine and combination therapy of epinephrine and hemoclips for bleeding peptic ulcers  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Endoscopic injection therapy of epinephrine is safe and effective in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer, but with high risk of rebleeding. The combination therapy of epinephrine and hemoclips could lead to a reduction of rebleeding and a potential reduction in mortality. Objective. To investigate the efficacy and safety of epinephrine injection therapy and combination therapy with epinephrine and hemoclips in treating bleeding peptic ulcers. Methods. A prospective randomized study included 58 patients with bleeding gastric or duodenal ulcer. In 30 patients endoscopic injection therapy with diluted epinephrine was applied (group I, while in 28 patients combination therapy of epinephrine and hemoclips was applied (group II. Results. Initial haemostasis was achieved in most patients treated with epinephrine injection therapy (93.3% and patients treated with combination therapy of epinephrine and hemoclips (96.4%. After initial haemostasis was achieved rebleeding was significantly more frequent in the patients treated with epinephrine (28.5% than in the patients treated with combination therapy (3.7%, p<0.05. Two patients treated with epinephrine injection therapy were subjected to surgical intervention, whereas no patient treated with combination therapy needed surgery. Lethal ending occurred in one patient treated with epinephrine and in one patient treated with combination therapy. The difference between the two groups of patients in need for surgical intervention and mortality was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Combination therapy with epinephrine and hemoclips is more efficient than epinephrine alone in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers.

Grgov Saša

2012-01-01

182

Effect of paliperidone and risperidone on extracellular glutamate in the prefrontal cortex of rats exposed to prenatal immune activation or MK-801  

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The NMDA glutamate hypofunction model of schizophrenia is based in part upon acute effects of NMDA receptor blockade in humans and rodents. Several laboratories have reported glutamate system abnormalities following prenatal exposure to immune challenge, a known environmental risk factor for schizophrenia. Here we report indices of NMDA glutamate receptor hypofunction following prenatal immune activation, as well as the effects of treatment during periadolescence with the atypical antipsychotic medications risperidone and paliperidone. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or saline on gestational day 14. Male offspring were treated orally via drinking water with vehicle, risperidone (0.01 mg/kg/day), or paliperidone (0.01 mg/kg/day) between postnatal days 35 and 56 (periadolescence) and extracellular glutamate levels in the prefrontal cortex were determined by microdialysis at PD 56. Consistent with decreased NMDA receptor function, MK-801 – induced increases in extracellular glutamate concentration were markedly blunted following prenatal immune activation. Further suggesting NMDA receptor hypofunction, prefrontal cortex basal extracellular glutamate was significantly elevated (P<0.05) in offspring of Poly I:C treated dams. Pretreatment with low dose paliperidone or risperidone (0.01 mg/kg/day postnatal days 35–56) normalized prefrontal cortical basal extracellular glutamate (P<0.05 vs. poly I:C vehicle-treatment). Pretreatment with paliperidone and risperidone also prevented the acute MK-801-induced increase in extracellular glutamate. These observations demonstrate decreased NMDA receptor function and elevated extracellular glutamate, two key features of the NMDA glutamate receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia, during periadolescence following prenatal immune activation. Treatment with the atypical antipsychotic medications paliperidone and risperidone normalized basal extracellular glutamate. Demonstration of glutamatergic abnormalities consistent with the NMDA glutamate receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia as an early developmental consequence of prenatal immune activation provides a model to identify novel early interventions targeting glutamatergic systems which play an important role in both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

Roenker, Nicole L.; Gudelsky, Gary; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Bronson, Stefanie L.; Kern, Joseph R.; Waterman, Heather; Richtand, Neil M.

2011-01-01

183

The Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type a Injection in the Hamstring and Calf Muscles With and Without Serial Foot Casting in Gait Improvement in Children With Cerebral Palsy  

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Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A injection in the hamstring and calf muscles with and without ankle serial casting in the improvement of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP.Methods : This double-blind prospective clinical trial was performed on 25, 2 to 8-year-old children with hemiplegic or diplegic CP in Tehran, Iran in 2010. The participants were chosen by simple randomized sampling and were matched for age, gross motor function classification system (GMFCS and type of CP and were randomly divided into two groups: children in the first group (13 only received BTX-A injection, but the second group (12 received BTX-A and serial foot casting starting one week after the injection.Results : Comparison of the gross motor function, right and left knee spasticities and passive ROM of both knees between the two groups before and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the injections were not statistically significant (P>0.1. Furthermore, comparison of the right and left ankle spasticities and passive ROM before the injections and in1 and 3-month follow-ups did not show a statistically significant difference (P>0.1, but the differences were significant in 6 and 12-month follow-ups (P<0.05.Conclusion: BTX-A injection with serial foot casting vs. BTX-A alone was more effective in decreasing spasticity and improving passive ROM in the ankle of children with CP, but such injections in the hamstrings were not useful in these regards.

Shamsodini A

2011-11-01

184

Long term safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of hyaluronic acid injection in patients with painful osteoarthritis of the knee  

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Full Text Available Benjamin A McArthur, Christopher J Dy, Peter D Fabricant, Alejandro Gonzalez Della ValleDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USAAbstract: The increasing prevalence of painful knee osteoarthritis has created an additional demand for pharmacologic management to prevent or delay surgical management. Viscosupplementation, via intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA, aims to restore the favorable milieu present in the nonarthritic joint. The safety profile of intraarticular HA injections for painful knee osteoarthritis is well established, with the most common adverse effect being a self-limited reaction at the injection site. Although acceptance of the early literature has been limited by publication bias and poor study quality, more recent and rigorous meta-analysis suggests that intraarticular HA injection is superior to placebo injection for pain relief and matches, if not surpasses, the effect size of other nonoperative treatments, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication. Intraarticular HA injection is effective in providing temporary pain relief in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis. Future investigations should focus on optimizing the composition and administration of HA agents to provide prolonged relief of painful osteoarthritis in the knee and other joints.Keywords: intraarticular injection, hyaluronate, viscosupplementation, osteoarthritis, knee

McArthur BA

2012-12-01

185

Efficacy of Intravitreal Ranibizumab Injection in Acute Nonarteritic Ischemic Optic Neuropathy: A Long-Term Follow Up§  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: To evaluate the effect of a single intravitreal ranibizumab injection in eyes with acute nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Subjects and Methods: In this retrospective clinical data analysis, 17 eyes of sixteen patients who experienced a visual loss with duration of 15 days or less comprised the study group. In addition to standard ophthalmic examination, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) analysis with spectral domain OCT was also performed prior to 0.5 mg Ranibizumab injection, one week, one, three, six months and one year after the injection. Results: The mean time between visual loss and intravitreal injection was 7.5 days (Range, 2-15 days). Mean age of patients was 59 years (Range, 41-90 years). Male to female ratio was 6:10. After a single dose of ranibizumab injection, visual gain was noted in 14 of 17 study eyes. In two eyes, visual acuity was minimally reduced and no change was noted in the remaining eye with an initial visual acuity of hand motions. While pre-injection mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1.45 ±0.88 log Mar unit, post-injection mean BCVA was 1.00±0.68, 0.86 ±0.70, 0.80 ±0.71, 0.77 ±0.70, 0.77 ±0.70 log Mar unit respectively at the first week, first month, third month, sixth month and first year. In all patients, the mean RNFLT dramatically decreased after the injection during the follow- up. While pre-injection mean RNFLT was 210 ±38 µm, post-injection mean RNFLT was 162.11±40.2, 94±27, 71.23±22.5, 63 ±19 and 57 ±18 µm respectively at the first week, first month, third month, sixth month and first year. No injection related complication was noted during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Intravitreal ranibizumab injection can be a treatment modality in eyes with acute NAION.

Saatci, Ali Osman; Taskin, Okan; Selver, Ozlem Barut; Yaman, Aylin; Bajin, Meltem Soylev

2013-01-01

186

Risperidone-to-methylphenidate switch reaction in children: three cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

As atypical antipsychotics are increasingly used in the treatment of childhood behavioural disorders either as monotherapy or in combination with other medications, there is a need to know more about their safety, in particular during switching to and from methylphenidate treatment, as antipsychotics and methylphenidate have opposing effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission. This report is about three cases of children who developed severe adverse reactions during switching from risperidone to methylphenidate. The first patient was a 6-year-old boy, diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). He developed severe hyperactivity and agitation on taking methylphenidate after the discontinuation of risperidone treatment. The second patient was a girl of 6, already on risperidone for ADHD and borderline intellectual functioning when referred. She displayed severe hyperactivity, agitation and irritability upon switching to methylphenidate medication. The third patient was a 15-year-old female adolescent with a similar clinical course as the previous patients. In all the cases described here, it is only with the discontinuation of methylphenidate that the adverse reactions resolved and readministration of methylphenidate in two patients did not produce any adverse effect after a drug-free interval. Functional regulation of certain neuroreceptors during risperidone treatment may lead to altered behavioural responses upon switching to methylphenidate. Thus, a drug-free interval is recommended in order to prevent adverse reactions. PMID:17329303

Sabuncuoglu, Osman

2007-03-01

187

Risperidone and Adaptive Behavior in Children with Autism  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To evaluate the impact of risperidone on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder who have serious behavior problems and to examine different methods of scoring the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to measure change. Method: Forty-eight children (5 years to 16 years, 5 months) who showed behavioral improvement during acute…

Williams, Susan K.; Scahill, Lawrence; Vitiello, Benedetto; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McDougle, Christopher J.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Ritz, Louise; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Hollway, Jill; Cronin, Pegeen; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Wheeler, Courtney; Cicchetti, Domenic; Sparrow, Sara

2006-01-01

188

Oral risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine versus haloperidol in psychotic agitation  

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Purpose: Acute agitation is a common presentation in emergency departments and is often secondary to an underlying psychotic condition. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three second generation antipsychotics (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine) versus haloperidol in the treatment of psychotic agitation for up to 72 h.

Bogetto, Filippo; Rocca, Paola; Montemagni, Cristiana

2008-01-01

189

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. PMID:22221904

Lin, Chih-Hsun; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Tsao, Tang-Yi; Chou, Jason

2012-01-01

190

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia  

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Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia.

Lin, Chih-hsun; Hsu, Chih-wei; Tsao, Tang-yi; Chou, Jason

2012-01-01

191

RISPERIDONE-INDUCED NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME : A CASE REPORT  

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A young male schizophrenic presented with neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). Risperidone was the probable precipitating agent. Rigidity and elevated CPK levels poorly responded to bromocriptine, but showed good response to dantrolene. The role of specific treatment and the differential response of the symptom clusters are discussed.

Venkatasubramanian, G.; Yogananda, B. H.; Gangadhar, B. N.

2000-01-01

192

Serum concentrations of paliperidone versus risperidone and clinical effects  

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Abstract Purpose The major aim of this multicenter retrospective analysis was to examine the relationship between paliperidone serum concentrations and clinical effects in patients treated with this new antipsychotic drug. Intra-individual variability in trough serum concentrations was also analyzed in patients under treatment with either the paliperidone-extended release (ER) formulation or the risperidone immediate-release formulation. ...

2010-01-01

193

??????? ????? SQL injection: ??????? ??? ?????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To SQL Injection ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ???? ??? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ????????? ???? ??? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?? ????. ?? ??????? ????? ??? ????????????? ?? SQL Injection ????? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ??? ??...

2013-01-01

194

Comparative efficacy of pour-on and subcutaneous injection of ivermectin on Melophagus ovinus (L.) in Darab ecotype goats of Southern Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of ivermectin was evaluated against Melophagus ovinus in Darab ecotype goats of Iran. Twenty-four healthy Iranian crossbreed male goats were randomly divided into three equal groups (n = 8). An experimental infestation was induced in all animals of the three groups with 100 M. ovinus on the body of each animal. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with 1% ivermectin solution at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight applied as a pour-on along the dorsal midline and 0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously, respectively; while group 3 was kept as control group. Seven days after infestation ivermectin was administered then the goats were observed for a period of 7 days. Body surface of each goat of three groups was inspected daily and decreases in M. ovinus were recorded. The rate of elimination in keds was assessed on the basis of decrease in keds count on the skin and hairs. The results revealed that complete absence of keds were observed in 6 and 7 days post-treatment with injection and pour-on routes, respectively. The results of present study showed that subcutaneous injection of ivermectin more rapidly eliminated M. ovinus than pour-on route. Both routes were 100% effective against this parasite in the goats. Ivermectin can be a drug of choice against M. ovinus in long-hair Iranian goats due to its high efficacy, easy applicability and wide safety margin. PMID:17587499

Jafari Shoorijeh, S; Noori, A; Tamadon, A

2007-09-01

195

Oral administration of an anti-inflammatory does not compromise the efficacy of intra-testicular injection of zinc gluconate as a contraceptive for dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to determine whether the efficacy of zinc gluconate (Testoblock(®)) as a chemical contraceptive in male dogs was compromised in the presence of metamizole sodium (a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory/analgesic agent). Ten sexually mature mongrel dogs were assigned to two groups, a control group (n = 5) and a treated group (n = 5). Testoblock(®), a proprietary zinc-gluconate (13.1 mg zinc/ml) solution in a physiological vehicle, was injected into each testis (0.2-1.0 ml/testis, based on testis width). Half of the dogs (treated group) were also given metamizole sodium (also known as sodium dipyrone) orally (25mg/kg three times a day for 2 days), starting 2-3 h after testis injection. A physical examination and assessment of testis width, hematology, clinical chemistry (hepatic and renal function) and semen characteristics, were done immediately after treatment and then every 2 months for 180 days. There was no post-treatment scrotal biting or licking, although there was transient testicular swelling in both control and treated dogs during the first 3 days after injection. At 60 days after injection, all dogs were azoospermic. At 120 and 180 days, seven dogs had azoospermia and the remaining three (two control and one treated) had apparent aspermia (no ejaculate could be collected). There were no significant differences between groups for clinical findings or any aspect of hematology, renal, or hepatic function. In conclusion, giving metamizole sodium concurrent with an intra-testicular injection of a zinc-based solution did not interfere with chemical sterilization and it improved animal welfare. PMID:22682769

Oliveira, Erika C S; Muller, Patricia M; Silva, Fernanda L M; Nery, Lorena T B; de Sá, Marcelo J C; Guerra, Maria Madalena P; Oliveira-Esquerre, Karla P; Kastelic, John P; Douglas, Robert H

2012-06-01

196

FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF EXTENDED RELEASE MINI TABLETS OF RISPERIDONE  

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The present study was carried out to formulate Risperidone mini tablets filled into hard gelatin capsule, as it is administered for the treatment of psychosis. The preformulation studies of Risperidone were carried out and drug –polymer compatibility studies were performed by FT-IR spectra analysis. The precompression parameters revealed that all the 6 formulations had good flow Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose within the limit. Risperidone is formulated with different ...

2012-01-01

197

Industrial-grade silicone injections causing intermittent bilateral malar swelling: review of safety and efficacy of techniques and products available.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silicone and other fillers have become a popular aid to increase soft tissue density, decrease static skin rhytids, and treat muscle wasting, particularly in the face. As a result, injectable silicone has become popular in patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been postulated that highly active antiretroviral therapy detrimentally induces the physiologic process of fat atrophy of the temporal and buccal fat pads of the face and regional fat wasting of the arms, legs, and buttocks and that HIV protease inhibitors may induce fat atrophy by binding and inhibiting homologous human proteins that are involved in fat metabolism. The classic hollowed-out facial appearance linked to HIV positivity can have detrimental social implications in infected patients who are otherwise very functional. In consequence, facial implantation, fat transplantation, and dermal and subcutaneous fillers have been used to aid in the restoration of facial appearance. This report describes the case of a patient who underwent multiple rounds of silicone injections and complained of intermittent facial swelling and pain long after the injections. The authors report on the safety of specific medical-grade injectable fillers and techniques found to be safely effective, especially in the HIV-positive population. PMID:23522770

Seward, Austin C; Meara, Daniel J

2013-07-01

198

Efficacy and Safety of Five Injectable Anesthetic Regimens for Chronic Blood Collection from the Anterior Vena Cava of Guinea Pigs  

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Despite several published methods of inducing surgical anesthesia in guinea pigs, viable methods of anesthesia for blood collection from the vena cava are inadequate. We compared 5 anesthesia regimens and their efficacy in inducing anesthesia for blood sampling in guinea pigs: ketamine–xylazine (30 and 2.5 mg/kg) administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intraperitoneally; pentobarbital (37 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally; and medetomidine (0.5 mg/kg) administered intramuscular...

2008-01-01

199

Efficacy and long-term evaluation of intramyocardial injection of autologous CD34-enriched PBMSC in old myocardial infarction  

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Aims: We have shown that autologous transplant of CD34+-enriched peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMSC) could restore depressed myocardial function, and sustain adequate myocardial function 12 months after surgery in patients with old (>one year-old) myocardial infarction. Our aim is to report the long-term morbidity and mortality efficacy of this procedure. Methods and results: Seventy patients with an old anteroseptal myocardial infarction were followed for 2 t...

José Luis Aceves; Abel Archundia; Araceli Páez; Rafael Vilchis; Elvira Varela; Emma Rodriguez; Guillermo Diaz; Lourdes Flores-Luna; Martha Alvarado; Manuel Lopez H.; Luis Felipe Montaño; Felipe Masso

2012-01-01

200

Effect of blonanserin on cognitive and social function in acute phase Japanese schizophrenia compared with risperidone  

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Full Text Available Hikaru Hori, Kenji Yamada, Dan Kamada, Yuka Shibata, Asuka Katsuki, Reiji Yoshimura, Jun NakamuraDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, JapanBackground: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of blonanserin (BNS on the cognitive and social functions of patients with schizophrenia compared with risperidone (RIS during acute-phase (8-week treatment.Methods: A total of 39 schizophrenia inpatients were included in this study. The subjects received either BNS (N=20 or RIS (N=19, and the clinical responses were evaluated periodically. The concomitant use of mood stabilizers was not allowed. Efficacy was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia. Cognition was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version. Social function was assessed using the Life Assessment Scale for the Mentally Ill.Results: For both groups, each assessment exhibited a decrease in the mean change from baseline on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The depression subscale was significantly improved in the BNS group compared with the RIS group at 8 weeks after administration. BNS improved verbal fluency and executive function (cognitive function and daily living and work skills (social function. Compared with the RIS group, BNS was observed to improve daily living.Conclusion: BNS may improve psychotic symptoms, cognitive function, and daily living in patients with acute-phase schizophrenia. BNS may be superior to RIS in the improvement of daily living.Keywords: risperidone, blonanserin, schizophrenia, cognitive function, social function, acute-phase

Hori H

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Pilot Study of the Efficacy of 578 nm Copper Bromide Laser Combined with Intralesional Corticosteroid Injection for Treatment of Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Treatments including intralesional corticosteroid injection, pressure therapy, cryotherapy, and various laser therapies have had limited success for keloids and hypertrophic scars. Objective This trial evaluated the efficacy of a combination of 578 nm copper bromide laser and the more traditional intralesional corticosteroid injection for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars with respect to scar color. Methods Keloids or hypertrophic scars of 12 Korean patients were treated five times by the combined treatment at 4-week intervals. Clinical improvement was assessed by the physicians' global assessment (PGA) comparing pre- and post-treatment photographs, as well as 4 weeks after the last treatment. Erythema intensity was quantified using a mexameter. Results Most scars showed significant clinical improvement in PGA and decreased erythema intensity after 5 treatments. All patients showed improvements in symptoms like pruritus. Conclusion The combined treatment is effective for keloids and hypertrophic scars, especially when the telangiectatic portion of the scars is prominent. The adjunctive use of 578 nm copper bromide laser decreased the telangiectatic side effects of an intralesional corticosteroid injection by reducing the vascular components of scars.

Son, In Pyeong; Park, Kui Young; Kim, Myeung Nam

2014-01-01

202

Dose-associated changes in safety and efficacy parameters observed in a 24-week maintenance trial of olanzapine long-acting injection in patients with schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In a recently published 24-week maintenance study of olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI in schizophrenia (Kane et al., 2010, apparent dose-associated changes were noted in both efficacy and safety parameters. To help clinicians balance safety and efficacy when choosing a dose of olanzapine LAI, we further studied these changes. Methods Outpatients with schizophrenia who had maintained stability on open-label oral olanzapine for 4 to 8 weeks were randomly assigned to "low" (150 mg/2 weeks; N = 140, "medium" (405 mg/4 weeks; N = 318, or "high" (300 mg/2 weeks; N = 141 dosages of olanzapine LAI for 24 weeks. Potential relationships between dose and several safety or efficacy measures were examined via regression analysis, the Jonckheere-Terpstra test (continuous data, or the Cochran-Armitage test (categorical data. Results Safety parameters statistically significantly related to dose were mean weight change (low: +0.67 [SD = 4.38], medium: +0.89 [SD = 3.87], high: +1.70 [SD = 4.14] kg, p = .024; effect size [ES] = 0.264 high vs. low dose, mean change in prolactin (low: -5.61 [SD = 12.49], medium: -2.76 [SD = 19.02], high: +3.58 [SD = 33.78] ?g/L, p = .001; ES = 0.410 high vs. low dose, fasting triglycerides change from normal at baseline to high (low: 3.2%, medium: 6.0%, high: 18.9%, p = .001; NNT = 7 high vs. low dose and fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol change from normal at baseline to low (low: 13.8%, medium: 19.6%, high: 30.7%, p = .019; NNT = 6 high vs. low dose. Efficacy measures significantly related to dose included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score mean change (low: +2.66 [SD = 14.95], medium: -0.09 [SD = 13.47], high: -2.19 [SD = 13.11], p Conclusions Analyses of several safety and efficacy parameters revealed significant associations with dose of olanzapine LAI, with the highest dose generally showing greater efficacy as well as greater adverse changes in metabolic safety measures. When considering olanzapine LAI, as with all antipsychotics, it is important to carefully consider the potential benefits and risks for an individual patient. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00088491

Watson Susan B

2011-02-01

203

Persistent efficacy of a long acting injectable formulation of moxidectin against natural infestations of the sheep nasal bot (Oestrus ovis) in Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cydectin(®) 2% LA Solution for Injection for Sheep (Pfizer Animal Health) is a long-acting (LA) formulation of moxidectin for the treatment and prevention of mixed infections of gastro-intestinal nematodes, respiratory nematodes and certain arthropod parasites in sheep. To evaluate the duration of persistent efficacy against nasal bots (Oestrus ovis), a natural exposure study was conducted in Spain during the summer of 2011. One hundred and twenty nasal bot-free, Rasa Aragonesa sheep were randomly allocated to eight groups of 15 animals each. On Day 0, four groups were treated at the recommended dose rate of 1 mg moxidectin/kg bodyweight. Four groups remained untreated as negative controls. All animals were held in nasal bot-proof housing except for exposure to natural challenge when one group of treated sheep and one of group of control animals were transferred to a local pasture at either 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, or 60-80 days after treatment. Following challenge, sheep were scored for clinical signs of bot infestation, necropsied and the heads sectioned for larval recovery. Nasal bot larvae were retrieved from 7 to 11 control sheep following each exposure period indicating that adult bots were active throughout the study. In the first challenge up to 20 days after treatment, when sheep were slaughtered immediately after exposure, the majority of larvae were first instar (L1) and only 3 of the 15 control sheep were infested with second instars (L2). There was 100% efficacy against L2 and 38.1% reduction in the number of live L1 in the treated sheep but mean counts were not significantly different between treatment and control groups (P ? 0.05). For the subsequent exposure periods 20-80 days after treatment (necropsies 7-9 days after challenge), 6-10 sheep were infested with L1 and 9-11 control sheep were infested with L2 and third instars (L3). There was negligible efficacy against L1, but treatment with moxidectin resulted in 100% control of L2 and L3. These results are consistent with the biology of nasal bots and control with a systemic agent, as the slower growing L1 have limited feeding and are therefore less susceptible to systemic parasiticides. The study demonstrated that the persistent efficacy of this long-acting injectable formulation of moxidectin protects against the development of active O. ovis infestations for at least 80 days after treatment. PMID:22541795

Rugg, Douglas; Ferrer, Luis Miguel; Sarasola, Patxi; Figueras, Luis; Lacasta, Delia; Liu, Bo; Bartram, David

2012-09-10

204

Multi-drug overdose risperidone, ziprasidone, valproate, trihexyphenidyl, and clonazepam  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Risperidone and ziprasidone are commonly used as first line drugs for the treatment of psychotic disorders and overdose with these agents is increasingly being reported. Relatively few of these reports have involved co-ingestion of multiple psychotropic agents. We report a case of overdose with risperidone, ziprasidone, valproate, trihexyphenidyl and clonazepam in a 25 years female, who recovered uneventfully with supportive management. Notwithstanding the benign outcome in this instance, age, co-ingested drugs, active metabolites and medical co-morbidity are critical issues in overdose with atypical antipsychotics. As prescription of these drugs continues to increase in developing countries, systematic studies evaluating their clinical toxicity and management are necessary. The issues associated with overdose of multiple psychotropic agents and appropriate management policies are highlighted.

