WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Risperidone Long-Acting Injection: Safety and Efficacy in Elderly Patients with Schizophrenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antipsychotic medication is considered the cornerstone of the treatment in elderly patients with schizophrenia. Long acting risperidone injection was the first antipsychotic available for use in this group of patients. Current scientific literature revealed that long-acting risperidone is effective in treating the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and some improvements in cognition and functioning have also been found. In terms of efficacy, there is a paucity of randomized trial...

Rosa Catalán; Rafael Penadés

2011-01-01

2

Risperidone long-acting injection: a review of its long term safety and efficacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Michael K RainerMemory-Clinic and Psychiatric Department, Donauspital, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: A long-acting form of the second-generation antipsychotic drug risperidone is now broadly available for the treatment of schizophrenia and closely related psychiatric conditions. It combines the advantage of previously available depot formulations for first-generation drugs with the favorable characteristics of the modern “atypical” antipsychotics, namely higher efficacy in the treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and reduced motor disturbances. Published clinical studies show an objective clinical efficacy (as per psychiatric symptom scores and relapse data that exceeds that of oral atypical antipsychotics when patients are switched to the long-acting injectable form, a low incidence of treatment-emergent extrapyramidal side effects, and very good acceptance by patients. Available data for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder show equivalence with the oral form instead of superiority, but are still limited. As it seems likely that efficacy benefits are mostly due to the fact that the injectable form reduces the demand for patient compliance to one physician visit every 2 weeks instead of self-administration on a daily or twice-daily basis, additional potential could exist in other psychiatric disorders where atypical antipsychotic drugs are of benefit but where patient adherence to treatment schedules is typically low.Keywords: risperidone, schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, patient compliance; delayed-action preparations, injections, intramuscular

Michael K Rainer

2008-08-01

3

Resistance to excessive bodyweight gain in risperidone-injected rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The present study was carried out to explain the resistance of rats injected subcutaneously with risperidone, the atypical antipsychotic drug, for 21 consecutive days at 0.1 mg/kg per day (a dose equivalent to the one used for patients) to result in an excessive bodyweight despite the increase in diet-uptake in rats against risperidone-induced decrease in body temperature. 2. Rectal temperature measurements were made in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained under standard laboratory conditions using a 12 h daylight cycle. A s.c. injection of risperidone (0.05 mg/kg) produced hypothermia in rats, which was observed during the daily injection for 21 consecutive days. 3. Sera, white and brown adipose tissues, skeletal muscle and liver were extracted from 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats injected subcutaneously with risperidone (0.01 or 0.1 mg/kg per day) or a vehicle for 21 consecutive days. Serum levels of lipids, ketones and thyroid hormone were measured. The mRNA expression levels in these tissues and organs of the genes encoding the substances involved in heat production and/or lipid metabolism were investigated by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification. 4. Serum nonesterified fatty acid levels in risperidone 0.1 mg/kg per day s.c. injected rats were significantly lower than those in vehicle-injected ones. Serum beta-hydroxybutyrate levels in risperidone-injected rats tended to decrease compared with those in vehicle-injected ones. The serum level of neither triiodothyronine nor thyroxine was affected by risperidone s.c. injection at the doses examined, although their values were within normal limits. 5. Risperidone injection (0.1 mg/kg per day) for 21 consecutive days upregulated mRNA expressions in white adipose tissue of uncoupling protein 3 which dissipates energy as heat; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator 1alpha which activates mitochondrial biogenesis to expand the oxidative machinery; and PPARalpha which is necessary for the fat-depletion of adipocytes for thermogenesis. The mRNA of lipogenic enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha, fatty-acid synthase and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase), hormone sensitive lipase and beta1-adrenoceptor were also enhanced in white adipose tissue by the injection of 0.1 mg/kg per day risperidone. 6. These findings suggest that the materials for heat generation in white adipose tissue would be readily supplied, which in turn would reduce a storage of lipids in white adipose tissue resulting in the lower rate of bodyweight gain of rats. PMID:15810992

Ota, Miyuki; Mori, Keiji; Nakashima, Akira; Kaneko, Yoko S; Takahashi, Hisahide; Ota, Akira

2005-04-01

4

An open-label, multicenter evaluation of the long-term safety and efficacy of risperidone in adolescents with schizophrenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Data on the long-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of risperidone in adolescents with schizophrenia are limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of maintenance risperidone treatment in adolescents with schizophrenia. Methods This open-label study of adolescents aged 13 to 17 years with schizophrenia was a single extension study of two short-term double-blind risperidone studies and also enrolled subje...

Pandina Gahan; Kushner Stuart; Karcher Keith; Haas Magali

2012-01-01

5

Maintenance therapy with once-monthly administration of long-acting injectable risperidone in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: a pilot study of an extended dosing interval  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Several clinical studies have established the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of long-acting risperidone administered once every 2 weeks in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. This report evaluates preliminary efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for a novel (once-monthly administration of long-acting injectable risperidone 50 mg in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Methods Clinically stable patients participated in a 1-year, open-label, single-arm, multicenter pilot study. During the 4-week lead-in phase, patients received long-acting risperidone 50 mg injections every 2 weeks, with 2 weeks of oral risperidone supplementation. Injections of long-acting risperidone 50 mg every 4 weeks followed for up to 48 weeks, without oral supplementation. The primary endpoint was relapse; other assessments included PANSS, CGI-S, adverse event reports, and determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone plasma concentrations. Results Twelve patients in the intent-to-treat population (n = 67 met relapse criteria (17.9%. Relapse risk at 1 year was estimated as 22.4%. Non-statistically significant improvements in symptoms (PANSS and clinical status (CGI-S at endpoint were observed. The most common adverse events included schizophrenia aggravated not otherwise specified (19.5%, anxiety (16.1%, insomnia (16.1%, and headache (11.5%. There were no unexpected safety and tolerability findings. Mean plasma concentrations for risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were generally stable during the study. Conclusion Once-monthly dosing of long-acting risperidone was well tolerated, associated with a relatively low relapse rate (similar to that reported with other antipsychotics, and maintained the clinically stable baseline status of most patients. Although the results suggest that some symptomatically stable patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder might be safely managed with long-acting risperidone 50 mg once monthly, these findings alone do not identify which patients will have a sufficient therapeutic benefit nor do they quantify comparative effects of standard and altered dosing. Study limitations (the open-label pilot study design, small sample size, and lack of a concurrent biweekly treatment arm prevent broad interpretations and extrapolations of results. Controlled studies would be required to support a recommendation for alternative dosing regimens.

Naessens Ineke

2007-01-01

6

Costs and efficacy ofolanzapine and risperidone in schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: schizophrenia is a serious and long lasting psychiatric disease. The new “atypical” antipsychotic drugs, introduced in the 90s, have substantially improved the effectiveness of medical treatments, compared to previous neuroleptic drugs. Nowadays they tend to be used as first choice drugs. The ddd cost of atypicals may differ by 20% and health authorities may have an incentive to deliver the less costly drug, especially if they are generic. However the various drugs show differential effectiveness rates and a rational choice should consider both cost and effectiveness.?Objective: the purpose of this analysis is to review the existing evidence on cost-effectiveness studies of olanzapine and risperidone, the two most prescribed drugs in Italy. Six published studies were identified, but attention was focused on two articles that reported consistent and methodologically sound results.?Results: most reviewed studies are cost-minimization analyses, since effectiveness indicators show no significant statistical difference between the two drugs, and are inconclusive since the results depend on the evaluation setting. However one observational retrospective study showed a significant severity reduction over 12 months for patients treated with olanzapine (-2.46 on HoNOS scale; p<0.05, compared to a smaller non significant reduction of the risperidone group (-0.57. Despite the higher drug cost, the average total cost per reduced severity score was lower for olanzapine than for risperidone patients (€ 4,554 vs. € 10,897. The only medical and related health care costs for risperidone patients were higher than total costs for olanzapine patients. Another study comparing cohorts of patients with similar starting severity showed a significant severity reduction and global functioning increase over 12 months for olanzapine but no significant increase for risperidone patients (-0.35, p<0.01 on CGI scale; +3.66, p <0.05 on GAF scale, compared respectively to -0.27, p<0.05 and +2.00 n.s.. Again average cost per reduced severity/increased functioning score was higher for risperidone than olanzapine patients (€ 4,568 vs. € 4,170 for CGI and € 2,284 vs. € 1,139 for GAF scales respectively.?Conclusion: the use of olanzapine in the treatment of schizophrenia is the most cost-effective alternative for the SSN (Italian National health service, as it minimizes the cost per score of severity reduction or functioning increase. Even if the price of risperidone were to be reduced by 50% (becoming a generic, total 12 months treatment costs would exceed those of olanzapine in its highest ddd (30 mg.?

Vittorio Mapelli

2007-06-01

7

Risperidone olanzapine drug outcomes studies in schizophrenia (RODOS): efficacy and tolerability results of an international naturalistic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Risperidone Olanzapine Drug Outcomes studies in Schizophrenia (RODOS) programme was an international series of naturalistic studies designed to evaluate drug use patterns and outcomes. RODOS consisted of retrospective chart reviews performed in patients who had been admitted to hospital and treated in 61 centres in nine countries. The analysed population consisted of 1901 patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The mean (SD) daily doses of risperidone and olanzapine were 5.3 (2.6) mg/day and 14.5 (5.1) mg/day, respectively. Patients treated with risperidone stayed an average of 3.8 days less in hospital compared to those receiving olanzapine (time to discharge was 43.6 days versus 47.4 days, respectively; P = 0.004). Risperidone was rated as effective in significantly more patients than olanzapine (84% versus 79%; P = 0.01). The time to onset of efficacy was significantly shorter with risperidone than with olanzapine (P RODOS suggest that risperidone may be more effective as a first-line therapy drug for schizophrenia than olanzapine. PMID:11459331

Kasper, S; Rosillon, D; Duchesne, I

2001-07-01

8

Risperidone and Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... of long-acting injectable risperidone before and throughout pregnancy in schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psych 31(2):543-545. McKenna K, et al. 2005. Pregnancy outcome of women using atypical antipsychotic drugs: a ...

9

Haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine and aripiprazole in the management of delirium: A comparison of efficacy, safety, and side effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side-effect profile of the typical antipsychotic haloperidol with that of the atypical antipsychotics risperidone, olanzapine, and aripiprazole in the management of delirium. Method: The Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS), the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scale, and a side-effect rating were recorded at baseline (T1), after 2-3 days (T2), and after 4-7 days (T3). Some 21 cases were case-matched by age, preexisting dementia, and baseline MDAS scores, and subsequently analyzed. Results: The baseline characteristics of the medication groups were not different: The mean age of the patients ranged from 64.0 to 69.6 years, dementia was present in between 23.8 and 28.6%, and baseline MDAS scores were 19.9 (haloperidol), 18.6 (risperidone), 19.4 (olanzapine), and 18.0 (aripiprazole). The doses of medication at T3 were 5.5 mg haloperidol, 1.3 mg risperidone, 7.1 mg olanzapine, and 18.3 mg aripiprazole. Over one week, the decline in MDAS scores between medications was equal, and no differences between individual MDAS scores existed at T2 or T3. After one week, the MDAS scores were 6.8 (haloperidol), 7.1 (risperidone), 11.7 (olanzapine), and 8.3 (aripiprazole). At T2, delirium resolution occurred in 42.9-52.4% of cases and at T3 in 61.9-85.7%; no differences in assessments between medications existed. Recorded side effects were extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs) in haloperidol- and risperidone-managed patients (19 and 4.8%, respectively) and sedation with olanzapine (28.6%). Significance of Results: Haloperidol, risperidone, aripiprazole, and olanzapine were equally effective in the management of delirium; however, they differed in terms of their side-effect profile. Extrapyramidal symptoms were most frequently recorded with haloperidol, and sedation occurred most frequently with olanzapine. PMID:25191793

Boettger, Soenke; Jenewein, Josef; Breitbart, William

2014-09-01

10

Are the Long-Acting Intramuscular Formulations of Risperidone or Paliperidone Palmitate Associated with Post-Injection Delirium/Sedation Syndrome? An Assessment of Safety Databases  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations of antipsychotics are valuable treatment alternatives for patients with psychotic disorders, and understanding their safe use is critical. Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS) has been reported following treatment with one atypical antipsychotic LAI. Clinical databases of risperidone LAI and paliperidone palmitate were explored to identify if cases of PDSS had been observed. No cases of PDSS were identified in 15 completed trials of 3,164 subjects (approximately 115,000 injections) or the postmarketing safety database of risperidone LAI. Only one case of PDSS was identified among 10 completed trials (3,817 subjects, 33,906 injections) of paliperidone palmitate—that case having been reported in a patient randomized to treatment with placebo. Examination of these prospective databases finds no evidence that risperidone LAI and paliperidone palmitate are associated with PDSS and suggest that findings seen with another antipsychotic LAI are not generalizable. PMID:21047303

Alphs, Larry; Gopal, Srihari; Karcher, Keith; Kent, Justine; Kern Sliwa, Jennifer; Kushner, Stuart; Nuamah, Isaac; Singh, Jaskaran

2011-01-01

11

A six month randomized controlled trial of long acting injectable risperidone 50 and 100mg in treatment resistant schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that atypical antipsychotic drugs (A-APDs) other than clozapine may be effective to improve positive symptoms in some patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), if both the dose is higher, and the duration of the trial longer, than those which have been ineffective in non-TRS (NTRS) patients. This hypothesis was tested with long acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal Consta®, RLAI). One hundred sixty TRS patients selected for persistent moderate-severe delusions or hallucinations, or both, were randomized to RLAI, 50 or 100mg biweekly, in a six month, outpatient, double-blind, multicenter trial. We hypothesized that RLAI, 100mg, would be more effective than RLAI, 50mg. However, both doses produced clinically significant and equivalent improvement in PANSS Total, Positive, and Negative subscale scores, as well as key cognitive, global and functional measures, with increasing response during the course of the study, confirming the value of longer clinical trial duration for patients with TRS, but not superiority of the higher dose. The overall response rate was comparable to that previously reported for clozapine and high dose olanzapine, another A-APD, in TRS. Both doses of RLAI were equally well tolerated, producing minimal extrapyramidal side effects and few drop outs. Plasma levels of the active moiety, risperidone+9-hydroxyrisperidone, during treatment with RLAI 100mg, were comparable to those for 6-8 mg/day oral risperidone, which have not been effective in TRS. Further study of RLAI, ? 50-100mg biweekly, should compare it with clozapine and oral risperidone in TRS, with duration of treatment ? six months. PMID:24630262

Meltzer, H Y; Lindenmayer, J-P; Kwentus, J; Share, D B; Johnson, R; Jayathilake, K

2014-04-01

12

Preparation and in-vitro characterization of Risperidone-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes as a potential injectable product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study: This investigation deals with risperidone cyclodextrin (CD complexation for parenteral administration to improve its aqueous solubility which would be beneficial over immediate and sustained release formulations available in market especially for agitated and non-cooperative psychotic patients. "nMethods: The phase solubility study of the drug with ?-CD, hydroxypropyl (HP-?-CD and ?-CD was conducted and CDs with higher stability constants were selected for complexation. The complexes of Risperidone with ?-CD and HP-?-CD were prepared by precipitation and vacuum drying methods, respectively. Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for characterization of complexes. Drug precipitation study of complex's solution in water for injection and 100 ml of 0.1 M pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline and stability study in accelerated condition were also carried out. "nResults: The stability constants of the CD were in the following order: ?-CD (341.953±11.87 M-1 > HP-?-CD (170.817± 5.93 M-1 > ?-CD (93.716 ± 3.25 M-1. CDs with high stability constants were selected to prepare the drug CD complex. The complexation efficiencies of ?-CD and HP-?-CD were 95.23 ± 2.27% and 97.59 ±1.97%, respectively. Both types of CDs exhibited complexation at 1:2 molar stoichiometric ratio. The drug precipitation study indicated complete solubility (100% drug dissolution without a trace of precipitate within 5 mins. The complexes were found to be stable for a period of 3 months under accelerated stability conditions. Major conclusion:Stable complexes of risperidone were successfully formulated using both ?-CD and HP-?-CD by simple and highly efficient methods of complexation for parenteral administration.

D Shukla

2009-12-01

13

DELUSIONAL PARASITOSIS RESPONDING TO RISPERIDONE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Delusional parasitosis (DP) appears to be common in India. This condition is more prevalent in elderly people. Currently used treatment pimozide, a high potency antipsychotic, has disadvantage of extra-pyramidal symptoms & tardive dyskinesia in this age group. Hence there is a need to evaluate the use of high potency atypical antipsychotic risperidone in DP. This case report documents the efficacy of risperidone in DP.

Gowda, B. S. Narayana; Heebbar, S.; Sathyanarayana, M. T.

2002-01-01

14

Treatment-completion rates with olanzapine long-acting injection versus risperidone long-acting injection in a 12-month, open-label treatment of schizophrenia: indirect, exploratory comparisons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Haya Ascher-Svanum1, William S Montgomery2, David P McDonnell3, Kristina A Coleman4, Peter D Feldman11Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, New South Wales, Australia; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Cork, Ireland; 4OptumInsight, Lilyfield, New South Wales, AustraliaBackground: Little is known about the comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in long-acting injection formulation. Due to the absence of head-to-head studies comparing olanzapine long-acting injection and risperidone long-acting injection, this study was intended to make exploratory, indirect, cross-study comparisons between the long-acting formulations of these two atypical antipsychotics in their effectiveness in treating patients with schizophrenia.Methods: Indirect, cross-study comparisons between olanzapine long-acting injection and risperidone long-acting injection used 12-month treatment-completion rates, because discontinuation of an antipsychotic for any cause is a recognized proxy measure of the medication's effectiveness in treating schizophrenia. Following a systematic review of the literature, two indirect comparisons were conducted using open-label, single-cohort studies in which subjects were stabilized on an antipsychotic medication before depot initiation. The first analysis compared olanzapine long-acting injection (one study with pooled data from nine identified risperidone long-acting injection studies. The second analysis was a “sensitivity analysis,” using only the most similar studies, one for olanzapine long-acting injection and one for risperidone long-acting injection, which shared near-identical study designs and involved study cohorts with near-identical patient characteristics. Pearson Chi-square tests assessed group differences on treatment-completion rates.Results: Comparison of olanzapine long-acting injection data (931 patients with the pooled data from the nine risperidone long-acting injection studies (3950 patients provided almost identical 12-month treatment-completion rates (72.7% versus 72.4%; P = 0.87. When the two most similar studies were compared, the 12-month completion rate for olanzapine long-acting injection was significantly higher than for risperidone long-acting injection (81.3% versus 47.0%; P < 0.001. However, any conclusions drawn from this comparison may be limited by differences in the studies' geographic catchment areas.Conclusion: Using treatment-completion rates as a proxy measure of medication effectiveness, olanzapine long-acting injection did not differ significantly from risperidone long-acting injection when including all eligible studies. However, the findings of this exploratory analysis should be interpreted with caution, considering the methodological limitations of these indirect, cross-study comparisons.Keywords: antipsychotic drugs, intramuscular injection, olanzapine, risperidone, schizophrenia

Ascher-Svanum H

2012-05-01

15

Effectiveness of injectable risperidone long-acting therapy for schizophrenia: data from the US, Spain, Australia, and Belgium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Because wide variations in mental health care utilization exist throughout the world, determining long-term effectiveness of psychotropic medications in a real-world setting would be beneficial to physicians and patients. The purpose of this analysis was to describe the effectiveness of injectable risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT for schizophrenia across countries. Methods This was a pragmatic analysis of data from two prospective observational studies conducted in the US (Schizophrenia Outcomes Utilization Relapse and Clinical Evaluation [SOURCE]; ClinicalTrials.gov registration number for the SOURCE study: NCT00246194 and Spain, Australia, and Belgium (electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry [eSTAR]. Two separate analyses were performed to assess clinical improvement during the study and estimate psychiatric hospitalization rates before and after RLAT initiation. Clinical improvement was evaluated using the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scales, and change from baseline was evaluated using paired t tests. Psychiatric hospitalization rates were analyzed using incidence densities, and the bootstrap resampling method was used to examine differences between the pre-baseline and post-baseline periods. Results The initial sample comprised 3,069 patients (US, n = 532; Spain, n = 1,345; Australia, n = 784; and Belgium, n = 408. In all, 24 months of study participation, completed by 39.3% (n = 209, 62.7% (n = 843, 45.8% (n = 359, and 64.2% (n = 262 of patients from the US, Spain, Australia, and Belgium, respectively, were included in the clinical analysis. Improvements compared with baseline were observed on both clinical assessments across countries (P P P Conclusions RLAT in patients with schizophrenia was associated with improvements in clinical and functional outcomes and decreased hospitalization rates in the US, Spain, Australia, and Belgium, despite differences in health care delivery systems.

Macfadden Wayne

2011-04-01

16

RISPERIDONE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Efficacy and safety of new antipsychotic agent-risperidone was evaluated in the confirmed schizophrenic patients of either sex, over 15 years of age. Of the 30 patients who entered the study, 27 completed the trial as per the protocol and only 3 dropped out, one was lost to follow up, the other was an uncooperative patient who pulled out of the trial due to moderate side effects while one patients withdrew the consent at his own free will. The significant improvements were seen in the broad r...

Agashe, Mohan; Dhawale, D. M.; Cozma, Gabriel; Mogre, Vinod

1999-01-01

17

RISPERIDONE IN INDIAN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conventional antipsychotic agents are not effective against negative symptoms of schizophrenia and are also noted for their extrapyramidal side effects. Risperidone is a noval antipsychotic agent whose dual antagonism of dopamine and serotonin receptors is believed to underlie its efficacy against negative symptoms and the low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. An open, non-comparative study of seven weeks duration was performed to evaluate risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia...

Agarwal, A. K.; Bashyam, V. S. P.; Channabasavanna, S. M.; Dhavale, H. S.; Khan, M. A. M.; Khanna, Sumant; Pradhan, P. V.; Katiyar, M.; Rajkumar, R.; Niazi, Faiz R.; Jalali, R. K.; Gowrishankar, R.; Mishra, S. K.; Sood, O. P.

1998-01-01

18

Emotion processing in schizophrenia: fMRI study of patients treated with risperidone long-acting injections or conventional depot medication.  

Science.gov (United States)

We employed two event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging tasks using the pictures of mild and intense facial emotions of fear or happiness. The sample comprised 16 chronic schizophrenia patients treated with risperidone long-acting injections (RLAI), 16 patients treated with conventional antipsychotic depots (CONV) and 16 healthy controls (HC). The HC and RLAI groups demonstrated greater activation in the left amygdala in response to intensively fearful faces, and in right cerebellum to intensively happy faces compared with CONV patients. The CONV group demonstrated under-activation in the right temporal pole in response to intensively happy faces (compared with HC) and over-activation in ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) in response to both intensively happy and fearful expressions, compared with HC and RLAI groups. Our results suggest that networks implicated in the allocation of attentional resources (VMPFC) and emotion processing (amygdala, cerebellum) are differentially affected in patients on CONV versus RLAI. PMID:20360158

Surguladze, Simon A; Chu, Elvina M; Marshall, Nicolette; Evans, Anthony; Anilkumar, Anantha P P; Timehin, Clive; McDonald, Colm; Ecker, Christine; Phillips, Mary L; David, Anthony S

2011-06-01

19

Cost analysis of risperidone long-acting injection in the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders in Hong Kong: an approach using generalised estimating equations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schizophrenia is one of the most expensive psychiatric illnesses. This study compared retrospectively health-care resources consumed 12 months before and 24 months after risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) treatment in Hong Kong. A mirror-image analysis was conducted using data (N=191) from three public hospitals in Hong Kong from 2003 to 2007. The main outcome measure was hospitalisation cost. Other secondary outcomes such as hospitalisation episodes, outpatient visits and adverse events were also compared. A predictive model was established using linear regression based on generalised estimating equations. Analysis showed that RLAI was associated with a reduction in hospitalisation cost by HK$10,001,390 (24.7%) (HK$40,418,694 vs. HK$30,417,303; P-value resource-limited settings. PMID:24012164

Wu, David Bin-Chia; Lee, Edwin Ho Ming; Chung, Wai Sau; Chow, Danielle Pui Yu; Lee, Vivian Wing Yan; Wong, Ming Cheuk; Lee, Kenneth Kwing Chin

2013-12-30

20

Comparative Effectiveness of Risperidone Long-Acting Injectable vs First-Generation Antipsychotic Long-Acting Injectables in Schizophrenia: Results From a Nationwide, Retrospective Inception Cohort Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To compare in a generalizable sample/setting objective outcomes in patients receiving first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injectables (FGA-LAIs) or risperidone-LAI (RIS-LAI). Methods: Nationwide, retrospective inception cohort study of adults with International Classification of Diseases-10 schizophrenia using Danish registers from 1995 to 2009 comparing outcomes between clinician's/patient's choice treatment with FGA-LAIs or RIS-LAI. Primary outcome was time to psychiatric hospitalization using Cox-regression adjusting for relevant covariates. Secondary outcomes included time to all-cause discontinuation and psychiatric hospitalization in patients without LAI possession gap >28 days, and number of bed-days after psychiatric hospitalization. Results: Among 4532 patients followed for 2700 patient-years, 2078 received RIS-LAI and 2454 received FGA-LAIs (zuclopenthixol decanoate = 52.2%, perphenazine decanoate = 37.2%, haloperidol decanoate = 5.0%, flupenthixol decanoate = 4.4%, fluphenazine decanoate = 1.3%). RIS-LAI was similar to FGA-LAIs regarding time to hospitalization (RIS-LAI = 246.2±323.7 days vs FGA-LAIs = 276.6±383.3 days; HR = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.87-1.03, P = 0.199) and time to all-cause discontinuation (RIS-LAI = 245.8±324.0 days vs FGA-LAIs = 287.0±390.9 days; HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86-1.02, P = 0.116). Similarly, in patients without LAI discontinuation, RIS-LAI and FGA-LAIs did not differ regarding time to hospitalization (RIS-LAI = 175.0±268.1 days vs FGA-LAIs = 210.7±325.3 days; HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86-1.04, P = 0.254). Finally, duration of hospitalization was also similar (incidence rate ratio = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.78-1.19, P = 0.744). Results were unchanged when analyzing only patients treated after introduction of RIS-LAI. Conclusions: In this nationwide cohort study, RIS-LAI was not superior to FGA-LAIs regarding time to psychiatric hospitalization, all-cause discontinuation, and duration of hospitalization. Given the cost of hospitalization and second-generation antipsychotic (SGA)-LAIs, these findings require consideration when making treatment choices, but also need to be balanced with the individual relevance of adverse effects/patient centered outcomes. In future, head-to-head trials and additional nationwide database studies including other SGA-LAIs is needed. PMID:25180312

Nielsen, Jimmi; Jensen, Signe O W; Friis, Rasmus B; Valentin, Jan B; Correll, Christoph U

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Comparative Effectiveness of Risperidone Long-Acting Injectable vs First-Generation Antipsychotic Long-Acting Injectables in Schizophrenia : Results From a Nationwide, Retrospective Inception Cohort Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: To compare in a generalizable sample/setting objective outcomes in patients receiving first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injectables (FGA-LAIs) or risperidone-LAI (RIS-LAI). Methods: Nationwide, retrospective inception cohort study of adults with International Classification of Diseases-10 schizophrenia using Danish registers from 1995 to 2009 comparing outcomes between clinician's/patient's choice treatment with FGA-LAIs or RIS-LAI. Primary outcome was time to psychiatric hospitalization using Cox-regression adjusting for relevant covariates. Secondary outcomes included time to all-cause discontinuation and psychiatric hospitalization in patients without LAI possession gap >28 days, and number of bed-days after psychiatric hospitalization. Results: Among 4532 patients followed for 2700 patient-years, 2078 received RIS-LAI and 2454 received FGA-LAIs (zuclopenthixol decanoate = 52.2%, perphenazine decanoate = 37.2%, haloperidol decanoate = 5.0%, flupenthixol decanoate = 4.4%, fluphenazine decanoate = 1.3%). RIS-LAI was similar to FGA-LAIs regarding time to hospitalization (RIS-LAI = 246.2±323.7 days vs FGA-LAIs = 276.6±383.3 days; HR = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.87-1.03, P = 0.199) and time to all-cause discontinuation (RIS-LAI = 245.8±324.0 days vs FGA-LAIs = 287.0±390.9 days; HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86-1.02, P = 0.116). Similarly, in patients without LAI discontinuation, RIS-LAI and FGA-LAIs did not differ regarding time to hospitalization (RIS-LAI = 175.0±268.1 days vs FGA-LAIs = 210.7±325.3 days; HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86-1.04, P = 0.254). Finally, duration of hospitalization was also similar (incidence rate ratio = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.78-1.19, P = 0.744). Results were unchanged when analyzing only patients treated after introduction of RIS-LAI. Conclusions: In this nationwide cohort study, RIS-LAI was not superior to FGA-LAIs regarding time to psychiatric hospitalization, all-cause discontinuation, and duration of hospitalization. Given the cost of hospitalization and second-generation antipsychotic (SGA)-LAIs, these findings require consideration when making treatment choices, but also need to be balanced with the individual relevance of adverse effects/patient centered outcomes. In future, head-to-head trials and additional nationwide database studies including other SGA-LAIs is needed.

Nielsen, Jimmi; Jensen, Signe O W

2014-01-01

22

Efficacy and safety of risperidone oral solution in agitation associated with dementia in the elderly Eficácia e segurança de risperidona solução oral na agitação associada a demência em idosos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) contribute to caregiver burden and institutionalization of elderly. Neuroleptics are prescribed to control agitation. Side effects of typical neuroleptics are harmful, making atypical neuroleptics an indication. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of risperidone oral solution (ROS) given once daily to demented elderly outpatients with BPSD (agitation). METHOD: Patients (n=26), 76.35±8.63 years, Diagnostic and ...

Jerson Laks; Eliasz Engelhardt; Valeska Marinho; Marcia Rozenthal; Souza, Fernando Castro E.; Josué Bacaltchuk; Alberto Stoppe Jr.; Ferreira, R. C. R.; Cassio Bottino; Mônica Scalco

2001-01-01

23

Risperidone Versus Risperidone Plus Sodium Valproate for Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical-Trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the efficacy of risperidone monotherapy with risperidone plus valproate in bipolar I disorder, manic phase. Some studies showed the efficacy of risperidone monotherapy in the treatment of bipolar disorder, so we examined this effectiveness in this clinical-trial study. Method: This 7-week, randomized, single-blind study included 48 bipolar I inpatients manic phase without psychotic features divided in risperidone group (n = 23 and risperidone plus sodium valproate group (n = 25. According to clinical symptoms, 3 categories: complete remission, partial remission and no remission were mentioned in weekly follow-up. Remission rate compared with survival analysis. Results: The results showed a significant difference in remission rate between risperidone monotherapy and risperidone plus sodium valproate at the 1st, 2nd and the 3rd week (p = 0.012, 0.023, 0.027 respectively, It means the remission rate in risperidone plus valproate group was higher in the first three weeks, but at the end of the seventh week, the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the development of adverse effects. Conclusions: Risperidone can be effective and well tolerated in both acute manic episodes of bipolar mood disorders.

S. Mohammad Moosavi

2014-06-01

24

Effect of acute and chronic treatment with risperidone on the serotonin and dopamine receptors in the rat brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The therapeutic efficacy of antipsychotic drugs is generally attributed to their ability to block dopamine D2 receptors. Classical D2 antagonists are not effective to treat negative symptoms and produce extrapyramidal side effects. On the other hand, atypical antipsychotic agents ameliorate negative symptoms without producing extrapyramidal side effects, and it is reported to be associated with blockade of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone on neuroreceptors in the rat brain by quantitative autoradiography method. In acute treatment group, risperidone was injected into peritoneal cavity of male Wistar rats with dose of 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mg/kg in each group (5/group), and they were decapitated after 2 hours. In chronic treatment group, risperidone was injected with dose of 0, 0.1, and 1m/kg (I.P.) for 21 ays and decapitated after 24 hours following last treatment. The effect of risperodone on the binding of [3H) spiperone to 5-HT2 and D2 receptors were analysed in 4 discrete regions of the striatum, nucleus accumbens, and frontal cortex by quantitative autoradiography. Acute treatment with risperidone reduced cortical 5-HT2 specific [3H]spiperone binding to 32% of vehicle-treated control. Subcortical 5-HR2 specific [3H]spiperone binding was not affected at all dose groups whereas a significcted at all dose groups whereas a significant reduction (57%) in D2 specific [3H]spiperone binding was observed in risperidone treated group at doses of 1-2mg/kg. Chronic treatment with risperidone produced a decrease in the maximal number of cortical 5-HT2 receptors to 51% and 46% of control in 0.1mg/kg and 1mg/kg treated group respectively. In conclusion, risperidone is a cortical serotonin receptor antagonist with relatively weak antagonistic action on dopamine receptors. These effects on neuroreceptors may explain the therapeutic effect of risperidone as a atypical antipsychotic agents

25

RISPERIDONE VERSUS HALOPERIDOL IN ACUTE AND TRANSIENT PSYCHOTIC DISORDER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mechanism of action of a relatively new antipsychotic drug-Risperidone differs from conventional antipsychotics like Haloperidol. We compared low dosages of Risperidone with near equivalent dosages of Haloperidol in first episode drug naive Acute and Transient Psychotic disorder. A single blind randomised four-week study protocol was employed. Highly significant and comparable efficacy as assessed by Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale was seen at the...

Chaudhuri, Bijoy Pratim; Bhagabati, Dipesh; Medhi, Dipanjali

2000-01-01

26

Epidural steroid injections: update on efficacy, safety, and newer medications for injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The best evidence for epidural injection appears to be in the setting of radicular pain with epidural steroid and non--steroid injections more efficacious than non-epidural injections. Studies showed the efficacy of non-particulate steroid to approach the efficacy of particulate steroid and very limited comparisons demonstrated no significant difference between epidural steroid and epidural non--steroid (local anesthetic) injection. Preliminary studies evaluating epidural injection of disease modifying anti--rheumatic drugs such etanercept and tocilizumab showed conflicting results and had significant limitations. Randomized studies support better efficacy of transforaminal injection due to greater incidence of ventral epidural spread of injectate when compared to interlaminar injection. Thus, the transforaminal approach is recommended when unilateral radicular pain is limited to one nerve root. However, the transforaminal approach is associated with greater incidence of central nervous system injury, including paraplegia, attributed to embolization of the particulate steroid. Recent studies showed that non--particulate steroids potentially last as long as particulate steroids. Therefore non-particulate steroid should be used in initial transforaminal epidural injection. Future studies should look into the role of adjunct diagnostic aids, including digital subtraction angiography, in detecting intravascular injection and the ideal site of needle placement, whether it is the safe triangle or the triangle of Kambin. Finally, the role of epidural disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in the management of back pain needs to be better elucidated. PMID:25311951

Kozlov, N; Benzon, H T; Malik, K

2014-10-14

27

Pimavanserin, a selective serotonin (5-HT)2A-inverse agonist, enhances the efficacy and safety of risperidone, 2mg/day, but does not enhance efficacy of haloperidol, 2mg/day: comparison with reference dose risperidone, 6mg/day.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs), e.g. risperidone (RIS), produce more extensive blockade of brain serotonin (5-HT)(2A) than dopamine (DA) D(2) receptors. This distinguishes them from typical APDs, e.g. haloperidol (HAL). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that augmentation of low doses of RIS or HAL (2mg/day) with pimavanserin (PIM), a selective 5-HT(2A) inverse agonist, to enhance 5-HT(2A) receptor blockade, can achieve efficacy comparable to RIS, 6mg/day, but with lesser side effects. In a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, 6week trial, 423 patients with chronic schizophrenia experiencing a recent exacerbation of psychotic symptoms were randomized to RIS2mg+placebo (RIS2PBO), RIS2mg+PIM20mg (RIS2PIM), RIS6mg+PBO (RIS6PBO), HAL2mg+PBO (HAL2PBO), or HAL2mg+PIM20mg (HAL2PIM). Improvement in psychopathology was measured by the PANSS and CGI-S. The reduction in PANSS Total Score with RIS2PIM at endpoint was significantly greater than RIS2PBO: -23.0 vs. -16.3 (p=0.007), and not significantly different from the RIS6PBO group: -23.2 points. The percentage of patients with ?20% improvement at day 15 in the RIS2PIM group was 62.3%, significantly greater than the RIS6PBO (42.1%; p=0.01) and the RIS2PBO groups (37.7%; p=0.002). Weight gain and hyperprolactinemia were greater in the RIS6PBO group than the RIS2PIM group but there was no difference in extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). HAL2PBO and HAL2PIM were not significantly different from each other in efficacy but HAL2PIM had less EPS at end point. Both HAL groups and RIS6PBO showed equal improvement in psychopathology at endpoint, indicating HAL 2mg/day is effective to treat an acute exacerbation in chronic schizophrenia patients. In conclusion, a sub-effective RIS dose combined with PIM to enhance 5-HT(2A) receptor blockade provided faster onset of action, and at endpoint, equal efficacy and better safety, compared to standard dose RIS. These results support the conclusion that 5-HT(2A) receptor blockade is a key component of the action of some atypical APDs and can reduce EPS due to a typical APD. PMID:22954754

Meltzer, Herbert Y; Elkis, Helio; Vanover, Kimberly; Weiner, David M; van Kammen, Daniel P; Peters, Perry; Hacksell, Uli

2012-11-01

28

Efficacy of Endoscopic Injection Sclerotherapy for Rectal Varices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: The study's aim was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopicinjection sclerotherapy (EIS) in treating rectal varices.METHODS: Data from 32 consecutive patients who underwentEIS for rectal varices were analyzed the clinical outcomes, includingcomplications related to EIS. EIS was performed weekly using 5%ethanolamine oleate with iopamidol, which was injected to rectalvarices intermittently under fluoroscopy.RESULTS: In all 32 patients, EIS was performed weekly 2 to 5times (mean, 2.7), and t...

Takahiro Sato

2013-01-01

29

Anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection following a primary intraosseous injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection given 30 minutes after a primary intraosseous injection. Using a crossover design, 55 subjects randomly received a primary X-tip intraosseous injection (Dentsply Inc, York, PA) of 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine (using the Wand; Milestone Scientific, Deerfield, IL) and a repeated intraosseous or mock injection at 30 minutes in two appointments. The first molar and adjacent teeth were pulp tested every 2 minutes for a total of 120 minutes. Success was defined as obtaining two consecutive 80 readings with the electric pulp tester. Success of the initial intraosseous injection was 100% for the first molar. The repeated intraosseous injection mimicked the initial intraosseous injection in terms of pulpal anesthesia and statistically provided another 15 minutes of pulpal anesthesia. In conclusion, using the methodology presented, repeating the intraosseous injection 30 minutes after an initial intraosseous injection will provide an additional 15 minutes of pulpal anesthesia. PMID:18215666

Jensen, Joanne; Nusstein, John; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

2008-02-01

30

Risperidone olanzapine drug outcomes studies in schizophrenia (RODOS): health economic results of an international naturalistic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the health economic data from the Risperidone Olanzapine Drug Outcomes studies in Schizophrenia (RODOS) programme. Details of the efficacy and tolerability data from RODOS are available in a companion paper. The population analysed during RODOS consisted of 1901 patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The mean +/- SD daily dose of olanzapine treatment was 14.5 +/- 5.1 mg compared to 5.3 +/- 2.6 mg for risperidone. Use of concomitant neuroleptics (risperidone, 65%; olanzapine, 62%; P = 0.2) and other concomitant drugs (risperidone, 76%; olanzapine, 73%; P = 0.2) was similar in both groups. The mean +/- SD total costs of all inpatient drugs was significantly (P RODOS suggest that treatment costs are significantly higher with olanzapine than with risperidone without any clinical benefit to offset this. PMID:11459332

Kasper, S; Jones, M; Duchesne, I

2001-07-01

31

Risperidone in the treatment of behavioral disorders associated with autism in children and adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Roberto Canitano, Valeria ScandurraDivision of Child Neuropsychiatry, University Hospital of Siena, Siena, ItalyAbstract: This is a review of the clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD. The main clinical characteristics are impairment in social skills, communication difficulties, repetitive movements and behaviors, including stereotypies. Pharmacotherapy is mainly directed at the so-called target symptoms, ie, behavioral disorders and the various kinds of repetitions associated with ASD. According to the available data, risperidone seems to be moderately efficacious and safe for treating behavioral disorders. 4 double blind controlled trial. 3 reanalysis studies, and 12 open studies have documented the role of risperidone in children with ASD. Controlled studies have been thoroughly considered in this review.Keywords: autism, pervasive developmental disorders, risperidone

Roberto Canitano

2008-09-01

32

Pharmacological analysis of the novel, rapid, and potent inactivation of the human 5-Hydroxytryptamine7 receptor by risperidone, 9-OH-Risperidone, and other inactivating antagonists.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous publication, using human 5-hydroxytryptamine(7) (h5-HT(7)) receptor-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, we reported the rapid, potent inactivation of the h5-HT(7) receptor stimulation of cAMP production by three antagonists: risperidone, 9-OH-risperidone, and methiothepin (Smith et al., 2006). To better understand the drug-receptor interaction producing the inactivation, we 1) expanded the list of inactivating drugs, 2) determined the inactivating potencies and efficacies by performing concentration-response experiments, and 3) determined the potencies and efficacies of the inactivators as irreversible binding site inhibitors. Three new drugs were found to fully inactivate the h5-HT(7) receptor: lisuride, bromocryptine, and metergoline. As inactivators, these drugs displayed potencies of 1, 80, and 321 nM, respectively. Pretreatment of 5-HT(7)-expressing HEK cells with increasing concentrations of the inactivating drugs risperidone, 9-OH-risperidone, methiothepin, lisuride, bromocriptine, and metergoline potently inhibited radiolabeling of the h5-HT(7) receptor, with IC(50) values of 9, 5.5, 152, 3, 73, and 10 nM, respectively. We were surprised to find that maximal concentrations of risperidone and 9-OH-risperidone inhibited only 50% of the radiolabeling of h5-HT(7) receptors. These results indicate that risperidone and 9-OH risperidone may be producing 5-HT(7) receptor inactivation by different mechanisms than lisuride, bromocryptine, metergoline, and methiothepin. These results are not interpretable using the conventional model of G-protein-coupled receptor function. The complex seems capable of assuming a stable inactive conformation as a result of the interaction of certain antagonists. The rapid, potent inactivation of the receptor-G-protein complex by antagonists implies a constitutive, pre-existing complex between the h5-HT(7) receptor and a G-protein. PMID:18996971

Knight, Jessica A; Smith, Carol; Toohey, Nicole; Klein, Michael T; Teitler, Milt

2009-02-01

33

Risperidone versus zuclopenthixol in the treatment of schizophrenia with substance abuse comorbidity: a long-term randomized, controlled, crossover study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are present in more than 50% of subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, there are no controlled studies assessing the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs in this subgroup of patients. The aim of the present work was to compare the efficacy of risperidone and zuclopenthixol in a sample of schizophrenic subjects with dual diagnosis. Method: Thirty-three male were selected for treatment with risperidone, while another 33 were treated with zuclopenth...

Gabriel Rubio; Isabel Martínez; Ana Recio; Guillermo Ponce; Francisco López-Muñoz; Cecilio Alamo; Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Arriero; Tomás Palomo

2006-01-01

34

Efficacy of Endoscopic Injection Sclerotherapy for Rectal Varices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: The study's aim was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopicinjection sclerotherapy (EIS in treating rectal varices.METHODS: Data from 32 consecutive patients who underwentEIS for rectal varices were analyzed the clinical outcomes, includingcomplications related to EIS. EIS was performed weekly using 5%ethanolamine oleate with iopamidol, which was injected to rectalvarices intermittently under fluoroscopy.RESULTS: In all 32 patients, EIS was performed weekly 2 to 5times (mean, 2.7, and the total amount of sclerosant ranged from3.2 to 12.0 mL (mean, 5.3 mL. After EIS, colonoscopy revealedshrinkage of the rectal varices in all 32 patients. There were noserious complications such as portal thrombosis and peritonitis.Colonoscopy revealed oozing bleeding from ulcers after EIS,however, no additional treatments were required. The recurrence ratefor rectal varices was 6 of 25 (24.0% receiving EIS, over a 1-yearfollow-up period. The recurrence of bleeding was only one patient.CONCLUSION: EIS is useful and safety treatment for rectal variceswith regard to effectiveness and complications.

Takahiro Sato

2013-01-01

35

A Comparative Study between Olanzapine and Risperidone in the Management of Schizophrenia  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. Since a variety of comparisons between risperidone and olanzapine have resulted in diverse outcomes, so safety and efficacy of them were compared again in a new trial. Method. Sixty female schizophrenic patients entered into one of the assigned groups for random allocation to olanzapine or risperidone (n = 30 in each group) in a double-blind, 12-week clinical trial. Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) were used as the primary outcome measures. Clinical Global Impressions-Severity Scale (CGI-S), Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI), and finally Simpson Angus Scale (SAS) as well were employed as secondary scales. Results. While both of olanzapine and risperidone were significantly effective for improvement of positive symptoms (P < 0.0001), as regards negative symptoms, it was so only by means of olanzapine (P < 0.0003). CGI-S and SAI, as well, were significantly improved in both of the groups. SAS increment was significant only in the risperidone group (P < 0.02). Conclusion. While both of olanzapine and risperidone were equally effective for improvement of positive symptoms and insight, olanzapine showed superior efficacy with respect to negative symptoms, along with lesser extrapyramidal side effects, in comparison with risperidone. PMID:25247096

Shoja Shafti, Saeed; Gilanipoor, Mahsa

2014-01-01

36

Risperidone versus zuclopenthixol in the treatment of schizophrenia with substance abuse comorbidity: a long-term randomized, controlled, crossover study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Substance use disorders (SUDs are present in more than 50% of subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, there are no controlled studies assessing the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs in this subgroup of patients. The aim of the present work was to compare the efficacy of risperidone and zuclopenthixol in a sample of schizophrenic subjects with dual diagnosis. Method: Thirty-three male were selected for treatment with risperidone, while another 33 were treated with zuclopenthixol. Substances most commonly used were alcohol, cannabis (both 82% and cocaine (32%. Patients were randomized and treated for the first six months with one antipsychotic and the second six months with the other antipsychotic. Psychopathological and clinical scales were used every two months. Participants received training on how to reduce their consumption of substances (Substance Abuse Management Module, SAMM. Results: During the first six months risperidone group patients presented fewer positive urine tests and showed better compliance with the SAMM programme. In the second period the patients treated with risperidone significantly improved their scores on the PANSS-negative subscale. Differences between the CGIs indicated that the subjects who moved from risperidone to zuclopenthixol worsened, while those who moved from zuclopenthixol to risperidone significantly improved. Conclusions: Risperidone was more effective than zuclopenthixol in improving the symptoms of schizophrenia and substance use.

Gabriel Rubio

2006-09-01

37

Risperidone versus zuclopenthixol in the treatment of schizophrenia with substance abuse comorbidity: a long-term randomized, controlled, crossover study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Background: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are present in more than 50% of subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, there are no controlled studies assessing the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs in this subgroup of patients. The aim of the present work was to compare the efficacy of risperidon [...] e and zuclopenthixol in a sample of schizophrenic subjects with dual diagnosis. Method: Thirty-three male were selected for treatment with risperidone, while another 33 were treated with zuclopenthixol. Substances most commonly used were alcohol, cannabis (both 82%) and cocaine (32%). Patients were randomized and treated for the first six months with one antipsychotic and the second six months with the other antipsychotic. Psychopathological and clinical scales were used every two months. Participants received training on how to reduce their consumption of substances (Substance Abuse Management Module, SAMM). Results: During the first six months risperidone group patients presented fewer positive urine tests and showed better compliance with the SAMM programme. In the second period the patients treated with risperidone significantly improved their scores on the PANSS-negative subscale. Differences between the CGIs indicated that the subjects who moved from risperidone to zuclopenthixol worsened, while those who moved from zuclopenthixol to risperidone significantly improved. Conclusions: Risperidone was more effective than zuclopenthixol in improving the symptoms of schizophrenia and substance use.

Gabriel, Rubio; Isabel, Martínez; Ana, Recio; Guillermo, Ponce; Francisco, López-Muñoz; Cecilio, Alamo; Miguel Ángel, Jiménez-Arriero; Tomás, Palomo.

2006-09-01

38

Registro Electrónico de Adherencia al Tratamiento de Esquizofrenia en Latinoamérica (e-STAR): Resultados clínicos del uso de risperidona inyectable de liberación prolongada a dos años de seguimiento / Electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry in Latin America (e-STAR): Clinical outcomes of long-acting injectable risperidone in a 2-year follow up  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La esquizofrenia genera elevados costos al sistema de salud. La falta de adherencia al tratamiento es una de las principales causas de recaídas y hospitalizaciones en la esquizofrenia. Lo anterior conduce a un pobre pronóstico y deterioro funcional de los pacientes. La risperidona inyectable de libe [...] ración prolongada (RILP) ha demostrado su eficacia en el tratamiento de la esquizofrenia, ofreciendo la posibilidad de que los pacientes tengan una mayor adherencia terapéutica. Objetivo Determinar la eficacia y efecto sobre la funcionalidad y el uso de recursos hospitalarios de la RILP en una muestra de pacientes con esquizofrenia de América Latina a dos años de seguimiento. Método El Registro Electrónico de Adherencia al Tratamiento de Esquizofrenia en Latinoamérica (e-STAR) es un estudio observacional del uso de la RILP en la esquizofrenia. Se reclutaron pacientes de México, Colombia y Brasil. Se registró la información clínica del paciente un año previo al inicio del tratamiento con la RILP y de forma prospectiva cada tres meses hasta cumplir los 24 meses de seguimiento. Se registraron las hospitalizaciones y el esquema de tratamiento con la RILP. La escala de Impresión Clínica Global-Gravedad (CGI-S) se utilizó como indicador de eficacia mientras que la Escala Global de Funcionamiento (GAF) y la Escala de Desempeño Personal y Social (PSP) se utilizaron para evaluar el funcionamiento. Resultados Setenta y tres pacientes completaron los dos años de seguimiento. La proporción de pacientes hospitalizados disminuyó del 16.4 al 4.1% después de dos años de tratamiento con la RILP. El 2.7% descontinuó el tratamiento debido a falta de eficacia. Se observó una mejoría significativa en cuanto a la gravedad del padecimiento y el funcionamiento global. Discusión En la práctica clínica cotidiana, la RILP resulta ser un tratamiento a largo plazo efectivo para la esquizofrenia con el beneficio adicional de una menor utilización de recursos del sistema de salud. Abstract in english Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder associated to high healthcare costs mainly driven by inpatient care. Lack of adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a common reason for relapse and rehospitalization leading to poor prognosis and global functional impairment of patients. Risperidone l [...] ong-acting injection (RLAI) has demonstrated its efficacy in treating symptoms of schizophrenia and offers the potential to improve adherence to treatment. Objective To determine clinical and functional efficacy of RLAI and use of health resources (eg., hospitalizations) in a 2-year follow up study among patients with schizophrenia from Latin America. Method The electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR) is an observational study of patients who start treatment with RLAI. Data from patients recruited in Mexico, Colombia and Brazil were collected retrospectively for one year prior to baseline, at baseline and every three months for 24 months. Hospitalization rates and treatment regime were registered. Efficacy was assessed using the Clinical Global Impression of Illness-Severity Scale (CGI-S), while the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) were used for the evaluation of functioning. Results Seventy-three patients completed the two-year follow-up. The proportion of patients hospitalized declined from 16.4% before treatment to 4.1% after 2 years of treatment with RLAI. Only 2.7% discontinued the treatment due to lack of efficacy. Significant improvements were reported in illness severity as well as in global functioning assessed by the CGI-S, GAF and PSP scales, respectively. Discussion Our results give further support of the efficacy of RLAI for the treatment of schizophrenia. Additional to symptom severity reduction and functional recovery, improved treatment adherence and reduced hospitalization rates were observed with the use of RLAI. In a real world clinical setting, RLAI offer an

Rogelio, Apiquian; Rodrigo, Córdoba; Mario, Louzã; Ana, Fresán.

