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Risperidone long-acting injection: a review of its long term safety and efficacy  

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Full Text Available Michael K RainerMemory-Clinic and Psychiatric Department, Donauspital, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: A long-acting form of the second-generation antipsychotic drug risperidone is now broadly available for the treatment of schizophrenia and closely related psychiatric conditions. It combines the advantage of previously available depot formulations for first-generation drugs with the favorable characteristics of the modern “atypical” antipsychotics, namely higher efficacy in the treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and reduced motor disturbances. Published clinical studies show an objective clinical efficacy (as per psychiatric symptom scores and relapse data that exceeds that of oral atypical antipsychotics when patients are switched to the long-acting injectable form, a low incidence of treatment-emergent extrapyramidal side effects, and very good acceptance by patients. Available data for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder show equivalence with the oral form instead of superiority, but are still limited. As it seems likely that efficacy benefits are mostly due to the fact that the injectable form reduces the demand for patient compliance to one physician visit every 2 weeks instead of self-administration on a daily or twice-daily basis, additional potential could exist in other psychiatric disorders where atypical antipsychotic drugs are of benefit but where patient adherence to treatment schedules is typically low.Keywords: risperidone, schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, patient compliance; delayed-action preparations, injections, intramuscular

Michael K Rainer

2008-08-01

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Paliperidone palmitate versus oral risperidone and risperidone long-acting injection in patients with recently diagnosed schizophrenia: a tolerability and efficacy comparison.  

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Early in the course of illness, patients with schizophrenia may be particularly susceptible to adverse events (AEs). In this post-hoc, subgroup analysis of a 13-week, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter study, patients recently diagnosed with schizophrenia (? 5 years) were administered once-monthly flexible-dose paliperidone palmitate (PP) (n=161; initiation doses, 150 mg eq day 1 and 100 mg eq day 8) [PP doses can be expressed as milligram equivalents (mg eq) of paliperidone or as milligrams (mg) of PP. 150 mg eq paliperidone=234 mg PP; 100 mg eq paliperidone=156 mg PP. In the USA, dosing tends to be expressed in mg] or oral risperidone [during initiation of risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) days 1-28] and biweekly flexible-dose RLAI (n=173; initial injection day 8). Assessments were performed at baseline and days 4, 15, 22, 36, 64, and 92. Because of RLAI's release profile, data through day 22 correspond to oral risperidone in the RLAI arm. During this period, the AE profile and onset of efficacy of PP and oral risperidone were similar. The overall AE rates at week 13 for PP and RLAI were 54.7 and 50.3%, respectively, for any AE; 11.2 and 8.1% for extrapyramidal symptom-related AEs; and 2.5 and 2.3% for prolactin-related AEs. No significant differences in the mean weight change, most metabolic parameters, or mean efficacy measures were observed at end point. In patients with recently diagnosed schizophrenia, the tolerability and efficacy of PP and RLAI were generally similar over 13 weeks. PMID:24113628

Fu, Dong-Jing; Bossie, Cynthia A; Sliwa, Jennifer K; Ma, Yi-Wen; Alphs, Larry

2014-01-01

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Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available Yueren Zhao,1–3 Taro Kishi,1 Nakao Iwata,1 Manabu Ikeda3,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Okehazama Hospital Fujita Kokoro Care Center, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan Abstract: A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set, an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy. Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8% were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4% relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total scores (P = 0.0031, BPRS positive (P = 0.0451, BRPS negative (P < 0.0001, and general subscale scores (P = 0.0031, and GAF (P < 0.0001 from baseline to 6 months. In conclusion, the lower relapse rate observed in patients treated with COMPASS plus risperidone LAI than in patients treated with risperidone LAI alone suggests that COMPASS may have benefits in the treatment of schizophrenia, indicating a need for randomized, controlled trials in larger numbers of patients. Keywords: adherence, risperidone long-acting injection, psychoeducation, schizophrenia

Zhao Y

2013-10-01

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Paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable in subjects with schizophrenia recently treated with oral risperidone or other oral antipsychotics  

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Full Text Available Larry Alphs,1 Cynthia A Bossie,1 Jennifer Kern Sliwa,2 Dong-Jing Fu,1 Yi-Wen Ma,3 Joseph Hulihan11CNS Medical Affairs, 2Medical Information, Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA; 3Biostatistics, B&P, Janssen Research & Development LLC, Titusville, NJ, USABackground: This post hoc subgroup analysis of a randomized, double-blind trial evaluated the response to treatment with two long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotics, ie, paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI, in subjects with schizophrenia experiencing clinically significant symptoms despite recent treatment with oral risperidone only or other oral antipsychotics.Methods: Adult subjects were eligible for the 13-week, double-blind, double-dummy trial (NCT00589914 if they had an established diagnosis of schizophrenia for at least one year and a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score of 60–120 inclusive at screening. Subjects received either paliperidone palmitate (234 mg, day 1; 156 mg, day 8; then once-monthly flexible dosing or RLAI (25–50 mg biweekly, with oral risperidone supplementation on days 1–28, plus matched placebo injections/tablets.Results: This post hoc analysis reports data on 747 subjects who, within 2 weeks of starting double-blind study medication, had reportedly received oral risperidone only (paliperidone palmitate group, n = 126; RLAI group, n = 107, other oral antipsychotics (paliperidone palmitate group, n = 199; RLAI group, n = 203, or no antipsychotic (paliperidone palmitate group, n = 56; RLAI group, n = 56. Mean PANSS total scores improved significantly at end point across all subgroups (mean change from baseline ranged from ?17.5 to ?19.5, all P < 0.0001. Clinical Global Impression-Severity and Personal and Social Performance scale measures also significantly improved from baseline (all P < 0.0001.Conclusion: Treatment with paliperidone palmitate or RLAI resulted in a significant reduction in the symptoms of schizophrenia irrespective of previous recent treatment with oral risperidone only or other oral antipsychotics. For subjects who had previously received oral risperidone only, the difference in formulation was the main change in the intervention because the molecule delivered remained the same or similar. These data support the contribution of a long-acting formulation to improving the treatment response and suggest that nonadherence may be a significant contributor to inadequate efficacy of oral formulations in subjects with schizophrenia.Keywords: paliperidone palmitate, risperidone long-acting injection, schizophrenia

Alphs L

2013-03-01

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A comparative study of paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable therapy in schizophrenia.  

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This open-label, rater-blinded, parallel-group study was designed to evaluate noninferiority of paliperidone palmitate (PP), a once-monthly injectable atypical antipsychotic, to once-biweekly risperidone long-acting injectable (RIS-LAI) in adult Chinese patients with acute schizophrenia. Eligible Chinese adults (N=452) with schizophrenia were randomized (1:1) to either PP (N=229; deltoid injections on day 1 [150 mg eq.] and day 8 [100 mg eq.]; then once-monthly deltoid or gluteal injections, flexibly dosed [50, 100, or 150 mg eq.]), or RIS-LAI (N=223; once-biweekly gluteal injections, flexibly dosed [25, 37.5 or 50 mg]). RIS-LAI-treated patients received oral risperidone supplementation (1-6 mg/day) at initiation and with RIS-LAI dose increases. Mean (SD) Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at baseline was 83.2 (12.44). Mean (SD) change from baseline to endpoint in PANSS total scores (primary efficacy measure) was: -23.6 (16.28) for PP group and -26.9 (15.43) for RIS-LAI group. PP was noninferior to RIS-LAI (least squares mean difference [95% CI]: -2.3 [-5.20; 0.63]; predetermined non-inferiority margin: -5.5). Mean (SD) change from baseline to endpoint in Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale score was: -1.5 (1.24; PP group), -1.7 (1.16; RIS-LAI group) and in Personal and Social Performance Scale scores was: 16.8 (14.76; PP group), 18.6 (13.92; RIS-LAI group). The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was similar between the two groups (73% [PP]; 75% [RIS-LAI]). The most common TEAEs were akathisia, tremor, and insomnia. The study demonstrated the noninferiority of PP (50-150 mg eq., flexibly dosed, without oral paliperidone supplementation) to risperidone-LAI (25-50 mg, flexibly dosed, with oral risperidone supplementation) for the treatment of acute schizophrenia in adult Chinese patients. PP injections were generally tolerable, and no new safety signals were detected in this population. PMID:21315787

Li, Huafang; Rui, Qing; Ning, Xiaoping; Xu, Haiyan; Gu, Niufan

2011-06-01

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Patient perspectives on use of long-acting antipsychotics in bipolar disorder: focus on risperidone injection  

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Full Text Available L Samalin, T Charpeaud, O Lorabi, PM LlorcaCentre Hospitalier Universitaire, Clermont-Ferrand, FranceAbstract: In the last few years, oral second-generation antipsychotics have demonstrated mood-stabilizing properties and are now widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Unfortunately, treatment of this chronic and complex illness is hampered with poor adherence on the part of patients. Long-acting injectable formulations of second-generation antipsychotics could combine the effect of oral second-generation antipsychotics in patients with bipolar disorder and the benefits of depot formulation with the assurance of steady medication delivery and thereby improve adherence. In this context, the efficacy and tolerance of risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI for maintenance treatment in patients with bipolar disorder is assessed. The relevant studies found RLAI to be effective in preventive treatment of manic but not depressive recurrences in bipolar patients, with good tolerance. RLAI appeared to be particularly suitable for patients with known poor adherence to treatment or severe bipolar disorder (such as patients who relapse frequently. Lastly, if RLAI, unlike the first-generation antipsychotics, does not induce depressive symptoms, the different studies do not enable us to consider its use in monotherapy in the preventive treatment of patients with depressive polarity. Long-acting second-generation antipsychotics in bipolar patients are therefore associated with long-term benefits, but their use in clinical practice needs to be improved.Keywords: bipolar disorder, depot antipsychotics, long-acting risperidone injection, ­maintenance treatment, compliance

L Samalin

2010-08-01

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A randomized trial of paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable in schizophrenia.  

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Paliperidone palmitate (PP) is a recently (USA) approved injectable new-generation antipsychotic. This 53-wk, Phase-III double-blind study was designed to assess the non-inferiority of PP to risperidone long-acting injectable (RIS-LAI) in schizophrenia treatment. Acutely symptomatic patients (n=749), with a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score between 60 and 120 were randomly allocated to gluteal injections of either (a) PP: 50 mg eq. on days 1 and 8, and flexible dosing [25-100 mg eq. (i.e. 39-156 mg USA dosing)] once-monthly; or (b) RIS-LAI: bi-weekly injections of 25 mg on days 8 and 22, and flexible dosing (25-50 mg) starting from day 36, with allowed oral supplementation. Patients (n=747) were 59% men, 92% white, mean (s.d.) age of 41 (11.95) yr and 45% (n=339) completed the study. Mean (s.d.) change from baseline to endpoint in PANSS total score was: -11.6 (21.22) PP; and -14.4 (19.76) RIS-LAI (per-protocol analysis set, primary measure); least-squares means difference was -2.6 (95% CI -5.84 to 0.61), with a prespecified 5-point non-inferiority margin. PP's suboptimal dosing regimen (<150 mg eq. initial dose) resulted in lower median plasma levels of the active moiety in PP-treated vs. RIS-LAI-treated patients. Insomnia was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event, with a similar incidence in both groups (15%). PP did not demonstrate comparable efficacy to RIS-LAI, which may be attributable to the initiation dosing strategy employed. Tolerability of both treatments was comparable to previous studies, with no new safety signals detected. PMID:21777507

Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Gopal, Srihari; Lane, Rosanne; Gassmann-Mayer, Cristiana; Lim, Pilar; Hough, David; Remmerie, Bart; Eerdekens, Marielle

2012-02-01

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Risperidone long-acting injection in the treatment of schizophrenia spectrum illnesses: A retrospective chart review of 19 patients in the Vancouver Community Mental Health Organization (Vancouver, Canada)  

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Background: Schizophrenia is a chronic debilitating disease that affects ~110,000 Canadians (0.55% lifetime prevalence). Risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) is the first injectable, long-acting, atypical antipsychotic drug marketed in Canada.

Ganesan, Soma; Mckenna, Mario; Procyshyn, Ric M.; Zipursky, Sheldon

2007-01-01

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Are the Long-Acting Intramuscular Formulations of Risperidone or Paliperidone Palmitate Associated with Post-Injection Delirium/Sedation Syndrome? An Assessment of Safety Databases  

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Long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations of antipsychotics are valuable treatment alternatives for patients with psychotic disorders, and understanding their safe use is critical. Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS) has been reported following treatment with one atypical antipsychotic LAI. Clinical databases of risperidone LAI and paliperidone palmitate were explored to identify if cases of PDSS had been observed. No cases of PDSS were identified in 15 completed trials of 3,164 subjects (approximately 115,000 injections) or the postmarketing safety database of risperidone LAI. Only one case of PDSS was identified among 10 completed trials (3,817 subjects, 33,906 injections) of paliperidone palmitate—that case having been reported in a patient randomized to treatment with placebo. Examination of these prospective databases finds no evidence that risperidone LAI and paliperidone palmitate are associated with PDSS and suggest that findings seen with another antipsychotic LAI are not generalizable. PMID:21047303

Alphs, Larry; Gopal, Srihari; Karcher, Keith; Kent, Justine; Kern Sliwa, Jennifer; Kushner, Stuart; Nuamah, Isaac; Singh, Jaskaran

2011-01-01

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Are the Long-Acting Intramuscular Formulations of Risperidone or Paliperidone Palmitate Associated with Post-Injection Delirium/Sedation Syndrome? An Assessment of Safety Databases  

OpenAIRE

Long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations of antipsychotics are valuable treatment alternatives for patients with psychotic disorders, and understanding their safe use is critical. Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS) has been reported following treatment with one atypical antipsychotic LAI. Clinical databases of risperidone LAI and paliperidone palmitate were explored to identify if cases of PDSS had been observed.

Alphs, Larry; Gopal, Srihari; Karcher, Keith; Kent, Justine; Kern Sliwa, Jennifer; Kushner, Stuart; Nuamah, Isaac; Singh, Jaskaran

2011-01-01

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Risperidone long-acting injection in the treatment of schizophrenia: 24-month results from the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry in Canada  

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Richard Williams,1 Ranjith Chandrasena,2 Linda Beauclair,3 Doanh Luong,4 Annette Lam4 On behalf of the e-STAR study group 1Vancouver Island Health Authority, Victoria, BC, Canada; 2Chatham-Kent Health Alliance, Chatham, ON, Canada; 3Allan Memorial Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4Janssen Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: To assess outcomes over 24 months in Canadian patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) and participating in the electronic Schi...

Williams R.; Chandrasena R; Beauclair L; Luong D; Lam A

2014-01-01

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Changes in prolactin levels and sexual function in young psychotic patients after switching from long-acting injectable risperidone to paliperidone palmitate.  

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Hyperprolactinaemia is a significant side effect of antipsychotic medications and may cause sexual dysfunction. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of switching from long-acting injectable (LAI) risperidone to paliperidone palmitate (PP) on sexual function and prolactin levels in patients with psychosis. We carried out a prospective observational study during a 3-month period that involved 11 patients with psychosis treated with risperidone-LAI who suffered from hyperprolactinaemia and who were then switched to PP. Two assessments were completed: the first one before the switch and the second one 3 months after the switch. These assessments measured sexual function using the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale and assessed prolactin levels. Our results showed a significant decrease in serum prolactin levels (P=0.041). We observed a four-fold reduction in clinically significant sexual dysfunction that is suggestive of benefit, although the sample size is too small to be sure. Our study suggests that prolactin levels seem to decrease after switching from risperidone-LAI to PP in patients with a psychotic disorder. PMID:23232756

Montalvo, Itziar; Ortega, Laura; López, Xavi; Solé, Montse; Monseny, Rosa; Franch, Joan; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

2013-01-01

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Efficacy and safety of long acting injectable atypical antipsychotics: a review.  

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Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe and recurrent brain disorder that requires continuous, long-term treatment with antipsychotic medication to minimize relapse and provide clinical benefit to patients. For patients with schizophrenia, non-adherence to medication is a major risk factor for relapse and re-hospitalization. Long-acting injectable formulations of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs-LAIs) provide constant medication delivery and the potential for improved adherence. Currently, three drugs are available for the treatment of schizophrenia, risperidone longacting injectable, olanzapine pamoate and paliperidone palmitate. Several studies have also demonstrated efficacy and safety of such drugs in patients with acute schizophrenia. In the present paper the literature on LAI atypical antipsychotics will be reviewed and practical advice will be given concerning the use of these drugs in the clinical practice. PMID:23343445

De Berardis, Domenico; Marini, Stefano; Carano, Alessandro; Lang, Antonella Padovan; Cavuto, Marilde; Piersanti, Monica; Fornaro, Michele; Perna, Giampaolo; Valchera, Alessandro; Mazza, Monica; Iasevoli, Felice; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

2013-08-01

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Switching from risperidone long-acting injectable to paliperidone long-acting injectable or oral antipsychotics: analysis of a Medicaid claims database.  

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This report examines relapse risk following a switch from risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) to another long-acting injectable antipsychotic [paliperidone palmitate (PP)] versus a switch to oral antipsychotics (APs). Truven Health's MarketScan Multistate Medicaid Database compared relapses following switches from RLAI. New user cohorts for these two groups were created on the basis of first incidence of exposure to the 'switched to' drug. Groups were balanced using 1:1 propensity score matching. Time-to-event analysis assessed schizophrenia-related hospital/emergency department visits. A total of 188 patients switched from RLAI to PP, and 131 patients switched from RLAI to oral AP. Propensity score-matched cohort included 109 patients who switched to PP and 109 patients who switched to an oral AP. Patients who switched from RLAI to PP had fewer events (26 vs. 32), longer time to an event (mean 70 vs. 47 days), and lower risk of relapse (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.92; P=0.024) compared with those who switched from RLAI to oral AP. Switching from RLAI to PP may be associated with a lower risk for relapse and longer duration of therapy compared with switching to oral AP. Given the limitations of observational studies, these results should be confirmed by other prospective evaluations. PMID:25730525

Voss, Erica A; Ryan, Patrick B; Stang, Paul E; Hough, David; Alphs, Larry

2015-05-01

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Patient perspectives on use of long-acting antipsychotics in bipolar disorder: focus on risperidone injection  

OpenAIRE

L Samalin, T Charpeaud, O Lorabi, PM LlorcaCentre Hospitalier Universitaire, Clermont-Ferrand, FranceAbstract: In the last few years, oral second-generation antipsychotics have demonstrated mood-stabilizing properties and are now widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Unfortunately, treatment of this chronic and complex illness is hampered with poor adherence on the part of patients. Long-acting injectable formulations of second-generation antipsychotics could combine the effect of...

Samalin, L.; Charpeaud, T.; Lorabi, O.; et al.

2010-01-01

16

Paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable in subjects with schizophrenia recently treated with oral risperidone or other oral antipsychotics  

OpenAIRE

Larry Alphs,1 Cynthia A Bossie,1 Jennifer Kern Sliwa,2 Dong-Jing Fu,1 Yi-Wen Ma,3 Joseph Hulihan11CNS Medical Affairs, 2Medical Information, Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA; 3Biostatistics, B&P, Janssen Research & Development LLC, Titusville, NJ, USABackground: This post hoc subgroup analysis of a randomized, double-blind trial evaluated the response to treatment with two long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotics, ie, paliperidone palmitate and risper...

Alphs L; Ca, Bossie; Jk, Sliwa; Dj, Fu; Yw, Ma; Hulihan J

2013-01-01

17

Comparative Effectiveness of Risperidone Long-Acting Injectable vs First-Generation Antipsychotic Long-Acting Injectables in Schizophrenia: Results From a Nationwide, Retrospective Inception Cohort Study.  

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Objective: To compare in a generalizable sample/setting objective outcomes in patients receiving first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injectables (FGA-LAIs) or risperidone-LAI (RIS-LAI). Methods: Nationwide, retrospective inception cohort study of adults with International Classification of Diseases-10 schizophrenia using Danish registers from 1995 to 2009 comparing outcomes between clinician's/patient's choice treatment with FGA-LAIs or RIS-LAI. Primary outcome was time to psychiatric hospitalization using Cox-regression adjusting for relevant covariates. Secondary outcomes included time to all-cause discontinuation and psychiatric hospitalization in patients without LAI possession gap >28 days, and number of bed-days after psychiatric hospitalization. Results: Among 4532 patients followed for 2700 patient-years, 2078 received RIS-LAI and 2454 received FGA-LAIs (zuclopenthixol decanoate = 52.2%, perphenazine decanoate = 37.2%, haloperidol decanoate = 5.0%, flupenthixol decanoate = 4.4%, fluphenazine decanoate = 1.3%). RIS-LAI was similar to FGA-LAIs regarding time to hospitalization (RIS-LAI = 246.2±323.7 days vs FGA-LAIs = 276.6±383.3 days; HR = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.87-1.03, P = 0.199) and time to all-cause discontinuation (RIS-LAI = 245.8±324.0 days vs FGA-LAIs = 287.0±390.9 days; HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86-1.02, P = 0.116). Similarly, in patients without LAI discontinuation, RIS-LAI and FGA-LAIs did not differ regarding time to hospitalization (RIS-LAI = 175.0±268.1 days vs FGA-LAIs = 210.7±325.3 days; HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86-1.04, P = 0.254). Finally, duration of hospitalization was also similar (incidence rate ratio = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.78-1.19, P = 0.744). Results were unchanged when analyzing only patients treated after introduction of RIS-LAI. Conclusions: In this nationwide cohort study, RIS-LAI was not superior to FGA-LAIs regarding time to psychiatric hospitalization, all-cause discontinuation, and duration of hospitalization. Given the cost of hospitalization and second-generation antipsychotic (SGA)-LAIs, these findings require consideration when making treatment choices, but also need to be balanced with the individual relevance of adverse effects/patient centered outcomes. In future, head-to-head trials and additional nationwide database studies including other SGA-LAIs is needed. PMID:25180312

Nielsen, Jimmi; Jensen, Signe O W; Friis, Rasmus B; Valentin, Jan B; Correll, Christoph U

2014-09-01

18

Comparative Effectiveness of Risperidone Long-Acting Injectable vs First-Generation Antipsychotic Long-Acting Injectables in Schizophrenia : Results From a Nationwide, Retrospective Inception Cohort Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: To compare in a generalizable sample/setting objective outcomes in patients receiving first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injectables (FGA-LAIs) or risperidone-LAI (RIS-LAI). Methods: Nationwide, retrospective inception cohort study of adults with International Classification of Diseases-10 schizophrenia using Danish registers from 1995 to 2009 comparing outcomes between clinician's/patient's choice treatment with FGA-LAIs or RIS-LAI. Primary outcome was time to psychiatric hospitalization using Cox-regression adjusting for relevant covariates. Secondary outcomes included time to all-cause discontinuation and psychiatric hospitalization in patients without LAI possession gap >28 days, and number of bed-days after psychiatric hospitalization. Results: Among 4532 patients followed for 2700 patient-years, 2078 received RIS-LAI and 2454 received FGA-LAIs (zuclopenthixol decanoate = 52.2%, perphenazine decanoate = 37.2%, haloperidol decanoate = 5.0%, flupenthixol decanoate = 4.4%, fluphenazine decanoate = 1.3%). RIS-LAI was similar to FGA-LAIs regarding time to hospitalization (RIS-LAI = 246.2±323.7 days vs FGA-LAIs = 276.6±383.3 days; HR = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.87-1.03, P = 0.199) and time to all-cause discontinuation (RIS-LAI = 245.8±324.0 days vs FGA-LAIs = 287.0±390.9 days; HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86-1.02, P = 0.116). Similarly, in patients without LAI discontinuation, RIS-LAI and FGA-LAIs did not differ regarding time to hospitalization (RIS-LAI = 175.0±268.1 days vs FGA-LAIs = 210.7±325.3 days; HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86-1.04, P = 0.254). Finally, duration of hospitalization was also similar (incidence rate ratio = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.78-1.19, P = 0.744). Results were unchanged when analyzing only patients treated after introduction of RIS-LAI. Conclusions: In this nationwide cohort study, RIS-LAI was not superior to FGA-LAIs regarding time to psychiatric hospitalization, all-cause discontinuation, and duration of hospitalization. Given the cost of hospitalization and second-generation antipsychotic (SGA)-LAIs, these findings require consideration when making treatment choices, but also need to be balanced with the individual relevance of adverse effects/patient centered outcomes. In future, head-to-head trials and additional nationwide database studies including other SGA-LAIs is needed.

Nielsen, Jimmi; Jensen, Signe O W

2014-01-01

19

Risperidone Versus Risperidone Plus Sodium Valproate for Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical-Trial  

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Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the efficacy of risperidone monotherapy with risperidone plus valproate in bipolar I disorder, manic phase. Some studies showed the efficacy of risperidone monotherapy in the treatment of bipolar disorder, so we examined this effectiveness in this clinical-trial study. Method: This 7-week, randomized, single-blind study included 48 bipolar I inpatients manic phase without psychotic features divided in risperidone group (n = 23 and risperidone plus sodium valproate group (n = 25. According to clinical symptoms, 3 categories: complete remission, partial remission and no remission were mentioned in weekly follow-up. Remission rate compared with survival analysis. Results: The results showed a significant difference in remission rate between risperidone monotherapy and risperidone plus sodium valproate at the 1st, 2nd and the 3rd week (p = 0.012, 0.023, 0.027 respectively, It means the remission rate in risperidone plus valproate group was higher in the first three weeks, but at the end of the seventh week, the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the development of adverse effects. Conclusions: Risperidone can be effective and well tolerated in both acute manic episodes of bipolar mood disorders.

S. Mohammad Moosavi

2014-06-01

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Risperidone long-acting injection in the treatment of schizophrenia: 24-month results from the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry in Canada  

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Full Text Available Richard Williams,1 Ranjith Chandrasena,2 Linda Beauclair,3 Doanh Luong,4 Annette Lam4 On behalf of the e-STAR study group 1Vancouver Island Health Authority, Victoria, BC, Canada; 2Chatham-Kent Health Alliance, Chatham, ON, Canada; 3Allan Memorial Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4Janssen Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: To assess outcomes over 24 months in Canadian patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI and participating in the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR. Materials and methods: Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled from 24 sites after an independent decision to initiate RLAI. Subsequent patient management was based on usual clinical practice at each site and was not protocol-driven. Relevant data were collected retrospectively by chart review for 12 months prior to RLAI and prospectively for 24 months following RLAI initiation. Results: Patients (n=188 had a mean age of 39.2 years, were 66.3% male, and 27.7% were inpatients at baseline. Twenty-four months after initiating therapy (initial dose =28.7 mg, 34.1% (95% confidence interval 27.2%–42.2% of patients had discontinued RLAI with a mean time to discontinuation of 273.4±196 days. Over the treatment period, there were significant (P<0.001 changes from baseline in Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S; 3.48 versus [vs] 4.31 at baseline, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF; 56.1 vs 48.1, and Personal and Social Performance (PSP; 59.1 vs 46.9 scale scores. In addition, after 12 months, there were significant (P<0.001 decreases in the percentage of patients hospitalized (23.9% vs 58.5% pre-RLAI, mean length of stay (11.4 vs 30.4 days, and number of hospitalizations (0.32 vs 0.87 compared to the 12-month pre-RLAI period. Reductions in hospitalization continued into the second 12 months of therapy, when only 9% of patients were hospitalized and mean length of stay was 2.0 days. Conclusion: In a routine clinical practice setting, patients switched to RLAI showed significant improvements in clinical outcomes and in global and social functioning, and hospitalization was significantly reduced. The data confirm that RLAI provides effective long-term management of schizophrenia in Canada. Keywords: schizophrenia, Canada, risperidone long-acting injection, e-STAR

Williams R

2014-02-01

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Effect of acute and chronic treatment with risperidone on the serotonin and dopamine receptors in the rat brain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The therapeutic efficacy of antipsychotic drugs is generally attributed to their ability to block dopamine D{sub 2} receptors. Classical D{sub 2} antagonists are not effective to treat negative symptoms and produce extrapyramidal side effects. On the other hand, atypical antipsychotic agents ameliorate negative symptoms without producing extrapyramidal side effects, and it is reported to be associated with blockade of serotonin 5-HT{sub 2} receptors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone on neuroreceptors in the rat brain by quantitative autoradiography method. In acute treatment group, risperidone was injected into peritoneal cavity of male Wistar rats with dose of 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mg/kg in each group (5/group), and they were decapitated after 2 hours. In chronic treatment group, risperidone was injected with dose of 0, 0.1, and 1m/kg (I.P.) for 21 ays and decapitated after 24 hours following last treatment. The effect of risperodone on the binding of [{sup 3}H) spiperone to 5-HT{sub 2} and D{sub 2} receptors were analysed in 4 discrete regions of the striatum, nucleus accumbens, and frontal cortex by quantitative autoradiography. Acute treatment with risperidone reduced cortical 5-HT{sub 2} specific [{sup 3}H]spiperone binding to 32% of vehicle-treated control. Subcortical 5-HR{sub 2} specific [{sup 3}H]spiperone binding was not affected at all dose groups whereas a significant reduction (57%) in D{sub 2} specific [{sup 3}H]spiperone binding was observed in risperidone treated group at doses of 1-2mg/kg. Chronic treatment with risperidone produced a decrease in the maximal number of cortical 5-HT{sub 2} receptors to 51% and 46% of control in 0.1mg/kg and 1mg/kg treated group respectively. In conclusion, risperidone is a cortical serotonin receptor antagonist with relatively weak antagonistic action on dopamine receptors. These effects on neuroreceptors may explain the therapeutic effect of risperidone as a atypical antipsychotic agents.

Choi, Yun Young; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Son, Hye Kyung; Kim, Chang Yoon; Lee, Chul; Lee, Hee Kyung [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1997-03-01

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Effect of acute and chronic treatment with risperidone on the serotonin and dopamine receptors in the rat brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The therapeutic efficacy of antipsychotic drugs is generally attributed to their ability to block dopamine D2 receptors. Classical D2 antagonists are not effective to treat negative symptoms and produce extrapyramidal side effects. On the other hand, atypical antipsychotic agents ameliorate negative symptoms without producing extrapyramidal side effects, and it is reported to be associated with blockade of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone on neuroreceptors in the rat brain by quantitative autoradiography method. In acute treatment group, risperidone was injected into peritoneal cavity of male Wistar rats with dose of 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mg/kg in each group (5/group), and they were decapitated after 2 hours. In chronic treatment group, risperidone was injected with dose of 0, 0.1, and 1m/kg (I.P.) for 21 ays and decapitated after 24 hours following last treatment. The effect of risperodone on the binding of [3H) spiperone to 5-HT2 and D2 receptors were analysed in 4 discrete regions of the striatum, nucleus accumbens, and frontal cortex by quantitative autoradiography. Acute treatment with risperidone reduced cortical 5-HT2 specific [3H]spiperone binding to 32% of vehicle-treated control. Subcortical 5-HR2 specific [3H]spiperone binding was not affected at all dose groups whereas a significcted at all dose groups whereas a significant reduction (57%) in D2 specific [3H]spiperone binding was observed in risperidone treated group at doses of 1-2mg/kg. Chronic treatment with risperidone produced a decrease in the maximal number of cortical 5-HT2 receptors to 51% and 46% of control in 0.1mg/kg and 1mg/kg treated group respectively. In conclusion, risperidone is a cortical serotonin receptor antagonist with relatively weak antagonistic action on dopamine receptors. These effects on neuroreceptors may explain the therapeutic effect of risperidone as a atypical antipsychotic agents

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Risperidone Treatment in 12 Children With Developmental Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

OpenAIRE

Background: Risperidone is a novel antipsychotic drug that has been tried in the treatment of several child psychiatric disorders. In an open clinical study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of risperidone in children with developmental disorder and behavioral problems including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Eapen, Valsamma; Gururaj, A. K.

2005-01-01

24

Managing knee ostheoarthritis: efficacy of hyaluronic acid injections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of chronic arthritis worldwide. The etiology of pain in osteoarthritis is multifactoral, and includes mechanical and inflammatory processes. The use of intra-articular viscosupplementation in the nonoperative management of patients with osteoarthritis has become quite popular. Recent clinical data have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective actions of hyaluronic acid viscosupplementation reduce pain, from 4 to 14 weeks after injection, while improving patient function. Viscosupplements are comparable in efficacy to systemic forms of active intervention, with more local reactions but fewer systemic adverse events, and hyaluronic acid has more prolonged effects than IA corticosteroids. Although several randomized controlled trials have established the efficacy of this treatment modality, additional high quality randomized control studies with appropriate comparison are still required to clearly define the role of intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis. We review the basic science and development of viscosupplementation and discuss the mounting evidence in support of its efficacy and safety profile. PMID:24149011

Roque, V; Agre, M; Barroso, J; Brito, I

2013-01-01

25

Formulation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of transdermal patches containing risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of oral risperidone treatment in prevention of schizophrenia is well known. However, oral side effects and patient compliance is always a problem for schizophrenics. In this study, risperidone was formulated into matrix transdermal patches to overcome these problems. The formulation factors for such patches, including eudragit RL 100 and eudragit RS 100 as matrix forming polymers, olive oil, groundnut oil and jojoba oil in different concentrations as enhancers and amount of drug loaded were investigated. The transdermal patches containing risperidone were prepared by solvent casting method and characterized for physicochemical and in vitro permeation studies through excised rat skin. Among the tested preparations, formulations with 20% risperidone, 3:2 ERL 100 and ERS 100 as polymers, mixture of olive oil and jojoba oil as enhancer, exhibited greatest cumulative amount of drug permeated (1.87 ± 0.09 mg/cm(2)) in 72 h, so batch ROJ was concluded as optimized formulation and assessed for pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and skin irritation potential. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the optimized risperidone patch were determined using rabbits, while orally administered risperidone in solution was used for comparison. The calculated relative bioavailability of risperidone transdermal patch was 115.20% with prolonged release of drug. Neuroleptic efficacy of transdermal formulation was assessed by rota-rod and grip test in comparison with control and marketed oral formulations with no skin irritation. This suggests the transdermal application of risperidone holds promise for improved bioavailability and better management of schizophrenia in long-term basis. PMID:22335586

Aggarwal, Geeta; Dhawan, Sanju; Hari Kumar, S L

2013-01-01

26

Risperidone Dosing in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Disorder: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficacy and safety of 2 risperidone doses were evaluated in children and adolescents with autism. Patients (N = 96; 5-17 years), received risperidone (low-dose: 0.125 mg/day [20 to 45 kg] or high-dose: 1.25 mg/day [20 to 45 kg]) or placebo. Mean baseline (range 27-29) to endpoint change…

Kent, Justine M.; Kushner, Stuart; Ning, Xiaoping; Karcher, Keith; Ness, Seth; Aman, Michael; Singh, Jaskaran; Hough, David

2013-01-01

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Risperidone Improves Behavioral Symptoms in Children with Autism in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Subgroup analysis of children (5-12 years) with autism enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of risperidone for pervasive developmental disorders. The primary efficacy measure was the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale. Data were available for 55 children given risperidone (n = 27) or placebo (n =…

Pandina, Gahan J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.; Youssef, Eriene; Zhu, Young; Dunbar, Fiona

2007-01-01

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Efficacy and safety of risperidone oral solution in agitation associated with dementia in the elderly / Eficácia e segurança de risperidona solução oral na agitação associada a demência em idosos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: Sintomas psicológicos e do comportamento nas demências (BPSD) contribuem para a sobrecarga dos cuidadores e institucionalização dos idosos. Neurolépticos são prescritos para agitação. Efeitos colaterais dos típicos são prejudiciais, sendo os atípicos indicáveis. OBJETIVO: Avaliar eficác [...] ia e tolerabilidade da risperidona solução oral (RSO), dose única diária, em idosos demenciados ambulatoriais com BPSD (agitação). MÉTODO: Pacientes (n=26), 76,35±8,63 anos, critérios do Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais 4.ed. (DSM-IV) para demência. RSO administrada, com dose inicial de 0,25 mg e incrementos de 0,25 mg toda semana. Foram utilizados mini-mental (MEEM) para estado cognitivo, behavioral and emotional activities manifested in dementia (BEAM-D) e clinical and global impression (CGI) para BPSD, extrapyramidal symptom rating scale (ESRS) para sintomas extrapiramidais. Efeitos colaterais cardiovasculares foram avaliados clinicamente. RESULTADOS: Houve redução de 26% na agitação, sem efeitos colaterais cardiovasculares, numa faixa de 1,0 a 1,25 mg. Efeitos colaterais foram mais prevalentes acima de 2,5 mg. CONCLUSÃO: Risperidona melhorou agitação com boa tolerabilidade entre 0,5 e 1,25 mg. Dose única diária e aumentos de 0,25 mg podem ser mais aceitáveis para pacientes e cuidadores. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) contribute to caregiver burden and institutionalization of elderly. Neuroleptics are prescribed to control agitation. Side effects of typical neuroleptics are harmful, making atypical neuroleptics an indication. OBJECTIVES: To eval [...] uate efficacy and tolerability of risperidone oral solution (ROS) given once daily to demented elderly outpatients with BPSD (agitation). METHOD: Patients (n=26), 76.35±8.63 years, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria for dementia. RSO was given, starting dose of 0.25 mg and increments of 0.25 mg every week. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) assessed cognitive status, Behavioral and Emotional Activities Manifested in Dementia (BEAM-D) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) measured BPSD, Extrapiramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS) evaluated extrapyramidal symptoms. Cardiovascular side effects were evaluated clinically. RESULTS: There was a 26% reduction in agitation and no cardiovascular side effects in the range from 1.0 to 1.25 mg. Side effects were more prevalent above 2.5 mg. CONCLUSION: Risperidone oral solution improved agitation with good tolerability from 0.5 to 1.25 mg. A single dose with increments of 0.25 mg may be more acceptable to patients and caregivers.