Rajamani, Anto Praveen Rajkumar; Jebaraj, P

2007-01-01

205

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to risperidone misdiagnosed as status epilepticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is a rare but potentially fatal disease characterized by fever, muscle rigidity, delirium and autonomic instability. Here we report a child, with NMS due to the risperidone misdiagnosed as status epilepticus. Nine year old boy, who had been under high dose risperidone treatment for 8 weeks, admitted to the emergency room because of the contractions (evaluated as status epilepticus persisting for 7 hours. Since there was neuroleptic treatment in the past medical history and, unconsciousness, muscular rigidity, diaphoresis, hypertermi and, hypotension in physical examination, leucocytosis and elevated creatininphosphokinase levels in laboratory tests, the patient was evaluated as NMS and discharged without any complications. We reported this case to point out that; NMS may be misdiagnosed as status epilepticus in children when EEG monitoring is unavailable. When a child admitted to the emergency room because of suspicious convulsion neuroleptic drug use must surely be asked.

Fevziye Toros

2011-06-01

206

Efficacy of olanzapine long-acting injection in patients with acutely exacerbated schizophrenia: an insight from effect size comparison with historical oral data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To treat acute schizophrenia, a long-acting injectable antipsychotic needs a rapid onset of action and therapeutic profile similar to that of oral agents. The present post-hoc analyses compared results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI for acute schizophrenia with those observed in similarly designed trials of oral olanzapine. Methods Six-week results from the olanzapine LAI study (N?=?404 were compared with those of 3 oral studies (study 1: olanzapine vs. haloperidol vs. placebo [N?=?335]; study 2: olanzapine vs. haloperidol vs. low-dose olanzapine [N?=?431]; study 3: olanzapine vs. placebo vs. low-dose olanzapine [N?=?152]. All patients had baseline Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS scores ?24 (0–6 scale. Six-week effect sizes were calculated. Efficacy onset, pharmacokinetics, discontinuations, weight gain, and extrapyramidal symptoms were also assessed. Results At 6?weeks, mean BPRS scores decreased by 14 to 15 points for olanzapine LAI (405?mg/4?weeks, 210 or 300?mg/2?weeks, by 8 to 16 for oral olanzapine (10?±?2.5 or 15?±?2.5?mg/day, and by 12 to 13 for haloperidol (15?±?5?mg/day. For those same dose groups, effect sizes vs. placebo for the BPRS were 0.7 to 0.8 for olanzapine LAI, 0.5 to 0.7 for oral olanzapine, and 0.6 for haloperidol. The first statistically significant separation from placebo on the BPRS occurred at 3?days for the olanzapine LAI groups and at 1?week for oral olanzapine and haloperidol (15?±?5?mg/day in oral study 1 although as late as week 6 for the 10-mg/day olanzapine dose in oral study 3. Olanzapine concentrations were similar across studies. Weight gain ?7% of baseline occurred in up to 35% of olanzapine LAI and oral patients versus up to 12% of haloperidol and placebo patients. Extrapyramidal symptoms were lowest in the olanzapine LAI groups and significantly greater in the haloperidol groups. No post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome events occurred in the olanzapine LAI study. Conclusions Patients treated acutely with olanzapine LAI showed a similar pattern of improvement to that seen historically with oral olanzapine. With the exception of injection-related adverse events, the efficacy and tolerability profile of olanzapine LAI is similar to oral olanzapine. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID; URL: http://http//www.clinicaltrials.gov/: NCT00088478; ClinicalStudyResults.org ID; URL: http://www.clinicalstudyresults.org/: 917, 978, 982, and 5984.

Detke Holland C

2012-05-01

207

Risperidone Pretreatment Prevents Elevated Locomotor Activity Following Neonatal Hippocampal Lesions  

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Long-standing behavioral abnormalities emerge after puberty in rats following neonatal hippocampal lesion, providing a developmental model of abnormal rat behavior that may have predictive validity in identifying compounds effective in treating symptoms of schizophrenia. We sought to test the predictive validity of the neonatal hippocampal lesion model in identifying preventive treatment for first-episode psychosis. We determined the effect of risperidone, recently studied for prevention of f...

2006-01-01

208

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8120093785928228

Lin Chih-Hsun

2012-01-01

209

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia  

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Abstract Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu...

Lin Chih-Hsun; Hsu Chih-Wei; Tsao Tang-Yi; Chou Jason

2012-01-01

210

Long-Term Safety and Adverse Events of Risperidone in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to examine long-term adverse events of risperidone in 19 children, adolescents, and adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and intellectual disability, continuing risperidone for a mean of 186.5 weeks, following a 46-week risperidone study. Nineteen individuals continued long-term follow-up after our…

Hellings, Jessica A.; Cardona, Alicia M.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

2010-01-01

211

Efficacy of moxidectin long-acting injectable formulation (1 mg/kg bodyweight) against first instar larvae of Oestrus ovis in naturally infected sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single treatment with a long-acting injectable formulation of moxidectin (MOX) at 1.0 mg/kg bodyweight (b.w.) against natural infection by nasal bots (Oestrus ovis) in sheep with special attention to first instar larvae (L1). Firstly, a local farm with clinical history of oestrosis was chosen to conduct the assay. A total of 49 sheep were pre-selected at the end of the summer according to the presence of evident clinical signs of infection and confirmed later by means of an indirect ELISA against excretory-secretory products from L1 to detect IgG antibodies. After that, 24 sheep were chosen to carry out the study on the basis of positive serology and age since the oldest ones were selected. The day 0 of the assay, the treatment group was administered with the MOX formulation by subcutaneous injection at the base of the left ear and the control group was administered with a saline solution in the same way. All sheep were slaughtered on day 28 post-treatment (pt). At the necropsy, the head of all sheep were cut off and split into two sagital sections and all larvae from nasal passages, septum, middle meatus, conchae and sinuses were recovered. After the necropsy, a significant number of L1 was only found in the control group and therefore the efficacy of the MOX formulation was only calculated against this stage. As a result, the formulation was 90.2% effective against L1 for sheep slaughtered at day 28 pt. PMID:23333136

Martínez-Valladares, M; Valcárcel, F; Álvarez-Sánchez, M A; Cordero-Pérez, C; Fernández-Pato, N; Frontera, E; Meana, A; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

2013-03-31

212

Field evaluation of the efficacy of tolfenamic acid administered in one single preoperative injection for the prevention of postoperative pain in the dog.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded field trial, 62 dogs (of which four were excluded) taken to a veterinary practice for orthopaedic surgery with a postoperative painful component were enrolled to assess the efficacy of a preoperative intramuscular injection of tolfenamic acid (TA) at a dose of 4 mg/kg in preventing postoperative pain. The animals were clinically examined at T1 + 1H, T1 + 4H, T1 + 24H (T1 = extubation). The efficacy results showed a statistical effect of TA in preventing postoperative pain with the evolution in the pain statistically in favour of TA treatment (Visual Analogue Scale). This was confirmed by the sum of the scores calculated at T1 + 24H that was statistically higher in the placebo group, and by the evolution in the respiratory rate, which was statistically lower in the TA-treated animals after surgery. TA treatment was very well tolerated as no clinical sign (except one isolated case of vomiting and diarrhoea, i.e. 3.5%) or change in biochemical and haematological values was observed and as no interaction with the anaesthetic drugs and with marbofloxacin was reported. PMID:17991217

Grandemange, E; Fournel, S; Boisramé, B

2007-12-01

213

Comparison of efficacy of intralesional injection of meglumine anti-moniate once-weekly with twice-weekly in the treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mashhad: a randomized clinical trial  

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Background and Aim: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Iran, where it is one of the most important health problems. Both anthroponotic CL (ACL) caused by L. tropica and zoonotic CL (ZCL) caused by L. major are reported. Antimoniate derivatives as the standard therapy for CL need multiple injections and are not easy to tolerate for the patients. This study was conducted in Mashhad to compare the efficacy of weekly versus twice a week intralesional injections of meglumine antimoniate (M...

Ali Khamesipour; Mohammad Hossein Ghoorchi; Alireza Khatami; Seyed Ebrahim Eskandari; Amir Javadi; Hamed Zartab; Maryam Sarraf-Yazdy; Alireza Firooz

2011-01-01

214

A comparison of the oral application and injection routes using the Onderstepoort Biological Products Fowl Typhoid vaccine, its safety, efficacy and duration of protection in commercial laying hens : article  

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This study was undertaken to establish whether the Onderstepoort Biological Products Fowl Typhoid (OBPft) vaccine registered as an injectable vaccine was effective and safe when administered orally to commercial layers. Its efficacy and duration of protection were compared with application by intramuscular injection. Commercial brown layer hens were used as they were found to be highly susceptible to Salmonella gallinarum infections. In the vaccine safety trial birds were euthanased at timed ...

2012-01-01

215

Case Report: Valproic Acid and Risperidone Treatment Leading to Development of Hyperammonemia and Mania  

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This case report describes two children who developed hyperammonemia together with frank manic behavior during treatment with a combination of valproic acid and risperidone. One child had been maintained on valproic acid for years and risperidone was added. In the second case, valproic acid was introduced to a child who had been treated with…

Carlson, Teri; Reynolds, Charles A.; Caplan, Rochelle

2007-01-01

216

Efficacy and safety profile of evolocumab (AMG145), an injectable inhibitor of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9: the available clinical evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Despite the proven efficacy of statins, they are often reported to be inadequate to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals (especially in high-risk patients). Moreover, a large number of subjects cannot tolerate statins or full doses of these drugs. Thus, there is a need for additional effective LDL-C reducing agents. Areas covered: Evolocumab (AMG145) is a monoclonal antibody inhibiting the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 that binds to the liver LDL receptor and prevents it from normal recycling by targeting it for degradation. Phase I and II trials revealed that its subcutaneous injection, either alone or in combination with statins, is able to reduce LDL-C from 40 to 80%, apolipoprotein B100 from 30 to 59% and lipoprotein(a) from 18 to 36% in a dose-dependent manner. The incidence of side effects seems to be low and mainly limited to nasopharyngitis, injection site pain, arthralgia and back pain. Expert opinion: Evolocumab is an innovative powerful lipid-lowering drug, additive to statins and with an apparently large therapeutic range associated to a low rate of mild adverse events. If available data will be confirmed in long-term trials with strong outcomes, Evolocumab will provide an essential tool to treat high-risk patients who need to reach ambitious LDL-C target. PMID:24661068

Cicero, Arrigo Fg; Tartagni, Elisa; Ertek, Sibel

2014-06-01

217

Comparison of the Efficacy of Oral and Injectable Forms of Prophylactic Antibiotics in Grade Ii Traumatic Ulcers in Emergency Wards of University Hospitals of Yazd  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic ulcers are one of the most common causes of referral to emergency wards and interfere with wound healing. Even in a complete sterile condition, all of the ulcers may be contaminated with bacteria, but a few of them progress and cause clinical manifestations. There is a controversy on the use prophylactic antibiotics in traumatic ulcers. In this study we compare the efficacy of oral and injectable forms of antibiotics in prophylaxis of infection. Methods: In this clinical trial study, 237 cases suffering from grade II traumatic ulcers were selected by simple random method and divided into 2 groups; first group was administered 1 gram cephazoline prior to suturing and received no other antibiotics , while the second group received 500 mg cephalexin capsule before suturing and continued the treatment for 24 hours. (500 mg QID .Patients were followed up on day 7, 10 and 30 after discharge from hospital for infection of the wounds. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS 11 software using Chi-squire and Fisher exact tests. Results: According to the findings, confounding variables such as sex, age, width of the wound, traumatic cause and site and also the time course until referral to the emergency ward were similar in both groups. Prevalence of infection in the group receiving oral and injection forms of antibiotic was 2.5% and 1.7%, respectively, difference of which was not significant.(P=0.683 Conclusion: As the prevalence of wound infection is similar in both groups, oral forms of antibiotics can be used instead of injectable forms for wound infection prophylaxis.

MR Hajiesmaieli

2007-12-01

218

Long-acting injectable antipsychotics for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder.  

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Depot antipsychotics have been used as a strategy to reduce non-adherence to medications in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD). This article reviews the literature on the efficacy and safety of first- and second-generation depot antipsychotics (FGDA and SGDA, respectively) for the maintenance treatment of BD. Although FGDA have been studied in BD, they have not been approved for use in this disease. Among the SGDA, only depot risperidone has been studied and approved for the maintenance treatment of BD. We found eight studies on FGDA (three on flupenthixol, two on depot haloperidol, one on fluphenazine and flupenthixol, two on a mix of diverse antipsychotics) and ten studies on SGDA (all on depot risperidone). Differences in efficacy and safety were found between the two classes of depot antipsychotics. Although FGDA may be effective in reducing manic relapses, they possibly increase the risk of worsening depression. Depot risperidone is effective as a maintenance treatment in BD with effect noted predominantly for preventing mania. However, no worsening in depression was observed. Depot risperidone also is better tolerated than FGDA, mainly in relation to extrapyramidal symptoms. Studies with the new depot antipsychotics, olanzapine pamoate and paliperidone palmitate, are needed in BD patients. Further, there is currently little information on the metabolic changes (apart from bodyweight gain) that may occur with the use of depot risperidone in patients with bipolar disorder, and this issue needs further investigation. PMID:22494448

Gigante, Alexandre Duarte; Lafer, Beny; Yatham, Lakshmi N

2012-05-01

219

8-week, single blind, randomized controlled trial comparing risperidone versus olanzapine augmentation of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder  

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The aim of the present pilot study was to investigate in a single-blind manner, over a period of 8 weeks, the comparative efficacy and tolerability of risperidone versus olanzapine addition in the treatment of OCD patients who did not show a >or=35% decrease in the YBOCS score after 16-week SRI treatment (defined as resistant). The study consisted of two different phases: a 16-week open-label prospective phase to ascertain resistance to SRI treatment and an 8-week single-blind addition phase ...

Bogetto, Filippo; Maina, Giuseppe; Pessina, Enrico; Albert, Umberto

2008-01-01

220

Human 5-HT7 Receptor-Induced Inactivation of Forskolin-Stimulated Adenylate Cyclase by Risperidone, 9-OH-Risperidone and Other “Inactivating Antagonists”  

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We have previously reported on the unusual human 5-hydroxytryptamine7 (h5-HT7) receptor-inactivating properties of risperidone, 9-OH-risperidone, bromocriptine, methiothepin, metergoline, and lisuride. Inactivation was defined as the inability of 10 ?M 5-HT to stimulate cAMP accumulation after brief exposure and thorough removal of the drugs from HEK293 cells expressing h5-HT7 receptors. Herein we report that brief exposure of the h5-HT7 receptor-expressing cells ...

Toohey, Nicole; Klein, Michael T.; Knight, Jessica; Smith, Carol; Teitler, Milt

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Efficacy of postoperative bladder irrigation with water for injection in reducing recurrence rates of non muscle invasive bladder cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to investigate the results of bladder irrigation with Water for Injection (WFI) after transurethral resection of bladder tumours for comparison with those for adjuvant use of BCG. A total of 239 patients (158 with single tumours, group A, and 81 with multiple tumours, group B) received continuous intravesical postoperative irrigation with WFI. Some 128 patients received intravesical irrigation with WFI, followed by weekly instillations of BCG (group C). Recurrence-free rate (RFR) and recurrence-free intervals (RFI) were recorded. RFR for those patients who received only intravesical irrigation with WFI (groups A and B) was 75.8%, 66.2% and 63.2% at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of follow up, respectively. Corresponding rates for group C were 61.7%, 55.4% and 49%. Median RFI in group B were 18, 11, 15, 15 and 12 months for Ta, T1, grade 1, grade 2 and grade 3 tumours, respectively. In group C corresponding intervals were 20, 33, 8, 20 and 42 months. BCG improved RFR only in T1 (p=0.014) and grade 3 tumours (p=0.007). In conclusion, postoperative bladder irrigation with WFI could increase RFR during the first and second year of follow up. PMID:24716967

Grivas, Nikolaos; Hastazeris, Konstantinos; Kafarakis, Vasileios; Tsimaris, Ioannis; Aspiotis, Spiridon; Stratis, Antonios; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos Efthimios

2014-01-01

222

Efficacy, adherence and tolerability of once daily tenofovir DF-containing antiretroviral therapy in former injecting drug users with HIV-1 receiving opiate treatment: results of a 48-week open-label study  

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Abstract Objective To assess efficacy, adherence and tolerability of once daily antiretroviral therapy containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) 300 mg in HIV-1-infected former injecting drug users receiving opiate treatment (IVDU). Methods European, 48-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study. Patients were either antiretroviral therapy-naïve, restarting therapy after treatment discontinuation without prior virological failure or switching from exis...

Esser S; Haberl A; Mulcahy F; Gölz J; Lazzarin A; Teofilo E; Vera J; Körber A; Staszewski S

2011-01-01

223

Patient and Health Care Provider Perspectives on Long Acting Injectable Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia and the Introduction of Olanzapine Long-Acting Injection  

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Olanzapine long acting injection has joined risperidone and paliperidone as the second generation long acting antipsychotic injection options for treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Long acting injections are important alternatives to oral medications for patients who have difficulty adhering to daily or multiple daily medication administrations, yet may be underutilized or not well understood. Patient perceptions, adherence, and preferences are important issues for health care provider...

Wehring, Heidi J.; Thedford, Sheryl; Koola, Maju; Kelly, Deanna L.

2011-01-01

224

RP-HPLC Estimation of Risperidone in Tablet Dosage Forms  

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A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the estimation of risperidone in tablet dosage forms. A Phenomenex Gemini C-18, 5 ?m column having 250×4.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing methanol: acetonitrile: 50 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (80:10:10 v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1.3 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 234 nm. Clozapine was used as an internal standard. The retent...

Baldania, S. L.; Bhatt, K. K.; Mehta, R. S.; Shah, D. A.

2008-01-01

225

RP-HPLC estimation of risperidone in tablet dosage forms  

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A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the estimation of risperidone in tablet dosage forms. A Phenomenex Gemini C-18, 5 µm column having 250x4.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing methanol: acetonitrile: 50 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (80:10:10 v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1.3 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 234 nm. Clozapine was used as an internal st...

Bladania S; Bhatt K; Mehta R; Shah D

2008-01-01

226

Acute dyskinesia on starting methylphenidate after risperidone withdrawal.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on acute and transient dyskinesia occurring within hours of taking modified-release methylphenidate (Concerta XL) in a stimulant-naïve 7-year-old boy who had recently stopped taking risperidone. We propose that the mechanism of this adverse drug reaction is likely to be an interaction between supersensitive dopamine receptors and acute exposure to an indirect dopamine agonist. Clinicians need to be aware of this potential side effect, and to use the combination of psychostimulants and neuroleptic drugs with caution. PMID:17903675

Hollis, Chris P; Thompson, Anne

2007-10-01

227

Effects of risperidone on glutamate receptor subtypes in developing rat brain  

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Levels of ionotropic glutamate (Glu) N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA), 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA), and kainic acid (KA) receptors in forebrain regions of juvenile rats (age 42 days) were quantified after 3 weeks of treatment with three different doses of risperidone (0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) and compared findings to those in adult rats treated with risperidone (3.0 mg/kg/day) previously. Risperidone (at 0.3 mg/kg/day) did not alter levels of three ionotrop...

2009-01-01

228

Effects of risperidone on dopamine receptor subtypes in developing rat brain  

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The atypical antipsychotic risperidone is often prescribed to pediatric patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, though its effects on the developing brain remain unclear. Accordingly, we studied the effects of repeated treatment of risperidone on dopamine receptors in brain regions of juvenile rat. Levels of dopamine receptors (D1, D2, D3, D4) in forebrain regions of juvenile rats were quantified after 3 weeks of treatment with three different doses of risperidone (0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) a...