2013-02-01

39

Individualizing clozapine and risperidone treatment for schizophrenia patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schizophrenia is a severe disorder that significantly affects the quality of life and total functioning of patients and their caregivers. Clozapine is the first atypical antipsychotic with fewer adverse effects and established efficacy. As a rule of thumb, risperidone is one of the most reliable and effective antipsychotics for newly diagnosed and chronic schizophrenics. Pharmacogenetic studies have identified genomic variants of candidate genes that seem to be important in the way a patient responds to treatment. The recent progress made in pharmacogenomics will improve the quality of treatment, since drug doses will be tailored to the special needs of each patient. In this article, we review the available literature attempting to delineate the role of genomic variations in clozapine and risperidone response in schizophrenic patients of various ethnicities. We conclude that pharmacogenomics for these two drugs is still not ready for implementation in the clinic. PMID:24329194

Tsermpini, Evangelia Eirini; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Bartsakoulia, Marina; Iconomou, Gregoris; Papadima, Eleni Merkouri; Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Squassina, Alessio; Patrinos, George P

2014-01-01

40

Preparation and biological evaluation of radioiodinated risperidone and lamotrigine as models for brain imaging agents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Risperidone and lamotrigine were successfully labeled with 125I via direct electrophilic substitution reaction at 80 deg C with maximum labeling yields of 89 ± 3.75 and 97.5 ± 1.0 %, respectively. Stability of 125I-risperidone was up to 6 h while that of 125I-lamotrigine was up to 24 h. Biodistribution studies showed that maximum uptakes of 125I-risperidone and 125I-lamotrigine in the brain of mice were 4.35 ± 0.17 and 2.51 ± 0.18 % of the injected activity/g tissue organ at 10 min post-injection, respectively. Both radioiodinated drugs showed higher brain uptake and stability compared to commercially available technetium-99m d,l-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime. (author)

 
 
 
 
41

Repeated risperidone treatment increases the expression of NCAM and PSA-NCAM protein in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates whether the anti-schizophrenic drug risperidone may evoke changes in the expression of NCAM/PSA-NCAM proteins, an indispensable element in the remodeling of synaptic arrangements, in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Rats were treated with risperidone (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) either once or repeatedly (once a day, for 21 days). The expression of NCAM and PSA-NCAM proteins was analyzed via western blot and immunohistochemistry at intervals of 3 h and 3, 6, and 9 days after the single or the last risperidone dose. Repeated (but not acute) administration of risperidone was found to increase the expression of NCAM-180, NCAM-140 and PSA-NCAM proteins at 3 or 6 days after treatment. PSA-NCAM immunoreactivity was found in cell bodies, perisomatic-like sites, and in the neuropil of the mPFC. Neither single nor repeated risperidone administration changed the number of PSA-NCAM neurons in the mPFC. In contrast, the repeated risperidone treatment increased the number of PSA-NCAM perisomatic-like sites and the length density of PSA-NCAM positive neuropil at 3 days after the last injection. The data obtained indicate that risperidone, given repeatedly, may promote the remodeling of the structure of presumably GABA-ergic interneurons and that it may evoke the rearrangement of the synaptic contact in the mPFC. PMID:19042107

Ma?kowiak, Marzena; Dudys, Dorota; Chocyk, Agnieszka; Wedzony, Krzysztof

2009-02-01

42

Efficacy of injectable and oral paste formulations of ivermectin against gastrointestinal parasites in ponies.  

Science.gov (United States)

A controlled test was used in ponies to compare the antiparasitic efficacy of ivermectin (22,23-dihydro-avermectin B1) in an injectable micelle solution administered IM with the efficacy of the same drug in an oral paste formulation. Parasite infections were naturally acquired in southern Louisiana. The drug was tested in both formulations at a dosage level of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight. Ivermectin in both formulations tested had an efficacy greater than 98% against Gasterophilus intestinalis and G nasalis larvae. Trichostrongylus axei, Habronema spp, Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, and species of small strongyles present. Efficacy of ivermectin against Oxyuris equi larvae was 100% in the paste formulation and 93% in the injectable formulation. The ponies were less uniformly infected with S equinus, Draschia megastoma, Parascaris equorum, O equi adults, Anoplocephala perfoliata, and A magna. However, observations indicated that the drug in either formulation was also effective against these parasites, except Anoplocephala spp. PMID:6896613

Torbert, B J; Kramer, B S; Klei, T R

1982-08-01

43

A case of acute pancreatitis associated with risperidone treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute pancreatitis with antipsychotic treatment is rare but sometimes causes a fatal adverse effect. Most cases of acute pancreatitis due to atypical antipsychotic agents are reported to occur within six months of starting antipsychotic administration. Acute pancreatitis caused by risperidone is rare. The patient had a high fever, stomachache and vomiting. The results of the abdominal computed tomograhpy scan were negative. The results of the abdominal ultrasonography were positive for gallstones in gallbladder and distention of the common bile duct. She had been fasting and received antibiotic intravenous injections. Amylase and lipase titers were high. After risperidone discontinuation, both the levels of the amylase and the lipase were gradually decreased. Three months later, the patient still maintains a good clinical balance. Although atypical antipsychotic-induced pancreatitis has been reported in conjunction with hyperglycemia, the pathophysiologic mechanism of these adverse events remains unclear. This case got pancreatitis 6 month after risperidone treatment. Using the antipsychotic agents, it is necessary to monitor pancreas function. PMID:24851124

Kawabe, Kentaro; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

2014-04-01

44

Augmentation with Amisulpride for Schizophrenic Patients Non-Responsive to Risperidone Monotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: The combination of antipsychotic drugs is a therapeutic resource in clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and security of adding amisulpride in patients who at least partially responded to risperidone. Methods: A 3-month, open, observational study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of adding amisulpride in subjects who scored at least 25 on the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) after risperidone monotherapy. Patients were evaluated with BPRS, the Clinical Global Impressions Severity of Illness scale (CGI-S) and the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale (UKU) at baseline, 1 and 3 months. Results: Coadjuvant treatment with amisulpride achieves a statistically significant improvement in mental status over a period of 3 months when measured with BPRS, CGI and UKU scales. The response rate was 70 (45%) in the oral risperidone and 74 (28%) in the parenteral risperidone groups. Discussion: The addition of amisulpride could lead to an improvement in schizophrenia symptoms in patients that do not, or only partially, respond to risperidone. Further research is required into alternative therapies for poor responders. PMID:25402816

Toledo-Romero, F; Molina, J D; López-Rodríguez, E; Amorin-Díaz, M; Muñoz Algar, M J; Aparicio-Castro, E

2014-11-17

45

Review of risperidone for the treatment of pediatric and adolescent bipolar disorder and schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jeffrey R Bishop1,2, Mani N Pavuluri21Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Pediatric Mood Disorders Program and Center for Cognitive Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Risperidone is a commonly used medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents. It has been studied as a monotherapy treatment in early onset schizophrenia and as both monotherapy and combination therapy for pediatric bipolar disorder. Studies to date indicate that risperidone is an effective treatment for positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and mania symptoms of bipolar disorder. In young patient populations, side effects such as weight gain, extrapyramidal side effects, and prolactin elevation require consideration when evaluating the risk benefit ratio for individual patients. Here we review published studies of risperidone for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents to provide practitioners with an overview of published data on the efficacy and safety of risperidone in these patient populations.Keywords: risperidone, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, children, adolescents

Jeffrey R Bishop

2008-03-01

46

Intra-articular and soft tissue injections, a systematic review of relative efficacy of various corticosteroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The comparative efficacy of various Corticosteroid (CS) injections commonly used to treat musculoskeletal conditions has not been systematically studied. Our objective is to synthesize data about comparative efficacy of various CS used for intra-articular and periarticular soft tissue injections. Online databases were searched including MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, and bibliographies of studies till November 2013. We included all randomized controlled trials comparing two CS for intra-articular and periarticular injections, selected according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology. Seven good quality trials were selected for qualitative data synthesis. Two trials comparing triamcinolone hexacetonide (TH) and methylprednisolone (MP) for knee arthritis suggested faster pain relief with TH for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at day 7 (p?pain relief with MP compared to triamcinolone acetonide (TA) for rotator cuff tendonitis at 2 weeks (percentage of patients improving 92 % vs. 50 %; p?=?0.02) but similar long-term efficacy, while another trial suggested no difference between TA and MP for knee OA. Two trials for knee arthritis suggested a substantially better efficacy for TH than TA (response rate at 24 months 77 % vs 39 %; p?=?0.001) and betamethasone (BM) at day 42 (p?injections. Limited number of studies favored TH over other CS (TA, MP, BM). PMID:24651914

Garg, Neha; Perry, Lisa; Deodhar, Atul

2014-12-01

47

Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees. Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles. Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment. Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus colonized trees injected with ethanol. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection. Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks. Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests. Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio. Armorex, Armorex + Permethrin, and Veggie Pharm + Permethrin suppressed attacks in Tennessee. The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. germanus in one Ohio experiment, and cumulative total ambrosia beetle attacks in Virginia. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees. PMID:23448043

Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Ranger, Christopher M; Youssef, Nadeer N

2013-02-01

48

Treatment-completion rates with olanzapine long-acting injection versus risperidone long-acting injection in a 12-month, open-label treatment of schizophrenia: indirect, exploratory comparisons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Haya Ascher-Svanum1, William S Montgomery2, David P McDonnell3, Kristina A Coleman4, Peter D Feldman11Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, New South Wales, Australia; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Cork, Ireland; 4OptumInsight, Lilyfield, New South Wales, AustraliaBackground: Little is known about the comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in long-acting injection formulation. Due to the absence of head-to-h...

Ascher-Svanum H; Ws, Montgomery; Dp, Mcdonnell; Ka, Coleman; Pd, Feldman

2012-01-01

49

Curative and Residual Efficacy of Injection Applications of Avermectins for Control of Plant-parasitic Nematodes on Banana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies were conducted to determine the curative and residual efficacy of avermectins at controlling plant-parasitic nematodes when injected into the pseudostem of banana, Musa acuminata cv. Cavendish. In addition, we determined the lowest concentration of avermectins that provided satisfactory efficacy as protectants when injected into banana pseudostems. Experiments were conducted with a root-knot nematode, Meleidogyne javanica, and the burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis. Injections (1 ...

Jansson, Richard K.; Rabatin, Susan

1997-01-01

50

Therapeutic Efficacy of Doramectin Injectable Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Donkeys (Equus asinus in Khartoum, Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of doramectin administered intramuscularly and subcutaneously at a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg to donkeys naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes in Khartoum State, Sudan. The study involved 34 donkeys, animals were randomly allocated to a non-medicated control group or doramectin treated groups (DT1 and DT2. On day 0, donkeys in DT1 received an intramuscular injection of doramectin (0.2 mg/kg, whereas those in group DT2 received a single subcutaneous injection of doramectin (0.2 mg/kg. Individual faecal egg counts were performed daily for the first week and then on days 14, 21, and 28. Between days 14 and 20, two animals from each group were slaughtered, and worm burdens were determined. Treatment efficacy was based on the mean faecal egg count reduction (FECR 14 days post treatment. Faecal egg reduction of 100% was found after treatment with doramectin intramuscularly, but only 99.24% reduction was found after subcutaneous injection. At necropsy, only adult nematodes and mainly Strongylus vulgaris (L4 were recovered. Doramectin injected intramuscularly was highly efficacious against gastrointestinal nematodes of the donkey. Despite the fact that the drug has not being registered for use in donkeys, no abnormal clinical signs nor adverse reactions were observed in any of the donkeys treated with doramectin.

A. A. Ismail

2004-01-01

51

MRI in children given gadodiamide injection: safety and efficacy in CNS and body indications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The safety and efficacy of the MRI contrast medium gadodiamide injection (OMNISCAN) in children is summarised. Four open and three double-blind, multinational, multicentre comparative trials have been undertaken. Overall, 353 patients (15 days to 18 years, plus one 21 years) received gadodiamide injection, and 128 (2-18 years) received gadopentetate dimeglumine (Magnevist), intravenously at 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, to aid the identification of CNS and body lesions. Adverse events were reported in 13 (4%) patients given gadodiamide injection and 8 (6%) given gadopentetate dimeglumine; few patients reported injection-associated discomfort. The post-contrast scan gave more diagnostic information in 223 (63%) patients given gadodiamide injection (CNS and body indications). In the comparative trials, the post-contrast scan gave more diagnostic information for 91 (65%) and 82 (64%) patients given gadodiamide injection and gadopentetate dimeglumine, respectively (CNS indications only). Gadodiamide injection (0.1 mmol/kg body weight) was safe and effective in infants, children and adolescents. PMID:9003923

Lundby, B; Gordon, P; Hugo, F

1996-11-01

52

THE EFFICACY OF ORAL GLUCOSE FOR RELIEVING PAIN FOLLOWING INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION IN TERM NEONATES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pain in neonates can be associated with various risks and it seems essential to find a simple and acceptable method for relieving pain. Pharmacologic agents are not recommended in neonates for pain relief in minor procedures but orally administered glucose solution is found to be effective. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of oral 30% glucose during intramuscular injection in term neonates. Sixty-four healthy term neonates were recruited for this study during 1 month. The inclusion criteria were gestational age 37-42 weeks, birth weight 2500-4000 gr, and Apgar score > 7. The intervention consists of administration of either 2 ml of oral 30% glucose or 2ml of sterile water 2 minutes before injection. The primary out come measure was the cumulative Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS score at 3 minutes after injection. Thirty-two neonates received 30% glucose and 32 neonates received sterile water. The cumulative NIPS score at 3 minutes after injection for neonates given 30% glucose was significantly (P = 0.000 lower than for neonates given sterile water. The heart rate immediately after injection for neonates given 30% glucose was significantly (P = 0.002 lower than for neonates given sterile water. Oral 30% glucose given 2 minutes before injection was effective in reducing neonatal pain following injection. It is a simple, safe and fast acting analgesic and should be considered for minor invasive procedures in term neonates.

M. Rahgozar L. Radrazm

2006-09-01

53

Risperidone  

Science.gov (United States)

... mood) or mixed episodes (symptoms of mania and depression that happen together) in adults and in teenagers and children 10 years of age and older with bipolar disorder (manic depressive disorder; a disease ...

54

The Efficacy of Intradiscal Steroid Injections in Degenerative Lumbar Disc Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of intradiscal steroid injection in patients with chronic low back pain due to degenerative disc disease.Materials and Methods: A total of 18 patients (9 female, 9 male) with chronic low back pain of discogenic origin were enrolled in the study. The intervertebral disc level which met the diagnostic criteria for provocative discography was defined as discogenic pain level. After identification of positive disc level, 1 cc betamethasone was injec...

Ferdi Yavuz; Mehmet Ali Ta?kaynatan; Koray Aydemir; Ahmet Özgül; Arif Kenan Tan

2012-01-01

55

A pharmacogenetic study of risperidone on chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in Chinese Han schizophrenia patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous observations of the pathophysiological distribution and pharmacological profile of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) have indicated its potential role in antipsychotic drug actions. More information on the pharmacogenetics of CCL2 may therefore be useful in developing individualized therapy. However, to our knowledge, rare studies have been reported in this area. This investigation was attempted to clarify whether CCL2 polymorphism could affect risperidone efficacy. We genotyped four SNPs (rs4795893, rs1024611, rs4586 and rs2857657) distributed throughout the CCL2 gene and examined them for association using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score in two independent cohorts of Chinese schizophrenic patients (n = 208) from two different geographic areas, following an 8-week period of risperidone monotherapy. We found that all genotyped SNPs were significantly associated with risperidone treatment (rs4795893: p = 1.66E-04, rs4586: p = 0.001, rs2857657: p = 0.004, at week 4, in ANOVA). Our results indicate that there may be some effect of variations in the CCL2 gene on therapeutic efficacy of risperidone, and the associated polymorphisms may be a potential genetic marker for predicting the therapeutic effect of risperidone. PMID:24495780

Xiong, Yuyu; Wei, Zhiyun; Huo, Ran; Wu, Xi; Shen, Lu; Li, Yang; Gong, Xueli; Wu, Zhenqiang; Feng, Guoyin; Li, Wenqiang; He, Lin; Xing, Qinghe; Qin, Shengying

2014-06-01

56

Efficacy of a fixed dose combination of diclofenac sodium and acetaminophen (Rhumacort) injection in postoperative pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed dose combination of diclofenac sodium and acetaminophen injection a study was carried out in patients suffering from acute pain. Thirty-eight adult patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery received 3ml injection of diclofenac 25mg and acetaminophen 75mg per ml by deep intramuscular route 8 hourly for 6 doses. The pain assessment was made on a 1-100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS), onset of action, extent of pain relief and maximum fall in VAS score after the first dose was assessed. Injection pentazocine lactate was administered as rescue medication in case of uncontrolled pain. At baseline the pain score on VAS was 78.55 +/- 17.12, which at the end of 1 hour was found to be 43.57 +/- 19.91. There was a statistically significant (pdiclofenac and acetaminophen is effective and safe for management of postoperative pain in orthopaedic surgery. PMID:16910329

Mehtani, Anil; Shersia, Amit; Singh, Sukhvinder; Salve, J K

2006-04-01

57

The efficacy of IntraFlow intraosseous injection as a primary anesthesia technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of intraosseous injection and inferior alveolar (IA) nerve block in anesthetizing mandibular posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Thirty human subjects were randomly assigned to receive either intraosseous injection using the IntraFlow system (Pro-Dex Inc, Santa Ana, CA) or IA block as the primary anesthesia method. Pulpal anesthesia was evaluated via electric pulp testing at 4-minute intervals for 20 minutes. Two consecutive 80/80 readings were considered successful pulpal anesthesia. Anesthesia success or failure was recorded and groups compared. Intraosseous injection provided successful anesthesia in 13 of 15 subjects (87%). The IA block provided successful anesthesia in 9 of 15 subjects (60%). Although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.2148), the results of this preliminary study indicate that the IntraFlow system can be used as the primary anesthesia method in teeth with irreversible pulpitis to achieve predictable pulpal anesthesia. PMID:18291275

Remmers, Todd; Glickman, Gerald; Spears, Robert; He, Jianing

2008-03-01

58

The relationship between prepulse inhibition and general psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia treated with long-acting risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with schizophrenia exhibit impairments in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response. Available data suggest that atypical antipsychotics may be more effective than typical antipsychotics in improving PPI deficits in schizophrenia. However, previous studies have used between-subjects rather than longitudinal within-subjects designs to demonstrate superiority of particular atypical antipsychotics over typical antipsychotics in improving PPI in patients with schizophrenia. This longitudinal within-subjects test-retest study was designed to evaluate changes in PPI and clinical symptoms in patients with schizophrenia after switching from the conventional antipsychotic zuclopenthixol to long-acting injectable risperidone. PPI was measured in 45 chronic male patients with schizophrenia treated with zuclophentixol depot (session T1), and 12 weeks after switching to long-acting injectable risperidone (session T2). Thirty-six healthy control subjects were also evaluated. Patients with schizophrenia showed a significant improvement in PPI after changing to long-acting risperidone. Improvement of PPI deficits between T1 and T2 assessments correlated significantly with improvements in PANSS general psychopathology subscale scores. Our findings indicate that long-acting risperidone improves PPI deficits in subjects with chronic schizophrenia. These results also suggest that the PPI-restoring effect of risperidone may be related to improvement in symptoms other than positive and negative symptoms. PMID:19846280

Martinez-Gras, Isabel; Rubio, Gabriel; del Manzano, Blanca Alvarez; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto; Garcia-Sanchez, Fernando; Bagney, Alexandra; Leza, Juan Carlos; Borrell, José

2009-12-01

59

Postmortem Femoral Blood Concentrations of Risperidone  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Postmortem femoral blood concentrations of the antipsychotic drug risperidone and the active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined by an achiral LC-MS/MS method in 38 cases. The cause of death was classified as unrelated to risperidone in 30 cases, in which the sum of the concentration of the drug and metabolite ranged from below the limit of quantification to 0.058 mg/kg (median 0.0098 mg/kg). This concentration range, which largely corresponds to published in vivo plasmalevels under therapy, may serve as a reference for judgment of postmortem cases involving risperidone. In one case, risperidone was judged to be a contributing factor to death, and the sum of concentrations was 0.29 mg/kg. This concentration is of the same order of magnitude as observed for plasma levels in clinical intoxication cases. For the remaining seven cases, the cause of death was unclear. The measurements observed here do not suggest that risperidone is subject to major postmortem redistribution.

Linnet, Kristian; Johansen, Sys Stybe

2014-01-01

60

Double-blind comparison of ziprasidone and risperidone in the treatment of Chinese patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hongyan Zhang1, Huafang Li2, Liang Shu1, Niufan Gu2, Gang Wang3, Yongzhen Weng3, Shiping Xie4, Xinbao Zhang4, Ting Li5, Cui Ma5, Wei Yu6, Bruce Parsons7, Manjula Schou81Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing, China; 2Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai, China; 3Capital Medical University, Beijing An Ding Hospital, Beijing, China; 4Nanjing Brain Hospital, Nanjing, China; 5Guangzhou Brain Hospital, Guangzhou, China; 6Pfizer China, Beijing, China; 7Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA; 8Pfizer Australia, Sydney, AustraliaBackground: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ziprasidone versus risperidone in Chinese subjects with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.Methods: In patients meeting the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders criteria for schizophrenia and with a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score ?60 were randomly assigned to six weeks of double-blind treatment with ziprasidone 40–80 mg twice daily or risperidone 1–3 mg bid, flexibly dosed. Noninferiority was demonstrated if the upper limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval (CI for the difference in PANSS total score improvement from baseline in the evaluable population was smaller than the prespecified noninferiority margin of 10 units.Results: The intent-to-treat population comprised 118 ziprasidone-treated and 121 risperidone-treated subjects. Improvement (reduction from baseline to week 6 in PANSS total score was (-35.6 [95% CI: -38.6, -32.6] for ziprasidone and (-37.1 [95% CI: -39.9, -34.4] for risperidone. Noninferiority was demonstrated in the evaluable population with a difference score of 1.5 [95% CI: -2.5, 5.5]. Mean prolactin levels decreased at week 6 compared with baseline for ziprasidone (-3.5 ng/mL, but significantly increased for risperidone (61.1 ng/mL; P < 0.001. More risperidone-treated subjects (14.9% than ziprasidone-treated subjects (4.2% reported weight gain ?7%. Akathisia and somnolence in the ziprasidone group and akathisia and insomnia in the risperidone group were the most common side effects. Treatment-related/treatment-emergent adverse events were reported by 79.7% and 71.1% of ziprasidone-treated and risperidone-treated subjects, respectively.Conclusion: In Chinese subjects, ziprasidone was as effective as risperidone, with less weight gain and less prolactin elevation.Keywords: ziprasidone, risperidone, schizophrenia

Hongyan Zhang

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

Risperidone in the treatment of behavioral disorders associated with autism in children and adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Roberto Canitano, Valeria ScandurraDivision of Child Neuropsychiatry, University Hospital of Siena, Siena, ItalyAbstract: This is a review of the clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The main clinical characteristics are impairment in social skills, communication difficulties, repetitive movements and behaviors, including stereotypies. Pharmacotherapy is mainly directed at the so-called target...

Roberto Canitano; Valeria Scandurra

2008-01-01

62

Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Dystonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Local chemodenervation with botulinum toxin (BoNT injections to relax abnormally contracting muscles has been shown to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment in a variety of movement disorders and other neurological and non-neurological disorders. Despite almost 30 years of therapeutic use, there are only few studies of patients treated with BoNT injections over long period of time. These published data clearly support the conclusion that BoNT not only provides safe and effective symptomatic relief of dystonia but also long-term benefit and possibly even favorably modifying the natural history of this disease. The adverse events associated with chronic, periodic exposure to BoNT injections are generally minor and self-limiting. With the chronic use of BoNT and an expanding list of therapeutic indications, there is a need to carefully examine the existing data on the long-term efficacy and safety of BoNT. In this review we will highlight some of the aspects of long-term effects of BoNT, including efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity.

Juan Ramirez-Castaneda

2013-02-01

63

Efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab injection combined with macular grid photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with macular grid photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema(DME.METHODS:Totally 60 eyes(60 patientswith DME were randomly divided into 2 groups: 30 eyes of simple injection group underwent intravitreal injection of ranibizumab, and 30 eyes of combined treatment group underwent intravitreal injection of ranibizumab and macular grid photocoagulation 1wk later. The best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, central macular thickness(CMTmeasured by optical coherence tomography(OCTand postoperative complications were observed.RESULTS:In simple injection group, the BCVA after operation were separately 0.390±0.075(4wk, 0.367±0.088(8wkand 0.319±0.064(12wk,the CMT after operation were separately 221.63±112.34?m(4wk, 337.73±99.56?m(8wkand 432.92±100.46?m(12wk, which were much better than pre-operation. But during follow-up, the BCVA presented down trend and the CMT was on the rise slowly. In combined treatment group, the BCVA after operation were separately 0.385±0.036(4wk, 0.382±0.079(8wkand 0.377±0.097(12wk,the CMT after operation were separately 249.77±106.55?m(4wk, 270.40±92.88?m(8wkand 275.84±97.34?m(12wk, which were satisfactory and steady during follow-up, better than simple injection group(PCONCLUSION:Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab can effectively improve visual acuity and decrease central foveal thickness for patients with DME, combining with macular grid photocoagulation can ensure therapeutic effects steady and permanent.

Hu-Lin Jiang

2014-07-01

64

Association of dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) polymorphisms with risperidone treatment response in Chinese schizophrenia patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence suggests that dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the pharmacodynamics of antipsychotics. We conducted a comprehensive pharmacogenomics study to investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in DRD1 with treatment response to risperidone. Two independent cohorts of Han Chinese schizophrenic patients (n=185) from two different geographic areas treated with risperidone monotherapy for 4 weeks and four SNPs (rs5326, rs4867798, rs4532 and rs686) in the DRD1 gene were analyzed. Clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The definition of risperidone response is based on a cut-off of 50% in terms of corrected percent change of PANSS score. The significant confounding effects of non-genetic factors were included as covariates for adjustment. No significant association of DRD1 polymorphisms with risperidone treatment response was found in either single marker or haplotype analysis in this study. The current results provide the first evidence that DRD1 polymorphisms may not influence the clinical efficacy of risperidone in Chinese schizophrenia patients. PMID:25179995

Huo, Ran; Wei, Zhiyun; Xiong, Yuyu; Jiang, Jie; Liu, Yichen; Yan, Yucai; Shi, Jiajun; Li, Wenqiang; Cui, Donghong; Xing, Qinghe; He, Lin; Qin, Shengying

2015-01-01

65

Therapeutic Efficacy of Doramectin Injectable Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Donkeys (Equus asinus) in Khartoum, Sudan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of doramectin administered intramuscularly and subcutaneously at a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg to donkeys naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes in Khartoum State, Sudan. The study involved 34 donkeys, animals were randomly allocated to a non-medicated control group or doramectin treated groups (DT1 and DT2). On day 0, donkeys in DT1 received an intramuscular injection of doramectin (0.2 mg/kg), whereas those in group DT2 recei...

Ismail, A. A.; Abakar, A. D.; Salih, M. M.; Hassan, T.; Seri, H. I.; Tigani, T. A.

2004-01-01

66

Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) in treatment of cestode infections in domestic and laboratory animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) by intramuscular (I.M.) route against cestode infections was evaluated. Total 93 domestic or laboratory animals such as dogs, cats, rats, mice, goats, deers and chickens were used. Animals were infected with Dipylidium caninum, Spirometra sp., Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis nana, Moniezia expansa, Moniezia sp. or Raillietina sp. A single dose of praziquantel, 6 mg/kg of body weight, was highly effective (97.9%) against cestodes of various kinds disregarding the host species or their intensity of infection. At high dose above 6 mg/kg, the cure rate was 100%. All the cestodes treated were expelled from the host within 48 hours. The discharged proglottids were damaged severely except Hymenolepis nana and Moniezia expansa. Intramuscular injection of this drug evoked a brief pain response in a dog, but no other side reactions were observed. PMID:12811058

Eom, Kee Seon; Kim, Seung Ho; Rim, Han Jong

1988-06-01

67

Efficacy of florfenicol injection in the treatment of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae induced respiratory disease in pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the efficacy of a single intramuscular injection of a new formulation of florfenicol to treat clinical respiratory disease following experimental Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection. M. hyopneumoniae-free piglets were allocated to three groups, namely, a treatment group (TG) and a positive control group (PCG), which were both inoculated endotracheally with a highly virulent isolate of M. hyopneumoniae, and a negative control group. At the onset of clinical disease, the TG received a single injection of florfenicol (30 mg/kg). All pigs were euthanased 4 weeks post-infection. Clinical symptoms were significantly reduced in the TG in comparison with the PCG. Average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, mortality and lung lesions were improved in the TG compared to the PCG, but the differences were not statistically significant. PMID:22609150

Del Pozo Sacristán, R; Thiry, J; Vranckx, K; López Rodríguez, A; Chiers, K; Haesebrouck, F; Thomas, E; Maes, D

2012-12-01

68

Effect of Aripiprazole on Cognitive Function and Hyperprolactinemia in Patients with Schizophrenia Treated with Risperidone  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective This study aimed to assess the efficacy of aripiprazole for the management of cognitive impairments and hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia on a stable dose of risperidone. Methods Thirty-five subjects stabilized on risperidone (3-6 mg/day) for a minimum of 3 months were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase for 12 weeks and an open-label phase for another 12 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 10 mg/day aripiprazole (n=17) or placebo (n=18). Over the following 12 weeks, the the aripiprazole group received a flexible dose of aripiprazole while tapering risperidone. At baseline, week 12, and week 24, subjects were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Extrapyramidal Syndrome Rating Scale (ESRS), and standardized neuropsychological assessments. Serum prolactin levels were checked at baseline, week 1, week 2, and week 24. Results The mean change in total PANSS and cognitive function test scores between baseline and endpoint were similar in the aripiprazole and placebo groups. Scores on the ESRS and negative subscale of PANSS differed significantly between groups in both phases of the study (p<0.05), indicating a positive effect of aripiprazole. Compared with placebo, aripiprazole significantly reduced mean baseline serum prolactin levels within 1 week (p=0.015). Conclusion Adjunctive treatment with and switching to aripiprazole were not associated with improved cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia receiving risperidone; however, aripiprazole treatment decreased negative symptoms and risperidone-induced motor side effects and lowered serum prolactin levels. PMID:24023549

Lee, Bong Ju; Lee, Seung Ju; Kim, Min Kyung; Lee, Jung Goo; Park, Sung Woo; Kim, Gyung Mee

2013-01-01

69

Treatment of benign cold thyroid nodule: efficacy and safety of US-guided percutaneous ethanol injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of US-guided percutaneous ethanol injection for the treatent of benign cold thyroid nodules. Twenty-five patients with benign cold thyroid nodules (volume of each at least 2ml proven by PCNA to be adenomatous hyperplasia, and cold nodule by thyroid scan) underwent a total of one to three percutaneous ethanol injections (PEI) at intervals of one or two months. The mean amount of ethanol used was 6.2(range, 1.5-8)ml, depending on the volume of the nodule. Follow up ultrasonography was performed one to four months after the final session. The initial volume of nodules was 11.4±4.1(range, 2.5-41.4)ml, and in all cases this fell by 56.1±22.3%(range, 10.9-92.1%);in all cases, follow-up ultrasonography showed that echogeneity was lower and its pattern was heterogeneous. There were no important longstanding complications;the most common side effect was acute pain at the injection site(n=3D9), and in one case, transient vocal cord palsy occurred. Our results show that US-guided percutaneous injection of ethanol is an effective and a safe procedure for the treatment of benign cold thyroid nodules, and is thus an alternative to surgery or hormone therapy.=20

70

Comparison of efficacy of kinesiological taping and subacromial injection therapy in subacromial impingement syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of kinesiological taping and subacromial injection therapy in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). Seventy patients diagnosed with SIS were randomly assigned to group 1 (n?=?35, injection group) or group 2 (n?=?35, kinesiological taping group). Betamethasone plus prilocaine was injected to subacromial space in the patients in group 1. In group 2, tape was applied three times for a period of five consecutive days with a 2-day recovery interval. A 3-month exercise program was prescribed for both groups including stretching and strengthening exercises. All patients were assessed at baseline and at 1 and 3 months post-intervention. Assessments were made by visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, range of motion (ROM) measurements, specific tests, and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI). Significant differences were detected in VAS and SPADI scores as well as ROM measurements in both groups when compared to baseline (p?>?0.05). No significant differences were detected between the groups except for active flexion degree in favor of group 1 (p?=?0.004). Both kinesiological taping and steroid injection in conjunction with an exercise program were found to be effective in the treatment of SIS. Kinesio taping may be an alternative treatment option in the rehabilitation of SIS especially when a non-invasive technique is needed. PMID:25403253

Suba??, Volkan; Cak?r, Tuncay; Ar?ca, Zuhal; Sar?er, Rahime Nur; Bilgilisoy Filiz, Meral; Kolda? Do?an, Sebnem; Toraman, Naciye Füsun

2014-11-18

71

Treatment of Schizophrenia With Long-Acting Fluphenazine, Haloperidol, or Risperidone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: This study compares 3 cohorts of patients with schizophrenia before, during, and after initiating treatment with fluphenazine decanoate (FD), haloperidol decanoate (HD), or long-acting injectable risperidone (LAR). Methods: Administrative data are analyzed from California Medicaid (Medi-Cal) beneficiaries with schizophrenia who initiated FD, HD, or LAR treatment. Patients were required to have been continuously enrolled in Medi-Cal for 180 days before and 180 days after the start o...

Olfson, Mark; Marcus, Steven C.; Ascher-svanum, Haya

2007-01-01

72

A 12-week subchronic intramuscular toxicity study of risperidone-loaded microspheres in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-acting injectable formulations of antipsychotics have been an important treatment option to increase the compliance of the patient with schizophrenia by monitoring drug administration and identifying medication noncompliance and to improve the long-term management of schizophrenia. Risperidone, a serotoninergic 5-HT2 and dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonist, was developed to be a long-acting sustained-release formulation for the treatment of schizophrenia. In this study, 12-week subchronic toxicity study of risperidone-loaded microspheres (RMs) in rats by intramuscular injection with an 8-week recovery phase was carried out to investigate the potential subchronic toxicity of a novel long-acting sustained-release formulation. The results indicated that the dosage of 10-90 mg/kg of RM for 2 weeks did not cause treatment-related mortality. The main drug-related findings were contributed to the dopamine D2 receptor and ?1-adrenoceptor antagonism of risperidone such as elevation of serum and pituitary prolactin levels and ptosis and changes in reproductive system (uterus, ovary, vagina, mammary gland, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymis, and prostate). In addition, foreign body granuloma in muscle at injection sites caused by poly-lactide-co-glycolide was observed. At the end of the recovery phase, these changes mostly returned to normal. The results indicated that RM had a good safety profile in rats. PMID:24812153

Zhang, J; Ye, L; Wang, W; Du, G; Yu, X; Zhu, X; Dong, Q; Cen, X; Guan, X; Fu, F; Tian, J

2015-02-01

73

Population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation to guide dose selection for RBP-7000, a new sustained-release formulation of risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

RBP-7000 is a long-acting formulation of risperidone designed for once-monthly subcutaneous injection for the treatment of schizophrenia. The objective was to estimate clinically effective doses of RBP-7000 based on model simulations and on the comparison with other long-acting injectable antipsychotics. A population pharmacokinetic model of RBP-7000 was developed in 90 clinically stable schizophrenic patients having received single/repeated doses of 60, 90, or 120?mg. Model simulations were conducted to compare active moiety plasma exposure after repeated RBP-7000 administrations to the published data of long-acting risperidone injection (Risperdal® Consta®) at 25 and 50?mg, and of paliperidone palmitate (Invega® Sustenna®) at 50 and 100?mg equivalent paliperidone. Predictions of dopamine D2 receptor occupancy were derived from the simulated active moiety concentrations. Simulations showed similar active moiety plasma exposure at steady-state for 90?mg of RBP-7000 and 25?mg of long-acting risperidone. In comparison to risperidone, RBP-7000 reached effective concentrations immediately after the first administration. RBP-7000 at the doses of 60 and 90?mg provided similar active moiety plasma concentrations at steady-state compared to 50 and 100?mg equivalent paliperidone, respectively. These findings provide guidance for dose selection in Phase III clinical trials and suggest potential benefits for RBP-7000 over competitors. PMID:25043337

Laffont, Celine M; Gomeni, Roberto; Zheng, Bo; Heidbreder, Christian; Fudala, Paul J; Nasser, Azmi F

2015-01-01

74

Experimental study on effects of Shengmai Injection: enhancing 5-FU anti-tumor efficacy and reducing its toxicity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objevtive: To observe the effects of Shengmai Injection on enhancing efficacy and reducing toxicity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Methods: Fifty hepatoma 22 bearing mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, 5-Fu group, Shengmai Injection (low, medium and high dose) combined with 5-FU groups. There were 10 mice in each group. Mice in the five groups were injected introperitoneally the same amount of normal saline, 5-FU (20 mg·kg?1·d?1) and Shengmai Injection (3.5 ml·kg?1...

Chen, Zhen

2005-01-01

75

The Efficacy of Intradiscal Steroid Injections in Degenerative Lumbar Disc Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of intradiscal steroid injection in patients with chronic low back pain due to degenerative disc disease.Materials and Methods: A total of 18 patients (9 female, 9 male with chronic low back pain of discogenic origin were enrolled in the study. The intervertebral disc level which met the diagnostic criteria for provocative discography was defined as discogenic pain level. After identification of positive disc level, 1 cc betamethasone was injected into the disc. The outcome measures (visual analog pain scale and Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale scores, finger-tip-to-floor distance and duration of sitting without pain were assessed before the treatment and at second week and third month post injection. Results: The reduction in low back pain intensity between the baseline and second week, and between the baseline and third month was statistically significant (p=0.001 and p=0.002. Besides, statistically significant improvement was observed in Quebec Disability Scores between the baseline and second week, and between the baseline and third month (p=0.001 and p=0.002. The finger-tip-to-floor distance between the baseline and second week, and between the baseline and third month showed a statistically significant improvement (p=0.002 and p=0.02. The duration of sitting without pain between the baseline and second week, and between the baseline and third month showed a statistically significant increase (p=0.001 and p=0.009. Conclusion: As a result, we suggest that intradiscal steroid injection may be effective in short-term and mid-term for reducing the intensity of spinal pain and the proportion of disability due to chronic discogenic low back pain in patients who do not respond to conservative treatment. Turk J Phys Med Re­hab 2012;58:88-92.

Ferdi Yavuz

2012-06-01

76

Combined use of ozone and collagenase injection for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation:comparison of therapeutic efficacy with simple ozone injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To observe the therapeutic effects of combined use of ozone and collagenase injection in treating lumbar disc herniation and to make a comparison of therapeutic efficacy with simple ozone injection. Methods: Under DSA guidance,percutaneous puncturing of diseased lumbar disk with a gauge 9 needle was performed in 76 patient with lumbar disc herniation. After the needle position was confirmed in the right site simple ozone injection (control group, n=38) or combined use of ozone and collagenase injection (study group, n=38) was carried outs. The clinical results were evaluated and compared between two groups. Results: After the treatment, all 76 patients were followed up regularly at 1, 3 and 6 months. At 1, 3 and 6 months after the therapy, the effective rate of study group was 89.5%, 92.1% and 94.7% respectively, while the effective rate of control group was 86.8%, 84.2% and 81.6% respectively. Conclusion: For the treatment of lumbar disc herniation, the therapeutic effect of combined use of ozone and collagenase injection is much better than that by using simple ozone injection, moreover, it carries a quite stable long-term efficacy. (authors)

77

Improved efficacy and reduced toxicity by ultrasound-guided intrahepatic injections of helper-dependent adenoviral vector in Gunn rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I is caused by mutations of the uridine diphospho-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene resulting in life-threatening increase of serum bilirubin. Life-long correction of hyperbilirubinemia was previously shown with intravenous injection of high doses of a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing UGT1A1 in the Gunn rat, the animal model of Crigler-Najjar syndrome. However, such high vector doses can activate an acute and potentially lethal inflammatory response with elevated serum interleukin-6 (IL-6). To overcome this obstacle, we investigated safety and efficacy of direct injections of low HDAd doses delivered directly into the liver parenchyma of Gunn rats. Direct hepatic injections performed by either laparotomy or ultrasound-guided percutaneous injections were compared with the same doses given by intravenous injections. A greater reduction of hyperbilirubinemia and increased conjugated bilirubin in bile were achieved with 1 × 10(11) vp/kg by direct liver injections compared with intravenous injections. In sharp contrast to intravenous injections, direct hepatic injections neither raised serum IL-6 nor resulted in thrombocytopenia. In conclusion, ultrasound-guided percutaneous injection of HDAd vectors into liver parenchyma resulted in improved hepatocyte transduction and reduced toxicity compared with systemic injections and is clinically attractive for liver-directed gene therapy of Crigler-Najjar syndrome. PMID:23947957

Pastore, Nunzia; Nusco, Edoardo; Piccolo, Pasquale; Castaldo, Sigismondo; Vaníkova, Jana; Vetrini, Francesco; Palmer, Donna J; Vitek, Libor; Ng, Philip; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

2013-10-01

78

Anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection given 30 min following an inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine whether a repeated intraosseous (IO) injection would increase or prolong pulpal anesthesia, we measured the degree of anesthesia obtained by a repeated IO injection given 30 min following a combination inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection (IAN/IO) in mandibular second premolars and in first and second molars. Using a repeated-measures design, we randomly assigned 38 subjects to receive two combinations of injections at two separate appointments. The combinations w...

Reitz, J.; Reader, A.; Nist, R.; Beck, M.; Meyers, W. J.

1998-01-01

79

Injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author presents an introduction to beam injection. Especially considered are single-turn injection, multi-turn injection, H- charge-exchange injection, and injection from a cyclotron into a synchrotron. Finally some novel injection schemes are briefly mentioned. (HSI)

80

A placebo controlled study of the propentofylline added to risperidone in chronic schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impaired activity of the purinergic system is a plausible common factor that could be responsible for many aspects of schizophrenia. Based on purinegic hypothesis of schizophrenia, pharmacological treatments enhancing adenosine activity could be effective treatment in schizophrenia. Propentofylline is a novel xantine derivative which is being developed for treatment of degenerative and vascular dementia. It enhances extracellular adenosine level via inhibition of adenosine uptake. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the efficacy of propentofylline as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia in an 8-week double blind and placebo controlled trial. Eligible participants in this study were 50 patients with chronic schizophrenia. All patients were inpatients and were in the active phase of the illness, and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia. Patients were allocated in a random fashion, 25 to risperidone 6 mg/day plus propentofylline 900 mg/day (300 mg TDS) and 25 to risperidone 6 mg/day plus placebo. The principal measure of the outcome was Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Although both protocols significantly decreased the score of the positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms over the trial period, the combination of risperidone and propentofylline showed a significant superiority over risperidone alone in the treatment of positive symptoms, general psychopathology symptoms as well as PANSS total scores. The means Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale for the placebo group were higher than in the propentofylline group over the trial. However, the differences were not significant. The present study indicates propentofylline as a potential adjunctive treatment strategy for chronic schizophrenia. Nevertheless, results of larger controlled trials are needed, before recommendation for a broad clinical application can be made. PMID:18096287

Salimi, Samarand; Fotouhi, Akbar; Ghoreishi, Abolfazl; Derakhshan, Mohammad-Kamran; Khodaie-Ardakani, Mohammad-Reza; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Noorbala, Ahmad-Ali; Ahmadi-Abhari, Seyed-Ali; Hajiazim, Mohammad; Abbasi, Seyed-Hesameddin; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

2008-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

Efficacy of injections of phosphatidylcholine into fat deposits-a non-surgical alternative to liposuction in body-contouring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injecting phosphatidylcholine has been used in South America as a non-surgical treatment in body contouring. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of injecting phosphatidylcholine in the reduction of localised fat deposits. 86 patients were included in the study. Patients received 1-3 treatments in localised fat deposits in various areas of the body using phosphatidylcholine. After treatment with phosphatidylcholine (250 mg / 5 ml, fat deposits show an average circumferential reduction per application of 2.70 cm. No patient showed irregularities, dimples or any serious side effect after treatment. Results remained stable during the time of follow up. All patients showed remarkable reductions of the fat deposits treated with phosphatidylcholine. Using the correct technique, injecting phosphatidylcholine may be a safe and efficacious alternative to liposuction in patients objecting to surgery.

Karl-G Heinrich

2005-01-01

82

A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Risperidone for the Treatment of Adolescents and Young Adults with Anorexia Nervosa: A Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory pilot study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of risperidone for the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Method: Forty female subjects 12 to 21 years of age (mean, 16 years) with primary anorexia nervosa in an eating disorders program were randomized to receive…

Hagman, Jennifer; Gralla, Jane; Sigel, Eric; Ellert, Swan; Dodge, Mindy; Gardner, Rick; O'Lonergan, Teri; Frank, Guido; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.

2011-01-01

83

Preparation and Biological Evaluation of Radioiodinated Risperidone and Lamotrigine as Models for Brain Imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brain imaging technology is becoming an important tool in both research and clinical care. Due to the sensitivity of brain imaging technology, neuroscientists are able to visualize brain structure and function from the level of individual molecules to the whole brain, recognize and diagnose neurological disorders, develop new strategies for treatment and determine how therapies work. The study aimed to take advantages from drugs that are able to cross the brain barrier for the development of potential radiopharmaceuticals for non-invasive brain imaging. Risperidone and lamotrigine were successfully labeled with 125I via direct electrophilic substitution reaction at 80 degree C. The reaction parameters affecting the preparation process were studied. 125I-risperidone and 125I-lamotrigine gave maximum labeling yield of 89 % ± 3.75 and 97.5 % ± 1.0 %, respectively and their stability were up to 6 and 24 h, respectively. Biodistribution studies showed that maximum uptake of 125I-risperidone and 125I-lamotrigine in the brain of mice were 4.27 % ± 0.38 and 2.45 % ± 0.18 of the injected activity/g tissue organ, at 10

84

Curative and Residual Efficacy of Injection Applications of Avermectins for Control of Plant-parasitic Nematodes on Banana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were conducted to determine the curative and residual efficacy of avermectins at controlling plant-parasitic nematodes when injected into the pseudostem of banana, Musa acuminata cv. Cavendish. In addition, we determined the lowest concentration of avermectins that provided satisfactory efficacy as protectants when injected into banana pseudostems. Experiments were conducted with a root-knot nematode, Meleidogyne javanica, and the burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis. Injections (1 ml) of >/= 100 mug a.i./plant of abamectin into pseudostems were effective at controlling M. javanica and R. similis, and were comparable to control achieved with a conventional chemical nemaficide, fenamiphos, in a protectant assay. Abamecfin injections of 250 and 500 mug a.i./plant were effective at reducing nematode infections 28 to 56 days after inoculation. Abamectin was more effective than ivermectin at controlling nematodes after nematode populations were established in banana roots. Injections of between 100 and 1,000 mug a.i./plant were effective at controlling nematodes for at least 56 days after treatment. These studies confirmed earlier results and demonstrated that abamecfin has potential for controlling nematode parasites on banana when injected into the pseudostem. PMID:19274271

Jansson, R K; Rabatin, S

1997-12-01

85

Anxiolytic-like property of risperidone and olanzapine as examined in multiple measures of fear in rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Atypical antipsychotics are also used in the treatment of anxiety-related disorders. Clinical and preclinical evidence regarding their intrinsic anxiolytic efficacy has been mixed. In this study, we examined the potential anxiolytic-like effects of risperidone and olanzapine, and compared them with haloperidol, chlordiazepoxide (a prototype of sedative-anxiolytic drug) or citalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor). We used a composite of two-way avoidance conditioning and acoustic ...

Sun, Tao; He, Wei; Hu, Gang; Li, Ming

2010-01-01

86

Efficacy of oral and intraperitoneal administration of CBMIDA for removing uranium in rats after parenteral injections of depleted uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficacy of oral administration of the chelating agent catechol-3, 6-bis(methyliminodiacetic acid) (CBMIDA) for removing uranium from rats after intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intramuscular (i.m.) injections of depleted uranium (DU) was examined and the results with those by the i.p. injection of CBMIDA were compared. In Experiment 1, after a single i.p. injection of 8 mg kg-1 of DU of rat's body weight, 35 8-week-old male rats were divided into seven groups consisting of five rats each. Three groups were administered with CBMIDA 240, 720 or 1200 mg kg-1 of rat's body weight orally once a day, and three other groups received an i.p. injection of 240, 480 or 720 mg kg-1 CBMIDA for 3 d, starting 30 min after DU injection on the first day. One DU group received no CBMIDA. The remaining five intact rats were used as a control group. Rats were killed 6 d after DU injection. In Experiment 2, the 35 male rats that received a single i.m. injection of 8 mg kg-1 DU were divided into seven groups, and the rats of each group received the same doses of CBMIDA on the same schedules of treatment as those described in Experiment 1. The results obtained in Experiment 1 indicated that orally administered CBMIDA significantly increased the excretion of uranium at doses of 720 and 1200 mg kg-1 and decreased uranium concentrations, particularly in the kidney, at all the doses tested, and the effects were almost equal to those of the iffects were almost equal to those of the i.p. injection. The lack of increases in creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in serum indicated that CBMIDA is efficacious in preventing the renal dysfunction caused by uranium. In Experiment 2, oral administration of CBMIDA significantly increased uranium excretion and significantly decreased uranium concentrations, particularly in the kidneys, at all the doses tested, and the effects were almost equal to those of the i.p. injection. However, these effects of CBMIDA on the i.m.-injected DU were lower than those of the i.p.-injected DU in Experiment 1. These results indicated that oral administration of CBMIDA has almost the same efficacy as that administered by the parenteral route. Additional study is necessary to obtain satisfactory effects for the clinical use of CBMIDA, particularly for wounds contaminated accidentally with uranium. (authors)

87

Evaluation of the efficacy of intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide in patients with pseudophakic cystoid macular edema  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of 4mg/0.1ml intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA in patients with pseudophakic cystoid macular edema.Materials and Methods: Thirteen eyes of 13 patients with pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (mean age: 66.5±8.4 years were included in the study. Before and after 4mg/0.1ml IVTA injections, visual acuity, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA findings, intraocular pressures (IOP and complications were recorded in all patients.Results: It was observed that visual acuity increases with improvement in FFA findings in all patients. The difference in IOP values before and after IVTA injection was statistically significant (P21mmHg was observed in 3 eyes that required antiglaucomatous medication to control IOP.Conclusion: IVTA injection is an effective and safe treatment option in patients with pseudophakic cystoid macular edema to increase the visual acuity and resolution of macular edema.