Jerson, Laks; Eliasz, Engelhardt; Valeska, Marinho; Marcia, Rozenthal; Fernando de Castro e, Souza; Josué, Bacaltchuk; Alberto, Stoppe Jr.; R.C.R., Ferreira; Cassio, Bottino; Mônica, Scalco.

2001-12-01

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Paliperidone ER and oral risperidone in patients with schizophrenia: a comparative database analysis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background To compare the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (ER) with risperidone immediate-release using propensity score methodology. Methods Six double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, short-term clinical trials for acute schizophrenia with availability of individual patient-level data were identified (3 per compound). Propensity score pairwise matching was used to balance observed covariates between the paliperidone ER and risperidone patient popula...

Schooler Nina; Lindenmayer Jean-Pierre; Bossie Cynthia A; Turkoz Ibrahim; Canuso Carla M

2011-01-01

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POST MARKETING SURVEILLANCE STUDY ON RISPERIDONE IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM SCHIZOPHRENIA  

OpenAIRE

Schizophrenia is one of the commonest psychiatric ailments. It has been estimated that approximately 1% of the population and 15% of the adults suffers from this disease. Risperidone, atypical antipsychotic, acts mainly by 5HT2 blockade action. Produce virtually no extra pyramidal side effects at low dose, has a broad efficacy. But extra pyramidal dysfunction can appear at higher doses. We conducted a post marketing surveillance study on risperidone in 40 patients suffering from schizophrenia...

Zaveri, J. R.; Vipul Chaudhari

2011-01-01

31

Risperidone versus zuclopenthixol in the treatment of schizophrenia with substance abuse comorbidity: a long-term randomized, controlled, crossover study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Background: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are present in more than 50% of subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, there are no controlled studies assessing the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs in this subgroup of patients. The aim of the present work was to compare the efficacy of risperidon [...] e and zuclopenthixol in a sample of schizophrenic subjects with dual diagnosis. Method: Thirty-three male were selected for treatment with risperidone, while another 33 were treated with zuclopenthixol. Substances most commonly used were alcohol, cannabis (both 82%) and cocaine (32%). Patients were randomized and treated for the first six months with one antipsychotic and the second six months with the other antipsychotic. Psychopathological and clinical scales were used every two months. Participants received training on how to reduce their consumption of substances (Substance Abuse Management Module, SAMM). Results: During the first six months risperidone group patients presented fewer positive urine tests and showed better compliance with the SAMM programme. In the second period the patients treated with risperidone significantly improved their scores on the PANSS-negative subscale. Differences between the CGIs indicated that the subjects who moved from risperidone to zuclopenthixol worsened, while those who moved from zuclopenthixol to risperidone significantly improved. Conclusions: Risperidone was more effective than zuclopenthixol in improving the symptoms of schizophrenia and substance use.

Gabriel, Rubio; Isabel, Martínez; Ana, Recio; Guillermo, Ponce; Francisco, López-Muñoz; Cecilio, Alamo; Miguel Ángel, Jiménez-Arriero; Tomás, Palomo.

2006-09-01

32

Risperidone versus zuclopenthixol in the treatment of schizophrenia with substance abuse comorbidity: a long-term randomized, controlled, crossover study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Substance use disorders (SUDs are present in more than 50% of subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, there are no controlled studies assessing the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs in this subgroup of patients. The aim of the present work was to compare the efficacy of risperidone and zuclopenthixol in a sample of schizophrenic subjects with dual diagnosis. Method: Thirty-three male were selected for treatment with risperidone, while another 33 were treated with zuclopenthixol. Substances most commonly used were alcohol, cannabis (both 82% and cocaine (32%. Patients were randomized and treated for the first six months with one antipsychotic and the second six months with the other antipsychotic. Psychopathological and clinical scales were used every two months. Participants received training on how to reduce their consumption of substances (Substance Abuse Management Module, SAMM. Results: During the first six months risperidone group patients presented fewer positive urine tests and showed better compliance with the SAMM programme. In the second period the patients treated with risperidone significantly improved their scores on the PANSS-negative subscale. Differences between the CGIs indicated that the subjects who moved from risperidone to zuclopenthixol worsened, while those who moved from zuclopenthixol to risperidone significantly improved. Conclusions: Risperidone was more effective than zuclopenthixol in improving the symptoms of schizophrenia and substance use.

Gabriel Rubio

2006-09-01

33

Registro Electrónico de Adherencia al Tratamiento de Esquizofrenia en Latinoamérica (e-STAR): Resultados clínicos del uso de risperidona inyectable de liberación prolongada a dos años de seguimiento / Electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry in Latin America (e-STAR): Clinical outcomes of long-acting injectable risperidone in a 2-year follow up  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La esquizofrenia genera elevados costos al sistema de salud. La falta de adherencia al tratamiento es una de las principales causas de recaídas y hospitalizaciones en la esquizofrenia. Lo anterior conduce a un pobre pronóstico y deterioro funcional de los pacientes. La risperidona inyectable de libe [...] ración prolongada (RILP) ha demostrado su eficacia en el tratamiento de la esquizofrenia, ofreciendo la posibilidad de que los pacientes tengan una mayor adherencia terapéutica. Objetivo Determinar la eficacia y efecto sobre la funcionalidad y el uso de recursos hospitalarios de la RILP en una muestra de pacientes con esquizofrenia de América Latina a dos años de seguimiento. Método El Registro Electrónico de Adherencia al Tratamiento de Esquizofrenia en Latinoamérica (e-STAR) es un estudio observacional del uso de la RILP en la esquizofrenia. Se reclutaron pacientes de México, Colombia y Brasil. Se registró la información clínica del paciente un año previo al inicio del tratamiento con la RILP y de forma prospectiva cada tres meses hasta cumplir los 24 meses de seguimiento. Se registraron las hospitalizaciones y el esquema de tratamiento con la RILP. La escala de Impresión Clínica Global-Gravedad (CGI-S) se utilizó como indicador de eficacia mientras que la Escala Global de Funcionamiento (GAF) y la Escala de Desempeño Personal y Social (PSP) se utilizaron para evaluar el funcionamiento. Resultados Setenta y tres pacientes completaron los dos años de seguimiento. La proporción de pacientes hospitalizados disminuyó del 16.4 al 4.1% después de dos años de tratamiento con la RILP. El 2.7% descontinuó el tratamiento debido a falta de eficacia. Se observó una mejoría significativa en cuanto a la gravedad del padecimiento y el funcionamiento global. Discusión En la práctica clínica cotidiana, la RILP resulta ser un tratamiento a largo plazo efectivo para la esquizofrenia con el beneficio adicional de una menor utilización de recursos del sistema de salud. Abstract in english Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder associated to high healthcare costs mainly driven by inpatient care. Lack of adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a common reason for relapse and rehospitalization leading to poor prognosis and global functional impairment of patients. Risperidone l [...] ong-acting injection (RLAI) has demonstrated its efficacy in treating symptoms of schizophrenia and offers the potential to improve adherence to treatment. Objective To determine clinical and functional efficacy of RLAI and use of health resources (eg., hospitalizations) in a 2-year follow up study among patients with schizophrenia from Latin America. Method The electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR) is an observational study of patients who start treatment with RLAI. Data from patients recruited in Mexico, Colombia and Brazil were collected retrospectively for one year prior to baseline, at baseline and every three months for 24 months. Hospitalization rates and treatment regime were registered. Efficacy was assessed using the Clinical Global Impression of Illness-Severity Scale (CGI-S), while the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) were used for the evaluation of functioning. Results Seventy-three patients completed the two-year follow-up. The proportion of patients hospitalized declined from 16.4% before treatment to 4.1% after 2 years of treatment with RLAI. Only 2.7% discontinued the treatment due to lack of efficacy. Significant improvements were reported in illness severity as well as in global functioning assessed by the CGI-S, GAF and PSP scales, respectively. Discussion Our results give further support of the efficacy of RLAI for the treatment of schizophrenia. Additional to symptom severity reduction and functional recovery, improved treatment adherence and reduced hospitalization rates were observed with the use of RLAI. In a real world clinical setting, RLAI offer an effective long-term treatment for patients with schiz

Rogelio, Apiquian; Rodrigo, Córdoba; Mario, Louzã; Ana, Fresán.

2013-02-01

34

Valproate-Risperidone versus Valproate-Lithium combination in acute mania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: We evaluated the efficacy of valproate plus risperidone versus valproate plus lithium combination in the treatment of acute mania. Methods: In 2-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study, 46 acute manic patients according to DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned to receive combination of valproate 20 mg/ kg/day plus risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n=23 or lithium600-1200 mg/day (n=23. The assessment of efficacy measures were according to Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S and Improvement (CGI-I scale. Other effectiveness measures included YMRS response (YMRS reduction >50 % and YMRS remission (YMRS total scores <12. Results: In each group, 16 of 23 patients (70 % completed the study. YMRS response, CGI-Improvement, and reduction in the total scores of YMRS and CGI-S observed in both groups, significantly greater for valproate-risperidone than valproate-lithium combination group (P=0.006, P=0.015, P=0.004, and P=0.007, respectively.YMRS remission were shown in both groups without statistical significance (P=0.073. The total scores of YMRS at 4th, 8th, and 14th days of trial were lower in valproate-risperidone than valproate-lithium combination group (P=0.017, P=0.005, and P=0.004, respectively. The rate of adverse events and mean weight gain in both groups were not statistically different. Conclusion: In acute manic patients, both combinations of valproate with lithium or with risperidone had efficacy in acutely manic patients, but valproate-risperidone combination was more effective. Both treatments were safe and well tolerated. Considering the small sample size and limited period of observation, further studies need to be conducted to find out the best combination in the treatment of acute mania. Key words: Acute mania, Valproate, Risperidone, Lithium, Combination Therapy

M Barekatain

2005-09-01

35

A case of priapism with risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Priapism is a urologic emergency defined as a prolonged, possibly painful, penile erection. There are several known causes of priapism including psychotropic medications. One of the mechanisms by which antipsychotics are believed to induce priapism is through alpha-1 antagonism. This is case of a 50-year-old male with a history of schizophrenia with previous priapism related to trazodone, who presents with new onset priapism associated with risperidone. In this case, the treatment of priapism includes discontinuation of the offending agent and drainage of the corpus cavernosum twice along with intracavernosal phenylephrine injections. It is important to educate patients on priapism as a possible side effect of medications. It is also important to consider previous episodes of medication-induced priapism when prescribing psychotropic medications as this may increase the patient's future risk of priapism. PMID:25379316

Ginory, Almari; Nguyen, Mathew

2014-01-01

36

Valproate-Risperidone versus Valproate-Lithium combination in acute mania  

OpenAIRE

Background: We evaluated the efficacy of valproate plus risperidone versus valproate plus lithium combination in the treatment of acute mania. Methods: In 2-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study, 46 acute manic patients according to DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned to receive combination of valproate 20 mg/ kg/day plus risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n=23) or lithium600-1200 mg/day (n=23). The assessment of efficacy measures were according to Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) ...

Barekatain, M.; Fatemi, A.; Bashardoost, N.; Darougheh, A.; Salehi, M.; Gh, Asadollahi

2005-01-01

37

Self-efficacy estimates for drug use practices predict risk reduction among injection drug users  

OpenAIRE

We used baseline outcome efficacy (OE) estimates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction to predict subsequent risk reduction 6 months hence among 792 injection drug users in a prospective study. Declines in drug use, frequency of injection, and needle sharing were found among those with high OE scores after adjustment for baseline behavior and antecedent factors. No OE effect was found in multivariate analysis for shooting gallery attendance, a risk that substantially declined ...

Celentano, David D.; Cohn, Sylvia; Davis, Richard O.; Vlahov, David

2002-01-01

38

Self-efficacy estimates for drug use practices predict risk reduction among injection drug users.  

Science.gov (United States)

We used baseline outcome efficacy (OE) estimates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction to predict subsequent risk reduction 6 months hence among 792 injection drug users in a prospective study. Declines in drug use, frequency of injection, and needle sharing were found among those with high OE scores after adjustment for baseline behavior and antecedent factors. No OE effect was found in multivariate analysis for shooting gallery attendance, a risk that substantially declined in this cohort. OE for needle disinfection was associated with reduced drug risk behaviors, but not for improved needle hygiene practices over time. The self-efficacy model is useful in understanding psychological factors in risk reduction among injection drug users. PMID:12023500

Celentano, David D; Cohn, Sylvia; Davis, Richard O; Vlahov, David

2002-06-01

39

Review of risperidone for the treatment of pediatric and adolescent bipolar disorder and schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jeffrey R Bishop1,2, Mani N Pavuluri21Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Pediatric Mood Disorders Program and Center for Cognitive Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Risperidone is a commonly used medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents. It has been studied as a monotherapy treatment in early onset schizophrenia and as both monotherapy and combination therapy for pediatric bipolar disorder. Studies to date indicate that risperidone is an effective treatment for positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and mania symptoms of bipolar disorder. In young patient populations, side effects such as weight gain, extrapyramidal side effects, and prolactin elevation require consideration when evaluating the risk benefit ratio for individual patients. Here we review published studies of risperidone for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents to provide practitioners with an overview of published data on the efficacy and safety of risperidone in these patient populations.Keywords: risperidone, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, children, adolescents

Jeffrey R Bishop

2008-03-01

40

Curative and Residual Efficacy of Injection Applications of Avermectins for Control of Plant-parasitic Nematodes on Banana  

OpenAIRE

Studies were conducted to determine the curative and residual efficacy of avermectins at controlling plant-parasitic nematodes when injected into the pseudostem of banana, Musa acuminata cv. Cavendish. In addition, we determined the lowest concentration of avermectins that provided satisfactory efficacy as protectants when injected into banana pseudostems. Experiments were conducted with a root-knot nematode, Meleidogyne javanica, and the burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis. Injections (1 ...

Jansson, Richard K.; Rabatin, Susan

1997-01-01

41

POST MARKETING SURVEILLANCE STUDY ON RISPERIDONE IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM SCHIZOPHRENIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the commonest psychiatric ailments. It has been estimated that approximately 1% of the population and 15% of the adults suffers from this disease. Risperidone, atypical antipsychotic, acts mainly by 5HT2 blockade action. Produce virtually no extra pyramidal side effects at low dose, has a broad efficacy. But extra pyramidal dysfunction can appear at higher doses. We conducted a post marketing surveillance study on risperidone in 40 patients suffering from schizophrenia at Psychiatric department of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad. In this study we specially studied its efficacy and safety. The results of this study are consistent with phase III clinical studies on risperidone carried out in Indian patients except its effects on food intake. As far as the efficacy of risperidone in patient with schizophrenia is concerned, it provided good symptomatic relief In term of safety, 7 patients out of 40, experience adverse effects like decrease appetite, constipation, insomnia, EPS and NMS. Patient with NMS was admitted in hospital and was died later on. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 34-36

J R Zaveri

2011-04-01

42

[Systematic review of efficacy and safety of shenmai injection for chronic heart failure].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Shenmai injection for chronic heart failure, retrieving the Pubmed, CBM, CNKI, Wanfang database and VIP database to comprehensively collect all types research report of Shenmai injection for chronic heart failure (CHF). Particularly wishing to point out, randomized controlled trials are include for the evaluation of effectiveness, which are statistically analyzed and evaluated by Rev-Man 5. 2. The current studies show that the improvement rate of NYHA classification of cardiac function of CHF patients and their related indexes figure such as LVEF, SV, CO, BNP, 6 min walking test value are all improved by the combination of Shenmai injection and foundation treatment. However, HR is almost no improvement. Meanwhile, serious ADR/AE of Shenmai injection for CHF isn't appear. PMID:25532414

Chen, Hong-Dong; Xie, Yan-Ming; Wang, Lian-Xin; Wu, Jiu-Bin

2014-09-01

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Efficacy of acupuncture versus local methylprednisolone acetate injection in De Quervain's tenosynovitis: a randomized controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no consensus on the management of De Quervain's tenosynovitis, but local corticosteroid injection is considered the mainstay of treatment. However, some patients are reluctant to take steroid injections. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of acupuncture versus corticosteroid injection for the treatment of this disease. Thirty patients were consequently treated in two groups. The acupuncture group received five acupuncture sessions of 30 minutes duration on classic points of LI-5, LU-7, and LU-9 and on ahshi points. The injection group received one methylprednisolone acetate injection in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist. The degree of disability and pain was evaluated by using the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Q-DASH) scale and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at baseline and at 2 weeks and 6 weeks after the start of treatment. The baseline means of the Q-DASH and the VAS scores were 62.8 and 6.9, respectively. At the last follow-up, the mean Q-DASH scores were 9.8 versus 6.2 in the acupuncture and injection groups, respectively, and the mean VAS scores were 2 versus 1.2. We demonstrated short-term improvement of pain and function in both groups. Although the success rate was somewhat higher with corticosteroid injection, acupuncture can be considered as an alternative option for treatment of De Quervain's tenosynovitis. PMID:24929455

Hadianfard, Mohammadjavad; Ashraf, Alireza; Fakheri, Maryamsadat; Nasiri, Aref

2014-06-01

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Efficacy of perioperative parecoxib injection on postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A prospective, randomized study  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To determine the efficacy of perioperative parecoxib injection on postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.METHODS: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 70 patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, from January 2006 to December 2007. Patients were randomized to receive either 20 mg parecoxib infusion 30 min before induction of anesthesia and at 12 h ...

Thawatchai Akaraviputh, Charay Leelouhapong

2009-01-01

45

Paediatric European Risperidone Studies (PERS): context, rationale, objectives, strategy, and challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

In children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD), pharmacotherapy is considered when non-pharmacological interventions do not improve symptoms and functional impairment. Risperidone, a second-generation antipsychotic is increasingly prescribed off-label in this indication, but its efficacy and tolerability is poorly studied in CD, especially in young people with normal intelligence. The Paediatric European Risperidone Studies (PERS) include a series of trials to assess short-term efficacy, tolerability and maintenance effects of risperidone in children and adolescents with CD and normal intelligence as well as long-term tolerability in a 2-year pharmacovigilance. In addition to its core studies, secondary PERS analyses will examine moderators of drug effects. As PERS is a large-scale academic project involving a collaborative network of expert centres from different countries, it is expected that results will lead to strengthen the evidence base for the use of risperidone in CD and improve standards of care. Challenging issues faced by the PERS consortium are described to facilitate future developments in paediatric neuropsychopharmacology. PMID:24337449

Glennon, Jeffrey; Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Bakker, Mireille; Zuddas, Alessandro; Hoekstra, Pieter; Schulze, Ulrike; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Santosh, Paramala J; Arango, Celso; Kölch, Michael; Coghill, David; Flamarique, Itziar; Penzol, Maria J; Wan, Mandy; Murray, Macey; Wong, Ian C K; Danckaerts, Marina; Bonnot, Olivier; Falissard, Bruno; Masi, Gabriele; Fegert, Jörg M; Vicari, Stefano; Carucci, Sara; Dittmann, Ralf W; Buitelaar, Jan K

2014-12-01

46

Risperidone  

Science.gov (United States)

... children 10 years of age and older with bipolar disorder (manic depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes ... hot or warm up when it gets very cold. Tell your doctor if you plan to do ...

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Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Dystonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Local chemodenervation with botulinum toxin (BoNT injections to relax abnormally contracting muscles has been shown to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment in a variety of movement disorders and other neurological and non-neurological disorders. Despite almost 30 years of therapeutic use, there are only few studies of patients treated with BoNT injections over long period of time. These published data clearly support the conclusion that BoNT not only provides safe and effective symptomatic relief of dystonia but also long-term benefit and possibly even favorably modifying the natural history of this disease. The adverse events associated with chronic, periodic exposure to BoNT injections are generally minor and self-limiting. With the chronic use of BoNT and an expanding list of therapeutic indications, there is a need to carefully examine the existing data on the long-term efficacy and safety of BoNT. In this review we will highlight some of the aspects of long-term effects of BoNT, including efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity.

Juan Ramirez-Castaneda

2013-02-01

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Adult Rats Treated with Risperidone during Development Are Hyperactive  

OpenAIRE

Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug approved for use in children, but little is known about the long-term effects of early-life risperidone treatment. In animals, prolonged risperidone administration during development increases forebrain dopamine receptor expression immediately upon the cessation of treatment. A series of experiments was performed to ascertain whether early-life risperidone administration altered locomotor activity, a behavior sensitive to dopamine receptor function, in adu...

Bardgett, Mark E.; Franks-henry, Julie M.; Colemire, Kristin R.; Juneau, Kathleen R.; Stevens, Rachel M.; Marczinski, Cecile A.; Griffith, Molly S.

2013-01-01

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The relationship between prepulse inhibition and general psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia treated with long-acting risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with schizophrenia exhibit impairments in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response. Available data suggest that atypical antipsychotics may be more effective than typical antipsychotics in improving PPI deficits in schizophrenia. However, previous studies have used between-subjects rather than longitudinal within-subjects designs to demonstrate superiority of particular atypical antipsychotics over typical antipsychotics in improving PPI in patients with schizophrenia. This longitudinal within-subjects test-retest study was designed to evaluate changes in PPI and clinical symptoms in patients with schizophrenia after switching from the conventional antipsychotic zuclopenthixol to long-acting injectable risperidone. PPI was measured in 45 chronic male patients with schizophrenia treated with zuclophentixol depot (session T1), and 12 weeks after switching to long-acting injectable risperidone (session T2). Thirty-six healthy control subjects were also evaluated. Patients with schizophrenia showed a significant improvement in PPI after changing to long-acting risperidone. Improvement of PPI deficits between T1 and T2 assessments correlated significantly with improvements in PANSS general psychopathology subscale scores. Our findings indicate that long-acting risperidone improves PPI deficits in subjects with chronic schizophrenia. These results also suggest that the PPI-restoring effect of risperidone may be related to improvement in symptoms other than positive and negative symptoms. PMID:19846280

Martinez-Gras, Isabel; Rubio, Gabriel; del Manzano, Blanca Alvarez; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto; Garcia-Sanchez, Fernando; Bagney, Alexandra; Leza, Juan Carlos; Borrell, José

2009-12-01

50

Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) in treatment of cestode infections in domestic and laboratory animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) by intramuscular (I.M.) route against cestode infections was evaluated. Total 93 domestic or laboratory animals such as dogs, cats, rats, mice, goats, deers and chickens were used. Animals were infected with Dipylidium caninum, Spirometra sp., Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis nana, Moniezia expansa, Moniezia sp. or Raillietina sp. A single dose of praziquantel, 6 mg/kg of body weight, was highly effective (97.9%) against cestodes of various kinds disregarding the host species or their intensity of infection. At high dose above 6 mg/kg, the cure rate was 100%. All the cestodes treated were expelled from the host within 48 hours. The discharged proglottids were damaged severely except Hymenolepis nana and Moniezia expansa. Intramuscular injection of this drug evoked a brief pain response in a dog, but no other side reactions were observed. PMID:12811058

Eom, Kee Seon; Kim, Seung Ho; Rim, Han Jong

1988-06-01

51

Postmortem Femoral Blood Concentrations of Risperidone  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Postmortem femoral blood concentrations of the antipsychotic drug risperidone and the active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined by an achiral LC-MS/MS method in 38 cases. The cause of death was classified as unrelated to risperidone in 30 cases, in which the sum of the concentration of the drug and metabolite ranged from below the limit of quantification to 0.058 mg/kg (median 0.0098 mg/kg). This concentration range, which largely corresponds to published in vivo plasmalevels under therapy, may serve as a reference for judgment of postmortem cases involving risperidone. In one case, risperidone was judged to be a contributing factor to death, and the sum of concentrations was 0.29 mg/kg. This concentration is of the same order of magnitude as observed for plasma levels in clinical intoxication cases. For the remaining seven cases, the cause of death was unclear. The measurements observed here do not suggest that risperidone is subject to major postmortem redistribution.

Linnet, Kristian; Johansen, Sys Stybe

2014-01-01

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Double-blind comparison of ziprasidone and risperidone in the treatment of Chinese patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hongyan Zhang1, Huafang Li2, Liang Shu1, Niufan Gu2, Gang Wang3, Yongzhen Weng3, Shiping Xie4, Xinbao Zhang4, Ting Li5, Cui Ma5, Wei Yu6, Bruce Parsons7, Manjula Schou81Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing, China; 2Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai, China; 3Capital Medical University, Beijing An Ding Hospital, Beijing, China; 4Nanjing Brain Hospital, Nanjing, China; 5Guangzhou Brain Hospital, Guangzhou, China; 6Pfizer China, Beijing, China; 7Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA; 8Pfizer Australia, Sydney, AustraliaBackground: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ziprasidone versus risperidone in Chinese subjects with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.Methods: In patients meeting the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders criteria for schizophrenia and with a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score ?60 were randomly assigned to six weeks of double-blind treatment with ziprasidone 40–80 mg twice daily or risperidone 1–3 mg bid, flexibly dosed. Noninferiority was demonstrated if the upper limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval (CI for the difference in PANSS total score improvement from baseline in the evaluable population was smaller than the prespecified noninferiority margin of 10 units.Results: The intent-to-treat population comprised 118 ziprasidone-treated and 121 risperidone-treated subjects. Improvement (reduction from baseline to week 6 in PANSS total score was (-35.6 [95% CI: -38.6, -32.6] for ziprasidone and (-37.1 [95% CI: -39.9, -34.4] for risperidone. Noninferiority was demonstrated in the evaluable population with a difference score of 1.5 [95% CI: -2.5, 5.5]. Mean prolactin levels decreased at week 6 compared with baseline for ziprasidone (-3.5 ng/mL, but significantly increased for risperidone (61.1 ng/mL; P < 0.001. More risperidone-treated subjects (14.9% than ziprasidone-treated subjects (4.2% reported weight gain ?7%. Akathisia and somnolence in the ziprasidone group and akathisia and insomnia in the risperidone group were the most common side effects. Treatment-related/treatment-emergent adverse events were reported by 79.7% and 71.1% of ziprasidone-treated and risperidone-treated subjects, respectively.Conclusion: In Chinese subjects, ziprasidone was as effective as risperidone, with less weight gain and less prolactin elevation.Keywords: ziprasidone, risperidone, schizophrenia

Hongyan Zhang

2011-03-01

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Comparison of efficacy of kinesiological taping and subacromial injection therapy in subacromial impingement syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of kinesiological taping and subacromial injection therapy in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). Seventy patients diagnosed with SIS were randomly assigned to group 1 (n?=?35, injection group) or group 2 (n?=?35, kinesiological taping group). Betamethasone plus prilocaine was injected to subacromial space in the patients in group 1. In group 2, tape was applied three times for a period of five consecutive days with a 2-day recovery interval. A 3-month exercise program was prescribed for both groups including stretching and strengthening exercises. All patients were assessed at baseline and at 1 and 3 months post-intervention. Assessments were made by visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, range of motion (ROM) measurements, specific tests, and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI). Significant differences were detected in VAS and SPADI scores as well as ROM measurements in both groups when compared to baseline (p?>?0.05). No significant differences were detected between the groups except for active flexion degree in favor of group 1 (p?=?0.004). Both kinesiological taping and steroid injection in conjunction with an exercise program were found to be effective in the treatment of SIS. Kinesio taping may be an alternative treatment option in the rehabilitation of SIS especially when a non-invasive technique is needed. PMID:25403253

Suba??, Volkan; Cak?r, Tuncay; Ar?ca, Zuhal; Sar?er, Rahime Nur; Bilgilisoy Filiz, Meral; Kolda? Do?an, Sebnem; Toraman, Naciye Füsun

2014-11-18

54

Efficacy of ivermectin and moxidectin injection against larvae of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

The therapeutic efficacies of ivermectin (Ivomec injection, Merck Sharp & Dohme B.V.) and moxidectin (Cydectin 1% injection, American Cyanamid Company) were evaluated in sheep naturally infested with larvae of Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Sheep were randomly allocated to one of the 2 groups, each consisting of 19 animals. Sheep in one group received ivermectin and those in the other, moxidectin by subcutaneous injection at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg body weight. Evaluation was performed at 19, 24, 28, 39, 43, 48, 52, 63, 67, 72, 87, 96, 120, 144 and 168 h after treatment. At 144 and 168 h post-treatment, late third-instar larvae were collected from wounds of four sheep in both groups and from untreated, infested sheep. These larvae were reared in the laboratory to assess adult emergence. Neither ivermectin nor moxidectin was effective as a rapid acting treatment or as a long-term, or even short-term, prophylactic. Despite the treatment, 30-40% of sheep had live larvae at every evaluation. Although larvae disappeared from the wounds of some sheep in both groups after the treatment, the wounds in these animals failed to recover and were reinfested by larvae of W. magnifica. On day 7 post-treatment the trial had to be finished because the majority of treated sheep were severely infested by Wohlfahrtia maggots. The average number of infested sheep in the two groups and the number of adults that were produced from larvae collected from treated sheep indicate that ivermectin and moxidectin did not differ significantly in efficacy. PMID:8825451

Farkas, R; Hall, M J; Dániel, M; Börzsönyi, L

1996-01-01

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Efficacy of submucosal injection of different solutions inclusive blood components on mucosa elevation for endoscopic resection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oliver H Al-Taie1, Yildiz Bauer2, Christoph G Dietrich3, Wolfgang Fischbach21Department of Internal Medicine, Sankt Elisabeth-Hospital, Gütersloh, 2Department of Internal Medicine II, Klinikum Aschaffenburg, Aschaffenburg, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Bethlehem-Hospital, Stolberg, GermanyBackground: Endoscopic resection has become the standard treatment for noninvasive gastrointestinal malignancies. In flat mucosal tumors, normal saline is frequently used for submucosal fluid injection in order to reduce the risk of complications during endoscopic resection. Recent studies have demonstrated longer-lasting mucosa elevation by injection of agents such as hyaluronic acid or glyceol, rather than normal saline. We investigated the efficacy of different blood components in comparison with other solutions for use as a submucosal fluid cushion.Methods: Normal saline, sodium hyaluronate, glyceol, hydroxyethyl starch, serum, plasma, and whole blood were evaluated for their effectiveness in creating a submucosal cushion. One milliliter of each solution was injected into the submucosa of 5 × 5 cm specimens of resected porcine stomach. Mucosa elevation was measured before and up to 60 minutes after injection.Results: The shortest duration of mucosa elevation was observed after injection of normal saline, glyceol, and 0.125% hyaluronic acid. A significantly longer duration was obtained after injection of hydroxyethyl starch, 0.25% and 0.5% hyaluronic acid, serum, and plasma. However, whole blood generated a longer-lasting mucosa elevation than all other agents.Conclusion: The results of the current study suggest that whole blood is more effective in generating long-lasting mucosa elevation than any other commonly used solution. Because autologous blood is readily available at almost no cost, this seems to be an optimal agent for creating the mucosa elevation needed for endoscopic resection. Further in vivo studies in humans are needed to clarify the potential role of autologous blood for long-lasting endoscopic mucosa resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection.Keywords: submucosal injection, blood components, sodium hyaluronate, glycerol, normal saline, endoscopic mucosal resection

Al-Taie OH

2012-04-01

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A 12-week subchronic intramuscular toxicity study of risperidone-loaded microspheres in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-acting injectable formulations of antipsychotics have been an important treatment option to increase the compliance of the patient with schizophrenia by monitoring drug administration and identifying medication noncompliance and to improve the long-term management of schizophrenia. Risperidone, a serotoninergic 5-HT2 and dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonist, was developed to be a long-acting sustained-release formulation for the treatment of schizophrenia. In this study, 12-week subchronic toxicity study of risperidone-loaded microspheres (RMs) in rats by intramuscular injection with an 8-week recovery phase was carried out to investigate the potential subchronic toxicity of a novel long-acting sustained-release formulation. The results indicated that the dosage of 10-90 mg/kg of RM for 2 weeks did not cause treatment-related mortality. The main drug-related findings were contributed to the dopamine D2 receptor and ?1-adrenoceptor antagonism of risperidone such as elevation of serum and pituitary prolactin levels and ptosis and changes in reproductive system (uterus, ovary, vagina, mammary gland, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymis, and prostate). In addition, foreign body granuloma in muscle at injection sites caused by poly-lactide-co-glycolide was observed. At the end of the recovery phase, these changes mostly returned to normal. The results indicated that RM had a good safety profile in rats. PMID:24812153

Zhang, J; Ye, L; Wang, W; Du, G; Yu, X; Zhu, X; Dong, Q; Cen, X; Guan, X; Fu, F; Tian, J

2015-02-01

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Combined use of ozone and collagenase injection for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation:comparison of therapeutic efficacy with simple ozone injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To observe the therapeutic effects of combined use of ozone and collagenase injection in treating lumbar disc herniation and to make a comparison of therapeutic efficacy with simple ozone injection. Methods: Under DSA guidance,percutaneous puncturing of diseased lumbar disk with a gauge 9 needle was performed in 76 patient with lumbar disc herniation. After the needle position was confirmed in the right site simple ozone injection (control group, n=38) or combined use of ozone and collagenase injection (study group, n=38) was carried outs. The clinical results were evaluated and compared between two groups. Results: After the treatment, all 76 patients were followed up regularly at 1, 3 and 6 months. At 1, 3 and 6 months after the therapy, the effective rate of study group was 89.5%, 92.1% and 94.7% respectively, while the effective rate of control group was 86.8%, 84.2% and 81.6% respectively. Conclusion: For the treatment of lumbar disc herniation, the therapeutic effect of combined use of ozone and collagenase injection is much better than that by using simple ozone injection, moreover, it carries a quite stable long-term efficacy. (authors)

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Efficacy and Tolerability of Fixed-Dose Combination of Dexketoprofen and Dicyclomine Injection in Acute Renal Colic  

OpenAIRE

Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed-dose combination of dexketoprofen and dicyclomine (DXD) injection in patients with acute renal colic. Patients and Methods. Two hundred and seventeen patients were randomized to receive either DXD (n = 109) or fixed-dose combination of diclofenac and dicyclomine injection (DLD; n = 108), intramuscularly. Pain intensity (PI) was self-evaluated by patients on visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. E...

Kshirsagar, S. N.; Basu, I.; Naik, R. C.; Dhorepatil, S.; Walvekar, R. S.; Bhatnagar, S. K.; Badadare, A.; Enadle, R. P.; Kamat, V.; Balamurugan, S.; Sheth, D. N.; Erram, S. S.; Oswal, D. S.; Mahajan, A. D.; Porwal, A.