2007-01-01

229

Development of Analytical Method for Risperidone by UV Spectrophotometry  

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Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, specific, spectrophotometric method developed for the detection of Risperidone in bulk drug and Pharmaceutical formulation. The optimum conditions for the analysis of the drug wereestablished. The ? max of the Risperidone was found to be 280 nm. The method shows high sensitivity with linearity 2 to 6? g/ml. The lower limit of detection and the limit of quantification was found to be 1.012 and 3.036 respectively. All the calibration curves shows a linear relationship between the absorbance and concentration and coefficient correlation was higher than 0.99. The regression of the curve was Y = 0.039x - 0.002. Precision of the method was found to be 2.0325 ± 0.044 against the label claim of 2mg. The percentage recovery was found to be 102 ? 0.188. The sample solution was stable up to 2 hours. The proposed method will be suitable for the analysis of RIS in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation.

M.Sravan Kumar,

2010-03-01

230

Microsphere delivery of Risperidone as an alternative to combination therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to develop a parenteral delivery system of Risperidone that would provide initial and extended drug release and thereby avoid the need for co-administration of oral tablets. Key formulation parameters utilized to achieve desired therapeutic levels in vivo were particle size and drug loading. Three poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere formulations (Formulations A, B, and C) that encapsulated Risperidone were prepared by varying particle size (19-49 ?m) and drug loading parameters (31-37%) but with a uniform bulk density (0.66-0.69)g/cc and internal porosity, utilizing the solvent extraction/evaporation method. The microspheres were characterized for drug content by HPLC, particle size by laser diffractometry, surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in vivo drug release. In vivo studies were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and levels of the active moiety (Risperidone and its metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone) were assessed. In vivo release profiles from the three microsphere formulations were dependent on particle size and drug loading. The smaller sized microspheres (Formulation A) exhibited a large initial burst and a shorter duration of action, while the larger particles exhibited a smaller initial burst (Formulations B and C) but released drug for a much longer period in vivo. Extended duration of drug release was ascribed to higher drug content in the microspheres. A biweekly simulation of multiple dosing revealed that Formulation C, the selected formulation, with a high load and large particle size would provide adequate initial and maintenance levels of the active moiety (Risperidone and its metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone). A comparison of biweekly dosing in vivo of Formulation C with the marketed product showed that at steady state, though average concentrations for both preparations were similar, the time taken to achieve steady state was much faster for Formulation C. The delay in attaining steady state with Risperdal Consta® was attributed to the 3 week latency in drug release from the microspheres and was in accordance with previous studies indicating a good corroboration with clinical findings. Calculated cumulative AUC (area under the curve) levels for Formulation C were similar to the Risperdal Consta®, though there were marked differences in AUC levels at the early time points. Comparison of Risperidal Consta® and Formulation C by multiple dosing in vivo experiments revealed that the marketed preparation demonstrated a substantial delay in providing an initial loading dose, continuous circulating levels, and attainment of steady state; all of which were observed rapidly with Formulation C. Findings from the current study strongly suggest that a microsphere dosage form of Risperidone can be formulated with an optimum particle size and drug loading to provide an initial bolus followed by maintenance levels, thereby eliminating combination therapy and improving patient compliance. PMID:23892159

D'Souza, Susan; Faraj, Jabar; DeLuca, Patrick

2013-11-01

231

Induction of Drug Transporters Alters Disposition of Risperidone - A Study in Mice  

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Full Text Available Pharmacokinetic interactions, e.g. modulation of drug transporters like P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier, can be a reason for treatment non-response. This study focuses on the influence of induction of drug transporters on the disposition of the antipsychotic drugs risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone. Brain and serum concentrations of risperidone and its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone, which are known P-glycoprotein substrates, were measured after drug transporter induction with rifampicin, dexamethasone or 5-pregnene-3beta-ol-20-on-16alpha-carbonitrile using high performance liquid chromatography. Disposition of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone was dramatically decreased in mouse brain and serum after drug transporter induction. The metabolism of risperidone was also affected.

David Holthoewer

2010-06-01

232

Intra-articular injections of 750 kD hyaluronan in the treatment of osteoarthritis: a randomised single centre double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 91 patients demonstrating lack of efficacy.  

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OBJECTIVE--To determine the safety and efficacy of intra-articular injections of hyaluronan in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. METHODS--A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial was carried out on 91 patients with radiologically confirmed osteoarthritis of the knee who were recruited from the outpatient clinics. RESULTS--It was found that weekly intraarticular injections of 20 mg of hyaluronan of M(r) = 750,000 (Hyalgan) in 2 ml of buffered saline performed no better tha...

Henderson, E. B.; Smith, E. C.; Pegley, F.; Blake, D. R.

1994-01-01

233

The Canadian experience with risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia: an overview.  

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OBJECTIVE: To summarize published data to date by Canadian authors and from Canadian sources on risperidone, a novel neuroleptic indicated in the management of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. It was introduced in Canada in 1993. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search was performed using "risperidone" as a keyword. Three Canadian journals were also searched manually. STUDY SELECTION: Articles published between January 1991 and June 1996 by Canadian authors or involving Canadian patients...

Iskedjian, M.; Hux, M.; Remington, G. J.

1998-01-01

234

Risperidone and Olanzapine Induced Tardive Dyskinesia : A Critical Review of Reported Cases  

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Risperidone and olanzapine in treatment of psychiatric patients can provoke a plethora of tardive dyskinesias which pose problems for them. This clinical problem requires the urgent attention of mental health professionals. Hence a comprehensive research of Medline and related literature was undertaken from 1996 till August 2004. The published twenty two cases of risperidone (N=12) or olanzapine (N=10) induced tardive dyskinesia were critically reviewed and an attempt is being made to clarify...

Singh, Gurvinder Pal

2004-01-01

235

Correlates of weight gain during long-term risperidone treatment in children and adolescents  

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Abstract Background Most clinical trials of antipsychotics in children are brief, failing to address their long-term safety, particularly when taken concurrently with other psychotropics. This hypothesis-generating analysis evaluates potential correlates of weight gain in children receiving extended risperidone treatment. Methods Medically healthy 7–17?year-old patients treated with risperidone for six months or more were enrolled. Anthropometric measurement...

Calarge Chadi; Nicol Ginger; Xie Diqiong; Zimmerman Bridget

2012-01-01

236

Gene expression in blood is associated with risperidone response in children with autism spectrum disorders  

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Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe behavioral problems. Not all children with these problems respond to atypical antipsychotic medications; therefore, we investigated whether peripheral blood gene expression before treatment with risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, was associated with improvements in severe behavioral disturbances 8 weeks following risperidone treatment in 42 ASD subjects (age 112.7±51.2 months). Exon expression levels in blood prior to rispe...

2012-01-01

237

Induction of Drug Transporters Alters Disposition of Risperidone - A Study in Mice  

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Pharmacokinetic interactions, e.g. modulation of drug transporters like P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier, can be a reason for treatment non-response. This study focuses on the influence of induction of drug transporters on the disposition of the antipsychotic drugs risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone. Brain and serum concentrations of risperidone and its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone, which are known P-glycoprotein substrates, were measured after drug transporter induction ...

2010-01-01

238

Prolactin level during 5 years of risperidone treatment in patients with psychotic disorders.  

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Objective: To investigate prolactin levels and related side effects in 128 men and 90 women initially treated with risperidone. Method: Patients initially treated with risperidone were followed over 5 years, during which 45% were switched to other antipsychotic drugs. Results: Initially, prolactin levels were fivefold the norm in women, and threefold in men. Diagnosis did not affect the prolactin level if adjustment for sex, current age, and age at onset of psychosis was applied. Prolactin le...

2007-01-01

239

Effects of repeated risperidone exposure on serotonin receptor subtypes in developing rats  

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Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is widely prescribed to young patients with different psychotic disorders. The long-term effects of this antipsychotic agent on neuronal receptors in developing brain remain unclear and require further investigation. In this study, we examined the effects of long-term treatment of risperidone on two serotonin receptor subtypes in brain regions of juvenile rat. Levels of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in forebrain regions of juvenile rats were qu...

2010-01-01

240

Effect of heterozygous mutations in CYP2D6 on serum concentration of risperidone and venlafaxine  

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Introduction: Both risperidone and venlafaxine are metabolized by Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Genetic polymorphism in this enzyme may contribute to the significant variation in pharmacokinetics for these substances. It has previously been shown that systemic exposure of risperidone and venlafaxine is increased in patients with homozygous mutations in CYP2D6 (poor metabolizers). The possible influence of heterozygous mutations in CYP2D6 on systemic exposure is not well investigated for these...

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

A Randomized Open Label Comparison of the Effects ofRisperidone and Haloperidol on Sexual Function  

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"n Objective: "nSexual dysfunction in patients who take antipsychotics causes adecline in their quality of life and medication acceptance. Considering the restrictions in cross sectional design of many earlier researches, we used a clinical trial aimed at assessing sexual dysfunction by substituting Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, with Haloperidol, a typical one . "n "n "nMethod: This clinical trial was conducted on 51 patients who had been using Risperidone with a minimum dose ...

Narges Beyraghi; Mona Ershadi; Mahyar Azar; Jaber Mousavi, S.

2009-01-01

242

Upcoming agents for the treatment of schizophrenia: mechanism of action, efficacy and tolerability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the introduction of a group of atypical antipsychotics in the 1990s, there has been a decline in the rate of new antipsychotics being introduced into clinical practice. However, with increasing safety and efficacy concerns over currently available drugs and a dearth of options available for atypical depot formulations, there is a considerable need for the development of new formulations and agents. This review examines the profile of seven antipsychotic drugs currently in the premarketing stage of development and summarizes their mechanism of action, clinical potential and safety.Asenapine is an antipsychotic with activity for multiple receptors and has potential to improve negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Bifeprunox is a partial dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist showing a less than convincing efficacy profile, but which may offer safety advantages over available agents by means of a reduced risk of metabolic complications. Iloperidone is a D2 and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist requiring further studies to establish its effectiveness. It has a high affinity for alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, which can lead to associated haemodynamic adverse effects. Nemonapride is essentially a typical antipsychotic drug, similar in structure to sulpiride, which has been available for some time in Japan. It has efficacy against positive symptoms and has shown some antidepressant and anxiolytic properties, although efficacy data for it are somewhat limited. Norclozapine (N-desmethylclozapine) is a major metabolite of clozapine formed by its demethylation. Its partial agonist activity at D2 receptors has raised interest in it as an antipsychotic in its own right. In addition, it appears to have muscarinic agonist activity, which is believed to be responsible for the observed positive effects it has on cognition. It was envisaged to be effective as an adjunct to other agents or at high doses in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia, although a recent randomized, controlled study showed that it was no more effective than placebo in patients with schizophrenia experiencing an acute psychotic episode. Olanzapine pamoate depot injection has shown comparable efficacy to oral olanzapine in several studies. However, it has provoked considerable safety concerns by its association with inadvertent intravascular injection events in numerous patients. This accidental intravascular administration of olanzapine pamoate leads to excessive sedation, confusion, dizziness and altered speech. Post-injection observation periods and postmarketing surveillance are planned following the introduction of the depot. Paliperidone palmitate is the palmitate ester of paliperidone, the major metabolite of risperidone, and is formulated as a long-acting injection for intramuscular use. Its pharmacology is comparable to risperidone, having D2 and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist activity. Efficacy studies have shown positive results, and because paliperidone has no antagonistic activity at cholinergic receptors, it has low potential for anticholinergic adverse effects, including cognitive dysfunction. However, with higher doses, the frequency of extrapyramidal side effects and orthostatic hypotension have been shown to be greater than with placebo. PMID:18973393

Bishara, Delia; Taylor, David

2008-01-01

243

A randomized open-label comparison of the impact of olanzapine versus risperidone on sexual functioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to compare sexual functioning in patients treated with olanzapine or risperidone. This open-label trial included 46 patients randomized to olanzapine (5-15 mg/d) or risperidone (1-6 mg/d) for 6 weeks. We used sexual dysfunction was assessed by a semistructured interview based on the items of the UKU side effect rating scale. Three olanzapine-treated patients (12.0%), compared with 11 risperidone-treated patients (52.4%), reported sexual dysfunctions (p = .008) in the semistructured interview. Only 4 patients (8.7%) spontaneously reported sexual dysfunction. The mean dose was 9.4 mg/d for olanzapine and 3.4 mg/d for risperidone. The mean (+/-SD) prolactin levels (ng/mL) in olanzapine-and risperidone-treated patients were 25.1 (+/- 23.5) and 43.5 (+/- 26.1), respectively. Less sexual dysfunction occurred in the group treated with olanzapine compared with the risperidone group. Direct questioning about sexual functioning is necessary to avoid underestimating the frequency of sexual side effects in patients with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. PMID:16709552

Knegtering, H; Boks, Marco; Blijd, Carl; Castelein, Stynke; van den Bosch, Robert J; Wiersma, Durk

2006-01-01

244

Risperidone and Olanzapine Induced Tardive Dyskinesia : A Critical Review of Reported Cases  

Science.gov (United States)

Risperidone and olanzapine in treatment of psychiatric patients can provoke a plethora of tardive dyskinesias which pose problems for them. This clinical problem requires the urgent attention of mental health professionals. Hence a comprehensive research of Medline and related literature was undertaken from 1996 till August 2004. The published twenty two cases of risperidone (N=12) or olanzapine (N=10) induced tardive dyskinesia were critically reviewed and an attempt is being made to clarify the various issues associated with them. In these reports majority of patients were in younger age group, females and the interval until onset of tardive dyskinesia after initiation of risperidone or olanzapine was within one year. In eight reported cases of risperidone induced and three cases of olanzapine induced tardive dyskinesia, TD disappears either by stopping the drug or switching to other atypical antipsychotic drug. In seven cases of risperidone induced and three cases of olanzapine induced tardive dyskinesia, there was previous exposure to conventional antipsychotic drugs. It is concluded that induction of tardive dyskinesia by these medications is insufficiently documented in these reports but in some cases evidence is suggestive of the role of these drugs in development of tardive dyskinesia. There is no generally accepted treatment for tardive dyskinesia, thus long term studies with risperidone and olanzapine are needed in future to ascertain their tardive dyskinesia liability. Mental health professionals must remain vigilant about onset of tardive dyskinesia with these medications.

Singh, Gurvinder Pal

2004-01-01

245

Onset of efficacy with acute long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate treatment in markedly to severely ill patients with schizophrenia: post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial  

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Abstract Background This post hoc analysis (trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00590577) assessed onset of efficacy and tolerability of acute treatment with once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP), a long-acting atypical antipsychotic initiated by day 1 and day 8 injections, in a markedly to severely ill schizophrenia population. Methods Subjects entering the 13-week, double-blind trial were randomized to PP (39, 156, or 234 mg [25, 100, and 150 mg eq of...

Alphs Larry; Bossie Cynthia A; Sliwa Jennifer K; Ma Yi-Wen; Turner Norris

2011-01-01

246

The efficacies of pure LICAM(C) and DTPA on the retention of plutonium-238 and americium-241 in rats after their inhalation as nitrate and intravenous injection as citrate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pure carboxylated catechoyl amide LICAM(C) and the calcium and zinc salts of diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA), were tested for efficacy for removing {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am from rats after inhalation of the nitrate or intravenous injection of the citrate. The results were compared with the efficacy of methylated LICAM(C) used in previous experiments. It was shown that: (1) after inhalation of {sup 238}Pu nitrate, DTPA was far superior to pure LICAM(C); (2) after intravenous injection of {sup 238}Pu citrate, the infusion of DTPA plus LICAM(C) was only marginally more effective than DTPA alone; and (3) after inhalation or intravenous injection of {sup 238}Pu plus {sup 241}Am, the efficacy of pure LICAM(C) was only marginally more effective than the methylated form and neither form was effective for the decorporation of {sup 241}Am. It was concluded that DTPA, at present, remains the chelating agent of choice for treating persons accidentally contaminated with transportable forms of Pu and Am. (author).

Stradling, G.N.; Stather, J.W.; Gray, S.A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK)) (and others)

1989-10-01

247

The efficacies of pure LICAM(C) and DTPA on the retention of plutonium-238 and americium-241 in rats after their inhalation as nitrate and intravenous injection as citrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pure carboxylated catechoyl amide LICAM(C) and the calcium and zinc salts of diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA), were tested for efficacy for removing 238Pu and 241Am from rats after inhalation of the nitrate or intravenous injection of the citrate. The results were compared with the efficacy of methylated LICAM(C) used in previous experiments. It was shown that: (1) after inhalation of 238Pu nitrate, DTPA was far superior to pure LICAM(C); (2) after intravenous injection of 238Pu citrate, the infusion of DTPA plus LICAM(C) was only marginally more effective than DTPA alone; and (3) after inhalation or intravenous injection of 238Pu plus 241Am, the efficacy of pure LICAM(C) was only marginally more effective than the methylated form and neither form was effective for the decorporation of 241Am. It was concluded that DTPA, at present, remains the chelating agent of choice for treating persons accidentally contaminated with transportable forms of Pu and Am. (author)

1989-10-01

248

Intranasal desmopressin as an adjunct to risperidone for negative symptoms of schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considering the role of neurohypophyseal peptides in normal development and function of higher cortical processes along with their proven abnormalities in schizophrenic patients, these pathways have recently attracted greater attention as treatment targets for schizophrenia. Desmopressin (DDAVP) is a synthetic analog of vasopressin. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DDAVP nasal spray as an adjunct to risperidone in improving negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, forty patients aged 18-50 years with a DSM IV-TR diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia and a minimum score of 60 on positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) were equally randomized to receive DDAVP nasal spray (20mcg/day) or placebo in addition to risperidone for 8 weeks. Patients were partially stabilized and treated with a stable dose of risperidone (5 or 6mg/day) for at least four weeks prior to entry. Participants were rated by PANSS every two weeks and decrease in the PANSS negative subscale score was considered as our primary outcome. By the study endpoint, DDAVP-treated patients showed significantly greater improvement in the negative symptoms (P=0.001) as well as the PANSS total and general psychopathology subscale scores (P=0.005 and P=0.003; respectively) compared to the placebo group. Treatment group was the strongest predictor of changes in negative symptoms (?=-0.48, t=-3.67, P=001). No serious adverse event or fluid/electrolyte imbalance was reported in this trial. In conclusion, DDAVP nasal spray showed to be an effective and safe medication for improving negative symptoms in patients with chronic schizophrenia. PMID:24636461

Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Farokhnia, Mehdi; Rezaei, Farzin; Gougol, Amirhossein; Yekehtaz, Habibeh; Iranpour, Negar; Salehi, Bahman; Tabrizi, Mina; Tajdini, Masih; Ghaleiha, Ali; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

2014-06-01

249

Once-monthly paliperidone injection for the treatment of schizophrenia  

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Delia BisharaPharmacy Department, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United KingdomAbstract: Paliperidone palmitate is a new long-acting antipsychotic injection for the treatment of acute and maintenance therapy in schizophrenia. Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone) is the major active metabolite of risperidone and acts at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT2A receptors. As with other atypical antipsychotics, it exhibits a high 5HT2A:D2 affinity ratio. It also has binding activi...

Delia Bishara

2010-01-01

250

Relapse in patients with schizophrenia: a comparison between risperidone and haloperidol Recaída em pacientes com esquizofrenia: uma comparação entre risperidona e haloperidol  

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OBJECTIVES: To compare rates of rehospitalization and time to relapse in risperidone vs. haloperidol-treated schizophrenic patients discharged from the hospital. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial comparing risperidone and haloperidol regarding relapse in patients with schizophrenia treated with flexible doses during one year. RESULTS: Twenty patients were assigned to risperidone and 13 to haloperidol. One patient from each group withdrew consent and one patient in the risperidone group was...

Eduardo Pondé de Sena; Rogério Santos-Jesus; Ângela Miranda-Scippa; Lucas de Castro Quarantini; Irismar Reis de Oliveira

2003-01-01

251

Potential bias in testing for hyperprolactinemia and pituitary tumors in risperidone-treated patients: a claims-based study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A reporting association of risperidone with pituitary tumors has been observed. Because such tumors are highly prevalent, there may be other reasons why they were revealed in association with risperidone treatment. We assessed two potential explanations: disproportionately more prolactin assessment and head/brain imaging in risperidone-treated patients vs patients treated with other antipsychotics. Methods Treatment episodes with risperidone, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, haloperidol, perphenazine and 'other typical' antipsychotics were identified in two databases (large commercial, Medicaid. Comparisons used proportional hazards regression to determine whether prolactin testing was disproportionate with risperidone, regardless of prior potentially prolactin-related adverse events (PPAEs. Logistic regression determined whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/computed tomography (CT were disproportionate in risperidone-treated patients vs other patients, regardless of hyperprolactinemia or PPAEs. In each regression, the 'other typical' antipsychotic category served as the comparator. Regression models controlled for age, gender, and other factors. Results Altogether, 197,926 treatment episodes were analyzed (63,878 risperidone. Among patients with or without preceding PPAEs, risperidone treatment was associated with a significantly greater likelihood of prolactin assessment (hazard ratio (HR 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.09 to 1.66, p = 0.007. Among patients with hyperprolactinemia or PPAEs, those treated with risperidone (odds ratio (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.23, p = 0.001 or ziprasidone (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.62, p = 0.028 had a higher likelihood of MRI/CT. Conclusion Risperidone-treated patients are more likely to undergo prolactin assessment regardless of prior PPAEs, and more likely to undergo MRI/CT in association with hyperprolactinemia or PPAEs. Thus, a predisposition for more evaluations in risperidone-treated patients may contribute to disproportionate identification and reporting of prevalent pituitary adenoma.