Abdullah Özk?r??

2007-08-01

88

Evaluation of the efficacy of intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide in patients with pseudophakic cystoid macular edema  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of 4mg/0.1ml intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) in patients with pseudophakic cystoid macular edema.Materials and Methods: Thirteen eyes of 13 patients with pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (mean age: 66.5±8.4 years) were included in the study. Before and after 4mg/0.1ml IVTA injections, visual acuity, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) findings, intraocular pressures (IOP) and complications were recorded in all patients.Results: It was...

Abdullah Özk?r??; Kuddusi Erk?l?ç; Özgür ?lhan; Esra Ayhan Tuzcu

2007-01-01

89

Efficacy and Tolerability of Fixed-Dose Combination of Dexketoprofen and Dicyclomine Injection in Acute Renal Colic  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed-dose combination of dexketoprofen and dicyclomine (DXD) injection in patients with acute renal colic. Patients and Methods. Two hundred and seventeen patients were randomized to receive either DXD (n = 109) or fixed-dose combination of diclofenac and dicyclomine injection (DLD; n = 108), intramuscularly. Pain intensity (PI) was self-evaluated by patients on visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. Efficacy parameters were proportion of responders, difference in PI (PID) at 8 hours, and sum of analogue of pain intensity differences (SAPID). Tolerability was assessed by patients and physicians. Results. DXD showed superior efficacy in terms of proportion of responders (98.17% versus 81.48; P < 0.0001), PID at 8 hours (P = 0.002), and SAPID0–8?hours (P = 0.004). The clinical global impression for change in pain was significantly better for DXD than DLD. The incidence of adverse events was comparable in both groups. However, global assessment of tolerability was rated significantly better for DXD. Conclusion. DXD showed superior efficacy and tolerability than DLD in patients clinically diagnosed to be suffering from acute renal colic. PMID:22577544

Porwal, A.; Mahajan, A. D.; Oswal, D. S.; Erram, S. S.; Sheth, D. N.; Balamurugan, S.; Kamat, V.; Enadle, R. P.; Badadare, A.; Bhatnagar, S. K.; Walvekar, R. S.; Dhorepatil, S.; Naik, R. C.; Basu, I.; Kshirsagar, S. N.; Keny, J. V.; Sengupta, S.

2012-01-01

90

Treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, flexible-dose subgroup analysis of patients treated with extended-release quetiapine fumarate or risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present analysis assessed the efficacy of extended-release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) versus risperidone in patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms [Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score?20 and a HAM-D item 1 score?2]. This was a subanalysis of patients with schizophrenia from a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, flexible-dose study (NCT00640562) that also enrolled patients with schizoaffective disorder. The primary endpoint of this noninferiority study was change from baseline to week 12 in Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia score (per protocol population). Overall, 114 patients received quetiapine XR (n=60; 400-800?mg/day) or risperidone (n=54; 4-6?mg/day). Change in Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia score was greater for quetiapine XR than for risperidone [least squares means: -7.2 vs. -4.8; treatment difference 2.4 (95% confidence interval 0.3-4.6; P<0.05)]. Adverse events (?3%) among patients receiving quetiapine XR were sedation, somnolence, and dry mouth, and among those receiving risperidone were anxiety, insomnia, asthenia, hyperprolactinemia, and somnolence. Abnormally high prolactin levels were reported for 57.6 and 8.1% of patients receiving risperidone and quetiapine XR, respectively. Quetiapine XR was superior to risperidone at reducing depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25356632

Kasper, Siegfried; Montagnani, Gino; Trespi, Graziella; Di Fiorino, Mario

2015-01-01

91

Evaluation of the long-term efficacy of CT-guided epidural steroid injection for the treatment of sciatica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of CT-guided epidural steroid injection for the treatment of sciatica. Methods: CT-guided epidural steroid injection was performed in 180 patients with sciatica from May 1998 to March 2004, and all patients had failure to previous conservative treatment. Visual analogue scale was used to evaluate the pain of the patient before and after the treatment. Results: Follow-up was taken for 112 cases during 1-6 years after the treatment, 89 patients (79.5%) had successful long-term outcome and 80 patients (71.4%) were satisfied. Conclusions: CT-guided epidural steroid injection can reduce low back pain and radical pain. It should be preferentially considered as the first choice when conservative treatments are failed. (authors)

92

Efficacy of a single ultrasound-guided injection for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Intra-articular injection is effective for osteoarthritis, but the best single injection strategy is not known, nor are there established predictors of response. The objectives of this study were to assess and predict response to a single ultrasound-guided injection in moderate to severe hip osteoarthritis.

Atchia, Ismaël

2011-01-01

93

Risperidone and Corrected QT-interval Prolongation in Surface Electrocardiogram  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Risperidone is an antipsychotic medication suspected of causing QT prolongation and several cases are reported in this regard. However, available information with respect to its effect on QT interval is limited especially from different settings. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of risperidone in lengthening QT interval among psychotic patients referred to a psychiatric ward in North West of Iran. A controlled cohort study was conducted on psychotic patients referred to Ra...

Ahmadi, N. M.; Akbarzadeh, F.; Ranjbar, F.; Abbasnejhad, M.

2012-01-01

94

Experimental study on effects of Shengmai Injection: enhancing 5-FU anti-tumor efficacy and reducing its toxicity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objevtive: To observe the effects of Shengmai Injection on enhancing efficacy and reducing toxicity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU. Methods: Fifty hepatoma 22 bearing mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, 5-Fu group, Shengmai Injection (low, medium and high dose combined with 5-FU groups. There were 10 mice in each group. Mice in the five groups were injected introperitoneally the same amount of normal saline, 5-FU (20 mg·kg?1·d?1 and Shengmai Injection (3.5 ml·kg?1·d?1, 7 ml·kg?1·d?1 and 14 ml·kg?1·d?1 combined with 5-FU respectively, once a day for 14 days. After that, all mice were killed and the tumor inhibiting rates, index of immunological function, liver and kidney function and the blood cells in the peripheral blood were observed. Results: The tumor inhibiting rates were higher in each Shengmai Injection combined with 5-FU group than that in the 5-FU group (P?0.05. The levels of CD3, CD4, CD4/CD8, IgG, IgM in 5-FU group were lower (P?0.05, while those in the three Shengmai Injection combined with 5-FU groups were higher than those in the control group (P?0.05. The level of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT was higher and the WBC and PLT counts in the peripheral blood were lower in 5-FU group than those in the control group (P?0.05. But the levels of serum ALT in the three Shengmai Injection combined with 5-FU groups were consistent with that in the control group and the amounts of WBC decreased slightly. Conclusion: Shengmai Injection can enhance the anti-tumor effect of 5-FU. It can also improve the immunological function and reduce the adverse reactions of chemotherapy.

CHEN Zhen

2005-11-01

95

Efficacy of sofosbuvir-based therapies in HIV/HCV infected patients and persons who inject drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the era of Directly Acting anti HCV Antivirals treatment of hepatitis C is successful in the majority of persons treated. However, treatment of persons with HIV or who inject drugs remains challenging because of special issues: drug-drug interactions with antiretroviral, psychiatric and drug substitution therapies, treatment adherence, impact of treatment on HIV disease course or on risk of bacterial infections. Sofosbuvir induced sustained virologic response in 91% of 23 HIV/HCV coinfected persons treated in combination with ribavirin and pegylated interferon, in 83% of 497 treated in combination with ribavirin and in all 50 patients infected with HCV GT1 treated in combination with ledipasvir and ribavirin. The rates of efficacy in HCV-HIV coinfected were almost the same as those observed in HCV monoinfected suggesting that the efficacy of sofosbuvir is not reduced by HIV coinfection. There are no data on the efficacy of sofosbuvir in injection drugs users. The pangenotypic activity, the high barrier to resistance, the modest potential for drug-drug interactions makes sofosbuvir a reference drug for the treatment of these two special populations. PMID:25458781

Puoti, Massimo; Panzeri, Claudia; Rossotti, Roberto; Baiguera, Chiara

2014-12-15

96

Efficacy and complication of botulinum toxin injection in palatal myoclonus: experience from a patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the outcome of botulinum toxin injection for essential palatal myoclonus, given on two occasions over a period of one year, in an eight-year-old boy, the youngest patient treated with botulinum toxin to date. Though there was significant relief of ear clicks each time after the injection, he developed severe palatal palsy following the second injection, which persisted for a month. We suggest that appropriate caution needs to be exercised when repeating botulinum toxin injections for palatal myoclonus in children. PMID:17516476

Pal, Pramod Kumar; Lakshmi, Ponnathpur Satish; Nirmala, Muninarayanappa

2007-07-30

97

Anti-depressive effectiveness of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone: a pragmatic, randomized trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficacy studies indicate anti-depressive effects of at least some second generation antipsychotics (SGAs. The Bergen Psychosis Project (BPP is a 24-month, pragmatic, industry-independent, randomized, head-to-head comparison of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone in patients acutely admitted with psychosis. The aim of the study is to investigate whether differential anti-depressive effectiveness exists among SGAs in a clinically relevant sample of patients acutely admitted with psychosis. Methods Adult patients acutely admitted to an emergency ward for psychosis were randomized to olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone and followed for up to 2 years. Participants were assessed repeatedly using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale - Depression factor (PANSS-D and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS. Results A total of 226 patients were included. A significant time-effect showing a steady decline in depressive symptoms in all medication groups was demonstrated. There were no substantial differences among the SGAs in reducing the PANSS-D score or the CDSS sum score. Separate analyses of groups with CDSS sum scores > 6 or ?6, respectively, reflecting degree of depressive morbidity, revealed essentially identical results to the primary analyses. There was a high correlation between the PANSS-D and the CDSS sum score (r = 0.77; p Conclusions There was no substantial difference in anti-depressive effectiveness among olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone in this clinically relevant sample of patients acutely admitted to hospital for symptoms of psychosis. Based on our findings we can make no recommendations concerning choice of any particular SGA for targeting symptoms of depression in a patient acutely admitted with psychosis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/: NCT00932529

Løberg Else-Marie

2011-08-01

98

Efficacy of Methylprednisolone Acetate Injection for the Treatment of Plantar Heel Pain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: To assess the short term results of local methyl prednisolone acetate injection for the treatment of heel pain syndrome. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out on 109 patients with plantar heel pain who were treated by local methyl prednisolone acetate injection. Reduction of pain and tenderness were the primary measurement outcome. Results: Rest pain, walking pain and tenderness at 3 weeks was relived in 70 and 67 and 74 patients, and after 3 months in 72, 68 and 81 patients respectively. Mean patient's pain score was 8.2±2.2 before injection, 4.1±1.5 at 3 weeks, and 3.9±1.4 at 3 months after injection. Conclusion: Local injection of methyl prednisolone acetate was associated with a fairly high satisfactory short term results in the treatment of heel pain.

S. Abdolhossein Mehdi-Nasab

2014-01-01

99

A randomised study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of placentrex injection in patients suffering from pelvic inflammatory disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the efficacy of placentrex injection along with oral doxycycline against oral doxycycline in pelvic inflammatory diseases, a comparative study was undertaken among two groups of patients comprising 60 in each at Pt BD Sharma Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak during the period April 2010 to April 2012. It was observed remission of symptoms and signs was better noticed among the group of patients receiving placentrex + doxycycline than those getting only doxycycline. Placentrex is safe with less side-effects and inexpensive. PMID:24765704

Dahiya, Pushpa; Paul, Anshu

2013-05-01

100

The Efficacy of Local Injection of Methylprednisolone and Lidocaine with and Without Splint, in Treating Patients with De Quervain's Tenosynovitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Suffering from de Quervain's tenosynovitis due to repetitive and routine activities leads to considerable referrals to orthopedic clinics and increasing health care costs and wasting of patients' time. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of local injection of methylprednisolone with and without splint for treatment of patients suffering from de Quervain's tenosynovitis. Methods: In a clinical trial study, 72 patients with de Quervain's tenosynovitis were selected in 2010 and were randomly divided into two groups. Therapeutic intervention in the first group was injection of 40 mg methylprednisone and 1 ml lidocaine with splint, and in the second group it was injection 40 mg methylprednisone and 1ml lidocaine without splint. Both groups followed this treatment for three periods(21 day. The related data were collected by visual analogue scale. Then data was analyzed by SPSS (ver. 16 using Fisher exact test and t test. Results: The findings of this study revealed that after the 3-week period of treatment the mean reduced pain intensity and improvement in the first group was significantly lower than the second group(p<0/05. Conclusion: Therefore, local injection of methylprednisone and lidocaine with splint is an effective method in the treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis.

Saleh

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Celecoxib in a Rabbit Model of Osteoarthritis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It is a slowly progressive joint disease typically seen in middle-age to elderly people. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is a well-documented treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Celebrex® (celecoxib) is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which could help to reduce inflammation and to reduce pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intra-articular injection of celecoxib in a rabbit osteo...

Huilin Yang; Genlin Wang; Dinghua Jiang; Lixin Huang; Qin Shi; Xuesong Zhu; Jun Zou

2010-01-01

102

Efficacy of Methylprednisolone Acetate Injection for the Treatment of Plantar Heel Pain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: To assess the short term results of local methyl prednisolone acetate injection for the treatment of heel pain syndrome. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out on 109 patients with plantar heel pain who were treated by local methyl prednisolone acetate injection. Reduction of pain and tenderness were the primary measurement outcome. Results: Rest pain, walking pain and tenderness at 3 weeks was relived in 70 and 67 and 74 patients, and after 3 months i...

Abdolhossein Mehdi-nasab, S.; Nasser Sarrafan; Hamid Reza Arti; Mohsen Khorami; Gholamhossein Rafatian

2014-01-01

103

RP-HPLC estimation of risperidone in tablet dosage forms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the estimation of risperidone in tablet dosage forms. A Phenomenex Gemini C-18, 5 µm column having 250x4.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing methanol: acetonitrile: 50 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (80:10:10 v/v was used. The flow rate was 1.3 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 234 nm. Clozapine was used as an internal standard. The retention time of risperidone and clozapine were 2.5 min and 3.3 min, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, robustness and stability. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for estimation of risperidone was found to be 500 ng/ml and 990 ng/ml, respectively. Recovery of risperidone was found to be in the range of 99.02-101.68%. Proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of risperidone in tablet formulations.

Bladania S

2008-01-01

104

A Case of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Associated with Risperidone Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The association between schizophrenia and diabetes has been previously documented. Case reports have also demonstrated that initiation of atypical antipsychotic agents may induce or exacerbate diabetes mellitus. A 26-year-old man without a family history of diabetes mellitus presented with deep coma after 5 months of treatment with risperidone. He was diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis, was given insulin and saline infusion, and his antipsychotic agent was changed from risperidone to ziprasidone.Insulin therapy and oral agent was discontinued within two months of follow-up. The rapid onset of diabetes, and the disappearance of hyperglycemia after discontinuation of the drug suggested that risperidone had been a factor in his diabetic ketoacidosis. During three years of subsequent follow-up, testing revealed no evidence of elevated serum glucose levels or impaired glucose tolerance. In our opinion psychiatrists should routinely ask patients treated with antipsychotic agents such as risperidone for diabetic symptoms, weight loss, lethargy, polydipsia and/or polyuria, and monitor serum glucose levels. Although there is no consensus on the best way to switch from one antipsychotic drug to another, for those patients who develop diabetes during therapy with risperidone a change to ziprasidone treatment may maintain normal glucose levels.

Zeynel Beyhan

2008-12-01

105

Prolactin levels and erectile function in patients treated with risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment with risperidone is associated with prolactin (PRL) elevation, and PRL elevations are associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). We evaluated whether the PRL elevations caused by risperidone treatment of subjects with schizophrenia are associated with objective measures of erectile function. Subjects were hospitalized for 2 nights, and serum measurements of PRL, total testosterone, and free and weakly bound testosterone were performed in the morning and afternoon of each day. Risperidone levels, parent compound, and 9-hydroxy metabolite levels were drawn on the first day. Erectile function assessments, using the RigiScan, an instrument that measures nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity, were performed on both nights. Consistent with previous reports, the correlation between total risperidone level and PRL was very high (r = 0.92, df = 12, P < 0.0001), but risperidone did not appear to affect either testosterone (r = 0.29, df = 5, P = 0.51) or free and weakly bound testosterone (r = -0.11, df = 10, P = 0.72). Contrary to expectations, PRL levels from the second night were positively correlated with erectile function (r = 0.68, df = 9, P = 0.022). Using objective measures, we were unable to confirm a detrimental association between PRL levels and male erectile function. These results are tentative given the small sample. PMID:15206663

Spollen, John J; Wooten, Robert G; Cargile, Christopher; Bartztokis, George

2004-04-01

106

Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fine needles with an end hole or multiple side holes have traditionally been used for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) of hepatomas. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of PEI of unresectable medium-to-large (3.5-9 cm) hepatomas using a multipronged needle and with conscious sedation. Twelve patients, eight men and four women (age 51-77 years; mean: 69) received PEI for hepatomas, mostly subcapsular or exophytic in location with average tumor size of 5.6 cm (range: 3.5-9.0 cm). Patients were consciously sedated and an 18G retractable multipronged needle (Quadrafuse needle; Rex Medical, Philadelphia, PA) was used for injection under real-time ultrasound guidance. By varying the length of the prongs and rotating the needle, the alcohol was widely distributed within the tumor. The progress of ablation was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after each weekly injection and within a month after the final (third) injection and 3 months thereafter. An average total of 63 mL (range: 20-154 ml) of alcohol was injected per patient in an average of 2.3 sessions. Contrast-enhanced CT, ultrasound, or MRI was used to determine the degree of necrosis. Complete necrosis was noted in eight patients (67%), near-complete necrosis (90-99%) in two (16.7%), and partial success (50-89%) in two (16.7%). Follow-up in the first 9 months showed local recurrence in two patients and new lesions in anonce in two patients and new lesions in another. There was no mortality. One patient developed renal failure, liver failure, and localized perforation of the stomach. He responded to medical treatment and surgery was not required for the perforation. One patient had severe postprocedural abdominal pain and fever, and another had transient hyperbilirubinemia; both recovered with conservative treatment. PEI with a multipronged needle is a new, safe, and efficacious method in treating medium-to-large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma under conscious sedation. Its survival benefits require further investigations

107

Injection-associated pain in femoral arteriography: A European multicenter study comparing safety, tolerability, and efficacy of iodixanol and iopromide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose. To evaluate injection-associated pain, safety, and efficacy with the isotonic contrast medium iodixanol (Visipaque 270 mg I/ml) compared with iopromide (Ultravist 300 mg I/ml) in femoral arteriography. Methods. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group clinical investigation was carried out in 54 hospitals in Europe. Of the patients evaluated, 1225 received iodixanol and 1227 iopromide in conventional and/or digital subtraction angiography. Results. The iodixanol group reported statistically significantly less injection-associated pain (0.9%) than the iopromide group (9.5%) (p<0.001). Further, 4.1% in the iodixanol group experienced pain and/or severe heat sensation vs 19.8% in the iopromide group (p<0.001). In the iodixanol group, 1.8% of the patients experienced contrast-related adverse events vs 2.4% in the iopromide group (p=NS). Overall diagnostic information was optimal for 94.1% in the iodixanol group and 95.3% in the iopromide group (p=NS). Conclusions. Iodixanol 270 mg I/ml causes significantly less injection-associated pain during femoral arteriography and is as safe and efficatious as iopromide 300 mg I/ml

108

Factors associated with uptake, adherence, and efficacy of hepatitis C treatment in people who inject drugs: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Viktor Mrav?ík,1,2 Lisa Strada,3 Josef Štolfa,4,5 Vladimir Bencko,6 Teodora Groshkova,7 Jens Reimer,3 Bernd Schulte3 1National Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2Department of Addictology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Centre for Interdisciplinary Addiction Research, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; 4Department of General Practice, Institute for Postgraduate Medical Education in Prague, 5Department of General Practice, Second Faculty of Medicine, 6Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 7European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon, Portugal Introduction and methods: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are highly prevalent amongst people who inject drugs (PWID. Despite well documented evidence of its effectiveness, suggested cost-effectiveness, and potential to reduce HCV prevalence rates, the uptake of antiviral HCV treatment by PWID is low. This nonsystematic literature review describes factors associated with the uptake, adherence, and efficacy of HCV treatment among PWID and discusses strategies to increase their uptake of treatment. Results: Low HCV treatment uptake among PWID is associated with a number of patient-related and provider-related barriers. Beliefs and fears about low efficacy and adverse effects on the patient’s part are common. A substantial number of factors are associated with the chaotic lifestyle and altered social functioning of PWID, which are often associated with decompensation or relapsing into drug addiction. This may lead to perceived low adherence with treatment and low efficacy on the provider’s part too, where lack of support, inadequate management of addiction, and other drug-related problems and poor treatment of side effects have been described. Practical issues such as the accessibility of treatment and finances also play a role. Strategies to improve the HCV treatment rate among PWID involve pretreatment management and assessment, a multidisciplinary approach, management of side effects, and enhanced education and counseling. Conclusion: Specific factors are associated with poorer treatment outcomes in PWID on the side of both the patient and the treatment system. However, given that PWID can achieve treatment adherence and sustained virologic response rates comparable with those in nondrug users, drug use per se should not be considered a criterion for exclusion from treatment. Further development of measures leading to higher uptake of treatment and adherence in PWID and appropriate adaptation of HCV treatment guidelines represent important tools in this regard. Keywords: hepatitis C virus, people who inject drugs, treatment uptake, adherence, efficacy

Mrav?ík V

2013-10-01

109

Human 5-HT7 Receptor-Induced Inactivation of Forskolin-Stimulated Adenylate Cyclase by Risperidone, 9-OH-Risperidone and Other “Inactivating Antagonists”  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously reported on the unusual human 5-hydroxytryptamine7 (h5-HT7) receptor-inactivating properties of risperidone, 9-OH-risperidone, bromocriptine, methiothepin, metergoline, and lisuride. Inactivation was defined as the inability of 10 ?M 5-HT to stimulate cAMP accumulation after brief exposure and thorough removal of the drugs from HEK293 cells expressing h5-HT7 receptors. Herein we report that brief exposure of the h5-HT7 receptor-expressing cells to inactivating drugs, followed by removal of the drugs, results in potent and efficacious irreversible inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Pretreatment, followed by removal of the inactivating drugs inhibited 10 ?M forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with potencies similar to the drugs' affinities for the h5-HT7 receptor. The actions of the inactivating drugs were pertussis toxin-insensitive, indicating the lack of Gi in their mechanism(s) of action. Methiothepin and bromocriptine maximally inhibited 10 ?M forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase, whereas the other drugs produced partial inhibition, indicating the drugs are inducing slightly different inactive conformations of the h5-HT7 receptor. Maximal effects of these inactivating drugs occurred within 15 to 30 min of exposure of the cells to the drugs. A Gs-mediated inhibition of forskolin-stimulated activity has never been reported. The inactivating antagonists seem to induce a stable conformation of the h5-HT7 receptor, which induces an altered state of Gs, which, in turn, inhibits forskolin-mediated stimulation of adenylate cyclase. These and previous observations indicate that the inactivating antagonists represent a unique class of drugs and may reveal GPCR regulatory mechanisms previously unknown. These drugs may produce innovative approaches to the development of therapeutic drugs. PMID:19509219

Toohey, Nicole; Klein, Michael T.; Knight, Jessica; Smith, Carol; Teitler, Milt

2009-01-01

110

Human 5-HT7 receptor-induced inactivation of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase by risperidone, 9-OH-risperidone and other "inactivating antagonists".  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously reported on the unusual human 5-hydroxytryptamine(7) (h5-HT(7)) receptor-inactivating properties of risperidone, 9-OH-risperidone, bromocriptine, methiothepin, metergoline, and lisuride. Inactivation was defined as the inability of 10 microM 5-HT to stimulate cAMP accumulation after brief exposure and thorough removal of the drugs from HEK293 cells expressing h5-HT(7) receptors. Herein we report that brief exposure of the h5-HT(7) receptor-expressing cells to inactivating drugs, followed by removal of the drugs, results in potent and efficacious irreversible inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Pretreatment, followed by removal of the inactivating drugs inhibited 10 microM forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with potencies similar to the drugs' affinities for the h5-HT(7) receptor. The actions of the inactivating drugs were pertussis toxin-insensitive, indicating the lack of G(i) in their mechanism(s) of action. Methiothepin and bromocriptine maximally inhibited 10 microM forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase, whereas the other drugs produced partial inhibition, indicating the drugs are inducing slightly different inactive conformations of the h5-HT(7) receptor. Maximal effects of these inactivating drugs occurred within 15 to 30 min of exposure of the cells to the drugs. A G(s)-mediated inhibition of forskolin-stimulated activity has never been reported. The inactivating antagonists seem to induce a stable conformation of the h5-HT(7) receptor, which induces an altered state of G(s), which, in turn, inhibits forskolin-mediated stimulation of adenylate cyclase. These and previous observations indicate that the inactivating antagonists represent a unique class of drugs and may reveal GPCR regulatory mechanisms previously unknown. These drugs may produce innovative approaches to the development of therapeutic drugs. PMID:19509219

Toohey, Nicole; Klein, Michael T; Knight, Jessica; Smith, Carol; Teitler, Milt

2009-09-01

111

Efficacy evaluation of Shengmai Injection in treating coronary heart disease based on random walk model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of Shengmai Injection in treating coronary heart disease (CHD based on correct syndrome differentiation and incorrect syndrome differentiation.Methods: The patients' information was collected by a system of individual diagnosis and treatment of CHD. The score of main symptoms was calculated and recorded during the treatment. Patients were divided into two groups (incorrect syndrome and correct syndrome groups on the basis of syndrome differentiation treatment or not. The clinical therapeutic effects of the two treatments were evaluated based on statistic theory combined with random walk method.Results: There were 273 patients in the correct syndrome group and 4 patients died (case-fatality rate was 1.47%. There were 297 patients in the incorrect syndrome group and 7 patients died (case-fatality rate was 2.36%. In the correct syndrome group, random fluctuation peak of comprehensive evaluation index, walk steps, positive growth rate of walk, ratio, random fluctuation power-law, increase rate and record times of comprehensive evaluation index were 1 472, 13 617, 0.108 1, 9.25, 0.674 2, 0.470 6 and 3 128 respectively, while in the incorrect syndrome group, 1 030, 14 588, 0.070 6, 14.16, 0.660 6, 0.312 8 and 3 293 respectively. The random fluctuation power-law in both groups exceeded 0.5.Conclusion: There is a long-range correlation between the comprehensive evaluation index and therapeutic method as the CHD patients were treated with Shengmai Injection. The clinical therapeutic effects of Shengmai Injection under correct syndrome differentiation are better than the effects of Shengmai Injection under incorrect syndrome differentiation.

Zhu-ye GAO

2008-09-01

112

Efficacy of lumbar epidural corticosteroid injections on clinical status of the patients with radiculopathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of lumbar epidural steroid injection in patients with radiculopathy Materials-Methods: 37 patients with radiculopathy were recruited retrospectively in the study. Radicular, low back pain and paresthesia intensity were evaluated using visual analog scale (VAS; the evidence of nerve stretch was evaluated by straight leg rising (SRL, disability levels were evaluated using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI and the quality of life was evaluated by SF-36. Results: A significant improvement was observed in VAS-radicular and lomber pain levels at the 24th hours post-injection (p0.01, at the 1st week (p0.01, at 1st month(p 0.01 and 3rd month (p0.05. Recovery rate of straight leg raising test was found to be 88% (p0.05. A statistically significant improvement was found in the ODI levels and the quality of life as assessed by the SF-36 at the1st week (p0.01 and after 3 months of the treatment (p0.05. Conclusion: During the first 3 months of treatment, lumbar epidural corticosteroid injections were effective in patients with radiculopathy

Jülide Öncü

2014-01-01

113

Injectable, spontaneously assembling, inorganic scaffolds modulate immune cells in vivo and increase vaccine efficacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Implanting materials in the body to program host immune cells is a promising alternative to transplantation of cells manipulated ex vivo to direct an immune response, but doing so requires a surgical procedure. Here we demonstrate that high-aspect-ratio, mesoporous silica rods (MSRs) injected with a needle spontaneously assemble in vivo to form macroporous structures that provide a 3D cellular microenvironment for host immune cells. In mice, substantial numbers of dendritic cells are recruited to the pores between the scaffold rods. The recruitment of dendritic cells and their subsequent homing to lymph nodes can be modulated by sustained release of inflammatory signals and adjuvants from the scaffold. Moreover, injection of an MSR-based vaccine formulation enhances systemic helper T cells TH1 and TH2 serum antibody and cytotoxic T-cell levels compared to bolus controls. These findings suggest that injectable MSRs may serve as a multifunctional vaccine platform to modulate host immune cell function and provoke adaptive immune responses. PMID:25485616

Kim, Jaeyun; Li, Weiwei Aileen; Choi, Youngjin; Lewin, Sarah A; Verbeke, Catia S; Dranoff, Glenn; Mooney, David J

2015-01-01

114

[Mechanism of interaction between risperidone and tea catechin(1)complex formation of risperidone with epigallocatechin gallate].  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanism of complexation between risperidone (RISP) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) was clarified by ¹H-NMR and molecular modeling studies. RISP and EGCg formed an insoluble complex with a 1 : 1 stoichiometry in aqueous solution. In the ¹H-NMR spectra of RISP in DMSO-d?, the chemical shifts of protons neighboring the N atom on the piperizine ring clearly moved downfield upon formation of the complex. In the molecular modeling study, the ¹H-chemical shifts for nine optimized structures of the complex were calculated to compare them with those of the experimental results. Only one conformer with the second minimum energy for the complex supported the downfield shifts of RISP protons. It was found from the structure of the complex that the two hydrogen bonds between hydroxyl groups of the galloyl ring in EGCg and N atoms in RISP, one of which was on the piperizine ring, were formed to stabilize the complex. PMID:21048420

Ikeda, Hirohito; Moriwaki, Hanae; Yukawa, Miho; Iwase, Yukiko; Aki, Hatsumi

2010-11-01

115

Comparison of haemostatic efficacy for endoscopic injection therapy of epinephrine and combination therapy of epinephrine and hemoclips for bleeding peptic ulcers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. Endoscopic injection therapy of epinephrine is safe and effective in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer, but with high risk of rebleeding. The combination therapy of epinephrine and hemoclips could lead to a reduction of rebleeding and a potential reduction in mortality. Objective. To investigate the efficacy and safety of epinephrine injection therapy and combination therapy with epinephrine and hemoclips in treating bleeding peptic ulcers. Methods. A prospective rand...

Grgov Saša; Stamenkovi? Perica; Janji? Dejan

2012-01-01

116

Predictive value of synovial fluid analysis in estimating the efficacy of intra-articular corticosteroid injections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The predictive relevance of synovial fluid analysis and some other variables for the efficacy of intra-articular corticosteroid injections in 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and hydropsy in a knee joint was evaluated in a prospective study. At the onset of the study, the knee joints were aspirated and 30 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide injected intra-articularly. The circumferences and the tenderness scores of the knee joints were measured at onset, after two months, and at the end of the...

Luukkainen, R.; Hakala, M.; Sajanti, E.; Huhtala, H.; Yli-kerttula, U.; Ha?meenkorpi, R.

1992-01-01

117

The evaluation of efficacy of subtenon triamcinolone injection combined with focal laser photocoagulation in diabetic macular edema  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate efficacyand safety of subtenon triamcinolone (ST in combinationwith focal laser photocoagulation in diabetic macularedema (DME.Materials and methods: Medical records of patients withDME, treated with 40 mg subtenon injection of triamcinoloneacetonid prior to focal laser photocoagulation wereretrospectively analyzed. Seventeen eyes of 17 patientswith DME were enrolled in the study. All patients underwenta comprehensive ophthalmological examinationbefore the treatment. Efficacy of the treatment after STinjection was evaluated by visual acuity and flouresceinangiography (FA. Follow-up visits were performed at 1st,3rd, 6th and 12th months. Repeated measures ANOVA wasused for statistical analysis.Results: The mean age was 61.5 ± 8.7 years and themean visual acuity in the study eyes was 0.22 ± 0.13 beforethe treatment, 0.39 ± 0.15 at 1st month, 0.36 ± 0.18at 3rd month, 0.33 ± 0.15 at 6th month and 0.34 ± 0.16 at12th month. The differences in the visual acuity before thetreatment and follow-up visits were significant (p ?0.05.Visual acuity was increased in 13 (%76,4 patients, decreasedin 1 (%5,8 and unchanged in 3 (%17,6.Conclusion: Injection of 40 mg of triamsinolon via subtenonroute combined with focal laser photocoagulation isa safe and beneficial treatment in cases of DME

Hüseyin Öksüz

2012-06-01

118

Hyperprolactinemia in Thai children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder treated with risperidone  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during pharmacotherapy with risperidone. The main aim of this study was to investigate important clinical factors influencing the prolactin response in risperidone-treated Thai ASD. A total of 147 children and adolescents (127 males and 20 females) aged 3–19 years with ASD received risperidone treatment (0.10–6.00 mg/day) for up to 158 weeks. Prolactin levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. The clinical data of patients collected from medical records – age, weight, height, body mass index, dose of risperidone, duration of treatment, and drug-use pattern – were recorded. Hyperprolactinemia was observed in 66 of 147 (44.90%) subjects. Median prolactin level at the high doses (24.00, interquartile range [IQR] 14.30–29.20) of risperidone was significantly found to be higher than at the recommended (16.20, IQR 10.65–22.30) and low (11.70, IQR 7.51–16.50) doses of risperidone. There was no relationship between prolactin levels and duration of risperidone treatment. Dose-dependence is identified as a main factor associated with hyperprolactinemia in Thai children and adolescents with ASD treated with risperidone. This study suggests that risperidone treatment causes prolactin elevations and the effects of risperidone on prolactin are probably dose-related in pediatric patients. PMID:25653528

Hongkaew, Yaowaluck; Ngamsamut, Nattawat; Puangpetch, Apichaya; Vanwong, Natchaya; Srisawasdi, Pornpen; Chamnanphon, Montri; Chamkrachchangpada, Bhunnada; Tan-kam, Teerarat; Limsila, Penkhae; Sukasem, Chonlaphat

2015-01-01

119

Efficacy of musculoskeletal injections given by primary care providers in the office  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tasnim Eghbal Eftekhaari,1 Mirzaali Nazarnezhad,1 Iman Ghasemzadeh2 1Clinical Research Development Unit, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences Bandar Abbas, Iran; 2Infectious Disease Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, IranPatients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians qualified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints.1 However, patients usually present to a primary care physician and embark on treatment there, despite having the option of referral to a subspecialist fully trained in this procedure.View original paper by Bhagra and colleagues.

Eghbal Eftekhaari T

2013-09-01

120

FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF EXTENDED RELEASE MINI TABLETS OF RISPERIDONE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was carried out to formulate Risperidone mini tablets filled into hard gelatin capsule, as it is administered for the treatment of psychosis. The preformulation studies of Risperidone were carried out and drug –polymer compatibility studies were performed by FT-IR spectra analysis. The precompression parameters revealed that all the 6 formulations had good flow Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose within the limit. Risperidone is formulated with different ...

Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, B.; Dinesh Babu, G.; Premswaroop, A.; Chandra Sekhar, M.; Ramya.Y

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Risperidone alters food intake, core body temperature, and locomotor activity in mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Risperidone induces significant weight gain in female mice; however, the underlying mechanisms related to this effect are unknown. We investigated the effects of risperidone on locomotor activity, core body temperature, and uncoupling protein (UCP) and hypothalamic orexin mRNA expression. Female C57BL/6J mice were acclimated to individual housing and randomly assigned to either risperidone (4 mg/kg BW*day) or placebo (PLA). Activity and body temperature were measured over 48-hour periods twic...

Cope, Mark B.; Li, Xingsheng; Jumbo-lucioni, Patricia; Dicostanzo, Catherine A.; Jamison, Wendi G.; Kesterson, Robert A.; Allison, David B.; Nagy, Tim R.

2008-01-01

122

Clinical efficacy of intra-articular injections in knee osteoarthritis: a prospective randomized study comparing hyaluronic acid and betamethasone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cesáreo Ángel Trueba Davalillo,1,2 Cesáreo Trueba Vasavilbaso,2 José Mario Navarrete Álvarez,2 Pilar Coronel Granado,3 Ozcar Alejandro García Jiménez,2 Mercedes Gimeno del Sol,3 Félix Gil Orbezo2 1School of Medicine (UNAM, México DF, Mexico; 2Orthopedic Service, Hospital Español de México, México DF, Mexico; 3Scientific Department, TEDEC-MEIJI FARMA,SA, Alcalá de Henares, Spain Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common joint disease and leading cause of disability. Intra-articular (IA administration of hyaluronic acid (HA or corticosteroids (CS have been previously studied, though using insufficient number of patients or short follow-up periods.Objective: We evaluate HA and CS in patients with knee OA in terms of clinical efficacy over 12 months.Methods: We used a prospective, randomized study with parallel groups. Randomized patients received IA injections of HA or betamethasone (BM. The primary outcomes were improvement in pain using Visual Analog Scale and function in the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (Likert scale. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months.Results: A total of 200 patients were included. Pain was significantly reduced in both groups at the first follow-ups. At 12 months, the mean pain reduction in the HA group was 33.6% (95% CI: 31.1–36.1 compared to 8.2% (95% CI: 5.2–11.1 in BM (P<0.0001. Function improvement was higher in HA through every visit, and mean improvement at 12 months was 47.5% (95% CI: 45.6–49.3 in HA patients vs 13.2% (95% CI: 11.4–14.9 in the BM group (P<0.0001. All patients from both groups achieved the Minimal Clinically Important Improvement (MCII for both pain and function up to 6 months. At 9 months and 12 months, the MCII figures were higher in HA group with ?80% compared to ?10% in BM group (P<0.0001. Adverse reactions were rare and related to the administration procedure.Conclusion: Both treatments effectively controlled OA symptoms. BM showed higher short-term effectiveness, while HA showed better long-term effectiveness, maintaining clinical efficacy in a large number of patients 1 year after administration.Keywords: viscosupplementation, corticosteroids, knee injection, joint disease

Trueba Davalillo CA

2015-01-01

123

Long-acting injectable antipsychotics: focus on olanzapine pamoate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available JP LindenmayerDepartment of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York NY, USAAbstract: Medication non-adherence in patients with schizophrenia continues to be a significant problem and threatens successful treatment outcomes. Medication non-adherence is often associated with negative consequences, including symptom exacerbation, more frequent emergency room visits, re-hospitalizations and relapse. Long-acting injectable (LAI forms of antipsychotics allow for rapid identification of non-adherence, obviate the need for the patient to take the medication on a daily basis and increase adherence to some significant degree. Eli Lilly has developed a long-acting depot formulation of olanzapine, olanzapine pamoate, which has recently been approved by the FDA for the US market, and which will be reviewed here. Olanzapine LAI appears to be an effective antipsychotic at dosages of 210 mg every 2 weeks, 300 mg every 2 weeks and 405 mg every 4 weeks in patients with acute schizophrenia, and at 150 mg every 2 weeks, 300 mg every 2 weeks and at 405 mg every 4 weeks for the maintenance treatment of stable patients. Oral supplementation appears not to be needed, particularly not at the onset of treatment with the LAI as is necessary with risperidone LAI. Its efficacy is in general comparable to the efficacy seen with oral olanzapine at a corresponding dose. The side effect profile is also comparable to the side effects observed with oral olanzapine, including lower rates of extrapyramidal symptoms, prolactin elevation and cardiovascular side effects, but significant metabolic effects. The latter include significant weight gain, lipid abnormalities and glucose dysregulation. While the injection site adverse events are overall mild, the most significant serious adverse event is the post-injection delirium sedation syndrome (PDSS. While rare, this syndrome results from inadvertent intravascular injection of olanzapine LAI and can cause a range of olanzapine overdose-type of symptoms. Olanzapine LAI needs therefore to be administered by trained personnel in settings where a post-injection observation period for at least 3 hours by medical personnel is available. The overall use of olanzapine LAI will probably be limited by the possibility of a PDSS event. Patients who have a history of good response to oral olanzapine and are in need of assured medication administration may present a good indication for its use, provided that the appropriate mental health delivery setting is available.Keywords: olanzapine, risperidone, schizophrenia

JP Lindenmayer

2010-05-01

124

Efficacy and long-term evaluation of intramyocardial injection of autologous CD34-enriched PBMSC in old myocardial infarction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: We have shown that autologous transplant of CD34+-enriched peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMSC could restore depressed myocardial function, and sustain adequate myocardial function 12 months after surgery in patients with old (>one year-old myocardial infarction. Our aim is to report the long-term morbidity and mortality efficacy of this procedure. Methods and results: Seventy patients with an old anteroseptal myocardial infarction were followed for 2 to 7 years, 35 had a revascularization procedure and received an intra-myocardial injection of autologous CD34+-enriched PBMSC (8 × 108 mononuclear cells/ml including 3 × 107 CD34+ cells/ml(Group A. Group B patients only had the revascularization. Abnormal pre-surgical values of LVEF (33.2% ± 4.8%, LVDV (178 ± 13.7 ml, LVSV (120 ± 16 m, LVDD (58.9 ± 3.84 mm, E and A waves without contractility in infarction area in group A patients improved to approximate normal values (50% ± 3% for LVEF; 90 ± 9.3 ml for LVDV; 80 ± 9.9 ml for LVSV; 55.3 ± 3 mm for LVDD; 5.2 ± 0.5 cm/s for E wave and 4.18 ± 0.3 cm/s for A wave 1 year after the procedure and have remained unaltered for all the follow-up period. All the patients remain alive. Only seven patients have been readmitted to the hospital for non-myocardial related events. Group B only 11 patients continued alive to 5 years after surgery and LEVF never increased more than 6%, all of them with many hospitalizations (n ? 10 by heart failure events. Conclusion: Intramyocardial injection of CD34+ highly enriched PBSC represent an encouraging alternative for patients with severely scarred and dysfunctional myocardium.

José Luis Aceves

2012-10-01

125

One-Shot Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Liver Tumors Under General Anesthesia: Preliminary Data on Efficacy and Complications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To verify the efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided injection of large amounts of ethanol into large or multiple liver lesions, in a single session under general anesthesia (one-shot PEI) for percutaneous ablation of hepatic tumors. Methods: Twenty-nine patients (27 with 51 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodules on cirrhosis, diameter range 1.0-9.0 cm; two patients with a single metastasis from the gastroenteric tract, 5.0 and 9.0 cm, respectively, in diameter) were treated with one-shot PEI. Results: The total volume of alcohol delivered per patient ranged from 16 to 210 ml. Mean ethanol volume in all patients was 49 ml. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) examination showed complete necrosis in 41 of 50 lesions. Two patients died of hypovolemic shock due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 3 and 7 days, respectively, after the interventional procedure. All the remaining patients are alive (follow-up 5-14 months) except one who died of liver failure 5 months after. New HCC nodules occurred in six patients within 6 months and one intralesional relapse was recorded. Conclusion: In this preliminary experience, one-shot PEI is as effective in inducing liver tumor necrosis as traditional PEI; its advantages are shorter treatment time and the capability of treating larger and multiple liver lesions

126

Multi-drug overdose risperidone, ziprasidone, valproate, trihexyphenidyl, and clonazepam  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Risperidone and ziprasidone are commonly used as first line drugs for the treatment of psychotic disorders and overdose with these agents is increasingly being reported. Relatively few of these reports have involved co-ingestion of multiple psychotropic agents. We report a case of overdose with risperidone, ziprasidone, valproate, trihexyphenidyl and clonazepam in a 25 years female, who recovered uneventfully with supportive management. Notwithstanding the benign outcome in this instance, age, co-ingested drugs, active metabolites and medical co-morbidity are critical issues in overdose with atypical antipsychotics. As prescription of these drugs continues to increase in developing countries, systematic studies evaluating their clinical toxicity and management are necessary. The issues associated with overdose of multiple psychotropic agents and appropriate management policies are highlighted.

Rajamani, Anto Praveen Rajkumar; Jebaraj, P

2007-01-01

127

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory breast disease. The etiology and treatment options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM associated with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu...

Lin Chih-Hsun; Hsu Chih-Wei; Tsao Tang-Yi; Chou Jason

2012-01-01

128

Relationship between Addiction Relapse and Self-Efficacy Rates in Injection Drug Users Referred to Maintenance Therapy Center of Sari, 1391  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Self-efficacy is the belief that one has the ability to implement the behaviors needed to produce a desired effect. There has been growing interest in the role of self-efficacy as a predictor and/or mediator of treatment outcome in number of domains. In numerous studies of substance abuse treatment, self-efficacy has emerged as an important predictor of outcome, or as a mediator of treatment effects. In the event of a slip, highly self-efficacious persons are inclined to regard the slip as a temporary setback and to reinstate control, whereas those who have low self-efficacy are more likely to proceed to a full-blown relapse. This study was carried out to determine relationship between relapse and self-efficacy and other factors in injected drug users. Materials and Methods: We conducted this study in 200 addicts in the center of counseling behavioral disease in health center of sari city (methadone maintenance therapy center or MMTC. A cross-sectional study was carried out on all of these addicts. Results: The average age in addictions was38 and its range was 20-60.72%of them were married and the first drug used was opium. All of them had relapse at least one time .we found a relationship between relapse and self-efficacy as well as the relationship between self-efficacy with the age of the first of drug use, dose, and procrastination for treatment, marriage, employment and job was significant. Conclusion: This study found that there was a significant difference between relapse and self-efficacy as well as other related factors. It is important to include drug users and common society organizations representing them in every stage of the governmental policy and program development process to make them responsive to the needs of the community.

Zahra Abdollahi

2014-01-01

129

18 month observational study on efficacy of intraarticular hyaluronic acid (Hylan G-F 20 injections under ultrasound guidance in hip osteoarthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and the tolerability of viscosupplementation (VS with hyaluronic acid (Hylan GF 20 in a cohort of 36 patients affected by hip osteoarthritis through a 18 months follow-up. Methods: Viscosupplementation was performed with an anteriorsagittal approach, under ultrasound guidance. 36 patients were administered hyaluronic acid intraarticularly in the hip, with a unique injection of Hylan G-F20, which could be repeated after at least 3 months. Treatment efficacy was assessed by functional index WOMAC, pain evaluation on a visual analogue scale and NSAID consumption. All such parameters were recorded at the time of the first injection and then 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months later. Results: Statistically significant reduction of all parameters was observed three months after the injection, and was still maintained at the timepoints 6, 9, 12 and 18 months. No local side effects have been observed, nor systemic complications. Conclusions: Our data show that viscosupplementation is a promising approach for hip osteoarthritis, providing beneficial effects in a long-tern follow up. Yet, the topic deserves further and wider studies, so to define the number of injections to administer and suggest a fit interval between subsequent injections.

Cristiano Padalino

2011-09-01

130

8-week, single-blind, randomized trial comparing risperidone versus olanzapine augmentation of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present pilot study was to investigate in a single-blind manner, over a period of 8 weeks, the comparative efficacy and tolerability of risperidone versus olanzapine addition in the treatment of OCD patients who did not show a >or=35% decrease in the YBOCS score after 16-week SRI treatment (defined as resistant). The study consisted of two different phases: a 16-week open-label prospective phase to ascertain resistance to SRI treatment and an 8-week single-blind addition phase for resistant subjects only. Ninety-six subjects with DSM-IV OCD (YBOCS>or=16) entered the open-label prospective phase; at the end of the 16-week period, 50 (52%) were judged to be resistant and were randomized to receive risperidone (1 to 3 mg/d) or olanzapine (2.5 to 10 mg/d) addition for 8 weeks. Overall, patients in both groups responded significantly, without differences between the two treatment groups; although no differences emerged for the proportion of patients reporting at least an adverse event, the profiles of adverse experiences differed significantly, being risperidone associated with amenorrhoea and olanzapine with weight gain. PMID:18280710

Maina, Giuseppe; Pessina, Enrico; Albert, Umberto; Bogetto, Filippo

2008-05-01

131

Clinical result of intra-arterial lymphocyte injection therapy for treatment of lymphedema and the evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy. Quantitative analysis by an injection of {sup 111}In-labeled lymphocytes and by MR imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have employed the intra-arterial lymphocytes injection therapy for treatment of lymphedema of the limbs with various causes. In the present study, we observed the clinical outcome of our therapy in 38 patients with lymphedema of the limbs. Results showed that the therapy was effective in 26 of 38 patients (68% of the total). Moreover, a marked efficacy was obtained in 13 of 38 patients (34% of the total). In the latest 5 patients, to evaluate the efficacy of our therapy, we examined the distribution of the {sup 111}In-oxine labeled lymphocytes injected into the proximal artery of the affected limb. The radioactivities of the affected limbs were apparently higher than that of the healthy limbs in effective cases. Moreover, MR imaging showed that the reduction of STIR ratio and T{sub 2} ratio well correlate with the results of clinical course. Thus, the efficacy of the lymphocyte injection therapy is able to be evaluated by radiolabeled lymphocytes and MR imaging. (author).

Yoshizumi, Masanori; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Hori, Takaki; Katoh, Itsuo; Harada, Masashi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nishitani, Hiromu [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

1995-11-01

132

Clinical result of intra-arterial lymphocyte injection therapy for treatment of lymphedema and the evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy. Quantitative analysis by an injection of 111In-labeled lymphocytes and by MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have employed the intra-arterial lymphocytes injection therapy for treatment of lymphedema of the limbs with various causes. In the present study, we observed the clinical outcome of our therapy in 38 patients with lymphedema of the limbs. Results showed that the therapy was effective in 26 of 38 patients (68% of the total). Moreover, a marked efficacy was obtained in 13 of 38 patients (34% of the total). In the latest 5 patients, to evaluate the efficacy of our therapy, we examined the distribution of the 111In-oxine labeled lymphocytes injected into the proximal artery of the affected limb. The radioactivities of the affected limbs were apparently higher than that of the healthy limbs in effective cases. Moreover, MR imaging showed that the reduction of STIR ratio and T2 ratio well correlate with the results of clinical course. Thus, the efficacy of the lymphocyte injection therapy is able to be evaluated by radiolabeled lymphocytes and MR imaging. (author)

133

Comparison of the efficacy of weekly vs. twice a week intralesional injections of meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis: a randomized clinical trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially when caused by L. tropica, is challenging. Meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime® is used as the standard treatment, but multiple injectiond are necessary. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of weekly intralesional injections with twice weekly injections of Glucantime for the treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL."n"nMethods: This randomized open clinical trial was conducted, in Bam, Kerman province, Iran. 96 eligible patients according to inclusion and exclusion criteria who were willing to participate were included. The included patients were randomly assigned into two groups, one group treated with weekly intralesional injections of Glucantime® and the other group treated with intralesional Glucantime® twice a week. Type and size of each lesion (induration, ulcer and scar were recorded weekly. Complete healing was defined as complete re-epithelialization and absence of induration in all lesions and was considered as the primary outcome measure."n"nResults: A total of 48 patients completed the study; complete cure was seen in 24 of 27 (89% patients who received weekly intralesional MA with a mean duration of healing equals to 70±10 days. Complete cure was seen in 24 of 31 (77% patients who received intralesional MA twice a week, the mean duration of healing in the latter group was 58±5 days. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.23."n"nConclusion: It seems that the efficacy of intralesional injections of Glucantime® once a week is similar to efficacy of twice a week Glucantime® injections.