2012-01-01

59

Population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation to guide dose selection for RBP-7000, a new sustained-release formulation of risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

RBP-7000 is a long-acting formulation of risperidone designed for once-monthly subcutaneous injection for the treatment of schizophrenia. The objective was to estimate clinically effective doses of RBP-7000 based on model simulations and on the comparison with other long-acting injectable antipsychotics. A population pharmacokinetic model of RBP-7000 was developed in 90 clinically stable schizophrenic patients having received single/repeated doses of 60, 90, or 120?mg. Model simulations were conducted to compare active moiety plasma exposure after repeated RBP-7000 administrations to the published data of long-acting risperidone injection (Risperdal® Consta®) at 25 and 50?mg, and of paliperidone palmitate (Invega® Sustenna®) at 50 and 100?mg equivalent paliperidone. Predictions of dopamine D2 receptor occupancy were derived from the simulated active moiety concentrations. Simulations showed similar active moiety plasma exposure at steady-state for 90?mg of RBP-7000 and 25?mg of long-acting risperidone. In comparison to risperidone, RBP-7000 reached effective concentrations immediately after the first administration. RBP-7000 at the doses of 60 and 90?mg provided similar active moiety plasma concentrations at steady-state compared to 50 and 100?mg equivalent paliperidone, respectively. These findings provide guidance for dose selection in Phase III clinical trials and suggest potential benefits for RBP-7000 over competitors. PMID:25043337

Laffont, Celine M; Gomeni, Roberto; Zheng, Bo; Heidbreder, Christian; Fudala, Paul J; Nasser, Azmi F

2015-01-01

60

Efficacy of Optical Internal Urethrotomy and Intralesional Injection of Vatsala-Santosh PGI Tri-Inject (Triamcinolone, Mitomycin C, and Hyaluronidase) in the Treatment of Anterior Urethral Stricture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. To study the efficacy of optical internal urethrotomy with intralesional injection of Vatsala-Santosh PGI tri-inject (triamcinolone, mitomycin C, and hyaluronidase) in the treatment of anterior urethral stricture. Material and Methods. A total of 103 patients with symptomatic anterior urethral stricture were evaluated on the basis of clinical history, physical examination, uroflowmetry, and retrograde urethrogram preoperatively. All patients were treated with optical internal urethrotomy followed by injection of tri-inject at the urethrotomy site. Tri-inject was prepared by diluting the combination of triamcinolone 40?mg, mitomycin C 2?mg, and hyaluronidase 3000 in 5-10?mL of saline according to length of stricture. An indwelling 18?Fr silicone catheter was left in place for a period of 7-21 days. All patients were followed up for 6-18 months postoperatively on the basis of history, uroflowmetry, and, if required, retrograde urethrogram and micturating urethrogram every 3 months. Results. The overall recurrence rate after first OIU is 19.4% (20 out of 103 patients), that is, a success rate of 80.6%. Overall recurrence rate after second procedure was 5.8% (6 out of 103 patients), that is, a success rate of 94.2%. Conclusion. Optical internal urethrotomy with intralesional injection of Vatsala-Santosh PGI tri-inject (triamcinolone, mitomycin C, and hyaluronidase) is a safe and effective minimally invasive therapeutic modality for short segment anterior urethral strictures. PMID:25349604

Kumar, Santosh; Garg, Nitin; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Mandal, Arup Kumar

2014-01-01

61

Efficacy of injections of phosphatidylcholine into fat deposits-a non-surgical alternative to liposuction in body-contouring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injecting phosphatidylcholine has been used in South America as a non-surgical treatment in body contouring. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of injecting phosphatidylcholine in the reduction of localised fat deposits. 86 patients were included in the study. Patients received 1-3 treatments in localised fat deposits in various areas of the body using phosphatidylcholine. After treatment with phosphatidylcholine (250 mg / 5 ml, fat deposits show an average circumferential reduction per application of 2.70 cm. No patient showed irregularities, dimples or any serious side effect after treatment. Results remained stable during the time of follow up. All patients showed remarkable reductions of the fat deposits treated with phosphatidylcholine. Using the correct technique, injecting phosphatidylcholine may be a safe and efficacious alternative to liposuction in patients objecting to surgery.

Karl-G Heinrich

2005-01-01

62

Risperidone in the treatment of bipolar mania  

OpenAIRE

Atypical antipsychotic medications have assumed growing importance for the treatment of bipolar disorder, an illness that affects approximately 1.2%–3.7% of the general population in a given year. Current practice guidelines for the treatment of bipolar mania support the use of atypical antipsychotic medications as monotherapy or as a component of polytherapy, and in clinical settings the use of atypical antipsychotics to treat bipolar disorder is widespread. Risperidone is an atypical anti...

Sajatovic, Martha; Subramoniam, Madhusoodanan; Fuller, Matthew A.

2006-01-01

63

A Case of Priapism with Risperidone  

OpenAIRE

Priapism is a urologic emergency defined as a prolonged, possibly painful, penile erection. There are several known causes of priapism including psychotropic medications. One of the mechanisms by which antipsychotics are believed to induce priapism is through alpha-1 antagonism. This is case of a 50-year-old male with a history of schizophrenia with previous priapism related to trazodone, who presents with new onset priapism associated with risperidone. In this case, the treatment of priapism...

Almari Ginory; Mathew Nguyen

2014-01-01

64

Efficacy of ultrasound-guided intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma versus hyaluronic acid for hip osteoarthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) represent efficacious medical treatments for osteoarthritis (OA), although no comparative study on long-term efficacy in hip OA exists. The goals of the current study were to compare the clinical efficacy of PRP vs HA at 12 months of follow-up in patients with hip OA and evaluate the influence of the type of infiltration and patient age, sex, body mass index, and degree of OA on temporal clinical evolution. One hundred patients with chronic unilateral symptomatic hip OA were consecutively enrolled and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: group A received PRP and group B received HA administered via intra-articular ultrasound-guided injections. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months using the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and visual analog scale (VAS). An overall improvement was detected in both groups between 1- and 3-month follow-up. Despite a slightly progressive worsening between 6- and 12-month follow-up, the final clinical scores remained higher compared with baseline (PIntra-articular injections of PRP are efficacious in terms of functional improvement and pain reduction but are not superior to HA in patients with symptomatic hip OA at 12-month follow-up. PMID:24579221

Battaglia, Milva; Guaraldi, Federica; Vannini, Francesca; Rossi, Giuseppe; Timoncini, Antonio; Buda, Roberto; Giannini, Sandro

2013-12-01

65

Efficacy of Combined Balloon-occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration and Simultaneous Endoscopic Injection Sclerotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective We evaluated the efficacy and safety of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) performed using absolute ethanol with iodized oil (ET+LPD) and simultaneous endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) with cyanoacrylate (CA) for gastric varices (GVs). Methods A total of 16 patients with endoscopically proven high-risk GVs treated using combined B-RTO with ET+LPD and EIS with CA between January 2007 and July 2012 were enrolled. Results Twelve cases included GVs involving both the cardia and fundus, two cases included fundal varices and two cases included cardiac varices. In terms of the form of GVs, 10 cases involved F2 lesions and six cases involved F3 lesions. The flow vein was the left gastric vein in 13 cases and the posterior gastric vein in three cases. The drainage route was a splenorenal shunt in all cases. The average dose of ET+LPD was 12.0 mL, while that of CA was 2.45 mL. All complications were transient, and no major complications occurred after the procedures. None of the patients experienced bleeding or recurrence of gastric varices after the combined B-RTO and EIS procedures during an average follow-up period of 38.3 months. Conclusion Combined B-RTO with ET+LPD and simultaneous EIS with CA is considered to be an effective and safe procedure for treating GVs. PMID:25748733

Sato, Wataru; Kamada, Kentaro; Goto, Takashi; Ohshima, Shigetoshi; Miura, Kouichi; Shibuya, Tomomi; Dohmen, Takahiro; Kanata, Ryo; Sakai, Toshitaka; Chiba, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Yuko; Minami, Shinichiro; Ishiyama, Koichi; Hashimoto, Manabu; Ohnishi, Hirohide

2015-01-01

66

Efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotic drugs (quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole and paliperidone) compared with placebo or typical antipsychotic drugs for treating refractory schizophrenia: overview of systematic reviews / Eficácia e segurança dos antipsicóticos atípicos (quetiapina, risperidona, aripiprazol, paliperidona) em comparação com um placebo ou medicamentos antipsicóticos típicos no tratamento da esquizofrenia refratária: overview de revisão sistemática  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: De acordo com alguns estudos de coorte, a prevalência da esquizofrenia refratária (ER) está entre 20-40%. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a efetividade e segurança de aripiprazol, paliperidona, quetiapina e risperidona no tratamento da esquizofrenia refratária. MÉTODOS: Avaliação crí [...] tica das revisões Cochrane publicadas na Biblioteca Cochrane e complementação com referências de ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECRs) mais atualizados sobre ER. As seguintes bases de dados foram pesquisadas: Medline (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online) (1966-2009), Ensaios Controlados da Colaboração Cochrane (2009, edição 2), Embase (Excerpta Database) (1980-2009), Lilacs (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) (1982-2009). Não houve restrição a idiomas. Ensaios clínicos randomizados, revisões sistemáticas e metanálises que avaliaram antipsicóticos atípicos no tratamento da esquizofrenia refratária foram incluídos. RESULTADOS: Sete revisões sistemáticas Cochrane e 10 ECRs complementares foram incluídos nessa revisão. No geral os dados demonstram pequenas diferenças entre os antipsicóticos atípicos avaliados e os típicos na melhora dos sintomas da doença, apesar da melhor adesão ao tratamento com os atípicos. A risperidona foi avaliada especificamente em pacientes com esquizofrenia refratária em uma das revisões sistemáticas incluídas, a qual demonstrou desfechos favoráveis, porém não definitivos quando comparada a drogas também com eficácia comprovada como amisulprida, clozapina e olanzapina. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados reforçam a dificuldade de tratar esses pacientes, com elevadas taxas de desistência do tratamento e padrões de melhora modestos nas avaliações de eficácia. Os antipsicóticos atípicos têm vantagens sobre os típicos principalmente pelo melhor perfil de segurança, o que leva a melhor adesão ao tratamento. A associação de antipsicóticos também pode ser uma opção em alguns pacientes refratários ao tratamento. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: According to some cohort studies, the prevalence of refractory schizophrenia (RS) is 20-40%. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of aripiprazole, paliperidone, quetiapine and risperidone for treating RS. METHODS: This was a critical appraisal of Cochrane revie [...] ws published in the Cochrane Library, supplemented with reference to more recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on RS. The following databases were searched: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline) (1966-2009), Controlled Trials of the Cochrane Collaboration (2009, Issue 2), Embase (Excerpta Medica) (1980-2009), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs) (1982-2009). There was no language restriction. Randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses evaluating atypical antipsychotics for treating RS were included. RESULTS: Seven Cochrane systematic reviews and 10 additional RCTs were included in this review. The data generally showed minor differences between the atypical antipsychotics evaluated and typical antipsychotics, regarding improvement in disease symptoms, despite better adherence to treatment with atypical antipsychotics. Risperidone was specifically evaluated in patients with RS in one of the systematic reviews included, with favorable outcomes, but without definitive superiority compared with other drugs of proven efficacy, like amisulpride, clozapine and olanzapine. CONCLUSIONS: The findings underscore the difficulty in treating these patients, with high dropout rates and treatment patterns of modest improvement in assessments of effectiveness. Atypical antipsychotics have advantages over typical antipsychotics mainly through their better safety profile, which leads to better adherence to treatment. A combination of antipsychotics may also be an option for some refractory patients.

Tamara, Melnik; Bernardo Garcia, Soares; Maria Eduarda dos Santos, Puga; Álvaro Nagib, Atallah.

2010-05-01

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Haloperidol and risperidone in the treatment of delirium and its subtypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Background and Objectives: To compare the safety and efficacy of haloperidol and risperidone in the treatment of delirium and its subtypes Methods: We collected sociodemographic data and medical variables in addition to systematically rating all patients with delirium with the Memorial Delirium Asse [...] ssment Scale (MDAS), Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPS) and abbreviated Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU) at baseline (T1), 2-3 days (T2) and 4-7 days (T3) and created an IRB-approved delirium database. For this secondary analysis we extracted all data containing haloperidol (HAL) and risperidone (RIS). Results: We were able to retrieve 32 patients treated with haloperidol (HAL) and risperidone (RIS) each. Both samples did not significantly differ in respect to age, cancer diagnoses or etiologies. The MDAS scores at baseline were higher in HAL treated subjects (20.2) compared to RIS treated subjects (17.7). The treatment results between HAL and RIS were not significantly different: Over the course of treatment MDAS scores improved from 20.2 to 8.3 (HAL) and 17.7 to 7.5 in (RIS), delirium resolution rates were 68.8% (HAL) and 84.4% (RIS). In hypoactive delirium the MDAS scores improved from 18.5 to 9.3 (HAL) and from 15.3 to 6.6 (RIS), delirium resolution rates were 64.3% (HAL) and 91.3% (RIS). In hyperactive delirium the MDAS scores improved from 22.5 to 6.6 (HAL) and 20.1 to 8.4 (RIS), delirium resolution rates were 72.2% (HAL) and 75% (RIS). There were no significant differences in KPS scores at all observation times. Treatment with HAL caused more EPS. Conclusions: Both haloperidol and risperidone may be equally effective in the treatment of delirium and its subtypes. Treatment with haloperidol resulted in more side effects.

Soenke, Boettger; William, Breitbart; Steven, Passik.

2011-06-01

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A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Risperidone for the Treatment of Adolescents and Young Adults with Anorexia Nervosa: A Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory pilot study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of risperidone for the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Method: Forty female subjects 12 to 21 years of age (mean, 16 years) with primary anorexia nervosa in an eating disorders program were randomized to receive…

Hagman, Jennifer; Gralla, Jane; Sigel, Eric; Ellert, Swan; Dodge, Mindy; Gardner, Rick; O'Lonergan, Teri; Frank, Guido; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.

2011-01-01

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Preparation and Biological Evaluation of Radioiodinated Risperidone and Lamotrigine as Models for Brain Imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brain imaging technology is becoming an important tool in both research and clinical care. Due to the sensitivity of brain imaging technology, neuroscientists are able to visualize brain structure and function from the level of individual molecules to the whole brain, recognize and diagnose neurological disorders, develop new strategies for treatment and determine how therapies work. The study aimed to take advantages from drugs that are able to cross the brain barrier for the development of potential radiopharmaceuticals for non-invasive brain imaging. Risperidone and lamotrigine were successfully labeled with 125I via direct electrophilic substitution reaction at 80 degree C. The reaction parameters affecting the preparation process were studied. 125I-risperidone and 125I-lamotrigine gave maximum labeling yield of 89 % ± 3.75 and 97.5 % ± 1.0 %, respectively and their stability were up to 6 and 24 h, respectively. Biodistribution studies showed that maximum uptake of 125I-risperidone and 125I-lamotrigine in the brain of mice were 4.27 % ± 0.38 and 2.45 % ± 0.18 of the injected activity/g tissue organ, at 10

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Pharmacokinetic and efficacy study of cisplatin and paclitaxel formulated in a new injectable poly(sebacic-co-ricinoleic acid) polymer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Injectable biodegradable polymer poly(sebacic-co-ricinoleic acid), P(SA-RA) is currently under development for intratumoral (IT) delivery of drugs for treating solid tumors. This study presents formulation development, pharmacokinetic and efficacy studies of two anticancer drugs (cisplatin and paclitaxel) formulated with P(SA-RA) polymer. In pharmacokinetic study, systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic parameters of cisplatin/paclitaxel following single intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) doses of cisplatin/paclitaxel was compared with intramuscular (IM) or SC doses of cisplatin/paclitaxel formulated with P(SA-RA) polymer in male CD rat. Simultaneously, the tumor reduction effect and toxicity for these formulations were evaluated in human FaDu head and neck tumor xenograft subcutaneous nude mouse model. Pharmacokinetic data reflect the lower maximal concentrations and sustained release of polymer-cisplatin/paclitaxel formulations compared to standard cisplatin/paclitaxel administration. Regarding efficacy study, a single IT or near the tumor injection (NT) of polymer-paclitaxel or polymer-cisplatin formulation significantly reduced the tumor size, compared to the standard paclitaxel or cisplatin treatments. No death or toxicity and no effect on body weight as well as macroscopic and/or microscopic changes in or near the injected area were observed, proving biocompatibility and acceptability of polymer-formulations. In conclusion, the developed formulation demonstrated controlled release and significant efficacy in delivering these agents and exhibit potential for further clinical development. PMID:22732267

Levy-Nissenbaum, Etgar; Khan, Wahid; Pawar, Rajendra P; Tabakman, Rinat; Naftali, Esmira; Winkler, Ilan; Kaufman, Olga; Klapper, Leah; Domb, Abraham J

2012-09-01

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Efficacy and tolerability of fixed-dose combination of dexketoprofen and dicyclomine injection in acute renal colic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed-dose combination of dexketoprofen and dicyclomine (DXD) injection in patients with acute renal colic. Patients and Methods. Two hundred and seventeen patients were randomized to receive either DXD (n = 109) or fixed-dose combination of diclofenac and dicyclomine injection (DLD; n = 108), intramuscularly. Pain intensity (PI) was self-evaluated by patients on visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. Efficacy parameters were proportion of responders, difference in PI (PID) at 8 hours, and sum of analogue of pain intensity differences (SAPID). Tolerability was assessed by patients and physicians. Results. DXD showed superior efficacy in terms of proportion of responders (98.17% versus 81.48; P < 0.0001), PID at 8 hours (P = 0.002), and SAPID(0-8?hours) (P = 0.004). The clinical global impression for change in pain was significantly better for DXD than DLD. The incidence of adverse events was comparable in both groups. However, global assessment of tolerability was rated significantly better for DXD. Conclusion. DXD showed superior efficacy and tolerability than DLD in patients clinically diagnosed to be suffering from acute renal colic. PMID:22577544

Porwal, A; Mahajan, A D; Oswal, D S; Erram, S S; Sheth, D N; Balamurugan, S; Kamat, V; Enadle, R P; Badadare, A; Bhatnagar, S K; Walvekar, R S; Dhorepatil, S; Naik, R C; Basu, I; Kshirsagar, S N; Keny, J V; Sengupta, S

2012-01-01

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Spectrophotometric Estimation of Risperidone in Tablets  

OpenAIRE

A simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of risperidone in tablet formulation. The method is based on the oxidation of drug using potassium permanganate in alkaline medium and excess potassium permanganate oxidizes 1,10-phenanthroline Fe(II). The measurement of decrease in absorbance of 1,10-phenanthroline Fe (II) was done at 415 nm. The beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5.0 to 40.0 ?g/ml and molar absorptivity is foun...

Jayanna, B. K.; Devaraj, T. D.; Roopa, K. P.; Nagendrappa, G.; Kumar, H. R. Arun; Gowda, N.

2014-01-01

73

Spectrophotometric estimation of risperidone in tablets.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of risperidone in tablet formulation. The method is based on the oxidation of drug using potassium permanganate in alkaline medium and excess potassium permanganate oxidizes 1,10-phenanthroline Fe(II). The measurement of decrease in absorbance of 1,10-phenanthroline Fe (II) was done at 415 nm. The beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5.0 to 40.0 ?g/ml and molar absorptivity is found to be 7.3932 × 10(4) l/mol/cm. The proposed method is well suited for the pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25425761

Jayanna, B K; Devaraj, T D; Roopa, K P; Nagendrappa, G; Kumar, H R Arun; Gowda, N

2014-09-01

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Efficacy of a single ultrasound-guided injection for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Intra-articular injection is effective for osteoarthritis, but the best single injection strategy is not known, nor are there established predictors of response. The objectives of this study were to assess and predict response to a single ultrasound-guided injection in moderate to severe hip osteoarthritis.

Atchia, Ismaël

2011-01-01

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Efficacy of sofosbuvir-based therapies in HIV/HCV infected patients and persons who inject drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the era of Directly Acting anti HCV Antivirals treatment of hepatitis C is successful in the majority of persons treated. However, treatment of persons with HIV or who inject drugs remains challenging because of special issues: drug-drug interactions with antiretroviral, psychiatric and drug substitution therapies, treatment adherence, impact of treatment on HIV disease course or on risk of bacterial infections. Sofosbuvir induced sustained virologic response in 91% of 23 HIV/HCV coinfected persons treated in combination with ribavirin and pegylated interferon, in 83% of 497 treated in combination with ribavirin and in all 50 patients infected with HCV GT1 treated in combination with ledipasvir and ribavirin. The rates of efficacy in HCV-HIV coinfected were almost the same as those observed in HCV monoinfected suggesting that the efficacy of sofosbuvir is not reduced by HIV coinfection. There are no data on the efficacy of sofosbuvir in injection drugs users. The pangenotypic activity, the high barrier to resistance, the modest potential for drug-drug interactions makes sofosbuvir a reference drug for the treatment of these two special populations. PMID:25458781

Puoti, Massimo; Panzeri, Claudia; Rossotti, Roberto; Baiguera, Chiara

2014-12-15

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Efficacy and complication of botulinum toxin injection in palatal myoclonus: experience from a patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the outcome of botulinum toxin injection for essential palatal myoclonus, given on two occasions over a period of one year, in an eight-year-old boy, the youngest patient treated with botulinum toxin to date. Though there was significant relief of ear clicks each time after the injection, he developed severe palatal palsy following the second injection, which persisted for a month. We suggest that appropriate caution needs to be exercised when repeating botulinum toxin injections for palatal myoclonus in children. PMID:17516476

Pal, Pramod Kumar; Lakshmi, Ponnathpur Satish; Nirmala, Muninarayanappa

2007-07-30

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Development of Analytical Method for Risperidone by UV Spectrophotometry  

OpenAIRE

A simple, sensitive, specific, spectrophotometric method developed for the detection of Risperidone in bulk drug and Pharmaceutical formulation. The optimum conditions for the analysis of the drug wereestablished. The ? max of the Risperidone was found to be 280 nm. The method shows high sensitivity with linearity 2 to 6? g/ml. The lower limit of detection and the limit of quantification was found to be 1.012 and 3.036 respectively. All the calibration curves shows a linear relationship bet...

M.Sravan Kumar,; Anton Smith, A.; G.Alagumani Vasagam,; Kottai Muthu, A.; Manavalan, R.

2010-01-01

78

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to risperidone misdiagnosed as status epilepticus  

OpenAIRE

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but potentially fatal disease characterized by fever, muscle rigidity, delirium and autonomic instability. Here we report a child, with NMS due to the risperidone misdiagnosed as status epilepticus. Nine year old boy, who had been under high dose risperidone treatment for 8 weeks, admitted to the emergency room because of the contractions (evaluated as status epilepticus) persisting for 7 hours. Since there was neuroleptic treatment in the past m...

Fevziye Toros; Cetin Okuyaz; Meryem Ozlem Kutuk; Ali Ertug Arslankoylu

2011-01-01

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De Quervain’s disease: efficacy of intra-sheath triamcinolone injection  

OpenAIRE

The methods and clinical outcomes of intra-sheath triamcinolone injection in the treatment of de Quervain’s disease are described. We used 38 hands of 36 patients. A mixture of 1 ml of triamcinolone and 1 ml of 1% lidocaine hydrochloride was injected, with an interval of 2 weeks. The fluid was injected into one point above the induration for the first 18 hands and into two points over the extensor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis longus tendon in the induration for hands 19–38. Th...

Sawaizumi, Takuya; Nanno, Mitsuhiko; Ito, Hiromoto

2006-01-01

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The Efficacy of Local Injection of Methylprednisolone and Lidocaine with and Without Splint, in Treating Patients with De Quervain's Tenosynovitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Suffering from de Quervain's tenosynovitis due to repetitive and routine activities leads to considerable referrals to orthopedic clinics and increasing health care costs and wasting of patients' time. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of local injection of methylprednisolone with and without splint for treatment of patients suffering from de Quervain's tenosynovitis. Methods: In a clinical trial study, 72 patients with de Quervain's tenosynovitis were selected in 2010 and were randomly divided into two groups. Therapeutic intervention in the first group was injection of 40 mg methylprednisone and 1 ml lidocaine with splint, and in the second group it was injection 40 mg methylprednisone and 1ml lidocaine without splint. Both groups followed this treatment for three periods(21 day. The related data were collected by visual analogue scale. Then data was analyzed by SPSS (ver. 16 using Fisher exact test and t test. Results: The findings of this study revealed that after the 3-week period of treatment the mean reduced pain intensity and improvement in the first group was significantly lower than the second group(p<0/05. Conclusion: Therefore, local injection of methylprednisone and lidocaine with splint is an effective method in the treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis.

Saleh

2012-02-01

81

A comparison of low-dose risperidone to paroxetine in the treatment of panic attacks: a randomized, single-blind study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Because a large proportion of patients with panic attacks receiving approved pharmacotherapy do not respond or respond poorly to medication, it is important to identify additional therapeutic strategies for the management of panic symptoms. This article describes a randomized, rater-blind study comparing low-dose risperidone to standard-of-care paroxetine for the treatment of panic attacks. Methods Fifty six subjects with a history of panic attacks were randomized to receive either risperidone or paroxetine. The subjects were then followed for eight weeks. Outcome measures included the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (Ham-A, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D, the Sheehan Panic Anxiety Scale-Patient (SPAS-P, and the Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI. Results All subjects demonstrated a reduction in both the frequency and severity of panic attacks regardless of treatment received. Statistically significant improvements in rating scale scores for both groups were identified for the PDSS, the Ham-A, the Ham-D, and the CGI. There was no difference between treatment groups in the improvement in scores on the measures PDSS, Ham-A, Ham-D, and CGI. Post hoc tests suggest that subjects receiving risperidone may have a quicker clinical response than subjects receiving paroxetine. Conclusion We can identify no difference in the efficacy of paroxetine and low-dose risperidone in the treatment of panic attacks. Low-dose risperidone appears to be tolerated equally well as paroxetine. Low-dose risperidone may be an effective treatment for anxiety disorders in which panic attacks are a significant component. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT100457106

Galynker Igor I

2009-05-01

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Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Celecoxib in a Rabbit Model of Osteoarthritis  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It is a slowly progressive joint disease typically seen in middle-age to elderly people. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is a well-documented treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Celebrex® (celecoxib) is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which could help to reduce inflammation and to reduce pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intra-articular injection of celecoxib in a rabbit osteo...

Huilin Yang; Genlin Wang; Dinghua Jiang; Lixin Huang; Qin Shi; Xuesong Zhu; Jun Zou

2010-01-01

83

Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Dystonia  

OpenAIRE

Local chemodenervation with botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections to relax abnormally contracting muscles has been shown to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment in a variety of movement disorders and other neurological and non-neurological disorders. Despite almost 30 years of therapeutic use, there are only few studies of patients treated with BoNT injections over long period of time. These published data clearly support the conclusion that BoNT not only provides safe and effective sympt...

Juan Ramirez-Castaneda; Joseph Jankovic

2013-01-01

84

Paliperidone ER in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: a pilot study of efficacy and tolerability  

OpenAIRE

Antipsychotics are recommended for the treatment of impulsive dyscontrol and cognitive perceptual symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Three reports supported the efficacy of oral risperidone on BPD psychopathology. Paliperidone ER is the metabolite of risperidone with a similar mechanism of action, and its osmotic release reduces plasmatic fluctuations and antidopaminergic effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER in BPD patie...

Bellino, Silvio; Bozzatello, Paola; Rinaldi, Camilla; Bogetto, Filippo

2011-01-01

85

Anti-depressive effectiveness of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone: a pragmatic, randomized trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficacy studies indicate anti-depressive effects of at least some second generation antipsychotics (SGAs. The Bergen Psychosis Project (BPP is a 24-month, pragmatic, industry-independent, randomized, head-to-head comparison of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone in patients acutely admitted with psychosis. The aim of the study is to investigate whether differential anti-depressive effectiveness exists among SGAs in a clinically relevant sample of patients acutely admitted with psychosis. Methods Adult patients acutely admitted to an emergency ward for psychosis were randomized to olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone and followed for up to 2 years. Participants were assessed repeatedly using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale - Depression factor (PANSS-D and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS. Results A total of 226 patients were included. A significant time-effect showing a steady decline in depressive symptoms in all medication groups was demonstrated. There were no substantial differences among the SGAs in reducing the PANSS-D score or the CDSS sum score. Separate analyses of groups with CDSS sum scores > 6 or ?6, respectively, reflecting degree of depressive morbidity, revealed essentially identical results to the primary analyses. There was a high correlation between the PANSS-D and the CDSS sum score (r = 0.77; p Conclusions There was no substantial difference in anti-depressive effectiveness among olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone in this clinically relevant sample of patients acutely admitted to hospital for symptoms of psychosis. Based on our findings we can make no recommendations concerning choice of any particular SGA for targeting symptoms of depression in a patient acutely admitted with psychosis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/: NCT00932529

Løberg Else-Marie

2011-08-01

86

Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Celecoxib in a Rabbit Model of Osteoarthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It is a slowly progressive joint disease typically seen in middle-age to elderly people. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is a well-documented treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Celebrex® (celecoxib is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which could help to reduce inflammation and to reduce pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intra-articular injection of celecoxib in a rabbit osteoarthritis model. Methods: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits underwent unilateral knee joint surgery using the Hulth technique. Six weeks post-surgery, the animals were randomly divided into three groups, and each group was respectively given weekly intra-articular injections with Celebrex®, hyaluronic acid and saline. On the sixth week, the results were assessed in rabbit models by gross observation, histological evaluation, and expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, MMP-3. Results: In the group given Celebrex® and hyaluronic acid, the pathological changes in the rabbit articular cartilage improved significantly, much more than in the saline group. The statistically significant suppression of IL-1?, TNF-?, MMP-3 was shown in the Celebrex group. No significant differences were detected between two treatment groups. Conclusions: Intra-articular injection of celecoxib is beneficial for knee osteoarthritis. It might repair and protect early osteoarthritis cartilage by delaying cartilage degeneration and impairing the function of inflammatory mediators, therefore, intra-articular injection of celecoxib can be used as an alternative to the current treatment of osteoarthritis.

Huilin Yang

2010-10-01

87

Once-monthly paliperidone injection for the treatment of schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Delia BisharaPharmacy Department, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United KingdomAbstract: Paliperidone palmitate is a new long-acting antipsychotic injection for the treatment of acute and maintenance therapy in schizophrenia. Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone is the major active metabolite of risperidone and acts at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT2A receptors. As with other atypical antipsychotics, it exhibits a high 5HT2A:D2 affinity ratio. It also has binding activity as an antagonist at ?1- and ?2 adrenergic receptors and H1 histaminergic receptors, but has virtually no affinity for cholinergic receptors. Paliperidone palmitate has been shown to be effective in reducing Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores in four short-term trials in acute schizophrenia. It was also effective as maintenance therapy in a long-term trial in which time to recurrence of symptoms was significantly longer in paliperidone-treated patients compared with placebo. In addition, paliperidone was shown to be noninferior to risperidone long-acting injection in one study, but this noninferiority was not established in another longer study comparing the two drugs. Treatment should be initiated with 234 mg on day 1 and 156 mg on day 8, followed by a recommended monthly maintenance dose of 39–234 mg based on efficacy and tolerability. Paliperidone palmitate is generally well tolerated, although it can cause weight gain and a rise in prolactin levels, which is generally greater in women than in men. Overall, paliperidone palmitate may have advantages over other currently available long-acting injections, and therefore may be a useful alternative for the treatment of schizophrenia, although further long-term trials comparing it with active treatments are warranted.Keywords: paliperidone palmitate, injection, schizophrenia, long-acting

Delia Bishara

2010-09-01

88

Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fine needles with an end hole or multiple side holes have traditionally been used for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) of hepatomas. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of PEI of unresectable medium-to-large (3.5-9 cm) hepatomas using a multipronged needle and with conscious sedation. Twelve patients, eight men and four women (age 51-77 years; mean: 69) received PEI for hepatomas, mostly subcapsular or exophytic in location with average tumor size of 5.6 cm (range: 3.5-9.0 cm). Patients were consciously sedated and an 18G retractable multipronged needle (Quadrafuse needle; Rex Medical, Philadelphia, PA) was used for injection under real-time ultrasound guidance. By varying the length of the prongs and rotating the needle, the alcohol was widely distributed within the tumor. The progress of ablation was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after each weekly injection and within a month after the final (third) injection and 3 months thereafter. An average total of 63 mL (range: 20-154 ml) of alcohol was injected per patient in an average of 2.3 sessions. Contrast-enhanced CT, ultrasound, or MRI was used to determine the degree of necrosis. Complete necrosis was noted in eight patients (67%), near-complete necrosis (90-99%) in two (16.7%), and partial success (50-89%) in two (16.7%). Follow-up in the first 9 months showed local recurrence in two patients and new lesions in anonce in two patients and new lesions in another. There was no mortality. One patient developed renal failure, liver failure, and localized perforation of the stomach. He responded to medical treatment and surgery was not required for the perforation. One patient had severe postprocedural abdominal pain and fever, and another had transient hyperbilirubinemia; both recovered with conservative treatment. PEI with a multipronged needle is a new, safe, and efficacious method in treating medium-to-large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma under conscious sedation. Its survival benefits require further investigations

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Percutaneous ethanol injection of unresectable medium-to-large-sized hepatomas using a multipronged needle: efficacy and safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fine needles with an end hole or multiple side holes have traditionally been used for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) of hepatomas. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of PEI of unresectable medium-to-large (3.5-9 cm) hepatomas using a multipronged needle and with conscious sedation. Twelve patients, eight men and four women (age 51-77 years; mean: 69) received PEI for hepatomas, mostly subcapsular or exophytic in location with average tumor size of 5.6 cm (range: 3.5-9.0 cm). Patients were consciously sedated and an 18G retractable multipronged needle (Quadrafuse needle; Rex Medical, Philadelphia, PA) was used for injection under real-time ultrasound guidance. By varying the length of the prongs and rotating the needle, the alcohol was widely distributed within the tumor. The progress of ablation was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after each weekly injection and within a month after the final (third) injection and 3 months thereafter. An average total of 63 mL (range: 20-154 ml) of alcohol was injected per patient in an average of 2.3 sessions. Contrast-enhanced CT, ultrasound, or MRI was used to determine the degree of necrosis. Complete necrosis was noted in eight patients (67%), near-complete necrosis (90-99%) in two (16.7%), and partial success (50-89%) in two (16.7%). Follow-up in the first 9 months showed local recurrence in two patients and new lesions in another. There was no mortality. One patient developed renal failure, liver failure, and localized perforation of the stomach. He responded to medical treatment and surgery was not required for the perforation. One patient had severe postprocedural abdominal pain and fever, and another had transient hyperbilirubinemia; both recovered with conservative treatment. PEI with a multipronged needle is a new, safe, and efficacious method in treating medium-to-large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma under conscious sedation. Its survival benefits require further investigations. PMID:17200905

Ho, C S; Kachura, J R; Gallinger, S; Grant, D; Greig, P; McGilvray, I; Knox, J; Sherman, M; Wong, F; Wong, D

2007-01-01

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Injection-associated pain in femoral arteriography: A European multicenter study comparing safety, tolerability, and efficacy of iodixanol and iopromide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose. To evaluate injection-associated pain, safety, and efficacy with the isotonic contrast medium iodixanol (Visipaque 270 mg I/ml) compared with iopromide (Ultravist 300 mg I/ml) in femoral arteriography. Methods. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group clinical investigation was carried out in 54 hospitals in Europe. Of the patients evaluated, 1225 received iodixanol and 1227 iopromide in conventional and/or digital subtraction angiography. Results. The iodixanol group reported statistically significantly less injection-associated pain (0.9%) than the iopromide group (9.5%) (p<0.001). Further, 4.1% in the iodixanol group experienced pain and/or severe heat sensation vs 19.8% in the iopromide group (p<0.001). In the iodixanol group, 1.8% of the patients experienced contrast-related adverse events vs 2.4% in the iopromide group (p=NS). Overall diagnostic information was optimal for 94.1% in the iodixanol group and 95.3% in the iopromide group (p=NS). Conclusions. Iodixanol 270 mg I/ml causes significantly less injection-associated pain during femoral arteriography and is as safe and efficatious as iopromide 300 mg I/ml

91

Factors associated with uptake, adherence, and efficacy of hepatitis C treatment in people who inject drugs: a literature review  

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Full Text Available Viktor Mrav?ík,1,2 Lisa Strada,3 Josef Štolfa,4,5 Vladimir Bencko,6 Teodora Groshkova,7 Jens Reimer,3 Bernd Schulte3 1National Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2Department of Addictology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Centre for Interdisciplinary Addiction Research, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; 4Department of General Practice, Institute for Postgraduate Medical Education in Prague, 5Department of General Practice, Second Faculty of Medicine, 6Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 7European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon, Portugal Introduction and methods: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are highly prevalent amongst people who inject drugs (PWID. Despite well documented evidence of its effectiveness, suggested cost-effectiveness, and potential to reduce HCV prevalence rates, the uptake of antiviral HCV treatment by PWID is low. This nonsystematic literature review describes factors associated with the uptake, adherence, and efficacy of HCV treatment among PWID and discusses strategies to increase their uptake of treatment. Results: Low HCV treatment uptake among PWID is associated with a number of patient-related and provider-related barriers. Beliefs and fears about low efficacy and adverse effects on the patient’s part are common. A substantial number of factors are associated with the chaotic lifestyle and altered social functioning of PWID, which are often associated with decompensation or relapsing into drug addiction. This may lead to perceived low adherence with treatment and low efficacy on the provider’s part too, where lack of support, inadequate management of addiction, and other drug-related problems and poor treatment of side effects have been described. Practical issues such as the accessibility of treatment and finances also play a role. Strategies to improve the HCV treatment rate among PWID involve pretreatment management and assessment, a multidisciplinary approach, management of side effects, and enhanced education and counseling. Conclusion: Specific factors are associated with poorer treatment outcomes in PWID on the side of both the patient and the treatment system. However, given that PWID can achieve treatment adherence and sustained virologic response rates comparable with those in nondrug users, drug use per se should not be considered a criterion for exclusion from treatment. Further development of measures leading to higher uptake of treatment and adherence in PWID and appropriate adaptation of HCV treatment guidelines represent important tools in this regard. Keywords: hepatitis C virus, people who inject drugs, treatment uptake, adherence, efficacy

Mrav?ík V

2013-10-01

92

RP-HPLC Estimation of Risperidone in Tablet Dosage Forms.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the estimation of risperidone in tablet dosage forms. A Phenomenex Gemini C-18, 5 mum column having 250x4.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing methanol: acetonitrile: 50 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (80:10:10 v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1.3 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 234 nm. Clozapine was used as an internal standard. The retention time of risperidone and clozapine were 2.5 min and 3.3 min, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, robustness and stability. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for estimation of risperidone was found to be 500 ng/ml and 990 ng/ml, respectively. Recovery of risperidone was found to be in the range of 99.02-101.68%. Proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of risperidone in tablet formulations. PMID:20046778

Baldania, S L; Bhatt, K K; Mehta, R S; Shah, D A

2008-01-01

93

Efficacy of hyaluronic acid injections in patients with osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint. A comparative study.  