Wu Jasmanda

2009-02-01

252

Polipectomía endoscópica de colon: efectividad y seguridad de la técnica de inyectar y cortar / Efficacy and safety of the inject and cut technique for endoscopic colonic polypectomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La polipectomía de colon es el más importante instrumento para detener la secuencia adenoma-cáncer. La técnica de inyectar y cortar ha demostrado eficacia y seguridad en estudios realizados en otros países. En nuestro país no se han reportado datos sobre el desempeño de esta técnica por lo que se ha [...] ce necesario describir la experiencia de una unidad de gastroenterología de un centro universitario. Objetivos: Describir las características demográficas y operativas de la polipectomía endoscópica de colon por medio de la técnica de inyectar y cortar. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron todos los pacientes a quienes se les realizó polipectomía endoscópica colon en la unidad de gastroenterología de la Clínica Fundadores de Bogotá, desde enero de 2003 hasta septiembre de 2011; los datos se procesaron en el paquete estadístico PASW statistics 18 versión 18,8 (SPSS-IBM). Resultados: A 420 pacientes se les realizó polipectomía con un total de 548 pólipos resecados. Promedio de edad 56,3años (14-93), 201 masculinos y 219 femeninos. Localización más común en colon izquierdo (238/64,4%), promedio de tamaño 1,6 cm, 83,8% pediculados, 13,3% sésiles y 2,85% planos. Hubo sangrado intraprocedimiento en 36 casos (8,6%). No hubo relación entre esta complicación y el tamaño de los pólipos ( Abstract in english Colonic polypectomy is the most important tool for stopping adenoma-cancer, and the inject and cut technique has demonstrated efficacy and safety in studies conducted in other countries. Since in our country there are no reported data on performance of this technique, it is necessary to describe the [...] experience of a gastroenterology unit of a university. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to describe operational characteristics of endoscopic colonic polypectomy using the inject and cut technique and to describe demographic characteristics of patients undergoing this procedure. Materials and Methods: We included all patients who underwent endoscopic colonic polypectomies in the gastroenterology unit of the Clínica Fundadores in Bogotá from January 2003 to September 2011. Data were processed using SPSS version 18 18.8 (SPSS-IBM) statistical package. Results: 420 patients underwent polypectomies which resected a total of 548 polyps. Mean patient age was 56.3 years (range 14 to 93), 201 patients were male, and 219 were female. Polyps were most commonly located in the left colon (238/64.4%). Average size was 1.6 cm. 83.8% were pedunculated, 13.3% were sessile, and 2.85% were flat. Intraoperative bleeding occurred in 36 cases (8.6%). There was no relationship between this complication and the size of polyps (

Otero R, William; Concha M, Alejandro; Gómez Z, Martín.

253

A Randomized Open Label Comparison of the Effects ofRisperidone and Haloperidol on Sexual Function  

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Full Text Available "n Objective: "nSexual dysfunction in patients who take antipsychotics causes adecline in their quality of life and medication acceptance. Considering the restrictions in cross sectional design of many earlier researches, we used a clinical trial aimed at assessing sexual dysfunction by substituting Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, with Haloperidol, a typical one . "n "n "nMethod: This clinical trial was conducted on 51 patients who had been using Risperidone with a minimum dose of 2 mg/daily for at least 2 months. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. The first group continued taking Risperidone, whereas the second group was given Haloperidol. Sexual function prior to and after the drug substitution was assessed using a sexual questionnaire designed to assess four stages of sexual function . "nResults: Compared to those who changed their medication to Haloperidol, the patients who remained on Risperidone therapy suffered from more sexual dysfunction, especially in their tendency towards having sexual activities (P= 0.01, post menstrual sexual activity (P= 0.002, and reaching orgasm in their sexual activities (P= 0.04; however in the Haloperidol group, no significant difference was observed before and after the change in medication . "nConclusion: Although Risperidone and Haloperidol can both disturb patients'sexual function, the side effects of Risperidone are stronger. Hence toprevent the decline of medication acceptance or irregular consumption by patients which may lead to possible relapse, substitution of Risperidone withanother drug with fewer side effects on sexual activities is definitely to the advantage of the patients .

S. Jaber Mousavi

2009-12-01

254

Treatment Adherence with Early Prescription of Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia  

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Although response to treatment for the first episode of schizophrenia is generally favourable, nonadherence with the treatment is the first cause of relapse and rehospitalisation within the next few years. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIAs) combine the advantages of the newer antipsychotics and the long-acting formulation. The evaluation concerns 25 schizophrenic patients hospitalised for the first time, treated with risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) associated with reinteg...

Viala, Annie; Cornic, Franc?oise; Vacheron, Marie-noe?lle

2012-01-01

255

Risperidone Augmentation for Treatment-Resistant Aggression in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To evaluate the effects of risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Twenty-five children (ages 7-12 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) and significant aggressive behaviors were randomized to risperidone or placebo for 4…

Armenteros, Jorge L.; Lewis, John E.; Davalos, Marisabel

2007-01-01

256

Onset of efficacy with acute long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate treatment in markedly to severely ill patients with schizophrenia: post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This post hoc analysis (trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00590577 assessed onset of efficacy and tolerability of acute treatment with once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP, a long-acting atypical antipsychotic initiated by day 1 and day 8 injections, in a markedly to severely ill schizophrenia population. Methods Subjects entering the 13-week, double-blind trial were randomized to PP (39, 156, or 234 mg [25, 100, and 150 mg eq of paliperidone, respectively] or placebo. This subgroup analysis included those with a baseline Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S score indicating marked to severe illness. PP subjects received a 234-mg day 1 injection (deltoid, followed by their assigned dose on day 8 and monthly thereafter (deltoid or gluteal. Thus, data for PP groups were pooled for days 4 and 8. Measures included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, CGI-S, Personal and Social Performance (PSP, and adverse events (AEs. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF methodologies, without multiplicity adjustments, were used to assess changes in continuous measures. Onset of efficacy was defined as the first time point a treatment group showed significant PANSS improvement (assessed days 4, 8, 22, 36, 64, and 92 versus placebo, which was maintained through end point. Results A total of 312 subjects met inclusion criterion for this subgroup analysis. After the day 1 injection, mean PANSS total scores improved significantly with PP (all received 234 mg versus placebo at day 4 (P = 0.012 and day 8 (P = 0.007. After the day 8 injection, a significant PANSS improvement persisted at all subsequent time points in the 234-mg group versus placebo (P P P P Conclusions In this markedly to severely ill population, acute treatment with 234 mg PP improved psychotic symptoms compared with placebo by day 4. After subsequent injections, observed improvements are suggestive of a dose-dependent effect. No unexpected tolerability findings were noted.

Ma Yi-Wen

2011-04-01

257

Serum concentrations and side effects in psychiatric patients during risperidone therapy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Steady state serum concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OH-risperidone), the active moiety, were measured in 42 patients. The concentration-to-dose ratios (C/D) varied by a factor of 20, from 1.8 to 36.8 (nmol/l)/(mg/24 hours), and 90% of the active moiety was constituted of 9-OH-risperidone. No correlation between the serum concentration of the active moiety and the side effects evaluated by the UKU Side Effect Scale was found. The absence of CYP2D6 (poor metabolizers) or the coadministration of drugs other than benzodiazepines increased the ratio between parent compound and metabolite but did not significantly influence the C/D of the total active moiety. A therapeutic range for serum risperidone has not been established, but 6 mg/day is considered the optimum dose for most patients. The authors found that in 90% of 22 patients administered 6 mg/day risperidone, the serum levels were within 50 to 150 nmol/l.

Olesen, O V; Licht, R W

1998-01-01

258

Desipramine enhances the ability of risperidone to decrease alcohol intake in the Syrian golden hamster.  

Science.gov (United States)

The atypical antipsychotic clozapine reduces alcohol drinking in patients with schizophrenia. We have proposed that clozapine?s ability to decrease alcohol drinking relates to its weak blockade of the dopamine D2 receptor and potent blockade of the norepinephrine ?-2 receptor, as well as its ability to elevate plasma and brain norepinephrine. Another atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, which is a potent blocker of both the dopamine D2 receptor and norepinephrine ?-2 receptor, does not decrease alcohol drinking. In this study, we used the Syrian golden hamster to test whether the ability of risperidone to reduce alcohol drinking would be enhanced if it was used in combination with the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine. Hamsters were given free access to water and alcohol (15% v/v) until they reached a steady drinking baseline. They were then treated daily with each drug or drug combination for 20 days. Risperidone (0.2mg/kg) only transiently decreased alcohol drinking. However, 5.0mg/kg, and possibly 1.0mg/kg, desipramine added to 0.2mg/kg risperidone appeared to produce a more substantial and relatively sustained effect than risperidone alone. Data from this study provide leads toward the development of new treatments for patients with schizophrenia and alcoholism, and also for those with alcoholism alone. PMID:24836200

Gulick, Danielle; Chau, David T; Khokhar, Jibran Y; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I

2014-08-30

259

CYP2D6 poor metabolizer status might be associated with better response to risperidone treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The variability in the antipsychotic response is, to some extent, genetically determined. Several studies have attempted to establish a role for genetic variation in genes coding pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic targets, but to date, no definite genetic predictive marker has been identified. We aimed to explore the putative role of 19 genetic variants and risperidone clinical improvement in 76 White schizophrenic inpatients, measured as change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). CYP2D6 poor metabolism was significantly associated with greater clinical improvement in total PANSS and a trend was also found for MDR1 3435C>T to higher total PANSS scores in 3435T carriers. This study suggests the importance that genetic variability on pharmacokinetic factors may have in risperidone response and gives evidence for the need for further investigation in order to establish the actual predictive value and clinical utility that CYP2D6 genotyping might have in risperidone therapy management. PMID:24026091

Almoguera, Berta; Riveiro-Alvarez, Rosa; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Dorado, Pedro; Vaquero-Lorenzo, Concepción; Fernandez-Piqueras, José; Llerena, Adrián; Abad-Santos, Francisco; Baca-García, Enrique; Dal-Ré, Rafael; Ayuso, Carmen

2013-11-01

260

ECG parameters in children and adolescents treated with aripiprazole and risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atypical antipsychotics (AP) are increasingly being used in children and adolescents for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Atypical AP may cause QT prolongation on the electrocardiogram (ECG), which predisposes patients to an increased risk of developing threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Although this phenomenon has been exhaustively reported in adults, few studies investigated the safety of these drugs in pediatric patients. We performed an open-label, prospective study to assess the arrhythmic risk of aripiprazole and risperidone in a pediatric population. A total of 60 patients (55 M/5F, mean age 10.2+2.6 years, range 4-15 years), receiving a new prescription of aripiprazole or risperidone in monotherapy underwent a standard ECG before and after two months from the beginning of antipsychotic treatment. Basal and post-treatment ECG parameters, including mean QT (QTc) and QT dispersion (QTd), were compared within treatment groups. Twenty-nine patients were treated with aripiprazole (mean dosage 7.4+3.1mg/day) and 31 with risperidone (mean dosage 1.5+1mg/day). In our series, no patient exhibited pathological values of QTc or QTd before and after treatment for both drugs. However, treatment with risperidone was associated with a slight increase of both mean QTc and QTd values (407.4+11.9 ms vs 411.2+13.0 ms, p7.2 ms, p<0.01) was observed. Although our data suggest a slight effect of aripiprazole and risperidone on ventricular repolarization, it is unlikely that such a change results in clinically relevant effects. The treatment with risperidone and aripiprazole in children with psychiatric disorders is not associated with clinically relevant modifications of QT interval. Caution in prescribing these drugs, however, is necessary in patients with family history of a genetic predisposition to arrhythmias in order to warrant a reliable assessment of drug-induced QT prolongation. PMID:24211841

Germanò, Eva; Italiano, Domenico; Lamberti, Marco; Guerriero, Laura; Privitera, Carmen; D'Amico, Gessica; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ingrassia, Massimo; Spina, Edoardo; Calabrò, Maria Pia; Gagliano, Antonella

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

A noninvasive imaging technique to evaluate therapeutic efficacy after injection of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive into gastric varices: A case report  

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A novel use of multidetector computed tomographic intravenous (MDCT IV) portography in the evaluation of gastric varices treated with tissue adhesive is described. A 55-year-old man presented with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage as a result of bleeding gastric varices. The patient was stabilized and the gastric varices were treated with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (two injections, total 7.5 mL). MDCT IV portography performed after injection revealed thrombosis of all but one of the submucosally...

Spier, Bret J.; Taylor, Andrew J.; Pfau, Patrick R.; Said, Adnan; Gopal, Deepak V.

2009-01-01

262

Efficacy of olanzapine long-acting injection in patients with acutely exacerbated schizophrenia: an insight from effect size comparison with historical oral data  

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Abstract Background To treat acute schizophrenia, a long-acting injectable antipsychotic needs a rapid onset of action and therapeutic profile similar to that of oral agents. The present post-hoc analyses compared results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI) for acute schizophrenia with those observed in similarly designed trials of oral olanzapine. Methods Six-week results from the olanzapine LAI st...

Detke Holland C; Zhao Fangyi; Witte Michael M

2012-01-01

263

Antipsychotic discontinuation syndrome following risperidone withdrawal: a case report from rural India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent used primarily to treat schizophrenia. It is a dopamine antagonist with antiserotonergic, antihistaminergic and antiadrenergic properties. Antipsychotic discontinuation symptoms have been described in the literature following abrupt or rapid reduction in the dose. This unusual case demonstrates that sudden withdrawal of even a modest dose of risperidone may cause significant discontinuation symptoms in susceptible individuals. Hence, there is a need for caution while taking a patient off antipsychotic medications in view of the vulnerable subgroup. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 233-234

Sravanti L. Sanivarapu

2014-02-01

264

Correlates of weight gain during long-term risperidone treatment in children and adolescents  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Most clinical trials of antipsychotics in children are brief, failing to address their long-term safety, particularly when taken concurrently with other psychotropics. This hypothesis-generating analysis evaluates potential correlates of weight gain in children receiving extended risperidone treatment. Methods Medically healthy 7–17?year-old patients treated with risperidone for six months or more were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements were conducted. Developmental and medication history was obtained from the medical record. Information related to birth weight, dietary intake, physical activity, and parental weight was collected. Mixed regression analyses explored the contribution of various demographic and clinical factors to age- and sex-adjusted weight and body mass index (BMI z scores over the treatment period. Results The sample consisted of 110 patients (89% males with a mean age of 11.8?years (sd?=?2.9 upon enrollment. The majority had an externalizing disorder and received 0.03?mg/kg/day (sd?=?0.02 of risperidone, for 2.5?years (sd?=?1.7, to primarily target irritability and aggression (81%. Polypharmacy was common with 71% receiving psychostimulants, 50% selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, and 32% ?2-agonists. Weight and BMI z score were positively correlated with baseline weight at the start of risperidone, treatment duration, and the weight-adjusted dose of risperidone but inversely associated with the weight-adjusted dose of psychostimulants and the concurrent use of SSRIs and ?2-agonists. The effect of risperidone dose appeared to attenuate as treatment extended while that of psychostimulants became more significant. The rate of change in weight (or BMI z score prior to and within the first 12?weeks of risperidone treatment did not independently predict future changes neither did birth weight, postnatal growth, dietary intake, physical activity, or parental weight. Conclusions This comprehensive analysis exploring correlates of long-term weight (or BMI change in risperidone-treated youths revealed that pharmacotherapy exerts significant but complex effects. Trial Registration Not applicable.

Calarge Chadi

2012-05-01

265

Hyperprolactinemia Associated with Risperidone: A Case Report and Review of Literature  

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This case report describes a 19-year-old Caucasian woman who presented to a state psychiatric facility with symptoms of depression and auditory hallucinations. She was diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder, depressed type, and was treated with risperidone and sertraline. Soon after initiation of drug therapy, the patient developed galactorrhea and dysmenorrhea, and her prolactin level was 171.6ng/mL (normal level 2.8–29.2ng/mL in adult women). Upon discontinuation of risperidone, the prol...

2004-01-01

266

Evaluations of therapeutic efficacy of intravitreal injected polylactic-glycolic acid microspheres loaded with triamcinolone acetonide on a rabbit model of uveitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional treatments of uveitis are not ideal because of the short period of therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, biodegradable polylactic-glycolic acid microspheres loaded with triamcinolone acetonide (TA) were prepared to achieve sustained drug release and their therapeutic efficacy was investigated on a rabbit model of uveitis. TA-loaded microspheres (TA-MS) were prepared by the solvent evaporation method and characterized for encapsulation efficiency, particle size, morphology and in vitro release. The therapeutic efficacy was studied on the rabbit experimental uveitis model based on scoring of the inflammation, aqueous leukocyte counting, aqueous protein determination and histological examination. The TA-MS exhibited smooth and intact surfaces with an average diameter of 50.87 ?m. The drug-loading coefficient and encapsulation efficiency were 15.2 ± 0.6 % and 91.24 ± 3.77 %, respectively. The drug release from TA-MS lasted up to 87 days, but only 46 days for TA suspension. The change in surface morphology also showed sustained drug release from TA-MS. TA-MS exhibited improved therapeutic efficacy in lipopolysaccharide -induced uveitis compared to TA suspension, especially in regard to the inhibition of inflammation. The TA-MS had a longer-term therapeutic effect on intraocular inflammation in LPS-induced uveitis in rabbits compared to TA suspension. The results suggested that TA-MS can be developed as a potential sustained-release system for the treatment of uveitis. PMID:23868505

Li, Wenchang; He, Bing; Dai, Wenbing; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Yuling

2014-06-01

267

Co-Injection of a Targeted, Reversibly Masked Endosomolytic Polymer Dramatically Improves the Efficacy of Cholesterol-Conjugated Small Interfering RNAs In Vivo  

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Effective in vivo delivery of small interfering (siRNA) has been a major obstacle in the development of RNA interference therapeutics. One of the first attempts to overcome this obstacle utilized intravenous injection of cholesterol-conjugated siRNA (chol-siRNA). Although studies in mice revealed target gene knockdown in the liver, delivery was relatively inefficient, requiring 3 daily injections of 50?mg/kg of chol-siRNA to obtain measurable reduction in gene expression. Here we present a ...

2012-01-01

268

A randomised, double-masked phase III/IV study of the efficacy and safety of Avastin® (Bevacizumab intravitreal injections compared to standard therapy in subjects with choroidal neovascularisation secondary to age-related macular degeneration: clinical trial design  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD has been transformed by the introduction of agents delivered by intravitreal injection which block the action of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (anti-VEGF agents. One such agent in widespread use is bevacizumab which was initially developed for use in oncology. Most of the evidence supporting the use of bevacizumab for nAMD has come from interventional case series and this clinical trial was initiated because of the increasing and widespread use of this agent in the treatment of nAMD (an off-label indication despite a lack of definitive unbiased safety and efficacy data. Methods and design The Avastin® (bevacizumab for choroidal neovascularisation (ABC trial is a double-masked randomised controlled trial comparing intravitreal bevacizumab injections to standard therapy in the treatment of nAMD. Patients are randomised to intravitreal bevacizumab or standard therapy available at the time of trial initiation (verteporfin photodynamic therapy, intravitreal pegaptanib or sham treatment. Ranibizumab treatment was not included in the control arm as it had not been licensed for use at the start of recruitment for this trial. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients gaining ? 15 letters of visual acuity at 1 year and secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients with stable vision and mean visual acuity change. Discussion The ABC Trial is the first double-masked randomised control trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab in the treatment of nAMD. This trial fully recruited in November 2007 and results should be available in early 2009. Important design issues for this clinical trial include (a defining the control group (b use of gain in vision as primary efficacy end-point and (c use of pro re nata treatment using intravitreal bevacizumab rather than continuous therapy. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN83325075

Bunce Catey

2008-10-01

269

Long-acting injectable risperidone in partially adherent and nonadherent patients with schizophrenia  

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Mário Rodrigues Louzã1, Helio Elkis1, Sandra Ruschel2, Irismar Reis de Oliveira3, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan4, Paulo Belmonte-de-Abreu5, Hamilton Grabowski6, José Carlos Appolinário71Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo; 2Hospital Mário Kroeff, Rio de Janeiro; 3Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador; 4Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo; 5Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre; 6Hospital Bom Retiro, Curit...

Louzã M; Elkis H; Ruschel S; Ir, Oliveira; Ra, Bressan; Belmonte-de-Abreu P; Grabowski H; Jc, Appolin Aacute Rio

2011-01-01

270

Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia  

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Yueren Zhao,1–3 Taro Kishi,1 Nakao Iwata,1 Manabu Ikeda3,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Okehazama Hospital Fujita Kokoro Care Center, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan Abstract: A recent ...

Zhao Y.; Kishi T; Iwata N; Ikeda M

2013-01-01

271

Priapism associated with risperidone: a case report, literature review and review of the South London and Maudsley hospital patients' database.  

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Priapism is a urological emergency defined as persistent penile erection that is unrelated to sexual stimulation and typically involving only the corporal cavernosa. It can occur as a rare side effect of antipsychotic medications and is mediated via their ?-adrenergic antagonist effect. In this paper we describe a case of priapism in a patient started on risperidone and sodium valproate. We also review the South London and Maudsley Case Register Interactive Search database to assess how many other cases of priapism were reported in patients taking risperidone. We add this information to a literature review of cases of priapism associated with risperidone. PMID:23983987

Paklet, Lise; Abe, Anne Mary; Olajide, Dele

2013-02-01

272

A pharmaco-economic analysis of patients with schizophrenia switching to generic risperidone involving a possible compliance loss  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background As schizophrenia patients are typically suspicious of, or are hostile to changes they may be reluctant to accept generic substitution, possibly affecting compliance. This may counteract drug costs savings due to less symptom control and increased hospitalization risk. Although compliance losses following generic substitution have not been quantified so far, one can estimate the possible health-economic consequences. The current study aims to do so by considering the case of risperidone in Germany. Methods An existing DES model was adapted to compare staying on branded risperidone with generic substitution. Differences include the probability of non-compliance and medication costs. Incremental probability of non-compliance after generic substitution was varied between 2.5% and 10%, while generic medication costs were assumed to be 40% lower. Effect of medication price was assessed as well as the effect of applying compliance losses to all treatment settings. The probability of staying on branded risperidone being cost-effective was calculated for various outcomes of a hypothetical study that would investigate non-compliance following generic substitution of risperidone. Results If the incremental probability of non-compliance after generic substitution is 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% respectively, incremental effects of staying on branded risperidone are 0.004, 0.007, 0.011 and 0.015 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs. Incremental costs are €757, €343, -€123 and -€554 respectively. Benefits of staying on branded risperidone include improved symptom control and fewer hospitalizations. If generic substitution results in a 5.2% higher probability of non-compliance, the model predicts staying on branded risperidone to be cost-effective (NICE threshold of ?30,000 per QALY gained. Compliance losses of more than 6.9% makes branded risperidone the dominant alternative. Results are sensitive to the locations at which compliance loss is applied and the price of generic risperidone. The probability that staying on branded risperidone is cost-effective would increase with larger compliance differences and more patients included in the hypothetical study. Conclusion The model predicts that it is cost-effective to keep a patient with schizophrenia in Germany on branded risperidone instead of switching him/her to generic risperidone (assuming a 40% reduction in medication costs, if the incremental probability of becoming non-compliant after generic substitution exceeds 5.2%.