Ali Khamesipour

2010-12-01

134

Human 5-HT7 Receptor-Induced Inactivation of Forskolin-Stimulated Adenylate Cyclase by Risperidone, 9-OH-Risperidone and Other “Inactivating Antagonists”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have previously reported on the unusual human 5-hydroxytryptamine7 (h5-HT7) receptor-inactivating properties of risperidone, 9-OH-risperidone, bromocriptine, methiothepin, metergoline, and lisuride. Inactivation was defined as the inability of 10 ?M 5-HT to stimulate cAMP accumulation after brief exposure and thorough removal of the drugs from HEK293 cells expressing h5-HT7 receptors. Herein we report that brief exposure of the h5-HT7 receptor-expressing cells ...

Toohey, Nicole; Klein, Michael T.; Knight, Jessica; Smith, Carol; Teitler, Milt

2009-01-01

135

Comparison of the Efficacy of Caudal, Interlaminar, and Transforaminal Epidural Injections in Managing Lumbar Disc Herniation: Is One Method Superior to the Other?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Epidural injections are performed utilizing 3 approaches in the lumbar spine: caudal, interlaminar, and transforaminal. The literature on the efficacy of epidural injections has been sporadic. There are few high-quality randomized trials performed under fluoroscopy in managing disc herniation that have a long-term follow-up and appropriate outcome parameters. There is also a lack of literature comparing the efficacy of these 3 approaches. Methods This manuscript analyzes data from 3 randomized controlled trials that assessed a total of 360 patients with lumbar disc herniation. There were 120 patients per trial either receiving local anesthetic alone (60 patients) or local anesthetic with steroids (60 patients). Results Analysis showed similar efficacy for caudal, interlaminar, and transforaminal approaches in managing chronic pain and disability from disc herniation. The analysis of caudal epidural injections showed the potential superiority of steroids compared with local anesthetic alone a 2-year follow-up, based on the average relief per procedure. In the interlaminar group, results were somewhat superior for pain relief in the steroid group at 6 months and functional status at 12 months. Interlaminar epidurals provided improvement in a significantly higher proportion of patients. The proportion of patients nonresponsive to initial injections was also lower in the group for local anesthetic with steroid in the interlaminar trial. Conclusions The results of this assessment show significant improvement in patients suffering from chronic lumbar disc herniation with 3 lumbar epidural approaches with local anesthetic alone, or using steroids with long-term follow-up of up to 2 years, in a contemporary interventional pain management setting. PMID:25589942

Singh, Vijay; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Falco, Frank JE; Hirsch, Joshua A.

2015-01-01

136

Acute dyskinesia on starting methylphenidate after risperidone withdrawal.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on acute and transient dyskinesia occurring within hours of taking modified-release methylphenidate (Concerta XL) in a stimulant-naïve 7-year-old boy who had recently stopped taking risperidone. We propose that the mechanism of this adverse drug reaction is likely to be an interaction between supersensitive dopamine receptors and acute exposure to an indirect dopamine agonist. Clinicians need to be aware of this potential side effect, and to use the combination of psychostimulants and neuroleptic drugs with caution. PMID:17903675

Hollis, Chris P; Thompson, Anne

2007-10-01

137

Comparison of haemostatic efficacy for endoscopic injection therapy of epinephrine and combination therapy of epinephrine and hemoclips for bleeding peptic ulcers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Endoscopic injection therapy of epinephrine is safe and effective in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer, but with high risk of rebleeding. The combination therapy of epinephrine and hemoclips could lead to a reduction of rebleeding and a potential reduction in mortality. Objective. To investigate the efficacy and safety of epinephrine injection therapy and combination therapy with epinephrine and hemoclips in treating bleeding peptic ulcers. Methods. A prospective randomized study included 58 patients with bleeding gastric or duodenal ulcer. In 30 patients endoscopic injection therapy with diluted epinephrine was applied (group I, while in 28 patients combination therapy of epinephrine and hemoclips was applied (group II. Results. Initial haemostasis was achieved in most patients treated with epinephrine injection therapy (93.3% and patients treated with combination therapy of epinephrine and hemoclips (96.4%. After initial haemostasis was achieved rebleeding was significantly more frequent in the patients treated with epinephrine (28.5% than in the patients treated with combination therapy (3.7%, p<0.05. Two patients treated with epinephrine injection therapy were subjected to surgical intervention, whereas no patient treated with combination therapy needed surgery. Lethal ending occurred in one patient treated with epinephrine and in one patient treated with combination therapy. The difference between the two groups of patients in need for surgical intervention and mortality was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Combination therapy with epinephrine and hemoclips is more efficient than epinephrine alone in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers.

Grgov Saša

2012-01-01

138

Efficacy of the computed tomographic scanning (CT) with contrast media injection from foot vein for abdominal mass of the child  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CT with contrast media injection from forearm vein revealed poor information about the inferior vena cava (IVC), in two cases of neuroblastoma from the right adrenal gland. While, CT with contrast media injection from foot vein well demonstrated the tumor extension around the IVC in one case of neuroblastoma, and the tumor, thrombus in the IVC in two cases of Wilms' tumor. Bolus injection from foot vein is helpful to evaluate the extension of malignant tumor around the IVC. (author)

139

Efficacy of the computed tomographic scanning (CT) with contrast media injection from foot vein for abdominal mass of the child  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CT with contrast media injection from forearm vein revealed poor information about the inferior vena cava (IVC), in two cases of neuroblastoma from the right adrenal gland. While, CT with contrast media injection from foot vein well demonstrated the tumor extension around the IVC in one case of neuroblastoma, and the tumor, thrombus in the IVC in two cases of Wilms' tumor. Bolus injection from foot vein is helpful to evaluate the extension of malignant tumor around the IVC.

Aoki, Katsuhiko; Ohba, Satoshi; Kohno, Sumio; Arai, Takeo; Uemura, Sadatoshi; Ohya, Toshiki; Itoh, Shinichi

1988-04-01

140

Long term safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of hyaluronic acid injection in patients with painful osteoarthritis of the knee  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing prevalence of painful knee osteoarthritis has created an additional demand for pharmacologic management to prevent or delay surgical management. Viscosupplementation, via intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA), aims to restore the favorable milieu present in the nonarthritic joint. The safety profile of intraarticular HA injections for painful knee osteoarthritis is well established, with the most common adverse effect being a self-limited reaction at the injection si...

Mcarthur, Benjamin A.; Dy, Christopher J.; Fabricant, Peter D.; Valle, Alejandro Gonzalez Della

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Development of Analytical Method for Risperidone by UV Spectrophotometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, specific, spectrophotometric method developed for the detection of Risperidone in bulk drug and Pharmaceutical formulation. The optimum conditions for the analysis of the drug wereestablished. The ? max of the Risperidone was found to be 280 nm. The method shows high sensitivity with linearity 2 to 6? g/ml. The lower limit of detection and the limit of quantification was found to be 1.012 and 3.036 respectively. All the calibration curves shows a linear relationship between the absorbance and concentration and coefficient correlation was higher than 0.99. The regression of the curve was Y = 0.039x - 0.002. Precision of the method was found to be 2.0325 ± 0.044 against the label claim of 2mg. The percentage recovery was found to be 102 ? 0.188. The sample solution was stable up to 2 hours. The proposed method will be suitable for the analysis of RIS in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation.

M.Sravan Kumar,

2010-03-01

142

Effect of blonanserin on cognitive and social function in acute phase Japanese schizophrenia compared with risperidone  

Science.gov (United States)

Background This study aims to determine the effectiveness of blonanserin (BNS) on the cognitive and social functions of patients with schizophrenia compared with risperidone (RIS) during acute-phase (8-week) treatment. Methods A total of 39 schizophrenia inpatients were included in this study. The subjects received either BNS (N=20) or RIS (N=19), and the clinical responses were evaluated periodically. The concomitant use of mood stabilizers was not allowed. Efficacy was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia. Cognition was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version. Social function was assessed using the Life Assessment Scale for the Mentally Ill. Results For both groups, each assessment exhibited a decrease in the mean change from baseline on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The depression subscale was significantly improved in the BNS group compared with the RIS group at 8 weeks after administration. BNS improved verbal fluency and executive function (cognitive function) and daily living and work skills (social function). Compared with the RIS group, BNS was observed to improve daily living. Conclusion BNS may improve psychotic symptoms, cognitive function, and daily living in patients with acute-phase schizophrenia. BNS may be superior to RIS in the improvement of daily living. PMID:24707178

Hori, Hikaru; Yamada, Kenji; Kamada, Dan; Shibata, Yuka; Katsuki, Asuka; Yoshimura, Reiji; Nakamura, Jun

2014-01-01

143

Microsphere delivery of Risperidone as an alternative to combination therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to develop a parenteral delivery system of Risperidone that would provide initial and extended drug release and thereby avoid the need for co-administration of oral tablets. Key formulation parameters utilized to achieve desired therapeutic levels in vivo were particle size and drug loading. Three poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere formulations (Formulations A, B, and C) that encapsulated Risperidone were prepared by varying particle size (19-49 ?m) and drug loading parameters (31-37%) but with a uniform bulk density (0.66-0.69)g/cc and internal porosity, utilizing the solvent extraction/evaporation method. The microspheres were characterized for drug content by HPLC, particle size by laser diffractometry, surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in vivo drug release. In vivo studies were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and levels of the active moiety (Risperidone and its metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone) were assessed. In vivo release profiles from the three microsphere formulations were dependent on particle size and drug loading. The smaller sized microspheres (Formulation A) exhibited a large initial burst and a shorter duration of action, while the larger particles exhibited a smaller initial burst (Formulations B and C) but released drug for a much longer period in vivo. Extended duration of drug release was ascribed to higher drug content in the microspheres. A biweekly simulation of multiple dosing revealed that Formulation C, the selected formulation, with a high load and large particle size would provide adequate initial and maintenance levels of the active moiety (Risperidone and its metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone). A comparison of biweekly dosing in vivo of Formulation C with the marketed product showed that at steady state, though average concentrations for both preparations were similar, the time taken to achieve steady state was much faster for Formulation C. The delay in attaining steady state with Risperdal Consta® was attributed to the 3 week latency in drug release from the microspheres and was in accordance with previous studies indicating a good corroboration with clinical findings. Calculated cumulative AUC (area under the curve) levels for Formulation C were similar to the Risperdal Consta®, though there were marked differences in AUC levels at the early time points. Comparison of Risperidal Consta® and Formulation C by multiple dosing in vivo experiments revealed that the marketed preparation demonstrated a substantial delay in providing an initial loading dose, continuous circulating levels, and attainment of steady state; all of which were observed rapidly with Formulation C. Findings from the current study strongly suggest that a microsphere dosage form of Risperidone can be formulated with an optimum particle size and drug loading to provide an initial bolus followed by maintenance levels, thereby eliminating combination therapy and improving patient compliance. PMID:23892159

D'Souza, Susan; Faraj, Jabar; DeLuca, Patrick

2013-11-01

144

Long term safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of hyaluronic acid injection in patients with painful osteoarthritis of the knee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Benjamin A McArthur, Christopher J Dy, Peter D Fabricant, Alejandro Gonzalez Della ValleDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USAAbstract: The increasing prevalence of painful knee osteoarthritis has created an additional demand for pharmacologic management to prevent or delay surgical management. Viscosupplementation, via intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA, aims to restore the favorable milieu present in the nonarthritic joint. The safety profile of intraarticular HA injections for painful knee osteoarthritis is well established, with the most common adverse effect being a self-limited reaction at the injection site. Although acceptance of the early literature has been limited by publication bias and poor study quality, more recent and rigorous meta-analysis suggests that intraarticular HA injection is superior to placebo injection for pain relief and matches, if not surpasses, the effect size of other nonoperative treatments, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication. Intraarticular HA injection is effective in providing temporary pain relief in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis. Future investigations should focus on optimizing the composition and administration of HA agents to provide prolonged relief of painful osteoarthritis in the knee and other joints.Keywords: intraarticular injection, hyaluronate, viscosupplementation, osteoarthritis, knee

McArthur BA

2012-12-01

145

Safety and efficacy of a novel injectable filler in the treatment of nasolabial folds: polymethylmethacrylate and cross-linked dextran in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nasolabial folds are a sign of aging and increasing number of people want filler injections in their nasolabial folds to look younger. Various dermal fillers are used for the correction of nasolabial folds. Recently, a novel injectible filler, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and cross-linked dextran in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, was introduced for facial contouring. This study was designed as a six-month, prospective, single-blinded, and open-label study in two centers located in Korea. Nineteen Korean patients received the novel filler injections on both nasolabial folds. At Weeks 4, 12, and 24, the efficacy and safety of the dermal filler were evaluated by blinded-investigators using clinical photographs. The mean Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale revealed significant decrease after dermal filler injections at each study visit. The decreased Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale was maintained for 6 months (p cross-linked dextran in hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose, can be another safe and effective treatment option in the treatment of nasolabial folds. PMID:24684547

Lee, Young Bok; Song, Eun Jong; Kim, Sang Seok; Kim, Jin Wou; Yu, Dong Soo

2014-08-01

146

Metabolic parameters in the short- and long-term treatment of schizophrenia with sertindole or risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of the metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The short- and long-term metabolic safety of sertindole was compared to that of risperidone in a subset of patients enrolled in the sertindole cohort prospective (SCoP) study, an open randomized study. In 261 randomized patients, there were moderate increases in mean weight, BMI, and waist circumference during treatment with either sertindole or risperidone; after 12 weeks, the increase in weight was 1.3 and 1.1 kg, respectively, and after 36 weeks, it was 2.2 and 2.0 kg, respectively. From baseline to last assessment (up to 60 weeks), weight gains of 1.8 and 1.7 kg for sertindole and risperidone, respectively, were observed. Similar proportions of patients (sertindole: 17% versus risperidone: 16%) had weight increases ?7% from baseline to last assessment. The mean changes from baseline in triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, plasma glucose and blood pressure were small and not clinically relevant in both treatment groups. No patient in either of the groups developed type 2 diabetes during the study. At last assessment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (International Diabetes Federation) was 17% in the sertindole group and 26% in the risperidone group and the incidence of metabolic syndrome was 7% in the sertindole group and 10% in the risperidone group. Treatment with either sertindole or risperidone did not appear to be associated with an increased comparative risk of developing metabolic syndrome. In general, the metabolic effects of sertindole and risperidone were similar. PMID:20820795

De Hert, Marc; Mittoux, Aurélia; He, Yuan; Peuskens, Joseph

2011-06-01

147

Comparative efficacy of pour-on and subcutaneous injection of ivermectin on Melophagus ovinus (L.) in Darab ecotype goats of Southern Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of ivermectin was evaluated against Melophagus ovinus in Darab ecotype goats of Iran. Twenty-four healthy Iranian crossbreed male goats were randomly divided into three equal groups (n = 8). An experimental infestation was induced in all animals of the three groups with 100 M. ovinus on the body of each animal. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with 1% ivermectin solution at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight applied as a pour-on along the dorsal midline and 0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously, respectively; while group 3 was kept as control group. Seven days after infestation ivermectin was administered then the goats were observed for a period of 7 days. Body surface of each goat of three groups was inspected daily and decreases in M. ovinus were recorded. The rate of elimination in keds was assessed on the basis of decrease in keds count on the skin and hairs. The results revealed that complete absence of keds were observed in 6 and 7 days post-treatment with injection and pour-on routes, respectively. The results of present study showed that subcutaneous injection of ivermectin more rapidly eliminated M. ovinus than pour-on route. Both routes were 100% effective against this parasite in the goats. Ivermectin can be a drug of choice against M. ovinus in long-hair Iranian goats due to its high efficacy, easy applicability and wide safety margin. PMID:17587499

Jafari Shoorijeh, S; Noori, A; Tamadon, A

2007-09-01

148

Ablation of lumbar sympathetic ganglia by absolute ethanol injection and paravertebral catheter placement under CT guidance: evaluation of the efficacy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the ablation of lumbar sympathetic ganglia by using single injection of absolute ethanol and retaining a paravertebral catheter under CT guidance for the treatment of lower extremity ischemia. Methods: Single absolute ethanol injection of L2 sympathetic ganglia was done in 25 cases (group B), single absolute ethanol injection of L2 sympathetic ganglia together with placement of a paravertebral catheter at L3 was carried out in 23 cases (group BT). All the procedures were performed under CT guidance. Three days after the procedure, the pain severity of the lower limbs was evaluated based on VAS method. If the patient in group BT still had a VAS score ?4 on the third day, 3 ml of 1% lidocaine was infected via the retained catheter in the prone position. If VAS score became ?3 at 5 min after the injection, additional 5 ml of ethanol was given through the catheter. The pain severity was evaluated again one week later. VAS score, analgesic dose and temperature of lower limbs were recorded. Results: One week after the procedure the excellent rate and effective rate for group B were 32% and 80% respectively, while for group BT were 60.9% and 95.7% respectively, with a significant difference between two groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: For the ablation of lumbar sympathetic ganglia the combination of single absolute ethanol injection with paravertebral catheter placement under CT guidance is superior to the single absolute ethanol injection. This technibsolute ethanol injection. This technique is more individual with better results and is more likely to be accepted by the patients. (authors)

149

Oral administration of an anti-inflammatory does not compromise the efficacy of intra-testicular injection of zinc gluconate as a contraceptive for dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to determine whether the efficacy of zinc gluconate (Testoblock(®)) as a chemical contraceptive in male dogs was compromised in the presence of metamizole sodium (a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory/analgesic agent). Ten sexually mature mongrel dogs were assigned to two groups, a control group (n = 5) and a treated group (n = 5). Testoblock(®), a proprietary zinc-gluconate (13.1 mg zinc/ml) solution in a physiological vehicle, was injected into each testis (0.2-1.0 ml/testis, based on testis width). Half of the dogs (treated group) were also given metamizole sodium (also known as sodium dipyrone) orally (25mg/kg three times a day for 2 days), starting 2-3 h after testis injection. A physical examination and assessment of testis width, hematology, clinical chemistry (hepatic and renal function) and semen characteristics, were done immediately after treatment and then every 2 months for 180 days. There was no post-treatment scrotal biting or licking, although there was transient testicular swelling in both control and treated dogs during the first 3 days after injection. At 60 days after injection, all dogs were azoospermic. At 120 and 180 days, seven dogs had azoospermia and the remaining three (two control and one treated) had apparent aspermia (no ejaculate could be collected). There were no significant differences between groups for clinical findings or any aspect of hematology, renal, or hepatic function. In conclusion, giving metamizole sodium concurrent with an intra-testicular injection of a zinc-based solution did not interfere with chemical sterilization and it improved animal welfare. PMID:22682769

Oliveira, Erika C S; Muller, Patricia M; Silva, Fernanda L M; Nery, Lorena T B; de Sá, Marcelo J C; Guerra, Maria Madalena P; Oliveira-Esquerre, Karla P; Kastelic, John P; Douglas, Robert H

2012-06-01

150

A comparison of the oral application and injection routes using the Onderstepoort Biological Products Fowl Typhoid vaccine, its safety, efficacy and duration of protection in commercial laying hens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study was undertaken to establish whether the Onderstepoort Biological Products Fowl Typhoid (OBPft) vaccine registered as an injectable vaccine was effective and safe when administered orally to commercial layers. Its efficacy and duration of protection were compared with application by intram [...] uscular injection. Commercial brown layer hens were used as they were found to be highly susceptible to Salmonella gallinarum infections. In the vaccine safety trial birds were euthanased at timed intervals spanning 4 weeks postvaccination. Necropsies were performed and samples were taken and tested. No clinical signs or mortalities could be attributed to the OBPft vaccine nor could active shedding of the vaccine strain be detected. Slight pathological changes were noted with both routes of vaccination; however, these changes were transient, returning to normal within the observation period. The injected groups showed a better serological response with the rapid serum plate agglutination (RSPA) test than the orally vaccinated groups. In the duration of protection trial, birds were challenged at 3-8-week intervals post-vaccination. All unvaccinated birds died. Protection 8 and 16 weeks after vaccination was above 60 %, by 24 weeks after challenge, the vaccine protection was below 30 %. It was found that there was no significant difference (P

C, Purchase; J, Picard; R, McDonald; S P R, Bisschop.

151

Efficacy and safety of metronidazole injection for the treatment of infectious peritonitis, abdominal abscess and pelvic inflammatory diseases in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although metronidazole (MNZ) has been used worldwide for more than 4 decades as a standard therapy for trichomoniasis, anaerobic and amebic infections, resistance to MNZ is still low. MNZ is available as oral, intravenous, and vaginal formulations, but the intravenous formulation of MNZ has not been approved in Japan. We conducted a phase 3 study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous MNZ combined with ceftriaxone (CTRX) in Japanese subjects with infectious peritonitis, abdominal abscess or pelvic inflammatory diseases (PIDs) to obtain regulatory approval. A combination of MNZ/CTRX at doses of 500 mg 3 or 4 times a day/1 or 2 g twice a day was administered intravenously to a total of 38 hospitalized subjects. MNZ/CTRX was well tolerated and exhibited excellent clinical and bacteriological efficacy with clinical efficacy rates of 100% (20/20) in infectious peritonitis or abdominal abscess subjects and 90.0% (9/10) in PID subjects, and the eradication rates in infectious peritonitis or abdominal abscess subjects and PID subjects were 100% (16/16) and 100% (4/4), respectively, at the test of cure. MNZ/CTRX was effective in 1 subject in whom a metallo-?-lactamase-producing Bacteroides fragilis strain (MIC of MNZ, 2 ?g/ml) was identified. The most common treatment-related adverse event was diarrhea (23.7%), followed by nausea (5.3%). No new safety signals were identified. MNZ/CTRX demonstrated excellent efficacy and was well tolerated in Japanese infectious peritonitis, abdominal abscess and PID subjects. This treatment regimen can be useful for anaerobic infections. Clinical registration number: NCT01473836. PMID:25442806

Mikamo, Hiroshige; Matsumizu, Miyako; Nakazuru, Yoshiomi; Nagashima, Masahito

2015-02-01

152

Industrial-grade silicone injections causing intermittent bilateral malar swelling: review of safety and efficacy of techniques and products available.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silicone and other fillers have become a popular aid to increase soft tissue density, decrease static skin rhytids, and treat muscle wasting, particularly in the face. As a result, injectable silicone has become popular in patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been postulated that highly active antiretroviral therapy detrimentally induces the physiologic process of fat atrophy of the temporal and buccal fat pads of the face and regional fat wasting of the arms, legs, and buttocks and that HIV protease inhibitors may induce fat atrophy by binding and inhibiting homologous human proteins that are involved in fat metabolism. The classic hollowed-out facial appearance linked to HIV positivity can have detrimental social implications in infected patients who are otherwise very functional. In consequence, facial implantation, fat transplantation, and dermal and subcutaneous fillers have been used to aid in the restoration of facial appearance. This report describes the case of a patient who underwent multiple rounds of silicone injections and complained of intermittent facial swelling and pain long after the injections. The authors report on the safety of specific medical-grade injectable fillers and techniques found to be safely effective, especially in the HIV-positive population. PMID:23522770

Seward, Austin C; Meara, Daniel J

2013-07-01

153

Influence of aripiprazole, risperidone, and amisulpride on sensory and sensorimotor gating in healthy 'low and high gating' humans and relation to psychometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite advances in the treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders with atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), there is still need for compounds with improved efficacy/side-effect ratios. Evidence from challenge studies suggests that the assessment of gating functions in humans and rodents with naturally low-gating levels might be a useful model to screen for novel compounds with antipsychotic properties. To further evaluate and extend this translational approach, three AAPs were examined. Compounds without antipsychotic properties served as negative control treatments. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject design, healthy males received either single doses of aripiprazole and risperidone (n=28), amisulpride and lorazepam (n=30), or modafinil and valproate (n=30), and placebo. Prepulse inhibiton (PPI) and P50 suppression were assessed. Clinically associated symptoms were evaluated using the SCL-90-R. Aripiprazole, risperidone, and amisulpride increased P50 suppression in low P50 gaters. Lorazepam, modafinil, and valproate did not influence P50 suppression in low gaters. Furthermore, low P50 gaters scored significantly higher on the SCL-90-R than high P50 gaters. Aripiprazole increased PPI in low PPI gaters, whereas modafinil and lorazepam attenuated PPI in both groups. Risperidone, amisulpride, and valproate did not influence PPI. P50 suppression in low gaters appears to be an antipsychotic-sensitive neurophysiologic marker. This conclusion is supported by the association of low P50 suppression and higher clinically associated scores. Furthermore, PPI might be sensitive for atypical mechanisms of antipsychotic medication. The translational model investigating differential effects of AAPs on gating in healthy subjects with naturally low gating can be beneficial for phase II/III development plans by providing additional information for critical decision making. PMID:24801767

Csomor, Philipp A; Preller, Katrin H; Geyer, Mark A; Studerus, Erich; Huber, Theodor; Vollenweider, Franz X

2014-09-01

154

Relapse in patients with schizophrenia: a comparison between risperidone and haloperidol Recaída em pacientes com esquizofrenia: uma comparação entre risperidona e haloperidol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To compare rates of rehospitalization and time to relapse in risperidone vs. haloperidol-treated schizophrenic patients discharged from the hospital. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial comparing risperidone and haloperidol regarding relapse in patients with schizophrenia treated with flexible doses during one year. RESULTS: Twenty patients were assigned to risperidone and 13 to haloperidol. One patient from each group withdrew consent and one patient in the risperidone group was...

Eduardo Pondé de Sena; Rogério Santos-Jesus; Ângela Miranda-Scippa; Lucas de Castro Quarantini; Irismar Reis de Oliveira

2003-01-01

155

Long term safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of hyaluronic acid injection in patients with painful osteoarthritis of the knee  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Benjamin A McArthur, Christopher J Dy, Peter D Fabricant, Alejandro Gonzalez Della ValleDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USAAbstract: The increasing prevalence of painful knee osteoarthritis has created an additional demand for pharmacologic management to prevent or delay surgical management. Viscosupplementation, via intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA), aims to restore the favorable milieu present in the nonarthritic joint. The safety...

Ba, Mcarthur; Cj, Dy; Pd, Fabricant; Gonzalez Della Valle A

2012-01-01

156

Efficacy of olanzapine long-acting injection in patients with acutely exacerbated schizophrenia: an insight from effect size comparison with historical oral data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To treat acute schizophrenia, a long-acting injectable antipsychotic needs a rapid onset of action and therapeutic profile similar to that of oral agents. The present post-hoc analyses compared results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI for acute schizophrenia with those observed in similarly designed trials of oral olanzapine. Methods Six-week results from the olanzapine LAI study (N?=?404 were compared with those of 3 oral studies (study 1: olanzapine vs. haloperidol vs. placebo [N?=?335]; study 2: olanzapine vs. haloperidol vs. low-dose olanzapine [N?=?431]; study 3: olanzapine vs. placebo vs. low-dose olanzapine [N?=?152]. All patients had baseline Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS scores ?24 (0–6 scale. Six-week effect sizes were calculated. Efficacy onset, pharmacokinetics, discontinuations, weight gain, and extrapyramidal symptoms were also assessed. Results At 6?weeks, mean BPRS scores decreased by 14 to 15 points for olanzapine LAI (405?mg/4?weeks, 210 or 300?mg/2?weeks, by 8 to 16 for oral olanzapine (10?±?2.5 or 15?±?2.5?mg/day, and by 12 to 13 for haloperidol (15?±?5?mg/day. For those same dose groups, effect sizes vs. placebo for the BPRS were 0.7 to 0.8 for olanzapine LAI, 0.5 to 0.7 for oral olanzapine, and 0.6 for haloperidol. The first statistically significant separation from placebo on the BPRS occurred at 3?days for the olanzapine LAI groups and at 1?week for oral olanzapine and haloperidol (15?±?5?mg/day in oral study 1 although as late as week 6 for the 10-mg/day olanzapine dose in oral study 3. Olanzapine concentrations were similar across studies. Weight gain ?7% of baseline occurred in up to 35% of olanzapine LAI and oral patients versus up to 12% of haloperidol and placebo patients. Extrapyramidal symptoms were lowest in the olanzapine LAI groups and significantly greater in the haloperidol groups. No post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome events occurred in the olanzapine LAI study. Conclusions Patients treated acutely with olanzapine LAI showed a similar pattern of improvement to that seen historically with oral olanzapine. With the exception of injection-related adverse events, the efficacy and tolerability profile of olanzapine LAI is similar to oral olanzapine. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID; URL: http://http//www.clinicaltrials.gov/: NCT00088478; ClinicalStudyResults.org ID; URL: http://www.clinicalstudyresults.org/: 917, 978, 982, and 5984.

Detke Holland C

2012-05-01

157

Efficacy of Single Intravenous Injection of Peramivir against Influenza B Virus Infection in Ferrets and Cynomolgus Macaques ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We evaluated the efficacy of a single intravenous dose peramivir for treatment of influenza B virus infection in ferrets and cynomolgus macaques in the present study. A single dose of peramivir (60 mg/kg of body weight) given to ferrets on 1 day postinfection with influenza B virus significantly reduced median area under the curve (AUC) virus titers (peramivir, 8.3 log10 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50s]·day/ml; control, 10.7 log10 TCID50s·day/ml; P < 0.0001). Furthermore, nasal ...

Kitano, Mitsutaka; Itoh, Yasushi; Kodama, Makoto; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Nakayama, Misako; Ishida, Hideaki; Baba, Kaoru; Noda, Takahiro; Sato, Kenji; Nihashi, Yoichiro; Kanazu, Takushi; Yoshida, Ryu; Torii, Ryuzo; Sato, Akihiko; Ogasawara, Kazumasa

2011-01-01

158

Comparison of efficacy of intralesional injection of meglumine anti-moniate once-weekly with twice-weekly in the treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mashhad: a randomized clinical trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aim: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Iran, where it is one of the most important health problems. Both anthroponotic CL (ACL) caused by L. tropica and zoonotic CL (ZCL) caused by L. major are reported. Antimoniate derivatives as the standard therapy for CL need multiple injections and are not easy to tolerate for the patients. This study was conducted in Mashhad to compare the efficacy of weekly versus twice a week intralesional injections of meglumine antimoniate (M...

Alireza Firooz; Maryam Sarraf-Yazdy; Hamed Zartab; Amir Javadi; Seyed Ebrahim Eskandari; Alireza Khatami; Ali Khamesipour; Mohammad Hossein Ghoorchi

2011-01-01

159

Serum concentrations and side effects in psychiatric patients during risperidone therapy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Steady state serum concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OH-risperidone), the active moiety, were measured in 42 patients. The concentration-to-dose ratios (C/D) varied by a factor of 20, from 1.8 to 36.8 (nmol/l)/(mg/24 hours), and 90% of the active moiety was constituted of 9-OH-risperidone. No correlation between the serum concentration of the active moiety and the side effects evaluated by the UKU Side Effect Scale was found. The absence of CYP2D6 (poor metabolizers) or the coadministration of drugs other than benzodiazepines increased the ratio between parent compound and metabolite but did not significantly influence the C/D of the total active moiety. A therapeutic range for serum risperidone has not been established, but 6 mg/day is considered the optimum dose for most patients. The authors found that in 90% of 22 patients administered 6 mg/day risperidone, the serum levels were within 50 to 150 nmol/l.

Olesen, O V; Licht, R W

1998-01-01

160

Differential early onset of therapeutic response with risperidone vs conventional antipsychotics in patients with chronic schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present post-hoc analysis investigated the speed of onset of therapeutic effect of the atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, in direct comparison with conventional antipsychotics. Data were pooled from four double-blind active comparator-controlled clinical trials involving 757 patients with schizophrenia treated for up to 8 weeks with either risperidone (4-6 mg/day) or a conventional antipsychotic such as haloperidol (10 or 20 mg/day), perphenazine (mean dose 28 mg/day), or zuclopenthixol (mean dose 38 mg/day). Primary outcome was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A significantly greater proportion of patients treated with risperidone achieved > or =20% reduction from baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score at weeks 1, 2, 6, and at end point (last observation carried forward: P< or =0.04). A significant difference exists in mean reduction from baseline to end point in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores in favor of patients treated with risperidone compared with those treated with conventional antipsychotics (-18.4 vs -13.5; P=0.0013). The mean time to response was 23.8 days with risperidone and 28.2 days with conventional drugs (hazard ratio 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.1-1.5). These findings are clinically relevant because the faster onset of therapeutic effect with atypical antipsychotics can be important in the acute setting and have a considerable impact on healthcare systems. PMID:16877896

Glick, Ira D; Shkedy, Ziv; Schreiner, Andreas

2006-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Risperidone – Solid-state characterization and pharmaceutical compatibility using thermal and non-thermal techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • DSC was used to characterize Risperidone and study its compatibility with excipients. • FT-IR associated with PCA was used to complement DSC data. • LC analyzes confirmed the DSC and FT-IR/PCA results. • Risperidone was incompatible with three among five excipients evaluated. - Abstract: A full solid-state characterization of risperidone was conducted using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine its physicochemical properties and polymorphism. The primary aim of this work was to study the compatibility of risperidone with pharmaceutical excipients using DSC to obtain and compare the curves of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the excipients with their 1:1 (w/w) binary mixtures. These same binary mixtures were turned to room temperature and analyzed by FT-IR combined with principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate solid-state incompatibilities. The chemical incompatibilities of these samples were verified using a stability-indicating liquid chromatography (LC) method to assay for the API and evaluate the formation of degradation products. All of these methods showed incompatibilities between risperidone and the excipients magnesium stearate, lactose and cellulose microcrystalline

162

Risperidone – Solid-state characterization and pharmaceutical compatibility using thermal and non-thermal techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • DSC was used to characterize Risperidone and study its compatibility with excipients. • FT-IR associated with PCA was used to complement DSC data. • LC analyzes confirmed the DSC and FT-IR/PCA results. • Risperidone was incompatible with three among five excipients evaluated. - Abstract: A full solid-state characterization of risperidone was conducted using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine its physicochemical properties and polymorphism. The primary aim of this work was to study the compatibility of risperidone with pharmaceutical excipients using DSC to obtain and compare the curves of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the excipients with their 1:1 (w/w) binary mixtures. These same binary mixtures were turned to room temperature and analyzed by FT-IR combined with principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate solid-state incompatibilities. The chemical incompatibilities of these samples were verified using a stability-indicating liquid chromatography (LC) method to assay for the API and evaluate the formation of degradation products. All of these methods showed incompatibilities between risperidone and the excipients magnesium stearate, lactose and cellulose microcrystalline.

Daniel, Josiane Souza Pereira; Veronez, Isabela Pianna; Rodrigues, Larissa Lopes [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Trevisan, Marcello G. [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); National Institute of Bioanalytics Science and Technology – INCTBio, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, 13084-653, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Garcia, Jerusa Simone, E-mail: jerusa.garcia@unifal-mg.edu.br [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

2013-09-20

163

Comparison of efficacy of lignocaine anesthesia of vocal cords by spray as you go through a bronchoscope with lignocaine injection through the cricothyroid membrane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess and compare the efficacy of lignocaine anesthesia of vocal cords by spray as you go through a bronchoscope with lignocaine injection through the cricothyroid membrane. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study:This study was done in Combined Military Hospital Peshawar form May 2009 to June 2010. Material and method: Thirty patients in each group were given local anesthesia to the vocal cords. With lignocaine either via intratracheal instillation through the cricothyroid membrane or through a fibreoptic bronchoscope spray as you go. A cough score was calculated by recording the number of coughs as the bronchoscope was advanced through the cords into the trachea. A twenty point unpleasantness score was marked by the patient 2 hours after the procedure. Result: Cough score and unpleasantness score was compared among the two groups using SPSS version 19. Median unpleasantness score was 6 (Inter quartile range (IQR) 4-8) whereas median cough score was 2(IQR 0-3). The difference was statistically significant among the two groups for both cough and unpleasant scores (p< 0.001 and p< 0.001 respectively). Conclusion: Intratracheal injection of lignocaine is more comfortable for the patient. It induces much less cough and irritability to the patient than the spray as you go technique. (author)

164

A Literature Review on the Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin: An Injection in Post-Stroke Spasticity  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: A variety of techniques for the management of spasticity have been suggested, including positioning, cryotherapy, splinting and casting, biofeedback, electrical stimulation, and medical management by pharmacological agents, Botulinum toxin A (BTA) is now the pharmacological treatment of choice in focal spasticity. BTA by blocking acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions accounts for its therapeutic action to relieve spasticity. Methods: A computerized search of Pub Med was carried out to find the latest result about efficacy of BTA in management of post stroke spasticity. Result: Among 84 articles were found, frothy of them included in this review and divided to lower and upper extremity. Conclusions: BTA is a treatment choice in reducing tone and managing post stroke spasticity . PMID:23776717

Ghasemi, Majid; Salari, Mehri; Khorvash, Fariborz; Shaygannejad, Vahid

2013-01-01

165

Comparison of the Efficacy of Oral and Injectable Forms of Prophylactic Antibiotics in Grade Ii Traumatic Ulcers in Emergency Wards of University Hospitals of Yazd  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic ulcers are one of the most common causes of referral to emergency wards and interfere with wound healing. Even in a complete sterile condition, all of the ulcers may be contaminated with bacteria, but a few of them progress and cause clinical manifestations. There is a controversy on the use prophylactic antibiotics in traumatic ulcers. In this study we compare the efficacy of oral and injectable forms of antibiotics in prophylaxis of infection. Methods: In this clinical trial study, 237 cases suffering from grade II traumatic ulcers were selected by simple random method and divided into 2 groups; first group was administered 1 gram cephazoline prior to suturing and received no other antibiotics , while the second group received 500 mg cephalexin capsule before suturing and continued the treatment for 24 hours. (500 mg QID .Patients were followed up on day 7, 10 and 30 after discharge from hospital for infection of the wounds. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS 11 software using Chi-squire and Fisher exact tests. Results: According to the findings, confounding variables such as sex, age, width of the wound, traumatic cause and site and also the time course until referral to the emergency ward were similar in both groups. Prevalence of infection in the group receiving oral and injection forms of antibiotic was 2.5% and 1.7%, respectively, difference of which was not significant.(P=0.683 Conclusion: As the prevalence of wound infection is similar in both groups, oral forms of antibiotics can be used instead of injectable forms for wound infection prophylaxis.

MR Hajiesmaieli

2007-12-01

166

Correlates of weight gain during long-term risperidone treatment in children and adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Most clinical trials of antipsychotics in children are brief, failing to address their long-term safety, particularly when taken concurrently with other psychotropics. This hypothesis-generating analysis evaluates potential correlates of weight gain in children receiving extended risperidone treatment. Methods Medically healthy 7–17?year-old patients treated with risperidone for six months or more were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements were conducted. Developmental and medication history was obtained from the medical record. Information related to birth weight, dietary intake, physical activity, and parental weight was collected. Mixed regression analyses explored the contribution of various demographic and clinical factors to age- and sex-adjusted weight and body mass index (BMI z scores over the treatment period. Results The sample consisted of 110 patients (89% males with a mean age of 11.8?years (sd?=?2.9 upon enrollment. The majority had an externalizing disorder and received 0.03?mg/kg/day (sd?=?0.02 of risperidone, for 2.5?years (sd?=?1.7, to primarily target irritability and aggression (81%. Polypharmacy was common with 71% receiving psychostimulants, 50% selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, and 32% ?2-agonists. Weight and BMI z score were positively correlated with baseline weight at the start of risperidone, treatment duration, and the weight-adjusted dose of risperidone but inversely associated with the weight-adjusted dose of psychostimulants and the concurrent use of SSRIs and ?2-agonists. The effect of risperidone dose appeared to attenuate as treatment extended while that of psychostimulants became more significant. The rate of change in weight (or BMI z score prior to and within the first 12?weeks of risperidone treatment did not independently predict future changes neither did birth weight, postnatal growth, dietary intake, physical activity, or parental weight. Conclusions This comprehensive analysis exploring correlates of long-term weight (or BMI change in risperidone-treated youths revealed that pharmacotherapy exerts significant but complex effects. Trial Registration Not applicable.

Calarge Chadi

2012-05-01

167

Efficacy and Tolerability of Aripiprazole in Patients with Schizophrenia & Schizoaffective Disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Before the 1990s, treatment of psychoses centred on conventional agents whose tolerability was limited by extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). The past decade has seen the emergence of newer generation of antipsychotic agents. These agents provide better negative symptom efficacy, less impaired cognition and lower risk of extrapyramidal syndromes. Aripiprazole, a new atypical antipsychotic drug, displayed efficacy similar to risperidone and haloperidol in numerous clinical trials. Aripiprazole does...

Chavda, R. K.; Laxmi, L.; Nair, B. S.; Gandewar, K.

2004-01-01

168

A Comparison of the Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Morphine with Marcaine in Patients to Relief the Pain Associated with  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available . *AbstractBackground and purpose: Knee arthroscopy is an approved technique for the diagnosis and treatment of intra-articular lesions. Moderate to severe pain is experienced after surgery; thus, relieving pain post arthroscopy, will help patients in performing their daily activities as soon as possible. Many studies have been performed for reducing pain after arthroscopy. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of intra-articular injection of morphine with marcaine in patients for pain relief after arthroscopy.Materials and Methods: 30 patients were considered for arthroscopic surgery, due to the tearing of the menisci. In this simple non-probability trial, patients were divided in two groups. The first group received 7cc intra-articular marcaine at 0.5% and the second group received 10mg of intra-articular morphine after the arthroscopy. The response was measured by VAS in hours 6, 12, 18, 24 postoperatively and by flexion, extension and walking.Results: The results showed that there was no significant statistical difference between the two groups, except in hour 6 after surgery, indicating marcaine is more effective than morphine. There were no side effects experienced within the two groups. Age, gender, height and weight also had no effect in reducing the pain in patients.Conclusion: Intra-articular Injection of marcaine is more effective than morphine six hours after surgery; however, there are no differences between them after that time frame. More research is needed in order to reduce pain after arthroscopy. Key words:

S.E. Shafiei,

2007-01-01

169

Risperidone treatment for ADHD in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Joseph Biederman, Paul Hammerness, Robert Doyle, Gagan Joshi, Megan Aleardi, Eric MickPediatric Psychopharmacology Research Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USAObjective: Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are also at high risk of having comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objective of this study was to estimate improvement in ADHD symptoms in children with bipolar disorder.Methods: This was an open-label, study of risperidone monotherapy for the treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder. Thirty-one children and adolescents 4–15 years of age (7.2 ± 2.8 years of both sexes (71%, N = 22 male with pediatric bipolar disorder (YMRS score = 32.9 ± 8.8 and ADHD (ADHD-RS score = 37.9 ± 8.9 were included in these analyses.Results: Improvement in ADHD symptoms was contingent on improvement in manic symptoms. Although both hyperactive/impulsive (?7.5 ± 5.5.6, p < 0.05 and inattentive (?6.8 ± 5.0, p < 0.05 ADHD symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone, improvement was modest, and only 29% of subjects (N = 6 showed a 30% reduction in ADHD rating scale scores and had a CGI-I ? 2.Conclusions: These results suggest that that treatment with risperidone is associated with tangible but generally modest improvement of symptoms of ADHD in children with bipolar disorder.Keywords: ADHD, bipolar disorder, children, risperidone

Joseph Biederman

2008-03-01

170

Prolactin variations during risperidone therapy in a sample of drug-naive children and adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this prospective observational study was to investigate the variations of serum prolactin hormone (PRL) in a sample of 34 drug-naive patients (mean age 13 years) who started risperidone therapy assuming that several factors may favor the increase in serum PRL. Serum PRL and hyperprolactinemia clinical signs were examined at baseline (T0) and after almost 3 months of treatment (T1). We considered sex, pubertal status, risperidone dosage, psychiatric diagnosis, and any personal/family history of autoimmune diseases. The mean serum PRL value increased between T0 and T1 (P=0.004). The mean serum PRL was higher in females in the pubertal/postpubertal stage and for risperidone dosage up 1?mg/day. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 20% of patients at T0 and in 38% of patients at T1 (P=0.03). The mean serum PRL increase was greater in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis patients compared with no-early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis patients (P=0.04). The increase in PRL was higher in patients with a personal and a family history of autoimmune diseases. This study suggests that the increase in serum PRL in patients treated with risperidone may be linked not only to the drug and its dosage but also to several risk factors such as sex, pubertal stage, psychiatric disease, and autoimmune disorders. PMID:25514607

Matera, Emilia; Petruzzelli, Maria G.; Simone, Marta; Lamanna, Anna L.; Pastore, Adriana; Palmieri, Vincenzo O.; Margari, Francesco

2015-01-01

171

[Risperidone Treatment for Polydipsia and Severe Hyponatremia in a Schizophrenic Patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of a patient with undifferentiated schizophrenia since 10 years, who presented a polydipsia and severe hyponatremia. This patient responded well to a combination of an atypical antipsychotic (risperidone 4 mg/day) and a behavioral approach based on fluid restriction. PMID:25487849

Chhoumi, Maha; Mrad, Amel; Mechri, Anwar

2014-12-10

172

The effects of the atypical antipsychotics clozapine, remoxipride and risperidone on the contractile characteristics of rat skeletal muscle in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The therapeutic use of the atypical antipsychotics clozapine, remoxipride and risperidone has been reported to be associated with a reduced occurrence of the extrapyramidal side-effects seen during therapy with classical (or typical) antipsychotics such as trifluoperazine and haloperidol. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the atypical antipsychotics clozapine, remoxipride and risperidone on rat skeletal muscle in vitro. Remoxipride and risperidone did not produce contracture in muscle. Clozapine induced a small muscle contracture at high concentrations. Pre-treatment of muscle with trifluoperazine or haloperidol in vitro caused the muscle to display contracture responses to halothane, and haloperidol also potentiated a contracture response to caffeine. Pre-treatment of muscle with remoxipride and risperidone did not induce contracture in response to halothane and did not potentiate caffeine contracture. Clozapine pre-treatment caused muscle fibre bundles to display a small halothane-induced contracture and caused significant potentiation of caffeine-induced contracture. PMID:9446712

Mendes, L S; Collins, S P

1997-12-01

173

Polypharmacy in the management of patients with schizophrenia on risperidone in a tertiary-care hospital in Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was conducted primarily to determine the occurrence of polypharmacy in patients with schizophrenia on risperidone. The secondary aim was to ascertain the incidence of inappropriate prescribing with anticholinergics. A retrospective review of the medical records of all patients who were being followed up at the out-patient clinic of a tertiary-care hospital in Malaysia was conducted. Only patients who were being prescribed risperidone between 1 June 2008 and 31 December 2008 ...

Jacob, Sa; Ibrahim, Mi Mohamed; Mohammed, F.

2013-01-01

174

Polipectomía endoscópica de colon: efectividad y seguridad de la técnica de inyectar y cortar / Efficacy and safety of the inject and cut technique for endoscopic colonic polypectomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La polipectomía de colon es el más importante instrumento para detener la secuencia adenoma-cáncer. La técnica de inyectar y cortar ha demostrado eficacia y seguridad en estudios realizados en otros países. En nuestro país no se han reportado datos sobre el desempeño de esta técnica por lo que se ha [...] ce necesario describir la experiencia de una unidad de gastroenterología de un centro universitario. Objetivos: Describir las características demográficas y operativas de la polipectomía endoscópica de colon por medio de la técnica de inyectar y cortar. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron todos los pacientes a quienes se les realizó polipectomía endoscópica colon en la unidad de gastroenterología de la Clínica Fundadores de Bogotá, desde enero de 2003 hasta septiembre de 2011; los datos se procesaron en el paquete estadístico PASW statistics 18 versión 18,8 (SPSS-IBM). Resultados: A 420 pacientes se les realizó polipectomía con un total de 548 pólipos resecados. Promedio de edad 56,3años (14-93), 201 masculinos y 219 femeninos. Localización más común en colon izquierdo (238/64,4%), promedio de tamaño 1,6 cm, 83,8% pediculados, 13,3% sésiles y 2,85% planos. Hubo sangrado intraprocedimiento en 36 casos (8,6%). No hubo relación entre esta complicación y el tamaño de los pólipos ( 20 mm); OR: 0,44 (IC 0,19-1,01), como tampoco con número de pólipos resecados (1 vs. > 1) OR: 1,44; (IC 95%: 0,65-3,2). Todos los casos de sangrado fueron controlados endoscópicamente sin complicaciones adicionales. No hubo necesidad de cirugía. No hubo recurrencias locales durante el seguimiento. Conclusiones: En el presente estudio se demostró que la técnica de inyectar y cortar es práctica y efectiva, económica y fácil de ejecutar para remover los pólipos del colon. Hasta el momento es la serie más grande publicada en nuestro medio sobre el tema. Abstract in english Colonic polypectomy is the most important tool for stopping adenoma-cancer, and the inject and cut technique has demonstrated efficacy and safety in studies conducted in other countries. Since in our country there are no reported data on performance of this technique, it is necessary to describe the [...] experience of a gastroenterology unit of a university. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to describe operational characteristics of endoscopic colonic polypectomy using the inject and cut technique and to describe demographic characteristics of patients undergoing this procedure. Materials and Methods: We included all patients who underwent endoscopic colonic polypectomies in the gastroenterology unit of the Clínica Fundadores in Bogotá from January 2003 to September 2011. Data were processed using SPSS version 18 18.8 (SPSS-IBM) statistical package. Results: 420 patients underwent polypectomies which resected a total of 548 polyps. Mean patient age was 56.3 years (range 14 to 93), 201 patients were male, and 219 were female. Polyps were most commonly located in the left colon (238/64.4%). Average size was 1.6 cm. 83.8% were pedunculated, 13.3% were sessile, and 2.85% were flat. Intraoperative bleeding occurred in 36 cases (8.6%). There was no relationship between this complication and the size of polyps ( 20 mm), OR: 0.44 (CI 0.19-1.01), nor with the number of resected polyps (1Vs> 1) OR: 1.44, (95%:0.65-3 .2). All cases of bleeding were controlled endoscopically without further complications. There was no need for surgery. There were no local recurrences during follow-up. Conclusions: This study showed that the inject and cut technique is a practical, effective, economical and easy to perform technique for removal of colonic polyps. To date this is the largest series published in our country on the subject

William, Otero R; Alejandro, Concha M; Martín, Gómez Z.