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The aim of the present study was to report the 1-year therapeutic outcome of intra-articular injections of high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) without arthrocentesis in a group of 25 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The results were compared with those of a group of 10 patients with OA of the TMJ, treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.Twenty-five patients (group A) underwent a cycle of 5 injections of HA into the TMJ. Ten patients (group B) underwent a therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for 1 month. The follow-up assessments after the end of treatment were at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months.Regarding the first follow-up (1 month), statistical analysis for all clinical parameters showed no significant differences (ie, beneficial effect for 2 groups) between groups A and B (P > 0.001). Significant statistical differences (ie, encouraging effect for group A) for all clinical parameters were recorded 1 year after the end of treatment between groups A and B (P intra-articular injections of HA without arthrocentesis for patients with OA of the TMJ is considered successful at 1-year follow-up period. PMID:24220392

Triantaffilidou, Katherine; Venetis, Gregory; Bika, Olga

2013-11-01

94

The Efficacy of Intramuscular Calcitonin Injection in the Management of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

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Study Design A prospective, cross-sectional, non-randomized study. Purpose To assess the effectiveness of intramuscular calcitonin injection in the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Overview of Literature LSS, manifesting as chronic low back pain and neurogenic claudication, is a chronic condition with an increasing incidence in the elderly population having inadequate effective conservative treatment options. Methods In this study, 36 patients with LSS who were diagnosed based on the clinical findings and magnetic resonance imaging were included. Patients received 100 IU of calcitonin per week for one month and were evaluated before and after treatment using the Oswestry disability index (ODI) questionnaire and visual analogue scale (VAS). Before treatment, the patients were divided into two subgroups based on their ODI results: patients with mild to moderate low back pain (disability, 0%-40%) and patients with severe or very severe low back pain (disability, 40%-100%). Results In patients with mild to moderate low back pain, there were no significant changes in the ODI and VAS after calcitonin injection. But in patients with severe or very severe low back pain, pain severity, personal functions, ability to lift and carry objects, time interval between standing and initiation of pain, social life, disability percentage, and VAS were significantly improved after treatment with calcitonin. Conclusions It seems that an intramuscular injection of low dose of calcitonin may have some beneficial effects on the pain due to LSS, especially in patients who suffer from severe or very severe low back pain. PMID:25705338

Ashraf, Alireza; Khodadadi, Mehdi; Sadraei, Amin; Nasseri, Ali

2015-01-01

95

Once-monthly paliperidone injection for the treatment of schizophrenia  

Science.gov (United States)

Paliperidone palmitate is a new long-acting antipsychotic injection for the treatment of acute and maintenance therapy in schizophrenia. Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone) is the major active metabolite of risperidone and acts at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT2A receptors. As with other atypical antipsychotics, it exhibits a high 5HT2A:D2 affinity ratio. It also has binding activity as an antagonist at ?1-and ?2 adrenergic receptors and H1 histaminergic receptors, but has virtually no affinity for cholinergic receptors. Paliperidone palmitate has been shown to be effective in reducing Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores in four short-term trials in acute schizophrenia. It was also effective as maintenance therapy in a long-term trial in which time to recurrence of symptoms was significantly longer in paliperidone-treated patients compared with placebo. In addition, paliperidone was shown to be noninferior to risperidone long-acting injection in one study, but this noninferiority was not established in another longer study comparing the two drugs. Treatment should be initiated with 234 mg on day 1 and 156 mg on day 8, followed by a recommended monthly maintenance dose of 39–234 mg based on efficacy and tolerability. Paliperidone palmitate is generally well tolerated, although it can cause weight gain and a rise in prolactin levels, which is generally greater in women than in men. Overall, paliperidone palmitate may have advantages over other currently available long-acting injections, and therefore may be a useful alternative for the treatment of schizophrenia, although further long-term trials comparing it with active treatments are warranted. PMID:20856919

Bishara, Delia

2010-01-01

96

The evaluation of efficacy of subtenon triamcinolone injection combined with focal laser photocoagulation in diabetic macular edema  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate efficacyand safety of subtenon triamcinolone (ST in combinationwith focal laser photocoagulation in diabetic macularedema (DME.Materials and methods: Medical records of patients withDME, treated with 40 mg subtenon injection of triamcinoloneacetonid prior to focal laser photocoagulation wereretrospectively analyzed. Seventeen eyes of 17 patientswith DME were enrolled in the study. All patients underwenta comprehensive ophthalmological examinationbefore the treatment. Efficacy of the treatment after STinjection was evaluated by visual acuity and flouresceinangiography (FA. Follow-up visits were performed at 1st,3rd, 6th and 12th months. Repeated measures ANOVA wasused for statistical analysis.Results: The mean age was 61.5 ± 8.7 years and themean visual acuity in the study eyes was 0.22 ± 0.13 beforethe treatment, 0.39 ± 0.15 at 1st month, 0.36 ± 0.18at 3rd month, 0.33 ± 0.15 at 6th month and 0.34 ± 0.16 at12th month. The differences in the visual acuity before thetreatment and follow-up visits were significant (p ?0.05.Visual acuity was increased in 13 (%76,4 patients, decreasedin 1 (%5,8 and unchanged in 3 (%17,6.Conclusion: Injection of 40 mg of triamsinolon via subtenonroute combined with focal laser photocoagulation isa safe and beneficial treatment in cases of DME

Hüseyin Öksüz

2012-06-01

97

Paliperidone palmitate injection for the acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adults  

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Full Text Available Shiyun Kim,1 Hugo Solari,2 Peter J Weiden,2 Jeffrey R Bishop11Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAPurpose: To review the use of paliperidone palmitate in treatment of patients with schizophrenia.Methods: Published clinical trial data for the development and utilization of paliperidone palmitate for the treatment of schizophrenia were assessed in this review. Four short-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigated the efficacy of paliperidone palmitate in acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. Paliperidone palmitate was also studied as a maintenance treatment to prevent or delay relapse in stable schizophrenia. In addition, paliperidone palmitate was compared to risperidone long-acting injection for noninferiority in three studies.Results: Paliperidone palmitate has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores in the four acute treatment studies. In the maintenance treatment studies, paliperidone palmitate was found to be more effective than placebo in preventing or delaying the time to first relapse in stable schizophrenia patients. In addition, paliperidone palmitate was shown to be noninferior to risperidone long-acting injection in two studies. It was shown to be reasonably well tolerated in all clinical trials. Acute treatment phase should be initiated with a dose of 234 mg on day one and 156 mg on day eight, followed by a recommended monthly maintenance dose of 39–234 mg based on efficacy and tolerability results from the clinical studies.Conclusion: Providing an optimal long-term treatment can be challenging. Paliperidone palmitate can be used as an acute treatment even in outpatient setting, and it has shown to be well tolerated by patients. Also, it does not require overlapping oral antipsychotic supplementation while being initiated, and is dosed once per month.Keywords: schizophrenia, antipsychotic, long-acting injection, paliperidone

Kim S

2012-07-01

98

Serum concentrations of paliperidone versus risperidone and clinical effects  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Purpose The major aim of this multicenter retrospective analysis was to examine the relationship between paliperidone serum concentrations and clinical effects in patients treated with this new antipsychotic drug. Intra-individual variability in trough serum concentrations was also analyzed in patients under treatment with either the paliperidone-extended release (ER) formulation or the risperidone immediate-release formulation. ...

Nazirizadeh, Yasmin; Vogel, Friederike; Bader, Wolfgang; Haen, Ekkehard; Pfuhlmann, Bruno; Gru?nder, Gerhard; Paulzen, Michael; Schwarz, Markus; Zernig, Gerald; Hiemke, Christoph

2010-01-01

99

Clinical efficacy of intra-articular injections in knee osteoarthritis: a prospective randomized study comparing hyaluronic acid and betamethasone  

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Full Text Available Cesáreo Ángel Trueba Davalillo,1,2 Cesáreo Trueba Vasavilbaso,2 José Mario Navarrete Álvarez,2 Pilar Coronel Granado,3 Ozcar Alejandro García Jiménez,2 Mercedes Gimeno del Sol,3 Félix Gil Orbezo2 1School of Medicine (UNAM, México DF, Mexico; 2Orthopedic Service, Hospital Español de México, México DF, Mexico; 3Scientific Department, TEDEC-MEIJI FARMA,SA, Alcalá de Henares, Spain Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common joint disease and leading cause of disability. Intra-articular (IA administration of hyaluronic acid (HA or corticosteroids (CS have been previously studied, though using insufficient number of patients or short follow-up periods.Objective: We evaluate HA and CS in patients with knee OA in terms of clinical efficacy over 12 months.Methods: We used a prospective, randomized study with parallel groups. Randomized patients received IA injections of HA or betamethasone (BM. The primary outcomes were improvement in pain using Visual Analog Scale and function in the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (Likert scale. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months.Results: A total of 200 patients were included. Pain was significantly reduced in both groups at the first follow-ups. At 12 months, the mean pain reduction in the HA group was 33.6% (95% CI: 31.1–36.1 compared to 8.2% (95% CI: 5.2–11.1 in BM (P<0.0001. Function improvement was higher in HA through every visit, and mean improvement at 12 months was 47.5% (95% CI: 45.6–49.3 in HA patients vs 13.2% (95% CI: 11.4–14.9 in the BM group (P<0.0001. All patients from both groups achieved the Minimal Clinically Important Improvement (MCII for both pain and function up to 6 months. At 9 months and 12 months, the MCII figures were higher in HA group with ?80% compared to ?10% in BM group (P<0.0001. Adverse reactions were rare and related to the administration procedure.Conclusion: Both treatments effectively controlled OA symptoms. BM showed higher short-term effectiveness, while HA showed better long-term effectiveness, maintaining clinical efficacy in a large number of patients 1 year after administration.Keywords: viscosupplementation, corticosteroids, knee injection, joint disease

Trueba Davalillo CA

2015-01-01

100

One-Shot Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Liver Tumors Under General Anesthesia: Preliminary Data on Efficacy and Complications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To verify the efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided injection of large amounts of ethanol into large or multiple liver lesions, in a single session under general anesthesia (one-shot PEI) for percutaneous ablation of hepatic tumors. Methods: Twenty-nine patients (27 with 51 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodules on cirrhosis, diameter range 1.0-9.0 cm; two patients with a single metastasis from the gastroenteric tract, 5.0 and 9.0 cm, respectively, in diameter) were treated with one-shot PEI. Results: The total volume of alcohol delivered per patient ranged from 16 to 210 ml. Mean ethanol volume in all patients was 49 ml. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) examination showed complete necrosis in 41 of 50 lesions. Two patients died of hypovolemic shock due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 3 and 7 days, respectively, after the interventional procedure. All the remaining patients are alive (follow-up 5-14 months) except one who died of liver failure 5 months after. New HCC nodules occurred in six patients within 6 months and one intralesional relapse was recorded. Conclusion: In this preliminary experience, one-shot PEI is as effective in inducing liver tumor necrosis as traditional PEI; its advantages are shorter treatment time and the capability of treating larger and multiple liver lesions

101

Relationship between Addiction Relapse and Self-Efficacy Rates in Injection Drug Users Referred to Maintenance Therapy Center of Sari, 1391  

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Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Self-efficacy is the belief that one has the ability to implement the behaviors needed to produce a desired effect. There has been growing interest in the role of self-efficacy as a predictor and/or mediator of treatment outcome in number of domains. In numerous studies of substance abuse treatment, self-efficacy has emerged as an important predictor of outcome, or as a mediator of treatment effects. In the event of a slip, highly self-efficacious persons are inclined to regard the slip as a temporary setback and to reinstate control, whereas those who have low self-efficacy are more likely to proceed to a full-blown relapse. This study was carried out to determine relationship between relapse and self-efficacy and other factors in injected drug users. Materials and Methods: We conducted this study in 200 addicts in the center of counseling behavioral disease in health center of sari city (methadone maintenance therapy center or MMTC. A cross-sectional study was carried out on all of these addicts. Results: The average age in addictions was38 and its range was 20-60.72%of them were married and the first drug used was opium. All of them had relapse at least one time .we found a relationship between relapse and self-efficacy as well as the relationship between self-efficacy with the age of the first of drug use, dose, and procrastination for treatment, marriage, employment and job was significant. Conclusion: This study found that there was a significant difference between relapse and self-efficacy as well as other related factors. It is important to include drug users and common society organizations representing them in every stage of the governmental policy and program development process to make them responsive to the needs of the community.

Zahra Abdollahi

2014-01-01

102

18 month observational study on efficacy of intraarticular hyaluronic acid (Hylan G-F 20 injections under ultrasound guidance in hip osteoarthritis  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and the tolerability of viscosupplementation (VS with hyaluronic acid (Hylan GF 20 in a cohort of 36 patients affected by hip osteoarthritis through a 18 months follow-up. Methods: Viscosupplementation was performed with an anteriorsagittal approach, under ultrasound guidance. 36 patients were administered hyaluronic acid intraarticularly in the hip, with a unique injection of Hylan G-F20, which could be repeated after at least 3 months. Treatment efficacy was assessed by functional index WOMAC, pain evaluation on a visual analogue scale and NSAID consumption. All such parameters were recorded at the time of the first injection and then 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months later. Results: Statistically significant reduction of all parameters was observed three months after the injection, and was still maintained at the timepoints 6, 9, 12 and 18 months. No local side effects have been observed, nor systemic complications. Conclusions: Our data show that viscosupplementation is a promising approach for hip osteoarthritis, providing beneficial effects in a long-tern follow up. Yet, the topic deserves further and wider studies, so to define the number of injections to administer and suggest a fit interval between subsequent injections.

Cristiano Padalino

2011-09-01

103

FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF EXTENDED RELEASE MINI TABLETS OF RISPERIDONE  

OpenAIRE

The present study was carried out to formulate Risperidone mini tablets filled into hard gelatin capsule, as it is administered for the treatment of psychosis. The preformulation studies of Risperidone were carried out and drug –polymer compatibility studies were performed by FT-IR spectra analysis. The precompression parameters revealed that all the 6 formulations had good flow Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose within the limit. Risperidone is formulated with different ...

Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, B.; Dinesh Babu, G.; Premswaroop, A.; Chandra Sekhar, M.; Ramya.Y

2012-01-01

104

Clinical result of intra-arterial lymphocyte injection therapy for treatment of lymphedema and the evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy. Quantitative analysis by an injection of 111In-labeled lymphocytes and by MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have employed the intra-arterial lymphocytes injection therapy for treatment of lymphedema of the limbs with various causes. In the present study, we observed the clinical outcome of our therapy in 38 patients with lymphedema of the limbs. Results showed that the therapy was effective in 26 of 38 patients (68% of the total). Moreover, a marked efficacy was obtained in 13 of 38 patients (34% of the total). In the latest 5 patients, to evaluate the efficacy of our therapy, we examined the distribution of the 111In-oxine labeled lymphocytes injected into the proximal artery of the affected limb. The radioactivities of the affected limbs were apparently higher than that of the healthy limbs in effective cases. Moreover, MR imaging showed that the reduction of STIR ratio and T2 ratio well correlate with the results of clinical course. Thus, the efficacy of the lymphocyte injection therapy is able to be evaluated by radiolabeled lymphocytes and MR imaging. (author)

105

Clinical result of intra-arterial lymphocyte injection therapy for treatment of lymphedema and the evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy. Quantitative analysis by an injection of {sup 111}In-labeled lymphocytes and by MR imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have employed the intra-arterial lymphocytes injection therapy for treatment of lymphedema of the limbs with various causes. In the present study, we observed the clinical outcome of our therapy in 38 patients with lymphedema of the limbs. Results showed that the therapy was effective in 26 of 38 patients (68% of the total). Moreover, a marked efficacy was obtained in 13 of 38 patients (34% of the total). In the latest 5 patients, to evaluate the efficacy of our therapy, we examined the distribution of the {sup 111}In-oxine labeled lymphocytes injected into the proximal artery of the affected limb. The radioactivities of the affected limbs were apparently higher than that of the healthy limbs in effective cases. Moreover, MR imaging showed that the reduction of STIR ratio and T{sub 2} ratio well correlate with the results of clinical course. Thus, the efficacy of the lymphocyte injection therapy is able to be evaluated by radiolabeled lymphocytes and MR imaging. (author).

Yoshizumi, Masanori; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Hori, Takaki; Katoh, Itsuo; Harada, Masashi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nishitani, Hiromu [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

1995-11-01

106

18 month observational study on efficacy of intraarticular hyaluronic acid (Hylan G-F 20) injections under ultrasound guidance in hip osteoarthritis  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and the tolerability of viscosupplementation (VS) with hyaluronic acid (Hylan GF 20) in a cohort of 36 patients affected by hip osteoarthritis through a 18 months follow-up. Methods: Viscosupplementation was performed with an anteriorsagittal approach, under ultrasound guidance. 36 patients were administered hyaluronic acid intraarticularly in the hip, with a unique injection of Hylan G-F20, which could be repeated after at least 3 months. Treatment efficac...

Cristiano Padalino; Emilia Carloni; Luis Severino Martin Martin; Umberto Massafra; Sandro Tormenta; Alberto Migliore; Andrea Alimonti; Mauro Granata

2011-01-01

107

Evaluation of the chemoprophylactic efficacy of 10% long acting injectable moxidectin against gastrointestinal nematode infections in calves in Belgium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemoprophylactic efficacy of a single dose of the 10% long acting (LA) injectable formulation of moxidectin on nematode infections in calves, was evaluated. Two similar groups of 11 female, first grazing season Holstein calves were turned out in early May on separate plots of a single, naturally infected pasture. Until 56 days post-treatment (pt), the percentage reduction in faecal egg output was 100%, remaining above 90% during the entire trial, except for day 126 pt. More than 90% of the larvae in the treated group were identified as Cooperia until 140 days after treatment and more than 70% during the rest of the trial, whereas in the control group Cooperia was the most abundant species until day 84 pt and Ostertagia from 126 days pt onwards. The reduction in faecal egg output in the treated group was reflected in the mean pepsinogen levels being below the pathogenic threshold at the end of the grazing season (1.8 units of tysrosine (U tyr)) and the absence of diarrhoea during the second half of the grazing season. In the control group pepsinogen levels remained high (mean: 5.5 U tyr) and prolonged diarrhoea occurred in the second half of the grazing season. Furthermore, the weight gain for the treated group at the end of the grazing season was 41.9 kg higher than for the control group. At necropsy, the reduction in O. ostertagi worm burden in the treated group was 97.5% compared to the control group, while the reduction in C. oncophora worm burden was 57%. An additional benefit of the long acting parasitological control, was reduced pasture contamination. PMID:15063943

Geurden, T; Claerebout, E; Deroover, E; Vercruysse, J

2004-04-15

108

Comparison of Efficacy and Tolerability of Hylan G-F 20 in Patients with and without Effusions at the Time of Initial Injection.  

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An effusion at the onset of viscosupplementation has been thought to diminish the efficacy and increase adverse event rates. This study compares efficacy of hylan G-F 20 in patients with and without an effusion. Patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) received three weekly injections of hylan G-F 20. A total of 50 patients with an effusion requiring aspiration were compared with 50 matched patients without an effusion. Outcome measurements included Western Ontario and McMaster's Universities Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) and visual analog scale (VAS). Patients were followed for 26 weeks. Both effusion and control group VAS was significantly lowered at all time points. WOMAC scores improved (p?viscosupplementation requiring aspiration does not negatively impact efficacy of hylan G-F 20 or increase adverse event rates. PMID:24807194

Waddell, Bradford S; Waddell, W Hunter; Waddell, David D

2014-05-01

109

Multi-drug overdose risperidone, ziprasidone, valproate, trihexyphenidyl, and clonazepam  

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Risperidone and ziprasidone are commonly used as first line drugs for the treatment of psychotic disorders and overdose with these agents is increasingly being reported. Relatively few of these reports have involved co-ingestion of multiple psychotropic agents. We report a case of overdose with risperidone, ziprasidone, valproate, trihexyphenidyl and clonazepam in a 25 years female, who recovered uneventfully with supportive management. Notwithstanding the benign outcome in this instance, age, co-ingested drugs, active metabolites and medical co-morbidity are critical issues in overdose with atypical antipsychotics. As prescription of these drugs continues to increase in developing countries, systematic studies evaluating their clinical toxicity and management are necessary. The issues associated with overdose of multiple psychotropic agents and appropriate management policies are highlighted.

Rajamani, Anto Praveen Rajkumar; Jebaraj, P

2007-01-01

110

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to risperidone misdiagnosed as status epilepticus  

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Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is a rare but potentially fatal disease characterized by fever, muscle rigidity, delirium and autonomic instability. Here we report a child, with NMS due to the risperidone misdiagnosed as status epilepticus. Nine year old boy, who had been under high dose risperidone treatment for 8 weeks, admitted to the emergency room because of the contractions (evaluated as status epilepticus persisting for 7 hours. Since there was neuroleptic treatment in the past medical history and, unconsciousness, muscular rigidity, diaphoresis, hypertermi and, hypotension in physical examination, leucocytosis and elevated creatininphosphokinase levels in laboratory tests, the patient was evaluated as NMS and discharged without any complications. We reported this case to point out that; NMS may be misdiagnosed as status epilepticus in children when EEG monitoring is unavailable. When a child admitted to the emergency room because of suspicious convulsion neuroleptic drug use must surely be asked.

Fevziye Toros

2011-06-01

111

Risperidone Pretreatment Prevents Elevated Locomotor Activity Following Neonatal Hippocampal Lesions  

OpenAIRE

Long-standing behavioral abnormalities emerge after puberty in rats following neonatal hippocampal lesion, providing a developmental model of abnormal rat behavior that may have predictive validity in identifying compounds effective in treating symptoms of schizophrenia. We sought to test the predictive validity of the neonatal hippocampal lesion model in identifying preventive treatment for first-episode psychosis. We determined the effect of risperidone, recently studied for prevention of f...

Richtand, Neil M.; Taylor, Benjamin; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Ostrander, Michelle M.; Burr, Jeffrey; Hayes, Scott; Coolen, Lique M.; Pritchard, Laurel M.; Logue, Aaron; Herman, James P.; Mcnamara, Robert K.

2006-01-01

112

Adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole for risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Antipsychotics have been used for more than 50 years in the treatment of schizophrenia and many other psychiatric disorders. Prolactin levels usually increase in patients treated with risperidone. Aripiprazole, which has a unique effect as an antipsychotic, is a D2 receptor partial agonist. It is an atypical antipsychotic with limited extrapyramidal symptoms. Since it acts as an antagonist in hyperdopaminergic conditions and as an agonist in hypodopaminergic conditions, it does not have adverse effects on serum prolactin levels. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of aripiprazole on risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods This before-and-after clinical trial was performed in 30 patients. Baseline prolactin levels were measured in all patients who were candidates for treatment with risperidone. In subjects with elevated serum prolactin, aripiprazole was added to their treatment. Serum prolactin levels were measured during the first week, second week, and monthly thereafter for at least 3 months or until prolactin levels became normal. The data were analyzed using Stata version 11 software. Survival analysis and McNemar’s test were also performed. Results The mean age of the participants was 30.8 years. Prolactin levels normalized in 23 (77%) participants during the study, and menstrual disturbances normalized in 25 (83.3%). Prolactin levels normalized in most patients between days 50 and 110. The median time to recovery based on normalization of prolactin was 84 days. Psychotic symptoms were present in 26 subjects at baseline, but in only two by the end of the study. Conclusion The results of this study confirm the effects of aripiprazole in reducing risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia and its sequelae. Aripiprazole also led to significant improvements in psychotic symptoms when compared with those present prior to treatment with aripiprazole.

Ranjbar, Fatemeh; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Niari Khams, Parisa; Arfaie, Asghar; Salari, Azim; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa

2015-01-01

113

Risperidone-associated hyperprolactinemia: evaluation in twenty psychiatric outpatients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the lack of extrapyramidal side effects, some atypical antipsychotics can induce an increase in prolactinemia, as the conventional neuroleptics do. We decided to evaluate the effects of risperidone on serum prolactin levels and prolactin-related adverse effects in 20 outpatients of an Italian community psychiatric service. Patients enrolled in this study were on risperidone (2-8 mg per day; mean dose=4.15+/-0.4 mg per day) treatment in the period May-November 2002. The 20 patients, 13 women and 7 men (mean age=36.38+/-3.2 years for women and 29.7+/-2.2 for men) who accomplished inclusion criteria, participated in the study after giving informed written consent. Raised prolactin levels were observed in 13 (9 women and 4 men) out of 20 patients, but only 8 patients presented prolactin-related adverse effects, libido reduction being the most frequent. In this observational study, risperidone enhanced serum prolactin in 65% of patients. A good correlation was found between age and prolactin levels in pre-menopausal women, although no clear correlation among duration of treatment, dose used, prolactin levels and prolactin-related adverse effects could be established. PMID:12902212

Brunelleschi, Sandra; Zeppegno, Patrizia; Risso, Francesco; Cattaneo, Carlo Ignazio; Torre, Eugenio

2003-10-01

114

Isolated sinus tachycardia following reinitiation of risperidone in a patient with suspected autonomic hypersensitivity  

Science.gov (United States)

The second generation antipsychotic risperidone is generally considered to have low cardiac adverse events, with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias being reported only rarely in literature. We report here the case of a patient with a significant history of alcohol dependence, yet with no previous cardiac history, who had previously tolerated risperidone well, but had experienced isolated sinus tachycardia in the post detox period, following the reinitiation of risperidone therapy. The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) probability scale rating for this being a medication adverse event (AE) was 4, thus indicating that this patient's AE was associated with risperidone therapy. This case report will contribute to the limited evidence of adverse cardiac events associated with risperidone therapy, with particular emphasis on the susceptibility of patients in a state of autonomic hypersensitivity. PMID:25709354

Grubisha, Melanie J; Brennan, Jessica L; Douaihy, Antoine

2015-01-01

115

Long term safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of hyaluronic acid injection in patients with painful osteoarthritis of the knee  

OpenAIRE

The increasing prevalence of painful knee osteoarthritis has created an additional demand for pharmacologic management to prevent or delay surgical management. Viscosupplementation, via intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA), aims to restore the favorable milieu present in the nonarthritic joint. The safety profile of intraarticular HA injections for painful knee osteoarthritis is well established, with the most common adverse effect being a self-limited reaction at the injection si...

Mcarthur, Benjamin A.; Dy, Christopher J.; Fabricant, Peter D.; Valle, Alejandro Gonzalez Della

2012-01-01

116

Efficacy and safety of cross-linked hyaluronic acid single injection on osteoarthritis of the knee: a post-marketing phase IV study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Khaldoon Bashaireh,1 Ziad Naser,2 Khaled Al Hawadya,2 Sorour Sorour,2 Rami Nabeel Al-Khateeb3 1Department of Orthopedics Surgery, King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 2Private Clinic, 3Elaf Medical Supplies Company, Amman, Jordan Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and duration of action of viscosupplementation with Crespine® Gel over a 9-month period.Materials and methods: The study was a post-marketing phase IV study. A total of 109 participants with osteoarthritis of the knee (grades 1–4 in the tibio–femoral compartment were recruited in Jordan. Data were collected from each participant during the baseline visit. Each participant received Crespine® Gel injection, and follow-up visits took place at 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months post-injection.Main outcome measure(s: An assessment of participants by phone was conducted at 1 month, 2 months, 4 months, 5 months, 7 months, and 8 months post-injection. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index questionnaires were completed during each visit. A 72-hour visit questionnaire was used to assess the safety of the injection. Statistical analysis included a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference between pain scores across visits, and the percent change from baseline was calculated.Main results: The full analysis included 84 participants who gave their informed consent and finished the necessary baseline and follow-up visits needed to assess efficacy and safety. Peak improvement was noted at 5 months post-injection, when pain and physical performance scores had decreased to 2.60 and 9.90, respectively, and the stiffness score was 0.33. The peak improvement in stiffness was noted at 8 months post-injection, when the stiffness score had decreased to 0.32. Significant improvements were still apparent at 9 months post-injection, when the pain score was 3.36, the stiffness score was 0.42, and the physical performance score was 11.5. All side effects were local and transient, and included pain, swelling, and redness of the knee. Most side effects were treated.Conclusion: Hyaluronan should be encouraged as an alternative or adjunct treatment to oral analgesics to reduce their required doses, and delay potential future surgical intervention. Keywords: osteoarthritis, hyaluronic acid, intra-articular injection, Crespine® Gel

Bashaireh K

2015-04-01

117

The Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type a Injection in the Hamstring and Calf Muscles With and Without Serial Foot Casting in Gait Improvement in Children With Cerebral Palsy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A injection in the hamstring and calf muscles with and without ankle serial casting in the improvement of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP.Methods : This double-blind prospective clinical trial was performed on 25, 2 to 8-year-old children with hemiplegic or diplegic CP in Tehran, Iran in 2010. The participants were chosen by simple randomized sampling and were matched for age, gross motor function classification system (GMFCS and type of CP and were randomly divided into two groups: children in the first group (13 only received BTX-A injection, but the second group (12 received BTX-A and serial foot casting starting one week after the injection.Results : Comparison of the gross motor function, right and left knee spasticities and passive ROM of both knees between the two groups before and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the injections were not statistically significant (P>0.1. Furthermore, comparison of the right and left ankle spasticities and passive ROM before the injections and in1 and 3-month follow-ups did not show a statistically significant difference (P>0.1, but the differences were significant in 6 and 12-month follow-ups (P<0.05.Conclusion: BTX-A injection with serial foot casting vs. BTX-A alone was more effective in decreasing spasticity and improving passive ROM in the ankle of children with CP, but such injections in the hamstrings were not useful in these regards.

Shamsodini A

2011-11-01

118

Efficacy and safety of cross-linked hyaluronic acid single injection on osteoarthritis of the knee: a post-marketing Phase IV study  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and duration of action of viscosupplementation with Crespine® Gel over a 9-month period. Materials and methods The study was a post-marketing Phase IV study. A total of 109 participants with osteoarthritis of the knee (grades 1–4) in the tibio–femoral compartment were recruited in Jordan. Data were collected from each participant during the baseline visit. Each participant received Crespine® Gel injection, and follow-up visits took place at 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months post-injection. Main outcome measure(s) An assessment of participants by phone was conducted at 1 month, 2 months, 4 months, 5 months, 7 months, and 8 months post-injection. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index questionnaires were completed during each visit. A 72-hour visit questionnaire was used to assess the safety of the injection. Statistical analysis included a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference between pain scores across visits, and the percent change from baseline was calculated. Main results The full analysis included 84 participants who gave their informed consent and finished the necessary baseline and follow-up visits needed to assess efficacy and safety. Peak improvement was noted at 5 months post-injection, when pain and physical performance scores had decreased to 2.60 and 9.90, respectively, and the stiffness score was 0.33. The peak improvement in stiffness was noted at 8 months post-injection, when the stiffness score had decreased to 0.32. Significant improvements were still apparent at 9 months post-injection, when the pain score was 3.36, the stiffness score was 0.42, and the physical performance score was 11.5. All side effects were local and transient, and included pain, swelling, and redness of the knee. Most side effects were treated. Conclusion Hyaluronan should be encouraged as an alternative or adjunct treatment to oral analgesics to reduce their required doses, and delay potential future surgical intervention.

Bashaireh, Khaldoon; Naser, Ziad; Hawadya, Khaled Al; Sorour, Sorour; Al-Khateeb, Rami Nabeel

2015-01-01

119

Long term safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of hyaluronic acid injection in patients with painful osteoarthritis of the knee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Benjamin A McArthur, Christopher J Dy, Peter D Fabricant, Alejandro Gonzalez Della ValleDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USAAbstract: The increasing prevalence of painful knee osteoarthritis has created an additional demand for pharmacologic management to prevent or delay surgical management. Viscosupplementation, via intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA, aims to restore the favorable milieu present in the nonarthritic joint. The safety profile of intraarticular HA injections for painful knee osteoarthritis is well established, with the most common adverse effect being a self-limited reaction at the injection site. Although acceptance of the early literature has been limited by publication bias and poor study quality, more recent and rigorous meta-analysis suggests that intraarticular HA injection is superior to placebo injection for pain relief and matches, if not surpasses, the effect size of other nonoperative treatments, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication. Intraarticular HA injection is effective in providing temporary pain relief in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis. Future investigations should focus on optimizing the composition and administration of HA agents to provide prolonged relief of painful osteoarthritis in the knee and other joints.Keywords: intraarticular injection, hyaluronate, viscosupplementation, osteoarthritis, knee

McArthur BA

2012-12-01

120

Applying a mathematical model to estimate the fractional accessibility to quenching of serum albumin by risperidone  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work we report the results from application of a mathematical model to estimate the fractional accessibility to fluorescence quenching by risperidone in human and bovine sera albumins. Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug used to treat many kinds of psychiatric disorders. Results showed that but the fractional accessibility for trypyophan 134, sub domain 1B, is about 3 times higher than that to tryptophan 212, showing that the primary binding site for risperidone is close to tryptophan 134, in domain IB of BSA.