Möller Hans-Jürgen

2009-02-01

273

Risperidone treatment for ADHD in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder  

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Full Text Available Joseph Biederman, Paul Hammerness, Robert Doyle, Gagan Joshi, Megan Aleardi, Eric MickPediatric Psychopharmacology Research Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USAObjective: Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are also at high risk of having comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objective of this study was to estimate improvement in ADHD symptoms in children with bipolar disorder.Methods: This was an open-label, study of risperidone monotherapy for the treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder. Thirty-one children and adolescents 4–15 years of age (7.2 ± 2.8 years of both sexes (71%, N = 22 male with pediatric bipolar disorder (YMRS score = 32.9 ± 8.8 and ADHD (ADHD-RS score = 37.9 ± 8.9 were included in these analyses.Results: Improvement in ADHD symptoms was contingent on improvement in manic symptoms. Although both hyperactive/impulsive (?7.5 ± 5.5.6, p < 0.05 and inattentive (?6.8 ± 5.0, p < 0.05 ADHD symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone, improvement was modest, and only 29% of subjects (N = 6 showed a 30% reduction in ADHD rating scale scores and had a CGI-I ? 2.Conclusions: These results suggest that that treatment with risperidone is associated with tangible but generally modest improvement of symptoms of ADHD in children with bipolar disorder.Keywords: ADHD, bipolar disorder, children, risperidone

Joseph Biederman

2008-03-01

274

Dietary Status and Impact of Risperidone on Nutritional Balance in Children with Autism: A Pilot Study  

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Background: Risperidone may be effective in improving tantrums, aggression, or self-injurious behaviour in children with autism, but often leads to weight gain. Method: Using a quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we prospectively examined the nutritional intake of 20 children with autism participating in a randomised…

Lindsay, Ronald L.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Posey, David J.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Pachler, Maryellen; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Bozzolo, Dawn

2006-01-01

275

Polypyrrole Film as a Drug Delivery System for the Controlled Release of Risperidone  

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Conducting polymers are finding applications in medicine including drug delivery systems, biosensors and templates for the regeneration of nervous pathways. We aim to develop a novel system where the drug release rate can be controlled by electrical stimulation. Polypyrrole (PPY) is being used as a drug delivery system due to its inherent electrical conductivity, ease of preparation and apparent biocompatibility. Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug used in the treatment of psychosis and related disorders, including schizophrenia. PPY was synthesised using p-toluene sulfonic acid as a primary dopant, in the presence of risperidone. A validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method was used to quantify risperidone release. It has been demonstrated that the release rate of risperidone can be altered through the application, or absence, of electrical stimulation. Technology such as this would find use in drug-delivering implants where the dose could be adjusted through application of external stimulus, optimising benefit to side effect ratio, while simultaneously ensuring patient adherence (which is a particular challenge in mental health conditions).

Svirskis, Darren; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Rodgers, Anthony; Garg, Sanjay

2009-07-01

276

Psychomotorische Leistungsfähigkeit und Fahrtauglichkeit bei schizophrenen Patienten unter Risperidon versus Haloperidol  

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Die Effekte neuroleptischer Behandlung bei schizophrenen Patienten wurden bezüglich Ihrer Auswirkungen auf die Fahrtauglichkeit untersucht. Es wurden jeweils 20 Patienten mit Haloperidol bzw. Risperidon Monotherapie mit einer gesunden Kontrollgruppe verglichen. Anhand standardisierter Tests wurde die visuelle Wahrnehmungsfähigkeit, Aufmerksamkeitsleistung, Reaktionszeit, reaktive Dauerbelastbarkeit, Aufnahme- und Verarbeitungskapazität peripherer visueller Reize erfasst. Die Kon...

Winter, Catja

2003-01-01

277

Efektifitas risperidon terhadap perbaikan fungsi kognitif pada skor Mini Mental State Examination dan Clock Drawing Test  

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Latar Belakang : Beberapa penelitian seperti penelitin Golberg dan kawan-kawan yang melakukan percobaan klinis menganjurkan untuk menggunakan obat antipsikotik generasi kedua yang secara signifikan dapat meningkatkan fungsi kognitif pada pasien skizofrenik. Adapun tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui efektifitas risperidon terhadap perbaikan skor Mini Mental State Examination dan Clock Drawing Test.

2011-01-01

278

Safety and Efficacy of Paliperidone Extended-Release in Acute and Maintenance Treatment of Schizophrenia  

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Paliperidone, the major active metabolite of risperidone, is a second-generation antipsychotic that has been developed as an extended-release (ER) tablet formulation that minimizes peak-trough fluctuations in plasma concentrations, allowing once-daily administration and constant drug delivery. Paliperidone ER has demonstrated efficacy in the reduction of acute schizophrenia symptoms in 6-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials and clinical benefits were maintained in the longer-term acc...

Spina, Edoardo; Crupi, Rosalia

2011-01-01

279

Butorphanol Injection  

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Butorphanol injection is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Butorphanol injection is also used to relieve pain during labor ... Butorphanol injection comes as a liquid to be injected into a muscle or vein. When butorphanol injection is used ...

280

Long-acting injectable formulations of antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia.  

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Antipsychotic drugs have been used to treat patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Long-acting injectable antipsychotic drugs are useful for improving medication compliance with a better therapeutic option to treat patients who lack insight or adhere poorly to oral medication. Several long-acting injectable antipsychotic drugs are clinically available. Haloperidol decanoate and fluphenazine decanoate are first-generation depot drugs, but the use of these medicines has declined since the advent of second-generation depot agents, such as long-acting risperidone, paliperidone palmitate, and olanzapine pamoate. The second-generation depot drugs are better tolerated and have fewer adverse neurological side effects. Long-acting injectable risperidone, the first depot formulation of an atypical antipsychotic drug, was prepared by encapsulating risperidone into biodegradable microspheres. Paliperidone palmitate is an aqueous suspension of nanocrystal molecules, and olanzapine pamoate is a microcrystalline salt of olanzapine and pamoic acid suspended in aqueous solution. This review summarizes the characteristics and recent research of formulations of each long-acting injectable antipsychotic drug. PMID:23543652

Park, Eun Ji; Amatya, Sarmila; Kim, Myung Sun; Park, Jong Hoon; Seol, Eunyoung; Lee, Heeyong; Shin, Young-Hee; Na, Dong Hee

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
281

Treatment of radiculopathies: a study of efficacy and tollerability of paravertebral oxygen-ozone injections compared with pharmacological anti-inflammatory treatment.  

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The study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of lumbar paravertebral injections of a gas mixture of Oxygen and Ozone in patients with lumbar radiculopathies caused by L4-L5 or L5-S1 disk herniations compared to a pharmacological therapy based on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Lumbar radiculopathy caused by disc herniation is widely spread. Many therapeutic options are available before steering patients to the surgery. Low back pain and sciatica represent some of the most frequent causes of antinflammatory-analgesic drugs overuse. Recent findings have shown that medical Ozone can be used in the treatment of radicular syndrome caused by herniated intervertebral discs. Although widely spread, there are insufficient published data supporting the effectiveness of this approach in clinical practice. We studied 38 affected patients with acute L5 or S1 radicolopathy. The patients were randomly divided in two groups: A) 20 patients treated with lumbar paravertebral injections of Oxygen and Ozone; B) 18 patients treated pharmacologically with antinflammatory-analgesic drugs. All patients underwent a clinical and neurological examination at baseline (T1) and after 1 (T2), 2 (T3), 4 weeks (T4) and after 3 (T5) and 6 months (T6). An MRI and EMG examination were performed at baseline and after 6 months. The intensity of pain and the outcome of treatments were evaluated in all patients with the Visual Analogue Scale and with the Oswestry Disability Index. We found a reduction of pain and discomfort soon after one week with oxygen-ozone injections compared with pharmacological treatment, but this difference of response became statistically significant after two weeks (50 percent vs 16.6 percent) and is confirmed after 3 and 6 months, when 80 percent of patients treated with injections turned out pain free compared with half of the patients treated pharmacologically. No statistical difference were found in MRI and EMG examinations. No adverse effects were found in any patient of group A. We hypothesize that oxygen-ozone injections in paravertebral regions can induce a direct reduction of root inflammation with a corresponding reduction of pain. The paravertebral injections of oxygen-ozone represent a rapidly effective therapy, easily practicable and secure, in patients with lumbar radicolopathies secondary to disc herniation. PMID:23034266

Melchionda, D; Milillo, P; Manente, G; Stoppino, L; Macarini, L

2012-01-01

282

Intratesticular injection of a zinc-based solution for contraception of domestic cats: a randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety.  

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It has been reported that a commercial zinc gluconate preparation disrupts spermatogenesis and apparently causes permanent sterilization in male dogs, but there is little information regarding similar approaches in the male cat. The objective of this study was to evaluate zinc gluconate as a permanent contraceptive for domestic male cats. Sixteen sexually mature mixed breed cats were allocated at random, by replicate, into two groups and given a single injection into each testis of either isotonic saline or zinc gluconate, respectively. Clinical and reproductive parameters were assessed immediately before injection and after 60 and 120 days. On day 120 the testis size of treated cats was decreased (Pzinc gluconate might have potential as a permanent contraceptive for cats. PMID:23465750

Oliveira, E C S; Fagundes, A K F; Melo, C C S; Nery, L T B; Rêvoredo, R G; Andrade, T F G; Oliveira-Esquerre, K; Kastelic, J P; Silva, V A

2013-08-01

283

Efficacy of prescribed injectable diacetylmorphine in the Andalusian trial: Bayesian analysis of responders and non-responders according to a multi domain outcome index  

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Abstract Background The objective of this research was to evaluate data from a randomized clinical trial that tested injectable diacetylmorphine (DAM) and oral methadone (MMT) for substitution treatment, using a multi-domain dichotomous index, with a Bayesian approach. Methods Sixty two long-term, socially-excluded heroin injectors, not benefiting from available treatments were randomized to receive either DAM or MMT for 9 months in Granada, Spain. Completers we...

Perea-Milla Emilio; Ayçaguer Luis; Cerdà Joan; Saiz Francisco; Rivas-Ruiz Francisco; Danet Alina; Vallecillo Manuel; Oviedo-Joekes Eugenia

2009-01-01

284

Eficácia da aplicação da pomada EMLA® no alivio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A no tratamento do blefaroespasmo essencial benigno / Efficacy of EMLA® cream application for pain relief of periocular botulinum toxin injections  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a eficácia da aplicação da pomada EMLA® (EMLA) no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A (BTX) no tratamento do blefaroespasmo essencial benigno (BEB). MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, com a participação de 13 pacientes submetidos à aplicação de toxina b [...] otulínica na região periocular bilateral no tratamento de BEB. Aplicou-se a pomada EMLA na região periocular direita e placebo na esquerda antes das aplicações. Após a aplicação solicitou-se ao paciente uma nota de 0 a 10 referente à intensidade da dor. RESULTADOS: No lado em que foi aplicada a pomada EMLA, a média da intensidade da dor referida pelo paciente foi de 5,77±3,00 enquanto que no lado em que foi aplicado placebo, foi de 5,62±2,63 (p=0,92). CONCLUSÃO: Não se obteve uma redução estatisticamente significante da dor referida durante a aplicação de BTX em pacientes portadores de BEB após a aplicação da pomada EMLA. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of EMLA® (EMLA) cream for pain relief before periocular botulinum toxin injection (BTX) on the treatment of essential benign blepharospasm (BEB). METHODS: In this prospective study, 13 patients given bilateral periocular botulinum injections for blepharospasm tre [...] atment were included. Prior to the injections, EMLA cream was applied to the right periocular side and placebo to the left side. Relative pain score from 0 to 10 was recorded after the procedure. RESULTS: The average pain score on the side where EMLA was applied was 5,77±3,00, whereas it was 5,62±2,63 on the placebo side (p=0,92). CONCLUSION: No statistically significant decrease in the pain score associated with BTX injection for BEB was noted after EMLA skin application.

Nadia Ajub, Moysés; Nilson Lopes da, Fonseca Júnior; José Ricardo Carvalho Lima, Rehder.

285

Eficácia da aplicação da pomada EMLA® no alivio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A no tratamento do blefaroespasmo essencial benigno Efficacy of EMLA® cream application for pain relief of periocular botulinum toxin injections  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a eficácia da aplicação da pomada EMLA® (EMLA no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A (BTX no tratamento do blefaroespasmo essencial benigno (BEB. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, com a participação de 13 pacientes submetidos à aplicação de toxina botulínica na região periocular bilateral no tratamento de BEB. Aplicou-se a pomada EMLA na região periocular direita e placebo na esquerda antes das aplicações. Após a aplicação solicitou-se ao paciente uma nota de 0 a 10 referente à intensidade da dor. RESULTADOS: No lado em que foi aplicada a pomada EMLA, a média da intensidade da dor referida pelo paciente foi de 5,77±3,00 enquanto que no lado em que foi aplicado placebo, foi de 5,62±2,63 (p=0,92. CONCLUSÃO: Não se obteve uma redução estatisticamente significante da dor referida durante a aplicação de BTX em pacientes portadores de BEB após a aplicação da pomada EMLA.PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of EMLA® (EMLA cream for pain relief before periocular botulinum toxin injection (BTX on the treatment of essential benign blepharospasm (BEB. METHODS: In this prospective study, 13 patients given bilateral periocular botulinum injections for blepharospasm treatment were included. Prior to the injections, EMLA cream was applied to the right periocular side and placebo to the left side. Relative pain score from 0 to 10 was recorded after the procedure. RESULTS: The average pain score on the side where EMLA was applied was 5,77±3,00, whereas it was 5,62±2,63 on the placebo side (p=0,92. CONCLUSION: No statistically significant decrease in the pain score associated with BTX injection for BEB was noted after EMLA skin application.

Nadia Ajub Moysés

2011-04-01

286

Genetic variants in the BDNF gene and therapeutic response to risperidone in schizophrenia patients: a pharmacogenetic study  

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Risperidone is a widely used atypical antipsychotic agent that produces considerable interindividual differences in patient response. We investigated the pharmacogenetic relationship between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene and response to risperidone in 127 Han Chinese schizophrenic patients. Three functional polymorphisms, (GT)n dinucleotide repeat polymorphism, C-270T, and the rs6265G/A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), were genotyped and analyzed for association, with...

Xu, Mingqing; Li, Sheng; Xing, Qinghe; Gao, Rui; Feng, Guoyin; Lin, Zhiguang; St Clair, David; He, Lin

2010-01-01

287

DFT calculation of geometrical structure and electronic absorption spectra for neutral, mono-, and diprotonated forms of Risperidone (Risperdal)  

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Vertical electronic transitions to singlet valence states of an antipsychotic drug, Risperidone (Risperdal), in its neutral, mono-, and diprotonated forms have been calculated within the time-dependent density functional theory using the PBE0 hybrid functional with the 6-31+G* basis set. The results of the computations show that the lowest-energy allowed ?-?* electronic excitation is affected by protonation effects, the spectral shifts of this transition being potentially useful to individuate the different forms of risperidone

Alparone, A.

2012-09-01

288

Evaluating the Effect of 8-Week Treatment With Risperidone On Fasting Blood Glucose of Patients with Schizophrenia  

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 Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of risperidone on fasting blood glucose (FBG) in patients with Schizophrenia .  Method: Seventy five non-diabetic patients with Schizophrenia (based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria) entered this cross-sectional study. Patients did not receive any medications (Including risperidone) affecting serum FBG levels for at least 2 weeks prior to the initiation of the study. Patients...

2007-01-01

289

Comparison of efficacy of intralesional injection of meglumine anti-moniate once-weekly with twice-weekly in the treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mashhad: a randomized clinical trial  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is endemic in Iran, where it is one of the most important health problems. Both anthroponotic CL (ACL caused by L. tropica and zoonotic CL (ZCL caused by L. major are reported. Antimoniate derivatives as the standard therapy for CL need multiple injections and are not easy to tolerate for the patients. This study was conducted in Mashhad to compare the efficacy of weekly versus twice a week intralesional injections of meglumine antimoniate (MA in the treatment of ACL."n"nMethods: This randomised controlled trial was performed during 2006 to 2008 in Mashhad, Iran. Using computerized sequence of random numbers, participants were randomly allocated in the two arms of the study: one receiving weekly and the other receiving twice-a-week intralesional injections of MA. The lesion size, induration and healing rate were assessed, recorded and compared. Healing was defined as complete re-epithelialisation and disappearance of induration."n"nResults: A total of 252 suspected CL patients with 372 lesions were screened. 82 parasitologically proven cases with 121 lesions caused by L. tropica were included and 74 patients with 113 lesions completed the study. At 12th week after initiation of treatment, complete healing was observed in 38 out of 44 lesions (86.4% in the group which received weekly intralesional MA injection. The median time-to-heal in this group was 36 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32.0-39.9. Complete healing was recorded in 60 out of 69 lesions (86.9% in the group which received twice a week intralesional injections of MA with a median time-to-heal of 25 days (95% CI: 20.9-29.1. While no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of complete healing rate (P=0.999, time-to-heal was significantly different between the 2 groups (P=0.003."n"nConclusion: It seems that the effectiveness of twice-weekly intralesional injections of MA is similar to once-weekly regimen while the former regimen causes more rapid healing of lesions.

Alireza Firooz

2011-03-01

290

Evaluating the Effect of 8-Week Treatment With Risperidone On Fasting Blood Glucose of Patients with Schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available  Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of risperidone on fasting blood glucose (FBG in patients with Schizophrenia .  Method: Seventy five non-diabetic patients with Schizophrenia (based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria entered this cross-sectional study. Patients did not receive any medications (Including risperidone affecting serum FBG levels for at least 2 weeks prior to the initiation of the study. Patients received the mean dose of 4.5mg (range 2-12mg risperidone for 8 weeks. Pregnant women, patients with diabetes mellitus and a history of any major heart disease were excluded from this study.Additionally, none of the patients should have received electroconvulsive therapy within 6 months prior to the initiation of the antiphsychotics.FBG levels were measured at the initiation and 8 weeks after starting risperidone.  Results: Fifty one patients completed the study. The mean FBG level was increased from 88.9mg/dL (baseline to 94.4 mg/dL at week 8 (P =0.003. This 8-week study showed that FBG levels may increase in schizophrenic patients receiving risperidone.  Conclusion: Measuring and monitoring FBG before the initiation and during the treatment with risperidone is suggested.

Firouzeh Raisi

2007-08-01

291

Medroxyprogesterone Injection  

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Medroxyprogesterone intramuscular (into a muscle) injection and medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous (under the skin) injection are used to prevent pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis ( ...

292

Ibandronate Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

293

Eficácia do resfriamento da pele no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A nas distonias faciais Skin cooling efficacy on pain relief in periocular injections with botulinum toxin A in facial dystonias  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do resfriamento da pele com gelo no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A na região periocular em pacientes portadores de distonia facial. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo prospectivo, 13 pacientes receberam injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A em região glabelar (m. prócero e periocular (m. orbicular para tratamento de distonia facial. Antes das aplicações, um lado da região glabelar foi resfriado com gelo durante 5 minutos, enquanto no outro lado foi aplicada pomada Epitezan®, funcionando como placebo. A aplicação foi feita primeiramente no lado resfriado. Após a aplicação em cada um dos lados os pacientes foram instruídos a dar uma nota para a dor desencadeada pela injeção, em uma escala de 0 a 10 onde 0 era ausência de dor e 10 a dor mais intensa. RESULTADOS: A média das notas dadas pelos pacientes à dor desencadeada pela injeção no lado onde foi aplicado placebo foi 3,92 ± 3,28. No local onde foi aplicado gelo a média das notas foi de 2,92 ± 2,18 (p PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of skin cooling with ice on pain relief in periocular injection with botulinum toxin type A in patients with facial dystonias. METHODS: In this prospective study, 13 patients received botulinum toxin type A injection in glabela (procerus m. and periocular region (orbicular m. for facial dystonias treatment. Before the injections, one side of the glabela was submitted to a 5-minute cooling period, while the opposite side had Epitezan® cream applied, as a placebo. The application was done at the cooled side first. After the application on each side the patients were instructed to rate the pain associated with the injection on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 indicating no pain and 10 the worst pain. RESULTS: The average pain score on the side where cold was applied was 3,92 ± 3,28, while on the control side the average pain score was 2,92 ± 2,18 (p < 0,0166. CONCLUSION: In this study, skin cooling with ice cubes was efficient in pain relief in periocular botulinum toxin injections in patients with facial dystonias.

Paula Barros Bandeira de Mello Monteiro

2012-12-01

294

Efficacy of prescribed injectable diacetylmorphine in the Andalusian trial: Bayesian analysis of responders and non-responders according to a multi domain outcome index  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The objective of this research was to evaluate data from a randomized clinical trial that tested injectable diacetylmorphine (DAM) and oral methadone (MMT) for substitution treatment, using a multi-domain dichotomous index, with a Bayesian approach. Methods Sixty two long-term, socially-excluded heroin injectors, not benefiting from available treatments were randomized to receive either DAM or MMT for 9 months in Granada, Spain. Completers were 44 and data at the end of the study period was obtained for 50. Participants were determined to be responders or non responders using a multi-domain outcome index accounting for their physical and mental health and psychosocial integration, used in a previous trial. Data was analyzed with Bayesian methods, using information from a similar study conducted in The Netherlands to select a priori distributions. On adding the data from the present study to update the a priori information, the distribution of the difference in response rates were obtained and used to build credibility intervals and relevant probability computations. Results In the experimental group (n = 27), the rate of responders to treatment was 70.4% (95% CI 53.2-87.6), and in the control group (n = 23), it was 34.8% (95% CI 15.3-54.3). The probability of success in the experimental group using the a posteriori distributions was higher after a proper sensitivity analysis. Almost the whole distribution of the rates difference (the one for diacetylmorphine minus methadone) was located to the right of the zero, indicating the superiority of the experimental treatment. Conclusion The present analysis suggests a clinical superiority of injectable diacetylmorphine compared to oral methadone in the treatment of severely affected heroin injectors not benefiting sufficiently from the available treatments. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52023186

Perea-Milla, Emilio; Aycaguer, Luis Carlos Silva; Cerda, Joan Carles March; Saiz, Francisco Gonzalez; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Danet, Alina; Vallecillo, Manuel Romero; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia

2009-01-01

295

Determination of risperidone and its major metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.  