2013-03-30

175

A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of donepezil adjunctive treatment to risperidone in chronic and stable schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is considerable incentive to develop new treatment strategies that effectively target cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. One of the theoretically promising novel treatment candidates is acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that increase the synaptic levels of cholinergic, nicotinic, and muscarinic receptor activity. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of donepezil as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia in particular for cognitive impairments. This investigation was a 12-week, double-blind study of parallel groups of patients with stable chronic schizophrenia. Thirty patients were recruited from inpatient and outpatient departments, age ranging from 22 to 44 years. All participants met DSM-IV-TR. diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. To be eligible, patients were required to have been treated with a stable dose of risperidone as their primary antipsychotic treatment for a minimum period of 8 weeks. The subjects were randomized to receive donepezil (10 mg/day) or placebo, in addition to risperidone (4-6 mg/day). Clinical psychopathology was assessed with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Cognition was measured by a cognitive battery. Patients were assessed by a psychiatrist at baseline and after 8, and 12 weeks after the medication started. The PANSS scores and cognitive performance were used as the outcome measures. The donepezil group had significantly greater improvement in the negative symptoms over the 12-week trial. There were no differences between the donepezil and placebo groups on any neurocognitive assessments at endpoint (week 12). The present study indicates donepezil as a potential adjunctive treatment strategy for negative symptoms of chronic schizophrenia. PMID:18727948

Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Gerami, Maryam; Noroozian, Maryam; Karamghadiri, Narges; Ghoreishi, Aboulfazl; Abbasi, Seyed-Hesameddin; Rezazadeh, Sams-Ali

2008-12-12

176

Comparison between risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic agent and haloperidol, a conventional agent used to treat schizophrenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An observational and comparative study was conducted to compare the functional outcome between the patients treated with conventional antipsychotic agent haloperidol and typical antipsychotic agent, Risperidone (Risperidal). A total of 32 patients were included in the study with established schizophrenia according to (DSM iv). The data was processed on SSPE 10th version. The primary outcome measure was the improvement of negative symptoms of schizophrenia and secondary outcome measure was to observe the superiority of the atypical drug Risperid one over conventional agent haloperidol regarding side effects. Patients were assessed at baseline, 2nd and 8th week, using four tools of assessment. For treatment group receiving haloperidol mean was 47.2+-11.50 at 8th week and for Risperidone treatment group mean was 43+-14.68. The P values for all the parameters in the Clozapine group were significant as compared to haloperidol. (author)

177

Suicide attempts in a prospective cohort of patients with schizophrenia treated with sertindole or risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of suicide attempts (fatal and non-fatal) was analysed in a prospective cohort of patients with schizophrenia randomly assigned to sertindole (4905 patients) or risperidone (4904 patients) in a parallel-group open-label study with blinded classification of outcomes (the sertindole cohort prospective study--SCoP). The total exposure was 6978 and 7975 patient-years in the sertindole and risperidone groups, respectively. Suicide mortality in the study was low (0.21 and 0.28 per 100 patients per year with sertindole and risperidone, respectively). The majority (84%) of suicide attempts occurred within the first year of treatment. Cox's proportional hazards model analysis of the time to the first suicide attempt, reported by treating psychiatrists and blindly reviewed by an independent expert group according to the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (both defining suicide attempts by association of suicidal act and intent to die), showed a lower risk of suicide attempt for sertindole-treated patients than for risperidone-treated patients. The effect was statistically significant with both evaluation methods during the first year of randomized treatment (hazard ratios [95% CI]: 0.5 [0.31-0.82], p=0.006; and 0.57 [0.35-0.92], p=0.02, respectively). With classification by an independent safety committee using a broader definition including all incidences of intentional self-harm, also those without clear suicidal intent, the results were not significant. A history of previous suicide attempts was significantly associated with attempted suicides in both treatment groups. PMID:20926264

Crocq, M A; Naber, D; Lader, M H; Thibaut, F; Drici, M; Everitt, B; Hall, G C; Le Jeunne, C; Mittoux, A; Peuskens, J; Priori, S; Sturkenboom, M; Thomas, S H L; Tanghøj, P; Toumi, M; Mann, R; Moore, N D

2010-12-01

178

Effect of blonanserin on cognitive and social function in acute phase Japanese schizophrenia compared with risperidone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hikaru Hori, Kenji Yamada, Dan Kamada, Yuka Shibata, Asuka Katsuki, Reiji Yoshimura, Jun NakamuraDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, JapanBackground: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of blonanserin (BNS) on the cognitive and social functions of patients with schizophrenia compared with risperidone (RIS) during acute-phase (8-week) treatment.Methods: A total of 39 schizophrenia inpatients were included in this study....

Hori H; Yamada K.; Kamada D; Shibata Y; Katsuki A; Yoshimura R.; Nakamura J

2014-01-01

179

Effervescent tablet formulation for enhanced patient compliance and the therapeutic effect of risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Risperidone is a poorly water soluble atypical antipsychotic drug. This work investigated the potential of developing risperidone effervescent tablets to facilitate drug administration and mask drug taste. The solid dispersion technique was selected to improve drug solubility due to its ease of scaling up, reproducibility and affordable cost. Thirty formulas were prepared adopting a 5(1).2(1).3(1) full factorial design. Trehalose, Inulin, pregelatinized starch, carboxymethylcellulose sodium and Eudragit E100 were used as hydrophilic carriers at different ratios. Rotovap, lyophilization and the kneading-oven were applied as solvent evaporation techniques. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that the drug was present as amorphous material entrapped within the carrier matrix. Eight tablet blends were prepared using different effervescent mixture ratios with or without binder and lubricant/glidant mixture. All of the blends had acceptable flowability, acceptable effervescence times and immediate drug release that could not be achieved by any of the control formulas. The formula of choice contained 40% effervescent mixture, 5% starch, 1% boric acid, 1% aspartame and sufficient lactose. The relative bioavailability (RB) of risperidone from this formula was 161.41% with a significantly higher extent of absorption compared to the market conventional tablets. This formula may be promising in improving patient compliance and drug efficiency. PMID:24833273

Mohammed, Kareem Abu Bakr; Ibrahim, Howida Kamal; Ghorab, Mahmoud Mohammed

2014-05-15

180

Effects of risperidone treatment on the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide in appetite regulation in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs has been successful in the treatment of schizophrenia, they can cause some complications in the long-term use, including weight gain. Patients using these drugs tend to disrupt treatment primarily due to side effects. The atypical antipsychotic mechanism of action regulates a number of highly disrupted neurotransmitter pathways in the brains of psychotic patients but may also cause impairment of neurohormonal pathways in different brain areas. In this study, we investigated the circulating levels of hypothalamic neurohormones, which are related to appetite regulation; neuropeptide Y (NPY); alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH); cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART); agouti-related peptide (AgRP); and leptin in male Wistar rats, which were treated with risperidone, a serotonin antagonist, for four weeks. Alterations in the mRNA expression levels of these candidate genes in the hypothalamus were also analyzed. We hypothesized that risperidone treatment might alter both hypothalamic and circulating levels of neuropeptides through serotonergic antagonism, resulting in weight gain. Gene expression studies revealed that the mRNA expression levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), AgRP, and NPY decreased as well as their plasma levels, except for NPY. Unexpectedly, CART mRNA levels increased when their plasma levels decreased. Because POMC neurons express the serotonin receptor (5HT2C), the serotonergic antagonism of risperidone on POMC neurons may cause an increase in appetite and thus increase food consumption even in a short-term trial in rats. PMID:25449893

Kursungoz, Canan; Ak, Mehmet; Yanik, Tulin

2015-01-30

 
 
 
 
181

FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF EXTENDED RELEASE MINI TABLETS OF RISPERIDONE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to formulate Risperidone mini tablets filled into hard gelatin capsule, as it is administered for the treatment of psychosis. The preformulation studies of Risperidone were carried out and drug –polymer compatibility studies were performed by FT-IR spectra analysis. The precompression parameters revealed that all the 6 formulations had good flow Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose within the limit. Risperidone is formulated with different concentration of polymers like HPMCK100M, HPMCK15M, filler like lactose and with other excipients. A total number of 6 formulations (F1,F2,F3,F4,F5 and F6were carried and evaluated. In all the formulations thickness varies between 3.90-3.94mm and the hardness of the optimized batch was found to be 3.18kg/cm2.No variation in the hardness was found in the optimized formulation that showed powder blending was uniform. Among 6 formulations, F1, F2, F3 and F6 trials were done using K100M polymer and F4, F5 with K15M polymer using optimized quantity of lactose, best batch among those is F1 because it had 90% drug release and it could sustain its action until 20thhr, and is very economical.

B.Vishnu Vardhan Reddy

2012-02-01

182

Rapid High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Risperidone in Human Plasma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple, rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method for the determination of risperidone in human plasma was developed. An HPLC system based on a Nucleosil C8 column (150×4 mm and a UV detector (?= 280 nm were used. A mixture of sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (55:45, v/v adjusted to pH 6.0 at a flow rate of 1.5 ml min-1 was used as mobile phase. The proteins were precipitated with an acetonitrilesolution containing diltiazem as internal standard and the average recovery was 93.9±3.4%.The detection limit for risperidone in plasma was 0.5 ngml-1. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 2-50 ngml-1. The inter-day and intra-day assay coefficients of variation were found to be less than 5%. The present validated method was successfully used for pharmacokinetic studies of risperidone in human subjects.

Seyyed Mohsen Foroutan

2006-01-01

183

Adjunctive risperidone treatment and sleep symptoms in combat veterans with chronic PTSD.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sleep disturbances are core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are often resistant to treatment. One reason for the recent use of atypical antipsychotics in PTSD appears to be their effects on sleep. Study objectives were (1) to evaluate preliminarily the sleep effects of adjunctive risperidone, and (2) to evaluate the use of sleep diaries versus the more standard retrospective sleep assessments. This was a pilot, open-label, 12-week, flexible-dose trial of adjunctive risperidone in male veterans with a primary diagnosis of chronic, combat-related PTSD, partially responsive to current medications. Diagnostic interviews were administered at baseline, and PTSD ratings were obtained at baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks. Self-report sleep measures, including morning logs, were obtained at baseline and 6 weeks. Seventeen patients completed at least 6 weeks of the trial. Global ratings of sleep disturbance improved. Changes in frequency of awakenings and reductions in trauma-related dreams were only evident via morning log assessments. Nighttime awakening frequency derived from the sleep logs but not from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) decreased significantly. There were no changes in the PSQI nightmare item; however, sleep log data indicated a reduced proportion of traumatic dreams at 6 weeks. Preliminary results suggest that adjunctive risperidone may benefit sleep disturbances associated with chronic PTSD. Prospective logs may be more sensitive to change than are retrospective scales. PMID:16845653

David, Daniella; De Faria, Ludmila; Mellman, Thomas A

2006-01-01

184

Dopamine transporter density assessed with [123]IPT SPECT before and after risperidone treatment in children with tourette's disorder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tourette's disorder (TD), which is characterized by multiple waxing and waning motor tics and one or more vocal tics, is known to be associated with abnormalities in the dopaminergic system. To testify our hypothesis that risperidone would improve tic symptoms of TD patients through the change of the dopaminergic system, we measured the dopamine transporter (DAT) densities between drug-naive children with TD and normal children, and investigated the DAT density before and after treatment with risperidone in drug-naive children with TD, using iodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2?-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane ([123I]IPT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). [123I]IPT SPECT imaging and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale-Korean version (YGTSS-K) for assessing the tic symptom severity were carried out before and after treatment with risperidone for 8 weeks in nine drug-naive children with TD. Eleven normal children also underwent SPECT imaging 2 hours after an intravenous administration of [123I]IPT. Drug-naive children with TD had a significantly greater increase in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of both basal ganglia compared with the normal children. However, no significant difference in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia before and after treatment with risperidone in children with TD was found, although tic symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone. Thgnificantly improved with risperidone. These findings suggest that DAT densities are directly associated with the pathophysiology of TD, however, that the effect of risperidone on tic symptoms in children with TD is not attributed to the change of dopaminergic system

185

Onset of efficacy with acute long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate treatment in markedly to severely ill patients with schizophrenia: post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This post hoc analysis (trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00590577 assessed onset of efficacy and tolerability of acute treatment with once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP, a long-acting atypical antipsychotic initiated by day 1 and day 8 injections, in a markedly to severely ill schizophrenia population. Methods Subjects entering the 13-week, double-blind trial were randomized to PP (39, 156, or 234 mg [25, 100, and 150 mg eq of paliperidone, respectively] or placebo. This subgroup analysis included those with a baseline Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S score indicating marked to severe illness. PP subjects received a 234-mg day 1 injection (deltoid, followed by their assigned dose on day 8 and monthly thereafter (deltoid or gluteal. Thus, data for PP groups were pooled for days 4 and 8. Measures included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, CGI-S, Personal and Social Performance (PSP, and adverse events (AEs. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF methodologies, without multiplicity adjustments, were used to assess changes in continuous measures. Onset of efficacy was defined as the first time point a treatment group showed significant PANSS improvement (assessed days 4, 8, 22, 36, 64, and 92 versus placebo, which was maintained through end point. Results A total of 312 subjects met inclusion criterion for this subgroup analysis. After the day 1 injection, mean PANSS total scores improved significantly with PP (all received 234 mg versus placebo at day 4 (P = 0.012 and day 8 (P = 0.007. After the day 8 injection, a significant PANSS improvement persisted at all subsequent time points in the 234-mg group versus placebo (P P P P Conclusions In this markedly to severely ill population, acute treatment with 234 mg PP improved psychotic symptoms compared with placebo by day 4. After subsequent injections, observed improvements are suggestive of a dose-dependent effect. No unexpected tolerability findings were noted.

Ma Yi-Wen

2011-04-01

186

Risperidone and Divalproex Differentially Engage the Fronto-Striato-Temporal Circuitry in Pediatric Mania: A Pharmacological Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The current study examined the impact of risperidone and divalproex on affective and working memory circuitry in patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method: This was a six-week, double-blind, randomized trial of risperidone plus placebo versus divalproex plus placebo for patients with mania (n = 21; 13.6 [plus or minus] 2.5…

Pavuluri, Mani N.; Passarotti, Alessandra M.; Fitzgerald, Jacklynn M.; Wegbreit, Ezra; Sweeney, John A.

2012-01-01

187

Review of the efficacy of placebo in comparative clinical trials between typical and atypical antipsychotics Revisão da eficácia do placebo nos ensaios clínicos que comparam antipsicóticos típicos e atípicos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy of placebo in comparison with atypical and typical antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder and to evaluate the pertinence of using placebo in clinical trials with antipsychotics. METHOD: Trials in which the atypical antipsychotics were compared with typical antipsychotics and placebo were included. A search was conducted using the terms "amisulpride", "aripiprazole", "clozapine", "olanzapine", "quetiapine", "risperidone"...

Irismar Reis de Oliveira; Paulo Menezes Nunes; Domingos Macedo Coutinho; Eduardo Pondé de Sena

2009-01-01

188

Low dose intradetrusor injections of onabotulinumtoxina in women with overactive bladder symptoms or the painful bladder syndrome: unfavourable balance between clinical efficacy and the need for catheterisation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: We evaluated our results with low dose intradetrusor injections of onabotulinumtoxinA in women with overactive bladder symptoms and the painful bladder syndrome in terms of clinically successful outcomes and the need for clean intermittent self-catheterisation (CISC) and in relation to urodynamic aspects. Materials and Methods: The files of patients treated with 100 U of onabotulinumtoxinA injected at 20 sites with sparing of the trigone were retrospectively analysed. Nearly all p...

Dohle, Gert R.; Marchand, Wouter J. C.; Blok, Bertil F. M.; Jan Groen

2012-01-01

189

Bioequivalence study of a generic Risperidone (Iperdal® in healthy Thai male volunteers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the rate and extent of absorption of a generic risperidone (Iperdal® with a reference formulation (Risperdal® when given orally. The study was an open label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence,single dose cross-over design with a 2 weeks washout period in 16 healthy Thai male volunteers. Single oral dose of two 2-mg tablets of risperidone were administered and serial blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and at0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12, 24 and 48 hours post dose. Risperidone plasma concentrations were assayed using a validated High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC-UV method modified from Avenosoet al. (2000. Pharamcokinetic parameters i.e. Cmax, AUC0à48 and Tmax were analyzed by noncompartment analysis. Variations of the data were analyzed by ?Two Way Analysis of Variance? (ANOVA. Statistics were tested as stated in USP 28 guidelinefor bioequivalence study. The maximum concentration (Cmax, ng/ml of risperidone for the innovator and the generic product were 31.11±17.24 (range 5.64-56.78 and 32.58±19.77 (range 5.29-84.56 ng/ml, respectively. The area under theplasma concentration-time curve (AUC0®48 of the innovator and the generic product were 160.64±152.89 (range 18.57- 550.32 and 144.03±127.37 (range 16.27-456.0 ng.hr/ml, respectively. The time to maximum concentration (Tmax of theinnovator and the generic product were 0.97±0.41(range 0.5-2 and 1.02±0.32 (range 0.5-1.5 hr, respectively. The 90% confidence interval of the ratio of the ln-transformed of Cmax and AUC0à48 of both preparations were 89.39-112.99% and80.02-107.28% respectively which were within the acceptance range of 80.00-125.00%. Therefore, it can be concluded that both preparations used in this study are bioequivalent in terms of both the rate and extent of absorption.

Werawath Mahatthanatrakul

2008-05-01

190

PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY OF RISPERIDONE: APPLICATION OF A HPLC METHOD WITH SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new, simplified solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma has been developed. This method involves the use of an optimized extraction protocol developed in Waters OASIS® HLB 30mg 1cc extraction columns using 1 mL of human serum. Separation was performed by HPLC using a Waters XTerra RP-18 (5 µm, 150x4,6 mm) column with a mobile phase consisting in acetonitrile - potassium dihydrogen phosphate 50 mM pH 3.4 (27/73). UV det...

Pablo Torres, V.; Jacqueline Sepu?lveda, M. C.; Carlos Von Plessing, R.

2011-01-01

191

A randomised, double-masked phase III/IV study of the efficacy and safety of Avastin® (Bevacizumab intravitreal injections compared to standard therapy in subjects with choroidal neovascularisation secondary to age-related macular degeneration: clinical trial design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD has been transformed by the introduction of agents delivered by intravitreal injection which block the action of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (anti-VEGF agents. One such agent in widespread use is bevacizumab which was initially developed for use in oncology. Most of the evidence supporting the use of bevacizumab for nAMD has come from interventional case series and this clinical trial was initiated because of the increasing and widespread use of this agent in the treatment of nAMD (an off-label indication despite a lack of definitive unbiased safety and efficacy data. Methods and design The Avastin® (bevacizumab for choroidal neovascularisation (ABC trial is a double-masked randomised controlled trial comparing intravitreal bevacizumab injections to standard therapy in the treatment of nAMD. Patients are randomised to intravitreal bevacizumab or standard therapy available at the time of trial initiation (verteporfin photodynamic therapy, intravitreal pegaptanib or sham treatment. Ranibizumab treatment was not included in the control arm as it had not been licensed for use at the start of recruitment for this trial. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients gaining ? 15 letters of visual acuity at 1 year and secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients with stable vision and mean visual acuity change. Discussion The ABC Trial is the first double-masked randomised control trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab in the treatment of nAMD. This trial fully recruited in November 2007 and results should be available in early 2009. Important design issues for this clinical trial include (a defining the control group (b use of gain in vision as primary efficacy end-point and (c use of pro re nata treatment using intravitreal bevacizumab rather than continuous therapy. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN83325075

Bunce Catey

2008-10-01

192

Efficacy and safety of individual second-generation vs. first-generation antipsychotics in first-episode psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because early treatment choice is critical in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FES), this meta-analysis compared efficacy and tolerability of individual second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) in FES. We conducted systematic literature search (until 12 December 2010) and meta-analysis of acute, randomized trials with ?1 FGA vs. SGA comparison; patients in their first episode of psychosis and diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders; available data for psychopathology change, treatment response, treatment discontinuation, adverse effects, or cognition. Across 13 trials (n = 2509), olanzapine (seven trials) and amisulpride (one trial) outperformed FGAs (haloperidol: 9/13 trials) in 9/13 and 8/13 efficacy outcomes, respectively, risperidone (eight trials) in 4/13, quetiapine (one trial) in 3/13 and clozapine (two trials) and ziprasidone (one trial) in 1/13, each. Compared to FGAs, extrapyramidal symptom (EPS)-related outcomes were less frequent with olanzapine, risperidone and clozapine, but weight gain was greater with clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone. Pooled SGAs were similar to FGAs regarding total psychopathology change, depression, treatment response and metabolic changes. SGAs significantly outperformed FGAs regarding lower treatment discontinuation, irrespective of cause, negative symptoms, global cognition and less EPS and akathisia, while SGAs increased weight more (p amisulpride and, less so, risperidone and quetiapine showed superior efficacy, greater treatment persistence and less EPS than FGAs. However, weight increase with olanzapine, risperidone and clozapine and metabolic changes with olanzapine were greater. Additional FES studies including broader-based SGAs and FGAs are needed. PMID:23199972

Zhang, Jian-Ping; Gallego, Juan A; Robinson, Delbert G; Malhotra, Anil K; Kane, John M; Correll, Christoph U

2013-07-01

193

Antitumoral efficacy and pharmacokinetic properties of pirarubicin upon hepatic intra-arterial injection in the rabbit V x 2 tumour model.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To improve the efficiency of hepatic intra-arterial (h.i.a.) chemotherapy, we selected pirarubicin (THP) because it shows good properties for h.i.a. chemotherapy, such as fast and efficient cellular uptake, and used it for h.i.a. chemotherapy in rabbits with V x 2 tumour implanted in the liver. The anti-tumour effect of THP upon h.i.a. administration was compared with that upon intravenous (i.v.) injection and also with the anti-tumour activity of epirubicin (EPI) upon h.i.a. injection using ...

Okada, M.; Kudo, S.; Miyazaki, O.; Saino, T.; Ekimoto, H.; Iguchi, H.; Hirano, S.; Kuboki, H.; Kadosawa, H.; Takeuchi, T.

1995-01-01

194

Efficacy and Safety of Clearing Heat and Detoxifying Injection in the Treatment of Influenza: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CHDI in the treatment of influenza infection. Method. A randomized double-blind, double dummy trial was conducted. Influenza patients with a positive influenza A rapid test diagnosis were randomized to receive CHDI or oseltamivir. Primary outcome was assessed by the median fever alleviation time and clearance time, and secondary outcome was total scores of influenza symptoms. Results. One hundred thirty-nine participants were screened and 34 h...

Liu, Yu; Huang, Yuhong; Wei, Baolin; Liu, Xinqiao; Zhang, Yaqing; Huang, Xiaomin; Tan, Yuping; Sun, Zengtao

2014-01-01

195

PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY OF RISPERIDONE: APPLICATION OF A HPLC METHOD WITH SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new, simplified solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma has been developed. This method involves the use of an optimized extraction protocol developed in Waters OASIS® HLB 30mg 1cc extraction columns using 1 mL of human serum. Separation was performed by HPLC using a Waters XTerra RP-18 (5 µm, 150x4,6 mm column with a mobile phase consisting in acetonitrile - potassium dihydrogen phosphate 50 mM pH 3.4 (27/73. UV detection at 278 nm was used to quantify analytes, encountering good linearity (r² > 0.999 in the 2-100 ng/mL concentration range. The mean recovery was 92.4 % and 92.8 % for risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone respectively, with an intraday - interday precision below 7%, and accuracy below 115 %. The method has been successfully applied in pharmacokinetic studies that require a large sample number.

PABLO TORRES V

2011-01-01

196

PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY OF RISPERIDONE: APPLICATION OF A HPLC METHOD WITH SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english A new, simplified solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma has been developed. This method involves the use of an optimized extraction protocol developed in Waters OASIS® HLB 30mg 1cc extraction columns using 1 mL of human serum. [...] Separation was performed by HPLC using a Waters XTerra RP-18 (5 µm, 150x4,6 mm) column with a mobile phase consisting in acetonitrile - potassium dihydrogen phosphate 50 mM pH 3.4 (27/73). UV detection at 278 nm was used to quantify analytes, encountering good linearity (r² > 0.999) in the 2-100 ng/mL concentration range. The mean recovery was 92.4 % and 92.8 % for risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone respectively, with an intraday - interday precision below 7%, and accuracy below 115 %. The method has been successfully applied in pharmacokinetic studies that require a large sample number.

PABLO, TORRES V; M. JACQUELINE, SEPÚLVEDA C; CARLOS, VON PLESSING R.

197

Selective acquired long QT syndrome (saLQTS upon risperidone treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous structurally unrelated drugs, including antipsychotics, can prolong QT interval and trigger the acquired long QT syndrome (aLQTS. All of them are thought to act at the level of KCNH2, a subunit of the potassium channel. Although the QT-prolonging drugs are proscribed in the subjects with aLQTS, the individual response to diverse QT-prolonging drugs may vary substantially. Case presentation We report here a case of aLQTS in response to small doses of risperidone that was confirmed at three independent drug challenges in the absence of other QT-prolonging drugs. On the other hand, the patient did not respond with QT prolongation to some other antipsychotics. In particular, the administration of clozapine, known to be associated with higher QT-prolongation risk than risperidone, had no effect on QT-length. A detailed genetic analysis revealed no mutations or polymorphisms in KCNH2, KCNE1, KCNE2, SCN5A and KCNQ1 genes. Conclusions Our observation suggests that some patients may display a selective aLQTS to a single antipsychotic, without a potassium channel-related genetic substrate. Contrasting with the idea of a common target of the aLQTS-triggerring drugs, our data suggests existence of an alternative target protein, which unlike the KCNH2 would be drug-selective.

Lazarczyk Maciej

2012-12-01

198

A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of "Ginkgo Biloba" Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

"Ginkgo biloba" has been reported to affect the neurotransmitter system and to have antioxidant properties that could impact the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on these studies, we decided to assess the effectiveness of "Ginkgo biloba" extract (Ginko T.D., Tolidaru, Iran) as an adjunctive agent to risperidone in the treatment of…

Hasanzadeh, Elmira; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezaei, Farzin; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

2012-01-01

199

Safety and efficacy findings from a non-interventional study of a new hyaluronic acid/sorbitol formulation (GO-ON® matrix) for intra-articular injection to relieve pain and disability in osteoarthritis patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

This non-interventional study was intended to examine the efficacy and tolerability of intra-articular injections with the GO-ON® matrix, a new viscosupplement product made of non-animal sodium hyaluronate combined with the oxygen free radical scavenger sorbitol, when used in routine clinical practice. A total of 1 147 patients (43.5% male, 53,5% female, 3% missing) aged on average 63.3 years with osteoarthritis were enrolled in 398 centers and treated with the product. The most commonly treated joint was the knee (92.9%) with a Kellgren-Lawrence classification of Grade I (6.7%), Grade II (31.4%), Grade III (48.0%), and Grade IV (13.9%).Most patients (58-66%, imputing for missing data) received 1 injection, 29-40% received 3 injections. Using a Likert scale to asses pain, the mean change in pain due to osteoarthritis was a reduction of 56.5% from baseline (2.61±0.80) to 6 months (1.07±0.86). At baseline, 56.2% of patients reported severe/very severe pain versus 5.9% after 6 months. Accordingly, 6.8% of patients reported no pain/mild pain at baseline vs. 67.1% after 6 months. At baseline, 28.9% reported no pain/mild pain vs. to 66.4% after 6 months. At baseline, 29.1% of patients reported severe/very severe functional impairment vs. 3.9% 6 months after the first injection. The 3 and 6 month results were comparable.Adverse reactions were rare and confined to musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders. No infections were reported in any treated joints. The results confirm that the GO-ON matrix® treatment is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of symptoms due to osteoarthritis. PMID:23599036

Heisel, J; Kipshoven, C

2013-09-01

200

Low perceived benefits and self-efficacy are associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection-related risk among injection drug users  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hepatitis C prevention counselling and education are intended to increase knowledge of disease, clarify perceptions about vulnerability to infection, and increase personal capacity for undertaking safer behaviours. This study examined the association of drug equipment sharing with psychosocial constructs of the AIDS Risk Reduction Model, specifically, knowledge and perceptions related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) among injection drug users (IDUs). Active IDUs were recruited between April 2004 a...

Cox, Joseph; De, Prithwish; Morissette, Carole; Tremblay, Claude; Stephenson, Randolph; Allard, Robert; Graves, Lisa; Roy, E?lise

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Efficacy of prescribed injectable diacetylmorphine in the Andalusian trial: Bayesian analysis of responders and non-responders according to a multi domain outcome index  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The objective of this research was to evaluate data from a randomized clinical trial that tested injectable diacetylmorphine (DAM) and oral methadone (MMT) for substitution treatment, using a multi-domain dichotomous index, with a Bayesian approach. Methods Sixty two long-term, socially-excluded heroin injectors, not benefiting from available treatments were randomized to receive either DAM or MMT for 9 months in Granada, Spain. Completers we...

Perea-Milla Emilio; Ayçaguer Luis; Cerdà Joan; Saiz Francisco; Rivas-Ruiz Francisco; Danet Alina; Vallecillo Manuel; Oviedo-Joekes Eugenia

2009-01-01

202

No change of dopamine transporter density in basal ganglia after risperidone treatment in drug-naive children with Tourette's disorder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tourette's disorder (TD), which is characterized by multiple waxing and waning motor tics and one or more vocal tics, is known to be associated with abnormalities in the dopaminergic system. To testify our hypothesis that risperidone would improve tic symptoms of TD patients through the change of the dopaminergic system, we measured the DAT densities between drug-naive children with TD and normal children investigated the DAT density before and after treatment with risperidone in drug-naive children with TD, using lodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane(I-123 IPT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). I-123 IPT SPECT imaging and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale-Korean version (YGTSS-K) for assessing the tic symptom severity were carried out before and after treatment with risperidone for 8 weeks in eight drug-naive children with TD. Eight normal children also underwent SPECT imaging 2 hours after an intravenous administration of I-123 IPT and carried out both quantitative and qualitative analyses using the obtained SPECT data, which were reconstructed for the assessment of the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the basal ganglia. The drug-naive children with TD had a significantly greater increase in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of both basal ganglia compared with the normal children. However, no significant difference in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal gangliific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia before and after treatment with riperidone in children with TD was not found, although tic symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone. These findings suggest that DAT densities are directly associated with the pathophysiology of TD, however, that the effect of risperidone on tic symptoms in children with TD is not attributed to the change of dopaminergic system

203

Body mass index and the efficacy of needle-free jet injection for the administration of rapid-acting insulin analogs, a post hoc analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently showed in a euglycaemic glucose clamp study among 18 healthy volunteers that using jet injectors rather than conventional pens significantly improved the time-action profiles of rapid-acting insulin analogs. Here, we investigated whether such profiles were modified by body mass index (BMI) and related weight parameters by comparing insulin administration by jet injection to that by conventional pen in subgroups defined by BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference and insulin dose. After conventional administration, times to peak insulin levels (T-INS(max)) occurred 31.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.7-48.5] min later and time to maximum glucose requirement (T-GIR(max)) 56.9 (95%CI 26.6-87.3) min later in more obese (BMI > 23.6 kg/m(2)) than in lean subjects (BMI < 23.6 kg/m(2)). In contrast, T-INS(max) and T-GIR(max) were similar in subjects with high and low BMI, when insulin was administered by jet injection. We conclude that using jet injection for insulin administration may especially benefit subjects with higher body weight. PMID:22830987

de Galan, B E; Engwerda, E E C; Abbink, E J; Tack, C J

2013-01-01

204

Comparison of efficacy of intralesional injection of meglumine anti-moniate once-weekly with twice-weekly in the treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mashhad: a randomized clinical trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is endemic in Iran, where it is one of the most important health problems. Both anthroponotic CL (ACL caused by L. tropica and zoonotic CL (ZCL caused by L. major are reported. Antimoniate derivatives as the standard therapy for CL need multiple injections and are not easy to tolerate for the patients. This study was conducted in Mashhad to compare the efficacy of weekly versus twice a week intralesional injections of meglumine antimoniate (MA in the treatment of ACL."n"nMethods: This randomised controlled trial was performed during 2006 to 2008 in Mashhad, Iran. Using computerized sequence of random numbers, participants were randomly allocated in the two arms of the study: one receiving weekly and the other receiving twice-a-week intralesional injections of MA. The lesion size, induration and healing rate were assessed, recorded and compared. Healing was defined as complete re-epithelialisation and disappearance of induration."n"nResults: A total of 252 suspected CL patients with 372 lesions were screened. 82 parasitologically proven cases with 121 lesions caused by L. tropica were included and 74 patients with 113 lesions completed the study. At 12th week after initiation of treatment, complete healing was observed in 38 out of 44 lesions (86.4% in the group which received weekly intralesional MA injection. The median time-to-heal in this group was 36 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32.0-39.9. Complete healing was recorded in 60 out of 69 lesions (86.9% in the group which received twice a week intralesional injections of MA with a median time-to-heal of 25 days (95% CI: 20.9-29.1. While no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of complete healing rate (P=0.999, time-to-heal was significantly different between the 2 groups (P=0.003."n"nConclusion: It seems that the effectiveness of twice-weekly intralesional injections of MA is similar to once-weekly regimen while the former regimen causes more rapid healing of lesions.

Alireza Firooz

2011-03-01

205

Atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone, but not paliperidone, worsen vascular endothelial function via upregulation of adhesion molecules VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin in diabetic rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schizophrenia doubles the odds of diabetes, and atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) also increase risk of diabetes. Indeed, little is known about the effects of AAPs on vascular dysfunctions associated with diabetes. This study aimed to determine the effects of risperidone (RISP) and paliperidone (PALI) on the vascular function of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by feeding with a high-fat diet followed by the administration of streptozotocin (35 mg·(kg body mass)(-1), by intraperitoneal injection). Rats received RISP or PALI (1.25 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), per os) for 3 weeks. Endothelium-dependent relaxation, systolic blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance, and adhesion molecules, vascular cell-adhesion-molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular-adhesion-molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and E-selectin were investigated. RISP significantly worsened the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of diabetic aortic rings with upregulation of the adhesion molecules VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin, and proinflammatory cytokines MPC-1 and TNF-?. RISP augmented the metabolic dysfunctions and reduced insulin sensitivity in the insulin tolerance test as well as HOMA-IR. PALI produced insignificant effects on vascular and metabolic aberrations. Our results suggest that RISP, but not PALI, aggravates the metabolic abnormalities and vascular dysfunction associated with diabetes, which may be mediated by upregulation of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin. Nevertheless, future investigation for the possible mechanisms underlying the difference noticed between the 2 AAPs is warranted. PMID:24289084

Aboul-Fotouh, Sawsan; Elgayar, Nesreen

2013-12-01

206

Estudio de biodisponibilidad comparativa de dos formulaciones de risperidona existentes en el mercado chileno A comparative bioavailability study of two formulations of risperidone available in the Chilean market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Bioavailability of a particular drug can vary according to the formulation used. Therefore, studies of comparative bioavailability of different formulations of a same drug are worthwhile. Aim: To compare the bioavailability of two risperidone formulations available in the Chilean market. Material and methods: The bioavailability of a local risperidone formulation (Spiron®) was compared with the original formulation of the drug (Risperdal®) in 12 healthy ...

Gaete, Leonardo E.; Jaime Solís G; Pablo Venegas F; Mitzy J Carrillo C; Oscar Schatloff B.; Iván Saavedra S

2003-01-01

207

Eficácia do resfriamento da pele no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A nas distonias faciais Skin cooling efficacy on pain relief in periocular injections with botulinum toxin A in facial dystonias  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do resfriamento da pele com gelo no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A na região periocular em pacientes portadores de distonia facial. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo prospectivo, 13 pacientes receberam injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A em região glabelar (m. prócero e periocular (m. orbicular para tratamento de distonia facial. Antes das aplicações, um lado da região glabelar foi resfriado com gelo durante 5 minutos, enquanto no outro lado foi aplicada pomada Epitezan®, funcionando como placebo. A aplicação foi feita primeiramente no lado resfriado. Após a aplicação em cada um dos lados os pacientes foram instruídos a dar uma nota para a dor desencadeada pela injeção, em uma escala de 0 a 10 onde 0 era ausência de dor e 10 a dor mais intensa. RESULTADOS: A média das notas dadas pelos pacientes à dor desencadeada pela injeção no lado onde foi aplicado placebo foi 3,92 ± 3,28. No local onde foi aplicado gelo a média das notas foi de 2,92 ± 2,18 (p PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of skin cooling with ice on pain relief in periocular injection with botulinum toxin type A in patients with facial dystonias. METHODS: In this prospective study, 13 patients received botulinum toxin type A injection in glabela (procerus m. and periocular region (orbicular m. for facial dystonias treatment. Before the injections, one side of the glabela was submitted to a 5-minute cooling period, while the opposite side had Epitezan® cream applied, as a placebo. The application was done at the cooled side first. After the application on each side the patients were instructed to rate the pain associated with the injection on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 indicating no pain and 10 the worst pain. RESULTS: The average pain score on the side where cold was applied was 3,92 ± 3,28, while on the control side the average pain score was 2,92 ± 2,18 (p < 0,0166. CONCLUSION: In this study, skin cooling with ice cubes was efficient in pain relief in periocular botulinum toxin injections in patients with facial dystonias.

Paula Barros Bandeira de Mello Monteiro

2012-12-01

208

Sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia treated with conventional antipsychotics or risperidone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hong Liu-Seifert1, Bruce J Kinon1, Christopher J Tennant2, Jennifer Sniadecki1, Jan Volavka31Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2CJT Biomedical Consulting, South Lake Tahoe, CA, USA; 3New York University, New York, NY, USAObjective: To better understand sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia and its associations with prolactin and reproductive hormones.Methods: This was a secondary analysis of an open-label, one-day study (N = 402. The primary objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia who had been treated with conventional antipsychotics or risperidone. Other atypical antipsychotics available at the time of the study were not included due to a more favorable prolactin profile.Results: The majority of patients (59% of females and 60% of males reported impairment of sexual function. In postmenopausal females, risk of impaired sexual interest was increased by 31% for every 10 ng/ml increase in prolactin (p = 0.035. In males, lower testosterone was associated with higher prolactin (p < 0.001 and with orgasmic (p = 0.004 and ejaculatory dysfunction (p = 0.028.Conclusion: These findings suggest that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with sexual dysfunction. They also provide more information on the relationships between prolactin, reproductive hormones, and sexual dysfunction. Sexual dysfunction is an understudied yet important consideration in the treatment of schizophrenia. More attention is warranted in this area as it may provide opportunities for improved quality of life and adherence to treatment for patients.Keywords: sexual dysfunction, schizophrenia, hyperprolactinemia, antipsychotics, risperidone

Hong Liu-Seifert

2009-01-01

209

Low dose intradetrusor injections of onabotulinumtoxina in women with overactive bladder symptoms or the painful bladder syndrome: unfavourable balance between clinical efficacy and the need for catheterisation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: We evaluated our results with low dose intradetrusor injections of onabotulinumtoxinA in women with overactive bladder symptoms and the painful bladder syndrome in terms of clinically successful outcomes and the need for clean intermittent self-catheterisation (CISC and in relation to urodynamic aspects. Materials and Methods: The files of patients treated with 100 U of onabotulinumtoxinA injected at 20 sites with sparing of the trigone were retrospectively analysed. Nearly all patients completed voiding-incontinence diaries and the King’s Health Questionnaire (KHQ pre- and post-operatively. Cystometric and pressure-flow studies were done in the majority of patients. Success was defined as the patient’s and clinician’s joint choice for re-treatment with the same dose of onabotulinumtoxinA after a period of at least six months of clinical satisfaction. Results: Twenty-six women were treated. On average, the improvement in most voiding diary parameters and in most KHQ categories lasted less than six and three months, respectively. Eight patients (31% were scheduled for re-treatment with 100 U again after at least six months. No prognostic cystometric parameters were found. Six patients (23% needed CISC. None of the bladder contraction strength parameters derived from the the pressure-flow studies appeared predictive of the need of CISC. Conclusions: We obtained a success rate of 31% after six months with 100 U of onabotulinumtoxinA, while 23% of the patients applied CISC. We consider this success rate low and find the balance between the success rate and the rate of patients needing CISC inadequate.

Jan Groen

2012-01-01

210

Efficacy of prescribed injectable diacetylmorphine in the Andalusian trial: Bayesian analysis of responders and non-responders according to a multi domain outcome index  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The objective of this research was to evaluate data from a randomized clinical trial that tested injectable diacetylmorphine (DAM) and oral methadone (MMT) for substitution treatment, using a multi-domain dichotomous index, with a Bayesian approach. Methods Sixty two long-term, socially-excluded heroin injectors, not benefiting from available treatments were randomized to receive either DAM or MMT for 9 months in Granada, Spain. Completers were 44 and data at the end of the study period was obtained for 50. Participants were determined to be responders or non responders using a multi-domain outcome index accounting for their physical and mental health and psychosocial integration, used in a previous trial. Data was analyzed with Bayesian methods, using information from a similar study conducted in The Netherlands to select a priori distributions. On adding the data from the present study to update the a priori information, the distribution of the difference in response rates were obtained and used to build credibility intervals and relevant probability computations. Results In the experimental group (n = 27), the rate of responders to treatment was 70.4% (95% CI 53.2-87.6), and in the control group (n = 23), it was 34.8% (95% CI 15.3-54.3). The probability of success in the experimental group using the a posteriori distributions was higher after a proper sensitivity analysis. Almost the whole distribution of the rates difference (the one for diacetylmorphine minus methadone) was located to the right of the zero, indicating the superiority of the experimental treatment. Conclusion The present analysis suggests a clinical superiority of injectable diacetylmorphine compared to oral methadone in the treatment of severely affected heroin injectors not benefiting sufficiently from the available treatments. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52023186 PMID:19682360

Perea-Milla, Emilio; Ayçaguer, Luis Carlos Silva; Cerdà, Joan Carles March; Saiz, Francisco González; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Danet, Alina; Vallecillo, Manuel Romero; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia

2009-01-01

211

Efficacy of prescribed injectable diacetylmorphine in the Andalusian trial: Bayesian analysis of responders and non-responders according to a multi domain outcome index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this research was to evaluate data from a randomized clinical trial that tested injectable diacetylmorphine (DAM and oral methadone (MMT for substitution treatment, using a multi-domain dichotomous index, with a Bayesian approach. Methods Sixty two long-term, socially-excluded heroin injectors, not benefiting from available treatments were randomized to receive either DAM or MMT for 9 months in Granada, Spain. Completers were 44 and data at the end of the study period was obtained for 50. Participants were determined to be responders or non responders using a multi-domain outcome index accounting for their physical and mental health and psychosocial integration, used in a previous trial. Data was analyzed with Bayesian methods, using information from a similar study conducted in The Netherlands to select a priori distributions. On adding the data from the present study to update the a priori information, the distribution of the difference in response rates were obtained and used to build credibility intervals and relevant probability computations. Results In the experimental group (n = 27, the rate of responders to treatment was 70.4% (95% CI 53.2?87.6, and in the control group (n = 23, it was 34.8% (95% CI 15.3?54.3. The probability of success in the experimental group using the a posteriori distributions was higher after a proper sensitivity analysis. Almost the whole distribution of the rates difference (the one for diacetylmorphine minus methadone was located to the right of the zero, indicating the superiority of the experimental treatment. Conclusion The present analysis suggests a clinical superiority of injectable diacetylmorphine compared to oral methadone in the treatment of severely affected heroin injectors not benefiting sufficiently from the available treatments. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52023186

Perea-Milla Emilio

2009-08-01

212

Review of the safety, efficacy, costs and patient acceptability of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone for injection in assisting ovulation induction in infertile women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marleen Nahuis1,2,3, Fulco van der Veen1, Jur Oosterhuis2, Ben Willem Mol1, Peter Hompes3, Madelon van Wely11Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (H4-205, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Free Medical University, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: Anovulation is a common cause of female subfertility. Treatment of anovulation is aimed at induction of ovulation. In women with clomiphene-citrate resistant WHO group II anovulation, one of the treatment options is ovulation induction with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH or follitropin. FSH is derived from urine or is produced as recombinant FSH. Two forms of recombinant FSH are available – follitropin alpha and follitropin beta. To evaluate the efficacy, safety, costs and acceptability of recombinant FSH, we performed a review to compare recombinant FSH with urinary-derived FSH products. Follitropin alpha, beta and urinary FSH products appeared to be equally effective in terms of pregnancy rates. Patient safety was also found to be comparable, as the incidence of side effects including multiple pregnancies was similar for all FSH products. In practice follitropin alpha and beta may be more convenient to use due to the ease of self-administration, but they are also more expensive than the urinary products.Keywords: follitropin apha, follitropin beta, urinary gonadotropins, polycystic ovary syndrome

Marleen Nahuis

2009-11-01

213

Efficacy and safety of clearing heat and detoxifying injection in the treatment of influenza: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CHDI in the treatment of influenza infection. Method. A randomized double-blind, double dummy trial was conducted. Influenza patients with a positive influenza A rapid test diagnosis were randomized to receive CHDI or oseltamivir. Primary outcome was assessed by the median fever alleviation time and clearance time, and secondary outcome was total scores of influenza symptoms. Results. One hundred thirty-nine participants were screened and 34 had a RT-PCR laboratory confirmation of influenza virus infection. Fever alleviation time was 2.5 and 5 hours in CHDI and oseltamivir, respectively, and fever clearance time was 32.5 and 49 hours. The HR of fever alleviation and clearance time shows no significant difference between two groups. Total scores of influenza symptoms descended significantly in both groups after treatment and descended more in CHDI than oseltamivir on day 2. Similar to total symptoms severity score, fever severity score descend more significantly in CHDI than oseltamivir on day 2, and there were no differences on other symptoms. Conclusions. CHDI have a similar effect to oseltamivir in reducing the duration of influenza illness. CHDI was well tolerated, with no serious adverse events noted during the study period. PMID:25506380

Liu, Yu; Huang, Yuhong; Wei, Baolin; Liu, Xinqiao; Zhang, Yaqing; Huang, Xiaomin; Tan, Yuping; Sun, Zengtao

2014-01-01

214

Efficacy and safety of treatments for refractory generalized anxiety disorder: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study systematically collated clinical evidence on refractory generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Refractory GAD patients are those who have failed to respond adequately to at least one earlier treatment for GAD. MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and conference proceedings were searched to identify trials. Four placebo-controlled trials (pregabalin, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone) and four single-arm studies (aripiprazole, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone) evaluated the add-ons to initial treatment(s) or switch of treatment(s) because of inadequate efficacy. The most robust trial was the pregabalin study, with a study duration of 8 weeks and a largest sample size that consists of 356 patients. A significant reduction in the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) score was found for pregabalin and risperidone augmentation compared with placebo. Olanzapine augmentation resulted in a significantly higher proportion of responders (using HAM-A scores) compared with placebo. Quetiapine augmentation did not result in significantly greater mean reductions in the HAM-Ascores compared with placebo. There is a need for effective and safe augmentation treatments for patient's refractory to initial treatments for GAD. This study has located one large robust trial assessing the add-on to pregabalin. All other trials were small and unpowered studies with less than 50 patients. Further high-quality trials of augmentation treatment on refractory GAD are required. PMID:21088608

Samuel, Miny; Zimovetz, Evelina A; Gabriel, Zahava; Beard, Stephen M

2011-03-01

215

Validation of an analytical method applicable to study of 1 mg/mL oral Risperidone solution stability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A validated analytical method by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applicable to study of 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution stability. The above method was linear, accurate, specific and exact. A stability study of the 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution was developed determining its expiry date. The shelf life study was conducted for 24 months at room temperature; whereas the accelerated stability study was conducted with product under influence of humidity and temperature; analysis was made during 3 months. Formula fulfilled the quality specifications described in Pharmacopeia. The results of stability according to shelf life after 24 months showed that the product maintains the parameters determining its quality during this time and in accelerated studies there was not significant degradation (p> 0.05) in the product. Under mentioned conditions expiry date was of 2 years

216

[Mechanism of interaction between risperidone and tea catechin (2) influence of presence of galloyl group in catechin on insoluble complex formation with risperidone].  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of the presence of a galloyl group in catechin on complexation with risperidone (RISP) was examined using (--)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and (--)-epigallocatechin (EGC), which are present in green tea as tea catechins. By quantitative analysis using HPLC, it was found that EGCg formed an insoluble complex with RISP for concentration dependence, whereas EGC did not. The large contribution of the galloyl group of catechin to form an insoluble complex with RISP was recognized in this study. In a molecular modeling study, it was found that the EGCg-R complex (EGCg with RISP) formed three hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of EGCg and the two N atoms and an O atom of RISP. The hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl group of the galloyl ring in EGCg and the N atom of the piperidine ring in RISP stabilized EGCg-R more energetically. The EGC-R complex (EGC with RISP) also formed three hydrogen bonds, but the N atom of the piperidine ring in RISP did not participate in hydrogen bond formation. According to the calculation using the COSMO-RS method, the water solubility of the EGCg-R complex was 1/26 that of the EGC-R complex. Therefore, the EGCg-R complex was difficult to dissolve in water. In the (1)H-NMR spectra of RISP in DMSO-d(6), although chemical shifts of protons near the N atom on the piperidine ring moved downfield on the addition of EGCg, no change in chemical shifts of these protons was observed on the addition of EGC. Therefore, based on these results, the galloyl group of EGCg contributes to the formation of an insoluble complex between tea catechin and RISP, and this insoluble complex is stabilized by the hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl group of the galloyl ring in EGCg and the N atom of the piperidine ring in RISP. PMID:22214589

Ikeda, Hirohito; Moriwaki, Hanae; Matsubara, Tomonori; Yukawa, Miho; Iwase, Yukiko; Yukawa, Eiji; Aki, Hatsumi

2012-01-01

217

Drug Induced Parkinsonism Caused by the Concurrent Use of Donepezil and Risperidone in a Patient With Traumatic Brain Injuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 69-year-old male patient with previous history of traumatic brain injury 5 months ago was admitted to the Department of Neuropsychiatry because of aggressive behavior and delusional features. After starting on 2 mg of risperidone per day, his delusion, anxiety, and aggressive behavior gradually improved. Two weeks later, he was given 10 mg of donepezil per day for his mild cognitive impairment. After 6 weeks of admission in the Department of Neuropsychiatry, he showed parkinsonian features ...