Carqueja, Marilena; Cortez, Celia Martins

2014-10-01

121

Microsphere delivery of Risperidone as an alternative to combination therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to develop a parenteral delivery system of Risperidone that would provide initial and extended drug release and thereby avoid the need for co-administration of oral tablets. Key formulation parameters utilized to achieve desired therapeutic levels in vivo were particle size and drug loading. Three poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere formulations (Formulations A, B, and C) that encapsulated Risperidone were prepared by varying particle size (19-49 ?m) and drug loading parameters (31-37%) but with a uniform bulk density (0.66-0.69)g/cc and internal porosity, utilizing the solvent extraction/evaporation method. The microspheres were characterized for drug content by HPLC, particle size by laser diffractometry, surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in vivo drug release. In vivo studies were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and levels of the active moiety (Risperidone and its metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone) were assessed. In vivo release profiles from the three microsphere formulations were dependent on particle size and drug loading. The smaller sized microspheres (Formulation A) exhibited a large initial burst and a shorter duration of action, while the larger particles exhibited a smaller initial burst (Formulations B and C) but released drug for a much longer period in vivo. Extended duration of drug release was ascribed to higher drug content in the microspheres. A biweekly simulation of multiple dosing revealed that Formulation C, the selected formulation, with a high load and large particle size would provide adequate initial and maintenance levels of the active moiety (Risperidone and its metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone). A comparison of biweekly dosing in vivo of Formulation C with the marketed product showed that at steady state, though average concentrations for both preparations were similar, the time taken to achieve steady state was much faster for Formulation C. The delay in attaining steady state with Risperdal Consta® was attributed to the 3 week latency in drug release from the microspheres and was in accordance with previous studies indicating a good corroboration with clinical findings. Calculated cumulative AUC (area under the curve) levels for Formulation C were similar to the Risperdal Consta®, though there were marked differences in AUC levels at the early time points. Comparison of Risperidal Consta® and Formulation C by multiple dosing in vivo experiments revealed that the marketed preparation demonstrated a substantial delay in providing an initial loading dose, continuous circulating levels, and attainment of steady state; all of which were observed rapidly with Formulation C. Findings from the current study strongly suggest that a microsphere dosage form of Risperidone can be formulated with an optimum particle size and drug loading to provide an initial bolus followed by maintenance levels, thereby eliminating combination therapy and improving patient compliance. PMID:23892159

D'Souza, Susan; Faraj, Jabar; DeLuca, Patrick

2013-11-01

122

Short- and long-term efficacy of intra-articular injections with betamethasone as part of a treat-to-target strategy in early rheumatoid arthritis : impact of joint area, repeated injections, MRI findings, anti-CCP, IgM-RF and CRP  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To investigate the short-term and long-term efficacy of intra-articular betamethasone injections, and the impact of joint area, repeated injections, MRI pathology, anticyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) and immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) status in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Hetland, Merete Lund; Østergaard, Mikkel

2012-01-01

123

A comparison of the oral application and injection routes using the Onderstepoort Biological Products Fowl Typhoid vaccine, its safety, efficacy and duration of protection in commercial laying hens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study was undertaken to establish whether the Onderstepoort Biological Products Fowl Typhoid (OBPft) vaccine registered as an injectable vaccine was effective and safe when administered orally to commercial layers. Its efficacy and duration of protection were compared with application by intram [...] uscular injection. Commercial brown layer hens were used as they were found to be highly susceptible to Salmonella gallinarum infections. In the vaccine safety trial birds were euthanased at timed intervals spanning 4 weeks postvaccination. Necropsies were performed and samples were taken and tested. No clinical signs or mortalities could be attributed to the OBPft vaccine nor could active shedding of the vaccine strain be detected. Slight pathological changes were noted with both routes of vaccination; however, these changes were transient, returning to normal within the observation period. The injected groups showed a better serological response with the rapid serum plate agglutination (RSPA) test than the orally vaccinated groups. In the duration of protection trial, birds were challenged at 3-8-week intervals post-vaccination. All unvaccinated birds died. Protection 8 and 16 weeks after vaccination was above 60 %, by 24 weeks after challenge, the vaccine protection was below 30 %. It was found that there was no significant difference (P

C, Purchase; J, Picard; R, McDonald; S P R, Bisschop.

124

A randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of a computer-tailored intervention to promote safer injection practices among drug users.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a theory-based intervention to increase the use of a new syringe for each injection among injection drug users (IDUs). Users of two needle exchange programs (NEPs) were involved. At both sites, participants were assigned at random to either the experimental or the control group. Once a week for four weeks, users reported to the NEPs where they logged onto a computer and received an audiovisual message. A total of 260 IDUs were recruited. At baseline, 52.3% of participants reported that they had not always used new syringes in the previous week. The results indicate that it is possible for IDUs to adopt safer injection practices. One month after the intervention began, participants in the experimental group were using fewer dirty syringes compared to the control group (RR: 0.47 CI(95%) 0.28-0.79; P = .004). This short-term effect was no longer present 3 months later. PMID:20033276

Gagnon, Hélène; Godin, Gaston; Alary, Michel; Bruneau, Julie; Otis, Joanne

2010-06-01

125

Efficacy and Safety of Five Injectable Anesthetic Regimens for Chronic Blood Collection from the Anterior Vena Cava of Guinea Pigs  

OpenAIRE

Despite several published methods of inducing surgical anesthesia in guinea pigs, viable methods of anesthesia for blood collection from the vena cava are inadequate. We compared 5 anesthesia regimens and their efficacy in inducing anesthesia for blood sampling in guinea pigs: ketamine–xylazine (30 and 2.5 mg/kg) administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intraperitoneally; pentobarbital (37 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally; and medetomidine (0.5 mg/kg) administered intramuscular...

Dang, Vi; Bao, Saran; Ault, Alida; Murray, Catherine; Mcfarlane-mills, Joy; Chiedi, Carmelo; Dillon, Marlon; Todd, John-paul; Detolla, Louis; Rao, Srinivas

2008-01-01

126

Long-acting injectable antipsychotics for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Depot antipsychotics have been used as a strategy to reduce non-adherence to medications in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD). This article reviews the literature on the efficacy and safety of first- and second-generation depot antipsychotics (FGDA and SGDA, respectively) for the maintenance treatment of BD. Although FGDA have been studied in BD, they have not been approved for use in this disease. Among the SGDA, only depot risperidone has been studied and approved for the maintenance treatment of BD. We found eight studies on FGDA (three on flupenthixol, two on depot haloperidol, one on fluphenazine and flupenthixol, two on a mix of diverse antipsychotics) and ten studies on SGDA (all on depot risperidone). Differences in efficacy and safety were found between the two classes of depot antipsychotics. Although FGDA may be effective in reducing manic relapses, they possibly increase the risk of worsening depression. Depot risperidone is effective as a maintenance treatment in BD with effect noted predominantly for preventing mania. However, no worsening in depression was observed. Depot risperidone also is better tolerated than FGDA, mainly in relation to extrapyramidal symptoms. Studies with the new depot antipsychotics, olanzapine pamoate and paliperidone palmitate, are needed in BD patients. Further, there is currently little information on the metabolic changes (apart from bodyweight gain) that may occur with the use of depot risperidone in patients with bipolar disorder, and this issue needs further investigation. PMID:22494448

Gigante, Alexandre Duarte; Lafer, Beny; Yatham, Lakshmi N

2012-05-01

127

The Canadian experience with risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia: an overview.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To summarize published data to date by Canadian authors and from Canadian sources on risperidone, a novel neuroleptic indicated in the management of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. It was introduced in Canada in 1993. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search was performed using "risperidone" as a keyword. Three Canadian journals were also searched manually. STUDY SELECTION: Articles published between January 1991 and June 1996 by Canadian authors or involving Canadian patients...

Iskedjian, M.; Hux, M.; Remington, G. J.

1998-01-01

128

Development of novel risperidone implants using blends of polycaprolactones and in vitro in vivo correlation studies  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to develop a novel implant containing risperidone intended for long-term treatment in Schizophrenia utilizing in vitro in vivo correlation (IVIVC) studies. Different implants (F1-F8) containing an antipsychotic drug, risperidone, were prepared using a hot melt extrusion technique by taking polycaprolactones of different molecular weights (Mwt. 15000, 45000, 80000) either alone or as their blends, and PLGA (75:25). The implants contained 40% of the drug. After f...

Navitha, Aerrolla; Jogala, Satheesh; Krishnamohan, Chinnala; Aukunuru, Jithan

2014-01-01

129

Antipsychotic discontinuation syndrome following risperidone withdrawal: a case report from rural India  

OpenAIRE

Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent used primarily to treat schizophrenia. It is a dopamine antagonist with antiserotonergic, antihistaminergic and antiadrenergic properties. Antipsychotic discontinuation symptoms have been described in the literature following abrupt or rapid reduction in the dose. This unusual case demonstrates that sudden withdrawal of even a modest dose of risperidone may cause significant discontinuation symptoms in susceptible individuals. Hence, there is a n...

Sanivarapu, Sravanti L.; Cn, Krishnamurthy

2014-01-01

130

Persistent efficacy of a long acting injectable formulation of moxidectin against natural infestations of the sheep nasal bot (Oestrus ovis) in Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cydectin(®) 2% LA Solution for Injection for Sheep (Pfizer Animal Health) is a long-acting (LA) formulation of moxidectin for the treatment and prevention of mixed infections of gastro-intestinal nematodes, respiratory nematodes and certain arthropod parasites in sheep. To evaluate the duration of persistent efficacy against nasal bots (Oestrus ovis), a natural exposure study was conducted in Spain during the summer of 2011. One hundred and twenty nasal bot-free, Rasa Aragonesa sheep were randomly allocated to eight groups of 15 animals each. On Day 0, four groups were treated at the recommended dose rate of 1 mg moxidectin/kg bodyweight. Four groups remained untreated as negative controls. All animals were held in nasal bot-proof housing except for exposure to natural challenge when one group of treated sheep and one of group of control animals were transferred to a local pasture at either 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, or 60-80 days after treatment. Following challenge, sheep were scored for clinical signs of bot infestation, necropsied and the heads sectioned for larval recovery. Nasal bot larvae were retrieved from 7 to 11 control sheep following each exposure period indicating that adult bots were active throughout the study. In the first challenge up to 20 days after treatment, when sheep were slaughtered immediately after exposure, the majority of larvae were first instar (L1) and only 3 of the 15 control sheep were infested with second instars (L2). There was 100% efficacy against L2 and 38.1% reduction in the number of live L1 in the treated sheep but mean counts were not significantly different between treatment and control groups (P ? 0.05). For the subsequent exposure periods 20-80 days after treatment (necropsies 7-9 days after challenge), 6-10 sheep were infested with L1 and 9-11 control sheep were infested with L2 and third instars (L3). There was negligible efficacy against L1, but treatment with moxidectin resulted in 100% control of L2 and L3. These results are consistent with the biology of nasal bots and control with a systemic agent, as the slower growing L1 have limited feeding and are therefore less susceptible to systemic parasiticides. The study demonstrated that the persistent efficacy of this long-acting injectable formulation of moxidectin protects against the development of active O. ovis infestations for at least 80 days after treatment. PMID:22541795

Rugg, Douglas; Ferrer, Luis Miguel; Sarasola, Patxi; Figueras, Luis; Lacasta, Delia; Liu, Bo; Bartram, David

2012-09-10

131

A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment of Behavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Many patients with late-diagnosed phenylketonuria (PKU) suffer from severe behavior problems. This study compares the effects of buspirone and risperidone on reducing behavior disorders in these patients. Materials & Methods In this crossover clinical trial study, patients with severe behavior disorders after medical examination were randomly divided into two groups of two 8-week crossover treatments with risperidone or buspirone. Patient behavioral disorders before and after treatment by each drug was rated by parents on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form (NCBRF), and after treatment by each drug, were assessed by a physician through clinical global impression (CGI). Results Thirteen patients were able to complete the therapy period with these two medications. The most common psychiatric diagnoses were intellectual disability accompanied by pervasive developmental disorder NOS, and intellectual disability accompanied by autistic disorder. Risperidone was significantly effective in reducing the NCBRF subscales of hyperactivity disruptive/stereotypic, and conduct problems. Treatment by buspirone only significantly decreased the severity of hyperactivity, but other behavior aspects showed no significant differences. Assessment of the severity of behavior disorder after treatment by risperidone and buspirone showed significant differences in reducing hyperactivity and masochistic/stereotype. Conclusion Although buspirone is effective in controlling hyperactivity in patients with PKU, it has no preference over risperidone. Therefore, it is recommended as an alternative to risperidone. PMID:25657768

FAYYAZI, Afshin; SALARI, Elham; KHAJEH, Ali; GAJARPOUR, Abdi

2014-01-01

132

Discontinuation of risperidone and reversibility of weight gain in children with disruptive behavior disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although atypical antipsychotics generally have a good side effect profile and are clinically very effective, weight gain and associated problems accompany their use. The authors followed up 14 subjects who were in studies of risperidone for management of disruptive behavior disorders. The subjects exited after a mean exposure of 8.9 months because of excessive weight gain, or excessive appetite, or insufficient clinical response. Weight was monitored for the full cohort before risperidone treatment, at termination, and (for various subgroups) at 3, 9-12, and 24 months after termination. Analysis of standardized weight scores in relation to standardized BMI scores suggested marked similarity between them at all time points. Comparison of standardized weights at time of drug termination with 3, 9-12, and 24 months after termination indicated that weight gain during risperidone treatment is reversible (i.e., significantly less weight after risperidone was discontinued) at all time points after termination. Furthermore, standardized weight at 12 and 24 months after discontinuation of risperidone was not distinguishable from standardized weight before risperidone. The prospect of reversibility may provide some comfort for clinicians and parents alike, but far more data are needed before an assumption can be made that this is the case for all children. The authors provide several recommendations for clinicians and researchers working with atypical antipsychotics. PMID:15208748

Lindsay, Ronald L; Leone, Sarah; Aman, Michael G

2004-06-01

133

Long term safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of hyaluronic acid injection in patients with painful osteoarthritis of the knee  

OpenAIRE

Benjamin A McArthur, Christopher J Dy, Peter D Fabricant, Alejandro Gonzalez Della ValleDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USAAbstract: The increasing prevalence of painful knee osteoarthritis has created an additional demand for pharmacologic management to prevent or delay surgical management. Viscosupplementation, via intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA), aims to restore the favorable milieu present in the nonarthritic joint. The safety...

Ba, Mcarthur; Cj, Dy; Pd, Fabricant; Gonzalez Della Valle A

2012-01-01

134

Pain and Efficacy Rating of a Microprocessor-Controlled Metered Injection System for Local Anaesthesia in Minor Hand Surgery  

OpenAIRE

Purpose. Little attention has been given to syringe design and local anaesthetic administration methods. A microprocessor-controlled anaesthetic delivery device has become available that may minimize discomfort during injection. The purpose of this study was to document the pain experience associated with the use of this system and to compare it with use of a conventional syringe. Methods. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was designed. 40 patients undergoing carpal tunnel release wer...

Nimigan, Andr Amp S.; Bing Siang Gan

2011-01-01

135

Development of a novel 3-month drug releasing risperidone microspheres  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop an ideal microsphere formulation of risperidone that would prolong the drug release for 3 months in vivo and avoid the need for co-administration of oral tablets. Materials and Methods: Polycaprolactones (PCL) were used as polymers to prepare microspheres. The research included screening and optimizing of suitable commercial polymers of variable molecular weights: PCL-14000, PCL-45000, PCL-80000 or the blends of these polymers to prepare microspheres with zero-order drug-releasing properties without the lag phase. In the present study, the sustained release risperidone microspheres were prepared by o/w emulsion solvent evaporation technique and the yield was determined. Microspheres were evaluated for their drug content and in vitro drug release. Microspheres prepared using a blend of PCL-45000 and PCL-80000 at a ratio of 1:1 resulted in the release of the drug in a time frame of 90 days, demonstrated zero-order drug release without lag time and burst release. This formulation was considered optimized formulation. Optimized formulation was characterized for solid state of the drug using differential scanning calorimetry, surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy and in vivo drug release in rats. Results: The surface of the optimized formulation was smooth, and the drug changed its physical form in the presence of blends of polymers and upon fabrication of microspheres. The optimized formulation also released the drug in vivo for a period of 90 days. Conclusions: From our study, it was concluded that these optimized microspheres showed great potential for a better depot preparation than the marketed Risperdal Consta™ and, therefore, could further improve patient compliance. PMID:25709335

Yerragunta, Bhanusree; Jogala, Satheesh; Chinnala, Krishna Mohan; Aukunuru, Jithan

2015-01-01

136

Efficacy of moxidectin long-acting injectable formulation (1 mg/kg bodyweight) against first instar larvae of Oestrus ovis in naturally infected sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single treatment with a long-acting injectable formulation of moxidectin (MOX) at 1.0 mg/kg bodyweight (b.w.) against natural infection by nasal bots (Oestrus ovis) in sheep with special attention to first instar larvae (L1). Firstly, a local farm with clinical history of oestrosis was chosen to conduct the assay. A total of 49 sheep were pre-selected at the end of the summer according to the presence of evident clinical signs of infection and confirmed later by means of an indirect ELISA against excretory-secretory products from L1 to detect IgG antibodies. After that, 24 sheep were chosen to carry out the study on the basis of positive serology and age since the oldest ones were selected. The day 0 of the assay, the treatment group was administered with the MOX formulation by subcutaneous injection at the base of the left ear and the control group was administered with a saline solution in the same way. All sheep were slaughtered on day 28 post-treatment (pt). At the necropsy, the head of all sheep were cut off and split into two sagital sections and all larvae from nasal passages, septum, middle meatus, conchae and sinuses were recovered. After the necropsy, a significant number of L1 was only found in the control group and therefore the efficacy of the MOX formulation was only calculated against this stage. As a result, the formulation was 90.2% effective against L1 for sheep slaughtered at day 28 pt. PMID:23333136

Martínez-Valladares, M; Valcárcel, F; Álvarez-Sánchez, M A; Cordero-Pérez, C; Fernández-Pato, N; Frontera, E; Meana, A; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

2013-03-31

137

Patient and Health Care Provider Perspectives on Long Acting Injectable Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia and the Introduction of Olanzapine Long-Acting Injection  

OpenAIRE

Olanzapine long acting injection has joined risperidone and paliperidone as the second generation long acting antipsychotic injection options for treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Long acting injections are important alternatives to oral medications for patients who have difficulty adhering to daily or multiple daily medication administrations, yet may be underutilized or not well understood. Patient perceptions, adherence, and preferences are important issues for health care provider...

Wehring, Heidi J.; Sheryl Thedford; Maju Koola; Kelly, Deanna L.

2011-01-01

138

Influence of aripiprazole, risperidone, and amisulpride on sensory and sensorimotor gating in healthy 'low and high gating' humans and relation to psychometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite advances in the treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders with atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), there is still need for compounds with improved efficacy/side-effect ratios. Evidence from challenge studies suggests that the assessment of gating functions in humans and rodents with naturally low-gating levels might be a useful model to screen for novel compounds with antipsychotic properties. To further evaluate and extend this translational approach, three AAPs were examined. Compounds without antipsychotic properties served as negative control treatments. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject design, healthy males received either single doses of aripiprazole and risperidone (n=28), amisulpride and lorazepam (n=30), or modafinil and valproate (n=30), and placebo. Prepulse inhibiton (PPI) and P50 suppression were assessed. Clinically associated symptoms were evaluated using the SCL-90-R. Aripiprazole, risperidone, and amisulpride increased P50 suppression in low P50 gaters. Lorazepam, modafinil, and valproate did not influence P50 suppression in low gaters. Furthermore, low P50 gaters scored significantly higher on the SCL-90-R than high P50 gaters. Aripiprazole increased PPI in low PPI gaters, whereas modafinil and lorazepam attenuated PPI in both groups. Risperidone, amisulpride, and valproate did not influence PPI. P50 suppression in low gaters appears to be an antipsychotic-sensitive neurophysiologic marker. This conclusion is supported by the association of low P50 suppression and higher clinically associated scores. Furthermore, PPI might be sensitive for atypical mechanisms of antipsychotic medication. The translational model investigating differential effects of AAPs on gating in healthy subjects with naturally low gating can be beneficial for phase II/III development plans by providing additional information for critical decision making. PMID:24801767

Csomor, Philipp A; Preller, Katrin H; Geyer, Mark A; Studerus, Erich; Huber, Theodor; Vollenweider, Franz X

2014-09-01

139

Profile of paliperidone extended release: review of efficacy and safety data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paliperidone, an active metabolite of risperidone, is the most recent second-generation antipsychotic to become available on the market. This article addresses the pharmacology, clinical efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone. A comprehensive review of studies on MEDLINE using terms, such as paliperidone, 9-hydroxy risperidone, efficacy and tolerability, was conducted. Paliperidone, a 9-hydroxy derivative of risperidone is an antagonist at the dopamine and serotonin receptor sites. As paliperidone is an active metabolite of the parent compound risperidone, it is not metabolized hepatically, has minimal drug-drug interactions and is largely excreted unchanged by the kidneys. It follows linear pharmacokinetics. Evidence from short- and long-term trials supports the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone extended release (ER) in the treatment of schizophrenia. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter studies have demonstrated both paliperidone 6 and 12 mg result in symptom improvement, increase in time of first recurrence of psychotic symptoms as well as significant improvements in personal and social performance. Studies demonstrated increases in plasma prolactin levels and extrapyramidal symptoms with paliperidone ER treatment compared with placebo. Changes in blood glucose and lipid levels with paliperidone ER were comparable to placebo. Overall, paliperidone is an efficacious, well-tolerated addition to the treatment armamentarium for schizophrenia. PMID:24410603

Narasimhan, Meera; Srinivasan, Shilpa; Pae, Chi Un; Masand, Prakash

2008-11-01

140

A Literature Review on the Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin: An Injection in Post-Stroke Spasticity  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: A variety of techniques for the management of spasticity have been suggested, including positioning, cryotherapy, splinting and casting, biofeedback, electrical stimulation, and medical management by pharmacological agents, Botulinum toxin A (BTA) is now the pharmacological treatment of choice in focal spasticity. BTA by blocking acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions accounts for its therapeutic action to relieve spasticity. Methods: A computerized search of Pub Med was carried out to find the latest result about efficacy of BTA in management of post stroke spasticity. Result: Among 84 articles were found, frothy of them included in this review and divided to lower and upper extremity. Conclusions: BTA is a treatment choice in reducing tone and managing post stroke spasticity . PMID:23776717

Ghasemi, Majid; Salari, Mehri; Khorvash, Fariborz; Shaygannejad, Vahid

2013-01-01

141

A Randomized Open Label Comparison of the Effects ofRisperidone and Haloperidol on Sexual Function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n Objective: "nSexual dysfunction in patients who take antipsychotics causes adecline in their quality of life and medication acceptance. Considering the restrictions in cross sectional design of many earlier researches, we used a clinical trial aimed at assessing sexual dysfunction by substituting Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, with Haloperidol, a typical one . "n "n "nMethod: This clinical trial was conducted on 51 patients who had been using Risperidone with a minimum dose of 2 mg/daily for at least 2 months. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. The first group continued taking Risperidone, whereas the second group was given Haloperidol. Sexual function prior to and after the drug substitution was assessed using a sexual questionnaire designed to assess four stages of sexual function . "nResults: Compared to those who changed their medication to Haloperidol, the patients who remained on Risperidone therapy suffered from more sexual dysfunction, especially in their tendency towards having sexual activities (P= 0.01, post menstrual sexual activity (P= 0.002, and reaching orgasm in their sexual activities (P= 0.04; however in the Haloperidol group, no significant difference was observed before and after the change in medication . "nConclusion: Although Risperidone and Haloperidol can both disturb patients'sexual function, the side effects of Risperidone are stronger. Hence toprevent the decline of medication acceptance or irregular consumption by patients which may lead to possible relapse, substitution of Risperidone withanother drug with fewer side effects on sexual activities is definitely to the advantage of the patients .

S. Jaber Mousavi

2009-12-01

142

Critical appraisal of the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of hydroxyprogesterone caproate injection to reduce the risk of preterm birth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alex C Vidaeff, Michael A BelfortDivision of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Prevention of preterm delivery is a major desiderate in contemporary obstetrics and a societal necessity. The means to achieve this goal remain elusive. Progesterone has been used in an attempt to prevent preterm delivery since the 1970s, but the evidence initially accumulated was fraught by mixed results and was based on mostly underpowered studies with variable eligibility criteria, including history of spontaneous abortion as an indication for treatment. More recent randomized controlled clinical trials restimulated the interest in progesterone supplementation, suggesting that progesterone may favorably influence the rate of preterm delivery. Preterm delivery is a complex disorder and consequently it is unlikely that one generalized prevention strategy will be effective in all patients. Further, an additional impediment in accepting progesterone as the "magic bullet" in the prevention of preterm delivery is that its mechanism of action is not fully understood and the optimal formulations, route of administration, and dose have yet to be established. We have concerned ourselves in this review with the most recent status of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OH-PC supplementation for prevention of preterm delivery. Our intention is to emphasize the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of this intervention, based on a comprehensive and unbiased review of the available literature. Currently there are insufficient data to suggest that 17OH-PC is superior or inferior to natural progesterone. Based on available evidence, we suggest a differential approach giving preferential consideration to either 17OH-PC or other progestins based on obstetric history and cervical surveillance. Progestin therapy for risk factors other than a history of preterm birth and/or a short cervix in the current pregnancy is not currently supported by the published evidence. The experience to date with 17OH-PC indicates that there are population subgroups that may be harmed by administration of 17OH-PC. Therefore, extending the use of 17OH-PC to unstudied populations or for indications that are not evidence-based is inadvisable outside of a research protocol.Keywords: preterm delivery, prevention, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, efficacy, safety, acceptability

Vidaeff AC

2013-07-01

143

THE THERAPEUTIC AND PERSISTENT EFFICACY OF A SINGLE APPLICATION OF DORAMECTIN APPLIED EITHER AS A POUR-ON OR INJECTION TO CATTLE INFESTED WITH BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS (ACARI:IXODIDAE)  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacies of a single treatment with a pour-on application or a subcutaneous injection of the macrocyclic lactone endectocide doramectin were evaluated in separate trials on Hereford heifers infested with Boophilus microplus (Canestrini). Fewer ticks per calf were recovered from both groups of...

144

A novel technique for increasing charge injection capacity of neural electrodes for efficacious and safe neural stimulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neural prostheses require chronically implanted small area penetrating electrode arrays that can stimulate and record neural activity. The fundamental requirement of neural electrodes is to have low interface impedance and large charge injection capacity (CIC). To achieve this fundamental requirement, we developed a novel technique to modify the surface of the Utah Electrode Array (UEA) to increase the real surface area without changing the geometrical surface area. Pt was coated on modified and unmodified (control) UEAs and electrochemical characterization such as impedance and CIC was measured and compared. The surface modified electrode impedance and CIC was ?188 Ohm and ?24 mC/cm(2) respectively. Increasing the real surface area of electrodes decreases the impedance by 1000 times and increases the CIC by 80 times compared to the control samples. The CIC of modified UEA was significantly higher than of any material reported in the literature, higher than sputtered iridium oxide (4 mC/cm(2)) or PEDOT (15 mC/cm(2)). PMID:23367086

Negi, Sandeep; Bhandari, Rajmohan; Solzbacher, Florian

2012-01-01

145

Differential early onset of therapeutic response with risperidone vs conventional antipsychotics in patients with chronic schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present post-hoc analysis investigated the speed of onset of therapeutic effect of the atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, in direct comparison with conventional antipsychotics. Data were pooled from four double-blind active comparator-controlled clinical trials involving 757 patients with schizophrenia treated for up to 8 weeks with either risperidone (4-6 mg/day) or a conventional antipsychotic such as haloperidol (10 or 20 mg/day), perphenazine (mean dose 28 mg/day), or zuclopenthixol (mean dose 38 mg/day). Primary outcome was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A significantly greater proportion of patients treated with risperidone achieved > or =20% reduction from baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score at weeks 1, 2, 6, and at end point (last observation carried forward: P< or =0.04). A significant difference exists in mean reduction from baseline to end point in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores in favor of patients treated with risperidone compared with those treated with conventional antipsychotics (-18.4 vs -13.5; P=0.0013). The mean time to response was 23.8 days with risperidone and 28.2 days with conventional drugs (hazard ratio 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.1-1.5). These findings are clinically relevant because the faster onset of therapeutic effect with atypical antipsychotics can be important in the acute setting and have a considerable impact on healthcare systems. PMID:16877896

Glick, Ira D; Shkedy, Ziv; Schreiner, Andreas

2006-09-01

146

Risperidone – Solid-state characterization and pharmaceutical compatibility using thermal and non-thermal techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • DSC was used to characterize Risperidone and study its compatibility with excipients. • FT-IR associated with PCA was used to complement DSC data. • LC analyzes confirmed the DSC and FT-IR/PCA results. • Risperidone was incompatible with three among five excipients evaluated. - Abstract: A full solid-state characterization of risperidone was conducted using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine its physicochemical properties and polymorphism. The primary aim of this work was to study the compatibility of risperidone with pharmaceutical excipients using DSC to obtain and compare the curves of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the excipients with their 1:1 (w/w) binary mixtures. These same binary mixtures were turned to room temperature and analyzed by FT-IR combined with principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate solid-state incompatibilities. The chemical incompatibilities of these samples were verified using a stability-indicating liquid chromatography (LC) method to assay for the API and evaluate the formation of degradation products. All of these methods showed incompatibilities between risperidone and the excipients magnesium stearate, lactose and cellulose microcrystalline.

Daniel, Josiane Souza Pereira; Veronez, Isabela Pianna; Rodrigues, Larissa Lopes [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Trevisan, Marcello G. [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); National Institute of Bioanalytics Science and Technology – INCTBio, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, 13084-653, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Garcia, Jerusa Simone, E-mail: jerusa.garcia@unifal-mg.edu.br [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

2013-09-20

147

Serum concentrations and side effects in psychiatric patients during risperidone therapy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Steady state serum concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OH-risperidone), the active moiety, were measured in 42 patients. The concentration-to-dose ratios (C/D) varied by a factor of 20, from 1.8 to 36.8 (nmol/l)/(mg/24 hours), and 90% of the active moiety was constituted of 9-OH-risperidone. No correlation between the serum concentration of the active moiety and the side effects evaluated by the UKU Side Effect Scale was found. The absence of CYP2D6 (poor metabolizers) or the coadministration of drugs other than benzodiazepines increased the ratio between parent compound and metabolite but did not significantly influence the C/D of the total active moiety. A therapeutic range for serum risperidone has not been established, but 6 mg/day is considered the optimum dose for most patients. The authors found that in 90% of 22 patients administered 6 mg/day risperidone, the serum levels were within 50 to 150 nmol/l.

Olesen, O V; Licht, R W

1998-01-01

148

Critical appraisal of the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of hydroxyprogesterone caproate injection to reduce the risk of preterm birth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevention of preterm delivery is a major desiderate in contemporary obstetrics and a societal necessity. The means to achieve this goal remain elusive. Progesterone has been used in an attempt to prevent preterm delivery since the 1970s, but the evidence initially accumulated was fraught by mixed results and was based on mostly underpowered studies with variable eligibility criteria, including history of spontaneous abortion as an indication for treatment. More recent randomized controlled clinical trials restimulated the interest in progesterone supplementation, suggesting that progesterone may favorably influence the rate of preterm delivery. Preterm delivery is a complex disorder and consequently it is unlikely that one generalized prevention strategy will be effective in all patients. Further, an additional impediment in accepting progesterone as the "magic bullet" in the prevention of preterm delivery is that its mechanism of action is not fully understood and the optimal formulations, route of administration, and dose have yet to be established. We have concerned ourselves in this review with the most recent status of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OH-PC) supplementation for prevention of preterm delivery. Our intention is to emphasize the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of this intervention, based on a comprehensive and unbiased review of the available literature. Currently there are insufficient data to suggest that 17OH-PC is superior or inferior to natural progesterone. Based on available evidence, we suggest a differential approach giving preferential consideration to either 17OH-PC or other progestins based on obstetric history and cervical surveillance. Progestin therapy for risk factors other than a history of preterm birth and/or a short cervix in the current pregnancy is not currently supported by the published evidence. The experience to date with 17OH-PC indicates that there are population subgroups that may be harmed by administration of 17OH-PC. Therefore, extending the use of 17OH-PC to unstudied populations or for indications that are not evidence-based is inadvisable outside of a research protocol. PMID:23874089

Vidaeff, Alex C; Belfort, Michael A

2013-01-01

149

Efficacy of orally administered amphipathic poly-aminocarboxylic acid chelators for the removal of plutonium and americium: Comparison with injected Zn-DTPA in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chelators are used to promote excretion of actinides and some other metals, but few are orally effective. The relative efficacies of orally administered triethylenetetramine-pentaacetic acids (TT) with varying lipophilic properties on the removal of 241Am and 239Pu and comparison with parenteral Zn-DTPA was determined. The actinides were administered to adult rats 2 weeks prior to initiation of 30 d of chelation treatment. The TT compounds were given orally while Zn-DTPA was given twice weekly by injection. Total body content of 241Am was measured before and during the treatment period and organ contents of 241Am and 239Pu were measured at the end of the study. Significant reductions in 241Am occurred within the first week, with Zn-DTPA being the most effective. By 3 weeks, the most lipophilic chelator, C22TT was as effective as Zn-DTPA. After 30 d, reductions in organ content of 239Pu and 241Am directly correlated with increasing lipophilicity of the TT chelators. Oral C22TT was as effective as injected Zn-DTPA in liver and bone, the major organs of actinide deposition. The removal of 239Pu from the liver and reduction of redeposition of 239Pu in newly formed bone by C22TT was confirmed by neutron-induced autoradiographs. The amphipathic TT chelators may be useful as orally administered alternatives to current parenteral DTPA for the removal of actinide elemeral DTPA for the removal of actinide elements from the body, particularly for longer-term therapeutic applications. (authors)

150

Antipsychotic discontinuation syndrome following risperidone withdrawal: a case report from rural India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent used primarily to treat schizophrenia. It is a dopamine antagonist with antiserotonergic, antihistaminergic and antiadrenergic properties. Antipsychotic discontinuation symptoms have been described in the literature following abrupt or rapid reduction in the dose. This unusual case demonstrates that sudden withdrawal of even a modest dose of risperidone may cause significant discontinuation symptoms in susceptible individuals. Hence, there is a need for caution while taking a patient off antipsychotic medications in view of the vulnerable subgroup. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 233-234

Sravanti L. Sanivarapu

2014-02-01

151

Once-monthly paliperidone injection for the treatment of schizophrenia  

OpenAIRE

Delia BisharaPharmacy Department, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United KingdomAbstract: Paliperidone palmitate is a new long-acting antipsychotic injection for the treatment of acute and maintenance therapy in schizophrenia. Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone) is the major active metabolite of risperidone and acts at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT2A receptors. As with other atypical antipsychotics, it exhibits a high 5HT2A:D2 affinity ratio. It also has binding activi...

Delia Bishara

2010-01-01

152

Onset of efficacy with acute long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate treatment in markedly to severely ill patients with schizophrenia: post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background This post hoc analysis (trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00590577) assessed onset of efficacy and tolerability of acute treatment with once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP), a long-acting atypical antipsychotic initiated by day 1 and day 8 injections, in a markedly to severely ill schizophrenia population. Methods Subjects entering the 13-week, double-blind trial were randomized to PP (39, 156, or 234 mg [25, 100, and 150 mg eq of paliperidone, respectively]) o...