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A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with UV absorbance detection is described for the quantitation of risperidone and its major metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma, using clozapine as internal standard. After sample alkalinization with 1 ml of NaOH (2 M) the test compounds were extracted from plasma using diisopropyl ether-isoamylalcohol (99:1, v/v). The organic phase was back-extracted with 150 microl potassium phosphate (0.1 M, pH 2.2) and 60 microl of the acid solution was injected into a C18 BDS Hypersil analytical column (3 microm, 100x4.6 mm I.D.). The mobile phase consisted of phosphate buffer (0.05 M, pH 3.7 with 25% H3PO4)-acetonitrile (70:30, v/v), and was delivered at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min. The peaks were detected using a UV detector set at 278 nm and the total time for a chromatographic separation was about 4 min. The method was validated for the concentration range 5-100 ng/ml. Mean recoveries were 98.0% for risperidone and 83.5% for 9-hydroxyrisperidone. Intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were less than 11% for both compounds, while accuracy, expressed as percent error, ranged from 1.6 to 25%. The limit of quantitation was 2 ng/ml for both analytes. The method shows good specificity with respect to commonly prescribed psychotropic drugs, and it has successfully been applied for pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:11076069

Avenoso, A; Facciolà, G; Salemi, M; Spina, E

2000-09-15

296

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF RISPERIDONE BY MBTH  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A simple and sensitive visible spectrophotometric method is described for the assay of risperidone (RSP in pure and solid dosage forms. The method involves oxidative coupling of risperidone with MBTH in presence of ferric chloride dissolved in HCl and apple green chromogen is formed and exhibits absorption maxima at 595.8nm. Regression analysis of Beer-Lambert plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges (10-80 ?g/mL. Regression coefficient was found to be 0.992. The proposed method is applied to commercial available tablets and the results are statistically evaluated and validated by recovery studies. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of the bulk drug and its tablet dosage form. The methods have been statistically evaluated and were found to be precise and accurate.

S. Archana*, Y. Naga Prasanna, P. Pavitra, D. Santhi Krupa, M. Hema Sri

2013-03-01

297

Once-monthly paliperidone injection for the treatment of schizophrenia  

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Paliperidone palmitate is a new long-acting antipsychotic injection for the treatment of acute and maintenance therapy in schizophrenia. Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone) is the major active metabolite of risperidone and acts at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT2A receptors. As with other atypical antipsychotics, it exhibits a high 5HT2A:D2 affinity ratio. It also has binding activity as an antagonist at ?1-and ?2 adrenergic receptors and H1 histaminergic receptors, but has virtually no affin...

Bishara, Delia

2010-01-01

298

Developing In Vitro–In Vivo Correlation of Risperidone Immediate Release Tablet  

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The present study was aimed to predict the absorption profile of a risperidone immediate release tablet (IR) and to develop the level A in vitro–in vivo correlation (IVIVC) of the drug using the gastrointestinal simulation based on the advanced compartmental absorption and transit model implemented in GastroPlus™. Plasma concentration data, physicochemical, and pharmacokinetic properties of the drug were used in building its absorption profile in the gastrointestinal tract. Since the frac...

Saibi, Yardi; Sato, Hitoshi; Tachiki, Hidehisa

2012-01-01

299

Review of risperidone for the treatment of pediatric and adolescent bipolar disorder and schizophrenia  

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Jeffrey R Bishop1,2, Mani N Pavuluri21Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Pediatric Mood Disorders Program and Center for Cognitive Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Risperidone is a commonly used medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents. It has been studied as a monotherapy treatment in ...

2008-01-01

300

Excessive weight gain after remission of depression in a schizophrenic patient treated with risperidone: case report  

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Abstract Background The use of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients has been associated with a risk of weight gain. Similarly, recovery from depression is often followed by improved appetite, greater food intake and potential increase in weight. Case presentation A Caucasian 33-year-old schizophrenic female patient was being treated with 6 mg/day of risperidone and 15 mg/day of clorazepate. She developed depressive symptomatology and 40 mg/day of fl...

Theleritis Christos G; Papadimitriou George N; Papageorgiou Charalabos C; Dikeos Dimitris G; Masdrakis Vasilis; Kostoulas Constantin; Psarros Constantin; Soldatos Constantin R

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Efficacy and safety of individual second-generation vs. first-generation antipsychotics in first-episode psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

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Because early treatment choice is critical in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FES), this meta-analysis compared efficacy and tolerability of individual second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) in FES. We conducted systematic literature search (until 12 December 2010) and meta-analysis of acute, randomized trials with ?1 FGA vs. SGA comparison; patients in their first episode of psychosis and diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders; available data for psychopathology change, treatment response, treatment discontinuation, adverse effects, or cognition. Across 13 trials (n = 2509), olanzapine (seven trials) and amisulpride (one trial) outperformed FGAs (haloperidol: 9/13 trials) in 9/13 and 8/13 efficacy outcomes, respectively, risperidone (eight trials) in 4/13, quetiapine (one trial) in 3/13 and clozapine (two trials) and ziprasidone (one trial) in 1/13, each. Compared to FGAs, extrapyramidal symptom (EPS)-related outcomes were less frequent with olanzapine, risperidone and clozapine, but weight gain was greater with clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone. Pooled SGAs were similar to FGAs regarding total psychopathology change, depression, treatment response and metabolic changes. SGAs significantly outperformed FGAs regarding lower treatment discontinuation, irrespective of cause, negative symptoms, global cognition and less EPS and akathisia, while SGAs increased weight more (p amisulpride and, less so, risperidone and quetiapine showed superior efficacy, greater treatment persistence and less EPS than FGAs. However, weight increase with olanzapine, risperidone and clozapine and metabolic changes with olanzapine were greater. Additional FES studies including broader-based SGAs and FGAs are needed. PMID:23199972

Zhang, Jian-Ping; Gallego, Juan A; Robinson, Delbert G; Malhotra, Anil K; Kane, John M; Correll, Christoph U

2013-07-01

302

The efficacy of Achilles millefolium topical gel along with intralesional injection of glucantime in the treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis major  

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Background: Leishmaniasis is still one of the endemic parasitic infections in many countries comprising Iran. During the past decades, several medical and surgical approaches have been applied and studied to achieve the best option to treat the cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran and the world. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of topical Achilles millefolium in conjunction with intralesional glucantime on acute cutaneous leishmanial lesions. Materials and Methods: sixty patients with confirmed acute cutaneous leishmaniasis were recruited in the study. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups to receive twice daily topical gel of Achilles millefolium 5% (containing 5% poly phenol) (group A) or placebo (group B) for four weeks along with weekly injection of intralesional Glucantime. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups according to age, gender, and duration of the disease. Also, there was no significant difference in complete and relative cure rates between the two groups (P = 0.35) using Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Application site reactions were occurred in 12 patients including redness in 8 cases in group-A and 2 cases in group-B, severe itching in one case in group-A and increasing wound secretion in another case in group-A (P = 0.014). Conclusions: Given the result of the present study, there is no significant difference in cure rates of lesions between yarrow and placebo topical gels as an adjuvant drugs with intralesional glucantime in treatment of acute cutaneous leishmanial lesions.

Jaffary, Fariba; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Tavakoli, Naser; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Shahbazi, Foroud

2014-01-01

303

Developing in vitro-in vivo correlation of risperidone immediate release tablet.  

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The present study was aimed to predict the absorption profile of a risperidone immediate release tablet (IR) and to develop the level A in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) of the drug using the gastrointestinal simulation based on the advanced compartmental absorption and transit model implemented in GastroPlus™. Plasma concentration data, physicochemical, and pharmacokinetic properties of the drug were used in building its absorption profile in the gastrointestinal tract. Since the fraction absorbed of risperidone in simulation was more than 90% with low water solubility, the drug met the criteria of class II of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. The IVIVC was developed based on the model built using the plasma data and the in vitro dissolution data in several dissolution media based on the Japanese Guideline for Bioequivalence Studies of Generic Products. The gastrointestinal absorption profile of risperidone was successfully predicted. A level A IVIVC was also successfully developed in all dissolution media with percent prediction error for Cmax and the area under the curve less than 10% for both reference and test drug. PMID:22696224

Saibi, Yardi; Sato, Hitoshi; Tachiki, Hidehisa

2012-09-01

304

The Effect of Risperidone on Cognitive Symptoms of Schizophrenia : A Comparison with Haloperidol  

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Full Text Available Background and purpose: Several studies have demonstrated, that atypical antipsychotics attenuate cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia more than first generation of antipsychotics. Because there was no comprehensive and reliable study on evaluating these effects in Iranian population, the research group decided to compare the effects of haloperidol and risperidone, both Iranian drug laboratories' products, on the cognitive symptoms of patients with schizophrenia.Materials and Methods: 66 patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia, according to DSM-IVTR criteria, who were hospitalized in Razi's Psychiatric Center, Tehran, were included in the study. After 2 weeks of wash-out period, patients were randomized in two groups, treated with haloperidol and risperidone, and in 8 week period basic and weekly MMSE were performed for all.Results: Both drugs improved cognitive symptoms of patients, and the course of improvement started in the 2nd week of treatment with no significant statistical difference.Conclusion: The study didn't confirm the preferentiality of risperidone vs. haloperidol on the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia, which was demonstrated in western articles. Therefore, choosing each drug for treating patients must fulfill on other goals, such as the profile of their side effects.

R. Daneshmand, M.D.

2007-09-01

305

FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF EXTENDED RELEASE MINI TABLETS OF RISPERIDONE  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to formulate Risperidone mini tablets filled into hard gelatin capsule, as it is administered for the treatment of psychosis. The preformulation studies of Risperidone were carried out and drug –polymer compatibility studies were performed by FT-IR spectra analysis. The precompression parameters revealed that all the 6 formulations had good flow Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose within the limit. Risperidone is formulated with different concentration of polymers like HPMCK100M, HPMCK15M, filler like lactose and with other excipients. A total number of 6 formulations (F1,F2,F3,F4,F5 and F6were carried and evaluated. In all the formulations thickness varies between 3.90-3.94mm and the hardness of the optimized batch was found to be 3.18kg/cm2.No variation in the hardness was found in the optimized formulation that showed powder blending was uniform. Among 6 formulations, F1, F2, F3 and F6 trials were done using K100M polymer and F4, F5 with K15M polymer using optimized quantity of lactose, best batch among those is F1 because it had 90% drug release and it could sustain its action until 20thhr, and is very economical.

B.Vishnu Vardhan Reddy

2012-02-01

306

Rapid High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Risperidone in Human Plasma  

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Full Text Available A simple, rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method for the determination of risperidone in human plasma was developed. An HPLC system based on a Nucleosil C8 column (150×4 mm and a UV detector (?= 280 nm were used. A mixture of sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (55:45, v/v adjusted to pH 6.0 at a flow rate of 1.5 ml min-1 was used as mobile phase. The proteins were precipitated with an acetonitrilesolution containing diltiazem as internal standard and the average recovery was 93.9±3.4%.The detection limit for risperidone in plasma was 0.5 ngml-1. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 2-50 ngml-1. The inter-day and intra-day assay coefficients of variation were found to be less than 5%. The present validated method was successfully used for pharmacokinetic studies of risperidone in human subjects.

Seyyed Mohsen Foroutan

2006-01-01

307

Safety and efficacy of botox injection in alleviating post-operative pain and improving quality of life in lower extremity limb lengthening and deformity correction  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Distraction osteogenesis is the standard treatment for the management of lower limb length discrepancy of more than 3 cm and bone loss secondary to congenital anomalies, trauma or infection. This technique consists of an osteotomy of the bone to be lengthened, application of an external fixator, followed by gradual and controlled distraction of the bone ends. Although limb lengthening using the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis principle yields excellent results in most cases, the technique has numerous problems and is not well tolerated by many children. The objective of the current study is to determine if Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-A, which is known to possess both analgesic and paralytic actions, can be used to alleviate post-operative pain and improve the functional outcome of children undergoing distraction osteogenesis. Methods/Design The study design consists of a multi centre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Patients between ages 5–21 years requiring limb lengthening or deformity correction using distraction will be recruited from 6 different sites (Shriners Hospital for Children in Montreal, Honolulu, Philadelphia and Portland as well as DuPont Hospital for Children in Wilmington, Delaware and Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ont. Approximately 150 subjects will be recruited over 2 years and will be randomized to either receive 10 units per Kg of BTX-A or normal saline (control group intraoperatively following the surgery. Functional outcome effects will be assessed using pain scores, medication dosages, range of motion, flexibility, strength, mobility function and quality of life of the patient. IRB approval was obtained from all sites and adverse reactions will be monitored vigorously and reported to IRB, FDA and Health Canada. Discussion BTX-A injection has been widely used world wide with no major side effects reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time BTX-A is being used under the context of limb lengthening and deformity correction. Trial Registration NCT00412035

Finley Allen

2007-09-01

308

Risperidone and Divalproex Differentially Engage the Fronto-Striato-Temporal Circuitry in Pediatric Mania: A Pharmacological Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

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Objective: The current study examined the impact of risperidone and divalproex on affective and working memory circuitry in patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method: This was a six-week, double-blind, randomized trial of risperidone plus placebo versus divalproex plus placebo for patients with mania (n = 21; 13.6 [plus or minus] 2.5…

Pavuluri, Mani N.; Passarotti, Alessandra M.; Fitzgerald, Jacklynn M.; Wegbreit, Ezra; Sweeney, John A.

2012-01-01

309

Effectiveness of second-generation antipsychotics: a naturalistic, randomized comparison of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background No clear recommendations exist regarding which antipsychotic drug should be prescribed first for a patient suffering from psychosis. The primary aims of this naturalistic study were to assess the head-to-head effectiveness of first-line second-generation antipsychotics with regards to time until drug discontinuation, duration of index admission, time until readmission, change of psychopathology scores and tolerability outcomes. Methods Patients ? 18 years of age admitted to the emergency ward for symptoms of psychosis were consecutively randomized to risperidone (n = 53, olanzapine (n = 52, quetiapine (n = 50, or ziprasidone (n = 58, and followed for up to 2 years. Results A total of 213 patients were included, of which 68% were males. The sample represented a diverse population suffering from psychosis. At admittance the mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score was 74 points and 44% were antipsychotic drug naïve. The primary intention-to-treat analyses revealed no substantial differences between the drugs regarding the times until discontinuation of initial drug, until discharge from index admission, or until readmission. Quetiapine was superior to risperidone and olanzapine in reducing the PANSS total score and the positive subscore. Quetiapine was superior to the other drugs in decreasing the PANSS general psychopathology subscore; in decreasing the Clinical Global Impression - Severity of Illness scale score (CGI-S; and in increasing the Global Assessment of Functioning - Split version, Functions scale score (GAF-F. Ziprasidone was superior to risperidone in decreasing the PANSS positive symptoms subscore and the CGI-S score, and in increasing the GAF-F score. The drugs performed equally with regards to most tolerability outcomes except a higher increase of hip-circumference per day for olanzapine compared to risperidone, and more galactorrhoea for risperidone compared to the other groups. Conclusions Quetiapine appears to be a good starting drug candidate in this sample of patients admitted to hospital for symptoms of psychosis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/: NCT00932529

Wentzel-Larsen Tore

2010-03-01

310

Adverse Effects of Risperidone in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Naturalistic Clinical Setting at Siriraj Hospital, Thailand  

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A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate adverse effects associated with risperidone in 45 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), aged 2–15 years, who were treated at Siriraj Hospital, Thailand, between the years 2006 and 2007. Adverse effects were assessed by parent interview, using a semistructure questionnaire, and medical records review. The mean ± SD age of the children at starting risperidone was 8.15 ± 2.98 years. The mean ± SD of risperidone dose was 0.94 ± 0.74?mg/day and the mean ± SD duration of treatment was 36.8 ± 27.8 months. Adverse effects were reported in 39 children (86.7%). Common adverse effects included increased appetite, somnolence, and rhinorrhea and most of the adverse effects were tolerable. Tardive dyskinesia or other serious adverse events were not found in this study. The child's mean ± SD weight gain was 4.18 ± 2.82?kg/year, which exceeded developmentally expected norms. The results from this study suggest that risperidone treatment in children with ASD is associated with frequent mild and tolerable adverse effects. However, excessive weight gain could be found to be a concerning adverse effect and weight monitoring is warranted when risperidone is being prescribed.

Jearnarongrit, Pantipa; Tulayapichitchock, Patnaree; Tarugsa, Jariya

2014-01-01

311

Adverse effects of risperidone in children with autism spectrum disorders in a naturalistic clinical setting at siriraj hospital, Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate adverse effects associated with risperidone in 45 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), aged 2-15 years, who were treated at Siriraj Hospital, Thailand, between the years 2006 and 2007. Adverse effects were assessed by parent interview, using a semistructure questionnaire, and medical records review. The mean ± SD age of the children at starting risperidone was 8.15 ± 2.98 years. The mean ± SD of risperidone dose was 0.94 ± 0.74?mg/day and the mean ± SD duration of treatment was 36.8 ± 27.8 months. Adverse effects were reported in 39 children (86.7%). Common adverse effects included increased appetite, somnolence, and rhinorrhea and most of the adverse effects were tolerable. Tardive dyskinesia or other serious adverse events were not found in this study. The child's mean ± SD weight gain was 4.18 ± 2.82?kg/year, which exceeded developmentally expected norms. The results from this study suggest that risperidone treatment in children with ASD is associated with frequent mild and tolerable adverse effects. However, excessive weight gain could be found to be a concerning adverse effect and weight monitoring is warranted when risperidone is being prescribed. PMID:24790986

Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Jearnarongrit, Pantipa; Tulayapichitchock, Patnaree; Tarugsa, Jariya

2014-01-01

312

Subjective response to antipsychotic treatment and compliance in schizophrenia. A naturalistic study comparing olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol (EFESO Study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to compare the effectiveness of different antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia it is very important to evaluate subjective response and compliance in patient cohorts treated according to routine clinical practice. Method Outpatients with schizophrenia entered this prospective, naturalistic study when they received a new prescription for an antipsychotic drug. Treatment assignment was based on purely clinical criteria, as the study did not include any experimental intervention. Patients treated with olanzapine, risperidone or haloperidol were included in the analysis. Subjective response was measured using the 10-item version of the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10, and treatment compliance was measured using a physician-rated 4 point categorical scale. Results A total of 2128 patients initiated treatment (as monotherapy with olanzapine, 417 with risperidone, and 112 with haloperidol. Olanzapine-treated patients had significantly higher DAI-10 scores and significantly better treatment compliance compared to both risperidone- and haloperidol-treated patients. Risperidone-treated patients had a significantly higher DAI-10 score compared to haloperidol-treated patients. Conclusion Subjective response and compliance were superior in olanzapine-treated patients, compared to patients treated with risperidone and haloperidol, in routine clinical practice. Differences in subjective response were explained largely, but not completely, by differences in incidence of EPS.

Sacristán Jose A

2001-12-01

313

Eficacia y seguridad de la inyección intravítrea de bevacizumab en el tratamiento del glaucoma neovascular: revisión sistemática Efficacy and safety of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma: systematic review  

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Full Text Available Propósito: Revisión sistemática sobre la eficacia y seguridad de la inyección intravítrea de bevacizumab (IVB en el tratamiento del glaucoma neovascular (GNV. Se incluyen todos los trabajos originales publicados en Medline hasta agosto de 2008. Métodos: Búsqueda y selección de la información en Internet y Medline, validadas mediante el Índice Kappa (K. Estudio estadístico y clínico de los resultados en los trabajos seleccionados, uno a uno. Resultados: Se encuentran 26 artículos originales que analizan la eficacia y seguridad del procedimiento en casos únicos y en series cortas de casos. 24 de ellos se analizan conjuntamente, con un total de 127 ojos intervenidos. La eficacia calculada para casos difíciles es del 68,7%. Las recidivas en un seguimiento de 4,2 meses son del 18,6%. Todos los trabajos son posteriores a 2006 y ninguno cumple criterios de ensayo clínico aleatorizado. Las complicaciones de la IVB son inferiores al 0,78% y no se observan complicaciones sistémicas. Conclusiones: El bevacizumab demuestra que las inyecciones intravítreas pueden ser muy eficaces y seguras para la manipulación terapéutica de los factores de crecimiento en el segmento anterior. La IVB se perfila como un tratamiento de primera línea en casos de GNV dificiles. Se necesitan ensayos clínicos controlados que confirmen estos resultados y autorizen el uso.Purpose: Systematic review on efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma (NVG. All original papers published in Medline (prior to August 2008 were included. Methods: Search and selection of information on the internet and in Medline, validated by Kappa Index (K. Statistical and clinical study of the results in the selected articles on a one by one basis. Results: 26 original papers analyzed the efficacy and safety of the procedure in case reports and short series of cases (127 eyes. The efficacy calculated in the sample was 68.7% and the recurrence rate was 18.6% in 4.2 months of follow-up. All studies were after 2006 and none of them was a clinical randomized controlled assay. Ophthalmic complications were under 0.78% and no systemic complications were found. Conclusions: The use of bevacizumab demonstrates that intravitreal injections may be effective and useful to manipulate growth factors in the anterior chamber. IVB could serve as a first line treatment for NVG. Clinical trials are needed to confirm these results before its use is authorized.

P.A. Martínez-Carpio

2008-10-01

314

Adalimumab Injection  

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Humira® Injection ... Adalimumab injection is used alone or with other medications to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders ( ... patches form on some areas of the body). Adalimumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

315

Midazolam Injection  

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Versed® Injection ... Midazolam injection is used before medical procedures and surgery to cause drowsiness, relieve anxiety, and prevent any memory of ... surgery to produce a loss of consciousness. Midazolam injection is also used to cause a state of ...

316

Dolasetron Injection  

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Anzemet® Injection ... Dolasetron injection is used to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery in adults and children 2 years of age and older. Dolasetron injection should not be used to prevent or treat ...

317

Efficacy, adherence and tolerability of once daily tenofovir DF-containing antiretroviral therapy in former injecting drug users with HIV-1 receiving opiate treatment: results of a 48-week open-label study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess efficacy, adherence and tolerability of once daily antiretroviral therapy containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF 300 mg in HIV-1-infected former injecting drug users receiving opiate treatment (IVDU. Methods European, 48-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study. Patients were either antiretroviral therapy-naïve, restarting therapy after treatment discontinuation without prior virological failure or switching from existing stable treatment. Results Sixty-seven patients were enrolled in the study and 41 patients completed treatment. In the primary analysis (intent-to-treat missing = failure at week 48, 34% of patients (23/67; 95% CI: 23%-47% had plasma HIV-1 RNA 3. Although self-reported adherence appeared high, there were high levels of missing data and adherence results should be treated with caution. No new safety issues were identified. Conclusions Levels of missing data were high in this difficult-to-treat population, but potent antiretroviral suppression was achieved in a substantial proportion of HIV-infected IVDU-patients.