Kang, Si Hyun; Kim, Don-kyu

2013-01-01

218

Evaluating movement disorders in pediatric patients receiving risperidone: a comparison of spontaneous reports and research criteria for TD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement disorders (MD in children are relatively common and may be associated with medication use. Objective methods (ie rating scales and specific research criteria may be helpful in identifying MD-related adverse events that would otherwise not be apparent from spontaneous reports. We assessed whether more stringent and rigorous criteria would provide MD rates similar to those derived subjectively from spontaneous reports. Methods MDs were assessed in children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs and subaverage intelligence receiving risperidone. Data were from three 1-year, open-label studies in subjects 4–14 years old. Dyskinesia severity was rated by the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS dyskinesia subscale. Tardive dyskinesia (TD was defined: mild dyskinesia (scores 2, 3 in two anatomical areas; or moderate dyskinesia (score ? 4 in one area for ? 4 weeks in subjects without dyskinesia at baseline (scores 0, 1. Results The mean (± SD age of subjects was 9.4 ± 2.4 years, the mean (± SD risperidone dose was 1.6 ± 0.7 mg/day, and the mean (± SD exposure was 317.8 ± 104.5 days. ESRS data were available for 668 subjects. Mean ESRS scores were low throughout the study. At baseline, 655 subjects had no dyskinetic symptoms. One subject met predefined TD criteria after a risperidone dose reduction. Symptoms persisted for 4 weeks, resolving with continued treatment and no dosage change. Two different subjects had TD by spontaneous adverse-event reports, with dyskinetic symptoms at 1–2 visits, and symptoms that resolved after treatment discontinuation. Thirteen subjects had dyskinesia at baseline; their mean ESRS dyskinesia scores decreased at endpoint. Conclusion Using objective rating scales and research criteria, low-dose risperidone was associated with low risk of TD and other MDs in children with DBDs in three large 1-year studies. Careful, objective evaluation of emergent MDs during all stages of treatment is essential for identifying treatment-emergent TD.

Zhu Young

2007-06-01

219

Priapism associated with risperidone: a case report, literature review and review of the South London and Maudsley hospital patients’ database  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Priapism is a urological emergency defined as persistent penile erection that is unrelated to sexual stimulation and typically involving only the corporal cavernosa. It can occur as a rare side effect of antipsychotic medications and is mediated via their ?-adrenergic antagonist effect. In this paper we describe a case of priapism in a patient started on risperidone and sodium valproate. We also review the South London and Maudsley Case Register Interactive Search database to assess how many...

Paklet, Lise; Abe, Anne Mary; Olajide, Dele

2013-01-01

220

Safety and efficacy of botox injection in alleviating post-operative pain and improving quality of life in lower extremity limb lengthening and deformity correction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Distraction osteogenesis is the standard treatment for the management of lower limb length discrepancy of more than 3 cm and bone loss secondary to congenital anomalies, trauma or infection. This technique consists of an osteotomy of the bone to be lengthened, application of an external fixator, followed by gradual and controlled distraction of the bone ends. Although limb lengthening using the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis principle yields excellent results in most cases, the technique has numerous problems and is not well tolerated by many children. The objective of the current study is to determine if Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-A, which is known to possess both analgesic and paralytic actions, can be used to alleviate post-operative pain and improve the functional outcome of children undergoing distraction osteogenesis. Methods/Design The study design consists of a multi centre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Patients between ages 5–21 years requiring limb lengthening or deformity correction using distraction will be recruited from 6 different sites (Shriners Hospital for Children in Montreal, Honolulu, Philadelphia and Portland as well as DuPont Hospital for Children in Wilmington, Delaware and Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ont. Approximately 150 subjects will be recruited over 2 years and will be randomized to either receive 10 units per Kg of BTX-A or normal saline (control group intraoperatively following the surgery. Functional outcome effects will be assessed using pain scores, medication dosages, range of motion, flexibility, strength, mobility function and quality of life of the patient. IRB approval was obtained from all sites and adverse reactions will be monitored vigorously and reported to IRB, FDA and Health Canada. Discussion BTX-A injection has been widely used world wide with no major side effects reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time BTX-A is being used under the context of limb lengthening and deformity correction. Trial Registration NCT00412035

Finley Allen

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Curative effect and influence on glucose and lipid metabolism of risperidone with SHU Mian capsules in patients with chronic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To explore the curative effect and influence on glucose and lipid metabolism of risperidone with Shu Mian capsules in patients with schizophrenia .Methods: 128patients with chronic schizophrenia were randomly divided into the combined group (crisperidone combined with shu mian capsules group and the single group (risperidone group , each group was assessed the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS,the body mass index (BMI was measured and the blood glucose and blood lipid were detected before treatment and after 2,4,8 weekends respectively. After 4,8 weeks ,both the two groups were assessed by Wesconsin card sorting test ( WCST curative effect and their cognitive function was evaluated .Results: The reacting time in the two groups were of no significantly difference , but compared with condition before treatment, cognitive function of the patients with schizophrenia was improved and their level of total cholesterol was significantly increased (P < 0.05 in the combined group. BMI, blood glucose and blood lipid were significantly increased in single group after 8weeks’ treatment (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. Conclusion: Shu Mian capsules can lower negative symptoms and improve cognitive function of schizophrenia ,and the dverse reactions is mild. With therapeutic dose range, risperidone in combined group or single group can make equal reacting time, curative effect and affecting blood lipid metabolism in patients with schizophrenia. Single group shows more obvious influence on blood sugat and blood fat metabolismcan.

Ming-jie HAN

2014-04-01

222

Solid phase microextraction and LC-MS/MS for the determination of paliperidone after stereoselective fungal biotransformation of risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work describes for the first time the use of SPME coupled to LC-MS/MS employing the polar organic mode in a stereoselective fungal biotransformation study to investigate the fungi ability to biotransform the drug risperidone into its chiral and active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-RispOH). The chromatographic separation was performed on a Chiralcel OJ-H column using methanol:ethanol (50:50, v/v) plus 0.2% triethylamine as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1). The SPME process was performed using a C18 fiber, 30 min of extraction time and 5 min of desorption time in the mobile phase. The method was completely validated and all parameters were in agreement with the literature recommendations. The Cunninghamella echinulata fungus was able to biotransform risperidone into the active metabolite, (+)-9-RispOH, resulting in 100% of enantiomeric excess. The Cunninghamella elegans fungus was also able to stereoselectively biotransform risperidone into (+)- and (-)-9-RispOH enantiomers at different rates. PMID:22884211

Bocato, Mariana Zuccherato; Simões, Rodrigo Almeida; Calixto, Leandro Augusto; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; de Oliveira, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes

2012-09-12

223

Eficacia y seguridad de la risperidona en el tratamiento agudo de las conductas disruptivas en pacientes pediátricos epilépticos / Risperidone in the treatment of acute disruptive behavior in pediatrics patients with epilepsy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Las conductas disruptivas son frecuentes en más de la mitad de los pacientes pediátricos con epilepsia, impactan sobre su funcionamiento psicosocial global y provocan el rechazo de la sociedad. El presente estudio plantea la posibilidad de coadyuvar en el tratamiento integral de los ni [...] ños con epilepsia mediante el empleo de risperidona. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron pacientes pediátricos epilépticos (con epilepsia parcial o generalizada) que presentaban conductas disruptivas asociadas, hombres y mujeres con edades comprendidas entre los 5 y 14 años, captados en la consulta externa de Neurología del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Se realizó un estudio clínico abierto, prospectivo, con seguimiento durante 4 semanas. Se les administró risperidona, cuya eficacia se evaluó mediante las escalas de mejoría clínica global, la de Peers y la de ADHD-RS. Se midieron el número de crisis y los efectos secundarios con la escala de Yale. Resultados. Se estudiaron 23 pacientes, 7 femeninos y 16 masculinos con una relación M:F de 1.5:1 ,todos con diagnóstico de epilepsia (parcial 19 y generalizada 4). La dosis promedio de risperidona fue de 0.75 mg/día, se hizo un seguimiento de 4 semanas, con respuesta favorable al final del mes en 91% de los pacientes. Los efectos indeseables observados fueron: incremento ponderal en 12 niños, además de síntomas extrapiramidales (discinesias de cabeza y cuello), sialorrea, sed y somnolencia. Conclusión. En el manejo agudo de conductas disruptivas en pacientes pediátricos con epilepsia, la risperidona mostró ser efectiva y segura. Abstract in english Introduction. Disruptive behavior (DB) is frequent in pediatric patients with epilepsy.This conducts impacts on the functioning of the children, and often leads to their social rejection. The objectives of this study were to observe the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of acute di [...] sruptive behavior in pediatric patients with epilepsy. Material and methods. A clinical open label, prospective study with a month follow up was carried out. Pediatric patients with epilepsy (partial or generalized) and disruptive behavior, both gender, between 5 and 14 years of age seen in the neurology department, Hospital Infantil de Mexico, were enrolled.The efficacy was evaluated with CGI, Peers scale and ADHD RS. Number of seizures and secondary effects was evaluated with the same methods. Results. A total of 23 patients, 7 females and 16 males enter the study with a relation M:F of 1.5:1. All the patients had epilepsy, either partial or generalized.The average doses of risperidone was 0.75 mg/kg/d, with and efficacy of 91 % at the final of the 4 weeks follow up.The more frequent side effects were increase in weight in 12 patients, extrapiramidal symptoms (head and neck discinesias) sialorrhea, thirst and somnolence. Conclusions. With these results, we support in this clinic open label study, the efficacy and safety of the use of risperidone in the management of acute disruptive behaviors in pediatric patients with epilepsy.

Eduardo, Barragán-Pérez; Arturo, Garza-Peña; Oscar, Benavides-Guerrero; Juan, Hernández-Aguilar.

2005-12-01

224

Eficacia y seguridad de la inyección intravítrea de bevacizumab en el tratamiento del glaucoma neovascular: revisión sistemática / Efficacy and safety of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma: systematic review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Propósito: Revisión sistemática sobre la eficacia y seguridad de la inyección intravítrea de bevacizumab (IVB) en el tratamiento del glaucoma neovascular (GNV). Se incluyen todos los trabajos originales publicados en Medline hasta agosto de 2008. Métodos: Búsqueda y selección de la información en In [...] ternet y Medline, validadas mediante el Índice Kappa (K). Estudio estadístico y clínico de los resultados en los trabajos seleccionados, uno a uno. Resultados: Se encuentran 26 artículos originales que analizan la eficacia y seguridad del procedimiento en casos únicos y en series cortas de casos. 24 de ellos se analizan conjuntamente, con un total de 127 ojos intervenidos. La eficacia calculada para casos difíciles es del 68,7%. Las recidivas en un seguimiento de 4,2 meses son del 18,6%. Todos los trabajos son posteriores a 2006 y ninguno cumple criterios de ensayo clínico aleatorizado. Las complicaciones de la IVB son inferiores al 0,78% y no se observan complicaciones sistémicas. Conclusiones: El bevacizumab demuestra que las inyecciones intravítreas pueden ser muy eficaces y seguras para la manipulación terapéutica de los factores de crecimiento en el segmento anterior. La IVB se perfila como un tratamiento de primera línea en casos de GNV dificiles. Se necesitan ensayos clínicos controlados que confirmen estos resultados y autorizen el uso. Abstract in english Purpose: Systematic review on efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma (NVG). All original papers published in Medline (prior to August 2008) were included. Methods: Search and selection of information on the internet and in Medline, validated by [...] Kappa Index (K). Statistical and clinical study of the results in the selected articles on a one by one basis. Results: 26 original papers analyzed the efficacy and safety of the procedure in case reports and short series of cases (127 eyes). The efficacy calculated in the sample was 68.7% and the recurrence rate was 18.6% in 4.2 months of follow-up. All studies were after 2006 and none of them was a clinical randomized controlled assay. Ophthalmic complications were under 0.78% and no systemic complications were found. Conclusions: The use of bevacizumab demonstrates that intravitreal injections may be effective and useful to manipulate growth factors in the anterior chamber. IVB could serve as a first line treatment for NVG. Clinical trials are needed to confirm these results before its use is authorized.

P.A., Martínez-Carpio; E., Bonafonte-Márquez; C.D., Heredia-García; S., Bonafonte-Royo.

2008-10-01

225

Antipsychotic monotherapy among outpatients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine or risperidone in Japan: a health care database analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wenyu Ye,1 Haya Ascher-Svanum,2 Yuka Tanji,3 Jennifer A Flynn,3 Michihiro Takahashi,3,4 Robert R Conley21Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Lilly Research Laboratories Japan, Eli Lilly Japan KK, Kobe, Japan; 4Terauchi-Takahashi Psychiatric Clinic, Ashiya, JapanPurpose: Antipsychotic monotherapy is often recommended over antipsychotic polypharmacy because of fewer adverse events, reduced treatment complexity, and lower medication cost. This study compared the rate and the duration of antipsychotic monotherapy following initiation of olanzapine or risperidone in the treatment of outpatients with schizophrenia in Japan.Methods: Outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia in the Japan Medical Data Center database were identified using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, diagnosis codes. Patients were between 20 and 65 years old, initiated on olanzapine or risperidone therapy between August 2003 and July 2008, and continuously enrolled during the 6 months prior to and the 12 months following the initiation date. Antipsychotic polypharmacy was defined as concurrent use of two or more antipsychotics. The probability of monotherapy during the 12-month follow-up period was assessed using a propensity score-adjusted generalized estimating equation model. Duration of monotherapy was contrasted using a propensity score-adjusted bootstrapping model.Results: After applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria, the final analytic sample consisted of 332 olanzapine- and 496 risperidone-treated outpatients. At treatment initiation, 61.5% of the olanzapine-treated patients and 45.6% of the risperidone-treated patients received antipsychotic monotherapy (P < 0.001. After correcting for background differences, monotherapy was more common among olanzapine-treated patients (P = 0.001. In addition, olanzapine was used as monotherapy for a longer duration (P = 0.006.Conclusion: Consistent with prior global research, this retrospective naturalistic study of schizophrenia outpatients in Japan found that olanzapine is more likely to be used as monotherapy and to be used as monotherapy for a longer duration than risperidone.Keywords: epidemiologic studies, polypharmacy, monotherapy duration, outpatient care, Japan

Takahashi M

2012-06-01

226

What Does Risperidone Add to Stimulant and Parent Training for Severe Aggression in Child Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Although combination pharmacotherapy is common in child/adolescent psychiatry, there has been little research evaluating it. We tested the value of adding risperidone to concurrent psychostimulant and parent training (PT) in behavior management for children with severe aggression Method We randomized 168 children age 6–12 years (mean 8.89 ±2.01) with severe physical aggression to a 9-week trial of PT, stimulant, and placebo (Basic treatment; n=84) or PT, stimulant, and risperidone (Augmented treatment; n=84). All had diagnoses of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and either oppositional defiant (n= 124) or conduct disorder (n= 44). Children received psychostimulant (usually OROS methylphenidate) for 3 weeks, titrated for optimal effect, while parents received PT. If there was room for improvement at the end of Week 3, either placebo or risperidone was added. Assessments included parent ratings on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form (NCBRF; Disruptive-Total subscale = Primary outcome) and Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS); blinded clinicians rated change on the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale. Results Compared to Basic treatment (PT + stimulant[STIM][44.8±14.6 mg/day] + placebo [1.88±0.72]), Augmented treatment (PT + STIM[46.1±16.8 mg/day] + risperidone[1.65±0.75]) showed statistically significant improvement on the NCBRF Disruptive–Total subscale (treatment-by-time interaction p= 0.0016), the NCBRF Social Competence subscale (p= 0.0049), and ABS Reactive Aggression (p= 0.01). CGI scores were substantially improved for both groups but did not discriminate between treatments (CGI-I ? 2, 70% for Basic treatment vs. 79% for Augmented treatment). Prolactin elevations and gastrointestinal upset occurred more with Augmented; other adverse events differed modestly from Basic treatment; weight gain within the Augmented treatment group was minor. Conclusions Risperidone provided moderate but variable improvement in aggressive and other seriously disruptive child behavior when added to PT and optimized stimulant treatment. Clinical trial registration information—Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (The TOSCA Study); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00796302. PMID:24342385

Aman, Michael G.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Molina, Brooke S.G.; McNamara, Nora K.; Rundberg-Rivera, E. Victoria; Li, Xiaobai; Kipp, Heidi; Schneider, Jayne; Butter, Eric M.; Baker, Jennifer; Sprafkin, Joyce; Rice, Robert R.; Bangalore, Srihari S.; Farmer, Cristan A.; Austin, Adrienne B.; Buchan-Page, Kristin A.; Arradaza, Nicole V.; Hurt, Elizabeth A.; Grondhuis, Sabrina N.; Findling, Robert L.

2014-01-01

227

Efficacy, adherence and tolerability of once daily tenofovir DF-containing antiretroviral therapy in former injecting drug users with HIV-1 receiving opiate treatment: results of a 48-week open-label study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess efficacy, adherence and tolerability of once daily antiretroviral therapy containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF 300 mg in HIV-1-infected former injecting drug users receiving opiate treatment (IVDU. Methods European, 48-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study. Patients were either antiretroviral therapy-naïve, restarting therapy after treatment discontinuation without prior virological failure or switching from existing stable treatment. Results Sixty-seven patients were enrolled in the study and 41 patients completed treatment. In the primary analysis (intent-to-treat missing = failure at week 48, 34% of patients (23/67; 95% CI: 23%-47% had plasma HIV-1 RNA 3. Although self-reported adherence appeared high, there were high levels of missing data and adherence results should be treated with caution. No new safety issues were identified. Conclusions Levels of missing data were high in this difficult-to-treat population, but potent antiretroviral suppression was achieved in a substantial proportion of HIV-infected IVDU-patients.

Esser S

2011-10-01

228

Determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma by liquid chromatography: application to the evaluation of CYP2D6 drug interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-pressure liquid chromatography with ultra-violet detection method for the simultaneous determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in plasma after liquid-liquid extraction has been developed. The limit of quantitation was 5 nmol/L, and the inter-day coefficient of variation was less than 8% for both compounds. The mean recoveries of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone added to plasma were 96.8 and 99.4%, with an intra-day coefficient of variation of under 5 and 6%, respectively. Studies of analytical interference showed that the most commonly co-administered antidepressants and benzodiazepines did not interfere. The method was used for the determination of the plasma concentrations of a schizophrenic patient treated daily with an oral dose of 4.5 mg risperidone. The patient suffered severe extrapyramidal side-effects after adding risperidone to his previous medication of haloperidol and levomepromazine. The risperidone plasma concentration was well above the average (182 nmol/L), which suggests that a pharmacokinetic interaction occurred, presumably due to inhibition of the enzyme CYP2D6. PMID:12450541

LLerena, Adrián; Berecz, Roland; Dorado, Pedro; de la Garza, César Sanz; Norberto, Maria Jesús; Cáceres, Macarena; Gutiérrez, José Ramón

2003-01-01

229

Preparation, release and pharmacokinetics of a risperidone elementary osmotic pump system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of risperidone elementary osmotic pump (RIS-EOP) formulations were investigated. A method for the preparation of RIS-EOP tablets was developed by modulating RIS solubility with citric acid. The influence of osmotic agents and the compositions of semipermeable membrane on drug release profiles was evaluated. The formulation of RIS-EOP was optimized by orthogonal design. The in vitro release profile of the optimum formulation achieved to deliver RIS at an approximate zero-order up to 12?h. The pharmacokinetic profiles of RIS-EOP were evaluated compared with immediate release tablets in beagle dogs. The mean tmax and mean residence time of RIS-EOP for RIS and its active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, were remarkably longer, compared with immediate release tablets. These results corroborated prolonged release of RIS from EOP formulations. Moreover, drug plasma levels with lower fluctuations could be achieved with RIS-EOP tablets. These results suggested that increasing drug solubility by adding or reacting with alkali/acid might be used for the preparation of EOP tablets of certain poorly water-soluble drugs. PMID:24400982

Gong, Wei; Liu, Yan; Mei, Dan-Yu; Yang, Meiyan; Mei, Xing-Guo

2014-01-01

230

Formulation and characterization of clozapine and risperidone co-entrapped spray-dried PLGA nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract In the current study, polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles entrapping both clozapine (CLZ) and risperidone (RIS) were formulated by spray-drying using Buchi Nano Spray Dryer B-90 (Flawil, Switzerland). Parameters such as inlet temperature, spray mesh diameter, sample flow rate, spray rate and applied pressure were optimized to produce nanoparticles having desired release profile using both low- and high-molecular weight PLGA polymer. Smallest size nanoparticle of size around 248?nm could be prepared using a 4.0 ?m mesh diameter with low-molecular weight polymer. The load of CLZ and RIS was 126.3 and 58.2??g/mg of polymer particles, respectively. Entrapment efficiency of drugs in PLGA nanoparticles was 94.74% for CLZ and 93.12% for RIS. Both the drugs released continuously from the nanoparticle formulations. PLGA nanoparticles formulated using low-molecular weight polymer released around 80% of the entrapped drug over 10 days of time. Nature of drug inside polymer particles was amorphous, and there was no chemical interaction of CLZ and RIS with polymer. Polymeric nanoparticles were found to be non-toxic in nature using PC12 cell line. This nanospray drying process proved to be suitable for developing polymeric nanoformulation delivering dual drugs for the treatment of Schizophrenia. PMID:25403112

Panda, Apoorva; Meena, Jairam; Katara, Rajesh; Majumdar, Dipak K

2014-11-18

231

Excessive weight gain after remission of depression in a schizophrenic patient treated with risperidone: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients has been associated with a risk of weight gain. Similarly, recovery from depression is often followed by improved appetite, greater food intake and potential increase in weight. Case presentation A Caucasian 33-year-old schizophrenic female patient was being treated with 6 mg/day of risperidone and 15 mg/day of clorazepate. She developed depressive symptomatology and 40 mg/day of fluoxetine was gradually added to her treatment regimen for about 9 months. After the remission of depression, and the discontinuation of fluoxetine, she experienced an increase in appetite and subsequently excessive weight gain of 52 kg. Re-administration of fluoxetine did not reverse the situation. The patient developed diabetes mellitus, which was successfully controlled with metformin 1700 mg/day. The addition at first of orlistat 360 mg/day and later of topiramate 200 mg/day has helped her to lose a significant part of the weight gained (30 kg. Conclusion The case suggests a probable association between the remission of depressive symptomatology and weight gain in a schizophrenic patient.

Psarros Constantin

2006-09-01

232

Long-term stability, biocompatibility and oral delivery potential of risperidone-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

A solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) formulation to improve the oral delivery of risperidone (RISP), a poorly water-soluble drug, was designed and tested. Initially, lipid-RISP solubility was screened to select the best lipid for SLN preparation. Compritol(®)-based formulations were chosen and their long-term stability was assessed over two years of storage (at 25 °C and 4 °C) by means of particle size, polydispersity index (PI), zeta potential (ZP) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) measurements. SLN shape was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at the beginning and end of the study. The oxidative potential (OP) of the SLN was measured and their biocompatibility with Caco-2 cells was evaluated using the (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-dyphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In vitro drug release and transport studies were performed to predict the in vivo release profile and to evaluate the drug delivery potential of the SLN formulations, respectively. The RISP-loaded SLN systems were stable and had high EE and similar shape to the placebo formulations before and after storage. Classical Fickian diffusion was identified as the release mechanism for RISP from the SLN formulation. Biocompatibility and dose-dependent RISP transport across Caco-2 cells were observed for the prepared SLN formulations. The viability of SLN as formulations for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs such as RISP was illustrated. PMID:22867992

Silva, A C; Kumar, A; Wild, W; Ferreira, D; Santos, D; Forbes, B

2012-10-15

233

Risperidone and the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 improve probabilistic reversal learning in BTBR T + tf/J mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interactions with restricted interests and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). RRBs can severely limit daily living and be particularly stressful to family members. To date, there are limited options for treating this feature in ASD. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, is approved to treat irritability in ASD, but less is known about whether it is effective in treating "higher order" RRBs, for example cognitive inflexibility. Risperidone also has multiple receptor targets in which only a subset may be procognitive and others induce cognitive impairment. 5HT2A receptor blockade represents one promising and more targeted approach, as various preclinical studies have shown that 5HT2A receptor antagonists improve cognition. The present study investigated whether risperidone and/or M100907, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist, improved probabilistic reversal learning performance in the BTBR T + tf/J (BTBR) mouse model of autism. The effects of these treatments were also investigated in C57BL/6J (B6) mice as a comparison strain. Using a spatial reversal learning test with 80/20 probabilistic feedback, similar to one in which ASD individuals exhibit impairments, both risperidone (0.125 mg) and M100907 (0.01 and 0.1 mg) improved reversal learning in BTBR mice. Risperidone (0.125 mg) impaired reversal learning in B6 mice. Improvement in probabilistic reversal learning performance resulted from treatments enhancing the maintenance of the newly correct choice pattern. Because risperidone can lead to unwanted side effects, treatment with a specific 5HT2A receptor antagonist may improve cognitive flexibility in individuals with ASD while also minimizing unwanted side effects. PMID:24894823

Amodeo, Dionisio A; Jones, Joshua H; Sweeney, John A; Ragozzino, Michael E

2014-10-01

234

Injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book deals with injection molding and plastic industry with trend of plastic industry and injection molding like production and consume of plastic in the world, plastic molding such as forming and property process, various molding with shape forming, theories on main molding and the position of injection molding, prospect of injection molding. It also describes property of material on injection molding; introduction, molecule structure, density, crystalizability, transition point, heat condition quality and compressible volume.

235

Risperidone-Induced Weight Gain in Referred Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Is Associated with a Common Polymorphism in the 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C Receptor Gene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Weight gain is an important adverse effect of risperidone, but predictors of significant weight gain have yet to be identified in pediatric patients. Here, we investigated differences between age- and gender-normed body mass index–standardized z scores at baseline and after 8 weeks of open-label, flexible-dose risperidone treatment (mean dose: 1.70?mg/day) in 32 youths with pervasive developmental disorder (mean age?=?8.74, range?=?5–16 years) in relation to ?759C/T 5-hydroxyt...

Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Troost, Pieter W.; Lahuis, Bertine E.; Mulder, Hans; Mulder, Erik J.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Anderson, George M.; Scahill, Lawrence; Minderaa, Ruud B.

2010-01-01

236

A case of psychosis due to Fahr's syndrome and response to behavioral disturbances with risperidone and oxcarbazepine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcification of basal ganglia or Fahr's syndrome is a rare disease characterized by bilateral and symmetrical intracranial deposition of calcium mainly in cerebral basal ganglia. Motor and neuropsychiatric symptoms are prominent features. We report a case presented with a few motor symptoms, features of delirium and prominent psychiatric symptoms (disorganized behavior) predominantly evident after the improvement in delirium. Radiological findings were suggestive of bilateral basal ganglia calcification. Parathyroid hormone levels were low with no significant findings in other investigations and negative family history. Patient showed significant improvement in behavioral disturbances with risperidone, low dose of lorazepam, oxcarbazepine, and memantine. PMID:24891710

Faye, Abhijeet Dhawalram; Gawande, Sushil; Tadke, Rahul; Kirpekar, Vivek C; Bhave, Sudhir H

2014-04-01

237

Combination of Risperidone and Paroxetine for Inappropriate Sexual Behaviors in an Adolescent with Autism and Mental Retardation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inappropriate hypersexual behaviors have been frequently reported in subjects with autism, however, literature on management of such behaviors in this group is very limited. In this paper, we describe an adolescent with autistic disorder and mental retardation who developed severe inappropriate sexual behaviors and has been treated successfully with risperidone-paroxetine combination. As presence of hypersexual behaviors in individuals with autism is a distressing factor for their family and social environment, appropriate management seems to be essential. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2012; 49: 311-313

Sabri HERGÜNER

2012-12-01

238

Eculizumab Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS; an inherited condition in ... tongue, or throat; hoarseness; or difficulty breathing or swallowing.Eculizumab injection may help control your condition but ...

239

Docetaxel Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Docetaxel injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain types of breast, lung, prostate, stomach, and head and neck cancers. Docetaxel injection is in a class of medications called ...

240

Ipilimumab Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Ipilimumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with ... has spread to other parts of the body. Ipilimumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

 
 
 
 
241

Leucovorin Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Leucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall; cancer chemotherapy medication) when methotrexate ... used to to treat certain types of cancer. Leucovorin injection is used to treat people who have ...

242

Temozolomide Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called alkylating ... Temozolomide injection comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected over 90 minutes intravenously ( ...

243

Estrogen Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to 5 ...

244

Metoclopramide Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... pressure; depression; breast cancer; asthma;glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disorder); NADH ... alcoholic beverages while you are receiving metoclopramide injection. Alcohol can make the side effects from metoclopramide injection ...

245

Pembrolizumab Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with ... who have a specific type of melanoma tumor. Pembrolizumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

246

Leuprolide Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... Lupron Depot-PED) is used to treat central precocious puberty (CPP; a condition causing children to enter puberty ... injection will last. When used in children with precocious puberty, leuprolide injection (Lupron Depot-PED, Lupron Depot-PED- ...

247

Medroxyprogesterone Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Depo-Provera® ... of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control ... method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor will tell you when you should ...

248

Paclitaxel Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

249

Tocilizumab Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Tocilizumab injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to relieve the symptoms of certain ... in children 2 years of age or older. Tocilizumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

250

Obinutuzumab Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Obinutuzumab injection is used with chlorambucil (Leukeran) to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Obinutuzumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

251

Polymorphisms in CYP2D6 have a Greater Effect on Variability of Risperidone Pharmacokinetics than Gender.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within-subject coefficient of variation (CVw ) plays a decisive role in the determination of sample size in bioequivalence clinical trials. Highly variable drugs may require the participation of a large number of subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gender and polymorphisms in CYP2D6 affect the CVw of risperidone. Two single-dose, two-period crossover studies of risperidone (n = 70) were reanalysed to calculate CVw for AUCt and Cmax . Subjects were classified into four different CYP2D6 phenotype groups [poor metabolizers (PM), intermediate metabolizers (IM), extensive metabolizers (EM) and ultrarapid metabolizers (UM)]. The effect of gender was evaluated in EM and IM. CVw was lower in PM (13.3% for AUCt and 10.9% for Cmax ) and UM (17.4% and 8.7%) than in EM (28.7% and 34.7%) and IM (33.2% and 27.3%). Variability was slightly lower in women (27.9% for AUCt and 25.7% for Cmax ) than in men (33.3% and 37.2%, respectively). Genetic polymorphisms affect within-subject variability more than gender and could considerably affect sample size calculation. Therefore, subjects participating in bioequivalence trials should be genotyped. PMID:24975366

Cabaleiro, Teresa; Ochoa, Dolores; Román, Manuel; Moreno, Isabel; López-Rodríguez, Rosario; Novalbos, Jesús; Abad-Santos, Francisco

2015-02-01

252

Sensitive method for the quantitative determination of risperidone in tablet dosage form by high-performance liquid chromatography using chlordiazepoxide as internal standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

A selective, sensitive and simple reversed-phase HPLC method for the determination of risperidone in bulk powder and pharmaceutical formulations was developed and validated. Risperidone can be separated on a Supelcosil LC8 DB column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 ?m particle size) at 40°C with a mobile phase of methanol and 0.1 M ammonium acetate pH 5.50 (60:40, v/v), pumped at flow rate 1.0 mL min(-1) and detected at 274 nm. Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride was used as internal standard. The retention time of risperidone and chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride was found to be 5.89 and 7.65 min, respectively. The validation of the proposed method was carried out for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and robustness. The linear range was 4.0-275.0 µg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9998) with limits of detection and quantification values of 0.48 and 1.59 ?g mL(-1), respectively. The precision of the method was demonstrated using intra- and inter-day assay RSD values which were less than 3.27%, while the recovery was 99.00-101.12% (n=5). According to the validation results, the proposed method was found to be specific, accurate, precise and could be applied to the quantitative analysis of risperidone in raw material and tablets. PMID:23847459

Ashour, Safwan; Kattan, Nuha

2013-06-01

253

Risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease: preliminary findings from a naturalistic, retrospective study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this retrospective, naturalistic study were to provide preliminary data on the effects of 6 months treatment with risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine on behavioral disturbances, within a sample of outpatients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease, and on predictors of response. Between July 2005 and December 2005, data were collected from 58 consecutive outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease with behavioral disturbances, who received a 6-month treatment with risperidone, olanzapine or quetiapine. Primary outcome measures were Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) total score and its items forming the basic core of behavioral disturbances in Alzheimer's disease: delusions, hallucinations and agitation/aggressiveness. Secondary outcome measures were Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and Clinical Insight Rating scale. Correlations between baseline MMSE score and improvements in behavioral disturbances were investigated. At 6 months mean NPI total score had fallen 43.5% in the risperidone group, 45.6% in the olanzapine group and 33.3% in the quetiapine group, with no significant between-group differences. Global cognitive function showed no significant change from baseline to end-point. Incidence of adverse events was low. A significant correlation was found between MMSE score and NPI total score and NPI item agitation decreases. Risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine produced significant improvements in behavioral disturbances and were well tolerated. No significant differences emerged among treatments. The preliminary results also suggest that baseline cognitive function might influence treatment response. PMID:18081622

Rocca, Paola; Marino, Federica; Montemagni, Cristiana; Perrone, Davide; Bogetto, Filippo

2007-12-01

254

Paliperidone ER in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of Efficacy and Tolerability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antipsychotics are recommended for the treatment of impulsive dyscontrol and cognitive perceptual symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Three reports supported the efficacy of oral risperidone on BPD psychopathology. Paliperidone ER is the metabolite of risperidone with a similar mechanism of action, and its osmotic release reduces plasmatic fluctuations and antidopaminergic effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER in BPD patients. 18 outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of BPD were treated for 12 weeks with paliperidone ER (3-6?mg/day). They were assessed at baseline, week 4, and week 12, using the CGI-Severity item, the BPRS, the HDRS, the HARS, the SOFAS, the BPD Severity Index (BPDSI), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Adverse events were evaluated with the DOTES. Paliperidone ER was shown to be effective and well tolerated in reducing severity of global symptomatology and specific BPD symptoms, such as impulsive dyscontrol, anger, and cognitive-perceptual disturbances. Results need to be replicated in controlled trials. PMID:21826264

Bellino, Silvio; Bozzatello, Paola; Rinaldi, Camilla; Bogetto, Filippo

2011-01-01

255

Efficacy of an intravaginal progesterone insert and an injection of PGF2alpha for synchronizing estrus and shortening the interval to pregnancy in postpartum beef cows, peripubertal beef heifers, and dairy heifers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to test the efficacy of an intravaginal progesterone insert and injection of PGF2alpha for synchronizing estrus and shortening the interval to pregnancy in cattle. Cattle were assigned to one of three treatments before a 31-d breeding period that employed artificial insemination. Control cattle were not treated, and treated cattle were administered PGF2alpha or an intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert (CIDR) for 7 d and treated with PGF2alpha on d 6. The treatments were applied in one of three experiments that involved postpartum beef cows (Exp. 1; n = 851; 56+/-0.6 d postpartum), beef heifers (Exp. 2; n = 724; 442.5+/-2.8 d of age), and dairy heifers (Exp. 3; n = 260; 443.2+/-4.5 d of age). Luteal activity before treatment was determined for individual cattle based on blood progesterone concentrations. In Exp. 1, there was a greater incidence of estrus during the first 3 d of the breeding period in CIDR+PGF2alpha-treated cows compared with PGF2alpha-treated or control cows (15, 33, and 59% for control, PGF2alpha, and CIDR+PGF2alpha, respectively; P cows treated with CIDR+PGF2alpha, (50, 55, and 58% for control, PGF2alpha, and CIDR+PGF2alpha, respectively, P = 0.10). Improvements in rates of estrus and pregnancy after CIDR+PGF2alpha, were also observed in beef heifers. Presence of luteal activity before the treatment period affected synchronization and pregnancy rates because anestrous cows (Exp. 1) or prepubertal heifers (Exp. 2) had lesser synchronization rates and pregnancy rates during the first 3 d of the breeding period as well as during the entire 31-d breeding period. The PGF2alpha, and CIDR+PGF2alpha but not the control treatments were evaluated in dairy heifers (Exp. 3). The CIDR+PGF2alpha-treated heifers had a greater incidence of estrus (84%) during the first 3 d of the breeding period compared with the PGF2alpha-treated heifers (57%), but pregnancy rates during the first 3 d or during the 31-d breeding period were not improved for CIDR+PGF2alpha compared with PGF2alpha-treated heifers. In summary, the concurrent treatment of CIDR and PGF2alpha improved synchronization rates relative to PGF2alpha alone or control. Improved estrus synchrony led to greater pregnancy rates for beef cows and beef heifers but failed to improve pregnancy rates for dairy heifers. PMID:11325206

Lucy, M C; Billings, H J; Butler, W R; Ehnis, L R; Fields, M J; Kesler, D J; Kinder, J E; Mattos, R C; Short, R E; Thatcher, W W; Wettemann, R P; Yelich, J V; Hafs, H D

2001-04-01

256

Effects of two atypical neuroleptics, olanzapine and risperidone, on the function of the urinary bladder and the external urethral sphincter in anesthetized rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous report showed that the atypical neuroleptic clozapine resulted in marked changes in urodynamic parameters and greatly inhibited the activity of the external urethral sphincter in anesthetized rats. Such findings may help explain the high incidence of urinary disturbances reported during clozapine therapy. In an effort to extend our observations to other atypical neuroleptic agents, the present study investigated the effects of two newer atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine and risperidone, on the bladder and external urethral sphincter during cystometry in anesthetized rats. Results At a dose of 0.1 mg/kg (i.v., olanzapine decreased the micturition volume and increased the residual volume. In addition, olanzapine decreased the expulsion time and the amplitude of the high frequency oscillations observed during the expulsion phase. Larger doses (1 mg/kg had a greater effect. Olanzapine also reduced the activity recorded from the external urethral sphincter, and the bursting observed during the expulsion phase was abolished by 1.0 mg/kg. Risperidone had similar effects although the maximal effects were smaller than those observed with olanzapine. The amplitude of bladder contractions elicited by electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve was reduced by olanzapine but not risperidone suggesting a possible anti-muscarinic peripheral effect of olanzapine. Conclusions Olanzapine and risperidone significantly altered several voiding parameters and decreased the activity of the external urethral sphincter in the anesthetized rat. We propose that these effects are due to the central action of these drugs and not to peripheral effects. These findings may explain some of the clinical reports of urinary incontinence with risperidone and may predict similar occurrences with olanzapine therapy.

Vera Pedro L

2001-08-01

257

The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Thiothixene and Risperidone as a Combination with Lithium for the Treatment of Patients with Bipolar Disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The effectiveness of various atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of acute mania is reported repeatedly, but those for typical antipsychotics are restricted to haloperidol and chlorpromazine. As there is a comparative importance of side effects for typical and atypical antipsychotics, we decided to compare the therapeutic effect of thiothixene and risperidone as a combination with lithium for the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. Materials and Methods: In 8 week double-blind clinical trial, 84 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder were randomized for treatment with lithium plus thiothixene (N=42 or lithium plus risperidone (N=42. Manic, positive-negative symptoms, anxiety and depression were measured bi-weekly with Young Mania Rating, positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS and Hamilton rating scale score. Fasting blood sugar, weight, general side effects and extrapyramidal symptoms were also evaluated. The measures analyzed using SPSS-17 software. To compare demographic characteristics t-test, ?2 test and fixed effects method were used. A fixed effects method was applied to omit missing data effects. Results: There was no significant difference between the thiothixene and risperidone groups in Young mania rating scale and other outcome measures during the 8 week trial. There was no significant difference in weight, blood sugar and clinical global impression (CGI between groups. Conclusion: Thiothixene is as effective as risperidone in the improvement of manic and psychotic symptoms. There was no significant difference with risperidone in developing extrapyramidal symptoms, so it can be used as an appropriate combination with lithium for the treatment of bipolar patients in psychotic manic episode.

Nooshin Parvaresh

2014-08-01

258

Spectroscopic and thermal investigations on the charge transfer interaction between risperidone as a schizophrenia drug with some traditional ?-acceptors: Part 2  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of present investigation was to assess the utility of non-expensive techniques in the evaluation of risperidone (Ris) in solid and solution states with different traditional ?-acceptors and subsequent incorporation of the analytical determination into pharmaceutical formulation for a faster release of risperidone. Charge-transfer complexes (CTC) of risperidone with picric acid (PA), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinon (DDQ), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetracyano ethylene (TCNE), tetrabromo-p-quinon (BL) and tetrachloro-p-quinon (CL) have been studied spectrophotometrically in absolute methanol at room temperature. The stoichiometries of the complexes were found to be 1:1 ratio by the photometric molar ratio between risperidone and the ?-acceptors. The equilibrium constants, molar extinction coefficient (?CT) and spectroscopic-physical parameters (standard free energy (?Go), oscillator strength (f), transition dipole moment (?), resonance energy (RN) and ionization potential (ID)) of the complexes were determined upon the modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation. Risperidone in pure form was applied in this study. The results indicate that the formation constants for the complexes depend on the nature of electron acceptors and donor, and also the spectral studies of the complexes were determined by (infrared, Raman, and 1H NMR) spectra and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The most stable mono-protonated form of Ris is characterized by the formation of +Nsbnd H (pyrimidine ring) intramolecular hydrogen bonded. In the high-wavenumber spectral region ˜3400 cm-1, the bands of the +Nsbnd H stretching vibrations and of the pyrimidine nitrogen atom could be potentially useful to discriminate the investigated forms of Ris. The infrared spectra of both Ris complexes are confirming the participation of +Nsbnd H pyrimidine ring in the donor-acceptor interaction.

El-Habeeb, Abeer A.; Al-Saif, Foziah A.; Refat, Moamen S.

2013-03-01

259

Rehospitalization rates of patients with schizophrenia discharged on haloperidol, risperidone or clozapine Taxas de re-hospitalização de pacientes após alta hospitalar em uso de haloperidol, risperidona ou clozapina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rehospitalization rates of patients discharged from the Institute of Psychiatry of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade de São Paulo Medical School while being treated with haloperidol, risperidone or clozapine. METHOD: This is a naturalistic study designed to monitor rehospitalization rates for patients discharged on haloperidol (n = 43), risperidone (n = 22) or clozapine (n = 31). Time to readmission over the course of three...

Ana Paula Werneck de Castro; Helio Elkis

2007-01-01

260

Injection MD  

CERN Document Server

This note summarizes the results obtained at injection during the 2nd MD block and the floating MD block in July. Highlights are presented for injection in the LHC with the Q20 SPS optics, influence of the supercycle and injection with 25 ns bunch spacing. Beams were successfully injected into the LHC using the Q20 optics [1, 3]. Small corrections were needed to steer the beam in the transfer lines. Dispersion measurements were conducted for both beams. The horizontal normalized dispersion in TI2 was a factor 2 smaller for Q20 with respect to Q26, for TI8 on the other hand the opposite was observed. The results for injection loss dependency on super cycle composition show only a small increase in losses for beam 2. The losses observed must therefore mainly come from other sources such as shot-by-shot stability or quality of scraping. For the injection with 25 ns bunch spacing bunches were injected for both beams. For B1 up to the maximum of 288 bunches. For B2 on the other only up to 144 bunches were injected...

Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Drosdal, L; Gianfelice, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Papaphilippou, Y; Vanbavinckhove, G

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Autologus Blood Injection for Recurrent Lateral Epicondylitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and purpose: Tennis elbow is a common complaint. Several treatment strategies, such as corticosteroid injections and physical terapy and braces have been described with no predictable efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prospectively the result of refractory lateral epicondylitis with autologus blood injections.Materials and Methods: Twenty two patients with lateral epicondylitis were injected with 2 mL of autologous blood under the extensor carpi radialis brevis. A...

M Dehghani, M. D.; ? M Moayedfar, M. D.

2007-01-01

262

Relapse in patients with schizophrenia: a comparison between risperidone and haloperidol / Recaída em pacientes com esquizofrenia: uma comparação entre risperidona e haloperidol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Comparar taxas de re-hospitalização e o tempo para a recaída entre pacientes esquizofrênicos tratados com risperidona ou haloperidol após alta hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Ensaio controlado, randomizado, comparando risperidona e haloperidol em relação à recaída em pacientes com esquizofrenia trat [...] ados com doses flexíveis, com duração de um ano. RESULTADOS: Vinte pacientes foram alocados para a risperidona e 13 para o haloperidol. Um paciente em cada grupo retirou o consentimento e um tomando risperidona foi perdido para o seguimento. Seis (30,0%) do grupo da risperidona e três (23,1%) do grupo do haloperidol recaíram (p=1.00). Contudo, o tempo até a re-hospitalização foi mais curto com o haloperidol (logrank =4,2; p=0,04). Quando re-hospitalizados, os pacientes no grupo da risperidona permaneceram 34,5 dias no hospital (mediana) quando comparados com o grupo do haloperidol (mediana =61 dias) (p=0,61). CONCLUSÃO: A proporção de pacientes esquizofrênicos que recaíram foi similar em ambos os grupos. Contudo, o tempo para a recaída foi mais curto nos pacientes tratados com haloperidol. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To compare rates of rehospitalization and time to relapse in risperidone vs. haloperidol-treated schizophrenic patients discharged from the hospital. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial comparing risperidone and haloperidol regarding relapse in patients with schizophrenia treated with f [...] lexible doses during one year. RESULTS: Twenty patients were assigned to risperidone and 13 to haloperidol. One patient from each group withdrew consent and one patient in the risperidone group was lost for follow-up. Six (30.0%) patients in the risperidone group and 3 (23.1%) in the haloperidol group relapsed (p=1.00). However, time to relapse was shorter in the later (logrank =4.2; p=.04). When rehospitalized, patients in the risperidone group stayed 34.5 days (median) at hospital as compared to the haloperidol group (median of 61 days) (p=.61). CONCLUSION: The proportion of schizophrenic patients who relapsed was similar in both groups; However, time to relapse was shorter in the haloperidol-treated patients.

Eduardo Pondé de, Sena; Rogério, Santos-Jesus; Ângela, Miranda-Scippa; Lucas de Castro, Quarantini; Irismar Reis de, Oliveira.

2003-10-01

263

Relapse in patients with schizophrenia: a comparison between risperidone and haloperidol Recaída em pacientes com esquizofrenia: uma comparação entre risperidona e haloperidol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare rates of rehospitalization and time to relapse in risperidone vs. haloperidol-treated schizophrenic patients discharged from the hospital. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial comparing risperidone and haloperidol regarding relapse in patients with schizophrenia treated with flexible doses during one year. RESULTS: Twenty patients were assigned to risperidone and 13 to haloperidol. One patient from each group withdrew consent and one patient in the risperidone group was lost for follow-up. Six (30.0% patients in the risperidone group and 3 (23.1% in the haloperidol group relapsed (p=1.00. However, time to relapse was shorter in the later (logrank =4.2; p=.04. When rehospitalized, patients in the risperidone group stayed 34.5 days (median at hospital as compared to the haloperidol group (median of 61 days (p=.61. CONCLUSION: The proportion of schizophrenic patients who relapsed was similar in both groups; However, time to relapse was shorter in the haloperidol-treated patients.OBJETIVOS: Comparar taxas de re-hospitalização e o tempo para a recaída entre pacientes esquizofrênicos tratados com risperidona ou haloperidol após alta hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Ensaio controlado, randomizado, comparando risperidona e haloperidol em relação à recaída em pacientes com esquizofrenia tratados com doses flexíveis, com duração de um ano. RESULTADOS: Vinte pacientes foram alocados para a risperidona e 13 para o haloperidol. Um paciente em cada grupo retirou o consentimento e um tomando risperidona foi perdido para o seguimento. Seis (30,0% do grupo da risperidona e três (23,1% do grupo do haloperidol recaíram (p=1.00. Contudo, o tempo até a re-hospitalização foi mais curto com o haloperidol (logrank =4,2; p=0,04. Quando re-hospitalizados, os pacientes no grupo da risperidona permaneceram 34,5 dias no hospital (mediana quando comparados com o grupo do haloperidol (mediana =61 dias (p=0,61. CONCLUSÃO: A proporção de pacientes esquizofrênicos que recaíram foi similar em ambos os grupos. Contudo, o tempo para a recaída foi mais curto nos pacientes tratados com haloperidol.

Eduardo Pondé de Sena

2003-10-01

264

Frequency of sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects in patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or haloperidol: the results of the EIRE study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atypical antipsychotics seem to differ mainly in their tolerability profile. The aim of this cross-sectional study, the Estudio de Investigaci n de Resultados en Esquizofrenia (Outcomes Research Study in Schizophrenia; EIRE study), was to assess in a clinical setting the frequency of several side-effects related to haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine. This article addresses sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects (gynecomastia, menorrhage, amenorrhea, and galactorrhea). We recruited outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria and who had received a single antipsychotic (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or haloperidol) for at least 4 weeks. During a single visit, we collected data, including demographic and clinical characteristics, current antipsychotic and concomitant treatment, and adverse effects listed in a modified version of the UKU Scale. We used a Chi-squared test to determine pairs comparisons of the frequency of adverse reactions between treatments. To estimate risk of a given adverse reaction with a given treatment, we used a logistic regression method. We assessed 636 evaluable patients out of 669 recruited. Frequency of sexual dysfunction was high with haloperidol (38.1%) and also with olanzapine (35.3%), quetiapine (18.2%), and risperidone (43.2%). We found the frequency of other reproductive side-effects to be relatively low with all four drugs: haloperidol (6.9%), olanzapine (6.4%), quetiapine (2.7%), and risperidone (11.7%). Sexual dysfunction appeared to be dose-related with haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine. Risperidone and olanzapine showed a higher risk of sexual dysfunction and other reproductive sideeffects than haloperidol. Quetiapine showed a lower risk of sexual dysfunction during short-term treatment ( 12 weeks) are lacking. Our results suggest that none of the atypical antipsychotics that we studied significantly improved sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects of the conventional antipsychotic, haloperidol, in stabilized patients during long-term treatment. Quetiapine appears to improve this profile during short-term treatment; however, longterm data, with larger samples, are required with this latter drug. PMID:12623765

Bobes, J; Garc A-Portilla, M P; Rejas, J; Hern Ndez, G; Garcia-Garcia, M; Rico-Villademoros, F; Porras, A

2003-01-01

265

Estudio de estabilidad de tabletas de risperidona 3 mg Study of stability of Risperidone (3 mg tablets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se desarrolló el estudio de estabilidad de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg y se determinó su fecha de vencimiento. Este estudio se realizó por los métodos de vida de estante y de estabilidad acelerada mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia, validados en el Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Medicamentos. El estudio de vida de estante se desarrolló por un periodo de 24 meses a temperatura ambiente; mientras que el estudio de estabilidad acelerada se efectuó sometiendo el producto a la influencia de la luz, la humedad y la temperatura; se realizó el análisis durante 3 meses, para los 2 primeros y durante 6 meses para el estudio de la temperatura. La formulación de risperidona tabletas 3 mg cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad descritas en la Farmacopea. Los resultados del estudio de estabilidad por vida de estante después de transcurridos los 24 meses indican que el producto mantiene los parámetros que determinan su calidad durante ese tiempo, y en los estudios acelerados no se observó degradación del producto. Se estableció 2 años como fecha de vencimiento en las condiciones señaladas.Stability study was conducted of 3 mg Risperidone tablets determining its caducity date and using the shelf life methods and of accelerated stability by high-performance liquid chromatography validated in Drug Development and Research Center. The shelf life study was developed during 24 months at room temperature; whereas the accelerated stability study was performed subjecting the product to light, humidity and temperature influence. The 3 mg Risperidone tablets formula fulfilled the quality specifications described in Pharmacopeia. Results from shelf life study after 24 months show that the product maintains the parameters determining its quality during that time and in accelerated studies product degradation was noted. Under conditions signaled 2 years was established as the expiry date.