Ma Yi-Wen; Sliwa Jennifer K; Bossie Cynthia A; Alphs Larry; Turner Norris

2011-01-01

153

A pharmaco-economic analysis of patients with schizophrenia switching to generic risperidone involving a possible compliance loss  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background As schizophrenia patients are typically suspicious of, or are hostile to changes they may be reluctant to accept generic substitution, possibly affecting compliance. This may counteract drug costs savings due to less symptom control and increased hospitalization risk. Although compliance losses following generic substitution have not been quantified so far, one can estimate the possible health-economic consequences. The current study aims to do so by considering the case of risperidone in Germany. Methods An existing DES model was adapted to compare staying on branded risperidone with generic substitution. Differences include the probability of non-compliance and medication costs. Incremental probability of non-compliance after generic substitution was varied between 2.5% and 10%, while generic medication costs were assumed to be 40% lower. Effect of medication price was assessed as well as the effect of applying compliance losses to all treatment settings. The probability of staying on branded risperidone being cost-effective was calculated for various outcomes of a hypothetical study that would investigate non-compliance following generic substitution of risperidone. Results If the incremental probability of non-compliance after generic substitution is 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% respectively, incremental effects of staying on branded risperidone are 0.004, 0.007, 0.011 and 0.015 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs. Incremental costs are €757, €343, -€123 and -€554 respectively. Benefits of staying on branded risperidone include improved symptom control and fewer hospitalizations. If generic substitution results in a 5.2% higher probability of non-compliance, the model predicts staying on branded risperidone to be cost-effective (NICE threshold of ?30,000 per QALY gained. Compliance losses of more than 6.9% makes branded risperidone the dominant alternative. Results are sensitive to the locations at which compliance loss is applied and the price of generic risperidone. The probability that staying on branded risperidone is cost-effective would increase with larger compliance differences and more patients included in the hypothetical study. Conclusion The model predicts that it is cost-effective to keep a patient with schizophrenia in Germany on branded risperidone instead of switching him/her to generic risperidone (assuming a 40% reduction in medication costs, if the incremental probability of becoming non-compliant after generic substitution exceeds 5.2%.

Möller Hans-Jürgen

2009-02-01

154

Tic Reduction with Risperidone Versus Pimozide in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To compare the tic suppression, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, weight gain, and side effect profiles of pimozide versus risperidone in children and adolescents with tic disorders. Method: This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover (evaluable patient analysis) study. Nineteen children aged 7 to 17 years with Tourette's or chronic…

Gilbert, Donald L.; Batterson, J. Robert; Sethuraman, Gopalan; Sallee, Floyd R.

2004-01-01

155

Dietary Status and Impact of Risperidone on Nutritional Balance in Children with Autism: A Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Risperidone may be effective in improving tantrums, aggression, or self-injurious behaviour in children with autism, but often leads to weight gain. Method: Using a quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we prospectively examined the nutritional intake of 20 children with autism participating in a randomised…

Lindsay, Ronald L.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Posey, David J.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Pachler, Maryellen; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Bozzolo, Dawn

2006-01-01

156

RE-EMERGENCE OF POSITIVE SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA DURING THE COURSE OF TREATMENT WITH RISPERIDONE  

OpenAIRE

Thirty patients suffering from schizophrenia (diagnosed as per DSM-IV criteria), for more than 2 years and having predominant negative symptoms were started on risperidone (2-10 mg/day) and were followed up over a period of 16 weeks. The improvement was assessed using PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale).

Bajaj, Priya; Nihalani, Nikhil; Shah, Nilesh; Desai, Neena; Shinde, Veena; Raut, Nivedita

1999-01-01

157

Prolactin variations during risperidone therapy in a sample of drug-naive children and adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this prospective observational study was to investigate the variations of serum prolactin hormone (PRL) in a sample of 34 drug-naive patients (mean age 13 years) who started risperidone therapy assuming that several factors may favor the increase in serum PRL. Serum PRL and hyperprolactinemia clinical signs were examined at baseline (T0) and after almost 3 months of treatment (T1). We considered sex, pubertal status, risperidone dosage, psychiatric diagnosis, and any personal/family history of autoimmune diseases. The mean serum PRL value increased between T0 and T1 (P=0.004). The mean serum PRL was higher in females in the pubertal/postpubertal stage and for risperidone dosage up 1?mg/day. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 20% of patients at T0 and in 38% of patients at T1 (P=0.03). The mean serum PRL increase was greater in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis patients compared with no-early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis patients (P=0.04). The increase in PRL was higher in patients with a personal and a family history of autoimmune diseases. This study suggests that the increase in serum PRL in patients treated with risperidone may be linked not only to the drug and its dosage but also to several risk factors such as sex, pubertal stage, psychiatric disease, and autoimmune disorders. PMID:25514607

Margari, Lucia; Matera, Emilia; Petruzzelli, Maria G; Simone, Marta; Lamanna, Anna L; Pastore, Adriana; Palmieri, Vincenzo O; Margari, Francesco

2015-03-01

158

The efficacies of pure LICAM(C) and DTPA on the retention of plutonium-238 and americium-241 in rats after their inhalation as nitrate and intravenous injection as citrate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pure carboxylated catechoyl amide LICAM(C) and the calcium and zinc salts of diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA), were tested for efficacy for removing 238Pu and 241Am from rats after inhalation of the nitrate or intravenous injection of the citrate. The results were compared with the efficacy of methylated LICAM(C) used in previous experiments. It was shown that: (1) after inhalation of 238Pu nitrate, DTPA was far superior to pure LICAM(C); (2) after intravenous injection of 238Pu citrate, the infusion of DTPA plus LICAM(C) was only marginally more effective than DTPA alone; and (3) after inhalation or intravenous injection of 238Pu plus 241Am, the efficacy of pure LICAM(C) was only marginally more effective than the methylated form and neither form was effective for the decorporation of 241Am. It was concluded that DTPA, at present, remains the chelating agent of choice for treating persons accidentally contaminated with transportable forms of Pu and Am. PMID:2571662

Stradling, G N; Stather, J W; Gray, S A; Moody, J C; Ellender, M; Hodgson, A; Volf, V; Taylor, D M; Wirth, P; Gaskin, P W

1989-10-01

159

P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4 involvement in risperidone transport using an in vitro Caco-2/TC7 model and an in vivo model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possible involvement of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 in risperidone transport was investigated using in vitro and in vivo models. Firstly, uptake studies were performed on a Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayer; the effects of 1 microg ml(-1) risperidone on apparent permeability were determined for secretory and absorptive directions, in the presence or absence of various P-gp and CYP3A4 inhibitors (verapamil, ketoconazole, erythromycin), and of an associated multidrug-resistant protein inhibitor (indomethacin). Secondly, on a conscious rat model, risperidone pharmacokinetic parameters, notably absorption parameters, were determined using compartmental and deconvolution methods. Three groups of seven rats received respectively an IV risperidone dose, an oral risperidone dose (PO group) and the same oral risperidone dose after verapamil administration (POV group). No formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone was observed on Caco-2 cells after risperidone administration; there was no evidence that intestinal CYP3A4 is involved in risperidone metabolising. Risperidone secretory permeation was higher than absorptive permeation. Verapamil increased risperidone absorption permeation and decreased its secretory permeation. Indomethacin did not modify these permeation values. In rats, verapamil led to an increase in both risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone plasmatic concentrations. The fraction absorbed in the verapamil group was 3.18 times higher than in the oral group (65.9% and 20.7% for POV group and PO group). The absorption rate constant was lower in the verapamil group. Our results indicate that P-gp decreases the intestinal absorption of risperidone and that intestinal CYP3A4 is not involved in risperidone metabolism. PMID:17337319

Cousein, Etienne; Barthélémy, Christine; Poullain, Stéphanie; Simon, Nicolas; Lestavel, Sophie; Williame, Virginie; Joiris, Etienne; Danel, Cécile; Clavey, Véronique; Brossard, Denis; Robert, Hugues; Crauste-Manciet, Sylvie; Vaccher, Claude; Odou, Pascal

2007-05-01

160

Polipectomía endoscópica de colon: efectividad y seguridad de la técnica de inyectar y cortar / Efficacy and safety of the inject and cut technique for endoscopic colonic polypectomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La polipectomía de colon es el más importante instrumento para detener la secuencia adenoma-cáncer. La técnica de inyectar y cortar ha demostrado eficacia y seguridad en estudios realizados en otros países. En nuestro país no se han reportado datos sobre el desempeño de esta técnica por lo que se ha [...] ce necesario describir la experiencia de una unidad de gastroenterología de un centro universitario. Objetivos: Describir las características demográficas y operativas de la polipectomía endoscópica de colon por medio de la técnica de inyectar y cortar. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron todos los pacientes a quienes se les realizó polipectomía endoscópica colon en la unidad de gastroenterología de la Clínica Fundadores de Bogotá, desde enero de 2003 hasta septiembre de 2011; los datos se procesaron en el paquete estadístico PASW statistics 18 versión 18,8 (SPSS-IBM). Resultados: A 420 pacientes se les realizó polipectomía con un total de 548 pólipos resecados. Promedio de edad 56,3años (14-93), 201 masculinos y 219 femeninos. Localización más común en colon izquierdo (238/64,4%), promedio de tamaño 1,6 cm, 83,8% pediculados, 13,3% sésiles y 2,85% planos. Hubo sangrado intraprocedimiento en 36 casos (8,6%). No hubo relación entre esta complicación y el tamaño de los pólipos ( 20 mm); OR: 0,44 (IC 0,19-1,01), como tampoco con número de pólipos resecados (1 vs. > 1) OR: 1,44; (IC 95%: 0,65-3,2). Todos los casos de sangrado fueron controlados endoscópicamente sin complicaciones adicionales. No hubo necesidad de cirugía. No hubo recurrencias locales durante el seguimiento. Conclusiones: En el presente estudio se demostró que la técnica de inyectar y cortar es práctica y efectiva, económica y fácil de ejecutar para remover los pólipos del colon. Hasta el momento es la serie más grande publicada en nuestro medio sobre el tema. Abstract in english Colonic polypectomy is the most important tool for stopping adenoma-cancer, and the inject and cut technique has demonstrated efficacy and safety in studies conducted in other countries. Since in our country there are no reported data on performance of this technique, it is necessary to describe the [...] experience of a gastroenterology unit of a university. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to describe operational characteristics of endoscopic colonic polypectomy using the inject and cut technique and to describe demographic characteristics of patients undergoing this procedure. Materials and Methods: We included all patients who underwent endoscopic colonic polypectomies in the gastroenterology unit of the Clínica Fundadores in Bogotá from January 2003 to September 2011. Data were processed using SPSS version 18 18.8 (SPSS-IBM) statistical package. Results: 420 patients underwent polypectomies which resected a total of 548 polyps. Mean patient age was 56.3 years (range 14 to 93), 201 patients were male, and 219 were female. Polyps were most commonly located in the left colon (238/64.4%). Average size was 1.6 cm. 83.8% were pedunculated, 13.3% were sessile, and 2.85% were flat. Intraoperative bleeding occurred in 36 cases (8.6%). There was no relationship between this complication and the size of polyps ( 20 mm), OR: 0.44 (CI 0.19-1.01), nor with the number of resected polyps (1Vs> 1) OR: 1.44, (95%:0.65-3 .2). All cases of bleeding were controlled endoscopically without further complications. There was no need for surgery. There were no local recurrences during follow-up. Conclusions: This study showed that the inject and cut technique is a practical, effective, economical and easy to perform technique for removal of colonic polyps. To date this is the largest series published in our country on the subject

William, Otero R; Alejandro, Concha M; Martín, Gómez Z.

2013-03-30

161

Low-Dose Risperidone-Induced Oculogyric Crises in an Adolescent Male with Autism, Tourette’s and Developmental Delay  

OpenAIRE

This article will review the case of a young patient with mental retardationa, autistic disorder, and Tourette Syndrome who exhibited a favourable treatment response preferentially to risperidone. His presentation, however, was complicated by an exquisite sensitivity to risperidone displayed in the form of recurrent oculogyric crises. In this article, we will outline a review of the case, a survey of the incidence and risk factors of oculogyric crises, as well as a review of the literature on...

Masliyah, Tamara; Ad-dab’bagh, Yasser

2011-01-01

162

Rate-decreasing effects of the atypical neuroleptic risperidone attenuated by conditions of reinforcement in a woman with mental retardation.  

OpenAIRE

Effects of two doses of risperidone on the performance of a matching task under tangible reinforcement and nonreinforcement conditions were measured in a woman with mental retardation. In both conditions, time to complete the task increased and response rates decreased under two doses of risperidone. Accuracy was generally unchanged. These changes were much smaller in the tangible reinforcement condition; thus, reinforcement seemed to protect performance from the rate-decreasing effects of ri...

Yoo, J. Helen; Williams, Dean C.; Napolitano, Deborah A.; Peyton, Robert T.; Baer, Donald M.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

2003-01-01

163

Comparison of SGA Oral Medications and a Long-Acting Injectable SGA: The PROACTIVE Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Until relatively recently, long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations were only available for first-generation antipsychotics and their utilization decreased as use of oral second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) increased. Although registry-based naturalistic studies show LAIs reduce rehospitalization more than oral medications in clinical practice, this is not seen in recent randomized clinical trials. PROACTIVE (Preventing Relapse Oral Antipsychotics Compared to Injectables Evaluating Efficacy) relapse prevention study incorporated efficacy and effectiveness features. At 8 US academic centers, 305 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to LAI risperidone (LAI-R) or physician's choice oral SGAs. Patients were evaluated during the 30-month study by masked, centralized assessors using 2-way video, and monitored biweekly by on-site clinicians and assessors who knew treatment assignment. Relapse was evaluated by a masked Relapse Monitoring Board. Differences between LAI-R and oral SGA treatment in time to first relapse and hospitalization were not significant. Psychotic symptoms and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total score improved more in the LAI-R group. In contrast, the LAI group had higher Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms Alogia scale scores. There were no other between-group differences in symptoms or functional improvement. Despite the advantage for psychotic symptoms, LAI-R did not confer an advantage over oral SGAs for relapse or rehospitalization. Biweekly monitoring, not focusing specifically on patients with demonstrated nonadherence to treatment and greater flexibility in changing medication in the oral treatment arm, may contribute to the inability to detect differences between LAI and oral SGA treatment in clinical trials. PMID:24870446

Buckley, Peter F; Schooler, Nina R; Goff, Donald C; Hsiao, John; Kopelowicz, Alexander; Lauriello, John; Manschreck, Theo; Mendelowitz, Alan J; Miller, Del D; Severe, Joanne B; Wilson, Daniel R; Ames, Donna; Bustillo, Juan; Mintz, Jim; Kane, John M

2015-03-01

164

Efficacy of an injectable combination anthelmintic (nitroxynil+clorsulon+ivermectin) against early immature Fasciola hepatica compared to triclabendazole combination flukicides given orally or topically to cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to compare the efficacy against artificially induced 2- and 4-week old early immature triclabendazole-susceptible liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica) of an injectable combination of nitroxynil, clorsulon and ivermectin with oral and pour-on combination formulations containing triclabendazole. Groups of yearling Angus or Angus cross cattle were confirmed fluke free before being artificially infected with 500 Sunny Corner strain triclabendazole-susceptible liver fluke metacercariae. Two or four weeks after infection, cattle were treated with the test combination Nitromec (10.2mg/kg nitroxynil, 2.0mg/kg clorsulon, 0.2mg/kg ivermectin), or oral Flukazole C+Se (triclabendazole/oxfendazole/Selenium), oral Fasimec C (triclabendazole/ivermectin) or Genesis Ultra Pour-On (triclabendazole/abamectin). At intervals cattle were weighed, faecal sampled for liver fluke egg counts and blood sampled for liver serum enzyme analysis. Cattle were slaughtered 14 weeks after infection for recovery of adult flukes; fluke egg counts and liver pathology assessment. All cattle increased in body weight by 0.4-0.8kg/day but there were no significant differences between control and treated groups or between the treatment groups. Geometric mean 14-week fluke egg counts and total fluke counts for all treatments, were significantly less (p<0.05) than the control group, except for the group treated with Genesis Ultra Pour-On, 2 weeks after infection. Nitromec treatment of 2-week old flukes was 83% and 95% effective as assessed by 14-week egg and fluke counts, respectively, compared to Flukazole C; 96% and 99%, Fasimec C; 70% and 46%, and Genesis Pour-On, which was ineffective, with egg and fluke count reductions of 0% and 8%, respectively. Against 4-week old flukes, Nitromec treatment was 88% and 99% effective when assessed by 14-week egg and fluke counts, respectively, with Flukazole C; 98% and 99%, Genesis Pour-On; 98% and 82% and Fasimec C; 91% and 61% effective, respectively. Group mean levels of the bile duct-associated enzyme gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and the parenchymal associated enzymes, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) increased above the normal range 8 and 11 weeks after infection in the untreated control animals and the group treated 2 weeks after infection with Genesis Pour-On. The groups treated with Fasimec at 2 or 4 weeks after infection, also had elevated enzyme levels. The use of liver-associated enzyme assay is supported as supplementary indicators of fluke-induced pathology. PMID:19375232

Hutchinson, G W; Dawson, K; Fitzgibbon, C C; Martin, P J

2009-06-10

165

Evaluating the Effect of 8-Week Treatment With Risperidone On Fasting Blood Glucose of Patients with Schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of risperidone on fasting blood glucose (FBG in patients with Schizophrenia .  Method: Seventy five non-diabetic patients with Schizophrenia (based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria entered this cross-sectional study. Patients did not receive any medications (Including risperidone affecting serum FBG levels for at least 2 weeks prior to the initiation of the study. Patients received the mean dose of 4.5mg (range 2-12mg risperidone for 8 weeks. Pregnant women, patients with diabetes mellitus and a history of any major heart disease were excluded from this study.Additionally, none of the patients should have received electroconvulsive therapy within 6 months prior to the initiation of the antiphsychotics.FBG levels were measured at the initiation and 8 weeks after starting risperidone.  Results: Fifty one patients completed the study. The mean FBG level was increased from 88.9mg/dL (baseline to 94.4 mg/dL at week 8 (P =0.003. This 8-week study showed that FBG levels may increase in schizophrenic patients receiving risperidone.  Conclusion: Measuring and monitoring FBG before the initiation and during the treatment with risperidone is suggested.

Firouzeh Raisi

2007-08-01

166

Onset of efficacy with acute long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate treatment in markedly to severely ill patients with schizophrenia: post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This post hoc analysis (trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00590577 assessed onset of efficacy and tolerability of acute treatment with once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP, a long-acting atypical antipsychotic initiated by day 1 and day 8 injections, in a markedly to severely ill schizophrenia population. Methods Subjects entering the 13-week, double-blind trial were randomized to PP (39, 156, or 234 mg [25, 100, and 150 mg eq of paliperidone, respectively] or placebo. This subgroup analysis included those with a baseline Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S score indicating marked to severe illness. PP subjects received a 234-mg day 1 injection (deltoid, followed by their assigned dose on day 8 and monthly thereafter (deltoid or gluteal. Thus, data for PP groups were pooled for days 4 and 8. Measures included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, CGI-S, Personal and Social Performance (PSP, and adverse events (AEs. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF methodologies, without multiplicity adjustments, were used to assess changes in continuous measures. Onset of efficacy was defined as the first time point a treatment group showed significant PANSS improvement (assessed days 4, 8, 22, 36, 64, and 92 versus placebo, which was maintained through end point. Results A total of 312 subjects met inclusion criterion for this subgroup analysis. After the day 1 injection, mean PANSS total scores improved significantly with PP (all received 234 mg versus placebo at day 4 (P = 0.012 and day 8 (P = 0.007. After the day 8 injection, a significant PANSS improvement persisted at all subsequent time points in the 234-mg group versus placebo (P P P P Conclusions In this markedly to severely ill population, acute treatment with 234 mg PP improved psychotic symptoms compared with placebo by day 4. After subsequent injections, observed improvements are suggestive of a dose-dependent effect. No unexpected tolerability findings were noted.

Ma Yi-Wen

2011-04-01

167

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF RISPERIDONE BY MBTH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A simple and sensitive visible spectrophotometric method is described for the assay of risperidone (RSP in pure and solid dosage forms. The method involves oxidative coupling of risperidone with MBTH in presence of ferric chloride dissolved in HCl and apple green chromogen is formed and exhibits absorption maxima at 595.8nm. Regression analysis of Beer-Lambert plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges (10-80 ?g/mL. Regression coefficient was found to be 0.992. The proposed method is applied to commercial available tablets and the results are statistically evaluated and validated by recovery studies. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of the bulk drug and its tablet dosage form. The methods have been statistically evaluated and were found to be precise and accurate.

S. Archana*, Y. Naga Prasanna, P. Pavitra, D. Santhi Krupa, M. Hema Sri

2013-03-01

168

Comparison between risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic agent and haloperidol, a conventional agent used to treat schizophrenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An observational and comparative study was conducted to compare the functional outcome between the patients treated with conventional antipsychotic agent haloperidol and typical antipsychotic agent, Risperidone (Risperidal). A total of 32 patients were included in the study with established schizophrenia according to (DSM iv). The data was processed on SSPE 10th version. The primary outcome measure was the improvement of negative symptoms of schizophrenia and secondary outcome measure was to observe the superiority of the atypical drug Risperid one over conventional agent haloperidol regarding side effects. Patients were assessed at baseline, 2nd and 8th week, using four tools of assessment. For treatment group receiving haloperidol mean was 47.2+-11.50 at 8th week and for Risperidone treatment group mean was 43+-14.68. The P values for all the parameters in the Clozapine group were significant as compared to haloperidol. (author)

169

Long-Term (1-Year) Safety and Efficacy of a Single 6-mL Injection of Hylan G-F 20 in Indian Patients with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: The prevalence of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) among Asians ?65 years is estimated to double by 2040. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single, 6-mL intra-articular injection of hylan G-F 20 in Indian patients with knee OA at 26 weeks through to 52 weeks. Methods: This study was an open-label, multicentre, phase 4 clinical trial. Enrolled patients (N=394) were ?30 years old with Kellgren-Lawrence grade 1–3 OA; all patients received hylan G-F 20. WOMAC, SF-12, PTGA, and COGA scores, and OA medication use were evaluated at weeks 1, 4, 12, 26, 39, and 52 (initial treatment phase). At 26, 39, or 52 weeks, eligible patients could participate in a repeat treatment phase. McNemar-Bowkers, paired t-tests and ANOVA analyses were performed (alpha=0.05). Results: At 26 weeks, statistically significant changes from baseline were observed in all efficacy parameters, including the primary efficacy endpoint of WOMAC A1 (pWOMAC A1, WOMAC C and PTGA scores (p?0.028). Twenty-three (5.8%) patients reported 26 local target knee AEs. Conclusion: Among Indian patients within this study, a 6-mL hylan G-F 20 injection was well tolerated and effective in treating symptomatic knee OA with significant long-term (1 year) improvement of outcomes. When needed, repeat treatment was safe and efficacious for 4 weeks. Trial Registration: Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI/2010/091/000052) www.ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/login.php. PMID:25328555

Pal, Sarvajeet; Thuppal, Sreedhar; Reddy, K.J; Avasthi, Sachin; Aggarwal, Anish; Bansal, Himanshu; Mohanasundaram, Senthilnathan; Bailleul, Francois

2014-01-01

170

Developing In Vitro–In Vivo Correlation of Risperidone Immediate Release Tablet  

OpenAIRE

The present study was aimed to predict the absorption profile of a risperidone immediate release tablet (IR) and to develop the level A in vitro–in vivo correlation (IVIVC) of the drug using the gastrointestinal simulation based on the advanced compartmental absorption and transit model implemented in GastroPlus™. Plasma concentration data, physicochemical, and pharmacokinetic properties of the drug were used in building its absorption profile in the gastrointestinal tract. Since the frac...

Saibi, Yardi; Sato, Hitoshi; Tachiki, Hidehisa

2012-01-01

171

Development of novel risperidone implants using blends of polycaprolactones and in vitro in vivo correlation studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to develop a novel implant containing risperidone intended for long-term treatment in Schizophrenia utilizing in vitro in vivo correlation (IVIVC) studies. Different implants (F1-F8) containing an antipsychotic drug, risperidone, were prepared using a hot melt extrusion technique by taking polycaprolactones of different molecular weights (Mwt. 15000, 45000, 80000) either alone or as their blends, and PLGA (75:25). The implants contained 40% of the drug. After fabrication, the implants were characterized for various in vitro properties such as drug release and physical strength. Prior to conducting drug release studies, optimum drug release method was developed based on IVIVC studies. An optimized formulation based on drug release and physical strength at the end of fabrication was selected from the various implants fabricated. The bioactivity, reversibility, and IVIVC of optimized formulation were determined using pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Short-term stability studies were conducted with optimized formulation. Drug release depended on polymer molecular weight. Implant fabricated using 50:50 polycaprolactone 45,000 and polycaprolactone 80,000 was considered optimized implant. Optimized formulation selected released the drug for 3-months in vitro and was physically rigid. The optimized implant was able to release the drug in vivo for a period of 3 months, the implants are reversible throughout the delivery interval and, a 100% IVIVC was achieved with optimized implant, suggesting the development of 3-month drug-releasing implant for risperidone. The optimized implant was stable for 6 months at room temperature (25°C) and 45°C. A novel implant for risperidone was successfully prepared and evaluated. PMID:24959417

Navitha, Aerrolla; Jogala, Satheesh; Krishnamohan, Chinnala; Aukunuru, Jithan

2014-04-01

172

FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF EXTENDED RELEASE MINI TABLETS OF RISPERIDONE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to formulate Risperidone mini tablets filled into hard gelatin capsule, as it is administered for the treatment of psychosis. The preformulation studies of Risperidone were carried out and drug –polymer compatibility studies were performed by FT-IR spectra analysis. The precompression parameters revealed that all the 6 formulations had good flow Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose within the limit. Risperidone is formulated with different concentration of polymers like HPMCK100M, HPMCK15M, filler like lactose and with other excipients. A total number of 6 formulations (F1,F2,F3,F4,F5 and F6were carried and evaluated. In all the formulations thickness varies between 3.90-3.94mm and the hardness of the optimized batch was found to be 3.18kg/cm2.No variation in the hardness was found in the optimized formulation that showed powder blending was uniform. Among 6 formulations, F1, F2, F3 and F6 trials were done using K100M polymer and F4, F5 with K15M polymer using optimized quantity of lactose, best batch among those is F1 because it had 90% drug release and it could sustain its action until 20thhr, and is very economical.

B.Vishnu Vardhan Reddy

2012-02-01

173

Effervescent tablet formulation for enhanced patient compliance and the therapeutic effect of risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Risperidone is a poorly water soluble atypical antipsychotic drug. This work investigated the potential of developing risperidone effervescent tablets to facilitate drug administration and mask drug taste. The solid dispersion technique was selected to improve drug solubility due to its ease of scaling up, reproducibility and affordable cost. Thirty formulas were prepared adopting a 5(1).2(1).3(1) full factorial design. Trehalose, Inulin, pregelatinized starch, carboxymethylcellulose sodium and Eudragit E100 were used as hydrophilic carriers at different ratios. Rotovap, lyophilization and the kneading-oven were applied as solvent evaporation techniques. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that the drug was present as amorphous material entrapped within the carrier matrix. Eight tablet blends were prepared using different effervescent mixture ratios with or without binder and lubricant/glidant mixture. All of the blends had acceptable flowability, acceptable effervescence times and immediate drug release that could not be achieved by any of the control formulas. The formula of choice contained 40% effervescent mixture, 5% starch, 1% boric acid, 1% aspartame and sufficient lactose. The relative bioavailability (RB) of risperidone from this formula was 161.41% with a significantly higher extent of absorption compared to the market conventional tablets. This formula may be promising in improving patient compliance and drug efficiency. PMID:24833273

Mohammed, Kareem Abu Bakr; Ibrahim, Howida Kamal; Ghorab, Mahmoud Mohammed

2014-05-15

174

Cognitive differences in schizophrenia on long-term treatments with clozapine, risperidone and typical antipsychotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. There is ongoing debate on whether cognition is affected by antipsychotic drugs (APDs). This study examined the effect of long-term treatment with APDs on cognition in schizophrenia. Cognitive function was assessed in 418 patients with schizophrenia on long-term treatment with APDs (215 on clozapine, 91 on risperidone and 112 on typical APDs) and 159 healthy controls using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Schizophrenia symptomatology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). We found that cognitive test scores were significantly lower in all patients compared with the healthy controls on almost all of the total and subscores of RBANS (all P<0.001), except for the visuospatial/constructional index. Individuals taking clozapine showed worse immediate and delayed memory performance than those taking typical APDs (all P<0.01). Moreover, individuals taking clozapine showed better language performance than those taking risperidone (P<0.01). Immediate memory and delayed memory were modestly correlated with the types of APDs and the PANSS negative scores. Our results show that individuals taking clozapine performed worse in immediate and delayed memory than those taking typical APDs, but exemplified better language performance than those taking risperidone. PMID:25568968

Han, Mei; Zhang, Xiang Yang; Chen, Da Chun; Tan, Yun Long; Song, Chong Sheng; Yu, Ying Hua; Huang, Xu Feng

2015-03-01

175

Effects of risperidone treatment on the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide in appetite regulation in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs has been successful in the treatment of schizophrenia, they can cause some complications in the long-term use, including weight gain. Patients using these drugs tend to disrupt treatment primarily due to side effects. The atypical antipsychotic mechanism of action regulates a number of highly disrupted neurotransmitter pathways in the brains of psychotic patients but may also cause impairment of neurohormonal pathways in different brain areas. In this study, we investigated the circulating levels of hypothalamic neurohormones, which are related to appetite regulation; neuropeptide Y (NPY); alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH); cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART); agouti-related peptide (AgRP); and leptin in male Wistar rats, which were treated with risperidone, a serotonin antagonist, for four weeks. Alterations in the mRNA expression levels of these candidate genes in the hypothalamus were also analyzed. We hypothesized that risperidone treatment might alter both hypothalamic and circulating levels of neuropeptides through serotonergic antagonism, resulting in weight gain. Gene expression studies revealed that the mRNA expression levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), AgRP, and NPY decreased as well as their plasma levels, except for NPY. Unexpectedly, CART mRNA levels increased when their plasma levels decreased. Because POMC neurons express the serotonin receptor (5HT2C), the serotonergic antagonism of risperidone on POMC neurons may cause an increase in appetite and thus increase food consumption even in a short-term trial in rats. PMID:25449893

Kursungoz, Canan; Ak, Mehmet; Yanik, Tulin

2015-01-30

176

Developing in vitro-in vivo correlation of risperidone immediate release tablet.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was aimed to predict the absorption profile of a risperidone immediate release tablet (IR) and to develop the level A in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) of the drug using the gastrointestinal simulation based on the advanced compartmental absorption and transit model implemented in GastroPlus™. Plasma concentration data, physicochemical, and pharmacokinetic properties of the drug were used in building its absorption profile in the gastrointestinal tract. Since the fraction absorbed of risperidone in simulation was more than 90% with low water solubility, the drug met the criteria of class II of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. The IVIVC was developed based on the model built using the plasma data and the in vitro dissolution data in several dissolution media based on the Japanese Guideline for Bioequivalence Studies of Generic Products. The gastrointestinal absorption profile of risperidone was successfully predicted. A level A IVIVC was also successfully developed in all dissolution media with percent prediction error for Cmax and the area under the curve less than 10% for both reference and test drug. PMID:22696224

Saibi, Yardi; Sato, Hitoshi; Tachiki, Hidehisa

2012-09-01

177

Dopamine transporter density assessed with [123]IPT SPECT before and after risperidone treatment in children with tourette's disorder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tourette's disorder (TD), which is characterized by multiple waxing and waning motor tics and one or more vocal tics, is known to be associated with abnormalities in the dopaminergic system. To testify our hypothesis that risperidone would improve tic symptoms of TD patients through the change of the dopaminergic system, we measured the dopamine transporter (DAT) densities between drug-naive children with TD and normal children, and investigated the DAT density before and after treatment with risperidone in drug-naive children with TD, using iodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2?-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane ([123I]IPT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). [123I]IPT SPECT imaging and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale-Korean version (YGTSS-K) for assessing the tic symptom severity were carried out before and after treatment with risperidone for 8 weeks in nine drug-naive children with TD. Eleven normal children also underwent SPECT imaging 2 hours after an intravenous administration of [123I]IPT. Drug-naive children with TD had a significantly greater increase in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of both basal ganglia compared with the normal children. However, no significant difference in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia before and after treatment with risperidone in children with TD was found, although tic symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone. Thgnificantly improved with risperidone. These findings suggest that DAT densities are directly associated with the pathophysiology of TD, however, that the effect of risperidone on tic symptoms in children with TD is not attributed to the change of dopaminergic system

178

Pharmacokinetic drug interaction potential of risperidone with cytochrome p450 isozymes as assessed by the dextromethorphan, the caffeine, and the mephenytoin test.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two published case reports showed that addition of risperidone (1 and 2 mg/d) to a clozapine treatment resulted in a strong increase of clozapine plasma levels. As clozapine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 isozymes, a study was initiated to assess the in vivo interaction potential of risperidone on various cytochrome P450 isozymes. Eight patients were phenotyped with dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), mephenytoin (CYP2C19), and caffeine (CYP1A2) before and after the introduction of risperidone. Before risperidone, all eight patients were phenotyped as being extensive metabolizers of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. Risperidone at dosages between 2 and 6 mg/d does not appear to significantly inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 in vivo (median plasma paraxanthine/caffeine ratios before and after risperidone: 0.65, 0.69; p = 0.89; median urinary (S)/(R) mephenytoin ratios before and after risperidone:0.11, 0.12; p = 0.75). Although dextromethorphan metabolic ratio is significantly increased by risperidone (median urinary dextromethorphan/dextrorphan ratios before and after risperidone: 0.010, 0.018; p = 0.042), risperidone can be considered a weak in vivo CYP2D6 inhibitor, as this increase is modest and none of the eight patients was changed from an extensive to a poor metabolizer. The reported increase of clozapine concentrations by risperidone can therefore not be explained by an inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2C19 or by any combination of the three. PMID:11360030

Eap, C B; Bondolfi, G; Zullino, D; Bryois, C; Fuciec, M; Savary, L; Jonzier-Perey, M; Baumann, P

2001-06-01

179

Safety and Efficacy of Paliperidone Extended-Release in Acute and Maintenance Treatment of Schizophrenia  

OpenAIRE

Paliperidone, the major active metabolite of risperidone, is a second-generation antipsychotic that has been developed as an extended-release (ER) tablet formulation that minimizes peak-trough fluctuations in plasma concentrations, allowing once-daily administration and constant drug delivery. Paliperidone ER has demonstrated efficacy in the reduction of acute schizophrenia symptoms in 6-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials and clinical benefits were maintained in the longer-term acc...