Esser S

2011-10-01

318

Eficacia limitada del uso de agente inyectable permanente en el tratamiento de la incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo tras prostatectomía radical / Limited efficacy of permanent injectable agents in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: No existen datos suficientes en relación a la eficacia del tratamiento de la incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo (IUE) después de prostatectomía radical (PR). El propósito de este estudio es describir nuestra experiencia mediante inyección de micro esferas de carbón pirolítico (Durasphere®) [...] en el tratamiento de IUE tras PR. MÉTODOS: Entre Enero y Octubre de 2003 fueron tratados con Durasphere 8 pacientes con el diagnóstico de IUE después de PR. Se analizaron las variables edad, tiempo transcurrido desde la PR hasta el tratamiento, número diario de compresas, informe quirúrgico, respuesta subjetiva y objetiva al tratamiento, y evolución clínico quirúrgica. RESULTADOS: La edad media de los pacientes fue de 63,2 años (50-71). El tiempo mediano desde la prostatectomía radical hasta la inyección fue de 25 meses (14-134). Ningún paciente sufría incontinencia urinaria anterior a la prostatectomía radical. El número mediano de compresas usadas antes del tratamiento con Durasphere® era de 2 diarias (1-6). El volumen mediano de Durasphere® inyectado fue de 23.8 ml (15-30 ml). Ningún paciente resultó curado subjetiva u objetivamente después del tratamiento. Tras un seguimiento mediano de 5 meses (9.9-12.5), 5 pacientes (62.5%) optaron por un segundo tratamiento mas invasivo para resolver su incontinencia. CONCLUSIONES: La utilización de Durasphere® como agente inyectable permanente no supuso, entre nuestros pacientes un tratamiento efectivo de la IUE leve a moderada tras PR. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: There is not enough evidence about efficacy in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after radical prostatectomy (RP). The objective of this paper is to describe our experience with the injection of pyrolytic carbon microspheres (Durasphere ®) in the treatment of SUI after R [...] P. METHODS: Between January and October 2003 8 patients with the diagnosis of SUI after RP underwent treatment. Analyzed variables included age, time from RP to treatment, number of incontinence pads per day, operative report, subjective and objective response to treatment, and clinical-surgical outcomes. RESULTS: Mean age was 63.2 years (50-71). Median time from radical prostatectomy to injection was 25 months (14-134). No patient suffered urinary incontinence before radical prostatectomy. Median number of incontinence pads required before treatment with Durasphere ® injection was 2 per day (1-6). Mean Durasphere ® volume injected was 23.8 ml (15-30 ml). No patient achieved subjective or objective cure after treatment. After a median follow-up of 5 months (9.9-12.5) 5 patients (62.5%) chose to undergo a second more invasive treatment to solve their incontinence. CONCLUSIONS: The use of Durasphere ® as a permanent injectable agent did not result effective in the treatment of mild to moderate SUI after RP in our patients.

Fernando P., Secin; Juan Ignacio, Martínez-Salamanca; Karyn S., Eilber.

319

Dopamine transporter density assessed with [123]IPT SPECT before and after risperidone treatment in children with tourette's disorder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tourette's disorder (TD), which is characterized by multiple waxing and waning motor tics and one or more vocal tics, is known to be associated with abnormalities in the dopaminergic system. To testify our hypothesis that risperidone would improve tic symptoms of TD patients through the change of the dopaminergic system, we measured the dopamine transporter (DAT) densities between drug-naive children with TD and normal children, and investigated the DAT density before and after treatment with risperidone in drug-naive children with TD, using iodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2?-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane ([123I]IPT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). [123I]IPT SPECT imaging and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale-Korean version (YGTSS-K) for assessing the tic symptom severity were carried out before and after treatment with risperidone for 8 weeks in nine drug-naive children with TD. Eleven normal children also underwent SPECT imaging 2 hours after an intravenous administration of [123I]IPT. Drug-naive children with TD had a significantly greater increase in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of both basal ganglia compared with the normal children. However, no significant difference in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia before and after treatment with risperidone in children with TD was found, although tic symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone. These findings suggest that DAT densities are directly associated with the pathophysiology of TD, however, that the effect of risperidone on tic symptoms in children with TD is not attributed to the change of dopaminergic system

2004-02-01

320

AN HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF RISPERIDONE AND TRIHEXYPHENIDYL HYDROCHLORIDE FROM BULK AND DOSAGE FORMS.  

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A simple, fast and precise reverse phasehigh performance liquid chromatographic method developed for the simultaneousdetermination of risperidone and trihexyphenidyl hcl in its tablets form. C18 phenomenex Gemini column 250mm x 4.6mm (l x d)in isocratic mode with mobile phase buffer: Acetonitrile: methanol (50:30:20) %v/v were used. The flow rate was 1 ml/min. Linearity for risperidone andtrihexyphenidyl hcl were in the range of 96.96 mcg/ml – 145.44mcg/ml and 65.60mcg/ml – 98.4 mcg/ml re...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Trabecular bone loss after administration of the second-generation antipsychotic risperidone is independent of weight gain  

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Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have been linked to metabolic and bone disorders in clinical studies, but the mechanisms of these side effects remain unclear. Additionally, no studies have examined whether SGAs cause bone loss in mice. Using in vivo and in vitro modeling we examined the effects of risperidone, the most commonly prescribed SGA, on bone in C57BL6/J (B6) mice. Mice were treated with risperidone orally by food supplementation at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg daily for 5 and 8 week...

2012-01-01

322

Gabapentin adjunctive to risperidone or olanzapine in partially responsive schizophrenia: an open-label pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adel GabrielDepartments of Psychiatry and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: There is a great need in the treatment of schizophrenia for a drug, or drug ­combinations, to improve clinical response with fewer serious side effects. The objective of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects and tolerability of the anticonvulsant gabapentin as an adjunctive in the treatment of patients with partially responsive schizophrenia.Methods: Ten consenting patients with a confirmed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosis of schizophrenia were identified. All patients failed at least one 12-week treatment trial with risperidone or olanzapine. Gabapentin was added to ongoing antipsychotic treatment with olanzapine or risperidone for eight weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Other scales included the Calgary Depression Scale (CDSS and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance was utilized to examine changes in outcome measures over time with adjunctive treatment with gabapentin.Results: There was a significant drop in the PANSS and CDSS scores at endpoint (week 8. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups with regard to changes in all outcome measures or in AIMS score. The adjunctive treatments were well tolerated and side effects were transient.Conclusion: Gabapentin could be used successfully as an adjunct to novel antipsychotics in partially responsive schizophrenia. However, large controlled studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of gabapentin in psychotic disorders.Keywords: schizophrenia, refractory, adjunctive treatment, gabapentin, risperidone, olanzapine

Adel Gabriel

2010-10-01

323

Functional analysis of gene expression in risperidone treated cells provide new insights in molecular mechanism and new candidate genes for pharmacogenetic studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Risperidone is a potent antagonist of both dopamine and serotonin receptors. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism by which risperidone acts. Although a number of genetic variants have been observed to correlate with treatment response there are no definitive predictors of response. We performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis (Human Genome U219 Array Plate) of a human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH) exposed to risperidone to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the cellular response to risperidone and thus identify candidate genes for pharmacogenetic studies. Our results revealed that cellular risperidone treatment is associated with a range of gene expression changes, which are time (6-48h) and dose related (0.1-10?M). We found that functional clusters of these changes correspond to Gene Ontology categories related to neural cell development functions, and synaptic structure and functions. We also identified Canonical Pathways related to these functional categories: neurogenesis and axon guidance; synaptic vesicle; and neurotransmitter signaling (dopamine, serotonin and glutamate). Finally, we identified candidate genes for pharmacogenetic studies related to the main risperidone secondary effects: motor disorders, cardiovascular disorders and metabolic disorders. Our results suggest that risperidone treatment affects the neurogenesis and neurotransmission of neuroblastoma cells, which is in agreement with the "initiation and adaptation" model to explain the mechanism of action of psychotropic drugs. PMID:22612990

Mas, Sergi; Gassó, Patricia; Bernardo, Miquel; Lafuente, Amalia

2013-04-01

324

Bioequivalence study of a generic Risperidone (Iperdal® in healthy Thai male volunteers  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the rate and extent of absorption of a generic risperidone (Iperdal® with a reference formulation (Risperdal® when given orally. The study was an open label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence,single dose cross-over design with a 2 weeks washout period in 16 healthy Thai male volunteers. Single oral dose of two 2-mg tablets of risperidone were administered and serial blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and at0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12, 24 and 48 hours post dose. Risperidone plasma concentrations were assayed using a validated High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC-UV method modified from Avenosoet al. (2000. Pharamcokinetic parameters i.e. Cmax, AUC0à48 and Tmax were analyzed by noncompartment analysis. Variations of the data were analyzed by ?Two Way Analysis of Variance? (ANOVA. Statistics were tested as stated in USP 28 guidelinefor bioequivalence study. The maximum concentration (Cmax, ng/ml of risperidone for the innovator and the generic product were 31.11±17.24 (range 5.64-56.78 and 32.58±19.77 (range 5.29-84.56 ng/ml, respectively. The area under theplasma concentration-time curve (AUC0®48 of the innovator and the generic product were 160.64±152.89 (range 18.57- 550.32 and 144.03±127.37 (range 16.27-456.0 ng.hr/ml, respectively. The time to maximum concentration (Tmax of theinnovator and the generic product were 0.97±0.41(range 0.5-2 and 1.02±0.32 (range 0.5-1.5 hr, respectively. The 90% confidence interval of the ratio of the ln-transformed of Cmax and AUC0à48 of both preparations were 89.39-112.99% and80.02-107.28% respectively which were within the acceptance range of 80.00-125.00%. Therefore, it can be concluded that both preparations used in this study are bioequivalent in terms of both the rate and extent of absorption.

Werawath Mahatthanatrakul

2008-05-01

325

PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY OF RISPERIDONE: APPLICATION OF A HPLC METHOD WITH SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION  

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A new, simplified solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma has been developed. This method involves the use of an optimized extraction protocol developed in Waters OASIS® HLB 30mg 1cc extraction columns using 1 mL of human serum. Separation was performed by HPLC using a Waters XTerra RP-18 (5 µm, 150x4,6 mm) column with a mobile phase consisting in acetonitrile - potassium dihydrogen phosphate 50 mM pH 3.4 (27/73). UV det...

Pablo Torres, V.; Jacqueline Sepu?lveda, M. C.; Carlos Von Plessing, R.

2011-01-01

326

Combined therapeutic efficacy of 188Re-liposomes and sorafenib in an experimental colorectal cancer liver metastasis model by intrasplenic injection of C26-luc murine colon cancer cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhenium-188 (188Re) displays abundant intermediate energy ? emission and possesses a physical half-life of 16.9 h. Sorafenib is an orally available multikinase inhibitor that targets Raf kinases and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). Sorafenib has demonstrated preclinical and clinical activity against several types of tumors, such as renal cell and colorectal carcinoma. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of radiotherapeutics of 188Re-liposomes combined with sorafenib in a C26-luc metastatic colorectal liver tumour mouse model. Liver metastases were established by intrasplenic injection of C26-luc murine colon cancer cells. Based on the results of the toxicity assessment, an administration dose of 80% the maximum tolerated dose was selected. 188Re-liposomes were administered on day 1, when metastases of several hundred micrometers in diameter were observed. In the combination therapy group, 10 mg/kg sorafenib (co-developed and co-marketed by Bayer and Onyx Pharmaceuticals as Nexavar) was administered every other day for 1 week and the survival of mice was assessed. The tumor growth was more significantly inhibited in the 188Re-liposome plus sorafenib group compared with the 188Re-liposome alone, sorafenib alone and untreated normal saline groups (P=0.0000). Furthermore, 188Re-liposomes combined with sorafenib achieved higher survival rates compared with the 188Re-liposome alone, sorafenib alone and untreated normal saline groups (P=0.0000). These results support the use of combined radio-chemotherapy with 188Re-liposomes plus sorafenib as a viable treatment option in the adjuvant setting for liver metastases of colorectal cancer.

CHANG, YA-JEN; HSU, WEI-HSIN; CHANG, CHIH-HSIEN; LAN, KENG-LI; TING, GANN; LEE, TE-WEI

2014-01-01

327

Levofloxacin Injection  

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Levofloxacin injection is used to treat infections such as pneumonia; chronic bronchitis; and sinus, urinary tract, kidney, prostate (a male reproductive gland), and skin infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a ...

328

Hydromorphone Injection  

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Hydromorphone injection is used to relieve pain. Hydromorphone injection is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics. It works by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond ...

329

Temozolomide Injection  

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Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called alkylating ... Temozolomide injection comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected over 90 minutes intravenously ( ...

330

Denosumab Injection  

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Prolia® ... Denosumab injection (Prolia) is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break easily) ... did not respond to other medications for osteoporosis. Denosumab injection (Prolia) is also used to treat bone ...

331

Cyanocobalamin Injection  

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Cyanocobalamin injection is used to treat and prevent a lack of vitamin B12 that may be caused ... the organs) and permanent damage to the nerves. Cyanocobalamin injection also may be given as a test ...

332

Lacosamide Injection  

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Lacosamide injection is used in combination with other medications to control certain types of seizures in people who cannot take oral medications. Lacosamide injection is in a class of medications called ...

333

Tigecycline Injection  

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Tigecycline injection used to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed ... abdomen (area between the chest and the waist). Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia ...

334

Eculizumab Injection  

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Eculizumab injection is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH: a type of anemia in which too ... bring oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic ...

335

Docetaxel Injection  

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Docetaxel injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain types of breast, lung, prostate, stomach, and head and neck cancers. Docetaxel injection is in a class of medications called taxanes. ...

336

Pegloticase Injection  

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Pegloticase injection is used to treat ongoing gout (sudden, severe pain, redness, and swelling in one or more joints ... or did not respond to other medications. Pegloticase injection is in a class of medications called PEGylated ...

337

Moxifloxacin Injection  

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Moxifloxacin injection is used to treat certain infections such as pneumonia; bronchitis; and sinus, skin, and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria. Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. ...

338

Obinutuzumab Injection  

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Obinutuzumab injection is used with chlorambucil (Leukeran) to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Obinutuzumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

339

Ofatumumab Injection  

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Ofatumumab injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells) ... treatment with fludarabine (Fludara) and alemtuzumab (Campath). Ofatumumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

340

Etoposide Injection  

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Etoposide injection is used in combination with other medications to treat cancer of the testicles that has not improved ... treatment with other medications or radiation therapy. Etoposide injection is also used in combination with other medications ...

 
 
 
 
341

Metoclopramide Injection  

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Metoclopramide injection is used to relieve symptoms caused by slow stomach emptying in people who have diabetes. These symptoms ... of fullness that lasts long after meals. Metoclopramide injection is also used to prevent nausea and vomiting ...

342

Tositumomab Injection  

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Tositumomab injection is used to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (cancer that begins in the cells of the immune system) ... treatment with other medications, but later returned. Tositumomab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

343

Omacetaxine Injection  

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Omacetaxine injection is used to treat adults with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; a type of cancer of the white ... take these medications due to side effects. Omacetaxine injection is in a class of medications called protein ...

344

Fondaparinux Injection  

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Fondaparinux injection is used to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT; a blood clot, usually in the leg), which can ... Coumadin, Jantoven) to treat DVT or PE. Fondaparinux injection is in a class of medications called factor ...

345

Pegaptanib Injection  

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Pegaptanib injection is used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD; an ongoing disease of the eye that ... read, drive, or perform other daily activities). Pegaptanib injection is in a class of medications called vascular ...

346

Romiplostim Injection  

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Romiplostim injection is used to increase the number of platelets (cells that help the blood to clot) in order ... low number of platelets in the blood). Romiplostim injection should only be used in people who cannot ...

347

Basiliximab Injection  

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Basiliximab injection is used with other medications to prevent immediate transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the ... in people who are receiving kidney transplants. Basiliximab injection is in a class of medications called immunosuppressants. ...

348

Naltrexone Injection  

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Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and social ...

349

Degarelix Injection  

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Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin- ...

350

Cabazitaxel Injection  

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Cabazitaxel injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has already been treated with other medications. Cabazitaxel injection is in a class of medications called microtubule ...

351

Ustekinumab Injection  

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Ustekinumab injection is used to treat moderate to severe plaque psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... to be treated by topical medications alone. Ustekinumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

352

Ibritumomab Injection  

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Ibritumomab injection is used with rituximab (Rituxan) to treat certain types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (cancer that begins in ... has worsened after treatment with other medications. Ibritumomab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

353

Telavancin Injection  

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Telavancin injection is used alone or with other medications to treat serious skin infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Telavancin injection is in a class of medications called lipoglycopeptide ...

354

Pralatrexate Injection  

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Pralatrexate injection is used to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; a form of cancer that begins in a ... come back after treatment with other medications. Pralatrexate injection has not been shown to help people who ...

355

Levoleucovorin Injection  

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Levoleucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Levoleucovorin injection is also used to treat people who have ...

356

Ipilimumab Injection  

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Ipilimumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with surgery or ... spread to other parts of the body. Ipilimumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

357

Daptomycin Injection  

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Daptomycin injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain blood infections or serious skin infections caused by bacteria. Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic ...

358

Aflibercept Injection  

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Aflibercept injection is used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD; an ongoing disease of the eye that ... read, drive, or perform other daily activities). Aflibercept injection is in a class of medications called vascular ...

359

Mitoxantrone Injection  

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Mitoxantrone injection is used to decrease the number of symptom episodes and slow the development of disability in patients with certain forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Mitoxantrone injection is also used together with steroid medications to ...

360

Dexrazoxane Injection  

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Dexrazoxane injection is available as 2 different products that are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease ...

 
 
 
 
361

Paclitaxel Injection  

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Taxol® ... Paclitaxel injection manufactured with human albumin is used to treat breast cancer that has not improved or ... has come back after treatment with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used ...

362

Tacrolimus Injection  

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Tacrolimus injection is used along with other medications to prevent rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by ... who have received kidney, liver, or heart transplants. Tacrolimus injection should only be used by people who ...

363

Cyclosporine Injection  

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Cyclosporine injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by ... who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat people ...

364

Enantioselective fungal biotransformation of risperidone in liquid culture medium by capillary electrophoresis and hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowing that microbial transformations of compounds play vital roles in the preparation of new derivatives with biological activities, risperidone and its chiral metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis and hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction after a fungal biotransformation study in liquid culture medium. The analytes were extracted from 1 mL liquid culture medium into 1-octanol impregnated in the pores of the hollow fiber, and into an acid acceptor solution inside the polypropylene hollow fiber. The electrophoretic separations were carried out in 100 mmol/L sodium phosphate buffer pH 3.0 containing 2.0% w/v sulfated-?-CD and carboxymethyl-?-CD 0.5% w/v with a constant voltage of -10 kV. The method was linear over the concentration range of 100-5000 ng/mL for risperidone and 50-5000 ng/mL for each metabolite enantiomer. Within-day and between-day assay precisions and accuracies for all the analytes were studied at three concentration levels, and the values of relative standard deviation and relative error were lower than 15%. The developed method was applied in a pilot biotransformation study employing risperidone as the substrate and the filamentous fungus Mucor rouxii. This study showed that the filamentous fungus was able to metabolize risperidone enantioselectively into its chiral active metabolite, (-)-9-hydroxyrisperidone. PMID:21898463

de Jesus, Liana I; Albuquerque, Nayara C P; Borges, Keyller B; Simões, Rodrigo A; Calixto, Leandro A; Furtado, Niege A J C; de Gaitani, Cristiane M; Pupo, Mônica T; de Oliveira, Anderson R M

2011-10-01

365

Risperidone in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Subaverage Intelligence: A 1-Year, Open-Label Study of 504 Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of risperidone for severe disruptive behaviors in children. Method: A multisite, 1-year, open-label study of patients aged 5 to 14 years with disruptive behaviors and subaverage intelligence was conducted. Results: Seventy-three percent of the 504 patients enrolled completed the study.…

Croonenberghs, Jan; Fegert, Joerg M.; Findling, Robert L.; de Smedt, Goedele; van Dongen, Stefan

2005-01-01

366

Lack of effect of risperidone or olanzapine dose reduction on subjective experiences in stable patients with schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty-one patients with schizophrenia stably treated with risperidone or olanzapine were randomly assigned to dose-reduction-by-half group or dose maintenance group. Subjective experiences were assessed at baseline and 28 weeks using three different self-rating scales. No significant differences in changes of subjective experiences were observed between the two groups. PMID:24768247

Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Suzuki, Takefumi; Remington, Gary; Watanabe, Koichiro; Mimura, Masaru; Uchida, Hiroyuki

2014-08-15

367

Berberine inhibits SREBP-1-related clozapine and risperidone induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Weight gain is a common and potentially serious complication associated with the treatment of second generation antipsychotics such as clozapine and risperidone. Increased peripheral adipogenesis via the SREBP-1 pathway could be one critical mechanism responsible for antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain. Berberine, a botanical alkaloid, has been shown in our previous studies to inhibit adipogenesis in cell and animal models. MTT was used to determine the cytotoxic effects of clozapine and risperidone in combination with berberine. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells was monitored by Oil-Red-O staining and the expression of SREBP-1 and related proteins was determined by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. The results showed that neither clozapine nor risperidone, alone or in combination with berberine had significant effects on cell viability. Eight days treatment with 15??M clozapine increased adipogenesis by 37.4% and 50??M risperidone increased adipogenesis by 26.5% during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation accompanied by increased SREBP-1, PPAR?, C/EBP?, LDLR and Adiponectin gene expression. More importantly, the addition of 8??M berberine diminished the induction of adipogenesis almost completely accompanied by down-regulated mRNA and protein expression levels of SREBP-1-related proteins. These encouraging results may lead to the use of berberine as an adjuvant to prevent weight gain during second generation antipsychotic medication. PMID:20564506

Hu, Yueshan; Kutscher, Eric; Davies, Gareth E

2010-12-01

368

PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY OF RISPERIDONE: APPLICATION OF A HPLC METHOD WITH SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new, simplified solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma has been developed. This method involves the use of an optimized extraction protocol developed in Waters OASIS® HLB 30mg 1cc extraction columns using 1 mL of human serum. Separation was performed by HPLC using a Waters XTerra RP-18 (5 µm, 150x4,6 mm column with a mobile phase consisting in acetonitrile - potassium dihydrogen phosphate 50 mM pH 3.4 (27/73. UV detection at 278 nm was used to quantify analytes, encountering good linearity (r² > 0.999 in the 2-100 ng/mL concentration range. The mean recovery was 92.4 % and 92.8 % for risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone respectively, with an intraday - interday precision below 7%, and accuracy below 115 %. The method has been successfully applied in pharmacokinetic studies that require a large sample number.