Caridad Margarita García Peña

2010-06-01

266

Estudio de estabilidad de tabletas de risperidona 3 mg / Study of stability of Risperidone (3 mg) tablets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se desarrolló el estudio de estabilidad de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg y se determinó su fecha de vencimiento. Este estudio se realizó por los métodos de vida de estante y de estabilidad acelerada mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia, validados en el Centro de Investigación y Desar [...] rollo de Medicamentos. El estudio de vida de estante se desarrolló por un periodo de 24 meses a temperatura ambiente; mientras que el estudio de estabilidad acelerada se efectuó sometiendo el producto a la influencia de la luz, la humedad y la temperatura; se realizó el análisis durante 3 meses, para los 2 primeros y durante 6 meses para el estudio de la temperatura. La formulación de risperidona tabletas 3 mg cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad descritas en la Farmacopea. Los resultados del estudio de estabilidad por vida de estante después de transcurridos los 24 meses indican que el producto mantiene los parámetros que determinan su calidad durante ese tiempo, y en los estudios acelerados no se observó degradación del producto. Se estableció 2 años como fecha de vencimiento en las condiciones señaladas. Abstract in english Stability study was conducted of 3 mg Risperidone tablets determining its caducity date and using the shelf life methods and of accelerated stability by high-performance liquid chromatography validated in Drug Development and Research Center. The shelf life study was developed during 24 months at ro [...] om temperature; whereas the accelerated stability study was performed subjecting the product to light, humidity and temperature influence. The 3 mg Risperidone tablets formula fulfilled the quality specifications described in Pharmacopeia. Results from shelf life study after 24 months show that the product maintains the parameters determining its quality during that time and in accelerated studies product degradation was noted. Under conditions signaled 2 years was established as the expiry date.

Caridad Margarita, García Peña; Antonio, Iraizoz Barrios; Vivian, Martínez Espinosa.

2010-06-01

267

Costi ed effetti di Risperidone Long Acting (RLA rispetto ad antipsicotici atipici nel trattamento dei soggetti schizofrenici in Italia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the costs and effects of long-acting risperidone (LAR in the treatment of schizophrenic patients in Italy, as compared to conventional and oral atypical antipsychotics. Methods: a discrete event model was used. The model simulates patients. history for every single therapeutic alternative and selects incident events, on the basis of pre-defined probability distribution-powered, randomized repetitions. The model operates on two types of parameters: patient characteristics and time-dependent variables. Patient characteristics (age, sex, illness profile and severity, probability of incurring in an adverse event and potential dangerousness remain fixed during the 5 simulated years. Time-dependent variables are subject to changes and include outpatient visits, severity of psychotic episodes, symptom-scores, compliance, incidence of adverse effects, site of treatment and dangerousness. Three treatments have been selected: scenario 1 begins with LAR, switches to olanzapine and then to clozapine; scenario 2 starts with olanzapine, switches to oral risperidone and ends with clozapine. Direct medical costs have been computed on the basis of psychiatric visits, drug costs and costs of the institution in which the patient is treated (hospital, rehabilitation clinic, etc. Outcome measures were number of psychotic episodes in 5 years, total time spent during these episodes and cumulative score of positive and negative symptoms at 5 years. Information on alternatives, transition probabilities, model structure and health resources utilization were derived from the literature and from a panel of experts. Results: it has been estimated that LAR is economically dominant (more effective at lower cost respect to oral atypical antipsychotics, being able to prevent 0.87 psychotic episodes per patient, with a net cost saving of 4,773 euro per patient. Sub-group analysis indicate that LAR is always more effective than the considered alternatives and, in general, also less costly than oral atypical antipsychotics. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the model to several variations of key parameters. Conclusions: LAR therapy dominates oral atypical antipsychotics.

Lorenzo G. Mantovani

2004-03-01

268

Sacroiliac joint and lumbar zygapophysial joint corticosteroid injections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sacroiliac joint and the lumbar zygapophysial joints are both known pain generators with demonstrated pain-referral patterns. They are both amenable to image-guided intraarticular injection of corticosteroids, a procedure that is commonly performed for pain. The literature on the efficacy of intraarticular corticosteroid injections for these joints is currently limited. This article covers the diagnostic dilemmas associated with these joints, the utility of anesthetic blocks, and the literature on the efficacy of intraarticular corticosteroid injections. PMID:20977966

Kennedy, David J; Shokat, Max; Visco, Christopher J

2010-11-01

269

Ertapenem Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... injection. After your condition improves, your doctor may switch you to another antibiotic that you can take ... vomiting diarrhea constipation headache dizziness stomach pain fever cough confusion difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep redness ...

270

Butorphanol Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... loss of coordination, or hallucinations (seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist). Your doctor will probably ... breathing pounding heartbeat fainting hallucinations (seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist) rash hives Butorphanol injection ...

271

Midazolam Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... who are breathing with the help of a machine. Midazolam injection is in a class of medications ... shaking of a part of the body, hallucinations (seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist), ...

272

Liraglutide Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... other body tissues where it is used for energy. Liraglutide injection also slows the emptying of the ... women), eye problems, including changes or loss of vision, or gum disease. Your doctor and other healthcare ...

273

Tacrolimus Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... certain diuretics ('water pills'); ganciclovir (Cytovene); hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, inserts, or injections); HIV protease ...

274

Trastuzumab Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... with other medications to treat certain types of stomach cancer that have spread to other parts of the ... weeks. When trastuzumab injection is used to treat stomach cancer, it is usually given once every 3 weeks. ...

275

Natalizumab Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... or legs; changes in your thinking, walking, balance, speech, eyesight, or strength that last several days; headaches; seizures; confusion; or personality changes.If your treatment with natalizumab injection is ...

276

Priapismo secundario a antipsicóticos: a propósito de un caso asociado a risperidona Priapism associated with risperidone use: Report of one case  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The use of drugs with ?-adrenergic antagonistic effect is one of the most prominent etiologies of priapism. We report a 32-year-old schizophrenic male in treatment with risperidone who consulted in the emergency room for a painful priapism. A low flow priapism was diagnosed. Medical treatment was unsuccessful and the patient was subjected to a proximal corporo-spongiosal shunt (Quackels technique), with good results. The patient was discharged in good...

Lizardo Cruzado; Vallejos, Ce?sar E.

2012-01-01

277

Priapismo secundario a antipsicóticos: a propósito de un caso asociado a risperidona Priapism associated with risperidone use: Report of one case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The use of drugs with ?-adrenergic antagonistic effect is one of the most prominent etiologies of priapism. We report a 32-year-old schizophrenic male in treatment with risperidone who consulted in the emergency room for a painful priapism. A low flow priapism was diagnosed. Medical treatment was unsuccessful and the patient was subjected to a proximal corporo-spongiosal shunt (Quackels technique, with good results. The patient was discharged in good conditions.

Lizardo Cruzado

2012-11-01

278

The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Thiothixene and Risperidone as a Combination with Lithium for the Treatment of Patients with Bipolar Disorder  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The effectiveness of various atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of acute mania is reported repeatedly, but those for typical antipsychotics are restricted to haloperidol and chlorpromazine. As there is a comparative importance of side effects for typical and atypical antipsychotics, we decided to compare the therapeutic effect of thiothixene and risperidone as a combination with lithium for the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. Materials and Methods: In 8 week...

Nooshin Parvaresh; Hasan Ziaadini; Shahrzad Mazhari; Maryam Fazli

2014-01-01

279

Estudio de biodisponibilidad comparativa de dos formulaciones de risperidona existentes en el mercado chileno / A comparative bioavailability study of two formulations of risperidone available in the Chilean market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Bioavailability of a particular drug can vary according to the formulation used. Therefore, studies of comparative bioavailability of different formulations of a same drug are worthwhile. Aim: To compare the bioavailability of two risperidone formulations available in the Chilean market. [...] Material and methods: The bioavailability of a local risperidone formulation (Spiron®) was compared with the original formulation of the drug (Risperdal®) in 12 healthy volunteers, aged 19±1 years. A single dose of 3 mg was given orally, using a randomized double blind protocol in two periods. Fifteen blood samples were obtained at regular intervals, until 24 h after drug administration. Risperidone plasma levels were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a computer program that is independent of compartmental analysis. Results: The area under the curve of plasma concentration versus time, from 0 to infinite (ABC0-?) and from 0 to 24 h (ABC0-24), early exposure (ABC from 0 to maximal time) and maximal plasma concentrations were significantly lower for Spiron®. Half life time and time to achieve the maximal concentration were similar for the two formulations. Conclusions: According to bioequivalence tests suggested by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States (90% confidence interval for the difference of log transformed mean pharmacokinetic parameters), the formulations Risperdal® and Spiron®, cannot be considered interchangeable (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 527-34).

Leonardo E, Gaete; Jaime, Solís G; Pablo, Venegas F; Mitzy J, Carrillo C; Oscar, Schatloff B; Iván, Saavedra S.

2003-05-01

280

Estudio de biodisponibilidad comparativa de dos formulaciones de risperidona existentes en el mercado chileno A comparative bioavailability study of two formulations of risperidone available in the Chilean market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Bioavailability of a particular drug can vary according to the formulation used. Therefore, studies of comparative bioavailability of different formulations of a same drug are worthwhile. Aim: To compare the bioavailability of two risperidone formulations available in the Chilean market. Material and methods: The bioavailability of a local risperidone formulation (Spiron® was compared with the original formulation of the drug (Risperdal® in 12 healthy volunteers, aged 19±1 years. A single dose of 3 mg was given orally, using a randomized double blind protocol in two periods. Fifteen blood samples were obtained at regular intervals, until 24 h after drug administration. Risperidone plasma levels were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a computer program that is independent of compartmental analysis. Results: The area under the curve of plasma concentration versus time, from 0 to infinite (ABC0-? and from 0 to 24 h (ABC0-24, early exposure (ABC from 0 to maximal time and maximal plasma concentrations were significantly lower for Spiron®. Half life time and time to achieve the maximal concentration were similar for the two formulations. Conclusions: According to bioequivalence tests suggested by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA of the United States (90% confidence interval for the difference of log transformed mean pharmacokinetic parameters, the formulations Risperdal® and Spiron®, cannot be considered interchangeable (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 527-34.

Leonardo E Gaete

2003-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

The therapeutic potential of risperidone in tourette's syndrome; A preclinical and clinical study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antipsychotic drugs are not only effective for psychosis, but also for Tourette's syndrome. Their use is limited by their extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS). An atypical antipsychotic can be defined as a compound that has a significant antipsychotic action on positive symptoms but with no or few EPS (Meltzer 2000). This definition is often expanded to include efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, amelioration of negative- and cognitive symptoms, and the lack of sustained prolactin ele...

Bruggeman, Richard

2001-01-01

282

Infliximab Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... injection is also sometimes used to treat Behcet's syndrome (ulcers in the mouth and on the genitals and inflammation of various ... runny nose back pain white patches in the mouth vaginal itching, burning, and pain, or other signs of a yeast ...

283

Cefepime Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Your doctor has ordered cefepime, an antibiotic, to help treat your infection. The drug will be either injected into a large muscle (such as your ... 30 minutes, one or two times a day.Cefepime eliminates bacteria that cause many infections, including pneumonia ...

284

Mitoxantrone Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... change the color of your urine to a blue-green color for about 24 hours after you receive a dose. ... loss of appetite sores on the mouth and tongue runny or stuffed nose thinning or ... burning, or blue discoloration at the site where the injection was ...

285

Bendamustine Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... a class of medications called alkylating agents. It works by killing existing cancer cells and limiting the growth of new cancer cells. ... comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected intravenously (into a ... treatment period is called a cycle, and the cycle may be repeated every 28 ...

286

Fludarabine Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... a class of medications called purine analogs. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells in your body. ... comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected over 30 minutes ... treatment period is called a cycle, and the cycle may be repeated every 28 ...

287

The Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Hyaluronic Acid With Supplemental Peroral Vitamin E Following Arthroscopic Debridement in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: We evaluated clinical results of intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid and peroral Vitamin E treatment after arthroscopic debridement in patients with knee osteoarthritis who got no cure with medical treatment previously. Materials and Methods: A total of 44 patients with knee pain, who were diagnosed as having knee osteoarthritis according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, were included in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups after ar...

Ahmet Aslan; Vecihi K?rdemir; Tolga Atay; Yakup Barbaros Baykal; Özgür Aytekin; Faz?l Cüneyt Aydo?an

2012-01-01

288

Valutazione dei costi di trattamento dei disturbi psicotici con olanzapina, risperidone e neurolettici tipici di un DSM italiano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective of the present retrospective analysis was to evaluate resources consumption for psychotic patients treatment with olanzapine (OLZ, risperidone (RIS or typical neuroleptics (NL during year 2000 in the Dipartimento di Salute Mentale (DSM of Ravenna. The screening of total number of psychotic patients followed in the Ravenna DSM during year 2000 generated 26 cases treated with OLZ, 22 treated with RIS and 17 treated with NL that were respecting criteria of equivalence for age and illness severity. For these patients we analyzed pharmacological, non pharmacological (medical visits, nurse visits, social assistance, rehabilitative sessions and hospital interventions during the year of observation, choosing the point of view of the DSM for costs attribution. The analysis of pharmacological interventions evidentiated a major usage of associated neuroleptics in the RIS and NL groups in respect to OLZ (pNL>RIS, p<0,05 for all comparisons. Hospital days during the year of observation in the three groups were 4,42 for OLZ patients, 7,71 for NL patients and 10,95 for RIS patients (p<0,05 for all comparisons: OLZ vs RIS, OLZ vs NL and RIS vs NL. The sum of pharmacological, non pharmacological and hospital costs (from 8.856.000 to 10.818.000 LIT didn’t generated statistically significant differences even if the OLZ group followed more intense rehabilitative activities (+71,65% vs RIS and +24,41% vs NL.

I. Rossi

2013-01-01

289

Rationale and design of the Transendocardial Injection of Autologous Human Cells (bone marrow or mesenchymal) in Chronic Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Heart Failure Secondary to Myocardial Infarction (TAC-HFT) trial: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there is tremendous interest in stem cell (SC)-based therapies for cardiomyopathy caused by chronic myocardial infarction, many unanswered questions regarding the best approach remain. The TAC-HFT study is a phase I/II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to address several of these questions, including the optimal cell type, delivery technique, and population. This trial compares autologous mesenchymal SCs (MSCs) and whole bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs). In addition, the study will use a novel helical catheter to deliver cells transendocardially. Although most trials have used intracoronary delivery, the optimal method is unknown and data suggest that the transendocardial approach may have important advantages. Several trials support the benefit of SCs in patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICMP), although the sample sizes have been small and the number of trials sparse. After a pilot phase of 8 patients, 60 patients with ICMP (left ventricular ejection fraction 15%-50%) will be randomized to group A (30 patients further randomized to receive MSC injection or placebo in a 2:1 fashion) or group B (30 patients further randomized to BMCs or placebo in a 2:1 fashion). All patients will undergo bone marrow aspiration and transendocardial injection of SCs or placebo. The primary and secondary objectives are, respectively, to demonstrate the safety and efficacy (determined primarily by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging) of BMCs and MSCs administered transendocardially in patients with ICMP. PMID:21392602

Trachtenberg, Barry; Velazquez, Darcy L; Williams, Adam R; McNiece, Ian; Fishman, Joel; Nguyen, Kim; Rouy, Didier; Altman, Peter; Schwarz, Richard; Mendizabal, Adam; Oskouei, Behzad; Byrnes, John; Soto, Victor; Tracy, Melissa; Zambrano, Juan Pablo; Heldman, Alan W; Hare, Joshua M

2011-03-01

290

Priapismo secundario a antipsicóticos: a propósito de un caso asociado a risperidona / Priapism associated with risperidone use: Report of one case  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: The use of drugs with ?-adrenergic antagonistic effect is one of the most prominent etiologies of priapism. We report a 32-year-old schizophrenic male in treatment with risperidone who consulted in the emergency room for a painful priapism. A low flow priapism was diagnosed. Medical trea [...] tment was unsuccessful and the patient was subjected to a proximal corporo-spongiosal shunt (Quackels technique), with good results. The patient was discharged in good conditions.

Lizardo, Cruzado; César E, Vallejos.

1445-14-01

291

Methodology for the Randomised Injecting Opioid Treatment Trial (RIOTT): evaluating injectable methadone and injectable heroin treatment versus optimised oral methadone treatment in the UK  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Whilst unsupervised injectable methadone and diamorphine treatment has been part of the British treatment system for decades, the numbers receiving injectable opioid treatment (IOT) has been steadily diminishing in recent years. In contrast, there has been a recent expansion of supervised injectable diamorphine programs under trial conditions in a number of European and North American cities, although the evidence regarding the safety, efficacy and cost effectiveness of thi...

Byford Sarah; Metrebian Nicola; Strang John; Lintzeris Nicholas; Hallam Christopher; Lee Sally; Zador Deborah

2006-01-01

292

Self-Efficacy  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a comprehensive summary of the topic written by one of its pioneers. The site provides a definition of self-efficacy, characteristics of efficacious people, and a description of how self-efficacy can be developed or undermined. The author describes self-efficacy in social, family and school settings and in various stages of life. There is also a short bibliography.

Bandura, Albert; University, Stanford

293

Hiperprolactinemia y disfunción sexual en el primer episodio psicótico tratado con risperidona / Hiperprolactinaemia and sexual disfunction in first psychotic episode treated with risperidone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La hiperprolactinemia y las disfunciones sexuales son complicaciones frecuentes, pero poco estudiadas del tratamiento con risperidona. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de hiperprolactinemia y disfunciones sexuales en un grupo de personas jóvenes con esquizofrenia, tratadas con risperidona. Métod [...] os: Un total de 40 pacientes (19 mujeres, edad promedio: 27 años) completaron el Cuestionario de Funcionamiento Sexual del Hospital General de Massachussets y el Cuestionario sobre Calidad de Vida: Satisfacción y Placer. Todos los pacientes fueron evaluados con las escalas PANSS y UKU y se determinó su nivel plasmático de prolactina. Resultados: El 90% de los pacientes presenta hiperprolactinemia, con valores significativamente más altos para las mujeres. El 62,5% de los pacientes, informó padecer alguna disfunción sexual, sin diferencias con la contraparte no afectada, en cuanto a género, edad ni tiempo de tratamiento. Aunque no se encontró relación con la prolactinemia, ni con la dosis de risperidona, quienes reportaron alguna disfunción sexual obtuvieron mayores puntajes de efectos adversos psíquicos y neurológicos en la escala UKU. Las disfunciones sexuales se asociaron con los síntomas negativos y generales de la PANSS y con menores puntajes en las subescalas de salud física y ánimo del Cuestionario sobre Calidad de Vida: Satisfacción y Placer. Conclusiones: Los resultados confirman la elevada frecuencia de disfunciones sexuales e hiperprolactinemia en las personas enfermas de esquizofrenia. Nuevos estudios se requieren para clarificar, en la práctica clínica habitual, la asociación entre disfunción sexual y el empleo de la risperidona, y su impacto en la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Abstract in english Hyperprolactinemia and Sexual dysfunction arefrequent, yetseldom studied, complications of the use of risperidone Objectives: To determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunctions and hyperprolactinemia in a sample of youngpeople with schizophrenia treated with risperidone Metho [...] ds: 40 outpatients (19females; mean age: 27years) with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, participated in the study Sexual dysfunction and quality oflife were assessed with the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ) and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), respectively Allpatients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the UKU side effect rating scale. Blood samples were analyzed for prolactine. Results: Hyperprolactinemia was found in 90% ofpatients, with levéis significantly higher in women. Sexual dysfunctions occurred in 25 (62.5%) patients. Patients with and without sexual dysfunction, did not significantly differ in gender, age or years of treatment. Although no association was found with prolactinemia or the dose of risperidone, patients with sexual dysfunction reported more psychic and neurologic side effects, and had higher scores in the negative symptoms and general psychopatology subscales ofthe PANSS and lower scores in the physical health and mood items of the Q-LES-Q. Conclusions: Results confirm the high prevalence of hyperprolactinemia and sexual dysfunctions in people with schizophrenia. Further study is warranted in order to clarify the association between sexual dysfunction and risperidone treatment in clinical practice and its impact in the quality oflife ofthe patients.

Alvaro, Cavieres F.

2008-06-01

294

Hiperprolactinemia y disfunción sexual en el primer episodio psicótico tratado con risperidona Hiperprolactinaemia and sexual disfunction in first psychotic episode treated with risperidone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La hiperprolactinemia y las disfunciones sexuales son complicaciones frecuentes, pero poco estudiadas del tratamiento con risperidona. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de hiperprolactinemia y disfunciones sexuales en un grupo de personas jóvenes con esquizofrenia, tratadas con risperidona. Métodos: Un total de 40 pacientes (19 mujeres, edad promedio: 27 años completaron el Cuestionario de Funcionamiento Sexual del Hospital General de Massachussets y el Cuestionario sobre Calidad de Vida: Satisfacción y Placer. Todos los pacientes fueron evaluados con las escalas PANSS y UKU y se determinó su nivel plasmático de prolactina. Resultados: El 90% de los pacientes presenta hiperprolactinemia, con valores significativamente más altos para las mujeres. El 62,5% de los pacientes, informó padecer alguna disfunción sexual, sin diferencias con la contraparte no afectada, en cuanto a género, edad ni tiempo de tratamiento. Aunque no se encontró relación con la prolactinemia, ni con la dosis de risperidona, quienes reportaron alguna disfunción sexual obtuvieron mayores puntajes de efectos adversos psíquicos y neurológicos en la escala UKU. Las disfunciones sexuales se asociaron con los síntomas negativos y generales de la PANSS y con menores puntajes en las subescalas de salud física y ánimo del Cuestionario sobre Calidad de Vida: Satisfacción y Placer. Conclusiones: Los resultados confirman la elevada frecuencia de disfunciones sexuales e hiperprolactinemia en las personas enfermas de esquizofrenia. Nuevos estudios se requieren para clarificar, en la práctica clínica habitual, la asociación entre disfunción sexual y el empleo de la risperidona, y su impacto en la calidad de vida de los pacientes.Hyperprolactinemia and Sexual dysfunction arefrequent, yetseldom studied, complications of the use of risperidone Objectives: To determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunctions and hyperprolactinemia in a sample of youngpeople with schizophrenia treated with risperidone Methods: 40 outpatients (19females; mean age: 27years with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, participated in the study Sexual dysfunction and quality oflife were assessed with the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q, respectively Allpatients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the UKU side effect rating scale. Blood samples were analyzed for prolactine. Results: Hyperprolactinemia was found in 90% ofpatients, with levéis significantly higher in women. Sexual dysfunctions occurred in 25 (62.5% patients. Patients with and without sexual dysfunction, did not significantly differ in gender, age or years of treatment. Although no association was found with prolactinemia or the dose of risperidone, patients with sexual dysfunction reported more psychic and neurologic side effects, and had higher scores in the negative symptoms and general psychopatology subscales ofthe PANSS and lower scores in the physical health and mood items of the Q-LES-Q. Conclusions: Results confirm the high prevalence of hyperprolactinemia and sexual dysfunctions in people with schizophrenia. Further study is warranted in order to clarify the association between sexual dysfunction and risperidone treatment in clinical practice and its impact in the quality oflife ofthe patients.

Alvaro Cavieres F

2008-06-01

295

The Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Hyaluronic Acid With Supplemental Peroral Vitamin E Following Arthroscopic Debridement in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: We evaluated clinical results of intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid and peroral Vitamin E treatment after arthroscopic debridement in patients with knee osteoarthritis who got no cure with medical treatment previously. Materials and Methods: A total of 44 patients with knee pain, who were diagnosed as having knee osteoarthritis according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, were included in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups after arthroscopic debridement: Group S was given intra-articular Hylan G-F 20 treatment; Group S+E - intraarticular Hylan G-F 20 treatment plus oral vitamin E; and Group C underwent only arthroscopic debridement. Pain, stiffness and functional capacity scores were evaluated preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively according to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC. Results: In all groups, 6- and 12-month postoperative WOMAC scores were lesser than the preoperative ones. The WOMAC scores at 6 and 12 months were statistically lower in the S+E and S groups than in the group C (p<0.05. The S+E group demonstrated better results in terms of improvement in symptoms than the S-group at 6 and 12 months postoperatively (p<0.05. Conclusion: We believe that arthroscopic debridement is beneficial in suitable knee osteoarthritis cases and vitamin E and intra-articular hyaluronic acid may reduce the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. Turk J Phys Med Re­hab 2012;58:199-203.

Ahmet Aslan

2012-09-01

296

The Analysis of two-months effects of muscle stretching. Immediately following injection of methyl prednisolon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AbstractBackground and Purpose: Trigger points have been described as causing pain in clinical practice and are a common source of musculoskeletal pain. Trigger point injection can effectively inactivate the trigger points and provide symptomatic relief. Efficacy of injection in the treatment of trigger points depends strongly on the technique of trigger point injection. This study compares muscle stretching immediately after injection of methyl prednisolon vs. injection without stretching in...

Bidkoli, L.; Yazdani, A. H.; Moghtaderi, A. R.; Sh. Mirshams; Emad, M. R.

2008-01-01

297

Eficácia e segurança dos antipsicóticos atípicos nas demências: uma revisão sistemática Efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotics in dementia: a sistematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O emprego de antipsicóticos atípicos (AA no tratamento de sintomas psicológicos e comportamentais das demências (SPCD tem sido alvo de discussão em relação à eficácia e à segurança. O objetivo deste artigo é propiciar atualização sobre o tema. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura publicada nos últimos dez anos com ênfase em metanálises e ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR controlados com placebo. RESULTADOS: Três metanálises e nove ensaios clínicos foram analisados. Há evidências de eficácia clínica para risperidona (1mg/dia, olanzapina (5 a 10mg/dia e aripiprazol (2 a 15mg/dia no tratamento de agressividade e/ou SPCD em geral, e para risperidona (1mg/dia no tratamento de sintomas psicóticos associados à demência. Os eventos adversos comuns com o uso de AA foram sonolência, sintomas extrapiramidais (SEP, incontinência ou infecção do trato urinário e alterações de marcha. O tratamento com AA associou-se a maior risco de eventos cerebrovasculares e de mortalidade em idosos com demência. CONCLUSÃO: Baixas dosagens de risperidona, olanzapina e aripiprazol são eficazes na redução de agressividade e/ou SPCD globais; risperidona é eficaz na redução de sintomas psicóticos associados à demência. Em virtude de esses tratamentos associarem-se a pequeno aumento no risco de eventos cerebrovasculares e mortalidade, seu uso deve ser reservado para sintomatologia moderada/grave.OBJECTIVE: Concerns have been raised about efficacy and adverse events of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD. This paper is an update on current evidence of this theme. METHODS: Review of published meta-analysis and randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs in the last ten years. RESULTS: Three meta-analysis and nine RCTs were evaluated. Evidence suggests that risperidone (1mg/day, olanzapine (5 to 10mg/day, and aripiprazole (2 to 15mg/day are effective in treating aggression and/or BPSD overall; risperidone (1mg/day reduces psychosis. Adverse events were mainly somnolence, extrapyramidal symptoms, urinary tract infection or incontinence, and abnormal gait with drug treatment. Atypical antipsychotics were associated with increased risk for cerebrovascular adverse events and mortality in elderly patients with dementia. CONCLUSION: Low doses of risperidone, olanzapine, and aripiprazole are effective in treating aggression and/or BPSD overall, and risperidone reduces psychosis associated with dementia. In view of the increased risk of cerebrovascular adverse events and mortality, the use of atypical antipsychotics in individuals with dementia should be reserved for patients with moderate/severe behavioural symptoms.

Melissa Guarieiro Ramos

2006-01-01

298

Sipuleucel-T Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Sipuleucel-T injection is used to treat certain types of advanced prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T injection is in a class of medications called ... Sipuleucel-T injection comes as a suspension (liquid) to be injected over about 60 minutes into a vein by ...

299

Avaliação da eficácia do antiveneno botrópico administrado no local da inoculação intramuscular do veneno de Bothrops jararaca: estudo experimental em camundongos Assessment of the efficacy of antivenom injection at the site of the intramuscular inoculation of Bothrops jararaca venom in mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi determinada, em camundongos de 18 a 20 g, a dose efetiva 50% do antiveneno botrópico, por via intraperitoneal (ip, imediatamente (DE50 Oh e 30 minutos (DE50 30' após a inoculação de 2 DL50 do veneno de B. jararaca, por via intramuscular (im. A DE50 30' foi três vezes maior do que a DE50 Oh. A eficácia do antiveneno administrado no local da inoculação do veneno foi avaliada inoculando-se duas DL50 do veneno, por via im, e administrando-se a DE50 do antiveneno imediatamente (DE50 Oh e 30 minutos após (DE50 30', de duas formas a saber: totalmente por via ip (1ª e metade por via ip e metade por via im (2ª, no mesmo local da inoculação do veneno. O antiveneno ofereceu, por via ip, maior proteção aos camundongos (menor taxa de óbito em 48 horas do que quando metade do mesmo foi administrado, por via im, no local da inoculação do veneno. Conclui-se que, neste modelo experimental, quando se inicia o tratamento tardiamente há necessidade de maior dose de antiveneno botrópico e que não há benefício em administrá-lo no local da picada.The 50% effective intraperitoneal (ip dose of Bothrops jararaca antivenom (ED50 was assessed in mice immediately (ED50 Oh and thirty minutes (ED50 30' after the intramuscular (im injection of two 50% lethal dose (LD50 of Bothrops jararaca venom. The efficacy of the antivenom injected at the venom inoculation site was assessed by the inoculation of two LD50 of the venom by im route, followed immediately (ED50 Oh and 30 minutes later (ED50 30' by administration of the ED50 of the antivenom either entirely by the ip route or 50 percent ip plus 50 percent im, at the same inoculation site. It was shown that the ED50 30' was 3 times greater, than the ED50 Oh and that the antivenom was more protective to mice (lower death rate in 48 hours when given entirely ip. It was concluded that, in this experimental model, a higher dose of bothropic antivenom is needed when the treatment is started lately, and that there is no benefit in its administration at the venom inoculation site.

Carla Lilian Agostini Utescher

1994-06-01

300

The staying safe intervention: training people who inject drugs in strategies to avoid injection-related HCV and HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

This pilot study explores the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the Staying Safe Intervention, an innovative, strengths-based program to facilitate prevention of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus and with the hepatitis C virus among people who inject drugs (PWID). The authors explored changes in the intervention's two primary endpoints: (a) frequency and amount of drug intake, and (b) frequency of risky injection practices. We also explored changes in hypothesized mediators of intervention efficacy: planning skills, motivation/self-efficacy to inject safely, skills to avoid PWID-associated stigma, social support, drug-related withdrawal symptoms, and injection network size and risk norms. A 1-week, five-session intervention (10 hours total) was evaluated using a pre- versus 3-month posttest design. Fifty-one participants completed pre- and posttest assessments. Participants reported significant reductions in drug intake and injection-related risk behavior. Participants also reported significant increases in planning skills, motivation/self-efficacy, and stigma management strategies, while reducing their exposure to drug withdrawal episodes and risky injection networks. PMID:24694328

Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Guarino, Honoria; Sandoval, Milagros; Cleland, Charles M; Jordan, Ashly; Hagan, Holly; Lune, Howard; Friedman, Samuel R

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

Immunological risk of injectable drug delivery systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Injectable drug delivery systems (DDS) such as particulate carriers and water-soluble polymers are being used and developed for a wide variety of therapeutic applications. However, a number of immunological risks with serious clinical implications are associated with administration of DDS. These immunological events can compromise the efficacy and safety of these systems by changing the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and targeting capability of DDS, and by inducing hypersensitivity reactio...

Jiskoot, W.; Schie, R. M. F.; Carstens, M. G.; Schellekens, H.

2009-01-01

302

MultiSimplex optimization of chromatographic separation and dansyl derivatization conditions in the ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters in human urine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pre-column dansylated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of risperidone (RIP), 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OH-RIP), monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters in human urine was developed with the aim of providing data on how neurotransmitters may influence each other or change simultaneously in response to risperidone treatment. MultiSimplex based on the simplex algorithm and the fuzzy set theory was applied to the optimization of chromatographic separation and dansyl derivatization conditions during method development. This method exhibited excellent linearity for all the analytes with regression coefficients higher than 0.997. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) values for 9-OH-RIP and RIP were 0.11 and 0.06 ng/ml, respectively, and for neurotrasmitters ranged from 0.31 to 12.8 nM. The mean accuracy ranged from 94.7% to 108.5%. The mean recovery varied between 81.6% and 97.5%. All the RSD of precision and stability were below 9.7%. Finally, the optimized method was applied to analyze the first morning urine samples of schizophrenic patients treated with risperidone and healthy volunteers. PMID:21621490

Cai, Hua-Lin; Zhu, Rong-Hua; Li, Huan-De; Zhang, Jun; Li, Lan-Fang

2011-07-01

303

Treating delayed endoscopic sphincterotomy-induced bleeding: Epinephrine injection with or without thermotherapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: To compare the hemostatic efficacy between epinephrine injection alone and epinephrine injection combined with thermotherapy for delayed post-endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) bleeding.METHODS: Cases with delayed post-ES bleeding undergoing epinephrine injection alone (epinephrine injection group, n = 26) or epinephrine combined with thermotherapy (combination therapy group, n = 33) in our institution between 1999 and 2007 were retrospectively investigated. The main outcome measurements wer...

Yung-kuan Tsou, Cheng-hui Lin

2009-01-01

304

Antigen injection (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

305

Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of medications ...

306

Iron Sucrose Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... any other iron injection such as ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron dextran (Dexferrum, Infed, Proferdex), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit); any other medications; or any of the ingredients in iron sucrose injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list ...

307

Corticotropin, Repository Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

H.P. Acthar Gel ® ... Corticotropin repository injection comes as a long acting gel to inject under the skin or into a ... which the bones become thin and weak and break easily), a fungal infection that has spread through ...

308

Multicenter clinical trial of gadodiamide injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper determines the safety and efficacy of gadodiamide injection when administered intravenously to patients with spine lesions. MR imaging of the spine was performed before and after administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadodiamide injection (Gd-DTPA BMA and 5 mol/dL of CaNa-DTPA BMA). Contrast enhancement of abnormal structures was evaluated. Data were further analyzed according to which spinal compartment was involved. Multiple safety parameters were also analyzed. Of 439 patients entered into a multi-center clinical trail, 88 were evaluated for abnormalities of the spine. Lesions or abnormal structures were identified in 77 patients. Gadodiamide injection provided contrast enhancement or facilitated visualization of abnormalities in 77% of the cases. Contrast enhancement was not observed in 22% of the cases

309

Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections

310

Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections.

Sung, Mi Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Pucheon (Korea, Republic of)

2006-06-15

311

NEEDLE FREE INJECTION SYSTEMS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Needle-free injection systems are novel ways to introduce various medicines into patients without piercing the skin with a conventional needle. Needle-free technology offers the very obvious benefit of reducing patient concern about the use of needle. Needle free injection gives very effective injections for a wide range of drugs and bioequivalent to syringe and needle, results in less pain, and is strongly preferred by patients. Additional benefits include very fast injection compared with...

Rapolu Bharath Kumar and Zuheb Ur Rahman

2013-01-01

312

Geothermal injection monitoring project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background information is provided on the geothermal brine injection problem and each of the project tasks is outlined in detail. These tasks are: evaluation of methods of monitoring the movement of injected fluid, preparation for an eventual field experiment, and a review of groundwater regulations and injection programs. (MHR)

Younker, L.

1981-04-01

313

Control of Ink disease by trunk injection of potassium phosphite  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Potassium phosphite was applied to 4-year-old chestnut plants either in the form of a foliar spray or by xylem injection (prophylactic or curative) to control the development of ink disease, following inoculation with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Foliar spraying reduced symptom expression by ~90% within 30 days, and later served to inhibit fungal colonisation of the stem. The prophylactic injection treatment fully prevented infection, but the efficacy of the curative treatment depended on the init...

Valentino, Danila; Tamietti, Giacomo

2009-01-01

314

Intraseptal anesthesia: a review of a relevant injection technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although overshadowed by intraosseous anesthesia and the periodontal ligament injection, intraseptal anesthesia remains a useful local anesthesia technique for general dentists. Intraseptal anesthesia can be employed with safety and efficacy as an alternative to conventional local infiltration or regional nerve block injections. It also can serve as an adjunctive technique when conventional techniques fail to achieve adequate local anesthesia. This article reviews the intraseptal anesthesia technique, including its indications and limitations. PMID:16366050

Woodmansey, Karl

2005-01-01

315

Intravitreal gas injection for the treatment of diabetic macular edema  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dominic McHugh, Bhaskar Gupta, Manzar Saeed King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, England, UK Purpose: This study investigates the efficacy of an intravitreal gas injection in inducing a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) in patients with clinically significant diabetic macular edema refractory to laser therapy. Methods: A local ethics committee-approved technique of an intravitreal injection of pure perfluoropropane gas (C3F8) was performed for all participants. After a per...

McHugh D; Gupta B; Saeed M

2011-01-01

316

Comparison between intraarticular triamcinolone acetonide and methylprednisolone acetate injections in treatment of frozen shoulder.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

We conclude that triamcinolone acetonide is a good rescue for painful stiff shoulder particularly for resistant cases as with diabetes mellitus, and with long duration of illness. Also, its efficacy can be observed with less frequent injections.

Riyadh A. Sakeni

2007-05-01

317

Injection in CRYING  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents ten turn horizontal injection in CRYRING. Computer simulations and the design of the injection section will be presented. The efficiency calculations are made with a Monte-Carlo method where the injected ions are Gaussian distributed. The injection efficiency will be about 85%. The losses depend mainly on the large dispersion, 1.6 m. In order not to exceed the space charge limit the vertical emittance might have to be enlarged. The closed orbit will be shifted locally at the injection section with electrostatic kickers

318

The Analgesic Efficacy of Fentanyl: Relationship to Tolerance and ?-Opioid Receptor Regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study determined if fentanyl analgesic efficacy predicts the magnitude of tolerance and ?-opioid receptor regulation. To estimate efficacy, mice were injected i.p. with saline or clocinnamox (CCAM), an irreversible ?-opioid receptor antagonist, (0.32 – 25.6 mg/kg) and 24 hr later fentanyl cumulative dose response studies were conducted. CCAM dose dependently shifted the fentanyl dose-response function to the right. The apparent efficacy (?) of fentanyl, based on the operational mode...

Sirohi, Sunil; Dighe, Shveta V.; Walker, Ellen A.; Yoburn, Byron C.

2008-01-01

319

Autologus Blood Injection for Recurrent Lateral Epicondylitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and purpose: Tennis elbow is a common complaint. Several treatment strategies, such as corticosteroid injections and physical terapy and braces have been described with no predictable efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prospectively the result of refractory lateral epicondylitis with autologus blood injections.Materials and Methods: Twenty two patients with lateral epicondylitis were injected with 2 mL of autologous blood under the extensor carpi radialis brevis. All patients had failed the two previous non surgical treatments including all or combination of physical therapy, splintinge, non steroidal anti-inflammatory medication and prior steroid injection. The patients were evaluated with patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE.Results: The average fallow-up period was 7.3 months (range, 4-10mo. After autologus blood injection, the average pain score decreased from 43.7 to 9.1 (P-value < 0.001. The average functional score decreased from 42.4 to 10.1 (P-value <0.001.Conclusion: On the basis of this study, this minimally invasive treatment advocates refractory Tennis elbow.

M. Dehghani, M.D.

2007-09-01

320

Autowart injection therapy for recalcitrant warts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Warts are caused by various strains of Human Papilloma Virus. They involve the epithelium of the skin and mucus membrane. Various treatment options are available, but extensive and recalcitrant warts not only cause distress to the patient cosmetically and psychologically but also pose a therapeutic challenge to the treating dermatologist. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of autowart injection as a treatment option for extensive and recalcitrant warts. Materials and Methods: Autowart injection was prepared by removing 3 to 4 mm size wart with radiocautery which was crushed under aseptic condition and injected in the gluteal region by suspending in water for injection. Result: Results were evaluated in 53 available patients who turned up for follow-up; 35 patients (66.03% had complete resolution in 2 months time, 12 patients (22.64% showed partial improvement, whereas six patients (11.32% had no improvement. Conclusion: Autowart injection is suggested as an effective and noninvasive therapeutic option in extensive and recalcitrant warts where most of the available therapies are inconvenient for both patient and treating dermatologist.

Srivastava P

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

DEVELOPMENTS IN LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) TECHNOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes the most recent results from the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) program, results from the wall-fired demonstration. Tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of commercial calcium hydroxide--Ca(OH)2--supplied by Marblehead Lime Co. and of ca...

322

Botulinum toxin injection - larynx  

Science.gov (United States)

Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy- ...

323

Injection molding metallic glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advances in alloy development have produced the Zr35Ti30Be27.5Cu7.5 alloy with a crystallization-glass transition temperature, ?T, of 165 deg. C. This alloy's large supercooled liquid region provides the longest processing times and lowest processing viscosities of any metallic glass and was injection molded using tooling based on plastic injection molding technology. Injection-molded beams and die-cast beams were tested in three-point bending. The average modulus of rupture (MOR) was found to be similar, while injection-molded beams had a smaller standard deviation in MOR

324

Comparison of single injection and three monthly injections of intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Our aim was to compare the 1 year efficacy and safety results of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in two prospective, consecutive groups of patients with macular edema (ME) following branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Patients and methods Twenty-five eyes with ME after BRVO received one IVB injection (single-injection group) and 27 eyes received three monthly IVB injections (three-injection group). Both groups were followed monthly for 12 months. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the central foveal thickness (CFT) on optical coherence tomography were evaluated before and after treatment. Patients were eligible to receive an IVB injection if the mean CFT increased 100 ?m or more or the BCVA decreased 0.1 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) unit or more compared with values measured on the last visit. Results The mean logMAR BCVA and CFT, respectively, improved from 0.56 to 0.33 and from 598 ?m to 348 ?m in the single-injection group (P<0.001) and from 0.55 to 0.26 and from 514 ?m to 293 ?m in the three-injection group (P<0.001). During the study period, the mean total number of injections was significantly smaller in the single-injection group than in the three-injection group (2.1 and 4.3, respectively, P<0.001). No serious complications related to the IVB injections developed in either group. Conclusion The single-injection group achieved similar visual outcomes for ME secondary to BRVO with fewer injections compared with the three-injection group.

Ito, Yuka; Saishin, Yoshitsugu; Sawada, Osamu; Kakinoki, Masashi; Miyake, Taichiro; Sawada, Tomoko; Kawamura, Hajime; Ohji, Masahito

2015-01-01

325

Epidural Steroid Injections  

Science.gov (United States)

... using fluoroscopic (x-ray) guidance. Prior to the injection of steroid, contrast dye is used to confirm that the medication is ... to allow for more specific coverage of a single nerve and can provide ... to your pre-injection level of activities the following day. Some patients ...

326

Pure Baer injective modules  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we generalize the notion of pure injectivity of modules by introducing what we call a pure Baer injective module. Some properties and some characterization of such modules are established. We also introduce two notions closely related to pure Baer injectivity; namely, the notions of a ∑-pure Baer injective module and that of SSBI-ring. A ring R is an SSBI-ring if and only if every smisimple R-module is pure Baer injective. To investigate such algebraic structures we had to define what we call p-essential extension modules, pure relative complement submodules, left pure hereditary rings and some other related notions. The basic properties of these concepts and their interrelationships are explored, and are further related to the notions of pure split modules.

Nada M. Al Thani

1997-09-01

327

Efficacy of different steam distribution systems against five soil-borne pathogens under controlled laboratory conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficacy of three steam application techniques (steam injection, iron pan and sheet steaming) was evaluated against five soilborne pathogens under controlled laboratory conditions. Injection and pan steam systems proved to be efficient and feasible alternatives to traditional sheet steaming for suppressing Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici at 60% moisture field capacity in sandy-loam soil. Injecting steam was the best technique to suppress F. oxysporum f. sp. b...

Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Gilardi, Giovanna; Ricauda Aimonino, Davide

2010-01-01

328

Comparison of the Analgesic Efficacy of Lidocaine/Prilocaine (EMLA) Cream and Needle-Free Delivery of Lidocaine During Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Efficacy of eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA) cream and the needle-free injection of local anesthesia for reducing pain associated with fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of thyroid nodules has been previously reported. However, there has not been a direct comparison of the analgesic efficacy of these methods. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of EMLA cream and needle-free injection of lidocaine for FNAB-associated pain. Materials and Methods: ...

Alptekin Gürsoy; Cüneyd An?l; Neslihan Ba?c?l Tütüncü; Asl? Nar; Semra Aytürk

2009-01-01

329

Rehospitalization rates of patients with schizophrenia discharged on haloperidol, risperidone or clozapine Taxas de re-hospitalização de pacientes após alta hospitalar em uso de haloperidol, risperidona ou clozapina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rehospitalization rates of patients discharged from the Institute of Psychiatry of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade de São Paulo Medical School while being treated with haloperidol, risperidone or clozapine. METHOD: This is a naturalistic study designed to monitor rehospitalization rates for patients discharged on haloperidol (n = 43, risperidone (n = 22 or clozapine (n = 31. Time to readmission over the course of three years was measured by the product-limit (Kaplan-Meier method. Risk factors associated with rehospitalizations were examined. RESULTS: At 36 months, remained in the community 74% of the haloperidol-treated patients, 59% of the risperidone-treated patients and 84% of the clozapine-treated patients. The haloperidol group showed a higher proportion of women, a late age of onset and shorter length of illness than the other groups, whereas the opposite was observed in the clozapine group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the rehospitalization rates of patients taking clozapine are lower than the rate for patients treated with haloperidol and risperidone. However confounding variables such as gender distribution and age of onset represent limitations that should be taken into account for the interpretation of the results.OBJETIVO: O propósito desse estudo foi observar as taxas de re-hospitalização de pacientes com esquizofrenia que receberam alta do Instituto de Psiquiatria do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo em uso de haloperidol, risperidona ou clozapina. MÉTODO: Este foi um estudo naturalístico conduzido de forma a observar as taxas de re-hospitalizações dos pacientes que receberam alta em uso de haloperidol (n = 43, risperidona (n = 22 ou clozapina (n = 31. O tempo de re-hospitalização foi analisado de acordo com a fórmula produto-limite (Kaplan-Meier por três anos. Fatores de risco associados à internação foram examinados. RESULTADOS: Aos 36 meses, permaneceram em seguimento extra-hospitalar 74% dos pacientes em uso de haloperidol, 59% em uso de risperidona e 84% em uso de clozapina. O grupo tratado com haloperidol apresentou predomínio do gênero feminino, idade de início mais tardia e menor tempo de doença que os demais grupos, enquanto o oposto ocorreu em relação ao grupo com clozapina. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes em uso de clozapina apresentaram taxas de re-hospitalização menores que aqueles em uso de haloperidol e risperidona. No entanto, variáveis tais como distribuição de gênero e idade de início da doença podem representar limitações importantes que devem ser levadas em consideração na interpretação dos resultados.

Ana Paula Werneck de Castro

2007-09-01

330

Rehospitalization rates of patients with schizophrenia discharged on haloperidol, risperidone or clozapine / Taxas de re-hospitalização de pacientes após alta hospitalar em uso de haloperidol, risperidona ou clozapina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O propósito desse estudo foi observar as taxas de re-hospitalização de pacientes com esquizofrenia que receberam alta do Instituto de Psiquiatria do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo em uso de haloperidol, risperidona ou clozapina. MÉTODO: Este foi [...] um estudo naturalístico conduzido de forma a observar as taxas de re-hospitalizações dos pacientes que receberam alta em uso de haloperidol (n = 43), risperidona (n = 22) ou clozapina (n = 31). O tempo de re-hospitalização foi analisado de acordo com a fórmula produto-limite (Kaplan-Meier) por três anos. Fatores de risco associados à internação foram examinados. RESULTADOS: Aos 36 meses, permaneceram em seguimento extra-hospitalar 74% dos pacientes em uso de haloperidol, 59% em uso de risperidona e 84% em uso de clozapina. O grupo tratado com haloperidol apresentou predomínio do gênero feminino, idade de início mais tardia e menor tempo de doença que os demais grupos, enquanto o oposto ocorreu em relação ao grupo com clozapina. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes em uso de clozapina apresentaram taxas de re-hospitalização menores que aqueles em uso de haloperidol e risperidona. No entanto, variáveis tais como distribuição de gênero e idade de início da doença podem representar limitações importantes que devem ser levadas em consideração na interpretação dos resultados. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rehospitalization rates of patients discharged from the Institute of Psychiatry of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade de São Paulo Medical School while being treated with haloperidol, risperidone or clozapine. METHOD: This is a natur [...] alistic study designed to monitor rehospitalization rates for patients discharged on haloperidol (n = 43), risperidone (n = 22) or clozapine (n = 31). Time to readmission over the course of three years was measured by the product-limit (Kaplan-Meier) method. Risk factors associated with rehospitalizations were examined. RESULTS: At 36 months, remained in the community 74% of the haloperidol-treated patients, 59% of the risperidone-treated patients and 84% of the clozapine-treated patients. The haloperidol group showed a higher proportion of women, a late age of onset and shorter length of illness than the other groups, whereas the opposite was observed in the clozapine group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the rehospitalization rates of patients taking clozapine are lower than the rate for patients treated with haloperidol and risperidone. However confounding variables such as gender distribution and age of onset represent limitations that should be taken into account for the interpretation of the results.

Ana Paula Werneck de, Castro; Helio, Elkis.

2007-09-01

331

Iris depigmentation: An unusual complication of intralesional corticosteroid injection for capillary hemangioma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intralesional injection of corticosteroids has been used successfully in the treatment of adenexal hemangiomas, with advantages of easy administration, rapid action, repeatability, efficacy and safety. We report a case of an eight-month-old female infant who underwent intralesional corticosteroid injection for capillary hemangioma that had resulted in amblyopia of her left eye from ptosis. Two weeks after the injection, the hemangioma showed some regression but at that point iris depigmentati...

Al-Mahdi Huda

2010-01-01

332

Intralesional saline injection for effective ultrasound-guided aspiration of benign viscous cystic thyroid nodules  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vigorous saline injection for viscous cystic thyroid nodules. Methods: Eighteen patients who underwent ultrasound-guided aspiration for viscous cystic thyroid nodules using a saline injection were included in our study. After failing to aspirate the cyst by the usual method, we vigorously injected saline into the cyst in multiple directions to break up and liquefy the viscous cystic contents to enable aspiration. The initial and the ...