Edoardo Spina; Rosalia Crupi

2011-01-01

180

Long-acting injectable formulations of antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antipsychotic drugs have been used to treat patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Long-acting injectable antipsychotic drugs are useful for improving medication compliance with a better therapeutic option to treat patients who lack insight or adhere poorly to oral medication. Several long-acting injectable antipsychotic drugs are clinically available. Haloperidol decanoate and fluphenazine decanoate are first-generation depot drugs, but the use of these medicines has declined since the advent of second-generation depot agents, such as long-acting risperidone, paliperidone palmitate, and olanzapine pamoate. The second-generation depot drugs are better tolerated and have fewer adverse neurological side effects. Long-acting injectable risperidone, the first depot formulation of an atypical antipsychotic drug, was prepared by encapsulating risperidone into biodegradable microspheres. Paliperidone palmitate is an aqueous suspension of nanocrystal molecules, and olanzapine pamoate is a microcrystalline salt of olanzapine and pamoic acid suspended in aqueous solution. This review summarizes the characteristics and recent research of formulations of each long-acting injectable antipsychotic drug. PMID:23543652

Park, Eun Ji; Amatya, Sarmila; Kim, Myung Sun; Park, Jong Hoon; Seol, Eunyoung; Lee, Heeyong; Shin, Young-Hee; Na, Dong Hee

2013-06-01

181

Onset of efficacy with acute long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate treatment in markedly to severely ill patients with schizophrenia: post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial  

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Background This post hoc analysis (trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00590577) assessed onset of efficacy and tolerability of acute treatment with once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP), a long-acting atypical antipsychotic initiated by day 1 and day 8 injections, in a markedly to severely ill schizophrenia population. Methods Subjects entering the 13-week, double-blind trial were randomized to PP (39, 156, or 234 mg [25, 100, and 150 mg eq of paliperidone, respectively]) or placebo. This subgroup analysis included those with a baseline Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) score indicating marked to severe illness. PP subjects received a 234-mg day 1 injection (deltoid), followed by their assigned dose on day 8 and monthly thereafter (deltoid or gluteal). Thus, data for PP groups were pooled for days 4 and 8. Measures included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), CGI-S, Personal and Social Performance (PSP), and adverse events (AEs). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF) methodologies, without multiplicity adjustments, were used to assess changes in continuous measures. Onset of efficacy was defined as the first time point a treatment group showed significant PANSS improvement (assessed days 4, 8, 22, 36, 64, and 92) versus placebo, which was maintained through end point. Results A total of 312 subjects met inclusion criterion for this subgroup analysis. After the day 1 injection, mean PANSS total scores improved significantly with PP (all received 234 mg) versus placebo at day 4 (P = 0.012) and day 8 (P = 0.007). After the day 8 injection, a significant PANSS improvement persisted at all subsequent time points in the 234-mg group versus placebo (P < 0.05). PANSS improvements were greater from day 36 through end point in the 156-mg group (P < 0.05) and only at end point in the 39-mg group (P < 0.05). CGI-S and PSP scores improved significantly in the 234-mg and 156-mg PP groups versus placebo at end point (P < 0.05 for both, respectively); improvement in the 39-mg group was not significant. The most common AEs for PP-treated subjects (?10%, any treatment group) were headache, insomnia, schizophrenia exacerbation, injection site pain, and agitation. Conclusions In this markedly to severely ill population, acute treatment with 234 mg PP improved psychotic symptoms compared with placebo by day 4. After subsequent injections, observed improvements are suggestive of a dose-dependent effect. No unexpected tolerability findings were noted. PMID:21481243

2011-01-01

182

A double-blind placebo controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba added to risperidone in patients with autistic disorders.  

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Ginkgo biloba has been reported to affect the neurotransmitter system and to have antioxidant properties that could impact the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on these studies, we decided to assess the effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba extract (Ginko T.D., Tolidaru, Iran) as an adjunctive agent to risperidone in the treatment of autism. Forty-seven outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of autism ages between 4 and 12 years were assigned to this double blinded clinical trial and were randomly divided into two groups. One group received risperidone plus Ginko T.D and the other received risperidone plus placebo. The dose of risperidone was 1-3 mg/day and the dose of Ginko T.D. was 80 mg/day for patients under 30 kg and 120 mg/day for patients above 30 kg. Patients were assessed using Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) rating scale and the side effect check list every 2 weeks until the endpoint. None of the 5 subscales of ABC-C rating scale showed significant differences between the two groups. Incidents of side effects were not significantly different between the two groups. Adding Ginkgo biloba to risperidone did not affect the treatment outcome of ADs. Nevertheless, further observations are needed to confirm this result. PMID:22392415

Hasanzadeh, Elmira; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezaei, Farzin; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

2012-10-01

183

A randomised, double-masked phase III/IV study of the efficacy and safety of Avastin® (Bevacizumab intravitreal injections compared to standard therapy in subjects with choroidal neovascularisation secondary to age-related macular degeneration: clinical trial design  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD has been transformed by the introduction of agents delivered by intravitreal injection which block the action of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (anti-VEGF agents. One such agent in widespread use is bevacizumab which was initially developed for use in oncology. Most of the evidence supporting the use of bevacizumab for nAMD has come from interventional case series and this clinical trial was initiated because of the increasing and widespread use of this agent in the treatment of nAMD (an off-label indication despite a lack of definitive unbiased safety and efficacy data. Methods and design The Avastin® (bevacizumab for choroidal neovascularisation (ABC trial is a double-masked randomised controlled trial comparing intravitreal bevacizumab injections to standard therapy in the treatment of nAMD. Patients are randomised to intravitreal bevacizumab or standard therapy available at the time of trial initiation (verteporfin photodynamic therapy, intravitreal pegaptanib or sham treatment. Ranibizumab treatment was not included in the control arm as it had not been licensed for use at the start of recruitment for this trial. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients gaining ? 15 letters of visual acuity at 1 year and secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients with stable vision and mean visual acuity change. Discussion The ABC Trial is the first double-masked randomised control trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab in the treatment of nAMD. This trial fully recruited in November 2007 and results should be available in early 2009. Important design issues for this clinical trial include (a defining the control group (b use of gain in vision as primary efficacy end-point and (c use of pro re nata treatment using intravitreal bevacizumab rather than continuous therapy. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN83325075

Bunce Catey

2008-10-01

184

Autistic traits and factors related to a clinical decision to use risperidone in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

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Conclusion: In this clinical sample, parent-rated social problems and thought problems were associated with the clinician's decision to use risperidone in the treatment of ADHD cases (alone or in combination with stimulants. ADHD children with AT had more severe symptoms of ADHD and displayed more learning disability. However, AT profile as a category was not significantly associated with the use of risperidone. The better characterization of non-ADHD symptoms of ADHD children (social and emotional symptoms may help to develop more individualized clinical interventions, such as nonpharmacological interventions for social development, which may result in a reduction in the use of medications targeting these symptoms in this group of children.

aysegul selcen guler

2014-01-01

185

Trabecular bone loss after administration of the second-generation antipsychotic risperidone is independent of weight gain  

OpenAIRE

Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have been linked to metabolic and bone disorders in clinical studies, but the mechanisms of these side effects remain unclear. Additionally, no studies have examined whether SGAs cause bone loss in mice. Using in vivo and in vitro modeling we examined the effects of risperidone, the most commonly prescribed SGA, on bone in C57BL6/J (B6) mice. Mice were treated with risperidone orally by food supplementation at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg daily for 5 and 8 week...

Motyl, Katherine J.; Dick-de-paula, Ingrid; Maloney, Ann E.; Lotinun, Sutada; Bornstein, Sheila; Paula, Francisco J. A.; Baron, Roland; Houseknecht, Karen L.; Rosen, Clifford J.

2011-01-01

186

Gabapentin adjunctive to risperidone or olanzapine in partially responsive schizophrenia: an open-label pilot study  

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Full Text Available Adel GabrielDepartments of Psychiatry and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: There is a great need in the treatment of schizophrenia for a drug, or drug ­combinations, to improve clinical response with fewer serious side effects. The objective of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects and tolerability of the anticonvulsant gabapentin as an adjunctive in the treatment of patients with partially responsive schizophrenia.Methods: Ten consenting patients with a confirmed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosis of schizophrenia were identified. All patients failed at least one 12-week treatment trial with risperidone or olanzapine. Gabapentin was added to ongoing antipsychotic treatment with olanzapine or risperidone for eight weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Other scales included the Calgary Depression Scale (CDSS and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance was utilized to examine changes in outcome measures over time with adjunctive treatment with gabapentin.Results: There was a significant drop in the PANSS and CDSS scores at endpoint (week 8. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups with regard to changes in all outcome measures or in AIMS score. The adjunctive treatments were well tolerated and side effects were transient.Conclusion: Gabapentin could be used successfully as an adjunct to novel antipsychotics in partially responsive schizophrenia. However, large controlled studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of gabapentin in psychotic disorders.Keywords: schizophrenia, refractory, adjunctive treatment, gabapentin, risperidone, olanzapine

Adel Gabriel

2010-10-01

187

Eficácia da aplicação da pomada EMLA® no alivio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A no tratamento do blefaroespasmo essencial benigno Efficacy of EMLA® cream application for pain relief of periocular botulinum toxin injections  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a eficácia da aplicação da pomada EMLA® (EMLA no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A (BTX no tratamento do blefaroespasmo essencial benigno (BEB. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, com a participação de 13 pacientes submetidos à aplicação de toxina botulínica na região periocular bilateral no tratamento de BEB. Aplicou-se a pomada EMLA na região periocular direita e placebo na esquerda antes das aplicações. Após a aplicação solicitou-se ao paciente uma nota de 0 a 10 referente à intensidade da dor. RESULTADOS: No lado em que foi aplicada a pomada EMLA, a média da intensidade da dor referida pelo paciente foi de 5,77±3,00 enquanto que no lado em que foi aplicado placebo, foi de 5,62±2,63 (p=0,92. CONCLUSÃO: Não se obteve uma redução estatisticamente significante da dor referida durante a aplicação de BTX em pacientes portadores de BEB após a aplicação da pomada EMLA.PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of EMLA® (EMLA cream for pain relief before periocular botulinum toxin injection (BTX on the treatment of essential benign blepharospasm (BEB. METHODS: In this prospective study, 13 patients given bilateral periocular botulinum injections for blepharospasm treatment were included. Prior to the injections, EMLA cream was applied to the right periocular side and placebo to the left side. Relative pain score from 0 to 10 was recorded after the procedure. RESULTS: The average pain score on the side where EMLA was applied was 5,77±3,00, whereas it was 5,62±2,63 on the placebo side (p=0,92. CONCLUSION: No statistically significant decrease in the pain score associated with BTX injection for BEB was noted after EMLA skin application.

Nadia Ajub Moysés

2011-04-01

188

Eficácia da aplicação da pomada EMLA® no alivio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A no tratamento do blefaroespasmo essencial benigno / Efficacy of EMLA® cream application for pain relief of periocular botulinum toxin injections  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a eficácia da aplicação da pomada EMLA® (EMLA) no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A (BTX) no tratamento do blefaroespasmo essencial benigno (BEB). MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, com a participação de 13 pacientes submetidos à aplicação de toxina b [...] otulínica na região periocular bilateral no tratamento de BEB. Aplicou-se a pomada EMLA na região periocular direita e placebo na esquerda antes das aplicações. Após a aplicação solicitou-se ao paciente uma nota de 0 a 10 referente à intensidade da dor. RESULTADOS: No lado em que foi aplicada a pomada EMLA, a média da intensidade da dor referida pelo paciente foi de 5,77±3,00 enquanto que no lado em que foi aplicado placebo, foi de 5,62±2,63 (p=0,92). CONCLUSÃO: Não se obteve uma redução estatisticamente significante da dor referida durante a aplicação de BTX em pacientes portadores de BEB após a aplicação da pomada EMLA. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of EMLA® (EMLA) cream for pain relief before periocular botulinum toxin injection (BTX) on the treatment of essential benign blepharospasm (BEB). METHODS: In this prospective study, 13 patients given bilateral periocular botulinum injections for blepharospasm tre [...] atment were included. Prior to the injections, EMLA cream was applied to the right periocular side and placebo to the left side. Relative pain score from 0 to 10 was recorded after the procedure. RESULTS: The average pain score on the side where EMLA was applied was 5,77±3,00, whereas it was 5,62±2,63 on the placebo side (p=0,92). CONCLUSION: No statistically significant decrease in the pain score associated with BTX injection for BEB was noted after EMLA skin application.

Nadia Ajub, Moysés; Nilson Lopes da, Fonseca Júnior; José Ricardo Carvalho Lima, Rehder.

2011-04-01

189

Selective acquired long QT syndrome (saLQTS) upon risperidone treatment  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Numerous structurally unrelated drugs, including antipsychotics, can prolong QT interval and trigger the acquired long QT syndrome (aLQTS). All of them are thought to act at the level of KCNH2, a subunit of the potassium channel. Although the QT-prolonging drugs are proscribed in the subjects with aLQTS, the individual response to diverse QT-prolonging drugs may vary substantially. Case presentation We report here a case of aLQTS in response to small doses of risperidone t...

Lazarczyk Maciej; Bhuiyan Zahir A; Perrin Nicolas; Giannakopoulos Panteleimon

2012-01-01

190

Beneficial effect of risperidone on sleep disturbance and psychosis following traumatic brain injury.  

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Severe disturbances of sleep architecture and circadian rhythms are common in traumatic brain injured patients; however, complete absence of the rapid eye movement sleep stage is very rare. We describe a brain injured patient with cognitive disturbances who developed severe alterations of sleep architecture, accompanied by paranoid and jealousy delusions. Following several trials with conventional antipsychotics his psychotic state stabilized but he continued to complain of insomnia and daytime fatigue. When treated with risperidone 2 mg/day, both his sleep and the delusional thoughts improved markedly and his daytime alertness increased. Severe deterioration of his support system brought about discontinuation of treatment with re-emergence of all symptoms. PMID:9861578

Schreiber, S; Klag, E; Gross, Y; Segman, R H; Pick, C G

1998-11-01

191

PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY OF RISPERIDONE: APPLICATION OF A HPLC METHOD WITH SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION  

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Full Text Available A new, simplified solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma has been developed. This method involves the use of an optimized extraction protocol developed in Waters OASIS® HLB 30mg 1cc extraction columns using 1 mL of human serum. Separation was performed by HPLC using a Waters XTerra RP-18 (5 µm, 150x4,6 mm column with a mobile phase consisting in acetonitrile - potassium dihydrogen phosphate 50 mM pH 3.4 (27/73. UV detection at 278 nm was used to quantify analytes, encountering good linearity (r² > 0.999 in the 2-100 ng/mL concentration range. The mean recovery was 92.4 % and 92.8 % for risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone respectively, with an intraday - interday precision below 7%, and accuracy below 115 %. The method has been successfully applied in pharmacokinetic studies that require a large sample number.

PABLO TORRES V

2011-01-01

192

Is High Dose Risperidone an Option for Treatment-Resistant Tourette Syndrome?  

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Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that begins in childhood, in which multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics are seen concomitantly. In this text, the treatment course of a severe TS case, with complete daily functioning loss, is described. Significant reductions in tics were observed with 8 mg/day risperidone treatment in this case who failed to respond to many neuroleptics. The Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (Y-GTSS score, which was 85 before treatment, declined to 48. In our case, who used this dosing regimen for six months, the reduced tic status continued after the dose was switched to 6 mg/day, the reduction status was observed to go on after six months. No significant side effect was observed. This case was thought to be important in showing that high dose risperidone might be effective in treatment-resistant TS cases. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2009; 46: 206-8

?. Senem BA?GÜL

2009-12-01

193

Enantioselective fungal biotransformation of risperidone in liquid culture medium by capillary electrophoresis and hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction.  

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Knowing that microbial transformations of compounds play vital roles in the preparation of new derivatives with biological activities, risperidone and its chiral metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis and hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction after a fungal biotransformation study in liquid culture medium. The analytes were extracted from 1 mL liquid culture medium into 1-octanol impregnated in the pores of the hollow fiber, and into an acid acceptor solution inside the polypropylene hollow fiber. The electrophoretic separations were carried out in 100 mmol/L sodium phosphate buffer pH 3.0 containing 2.0% w/v sulfated-?-CD and carboxymethyl-?-CD 0.5% w/v with a constant voltage of -10 kV. The method was linear over the concentration range of 100-5000 ng/mL for risperidone and 50-5000 ng/mL for each metabolite enantiomer. Within-day and between-day assay precisions and accuracies for all the analytes were studied at three concentration levels, and the values of relative standard deviation and relative error were lower than 15%. The developed method was applied in a pilot biotransformation study employing risperidone as the substrate and the filamentous fungus Mucor rouxii. This study showed that the filamentous fungus was able to metabolize risperidone enantioselectively into its chiral active metabolite, (-)-9-hydroxyrisperidone. PMID:21898463

de Jesus, Liana I; Albuquerque, Nayara C P; Borges, Keyller B; Simões, Rodrigo A; Calixto, Leandro A; Furtado, Niege A J C; de Gaitani, Cristiane M; Pupo, Mônica T; de Oliveira, Anderson R M

2011-10-01

194

Memantine as adjunctive treatment to risperidone in children with autistic disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.  

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Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes significant impairment in socialization and communication. It is also associated with ritualistic and stereotypical behaviour. Recent studies propose both hyper-and hypoglutamatergic ideologies for autism. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of memantine plus risperidone in the treatment of children with autism. Children with autism were randomly allocated to risperidone plus memantine or placebo plus risperidone for a 10-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The dose of risperidone was titrated up to 3 mg/d and memantine was titrated to 20 mg/d. Children were assessed at baseline and after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wk of starting medication protocol. The primary outcome measure was the irritability subscale of Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C). Difference between the two treatment arms was significant as the group that received memantine had greater reduction in ABC-C subscale scores for irritability, stereotypic behaviour and hyperactivity. Eight side-effects were observed over the trial, out of the 25 side-effects that the checklist included. The difference between the two groups in the frequency of side-effects was not significant. The present study suggests that memantine may be a potential adjunctive treatment strategy for autism and it was generally well tolerated. This trial is registered with the Iranian Clinical Trials Registry (IRCT1138901151556N10; www.irct.ir). PMID:22999292

Ghaleiha, Ali; Asadabadi, Mahtab; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Shahei, Maryam; Tabrizi, Mina; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

2013-05-01

195

Near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of drug-loading rate and particle size of risperidone microspheres by improved chemometric model.  

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Microspheres have been developed as drug carriers in controlled drug delivery systems for years. In our present study, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is applied to analyze the particle size and drug loading rate in risperidone poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. Various batches of risperidone PLGA microspheres were designed and prepared successfully. The particle size and drug-loading rate of all the samples were determined by a laser diffraction particle size analyzer and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. Monte Carlo algorithm combined with partial least squares (MCPLS) method was applied to identify the outliers and choose the numbers of calibration set. Furthermore, a series of preprocessing methods were performed to remove signal noise in NIR spectra. Moving window PLS and radical basis function neural network (RBFNN) methods were employed to establish calibration model. Our data demonstrated that PLS-developed model was only suitable for drug loading analysis in risperidone PLGA microspheres. Comparatively, RBFNN-based predictive models possess better fitting quality, predictive effect, and stability for both drug loading rate and particle size analysis. The correlation coefficients of calibration set (Rc(2)) were 0.935 and 0.880, respectively. The performance of optimum RBFNN models was confirmed by independent verification test with 15 samples. Collectively, our method is successfully performed to monitor drug-loading rate and particle size during risperidone PLGA microspheres preparation. PMID:24954726

Song, Jia; Xie, Jing; Li, Chenliang; Lu, Jia-Hui; Meng, Qing-Fan; Yang, Zhaogang; Lee, Robert J; Wang, Di; Teng, Le-Sheng

2014-09-10

196

Efficacy of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) for decorporation of Pu,Am and U from rats injected intramuscularly with high-fired particles of MOX  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study aimed to assess the efficacy of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) for reducing uranium, plutonium and americium in rats after intramuscular injection of (U-Pu)O{sub 2} particles (MOX). Sixteen rats were contaminated by intramuscular injection of a 1 mg MOX suspension and then treated daily for 7 d with LIHOPO (30 or 200 {mu}mol kg{sup -1}) or DTPA (30 {mu}mol kg{sup -1}). LIHOPO was inefficient for removing Pu, Am and U from the wound site. However, it reduced Pu retention in carcass and liver by factors of 2 and 6 respectively, and Am retention in carcass and liver by factors of 10 and 30. In contrast, the effect of LIHOPO on U was to decrease the retention in kidneys by a factor of 75. These results confirm that LIHOPO is a good candidate for use after contamination with MOX, in combination with localised wound lavage or surgical treatment aimed at removing most of the contaminant at the wound site. (author)

Paquet, F.; Chazel, V.; Houpert, P.; Guilmette, R.; Muggenburg, B

2003-07-01

197

Efficacy of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) for decorporation of Pu,Am and U from rats injected intramuscularly with high-fired particles of MOX  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed to assess the efficacy of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) for reducing uranium, plutonium and americium in rats after intramuscular injection of (U-Pu)O2 particles (MOX). Sixteen rats were contaminated by intramuscular injection of a 1 mg MOX suspension and then treated daily for 7 d with LIHOPO (30 or 200 ?mol kg-1) or DTPA (30 ?mol kg-1). LIHOPO was inefficient for removing Pu, Am and U from the wound site. However, it reduced Pu retention in carcass and liver by factors of 2 and 6 respectively, and Am retention in carcass and liver by factors of 10 and 30. In contrast, the effect of LIHOPO on U was to decrease the retention in kidneys by a factor of 75. These results confirm that LIHOPO is a good candidate for use after contamination with MOX, in combination with localised wound lavage or surgical treatment aimed at removing most of the contaminant at the wound site. (author)

198

No change of dopamine transporter density in basal ganglia after risperidone treatment in drug-naive children with Tourette's disorder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tourette's disorder (TD), which is characterized by multiple waxing and waning motor tics and one or more vocal tics, is known to be associated with abnormalities in the dopaminergic system. To testify our hypothesis that risperidone would improve tic symptoms of TD patients through the change of the dopaminergic system, we measured the DAT densities between drug-naive children with TD and normal children investigated the DAT density before and after treatment with risperidone in drug-naive children with TD, using lodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane(I-123 IPT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). I-123 IPT SPECT imaging and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale-Korean version (YGTSS-K) for assessing the tic symptom severity were carried out before and after treatment with risperidone for 8 weeks in eight drug-naive children with TD. Eight normal children also underwent SPECT imaging 2 hours after an intravenous administration of I-123 IPT and carried out both quantitative and qualitative analyses using the obtained SPECT data, which were reconstructed for the assessment of the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the basal ganglia. The drug-naive children with TD had a significantly greater increase in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of both basal ganglia compared with the normal children. However, no significant difference in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal gangliific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia before and after treatment with riperidone in children with TD was not found, although tic symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone. These findings suggest that DAT densities are directly associated with the pathophysiology of TD, however, that the effect of risperidone on tic symptoms in children with TD is not attributed to the change of dopaminergic system

199

Review of the safety, efficacy, costs and patient acceptability of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone for injection in assisting ovulation induction in infertile women  

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Full Text Available Marleen Nahuis1,2,3, Fulco van der Veen1, Jur Oosterhuis2, Ben Willem Mol1, Peter Hompes3, Madelon van Wely11Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (H4-205, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Free Medical University, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: Anovulation is a common cause of female subfertility. Treatment of anovulation is aimed at induction of ovulation. In women with clomiphene-citrate resistant WHO group II anovulation, one of the treatment options is ovulation induction with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH or follitropin. FSH is derived from urine or is produced as recombinant FSH. Two forms of recombinant FSH are available – follitropin alpha and follitropin beta. To evaluate the efficacy, safety, costs and acceptability of recombinant FSH, we performed a review to compare recombinant FSH with urinary-derived FSH products. Follitropin alpha, beta and urinary FSH products appeared to be equally effective in terms of pregnancy rates. Patient safety was also found to be comparable, as the incidence of side effects including multiple pregnancies was similar for all FSH products. In practice follitropin alpha and beta may be more convenient to use due to the ease of self-administration, but they are also more expensive than the urinary products.Keywords: follitropin apha, follitropin beta, urinary gonadotropins, polycystic ovary syndrome

Marleen Nahuis

2009-11-01

200

Effectiveness of antipsychotic maintenance therapy with quetiapine in comparison with risperidone and olanzapine in routine schizophrenia treatment: results of a prospective observational trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective of this observational trial is to examine the effects of quetiapine in comparison with olanzapine and risperidone on clinical outcomes and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in routine care. 374 adult persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder prescribed antipsychotic maintenance therapy with quetiapine, olanzapine, or risperidone at discharge from inpatient treatment were included. Clinical and psychosocial outcomes were assessed before discharge and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Statistical analyses were conducted by mixed-effects regression models for longitudinal data. The propensity score method was used to control for selection bias. Patients discharged on olanzapine had significantly lower hospital readmissions than those receiving quetiapine or risperidone. The average chlorpromazine equivalent dose of quetiapine was higher than in patients treated with olanzapine or risperidone. No further significant differences between treatment groups were found. Quetiapine and risperidone are less effective in preventing the need for psychiatric inpatient care than olanzapine, and higher chlorpromazine equivalent doses of quetiapine are needed to obtain clinical effects similar to those of olanzapine and risperidone. PMID:22526729

Kilian, Reinhold; Steinert, Tilman; Schepp, Wiltrud; Weiser, Prisca; Jaeger, Susanne; Pfiffner, Carmen; Frasch, Karel; Eschweiler, Gerhard W; Messer, Thomas; Croissant, Daniela; Becker, Thomas; Längle, Gerhard

2012-10-01

201

Safety and efficacy of botox injection in alleviating post-operative pain and improving quality of life in lower extremity limb lengthening and deformity correction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Distraction osteogenesis is the standard treatment for the management of lower limb length discrepancy of more than 3 cm and bone loss secondary to congenital anomalies, trauma or infection. This technique consists of an osteotomy of the bone to be lengthened, application of an external fixator, followed by gradual and controlled distraction of the bone ends. Although limb lengthening using the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis principle yields excellent results in most cases, the technique has numerous problems and is not well tolerated by many children. The objective of the current study is to determine if Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-A, which is known to possess both analgesic and paralytic actions, can be used to alleviate post-operative pain and improve the functional outcome of children undergoing distraction osteogenesis. Methods/Design The study design consists of a multi centre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Patients between ages 5–21 years requiring limb lengthening or deformity correction using distraction will be recruited from 6 different sites (Shriners Hospital for Children in Montreal, Honolulu, Philadelphia and Portland as well as DuPont Hospital for Children in Wilmington, Delaware and Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ont. Approximately 150 subjects will be recruited over 2 years and will be randomized to either receive 10 units per Kg of BTX-A or normal saline (control group intraoperatively following the surgery. Functional outcome effects will be assessed using pain scores, medication dosages, range of motion, flexibility, strength, mobility function and quality of life of the patient. IRB approval was obtained from all sites and adverse reactions will be monitored vigorously and reported to IRB, FDA and Health Canada. Discussion BTX-A injection has been widely used world wide with no major side effects reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time BTX-A is being used under the context of limb lengthening and deformity correction. Trial Registration NCT00412035

Finley Allen

2007-09-01

202

Actigraphic monitoring of activity and rest in schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine or risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic disturbances are a growing concern for the treatment of schizophrenia. As decreased activity and poor sleep quality are risk factors for metabolic disturbances, we investigated the activity and sleep patterns of schizophrenic patients using actigraphy. Seventy-three patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (mean age 29.2 ± 10.2 years, 27 females) treated with olanzapine (n = 54) or risperidone (n = 19) and 36 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were examined. Actigraphic recordings were obtained throughout seven consecutive days. The Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were used to assess sleep and daytime sleepiness. Drug side effects were evaluated with the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU) Side Effect Rating Scale and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS). Mental status was rated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). The patients had lower mean 24 h-activity (p scale, were related to lower activity (r(s) = -0.508, p < 0.001). Higher depressive symptoms were related to lower mean 24 h-activity (r(s) = -0.233, p = 0.049), longer time in bed (r(s) = 0.315, p = 0.007) and higher AIS (r(s) = 0.377, p = 0.001) and ESS scores (r(s) = 0.321, p = 0.006). Healthy females presented higher activity than healthy males (p < 0.001). Similar but not significant gender differences were observed in the patients. These findings show that patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine or risperidone exhibit low physical activity and altered sleep pattern which may promote metabolic side effects. These changes are linked to negative and depressive symptoms. PMID:21679968

Wichniak, Adam; Skowerska, Agnieszka; Chojnacka-Wójtowicz, Jolanta; Tafli?ski, Tomasz; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Jernajczyk, Wojciech; Jarema, Marek

2011-10-01

203

Efficacy, adherence and tolerability of once daily tenofovir DF-containing antiretroviral therapy in former injecting drug users with HIV-1 receiving opiate treatment: results of a 48-week open-label study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess efficacy, adherence and tolerability of once daily antiretroviral therapy containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF 300 mg in HIV-1-infected former injecting drug users receiving opiate treatment (IVDU. Methods European, 48-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study. Patients were either antiretroviral therapy-naïve, restarting therapy after treatment discontinuation without prior virological failure or switching from existing stable treatment. Results Sixty-seven patients were enrolled in the study and 41 patients completed treatment. In the primary analysis (intent-to-treat missing = failure at week 48, 34% of patients (23/67; 95% CI: 23%-47% had plasma HIV-1 RNA 3. Although self-reported adherence appeared high, there were high levels of missing data and adherence results should be treated with caution. No new safety issues were identified. Conclusions Levels of missing data were high in this difficult-to-treat population, but potent antiretroviral suppression was achieved in a substantial proportion of HIV-infected IVDU-patients.

Esser S

2011-10-01

204

Validation of an analytical method applicable to study of 1 mg/mL oral Risperidone solution stability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A validated analytical method by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applicable to study of 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution stability. The above method was linear, accurate, specific and exact. A stability study of the 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution was developed determining its expiry date. The shelf life study was conducted for 24 months at room temperature; whereas the accelerated stability study was conducted with product under influence of humidity and temperature; analysis was made during 3 months. Formula fulfilled the quality specifications described in Pharmacopeia. The results of stability according to shelf life after 24 months showed that the product maintains the parameters determining its quality during this time and in accelerated studies there was not significant degradation (p> 0.05) in the product. Under mentioned conditions expiry date was of 2 years

205

Eficacia limitada del uso de agente inyectable permanente en el tratamiento de la incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo tras prostatectomía radical / Limited efficacy of permanent injectable agents in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: No existen datos suficientes en relación a la eficacia del tratamiento de la incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo (IUE) después de prostatectomía radical (PR). El propósito de este estudio es describir nuestra experiencia mediante inyección de micro esferas de carbón pirolítico (Durasphere®) [...] en el tratamiento de IUE tras PR. MÉTODOS: Entre Enero y Octubre de 2003 fueron tratados con Durasphere 8 pacientes con el diagnóstico de IUE después de PR. Se analizaron las variables edad, tiempo transcurrido desde la PR hasta el tratamiento, número diario de compresas, informe quirúrgico, respuesta subjetiva y objetiva al tratamiento, y evolución clínico quirúrgica. RESULTADOS: La edad media de los pacientes fue de 63,2 años (50-71). El tiempo mediano desde la prostatectomía radical hasta la inyección fue de 25 meses (14-134). Ningún paciente sufría incontinencia urinaria anterior a la prostatectomía radical. El número mediano de compresas usadas antes del tratamiento con Durasphere® era de 2 diarias (1-6). El volumen mediano de Durasphere® inyectado fue de 23.8 ml (15-30 ml). Ningún paciente resultó curado subjetiva u objetivamente después del tratamiento. Tras un seguimiento mediano de 5 meses (9.9-12.5), 5 pacientes (62.5%) optaron por un segundo tratamiento mas invasivo para resolver su incontinencia. CONCLUSIONES: La utilización de Durasphere® como agente inyectable permanente no supuso, entre nuestros pacientes un tratamiento efectivo de la IUE leve a moderada tras PR. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: There is not enough evidence about efficacy in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after radical prostatectomy (RP). The objective of this paper is to describe our experience with the injection of pyrolytic carbon microspheres (Durasphere ®) in the treatment of SUI after R [...] P. METHODS: Between January and October 2003 8 patients with the diagnosis of SUI after RP underwent treatment. Analyzed variables included age, time from RP to treatment, number of incontinence pads per day, operative report, subjective and objective response to treatment, and clinical-surgical outcomes. RESULTS: Mean age was 63.2 years (50-71). Median time from radical prostatectomy to injection was 25 months (14-134). No patient suffered urinary incontinence before radical prostatectomy. Median number of incontinence pads required before treatment with Durasphere ® injection was 2 per day (1-6). Mean Durasphere ® volume injected was 23.8 ml (15-30 ml). No patient achieved subjective or objective cure after treatment. After a median follow-up of 5 months (9.9-12.5) 5 patients (62.5%) chose to undergo a second more invasive treatment to solve their incontinence. CONCLUSIONS: The use of Durasphere ® as a permanent injectable agent did not result effective in the treatment of mild to moderate SUI after RP in our patients.

Fernando P., Secin; Juan Ignacio, Martínez-Salamanca; Karyn S., Eilber.

2005-06-01

206

Moderation of antipsychotic-induced weight gain by energy balance gene variants in the RUPP autism network risperidone studies  

OpenAIRE

Second-generation antipsychotic exposure, in both children and adults, carries significant risk for excessive weight gain that varies widely across individuals. We queried common variation in key energy balance genes (FTO, MC4R, LEP, CNR1, FAAH) for their association with weight gain during the initial 8 weeks in the two NIMH Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network trials (N=225) of risperidone for treatment of irritability in children/adolescents aged 4–17 years with ...

Nurmi, E. L.; Spilman, S. L.; Whelan, F.; Scahill, L. L.; Aman, M. G.; Mcdougle, C. J.; Arnold, L. E.; Handen, B.; Johnson, C.; Sukhodolsky, D. G.; Posey, D. J.; Lecavalier, L.; Stigler, K. A.; Ritz, L.; Tierney, E.

2013-01-01

207

Clozapine influences cytoskeleton structure and calcium homeostasis in rat cerebral cortex and has a different proteomic profile than risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

For over the last 50 years, the molecular mechanism of anti-psychotic drugs' action has been far from clear. While risperidone is very often used in clinical practice, the most efficient known anti-psychotic drug is clozapine (CLO). However, the biochemical background of CLO's action still remains elusive. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic analysis of rat cerebral cortex following chronic administration of these two drugs. We observed significant changes in the expression of cytoskeletal, synaptic, and regulatory proteins caused by both antipsychotics. Among other proteins, alterations in collapsin response mediator proteins, CRMP2 and CRMP4, were the most spectacular consequences of treatment with both drugs. Moreover, risperidone increased the level of proteins involved in cell proliferation such as fatty acid-binding protein-7 and translin-associated factor X. CLO significantly up-regulated the expression of visinin-like protein 1, neurocalcin ? and mitochondrial, stomatin-like protein 2, the calcium-binding proteins regulating calcium homeostasis, and the functioning of ion channels and receptors. Using two-dimensional differential electrophoresis, we demonstrate that chronic treatment the healthy rats with anti-psychotics, clozapine and risperidone, induce changes in expression of cytoskeletal, synaptic, and regulatory proteins in the cerebral cortex. While risperidone increases the level of proteins regulating cell proliferation, namely, fatty acid-binding protein-7 and translin-associated factor X, the clozapine significantly up-regulates calcium sensors, i.e., visinin-like protein 1 and neurocalcin ?. 2D DIGE, Differential in Gel Electrophoresis; Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 are cyanine dyes. PMID:25475647

Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Swiderska, Bianka; Jankowska, Urszula; Skupien-Rabian, Bozena; Solich, Joanna; Buczak, Katarzyna; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

2015-03-01

208

Priapism associated with risperidone: a case report, literature review and review of the South London and Maudsley hospital patients’ database  

OpenAIRE

Priapism is a urological emergency defined as persistent penile erection that is unrelated to sexual stimulation and typically involving only the corporal cavernosa. It can occur as a rare side effect of antipsychotic medications and is mediated via their ?-adrenergic antagonist effect. In this paper we describe a case of priapism in a patient started on risperidone and sodium valproate. We also review the South London and Maudsley Case Register Interactive Search database to assess how many...

Paklet, Lise; Abe, Anne Mary; Olajide, Dele

2013-01-01

209

Drug Induced Parkinsonism Caused by the Concurrent Use of Donepezil and Risperidone in a Patient With Traumatic Brain Injuries  

OpenAIRE

A 69-year-old male patient with previous history of traumatic brain injury 5 months ago was admitted to the Department of Neuropsychiatry because of aggressive behavior and delusional features. After starting on 2 mg of risperidone per day, his delusion, anxiety, and aggressive behavior gradually improved. Two weeks later, he was given 10 mg of donepezil per day for his mild cognitive impairment. After 6 weeks of admission in the Department of Neuropsychiatry, he showed parkinsonian features ...