PABLO TORRES V

2011-01-01

369

PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY OF RISPERIDONE: APPLICATION OF A HPLC METHOD WITH SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english A new, simplified solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma has been developed. This method involves the use of an optimized extraction protocol developed in Waters OASIS® HLB 30mg 1cc extraction columns using 1 mL of human serum. [...] Separation was performed by HPLC using a Waters XTerra RP-18 (5 µm, 150x4,6 mm) column with a mobile phase consisting in acetonitrile - potassium dihydrogen phosphate 50 mM pH 3.4 (27/73). UV detection at 278 nm was used to quantify analytes, encountering good linearity (r² > 0.999) in the 2-100 ng/mL concentration range. The mean recovery was 92.4 % and 92.8 % for risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone respectively, with an intraday - interday precision below 7%, and accuracy below 115 %. The method has been successfully applied in pharmacokinetic studies that require a large sample number.

PABLO, TORRES V; M. JACQUELINE, SEPÚLVEDA C; CARLOS, VON PLESSING R.

370

Selective acquired long QT syndrome (saLQTS upon risperidone treatment  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous structurally unrelated drugs, including antipsychotics, can prolong QT interval and trigger the acquired long QT syndrome (aLQTS. All of them are thought to act at the level of KCNH2, a subunit of the potassium channel. Although the QT-prolonging drugs are proscribed in the subjects with aLQTS, the individual response to diverse QT-prolonging drugs may vary substantially. Case presentation We report here a case of aLQTS in response to small doses of risperidone that was confirmed at three independent drug challenges in the absence of other QT-prolonging drugs. On the other hand, the patient did not respond with QT prolongation to some other antipsychotics. In particular, the administration of clozapine, known to be associated with higher QT-prolongation risk than risperidone, had no effect on QT-length. A detailed genetic analysis revealed no mutations or polymorphisms in KCNH2, KCNE1, KCNE2, SCN5A and KCNQ1 genes. Conclusions Our observation suggests that some patients may display a selective aLQTS to a single antipsychotic, without a potassium channel-related genetic substrate. Contrasting with the idea of a common target of the aLQTS-triggerring drugs, our data suggests existence of an alternative target protein, which unlike the KCNH2 would be drug-selective.

Lazarczyk Maciej

2012-12-01

371

An open-label trial of risperidone and fluoxetine in children with autistic disorder  

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Full Text Available Objective: Various studies have shown the effectiveness of risperidone and fluoxetine in the management of behavioral problems in autism. Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare these two drugs in the management of behavioral problems in autism. Materials and Methods: Forty children with autism were divided into 2 groups in a 16-week open trial that compared these two drugs. Parents rated the children using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC and the Conners? Parent Rating Scale - Revised (CPRS-R. The author rated the children using the Children?s Psychiatric Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impression (CGI Scale. Results: The risperidone group showed significant improvement in areas like irritability and hyperactivity, while the fluoxetine group showed significant improvement in speech deviance, social withdrawal and stereotypy. When the two drugs were compared, fluoxetine showed greater improvement in stereotypy, while both drugs showed improvement on the general autism scale; and on anger, hyperactivity and irritability scales. Conclusions : In this open trial, both drugs were well tolerated and appeared to be beneficial in the treatment of common behavioral problems in children with autism. Further controlled and double-blind studies in larger samples are warranted.

Desousa Avinash

2010-01-01

372

Is High Dose Risperidone an Option for Treatment-Resistant Tourette Syndrome?  

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Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that begins in childhood, in which multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics are seen concomitantly. In this text, the treatment course of a severe TS case, with complete daily functioning loss, is described. Significant reductions in tics were observed with 8 mg/day risperidone treatment in this case who failed to respond to many neuroleptics. The Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (Y-GTSS score, which was 85 before treatment, declined to 48. In our case, who used this dosing regimen for six months, the reduced tic status continued after the dose was switched to 6 mg/day, the reduction status was observed to go on after six months. No significant side effect was observed. This case was thought to be important in showing that high dose risperidone might be effective in treatment-resistant TS cases. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2009; 46: 206-8

?. Senem BA?GÜL

2009-12-01

373

Asymptomatic QTc prolongation associated with quetiapine fumarate overdose in a patient being treated with risperidone.  

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We report a patient who ingested a 2000-mg overdose of quetiapine fumarate (Seroquel). Her maintenance medications also included risperidone, venlafaxine, topiramate, and clonazepam. On presentation, she was drowsy, but had no other significant CNS signs and no cardiac symptoms or abnormal physical signs. Approximately 2 h after the quetiapine ingestion, an electrocardiogram (ECG) showed normal sinus rhythm at 95 beats/min with a corrected QT (QTc) interval of 537 ms (upper limit of normal = 440 ms). Plasma quetiapine concentration at that time was 1800 ng/ml. Continuous ECG monitoring for the subsequent 18 h did not reveal any episode of ventricular tachycardia. A 12-lead ECG 18 h post-overdose was normal with a QTc interval of 401 ms and the corresponding plasma quetiapine concentration was 160 ng/ml. She made an uneventful medical recovery from the toxic ingestion. This case suggests that when patients overdose on quetiapine while taking therapeutic doses of risperidone, such overdoses, even if not massive, can cause considerable QTc interval prolongation. We recommend that quetiapine overdose patients undergo continuous ECG monitoring for 12-18 h post-ingestion. PMID:11393275

Beelen, A P; Yeo, K T; Lewis, L D

2001-04-01

374

Molecular Docking studies of D2 Dopamine receptor with Risperidone derivatives  

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In this work, 3D model of D2 dopamine receptor was determined by comparative homology modeling program MODELLER. The computed model's energy was minimized and validated using PROCHECK and Errat tool to obtain a stable model structure and was submitted in Protein Model Database (PMDB-ID: PM0079251). Stable model was used for molecular docking against Risperidone and their 15 derivatives using AutoDock 4.2, which resulted in energy-based descriptors such as Binding Energy, Ligand Efficiency, Inhib Constant, Intermol energy, vdW + Hbond + desolv Energy, Electrostatic Energy, Total Internal Energy and Torsional Energy. After that, we have built quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model, which was trained and tested on Risperidone and their 15 derivatives having activity value pKi in µM. For QSAR modeling, Multiple Linear Regression model was engendered using energy-based descriptors yielding correlation coefficient r2 of 0.513. To assess the predictive performance of QSAR models, different cross-validation procedures were adopted. Our results suggests that ligand-receptor binding interactions for D2 employing QSAR modeling seems to be a promising approach for prediction of pKi value of novel antagonists against D2 receptor.

Bhargava, Kiran; Nath, Rajendra; Seth, Prahlad Kumar; Pant, Kamlesh Kumar; Dixit, Rakesh Kumar

2014-01-01

375

A Comparative Study of the Effects of Clozapine and Risperidone Monotherapy on Lipid Profile in Nigerian Patients with Schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available Although antipsychotic drugs are known to have an array of adverse effects, they also exhibit significant differences in causing these effects. The atherogenic effects of clozapine and risperidone have not been fully investigated among schizophrenics in Nigeria hence this research work. This study therefore investigated the extent to which monotherapy with clozapine and risperidone (atypical antipsychotic drugs influence lipid profile in patients with schizophrenia. The study population comprised 29 Schizophrenic patients from Psychiatric Hospital, Uselu, Benin city, Nigeria. They were placed on typical antipsychotics for six weeks: 10 patients were on risperidone (1-4 mg day-1 in divided doses and 19 patients were on clozapine (25-300 mg day-1 in divided doses. The control group comprised 30 apparently healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected from all subjects on the first day before the commencement of treatment with antipsychotic drug and 24 h after the last administration of antipsychotics at the end of week 6 for analyses of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and very low density Lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL using standard methods. Comparing with the control, the basal serum TC, TG, LDL and VLDL of the clozapine treated group were not significantly different except for HDL which was significantly reduced and the atherogenic indices (TC/HDL and LDL/HDL which were significantly increased. However the risperidone treatment group showed significantly higher TC, TG, LDL and VLDL levels while HDL was significantly reduced. At the end of week 6, there was significant increase in serum TC, TG, HDL and VLDL and a significant decrease in HDL in both treatment groups compared to the control except VLDL that was not significantly different in the clozapine group. Comparing the two treatment groups, risperidone caused a more significant increase on lipid profile and atherogenic indeces than clozapine. This effect was about two times or greater with risperidone than clozapine. Conclusively, additional prospective clinical trials are required to support a specific therapeutic approach for managing dyslipidaemia that are present in clozapine and risperidone treated schizophrenic patients in an attempt to avoid its consequent adverse effects.

O.I. Iribhogbe

2012-01-01

376

Occupancy of central neurotransmitter receptors by risperidone, clozapine and haloperidol, measured ex vivo by quantitative autoradiography.  

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Risperidone (Risperdal) is a novel antipsychotic drug, with beneficial effects on both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and with a low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). These particular properties have been attributed to the predominant and very potent serotonin 5-HT2 receptor antagonism of the drug combined with less potent dopamine D2 antagonism. In order to provide data on the degree to which various central neurotransmitter receptors are occupied in vivo, we performed ex vivo receptor occupancy studies with risperidone in comparison with clozapine and haloperidol in rats and guinea pigs. Various types of receptors, to which the compounds were known to bind to in vitro, were investigated precisely using receptor autoradiography in sections of the same rat brain except for histamine H1 receptors that were measured in the guinea-pig cerebellum. Risperidone (2 h after s.c. treatment) occupied 5-HT2 receptors at very low doses (ED50 = 0.067 mg/kg). Nearly full occupancy (> 80%) was achieved before H1, D2, alpha 1 and alpha 2 receptors became occupied (ED50 = 0.45, 0.66, 0.75 and 3.7 mg/kg, respectively). Clozapine displayed occupancy of H1 and alpha 1 receptors at low doses (ED50 = 0.15 and 0.58 mg/kg, respectively) and of 5-HT2, 5-HT1C, D2, alpha 2, cholinergic muscarinic and 5-HT1A receptors at higher doses (ED50 = 1.3, 1.8, 9.0, 9.5, 11 and 15 mg/kg, respectively). Haloperidol occupied D2 and alpha 1 receptors at low doses (ED50 = 0.13 and 0.42 mg/kg, respectively) and 5-HT2 receptors at a higher dose (ED50 = 2.6 mg/kg). Occupancy of receptor types occurred with similar ED50-values in various brain areas, e.g. D2 receptors in striatum and mesolimbic areas. The ED50-values for the ex vivo measured occupancy of 5-HT2 and D2 receptors were in good agreement with ED50-values for functional effects putatively mediated by these central receptors. The dose-dependent occupancy of D2 receptors proceeded more gradually with risperidone (slope in the caudate-putamen: 0.85) than with clozapine (slope: 1.44) or haloperidol (slope: 1.51). It has previously been suggested that partial D2 receptor occupancy may suffice to control the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, whereas higher D2 receptor occupancy would induce extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). The dose ratio for high (75%) vs. low (25%) D2 receptor occupancy in the caudate-putamen, was 37.3 for risperidone, 8.4 for clozapine, and 7.9 for haloperidol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7510574

Schotte, A; Janssen, P F; Megens, A A; Leysen, J E

1993-12-24

377

Atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone, but not paliperidone, worsen vascular endothelial function via upregulation of adhesion molecules VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin in diabetic rats.  

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Schizophrenia doubles the odds of diabetes, and atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) also increase risk of diabetes. Indeed, little is known about the effects of AAPs on vascular dysfunctions associated with diabetes. This study aimed to determine the effects of risperidone (RISP) and paliperidone (PALI) on the vascular function of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by feeding with a high-fat diet followed by the administration of streptozotocin (35 mg·(kg body mass)(-1), by intraperitoneal injection). Rats received RISP or PALI (1.25 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), per os) for 3 weeks. Endothelium-dependent relaxation, systolic blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance, and adhesion molecules, vascular cell-adhesion-molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular-adhesion-molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and E-selectin were investigated. RISP significantly worsened the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of diabetic aortic rings with upregulation of the adhesion molecules VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin, and proinflammatory cytokines MPC-1 and TNF-?. RISP augmented the metabolic dysfunctions and reduced insulin sensitivity in the insulin tolerance test as well as HOMA-IR. PALI produced insignificant effects on vascular and metabolic aberrations. Our results suggest that RISP, but not PALI, aggravates the metabolic abnormalities and vascular dysfunction associated with diabetes, which may be mediated by upregulation of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin. Nevertheless, future investigation for the possible mechanisms underlying the difference noticed between the 2 AAPs is warranted. PMID:24289084

Aboul-Fotouh, Sawsan; Elgayar, Nesreen

2013-12-01

378

No change of dopamine transporter density in basal ganglia after risperidone treatment in drug-naive children with Tourette's disorder  

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Tourette's disorder (TD), which is characterized by multiple waxing and waning motor tics and one or more vocal tics, is known to be associated with abnormalities in the dopaminergic system. To testify our hypothesis that risperidone would improve tic symptoms of TD patients through the change of the dopaminergic system, we measured the DAT densities between drug-naive children with TD and normal children investigated the DAT density before and after treatment with risperidone in drug-naive children with TD, using lodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane(I-123 IPT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). I-123 IPT SPECT imaging and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale-Korean version (YGTSS-K) for assessing the tic symptom severity were carried out before and after treatment with risperidone for 8 weeks in eight drug-naive children with TD. Eight normal children also underwent SPECT imaging 2 hours after an intravenous administration of I-123 IPT and carried out both quantitative and qualitative analyses using the obtained SPECT data, which were reconstructed for the assessment of the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the basal ganglia. The drug-naive children with TD had a significantly greater increase in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of both basal ganglia compared with the normal children. However, no significant difference in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia before and after treatment with riperidone in children with TD was not found, although tic symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone. These findings suggest that DAT densities are directly associated with the pathophysiology of TD, however, that the effect of risperidone on tic symptoms in children with TD is not attributed to the change of dopaminergic system

2003-11-14

379

Effects of risperidone and olanzapine on remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C in schizophrenic patients  

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Full Text Available Takahiko NagamineDivision of Psychiatric Internal Medicine, Seiwakai-Kitsunan Hospital, Suzenji, JapanAbstract: Second generation antipsychotics are associated with the risk of metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. Remnant-like lipoprotein particles cholesterol (RLP-C are a known risk factor for cardiovascular events. The present study was performed to determine possible differences in fasting blood RLP-C levels between schizophrenic patients treated with risperidone as compared to olanzapine. Patients on olanzapine had significantly higher RLP-C levels than those on risperidone (p < 0.01. In olanzapine-treated patients there was no abnormality in fasting blood glucose levels, but fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were elevated. RLP-C levels were significantly correlated with plasma triglyceride concentrations in both the olanzapine- (p < 0.01 and risperidone-treated patients (p < 0.01. The regression line slope was greater for the olanzapine group, suggesting a greater influence of olanzapine on RLP-C. There was a significant correlation between RLP-C and HOMA-IR in the risperidone group (p < 0.01 but not in the olanzapine group (p = 0.80. These results suggest that blood glucose monitoring may not be sufficient to detect metabolic disorder and that measurement of RLP-C might be helpful for the screening for metabolic disorders associated with olanzapine therapy.Keywords: remnant-like lipoprotein particles cholesterol (RLP-C, schizophrenia, insulin resistance, risperidone, olanzapine

Takahiko Nagamine

2008-04-01

380

The Efficacy of Hyaluronic Acid in the Restoration of Soft Tissue Volume of the Lips and Lower 1/3 of the Face: The Evolution of the Injection Technique  

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Study objective: To establish the safety and efficacy of small-gel particle hyaluronic acid (SGP-HA; Restylane®, Medicis Aesthetics Inc., Scottsdale, AZ) for lip augmentation. Study design: This was a Phase 3, prospective, open-label, evaluator-blinded, single-center pilot study of SGP-HA use in lip augmentation. The primary efficacy objectives were to investigate the efficacy of SGP-HA in lip augmentation and to assess subject satisfaction with the procedure 12 weeks after treatment. Second...

Arnold William Klein

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Role of Long-Acting Injectable Second-Generation Antipsychotics in the Treatment of First-Episode Schizophrenia: A Clinical Perspective  

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Approximately 80% of patients with the first-episode schizophrenia reach symptomatic remission after antipsychotic therapy. However, within two years most of them relapse, mainly due to low levels of insight into the illness and nonadherence to their oral medication. Therefore, although the formal data available is limited, many experts recommend prescribing long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics (mostly risperidone or alternatively paliperidone) in the early stages of schizo...

Pr?ikryl, Radovan; Pr?ikrylova? Kuc?erova?, Hana; Vrzalova?, Michaela; C?es?kova?, Eva

2012-01-01

382

Injection laryngoplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

After a nearly a century of development, augmentation of laryngeal tissue through injection remains as complex a procedure as it was in the earlier part of the century. Initially, the number of surgeons performing injection laryngoplasty was limited since the technique of injection was thought to be difficult and the selection of cases was thought to require the judgment of an accomplished laryngologist. Performing successful injection laryngoplasty does in fact require an understanding of laryngeal anatomy and physiology, and the physical characteristics of the substance to be injected. In addition, the surgeon must be aware of potential host reactions to the injected material. Finally, the surgeon must have an understanding of the etiology and configuration of the glottic insufficiency, and keep in mind the goals of the procedure. PMID:15062690

Courey, Mark S

2004-02-01

383

Formulation and characterization of nanoemulsion-based drug delivery system of risperidone.  

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Risperidone nanoemulsion (NE) and mucoadhesive NE formulations were successfully prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method (titration method) using Capmul MCM as the oily phase on the basis of solubility studies. The NE formulation containing 8% oil, 44% S(mix), 48% (wt/wt) aqueous phase that displayed an optical transparency of 99.82%, globule size of 15.5 +/- 2.12 nm, and polydispersity of 0.172 +/- 0.02 was selected for the incorporation of mucoadhesive components. The mucoadhesive formulation that contained 0.5% by weight of chitosan displayed highest diffusion coefficient that followed Higuchi model was free from nasal ciliotoxicity and stable for 3 months. PMID:19016058

Kumar, Mukesh; Pathak, Kamla; Misra, Ambikanandan

2009-04-01

384

Injection Sclerotherapy  

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Injection sclerotherapy is an important primary and adjunctive therapy in the spectrum of care for superficial venous insufficiency. This article briefly reviews the history of the procedure, agents used, technique, and outcomes. The place of injection sclerotherapy in the treatment of superficial venous disease is discussed.

2005-01-01

385

Eficacia y seguridad de la risperidona en el tratamiento agudo de las conductas disruptivas en pacientes pediátricos epilépticos / Risperidone in the treatment of acute disruptive behavior in pediatrics patients with epilepsy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Las conductas disruptivas son frecuentes en más de la mitad de los pacientes pediátricos con epilepsia, impactan sobre su funcionamiento psicosocial global y provocan el rechazo de la sociedad. El presente estudio plantea la posibilidad de coadyuvar en el tratamiento integral de los ni [...] ños con epilepsia mediante el empleo de risperidona. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron pacientes pediátricos epilépticos (con epilepsia parcial o generalizada) que presentaban conductas disruptivas asociadas, hombres y mujeres con edades comprendidas entre los 5 y 14 años, captados en la consulta externa de Neurología del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Se realizó un estudio clínico abierto, prospectivo, con seguimiento durante 4 semanas. Se les administró risperidona, cuya eficacia se evaluó mediante las escalas de mejoría clínica global, la de Peers y la de ADHD-RS. Se midieron el número de crisis y los efectos secundarios con la escala de Yale. Resultados. Se estudiaron 23 pacientes, 7 femeninos y 16 masculinos con una relación M:F de 1.5:1 ,todos con diagnóstico de epilepsia (parcial 19 y generalizada 4). La dosis promedio de risperidona fue de 0.75 mg/día, se hizo un seguimiento de 4 semanas, con respuesta favorable al final del mes en 91% de los pacientes. Los efectos indeseables observados fueron: incremento ponderal en 12 niños, además de síntomas extrapiramidales (discinesias de cabeza y cuello), sialorrea, sed y somnolencia. Conclusión. En el manejo agudo de conductas disruptivas en pacientes pediátricos con epilepsia, la risperidona mostró ser efectiva y segura. Abstract in english Introduction. Disruptive behavior (DB) is frequent in pediatric patients with epilepsy.This conducts impacts on the functioning of the children, and often leads to their social rejection. The objectives of this study were to observe the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of acute di [...] sruptive behavior in pediatric patients with epilepsy. Material and methods. A clinical open label, prospective study with a month follow up was carried out. Pediatric patients with epilepsy (partial or generalized) and disruptive behavior, both gender, between 5 and 14 years of age seen in the neurology department, Hospital Infantil de Mexico, were enrolled.The efficacy was evaluated with CGI, Peers scale and ADHD RS. Number of seizures and secondary effects was evaluated with the same methods. Results. A total of 23 patients, 7 females and 16 males enter the study with a relation M:F of 1.5:1. All the patients had epilepsy, either partial or generalized.The average doses of risperidone was 0.75 mg/kg/d, with and efficacy of 91 % at the final of the 4 weeks follow up.The more frequent side effects were increase in weight in 12 patients, extrapiramidal symptoms (head and neck discinesias) sialorrhea, thirst and somnolence. Conclusions. With these results, we support in this clinic open label study, the efficacy and safety of the use of risperidone in the management of acute disruptive behaviors in pediatric patients with epilepsy.

Eduardo, Barragán-Pérez; Arturo, Garza-Peña; Oscar, Benavides-Guerrero; Juan, Hernández-Aguilar.

386

Validation of an analytical method applicable to study of 1 mg/mL oral Risperidone solution stability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A validated analytical method by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applicable to study of 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution stability. The above method was linear, accurate, specific and exact. A stability study of the 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution was developed determining its expiry date. The shelf life study was conducted for 24 months at room temperature; whereas the accelerated stability study was conducted with product under influence of humidity and temperature; analysis was made during 3 months. Formula fulfilled the quality specifications described in Pharmacopeia. The results of stability according to shelf life after 24 months showed that the product maintains the parameters determining its quality during this time and in accelerated studies there was not significant degradation (p> 0.05) in the product. Under mentioned conditions expiry date was of 2 years

2010-01-01

387