Eun Sook Ko; Jin Yong Sung; Jung Hee Shin

2014-01-01

333

Il trattamento dei disturbi psicotici con olanzapina, risperidone e neurolettici tipici: una valutazione comparativa di costo/efficacia in una realtà psichiatrica locale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several clinical trials demonstrated that atypical antipsychotics are more effective but also more expensive (as drug cost compared with the typical neuroleptics by treating psychotic disorders. The present study aimed to evaluate this result using an observational approach which better reflects the real clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical effectiveness (including work and social functioning and overall direct costs in a group of patients affected by psychotic disorders (schizophrenia and bipolar and treated with typical and atypical (olanzapine and risperidone antipsychotics. METHODS: With a multicentre observational design - two years long - 89 patients (in charge by Psychiatric Centers of Regione Campania - Italy were assessed using CGI (Clinical Global Impression and GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning scales. Moreover economic data were collected with reference to pharmacological and non-pharmacological (hospitalization, medical/nurse visits, etc. resources consumption. The pharmacoeconomic analysis were conducted choosing the perspective of the local Psychiatric Services for costs attribution. RESULTS: Considering the treatment outcomes, the use of the atypical drugs provided better performances with reference to the patients quality of life. The results in terms of work and social functioning indicated an advantage in the olanzapine group of patients. Overall direct costs of treatment (drugs and healthcare resources didn’t generate significant differences among the groups of therapy despite the pharmacological cost evidentiated an economic advantage (p<0,05 in the typical group due to the cheaper cost of these drugs. The use of olanzapine was associated to a lower number of hospitalizations and showed a general reduction (- 16% of total treatment costs between 1st and 2nd year of observation. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of side effects, the improvement in work and social functioning, associated to a more efficient use of total healthcare resources seems to be at the basis of the better pharmacoeconomic profile for olanzapine compared with the other antipsychotic therapies.

Egidio Filippelli

2005-09-01

334

LDAP Injection Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increase in the number of databases accessed only by some applications has made code injection attacks an important threat to almost any current system. If one of these applications accepts inputs from a client and executes these inputs without first validating them, the attackers are free to execute their own queries and therefore, to extract, modify or delete the content of the database associated to the application. In this paper a deep analysis of the LDAP injection techniques is presented. Furthermore, a clear distinction between classic and blind injection techniques is made.

Jose Maria ALONSO

2009-11-01

335

Pharmacological characterization of repeated corticosterone injection-induced depression model in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been reported in patients with psychotic major depression (PMD), and a higher rate of cortisol hypersecretion is observed in PMD than in nonpsychotic patients. Approximately 19% of patients who meet the criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) have psychotic features. Accumulated studies have indicated that repeated corticosterone (CORT) injections induce depressive behavioral and neurochemical manifestations in rodents. However, the pharmacological characterization of this model has not been fully established. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacological characteristics of this model. Rats received CORT injections (20 mg/kg, subcutaneously), once per day for 21 consecutive days prior to a behavioral test. The rats were then tested for depressive behavior using a forced swimming test. The repeated CORT injections increased the immobility time in the forced swimming test, indicating an increase in depressive-like behavior. An acute treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, mifepristone, counteracted the depressive-like behavior. In contrast, an acute treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluvoxamine, and a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), imipramine, did not have any effect on this condition, while a combination of fluvoxamine and risperidone exerted an antidepressant-like effect. This observation is of interest in the light of the clinical findings that a combination of antidepressants and antipsychotics, but not SSRIs and TCAs, is effective for the treatment of patients with PMD. Based on previous findings and the present results, this model could be used as an animal model of PMD and may be useful for evaluating the antidepressant-like potential of compounds targeting the HPA axis. PMID:20813098

Iijima, Michihiko; Ito, Akie; Kurosu, Shinsuke; Chaki, Shigeyuki

2010-11-01

336

Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... disease (a thickening of tissue [plaque] inside the penis that causes the penis to curve). Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is in ... the plaque of thickened tissue and allows the penis to be straightened.

337

Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive index of the nanostructured surfaces was estimated from atomic force micrographs and the theoretical reflectance was calculated using the transfer matrix method and effective medium theory. The measured reflectance shows good agreement with the theory of graded index antireflective nanostructures. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik

2014-01-01

338

Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections  

Science.gov (United States)

... therapeutic tool in the late 1980s revolutionized the treatment of dystonia. Botulinum neurotoxin injections provided a new, localized method ... B is approved in the US for the treatment of cervical dystonia. Both type A and type B are used ...

339

NEEDLE FREE INJECTION SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Needle-free injection systems are novel ways to introduce various medicines into patients without piercing the skin with a conventional needle. Needle-free technology offers the very obvious benefit of reducing patient concern about the use of needle. Needle free injection gives very effective injections for a wide range of drugs and bioequivalent to syringe and needle, results in less pain, and is strongly preferred by patients. Additional benefits include very fast injection compared with conventional needles and no needle disposal issues. Not only it can benefit the pharmaceutical industry in increasing product sales, it has the added potential to increase compliance with dosage regimens and improved outcomes. Today, they are a steadily developing technology that promises to make the administration of medicine more efficient and less painful.

Rapolu Bharath Kumar and Zuheb Ur Rahman

2013-01-01

340

Tobramycin Sulfate Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... injected into a large muscle (such as your buttock or hip) or added to an intravenous fluid ... as possible: tenderness warmth irritation drainage redness swelling pain ¶ These branded products are no longer on the ...

 
 
 
 
341

Gentamicin Sulfate Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... injected into a large muscle (such as your buttock or hip) or added to an intravenous fluid ... as possible: tenderness warmth irritation drainage redness swelling pain ¶ These branded products are no longer on the ...

342

Premixed direct injection disk  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

2013-04-23

343

Storage ring injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some basic issues involved in injecting the beam into storage rings with the principal parameters of those studied at the workshop have been considered. The main conclusion is that straightforward adjustments of the storage ring parameters makes injection easy. The largest number of injected turns is fourteen, and the phase space dilution allowance seems adequate to ensure very small beam loss during injection. The adjustments also result in lower bending magnet fields, and high field superconducting magnets (e.g., 5 Tesla) are not necessary. Finally, the impact of the parameters on cost is noted, and a system is considered that cuts the length of the linac in half by using doubly charged ions

344

Injection molding metallic glass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advances in alloy development have produced the Zr{sub 35}Ti{sub 30}Be{sub 27.5}Cu{sub 7.5} alloy with a crystallization-glass transition temperature, {delta}T, of 165 deg. C. This alloy's large supercooled liquid region provides the longest processing times and lowest processing viscosities of any metallic glass and was injection molded using tooling based on plastic injection molding technology. Injection-molded beams and die-cast beams were tested in three-point bending. The average modulus of rupture (MOR) was found to be similar, while injection-molded beams had a smaller standard deviation in MOR.

Wiest, Aaron [California Institute of Technology, Division of Engineering and Applied Science, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)], E-mail: aaronwiest@alumni.caltech.edu; Harmon, John S.; Demetriou, Marios D.; Dale Conner, R.; Johnson, William L. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Engineering and Applied Science, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2009-02-15

345

IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis; uncontrollable tightening of the neck muscles ... swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs IncobotulinumtoxinA injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

346

RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis; uncontrollable tightening of the neck muscles that may ... be substituted for another.RimabotulinumtoxinB injection controls cervical dystonia but does not cure it. It may take ...

347

AbobotulinumtoxinA Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis; uncontrollable tightening of the neck muscles that may ... If you are receiving abobotulinumtoxinA injection for cervical dystonia, your doctor will probably start you on a ...

348

Epidural injections for back pain  

Science.gov (United States)

ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection ... larger nerves around your spine and helps relieve pain. You may feel some pressure during the injection, but most of the time the procedure is ...

349

Injection and Dump Systems  

CERN Document Server

Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

2012-01-01

350

Fuel injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine includes electromagnetic injection valves controlled by a fuel control unit which receives signals from a camshaft actuated switch, a position-dependent throttle transducer and an oxygen sensor. When the oxygen sensor changes output levels, the transmission of this information is delayed, by the action of a switching transistor controlled by a monostable multivibrator, for a period of time equal to the internal time constant of the multivibrator.

Herth, H.; Kraus, B.; Sautter, W.; Wessel, W.

1983-03-15

351

Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion ...

Milan Marcic

2006-01-01

352

[Evolving intravitreous injection technique].  

Science.gov (United States)

The technique of intravitreous injections has been well documented for several years. Recently, a descriptive article on the intravitreous injections procedure was published in the Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie, and the AFSSAPS (French agency for drug safety) released recommendations concerning this matter on the occasion of commercial launch of pegaptanib. Since that time, the number of intravitreal injections has considerably increased, because anti-VEGF drugs had been made available to ophthalmologists, and several teams have performed a large number of procedures, allowing them to better comprehend intravitreous injections. The present paper describes our current practice of intravitreous injections. Several specialists have exchanged their experiences and issued a common synthesis. Detailed modifications of the initial recommendations have been suggested, with such basic changes such as abandoning preoperative pupil dilatation and easing postsurgical monitoring. Follow-up examinations should be adapted to each patient rather than being systematic. The suggested modifications do not change the procedure of intravitreous injections substantially, but they simplify many steps and detail the various procedures when consensus is lacking. PMID:18772818

Weber, M; Cohen, S Y; Tadayoni, R; Coscas, G; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Devin, F; Gaudric, A; Mauget-Faysse, M; Sahel, J A; Soubrane, G; Souied, E; Korobelnik, J F

2008-06-01

353

Gorenstein (n,0-injective Modules  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, Gorenstein (n,0-injective R-modules are introduced and investigated. Some properties of Gorenstein (n,0-injective R-modules are obtained. We obtain the equivalent conditions of Gorenstein (n,0-injective R-modules when R is right n-coherent Nother ring and R is cogenerator. We introduce the condition of Gorenstein (n,0-injective dimension and discuss Gorenstein (n,0-injective dimension of some short exact sequence. In the end, we investigate rings whose every module is Gorenstein (n, 0-injective. And self-(n,0-injective rings are characterized in terms of Gorenstein (n,0-injective, flat and project modules.

JIAN Hong

2014-11-01

354

Transition delay in hypervelocity boundary layers via CO2 injection  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel method to delay transition in hypervelocity flows in air over slender bodies by injecting CO2 into the boundary layer is demonstrated and investigated. Experimental data were obtained in Caltech's T5 reflected shock tunnel. The experimental model was a 5 degree half-angle sharp cone instrumented with thermocouples, providing heat transfer measurements from which transition locations were determined by comparison with laminar and turbulent heat flux correlations. An appropriate injector was designed, and the efficacy of injecting CO2 in delaying transition was gauged at various mass flow rates, and compared with both no injection and Ar injection cases. At an enthalpy of approximately 6 MJ/kg, no transition delay due to CO2 was observed, but for an enthalpy of approximately 10 MJ/kg, transition delays of up to 100% in terms of Reynolds number were repeatedly documented.

Jewell, J. S.; Leyva, I. A.; Parziale, N. J.; Hornung, H. G.; Shepherd, J. E.

2010-11-01

355

Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation combined with ethanol injection for adrenal metastasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To summarize the clinical efficacy and experience of CT-guided cool-tip radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with percutaneous ethanol injection(PEI) for adrenal metastasis. Methods: Eighteen patients with total 21 adrenal metastatic lesions were treated by CT-guided cool-tip RFA combined with PEI. The postoperative efficacy was evaluated by enhanced CT or MRI. Results: Eighty six per cent lesions were completely necrotized(18/21), 14% lesions obtained nearly complete necrosis. No severe complications occurred. Conclusion: CT-guided cool-tip RFA combined with PEI is effective and safe in treating adrenal metastasis. (authors)

356

Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump injection equipment. It was shown that the penetration of the DME spray can be predicted with the methods developed for diesel fuel by Hiroyasu and co-workers. Some anomalies in spray shape, such as rapid lateral spreading at the base of the spray and spray bifurcation have been observed.The compressibility effects of DME in high pressure injection have also been observed. DME has a higher compressibility than diesel fuel, resulting in larger pressure oscillations in the injection system during the injection process. The oscillations with DME also have a slower delay rate than those of diesel fuel in the same system. As a first attempt to simulate combustion of DME in Diesel engines, the results of the spray studies have been incorporated into a simplified spray combustion model. A turbulent jet structure was adjusted to fit the penetration rates of the observed sprays. The observed spray widths agreed with the model. This spray model was then adapted to a combustion model similar to that of Hiroyasu and co-workers. In the DME model, the chemical reactions were assumed to be much faster than the mixing related processes. Combustion rates calculated on the basis of the spray correlations were found to agree well with the experimentally observed combustion rates during the mixing controlled portions of the combustion in a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine.

Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael

1998-01-01

357

Superior efficacy of new medicines?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Purpose To provide an overview of and discuss newly authorised medicines with an improved efficacy. Methods This analysis focussed on new medicines with an improved efficacy based on the results of randomised active control trials. Information on comparative efficacy was obtained from the European Medicines Agency European Public Assessment Reports. Results ...

Luijn, Johan C. F.; Gribnau, Frank W. J.; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.

2010-01-01

358

Efficacy and Safety of a Biweekly Viscosupplementation Regimen for Knee Osteoarthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in the Western world, causing disabling symptoms in 10% of people older than 55 years. Hyaluronic acid injections can reduce osteoarthritic pain but require three to five doses administered weekly. This preliminary study aims to assess the efficacy of a more flexible viscosupplementation regimen. Patients were given three sodium hyaluronate isotonic solution injections (Ostenil; TRB Chemedica SA, Vouvry, Switzerland), biweekly. They were then asked to record their pain before and after administration of the injections, on a visual analog score. A total of 91 knees were injected. Analysis of the data showed that the viscosupplementation injections significantly reduced the baseline pain within the first 24 to 48 hours post first injection (before injection, 68.8mm; 2 days postinjection, 48.9?mm; p?knee joint. A randomized controlled study is needed to confirm these results. PMID:25338298

Yiasemidou, Marina; Munir, Usama; Glassman, Daniel; Teanby, David

2014-10-22

359

The LHC Injection Tests  

CERN Document Server

A series of LHC injection tests was performed in August and September 2008. The first saw beam injected into sector 23; the second into sectors 78 and 23; the third into sectors 78-67 and sectors 23-34-45. The fourth, into sectors 23-34-45, was performed the evening before the extended injection test on the 10th September which saw both beams brought around the full circumference of the LHC. The tests enabled the testing and debugging of a number of critical control and hardware systems; testing and validation of instrumentation with beam for the first time; deployment, and validation of a number of measurement procedures. Beam based measurements revealed a number of machine configuration issues that were rapidly resolved. The tests were undoubtedly an essential precursor to the successful start of LHC beam commissioning. This paper provides an outline of preparation for the tests, the machine configuration and summarizes the measurements made and individual system performance.

Aberle, O; Aiba, M; Albert, M; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Arduini, Gianluigi; Assmann, Ralph Wolfgang; Bailey, R; Billen, R; Bottura, L; Brüning, Oliver Sim; Butterworth, A; Calaga, R; Carlier, E; Collier, P; Dehning, B; Deniau, L; Fartoukh, S; Follin, F; Forkel-Wirth, D; Fuchsberger, K; Giachino, R; Giovannozzi, M; Goddard, B; Gras, J J; Hatziangeli, E; Hagen, P; Jacquet, D; Jensen, L; Jones, R; Kain, V; Kozsar, I; Kramer, T; Kruk, G; Lamont, M; Lewis, J; Losito, R; MacPherson, A; Masi, A; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Page, S; Ponce, L; Puccio, B; Redaelli, S; Roderick, C; Roesler, S; Roncarolo, F; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, R; Sliwinski, W; Steinhagen, R; Strzelczyk, M; Sun, Y; Todd, B; Todesco, E; Tomas Garcia, R; Uythoven, J; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Vincke, H; Vincke, H; Veyrunes, E; Wenninger, J; Wolf, R; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F

2008-01-01

360

Electrically injected cavity polaritons  

CERN Document Server

We have realised a semiconductor quantum structure that produces electroluminescence while operating in the light-matter strong coupling regime. The mid-infrared light emitting device is composed of a quantum cascade structure embedded in a planar microcavity, based on the GaAs/AlGaAs material system. At zero bias, the structure is characterised using reflectivity measurements which show, up to room temperature, a wide polariton anticrossing between an intersubband transition and the resonant cavity photon mode. Under electrical injection the spectral features of the emitted light change drastically, as electrons are resonantly injected in a reduced part of the polariton branches. Our experiment demonstrates that electrons can be selectively injected into polariton states up to room temperature.

Sapienza, Luca; Colombelli, Raffaele; Ciuti, Cristiano; Chassagneux, Yannick; Manquest, Christophe; Gennser, Ulf; Sirtori, Carlo

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Efficacy of different DTPA treatment schedules for removal of 234Th from simulated wounds in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The translocation of 234Th from a simulated wound site and the efficacy of DTPA administration, as a function of the thorium compound injected as well as the DTPA treatment schedule, have been investigated in rats. Much more 234Th injected as citrate was translocated from the injection site than after administration as nitrate, whereas the distribution pattern of 234Th translocated to the various tissues was nearly identical for both 234Th compounds. Combined local and systematic treatment with DTPA was equally or more effective than each of the treatments alone in reducing the retention of 234Th at the injection site and in the organs. (author)

362

Efficacy of different DTPA treatment schedules for removal of 234Th from simulated wounds in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The translocation of 234Th from a simulated wound site and the efficacy of DTPA administration, as a function of the thorium compound injected as well as the DTPA treatment schedule, have been investigated in rats. Much more 234Th injected as citrate was translocated from the injection site than after administration as nitrate, whereas the distribution pattern of 234Th translocated to the various tissues was nearly identical for both 234Th compounds. Combined local and systematic treatment with DTPA was equally or more effective than each of the treatments alone in reducing the retention of 234Th at the injection site and in the organs. PMID:6607231

Peter-Witt, E; Volf, V

1984-01-01

363

Método analítico para la cuantificación y ensayo de disolución de risperidona tabletas 3 mg Analytical method for quantification and dissolution essay of 3 mg tablets of Risperidone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para la cuantificación y el ensayo de disolución de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg. El método se basó en la separación del principio activo a través una columna cromatográfica Lichrosorb RP-18 (5 µm (250 x 4 mm, con detección UV a 278 nm, para lo cual se empleó una fase móvil compuesta por acetonitrilo:buffer fosfato de potasio 0,05 M, de proporción 45:55. El método para la cuantificación del principio activo fue validado a través de la linealidad del sistema, especificad, exactitud y precisión. Mientras que en la validación del ensayo de disolución se evaluó la linealidad, precisión, especificidad e influencia del filtrado. Ambos métodos fueron sencillos, rápidos y económicos; además de específicos, lineales, precisos y exactos en el rango de concentraciones estudiadas. El método analítico alternativo desarrollado para la cuantificación y disolución de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg, se comparó estadísticamente con el método propuesto en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos 30, y se demostró que no existían diferencias significativas entre los resultados obtenidos por cada método.A high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method was developed for quantification and in dissolution assay of 3 mg Risperidone tablets. Method was based in active principle separation through a Lichrosorb RP-18 (250 x 4 mm chromatographic column with UV detection to 278 nm using a mobile phase composed of 0.05 potassium phosphate buffer:acetonitrile, of 45:55 ratio. Method for active principle quantification was validated through linearity, specificity, precision and accuracy of system. Whereas in dissolution assay validation the linearity, precision, specificity and filtrate influence was assessed. Both methods were simple, fast and economic as well as specific, linear, precise and exact within the study concentrations rank. The alternative analytical method developed for 3 mg Risperidona tablets quantification and dissolution was statistically compared to method proposed by USA Pharmacopeia demonstrating that there were not significant differences among the results achieved by each method.

Caridad Margarita García Peña

2009-12-01

364

Método analítico para la cuantificación y ensayo de disolución de risperidona tabletas 3 mg / Analytical method for quantification and dissolution essay of 3 mg tablets of Risperidone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se desarrolló un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para la cuantificación y el ensayo de disolución de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg. El método se basó en la separación del principio activo a través una columna cromatográfica Lichrosorb RP-18 (5 µm) (250 x 4 mm), con d [...] etección UV a 278 nm, para lo cual se empleó una fase móvil compuesta por acetonitrilo:buffer fosfato de potasio 0,05 M, de proporción 45:55. El método para la cuantificación del principio activo fue validado a través de la linealidad del sistema, especificad, exactitud y precisión. Mientras que en la validación del ensayo de disolución se evaluó la linealidad, precisión, especificidad e influencia del filtrado. Ambos métodos fueron sencillos, rápidos y económicos; además de específicos, lineales, precisos y exactos en el rango de concentraciones estudiadas. El método analítico alternativo desarrollado para la cuantificación y disolución de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg, se comparó estadísticamente con el método propuesto en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos 30, y se demostró que no existían diferencias significativas entre los resultados obtenidos por cada método. Abstract in english A high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method was developed for quantification and in dissolution assay of 3 mg Risperidone tablets. Method was based in active principle separation through a Lichrosorb RP-18 (250 x 4 mm) chromatographic column with UV detection to 278 nm using a mobile [...] phase composed of 0.05 potassium phosphate buffer:acetonitrile, of 45:55 ratio. Method for active principle quantification was validated through linearity, specificity, precision and accuracy of system. Whereas in dissolution assay validation the linearity, precision, specificity and filtrate influence was assessed. Both methods were simple, fast and economic as well as specific, linear, precise and exact within the study concentrations rank. The alternative analytical method developed for 3 mg Risperidona tablets quantification and dissolution was statistically compared to method proposed by USA Pharmacopeia demonstrating that there were not significant differences among the results achieved by each method.

Caridad Margarita, García Peña; Lissette, Martínez Miranda; Antonio, Iraizoz Barrios; Vivian, Martínez Espinosa; Matilde, Torres García; Gissel María, León Guerrero.

2009-12-01

365

Injective Convex Polyhedra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It was shown by Nachbin in 1950 that an $n$-dimensional normed space $X$ is injective or equivalently is an absolute 1-Lipschitz retract if and only if $X$ is linearly isometric to $l_\\infty^n$ (i.e., $\\mathbb{R}^n$ endowed with the $l_{\\infty}$-metric). We give an effective convex geometric characterization of injective convex polyhedra in $l_{\\infty}^n$. As an application, we prove that if the set of solutions to a linear system of inequalities with at most two variables p...

Pavo?n, Mae?l

2014-01-01

366

Water Injected Turbomachinery  

Science.gov (United States)

From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

2005-01-01

367

Use of Percutaneous Ethanol Injection Therapy for Recurrent Secondary Hyperparathyroidism after Subtotal Parathyroidectomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We evaluated the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) as a therapeutic option for recurrence of secondary hyperparathyroidism after subtotal parathyroidectomy in ESRD patients. Six patients underwent PEIT. A mean of 1.3 ± 0.8 ethanol injections was performed. Nodular volume was 1.5 ± 1.7?cm3, and 2.8 ± 2.8?cm3 of ethanol was injected per patient. After ethanol injection PTH decreased significantly (1897 ± 754 to 549 ± 863?pg/mL (P < .01)). There was also a red...

Douthat, Walter G.; Gabriela Cardozo; Gabriela Garay; Santiago Orozco; Carlos Chiurchiu; Jorge de la Fuente; Javier de Arteaga; Massari, Pablo U.

2011-01-01

368

Safety, efficacy, and tissues residues of ivermectin in reindeer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Safety, efficacy, and tissue residues of ivermectin, a broad spectrum parasiticide, were determined in Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Reindeer treated at 5 times and 10 times the standard dose of 200 mcg/kg had no detectable physical or behavioral reactions to ivermectin injected subcutaneously in the mid-cervical area. Ivermectin eliminated essentially 100% of reindeer warble larvae (Hypoderma (Oedemagena) tarand...

Craigmill, Arthur L.; Dieterich, Robert A.

1990-01-01

369

Efficacy of a nucleic acid free herpetic subunit vaccine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficacy of immunization with an herpes simplex subunit vaccine, free of nucleic acid was evaluated in mice, rabbits and monkeys. One injection of 3?g per kg of body weight elicited both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in all the animals studied. Furthermore, the immunization reduced significantly the mortality to a subsequent challenge with live herpes simplex virus in mice and rabbits (p<0.01). (author)

370

Injection Therapies in Temporomandibular Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The indications for injection therapies in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are myofascial pain syndrome, osteoarthritis of TMJ, non-reducing disc displacements, TMJ involvement of inflammatory diseases, bruxism, masseter hypertrophy, orofacial dystonia and trigeminal neuralgia. Intra-articular injections, local trigger point injections, dry needling, botulinum toxin injections, and ganglion blocks are frequently used in this region. The general complications of the injections are bleeding, infe...

Demirhan D?raço?lu

2010-01-01

371

Clinical evaluation of gadodiamide injection in paediatric MR imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

The safety and efficacy of intravenous gadodiamide injection, 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, have been evaluated in an open label, non-comparative as to drug, phase III clinical trial in 50 children from 6 months to 13 years of age, referred for MRI requiring the injection of a contrast medium. The central nervous system and other body areas were examined with T1 sequences before and after intravenous injection of the contrast medium. Overall safety was very good and no clinically relevant changes were evident as regards heart rate and venous blood oxygen saturation after injection. No adverse event or discomfort was experienced by conscious patients that could with certainty be related to the contrast medium, but slight movements were observed in two sedated patients that could be related to the injection. Comparing pre- and post-injection images, additional diagnostic information could be obtained from the latter in 41 patients (82%). In these images, the number of lesions detected increased and they were generally better delineated and their size more easily estimated. The results of this trial indicate that gadodiamide injection is safe and effective for MRI examinations in children. PMID:8929382

Hanquinet, S; Christophe, C; Greef, D D; Gordon, P; Perlmutter, N

1996-11-01

372

Clinical evaluation of gadodiamide injection in paediatric MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety and efficacy of intravenous gadodiamide injection, 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, have been evaluated in an open label, non-comparative as to drug, phase III clinical trial in 50 children from 6 months to 13 years of age, referred for MRI requiring the injection of a contrast medium. The central nervous system and other body areas were examined with T1 sequences before and after intravenous injection of the contrast medium. Overall safety was very good and no clinically relevant changes were evident as regards heart rate and venous blood oxygen saturation after injection. No adverse event or discomfort was experienced by conscious patients that could with certainty be related to the contrast medium, but slight movements were observed in two sedated patients that could be related to the injection. Comparing pre- and post-injection images, additional diagnostic information could be obtained from the latter in 41 patients (82 %). In these images, the number of lesions detected increased and they were generally better delineated and their size more easily estimated. The results of this trial indicate that gadodiamide injection is safe and effective for MRI examinations in children. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab

373

Comparative efficacy of antidepressants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a recently developed class of drugs with significantly greater antidepressant efficacy than placebo. Generally, in double-blind comparative trials, all SSRIs demonstrated antidepressant efficacy similar to that of the 'standard' tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline and imipramine; a meta-analysis of controlled trials found the efficacy of the SSRIs to be equivalent to that of the 2 tricyclics. Nevertheless, because of small patient numbers included in most studies that compare SSRIs with other antidepressants, no definitive statements about relative efficacy can be made. In these studies it is simply possible to state that no statistically significant differences were identified between SSRIs and the comparative antidepressants. Importantly, differences in clinical characteristics exist between the SSRIs-differences in elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) between fluoxetine and/or its metabolite (total t1/2 beta = 330 hours) and other SSRIs (t1/2 beta range = 15 to 30 hours), for example. This has implications in terms of potential drug interactions and must be considered when patients have to be switched to treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Studies with fluvoxamine have been conducted in both in- and outpatients, whereas trials with other SSRIs have been confined largely to outpatient populations. Fluvoxamine has been associated with a high incidence of nausea (37%), although this may have resulted from high initial dosages (rather than upward dose titration protocols) used in early trials. Of further interest, fluoxetine doses of 20mg may be sufficient to produce a satisfactory antidepressant response, and this SSRI may be particularly useful in patients with chronic retarded depression. More clinical data are required before the efficacy of sertraline and citalopram relative to standard antidepressants can be clearly defined. Preliminary data indicate that SSRIs are effective in the treatment of panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), eating (e.g. anorexia and bulimia) and personality disorders (e.g. anger, impulsiveness) and substance abuse (e.g. alcoholism); early results with fluvoxamine in the treatment of panic disorder and OCD, and with fluoxetine in the treatment of bulimia, personality disorders and alcohol abuse, have been encouraging. SSRIs have a more favourable tolerability profile than tricyclic antidepressants and, unlike the tricyclics, are not associated with anticholinergic adverse effects, sedation, cardiotoxicity or weight gain. SSRIs are associated with a relatively high incidence of nausea, particularly if high doses are used at the start of treatment. However, the incidence of nausea appears to decrease as treatment is continued.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1378369

Kasper, S; Fuger, J; Möller, H J

1992-01-01

374

Propofol injection pain reduction: ephedrine versus lidocaine and Normal saline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"nBackground: Pain associated with IV injection of propofol is seen in 28 to 90% of patients. A number of techniques have been tried to minimize propofol-induced pain, with variable results. We compared the efficacy of pretreatment with ephedrine and lidocaine for the prevention of propofol-induced pain. "nMethods: One hundred and twenty adult patients, ASA physical status I-II, undergoing elective surgery were randomly assigned into six groups (20 each). Normal saline group receive...

Hoseinkhan Z; Taghizadeh Imani A; Gh, Abedini; Naghibi T; Shamloo N; Abedini N; Maleki A

2009-01-01

375

Oxygen injection facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A compressor introduces air as a starting material and sends it to a dust removing device, a dehumidifying device and an adsorption/separation system disposed downstream. The facility of the present invention is disposed in the vicinity of an injection point and installed in a turbine building of a BWR type reactor having a pipeline of a feedwater system to be injected. The adsorbing/separation system comprises an adsorbing vessel and an automatic valve, and the adsorbing vessel is filled with an adsorbent for selectively adsorbing nitrogen. Zeolite is used as the adsorbent. Nitrogen in the air passing through the adsorbing vessel is adsorbed and removed under a pressurized condition, and a highly concentrated oxygen gas is formed. The direction of the steam of the adsorbed nitrogen is changed by an opening/closing switching operation of an automatic valve and released to the atmosphere (the pressure is released). Generated oxygen gas is stored under pressure in a tank, and injected to the pipeline of the feedwater system by an oxygen injection conduit by way of a flow rate control valve. In the adsorbing vessel, steps of adsorption, separation and storage under pressure are repeated successively. (I.N.)

376

Cold water injection nozzles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To inject cold water in a reactor without applying heat cycles to a reactor container and to the inner wall of a feedwater nozzle by securing a perforated plate at the outlet of the cold water injection nozzle. Constitution: A disc-like cap is secured to the final end of a return nozzle of a control rod drive. The cap prevents the flow of a high temperature water flowing downward in the reactor from entering into the nozzle. The cap is perforated with a plurality of bore holes for injecting cold water into the reactor. The cap is made to about 100 mm in thickness so that the cold water passing through the bore holes is heated by the heat conduction in the cap. Accordingly, the flow of high temperature water flowing downwardly in the reactor is inhibited by the cap from backward flowing into the nozzle. Moreover, the flow of the cold water in the nozzle is controlled and rectified when passed through the bore holes in the cap and then injected into the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

377

Split Injection Gas Chromatography  

Science.gov (United States)

This animation site deals specifically with split injection in gas chromatography. The animations are short (one to two minutes each) and can easily be shown in class as part of a lecture. They are extremely helpful in illustrating key components and concepts of chromatographic systems. Users are encouraged to explore the site and the other brief animations as well.

2011-05-11

378

Methodology for the Randomised Injecting Opioid Treatment Trial (RIOTT: evaluating injectable methadone and injectable heroin treatment versus optimised oral methadone treatment in the UK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Whilst unsupervised injectable methadone and diamorphine treatment has been part of the British treatment system for decades, the numbers receiving injectable opioid treatment (IOT has been steadily diminishing in recent years. In contrast, there has been a recent expansion of supervised injectable diamorphine programs under trial conditions in a number of European and North American cities, although the evidence regarding the safety, efficacy and cost effectiveness of this treatment approach remains equivocal. Recent British clinical guidance indicates that IOT should be a second-line treatment for those patients in high-quality oral methadone treatment who continue to regularly inject heroin, and that treatment be initiated in newly-developed supervised injecting clinics. The Randomised Injectable Opioid Treatment Trial (RIOTT is a multisite, prospective open-label randomised controlled trial (RCT examining the role of treatment with injected opioids (methadone and heroin for the management of heroin dependence in patients not responding to conventional substitution treatment. Specifically, the study examines whether efforts should be made to optimise methadone treatment for such patients (e.g. regular attendance, supervised dosing, high oral doses, access to psychosocial services, or whether such patients should be treated with injected methadone or heroin. Eligible patients (in oral substitution treatment and injecting illicit heroin on a regular basis are randomised to one of three conditions: (1 optimized oral methadone treatment (Control group; (2 injected methadone treatment; or (3 injected heroin treatment (with access to oral methadone doses. Subjects are followed up for 6-months, with between-group comparisons on an intention-to-treat basis across a range of outcome measures. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients who discontinue regular illicit heroin use (operationalised as providing >50% urine drug screens negative for markers of illicit heroin in months 4 to 6. Secondary outcomes include measures of other drug use, injecting practices, health and psychosocial functioning, criminal activity, patient satisfaction and incremental cost effectiveness. The study aims to recruit 150 subjects, with 50 patients per group, and is to be conducted in supervised injecting clinics across England.

Byford Sarah

2006-09-01

379

Impact of point-source injection methodologies on injection studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effective interdiction of illicit radioactive material requires decision criteria that are sensitive to the material of interest, while insensitive to material of lesser interest. Injection studies are used to assess the sensitivities of decision criteria to radioactive threat scenarios. Configuring injection studies requires decisions about methodological factors that represent or simplify actual field conditions. Understanding the relative impact of different source injection methods on alarm rates and other outcome measures is vital for interpreting results of injection studies. The most complete and realistic way to inject point-source counts into a vehicle count profile is with the randomly positioned source profile approach. In this paper, we report a study of the impacts of methodological simplifications to this approach. We assessed relative sensitivity of two field-deployed detection algorithms to two experimental factors in point-source injection studies. The first factor featured 'centered' versus 'random' point-source position along the vehicle count profile. The second factor featured either adding the entire injection profile ('profile injection') or adding only the central 'spike' portion of the injection profile nearest to the point-source position ('spike injection'). A collection of 75 059 archived vehicle count profiles from an operating border crossing were injected with a simulated low-energy gamma-ray point-source intended to emulate surrogates ont-source intended to emulate surrogates of highly enriched uranium or plutonium. Outcomes were assessed by means of injection curves (alarm rate vs. injection source size) and a derived measure, minimum detectable count rates (MDC) required to attain a detection probability of 95%. Results show that injection methodology combined with algorithm impacts study outcomes in different ways. For gross count results, centered spike injections yield higher detection sensitivity than centered profile injections, and random spike injections yield even higher detection sensitivity than centered spike injections. Conversely, for energy window ratio results, centered spike injections yield less sensitivity than centered profile injections, and random spike injections yield even less sensitivity than centered spike injections. These effects may be partially attributable to background suppression in the vehicle profile of detection statistics. Although the observed effects (up to 10%) are not large, the injection method impacts alarm rates from the two detection algorithms in opposite directions. These results inform methodological decisions and assessments of results in injection studies

380

Diclofenac sodium injection (Dyloject): in postoperative pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

*A new formulation of the nonselective NSAID diclofenac sodium suitable for intravenous bolus injection has been developed using hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin as a solubility enhancer (HPbetaCD diclofenac). * HPbetaCD diclofenac intravenous bolus injection was shown to be bioequivalent to the existing parenteral formulation of diclofenac containing propylene glycol and benzyl alcohol as solubilizers (PG-BA diclofenac), which is relatively insoluble and requires slow intravenous infusion over 30 minutes. * Single-dose HPbetaCD diclofenac 3.75, 9.4, 18.75, 25, 37.5, 50 and 75 mg administered by intravenous bolus injection produced significantly greater responses than placebo for total pain relief (TOTPAR) over 6 hours or pain intensity at 4 hours in the treatment of moderate or severe postoperative dental pain in randomized, double-blind trials. HPbetaCD diclofenac 37.5 and 75 mg were similar in efficacy to intravenous bolus ketorolac 30 mg. * In a well controlled trial, single-dose HPbetaCD diclofenac 75 mg intravenous bolus injection was shown to be superior to PG-BA diclofenac 75 mg intravenous infusion with respect to TOTPAR over 4 hours, indicating faster onset of analgesia in the treatment of moderate or severe postoperative dental pain. Both HPbetaCD diclofenac and PG-BA diclofenac were superior to placebo. * HPbetaCD diclofenac was generally well tolerated during single-dose treatment of postoperative pain. The tolerability profile was similar to that of PG-BA diclofenac, but with a lower incidence of thrombophlebitis. PMID:18081376

McCormack, Paul L; Scott, Lesley J

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Ceramic injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interest in making complex net-shape ceramic parts with good surface finishing and sharp tolerances without machining is a driving force for studying the injection molding technique. This method consists of softhening the ceramic material by means of adding some plastic and heating in order to inject the mixture under pressure into a relatively cold mold where solidification takes place. Essentially, it is the same process used in thermoplastic industry but, in the present case, the ceramic powder load ranges between 80 to 90 wt.%. This work shows results obtained from the fabrication of pieces of different ceramic materials (alumina, barium titanate ferrites, etc.) in a small scale, using equipments developed and constructed in the laboratory. (Author)

382

Injection of Deuterium Pellets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Some details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated to velocities above 1400 m/s, deuterium pellets to velocities above 1300 m/s and neon pellets to velocities above 500 m/s. Finally, a new acceleration method where a pellet should be accelerated by means of a magnetically stabilised electrical discharge is discussed, and a set up for measuring of the pellet size by means of a microwave cavity is outlined.

SØrensen, H.; Andersen, P.

1984-01-01

383

Safety, efficacy, and tissues residues of ivermectin in reindeer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Safety, efficacy, and tissue residues of ivermectin, a broad spectrum parasiticide, were determined in Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Reindeer treated at 5 times and 10 times the standard dose of 200 mcg/kg had no detectable physical or behavioral reactions to ivermectin injected subcutaneously in the mid-cervical area. Ivermectin eliminated essentially 100% of reindeer warble larvae (Hypoderma (Oedemagena tarandi. Tissue levels of ivermectin in back fat, injection site, muscle, liver, and kidney collected 3, 10, 17, and 24 days post injection were determined. All tissues levels rapidly declined and were approaching low unmea-surable amounts at the end of the 24 day test period. Ivermectin is a safe effective parasiticide that has been used successfully to threat thousands of reindeer in Alaska.

Robert A. Dieterich

1990-08-01

384

Spin injection into superconductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that when a spin-polarized current is injected into a superconductor from a ferromagnet in ferromagnet/superconductor (FM/SC) and FM/SC/FM tunnel junctions, the spin and charge degrees of freedom of electrons are carried by quasi-particles and Cooper pairs in SC, respectively. The spin accumulation competes with the superconductivity and the spin current gives rise to the transverse charge current in SC. (author)

385

Gallium arsenide injection lasers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The semiconductor injection laser includes a thin inner GaAs p-n junction layer between two outer GaAlAs layers which are backed by further thin outer GaAlAs layers with a heavier doping of AlAs. This reduces optical losses. Optical energy is further confined within the inner layers and the lasing threshold reduced by added outer GaAs layers of low electrical and thermal resistivity

386

Validación del método analítico aplicable al estudio de estabilidad de risperidona solución oral 1 mg/mL / Validation of an analytical method applicable to study of 1 mg/mL oral Risperidone solution stability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se validó un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, aplicable al estudio de estabilidad de risperidona solución oral 1 mg/mL. El método analítico validado resultó lineal, preciso, específico y exacto. Se desarrolló el estudio de estabilidad de la solución oral de risperidona [...] 1 mg/mL y se determinó su fecha de vencimiento. El estudio de vida de estante se desarrolló por un periodo de 24 meses a temperatura ambiente; mientras que el estudio de estabilidad acelerada se efectuó sometiendo el producto a la influencia de la humedad y la temperatura; se realizó el análisis durante 3 meses. La formulación cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad descritas en la Farmacopea. Los resultados del estudio de estabilidad por vida de estante después de transcurridos los 24 meses indicaron que el producto mantiene los parámetros que determinan su calidad durante ese tiempo, y en los estudios acelerados no se observó degradación significativa (p> 0,05) del producto. Se estableció 2 años como fecha de vencimiento en las condiciones señaladas. Abstract in english A validated analytical method by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applicable to study of 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution stability. The above method was linear, accurate, specific and exact. A stability study of the 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution was developed determining its e [...] xpiry date. The shelf life study was conducted for 24 months at room temperature; whereas the accelerated stability study was conducted with product under influence of humidity and temperature; analysis was made during 3 months. Formula fulfilled the quality specifications described in Pharmacopeia. The results of stability according to shelf life after 24 months showed that the product maintains the parameters determining its quality during this time and in accelerated studies there was not significant degradation (p> 0.05) in the product. Under mentioned conditions expiry date was of 2 years.

Maikel, Abreu Álvarez; Caridad Margarita, García Peña; Lissette, Martínez Miranda; Adriana, Muñoz Cernada; Mirna, Fernández Cervera; Vivian, Martínez Espinosa.

2010-09-01

387

Validación del método analítico aplicable al estudio de estabilidad de risperidona solución oral 1 mg/mL Validation of an analytical method applicable to study of 1 mg/mL oral Risperidone solution stability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se validó un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, aplicable al estudio de estabilidad de risperidona solución oral 1 mg/mL. El método analítico validado resultó lineal, preciso, específico y exacto. Se desarrolló el estudio de estabilidad de la solución oral de risperidona 1 mg/mL y se determinó su fecha de vencimiento. El estudio de vida de estante se desarrolló por un periodo de 24 meses a temperatura ambiente; mientras que el estudio de estabilidad acelerada se efectuó sometiendo el producto a la influencia de la humedad y la temperatura; se realizó el análisis durante 3 meses. La formulación cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad descritas en la Farmacopea. Los resultados del estudio de estabilidad por vida de estante después de transcurridos los 24 meses indicaron que el producto mantiene los parámetros que determinan su calidad durante ese tiempo, y en los estudios acelerados no se observó degradación significativa (p> 0,05 del producto. Se estableció 2 años como fecha de vencimiento en las condiciones señaladas.A validated analytical method by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was applicable to study of 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution stability. The above method was linear, accurate, specific and exact. A stability study of the 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution was developed determining its expiry date. The shelf life study was conducted for 24 months at room temperature; whereas the accelerated stability study was conducted with product under influence of humidity and temperature; analysis was made during 3 months. Formula fulfilled the quality specifications described in Pharmacopeia. The results of stability according to shelf life after 24 months showed that the product maintains the parameters determining its quality during this time and in accelerated studies there was not significant degradation (p> 0.05 in the product. Under mentioned conditions expiry date was of 2 years.

Maikel Abreu Álvarez

2010-09-01

388

Effects of risperidone, clozapine and the 5-HT6 antagonist GSK-742457 on PCP-induced deficits in reversal learning in the two-lever operant task in male Sprague Dawley rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reasoning and problem solving deficits have been reported in schizophrenic patients. In the present study, we have tested rats in a two-lever reversal learning task in a Skinner box to model these deficits. In other studies using the Skinner box, atypical antipsychotics fully reversed phencyclidine (PCP)-induced impairments in reversal learning which is in contrast to clinical observations where antipsychotics lack the ability to fully reverse cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Therefore, it can be argued that the outcome of these tests may lack predictive value. In the present study, after training on a spatial discrimination between two levers, rats were exposed to a reversal of the previously learned stimulus-response contingency during 5 days. We first investigated the effects of sub-chronic treatment with the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists dizocilpine (MK-801) and PCP on reversal learning and extinction in male Sprague Dawley rats. Subsequently, we studied the effects of different PCP treatment regimes. Then, we investigated whether the atypical antipsychotics risperidone and clozapine and the 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) antagonist GSK-742457 could reverse the PCP-induced deficits. All drugs were administered subcutaneously (s.c.). MK-801 did not impair reversal learning, while PCP (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) induced a clear deficit in reversal learning. Both compounds, however, disrupted extinction at all tested doses. Risperidone and clozapine were both ineffective in significantly ameliorating the PCP-induced deficit in reversal learning which fits well with the clinical observations. The lowest dose of clozapine (1.25 mg/kg) had an intermediate effect in ameliorating the deficit in reversal learning induced by PCP (not different from control or PCP-treated rats). The lowest dose of GSK-742457 (0.63 mg/kg) fully reversed the PCP-induced deficits while the higher dose (5.0 mg/kg) had an intermediate effect. PMID:23384714

de Bruin, N M W J; van Drimmelen, M; Kops, M; van Elk, J; Wetering, M Middelveld-van de; Schwienbacher, I

2013-05-01

389

Flow Injection Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter provides an introduction to automated chemical analysis, which essentially can be divided into two groups: batch assays, where the solution is stationary while the container is moved through a number of stations where various unit operations performed; and continuous-flow procedures, where the system is stationary while the solution moves through a set of conduits in which all required manipulations are performed. Emphasis is placed on flow injection analysis (FIA) and its further developments, that is, sequential injection analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Since FIA is based on the creation of a concentration gradient of the injected sample solution and on reproducible and precise timing of all events, it allows exploitation of a transient read-out. This in turn implies that not only does FIA allow the augmentation of existing analytical techniques, but it permits thr execution of novel and unique analytical procedures which are difficult or even impossible by conventional means. The performance and applicability of FIA, SI and LOV are illustrated by a series of practical examples.

Hansen, Elo Harald

2004-01-01

390

Cooling water injection device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The device of the present invention indicates a selection for injection of water to a reactor pressure vessel or a reactor container upon occurrence of such an emergency that ECCS should not be operated. Namely, a temperature detection means detects a temperature of high temperature incondensible gases generated upon flowing out of a molten reactor core due to failure of the reactor pressure vessel and reacting with concretes in the reactor container. A pressure detecting means detects a pressure in the reactor container. When the temperature detecting means detects a temperature higher than a saturation temperature at the detected pressure, an indication device judges the rupture of the pressure vessel, and indicates the reactor container as the destination for the injection of cooling water to cool the molten reactor core. On the other hand, when the pressure vessel is not ruptured, the temperature does not exceed the saturation temperature. Accordingly, the indication device indicates the reactor pressure vessel as the destination for the injection of cooling water. (I.S.)

391

"Snowplow" injection front effects  

Science.gov (United States)

the Polar spacecraft apogee precessed through the magnetic equator in 2001, Polar encountered numerous substorm events in the region between geosynchronous orbit and 10 RE geocentric distance; most of them in the plasma sheet boundary layers. Of these, a small number was recorded near the neutral sheet in the evening sector. Polar/Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment provides a unique perspective on the lowest-energy ion plasma, showing that these events exhibited a damped wavelike character, initiated by a burst of radially outward flow transverse to the local magnetic field at ~80 km/s. They then exhibit strongly damped cycles of inward/outward flow with a period of several minutes. After one or two cycles, they culminated in a hot plasma electron and ion injection, quite similar to those observed at geosynchronous orbit. Cold plasmaspheric plasmas comprise the outward flow cycles, while the inward flow cycles contain counterstreaming field-parallel polar wind-like flows. The observed wavelike structure, preceding the arrival of an earthward moving substorm injection front, suggests an outward displacement driven by the inward motion at local times closer to midnight, that is, a "snowplow" effect. The damped in/out flows are consistent with interchange oscillations driven by the arrival at the observed local time by an injection originating at greater radius and local time.

Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Buzulukova, N.; Collinson, G. A.; Kepko, E. L.; Garcia-Sage, K. S.; Henderson, M. G.; Sitnov, M. I.

2013-10-01

392

Intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane for the treatment of vitreomacular traction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To study the efficacy of a single intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane(C3F8in releasing vitreomacular traction. METHODS: Twelve eyes of 12 consecutive patients with vitreomacular traction received a single intravitreal injection of 0.3mL 100%(C3F8were retrospectively analyzed. The best corrected vision acuity and the neural epithelium thickness of central macular were observed. RESULTS: One month following treatment, vitreomacular traction was released in 5 eyes(42%, mean final visual acuity(VAimproved 0.04 and mean central foveal thickness decreased by 69?m. The vision acuity before and after treatment were 0.20±0.07, 0.25±0.04 respectively.CONCLUSION: Intravitreal C3F8 injection could offer a minimally invasive alternative to pars plana vitrectomy in patients with vitreomacular traction.

Xiao-Ping Wan

2013-07-01

393

Ondansetron Pretreatment Reduces Pain on Injection of Propofol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To assess the effectiveness of ondansetron pretreatment in alleviating propofol injection pain, 135 patients were randomly assigned to one of following three groups. Group 1 who received up to 2 mL pretreatment 50 mg tramadol in the saline, group 2 cases who received up to 2 mL pretreatment 4 mg ondansetron in saline, and group 3 who received up to 2 mL solution saline. A 20 gauge cannula was placed into the largest vein on the dorsum of the hand. Tourniquet was closed to the arm above the cannula and inflates to 70 mmHg, and then drug was injected. After 20 seconds, the tourniquet deflated, and propofol 2mg/kg injected over 10 seconds and pain assessment was made. Results: Tramadol and ondansetron significantly reduced the incidence and severity of propofol injection pain more than placebo (P=0.001. The efficacy of ondansetron in alleviating the pain on injection of propofol was no different from tramadol (P=0.330. Ondansetron pretreatment may be used to reduce the incidence of pain on injection of propofol, an advantage added to the useful prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

Anahid Maleki

2012-04-01

394

Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Autonomous thyroid nodules can be treated by a variety of methods. We assessed the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection in treating autonomous thyroid nodules. Methods 35 patients diagnosed by technetium-99 scanning with hyperfunctioning nodules and suppressed sensitive TSH (sTSH were given sterile ethanol injections under ultrasound guidance. 29 patients had clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. The other 6 had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed sTSH levels (3, T4 and sTSH levels had returned to normal, or else injections could no longer be performed because significant side effects. Patients were followed up at 3, 6 and, in 15 patients, 24 months after the last injection. Results Average pre-treatment nodule volume [18.2 ± 12.7 ml] decreased to 5.7 ± 4.6 ml at 6 months follow-up [P 4 and sTSH did not change significantly between 6 months and 2 years [P > 0.05]. Ethanol injections were well tolerated by the patients, with only 2 cases of transient dysphonia. Conclusion Our findings indicate that ethanol injection is an alternative to surgery or radioactive iodine in the treatment of autonomous thyroid nodules.

Sarai Maryam

2002-12-01

395

Increasing the Efficacy of Oncolytic Adenovirus Vectors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oncolytic adenovirus (Ad vectors present a new modality to treat cancer. These vectors attack tumors via replicating in and killing cancer cells. Upon completion of the vector replication cycle, the infected tumor cell lyses and releases progeny virions that are capable of infecting neighboring tumor cells. Repeated cycles of vector replication and cell lysis can destroy the tumor. Numerous Ad vectors have been generated and tested, some of them reaching human clinical trials. In 2005, the first oncolytic Ad was approved for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer by the Chinese FDA. Oncolytic Ads have been proven to be safe, with no serious adverse effects reported even when high doses of the vector were injected intravenously. The vectors demonstrated modest anti-tumor effect when applied as a single agent; their efficacy improved when they were combined with another modality. The efficacy of oncolytic Ads can be improved using various approaches, including vector design, delivery techniques, and ancillary treatment, which will be discussed in this review.

William S. M. Wold

2010-08-01