Kang, Si Hyun; Kim, Don-kyu

2013-01-01

210

Solid phase microextraction and LC-MS/MS for the determination of paliperidone after stereoselective fungal biotransformation of risperidone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work describes for the first time the use of SPME coupled to LC-MS/MS employing the polar organic mode in a stereoselective fungal biotransformation study to investigate the fungi ability to biotransform the drug risperidone into its chiral and active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-RispOH). The chromatographic separation was performed on a Chiralcel OJ-H column using methanol:ethanol (50:50, v/v) plus 0.2% triethylamine as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1). The SPME process was performed using a C18 fiber, 30 min of extraction time and 5 min of desorption time in the mobile phase. The method was completely validated and all parameters were in agreement with the literature recommendations. The Cunninghamella echinulata fungus was able to biotransform risperidone into the active metabolite, (+)-9-RispOH, resulting in 100% of enantiomeric excess. The Cunninghamella elegans fungus was also able to stereoselectively biotransform risperidone into (+)- and (-)-9-RispOH enantiomers at different rates. PMID:22884211

Bocato, Mariana Zuccherato; Simões, Rodrigo Almeida; Calixto, Leandro Augusto; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; de Oliveira, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes

2012-09-12

211

Curative effect and influence on glucose and lipid metabolism of risperidone with SHU Mian capsules in patients with chronic  

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Full Text Available Objective: To explore the curative effect and influence on glucose and lipid metabolism of risperidone with Shu Mian capsules in patients with schizophrenia .Methods: 128patients with chronic schizophrenia were randomly divided into the combined group (crisperidone combined with shu mian capsules group and the single group (risperidone group , each group was assessed the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS,the body mass index (BMI was measured and the blood glucose and blood lipid were detected before treatment and after 2,4,8 weekends respectively. After 4,8 weeks ,both the two groups were assessed by Wesconsin card sorting test ( WCST curative effect and their cognitive function was evaluated .Results: The reacting time in the two groups were of no significantly difference , but compared with condition before treatment, cognitive function of the patients with schizophrenia was improved and their level of total cholesterol was significantly increased (P < 0.05 in the combined group. BMI, blood glucose and blood lipid were significantly increased in single group after 8weeks’ treatment (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. Conclusion: Shu Mian capsules can lower negative symptoms and improve cognitive function of schizophrenia ,and the dverse reactions is mild. With therapeutic dose range, risperidone in combined group or single group can make equal reacting time, curative effect and affecting blood lipid metabolism in patients with schizophrenia. Single group shows more obvious influence on blood sugat and blood fat metabolismcan.

Ming-jie HAN

2014-04-01

212

Role of Long-Acting Injectable Second-Generation Antipsychotics in the Treatment of First-Episode Schizophrenia: A Clinical Perspective  

OpenAIRE

Approximately 80% of patients with the first-episode schizophrenia reach symptomatic remission after antipsychotic therapy. However, within two years most of them relapse, mainly due to low levels of insight into the illness and nonadherence to their oral medication. Therefore, although the formal data available is limited, many experts recommend prescribing long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics (mostly risperidone or alternatively paliperidone) in the early stages of schizo...

Ikryl, Radovan P. Amp X.; Erov Amp Xe, Hana P. Amp X. Ikrylov Amp Xe Ku Amp X. D.; Michaela Vrzalová; Kov Amp Xe, Eva Amp X. C. E. Amp X.

2012-01-01

213

Injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book deals with injection molding and plastic industry with trend of plastic industry and injection molding like production and consume of plastic in the world, plastic molding such as forming and property process, various molding with shape forming, theories on main molding and the position of injection molding, prospect of injection molding. It also describes property of material on injection molding; introduction, molecule structure, density, crystalizability, transition point, heat condition quality and compressible volume.

214

Comparison of a Novel Insulin Bolus-Patch with Pen/Syringe Injection to Deliver Mealtime Insulin for Efficacy, Preference, and Quality of Life in Adults with Diabetes: A Randomized, Crossover, Multicenter Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective This study compared the efficacy, safety, device satisfaction, and quality of life (QOL) in people with diabetes using an insulin bolus-patch versus current devices (pen/syringe) to deliver mealtime insulin. Research Design and Methods Thirty-eight subjects with diabetes (26 with type 1 and 12 with type 2) were randomized to bolus-patch or current injection device (55% pen and 45% syringe) to deliver mealtime insulin in a multicenter, 6-week crossover study. Efficacy was assessed by equivalence in mean daily seven-point blood glucose (MDBG). Safety assessments included severe hypoglycemia episodes, adverse device effects (ADEs), and adverse events (AEs). Device satisfaction was determined by the validated Insulin Delivery System Rating Questionnaire (IDSRQ) and QOL by the validated Diabetes Specific QOL Scale (DSQOLS). Results Using bolus-patch, MDBG (mean±SE) was equivalent to that using pen/syringe (8.61±0.28 vs. 9.02±0.26?mmol/L; P=0.098). SD of the seven-point blood glucose measurements was lower using bolus-patch (3.18±0.18 vs. 3.63±0.17 mmol/L; P=0.004), as was the coefficient of variation (CV) (37.2±1.7 vs. 40.3±1.7%; P=0.046). Hemoglobin A1c, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, fructosamine, and insulin use were similar between groups. There were no severe hypoglycemia episodes or serious ADEs. Between-device AEs were comparable. Subjects scored better on six of seven subscales on the DSQOLS and five of six subscales on the IDSRQ while using bolus-patch versus pen/syringe. At study completion, 76% of subjects would choose to switch to bolus-patch (P=0.001). Conclusions Delivery of mealtime insulin with bolus-patch compared with pen/syringe resulted in equivalent MDBG, lower SD and CV of seven-point blood glucose measurements, good safety, significant device satisfaction, and improved QOL. PMID:21732797

Bergenstal, Richard; Cuddihy, Robert; Kruger, Davida; List, Susan; Massaro, Elaine; Molitch, Mark; Raskin, Philip; Remtema, Heather; Strowig, Suzanne; Whitehouse, Fred; Brunelle, Rocco L.; Dreon, Darlene; Tan, Meng

2011-01-01

215

What Does Risperidone Add to Stimulant and Parent Training for Severe Aggression in Child Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Although combination pharmacotherapy is common in child/adolescent psychiatry, there has been little research evaluating it. We tested the value of adding risperidone to concurrent psychostimulant and parent training (PT) in behavior management for children with severe aggression Method We randomized 168 children age 6–12 years (mean 8.89 ±2.01) with severe physical aggression to a 9-week trial of PT, stimulant, and placebo (Basic treatment; n=84) or PT, stimulant, and risperidone (Augmented treatment; n=84). All had diagnoses of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and either oppositional defiant (n= 124) or conduct disorder (n= 44). Children received psychostimulant (usually OROS methylphenidate) for 3 weeks, titrated for optimal effect, while parents received PT. If there was room for improvement at the end of Week 3, either placebo or risperidone was added. Assessments included parent ratings on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form (NCBRF; Disruptive-Total subscale = Primary outcome) and Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS); blinded clinicians rated change on the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale. Results Compared to Basic treatment (PT + stimulant[STIM][44.8±14.6 mg/day] + placebo [1.88±0.72]), Augmented treatment (PT + STIM[46.1±16.8 mg/day] + risperidone[1.65±0.75]) showed statistically significant improvement on the NCBRF Disruptive–Total subscale (treatment-by-time interaction p= 0.0016), the NCBRF Social Competence subscale (p= 0.0049), and ABS Reactive Aggression (p= 0.01). CGI scores were substantially improved for both groups but did not discriminate between treatments (CGI-I ? 2, 70% for Basic treatment vs. 79% for Augmented treatment). Prolactin elevations and gastrointestinal upset occurred more with Augmented; other adverse events differed modestly from Basic treatment; weight gain within the Augmented treatment group was minor. Conclusions Risperidone provided moderate but variable improvement in aggressive and other seriously disruptive child behavior when added to PT and optimized stimulant treatment. Clinical trial registration information—Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (The TOSCA Study); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00796302. PMID:24342385

Aman, Michael G.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Molina, Brooke S.G.; McNamara, Nora K.; Rundberg-Rivera, E. Victoria; Li, Xiaobai; Kipp, Heidi; Schneider, Jayne; Butter, Eric M.; Baker, Jennifer; Sprafkin, Joyce; Rice, Robert R.; Bangalore, Srihari S.; Farmer, Cristan A.; Austin, Adrienne B.; Buchan-Page, Kristin A.; Arradaza, Nicole V.; Hurt, Elizabeth A.; Grondhuis, Sabrina N.; Findling, Robert L.

2014-01-01

216

Assessment of strategies for switching patients from olanzapine to risperidone: A randomized, open-label, rater-blinded study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical practice, physicians often need to change the antipsychotic medications they give to patients because of an inadequate response or the presence of unacceptable or unsafe side effects. However, there is a lack of consensus in the field as to the optimal switching strategy for antipsychotics, especially with regards to the speed at which the dose of the previous antipsychotic should be reduced. This paper assesses the short-term results of strategies for the discontinuation of olanzapine when initiating risperidone. Methods In a 6-week, randomized, open-label, rater-blinded study, patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, on a stable drug dose for more than 30 days at entry, who were intolerant of or exhibiting a suboptimal symptom response to more than 30 days of olanzapine treatment, were randomly assigned to the following switch strategies (common risperidone initiation scheme; varying olanzapine discontinuation: (i abrupt strategy, where olanzapine was discontinued at risperidone initiation; (ii gradual 1 strategy, where olanzapine was given at 50% entry dose for 1 week after risperidone initiation and then discontinued; or (iii gradual 2 strategy, where olanzapine was given at 100% entry dose for 1 week, then at 50% in the second week, and then discontinued. Results The study enrolled 123 patients on stable doses of olanzapine. Their mean age was 40.3 years and mean (± standard deviation (SD baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score of 75.6 ± 11.5. All-cause treatment discontinuation was lowest (12% in the group with the slowest olanzapine dose reduction (gradual 2 and occurred at half the discontinuation rate in the other two groups (25% in abrupt and 28% in gradual 1. The relative risk of early discontinuation was 0.77 (confidence interval 0.61–0.99 for the slowest dose reduction compared with the other two strategies. After the medication was changed, improvements at endpoint were seen in PANSS total score (-7.3; p p p = 0.171 and anxiety/depression (-1.4; p = 0.0005 subscale scores. Severity of movement disorders and weight changes were minimal. Conclusion When switching patients from olanzapine to risperidone, a gradual reduction in the dose of olanzapine over 2 weeks was associated with higher rates of retention compared with abrupt or less gradual discontinuation. Switching via any strategy was associated with significant improvements in positive and anxiety symptoms and was generally well tolerated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00378183

Berry Sally A

2008-06-01

217

Divergent long-term consequences of chronic treatment with haloperidol, risperidone, and bromocriptine on traumatic brain injury-induced cognitive deficits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are provided in the clinic to manage traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced agitation and aggression. Experimental TBI studies consistently show that daily administration of the APDs, haloperidol (HAL) and risperidone (RISP), hinder recovery. However, it is unknown how long the adverse effects remain after cessation of treatment. To elucidate this clinically relevant issue, anesthetized male rats were randomly assigned to four TBI (controlled cortical impact) and four sham groups administered HAL (0.5?mg/kg), RISP (0.45?mg/kg), bromocriptine (BRO; 5.0?mg/kg, included as a control for D2 receptor action), or vehicle (VEH; 1?mL/kg) 24?h after surgery and once-daily for 19 days. Motor and cognitive recovery was assessed on days 1-5 and 14-19, respectively, and again at 1 and 3 months after drug withdrawal. No overall group differences were observed for motor function among the TBI groups, although the HAL group showed a greater beam-walk deficit on day 5 versus the VEH and BRO groups. Cognitive recovery was significantly impaired in the HAL and RISP groups during the treatment phase versus VEH and BRO. Further, BRO was superior to VEH (p=0.0042). At 1 month, both groups that received APDs continued to exhibit significant cognitive impairment versus VEH and BRO; at 3 months, only the HAL group was impaired. Moreover, the HAL, RISP, and VEH groups continued to be cognitively deficient versus BRO, which also reduced cortical damage. These data replicate previous reports that HAL and RISP impede cognitive recovery after TBI and expand the literature by revealing that the deleterious effects persist for 3 months after drug discontinuation. BRO conferred cognitive benefits when administered concomitantly with behavioral testing, thus replicating previous findings, and also after cessation demonstrating enduring efficacy. PMID:25275833

Phelps, Thomas I; Bondi, Corina O; Ahmed, Rashid H; Olugbade, Yewande T; Kline, Anthony E

2015-04-15

218

Doripenem Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... that developed in people who were on a ventilator in a hospital. Doripenem injection is in a ... hospital or you may administer the medication at home. If you are using doripenem injection at home, ...

219

Aflibercept Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Eylea® ... Aflibercept injection is used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD; an ongoing disease of the eye ... to read, drive, or perform other daily activities). Aflibercept injection is in a class of medications called vascular ...

220

Denosumab Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Denosumab injection (Prolia) is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and ... did not respond to other medications for osteoporosis. Denosumab injection (Prolia) is also used to treat bone ...

221

Trastuzumab Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Herceptin® ... Trastuzumab injection is used along with other medications or after other medications have been used to treat ... has spread to other parts of the body. Trastuzumab injection is also used during and after treatment ...

222

Tacrolimus Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Tacrolimus injection is used along with other medications to prevent rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by ... who have received kidney, liver, or heart transplants. Tacrolimus injection should only be used by people who ...

223

Excessive weight gain after remission of depression in a schizophrenic patient treated with risperidone: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients has been associated with a risk of weight gain. Similarly, recovery from depression is often followed by improved appetite, greater food intake and potential increase in weight. Case presentation A Caucasian 33-year-old schizophrenic female patient was being treated with 6 mg/day of risperidone and 15 mg/day of clorazepate. She developed depressive symptomatology and 40 mg/day of fluoxetine was gradually added to her treatment regimen for about 9 months. After the remission of depression, and the discontinuation of fluoxetine, she experienced an increase in appetite and subsequently excessive weight gain of 52 kg. Re-administration of fluoxetine did not reverse the situation. The patient developed diabetes mellitus, which was successfully controlled with metformin 1700 mg/day. The addition at first of orlistat 360 mg/day and later of topiramate 200 mg/day has helped her to lose a significant part of the weight gained (30 kg. Conclusion The case suggests a probable association between the remission of depressive symptomatology and weight gain in a schizophrenic patient.

Psarros Constantin

2006-09-01

224

The Efficacy of Hyaluronic Acid in the Restoration of Soft Tissue Volume of the Lips and Lower 1/3 of the Face: The Evolution of the Injection Technique  

OpenAIRE

Study objective: To establish the safety and efficacy of small-gel particle hyaluronic acid (SGP-HA; Restylane®, Medicis Aesthetics Inc., Scottsdale, AZ) for lip augmentation. Study design: This was a Phase 3, prospective, open-label, evaluator-blinded, single-center pilot study of SGP-HA use in lip augmentation. The primary efficacy objectives were to investigate the efficacy of SGP-HA in lip augmentation and to assess subject satisfaction with the procedure 12 weeks after treatment. Second...

Arnold William Klein

2011-01-01

225

Dopamine transporter density assessed with [{sup 123}]IPT SPECT before and after risperidone treatment in children with tourette's disorder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tourette's disorder (TD), which is characterized by multiple waxing and waning motor tics and one or more vocal tics, is known to be associated with abnormalities in the dopaminergic system. To testify our hypothesis that risperidone would improve tic symptoms of TD patients through the change of the dopaminergic system, we measured the dopamine transporter (DAT) densities between drug-naive children with TD and normal children, and investigated the DAT density before and after treatment with risperidone in drug-naive children with TD, using iodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]IPT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). [{sup 123I}]IPT SPECT imaging and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale-Korean version (YGTSS-K) for assessing the tic symptom severity were carried out before and after treatment with risperidone for 8 weeks in nine drug-naive children with TD. Eleven normal children also underwent SPECT imaging 2 hours after an intravenous administration of [{sup 123}I]IPT. Drug-naive children with TD had a significantly greater increase in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of both basal ganglia compared with the normal children. However, no significant difference in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia before and after treatment with risperidone in children with TD was found, although tic symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone. These findings suggest that DAT densities are directly associated with the pathophysiology of TD, however, that the effect of risperidone on tic symptoms in children with TD is not attributed to the change of dopaminergic system.

Ryu, Young Hoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Ryu, Won Gee [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

2004-02-01

226

Combination of Risperidone and Paroxetine for Inappropriate Sexual Behaviors in an Adolescent with Autism and Mental Retardation  

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Full Text Available Inappropriate hypersexual behaviors have been frequently reported in subjects with autism, however, literature on management of such behaviors in this group is very limited. In this paper, we describe an adolescent with autistic disorder and mental retardation who developed severe inappropriate sexual behaviors and has been treated successfully with risperidone-paroxetine combination. As presence of hypersexual behaviors in individuals with autism is a distressing factor for their family and social environment, appropriate management seems to be essential. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2012; 49: 311-313

Sabri HERGÜNER

2012-12-01

227

Schizophrenia relapse and the clinical usefulness of once-monthly aripiprazole depot injection  

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Full Text Available Sheng-Min Wang,1 Changsu Han,2 Soo-Jung Lee,5 Ashwin A Patkar,3 Prakash S Masand,4 Chi-Un Pae3,5 1International Health Care Center, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 4Global Medical Education, New York, NY, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Bucheon St Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Improving medication adherence is critical to improving outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. A long-acting injectable (depot antipsychotic is one of the most effective methods for improving treatment adherence and decreasing rehospitalization rates in patients with schizophrenia. Until recently, only three second-generation antipsychotics were available in a long-acting injectable formulation (risperidone, paliperidone, and olanzapine. In this respect, the emergence of long-acting aripiprazole injection (ALAI, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in 2013, is timely. ALAI is a lyophilized powder of aripiprazole, and the aripiprazole molecule is unmodified. The initial and target dosage of ALAI is 400 mg once monthly, but it could be reduced to 300 mg if adverse reactions occur with 400 mg. When first administering ALAI, it is recommended to continue treatment with oral aripiprazole (10–20 mg/day or another oral antipsychotic for 2 weeks in order to maintain therapeutic antipsychotic concentrations. The primary clearance route for ALAI is hepatic, ie, cytochrome P450 (CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, so dose adjustment is required in poor CYP2D6 metabolizers. The efficacy of ALAI was demonstrated in three studies. A randomized controlled trial that formed the basis for approval of ALAI in the treatment of schizophrenia showed that ALAI significantly delayed time to impending relapse when compared with placebo (P<0.0001, log-rank test. An open-label, mirror study demonstrated that total psychiatric hospitalization rates were significantly lower after switching from oral antipsychotics to ALAI. Another randomized controlled trial presented in poster form suggested that ALAI 400 mg was comparable with oral aripiprazole 10–30 mg in preventing relapse. ALAI was generally well tolerated during both short-term and long-term studies. Its tolerability profile, including extrapyramidal symptoms and clinically relevant metabolic parameters, was similar to placebo. However, insomnia, headache, anxiety, akathisia, weight gain, injection site pain, and tremor need clinical attention. These studies suggest that ALAI is a viable treatment option for patients with schizophrenia, but direct head-to-head comparisons between ALAI and other long-acting injectable antipsychotics are needed to elucidate its risk–benefit profile. Keywords: aripiprazole, schizophrenia, depot, long-acting injectable, relapse, treatment

Wang SM

2014-08-01

228

Omalizumab Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Omalizumab injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: pain, ... doctor about the risks of using this medication.Omalizumab injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

229

Injection Sclerotherapy  

OpenAIRE

Injection sclerotherapy is an important primary and adjunctive therapy in the spectrum of care for superficial venous insufficiency. This article briefly reviews the history of the procedure, agents used, technique, and outcomes. The place of injection sclerotherapy in the treatment of superficial venous disease is discussed.

Worthington-kirsch, Robert L.

2005-01-01

230

No change of dopamine transporter density in basal ganglia after risperidone treatment in drug-naive children with Tourette's disorder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tourette's disorder (TD), which is characterized by multiple waxing and waning motor tics and one or more vocal tics, is known to be associated with abnormalities in the dopaminergic system. To testify our hypothesis that risperidone would improve tic symptoms of TD patients through the change of the dopaminergic system, we measured the DAT densities between drug-naive children with TD and normal children investigated the DAT density before and after treatment with risperidone in drug-naive children with TD, using lodine-123 labelled N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane(I-123 IPT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). I-123 IPT SPECT imaging and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale-Korean version (YGTSS-K) for assessing the tic symptom severity were carried out before and after treatment with risperidone for 8 weeks in eight drug-naive children with TD. Eight normal children also underwent SPECT imaging 2 hours after an intravenous administration of I-123 IPT and carried out both quantitative and qualitative analyses using the obtained SPECT data, which were reconstructed for the assessment of the specific/non-specific DAT binding ratio in the basal ganglia. The drug-naive children with TD had a significantly greater increase in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of both basal ganglia compared with the normal children. However, no significant difference in the specific/nonspecific DAT binding ratio of the basal ganglia before and after treatment with riperidone in children with TD was not found, although tic symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone. These findings suggest that DAT densities are directly associated with the pathophysiology of TD, however, that the effect of risperidone on tic symptoms in children with TD is not attributed to the change of dopaminergic system.

Ryu, W. K.; Ryu, Y. H.; Yoon, M. J.; Chun, K. A.; Lee, J. D. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zee, D. Y. [Univ. of Inhwa, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, T. H. [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2003-07-01

231

ISA injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conceptual design of the ISA beam injection system is presented together with the relevant AGS-ISA beam transfer parameters. Steering onto the ISA injection orbit is done by means of a shutterless ''split pole'' vertical deflecting fast dipole. Consideration is given to the tolerable magnitude of the injection kicker stray field at the edge of the high density part of the beam stack. ISA aperture parameters are detailed and a maximum beam periphery profile (''dump profile'') is defined within the aperture boundary of the superconducting ring magnet system. (U.S.)

232

Tocilizumab Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... nurse in a medical office or hospital outpatient clinic or as a prefilled syringe to inject subcutaneously ( ... of the following: anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven); aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ...

233

Testosterone Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... a doctor or nurse in a hospital or clinic. Testosterone injection is also comes as a pellet ... of the following: anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven); insulin (Apridra, Humalog, Humulin, Lantus, Novolin, ...

234

Clindamycin Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Clindamycin injection is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections, including infections of the lungs, skin, ... bones, joints, female reproductive organs, and internal organs. Clindamycin is in a class of medications called lincomycin ...

235

Exenatide Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... making lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, quitting smoking), and regularly checking your blood sugar may help ... twice a day within 60 minutes before the morning and evening meals. Exenatide should not be injected ...

236

Naloxone Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... the medication.The automatic injection device has an electronic voice system that provides step by step directions ... also sometimes be given intranasally (sprayed into the nose) using a nasal spray device.This medication may ...

237

Busulfan Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Busulfan injection is used to treat a certain type of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; a type of ... cells in preparation for a bone marrow transplant. Busulfan is in a class of medications called alkylating ...

238

Romidepsin Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... the immune system that first appear as skin rashes) in people who have already been treated with ... worsening skin problems, and other signs of infection rash blistering or peeling skin Romidepsin injection may cause ...

239

Golimumab Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

(goe lim' ue mab)Using golimumab injection may decrease your ability to fight infection and increase the risk that ... double dose to make up for a missed one. Call your doctor or pharmacist if you do ...

240

The Efficacy of Hyaluronic Acid in the Restoration of Soft Tissue Volume of the Lips and Lower 1/3 of the Face: The Evolution of the Injection Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study objective: To establish the safety and efficacy of small-gel particle hyaluronic acid (SGP-HA; Restylane®, Medicis Aesthetics Inc., Scottsdale, AZ for lip augmentation. Study design: This was a Phase 3, prospective, open-label, evaluator-blinded, single-center pilot study of SGP-HA use in lip augmentation. The primary efficacy objectives were to investigate the efficacy of SGP-HA in lip augmentation and to assess subject satisfaction with the procedure 12 weeks after treatment. Secondary efficacy objectives were to validate 3D imaging to measure lip augmentation, identify subject satisfaction at all points in time, and identify the duration of lip augmentation and palpability of SGP-HA in the lips. The primary safety objective was to assess the incidence, duration, and severity of all adverse experiences. Results: All 20 subjects and the treating investigator indicated improvement in the appearance of subjects’ lips at weeks 2, 6, and 12. SGP-HA administered for augmentation was well tolerated. Four (20% subjects treated with SGP-HA experienced 7 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs. Conclusions: Results of this study show promising efficacy and an absence of safety issues with the use of SGP-HA in lip augmentation.

Arnold William Klein

2011-12-01

241

Successful treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder with addition of low-dose risperidone to fluvoxamine: implications for plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report on the successful treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in three patients with the addition of risperidone to ongoing fluvoxamine treatment. Plasma homovanillic acid (HVA), but not 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) levels decreased after risperidone administration, and plasma levels of fluvoxamine did not change. In addition, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were not altered after the recovery from obsessive-compulsive symptoms, indicating that serum BDNF levels might not predict the patient's response to risperidone treatment. Taken together, a combination treatment of risperdone and fluvoxamine might improve obsessive-compulsive symptoms. In short, fluvoxamine enhances the activity of the serotonergic system by inhibiting serotonin transporters, and risperidone decreases that of the dopaminergic system by blocking D2 receptors. PMID:16732759

Yoshimura, Reiji; Kaneko, Sachiko; Shinkai, Koji; Nakamura, Jun

2006-06-01

242

Estudio de estabilidad de tabletas de risperidona 3 mg Study of stability of Risperidone (3 mg tablets  

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Full Text Available Se desarrolló el estudio de estabilidad de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg y se determinó su fecha de vencimiento. Este estudio se realizó por los métodos de vida de estante y de estabilidad acelerada mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia, validados en el Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Medicamentos. El estudio de vida de estante se desarrolló por un periodo de 24 meses a temperatura ambiente; mientras que el estudio de estabilidad acelerada se efectuó sometiendo el producto a la influencia de la luz, la humedad y la temperatura; se realizó el análisis durante 3 meses, para los 2 primeros y durante 6 meses para el estudio de la temperatura. La formulación de risperidona tabletas 3 mg cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad descritas en la Farmacopea. Los resultados del estudio de estabilidad por vida de estante después de transcurridos los 24 meses indican que el producto mantiene los parámetros que determinan su calidad durante ese tiempo, y en los estudios acelerados no se observó degradación del producto. Se estableció 2 años como fecha de vencimiento en las condiciones señaladas.Stability study was conducted of 3 mg Risperidone tablets determining its caducity date and using the shelf life methods and of accelerated stability by high-performance liquid chromatography validated in Drug Development and Research Center. The shelf life study was developed during 24 months at room temperature; whereas the accelerated stability study was performed subjecting the product to light, humidity and temperature influence. The 3 mg Risperidone tablets formula fulfilled the quality specifications described in Pharmacopeia. Results from shelf life study after 24 months show that the product maintains the parameters determining its quality during that time and in accelerated studies product degradation was noted. Under conditions signaled 2 years was established as the expiry date.

Caridad Margarita García Peña

2010-06-01

243

Therapeutic effect and safety of adjunctive risperidone in refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).  

OpenAIRE

It has been well established that more than 40 percent of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not improve after an adequate trial with serotonin uptake inhibitors (SUIs). The first purpose of this trial was to compare the short-term efficacy and safety of two different strategies in a sample of treatment-refractory OCD patients: dose increase of the ongoing treatment versus the addition of another SUI. The second purpose was to investigate the short-term efficacy and safety o...

Bogetto, Filippo; Maina, Giuseppe; Bellino, Silvio

1996-01-01

244

Adverse effects associated with second-generation antipsychotic long-acting injection treatment: a comprehensive systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

As second-generation antipsychotic long-acting injections (SGA-LAIs) are rapidly replacing depot first-generation antipsychotics as first-line agents in treating schizophrenia spectrum disorders, a systematic assessment of their adverse effects is timely. English-language, peer-reviewed articles reporting original data on the safety and tolerability of SGA-LAIs were identified electronically by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and DARE databases and the Cochrane Library (January 2001-April 2013). In addition to second-generation (atypical) antipsychotics and long-acting injection (depot) antipsychotics, a separate search was performed for each available drug: aripiprazole LAI, olanzapine pamoate, paliperidone palmitate, and risperidone LAI. Articles were excluded if they were review articles, post hoc analyses, analyses of subsets of patients enrolled in previous trials, single case reports, case series studies, small naturalistic studies (involving less than 50 patients), studies providing no safety data, and studies lasting less than 8 weeks. Of 181 articles identified from the search, 140 were excluded; thus, 41 articles met the inclusion criteria. Predictably, the reviewed information revealed that SGA-LAIs have safety profiles consistent with their oral parent formulations. However, they seem to also show unforeseen and worrisome safety signals. Indeed, the routine use of olanzapine-LAI in clinical practice could be limited not only by the well-known risk of postinjection syndrome, whose clinical management remains a matter of concern, but also by the risk of worsening of psychosis. The reviewed information seems to suggest that worsening of psychotic symptoms and depression could also be associated with both risperidone-LAI and paliperidone palmitate. The leading cause of death among patients enrolled in risperidone-LAI studies was suicide. Given the exponential growth in the clinical use of SGA-LAIs, further studies must be urgently performed in order to confirm or exclude the potential safety signals associated with such drugs. PMID:23776129

Gentile, Salvatore

2013-10-01

245

Eculizumab Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Eculizumab injection is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH: a type of anemia in which too many red blood cells are broken down in the body, so there are not enough healthy cells to bring oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab ...

246

Oxytocin Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... provider immediately: chest pain or difficulty breathing confusion fast or irregular heartbeat severe headache irritation at the injection site If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

247

Combined therapeutic efficacy of 188Re-liposomes and sorafenib in an experimental colorectal cancer liver metastasis model by intrasplenic injection of C26-luc murine colon cancer cells  

OpenAIRE

Rhenium-188 (188Re) displays abundant intermediate energy ? emission and possesses a physical half-life of 16.9 h. Sorafenib is an orally available multikinase inhibitor that targets Raf kinases and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). Sorafenib has demonstrated preclinical and clinical activity against several types of tumors, such as renal cell and colorectal carcinoma. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of radiotherapeutics of 188Re-liposomes combined with soraf...

Chang, Ya-jen; Hsu, Wei-hsin; Chang, Chih-hsien; Lan, Keng-li; Ting, Gann; Lee, Te-wei

2014-01-01

248

A comparison of low-dose risperidone to paroxetine in the treatment of panic attacks: a randomized, single-blind study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Because a large proportion of patients with panic attacks receiving approved pharmacotherapy do not respond or respond poorly to medication, it is important to identify additional therapeutic strategies for the management of panic symptoms. This article describes a randomized, rater-blind study comparing low-dose risperidone to standard-of-care paroxetine for the treatment of panic attacks. Methods Fifty six subjects with a history of panic attacks were randomized to recei...

Galynker Igor I; Cohen Lisa J; Steele Annie; Yard Samantha; Prosser James M

2009-01-01

249

Priapismo secundario a antipsicóticos: a propósito de un caso asociado a risperidona Priapism associated with risperidone use: Report of one case  

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Full Text Available Background: The use of drugs with ?-adrenergic antagonistic effect is one of the most prominent etiologies of priapism. We report a 32-year-old schizophrenic male in treatment with risperidone who consulted in the emergency room for a painful priapism. A low flow priapism was diagnosed. Medical treatment was unsuccessful and the patient was subjected to a proximal corporo-spongiosal shunt (Quackels technique, with good results. The patient was discharged in good conditions.

Lizardo Cruzado

2012-11-01

250

N-Acetylaspartate Reduction in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Following 8 weeks of Risperidone Treatment in First-Episode Drug-Naïve Schizophrenia Patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is unclear whether N-acetylaspartate (NAA) depletions documented in schizophrenia patients might be due to the disease progression or medications. Here we investigated longitudinal NAA changes in drug-naïve first-episode patients (FEP) who are relatively free from chronicity. Forty-two drug-naïve FEP and 38 controls were enrolled in this study to explore the effect of 8-week risperidone monotherapy on NAA. All spectra were obtained from the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) on a 3.0?T MRI and analyzed with LCModel. At baseline, patients presented no significant differences in NAA (P = 0.084) or NAA/Cr + Pcr (P = 0.500) compared to controls; NAA levels were negatively correlated with PANSS total scores (P = 0.001) and WCST-PE (P = 0.041). After treatment, patients demonstrated significant reductions of NAA (P symptoms. We detected no significant correlations between NAA alterations and PANSS-P (P = 0.679) or PANSS-G (P = 0.668) symptom changes; nor did NAA/Cr + Pcr changes with alterations in PANSS-P (P = 0.677) and PANSS-G (P = 0.616). This is the first evidence that short-term risperidone treatment induces an acute reduction of MPFC NAA during the early phase of schizophrenia, which may be a previously unavailable biomarker to indicate risperidone with a similar pharmacological mechanism, although the functional significance is still unclear. PMID:25778460

Zong, Xiaofen; Hu, Maolin; Li, Zongchang; Cao, Hongbao; He, Ying; Liao, Yanhui; Zhou, Jun; Sang, Deen; Zhao, Hongzeng; Tang, Jinsong; Lv, Luxian; Chen, Xiaogang

2015-01-01

251

Estudio de biodisponibilidad comparativa de dos formulaciones de risperidona existentes en el mercado chileno A comparative bioavailability study of two formulations of risperidone available in the Chilean market  

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Full Text Available Background: Bioavailability of a particular drug can vary according to the formulation used. Therefore, studies of comparative bioavailability of different formulations of a same drug are worthwhile. Aim: To compare the bioavailability of two risperidone formulations available in the Chilean market. Material and methods: The bioavailability of a local risperidone formulation (Spiron® was compared with the original formulation of the drug (Risperdal® in 12 healthy volunteers, aged 19±1 years. A single dose of 3 mg was given orally, using a randomized double blind protocol in two periods. Fifteen blood samples were obtained at regular intervals, until 24 h after drug administration. Risperidone plasma levels were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a computer program that is independent of compartmental analysis. Results: The area under the curve of plasma concentration versus time, from 0 to infinite (ABC0-? and from 0 to 24 h (ABC0-24, early exposure (ABC from 0 to maximal time and maximal plasma concentrations were significantly lower for Spiron®. Half life time and time to achieve the maximal concentration were similar for the two formulations. Conclusions: According to bioequivalence tests suggested by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA of the United States (90% confidence interval for the difference of log transformed mean pharmacokinetic parameters, the formulations Risperdal® and Spiron®, cannot be considered interchangeable (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 527-34.

Leonardo E Gaete

2003-05-01

252

Estudio de biodisponibilidad comparativa de dos formulaciones de risperidona existentes en el mercado chileno / A comparative bioavailability study of two formulations of risperidone available in the Chilean market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Bioavailability of a particular drug can vary according to the formulation used. Therefore, studies of comparative bioavailability of different formulations of a same drug are worthwhile. Aim: To compare the bioavailability of two risperidone formulations available in the Chilean market. [...] Material and methods: The bioavailability of a local risperidone formulation (Spiron®) was compared with the original formulation of the drug (Risperdal®) in 12 healthy volunteers, aged 19±1 years. A single dose of 3 mg was given orally, using a randomized double blind protocol in two periods. Fifteen blood samples were obtained at regular intervals, until 24 h after drug administration. Risperidone plasma levels were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a computer program that is independent of compartmental analysis. Results: The area under the curve of plasma concentration versus time, from 0 to infinite (ABC0-?) and from 0 to 24 h (ABC0-24), early exposure (ABC from 0 to maximal time) and maximal plasma concentrations were significantly lower for Spiron®. Half life time and time to achieve the maximal concentration were similar for the two formulations. Conclusions: According to bioequivalence tests suggested by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States (90% confidence interval for the difference of log transformed mean pharmacokinetic parameters), the formulations Risperdal® and Spiron®, cannot be considered interchangeable (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 527-34).

Leonardo E, Gaete; Jaime, Solís G; Pablo, Venegas F; Mitzy J, Carrillo C; Oscar, Schatloff B; Iván, Saavedra S.

2003-05-01

253

The Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Hyaluronic Acid With Supplemental Peroral Vitamin E Following Arthroscopic Debridement in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study  

OpenAIRE

Objective: We evaluated clinical results of intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid and peroral Vitamin E treatment after arthroscopic debridement in patients with knee osteoarthritis who got no cure with medical treatment previously. Materials and Methods: A total of 44 patients with knee pain, who were diagnosed as having knee osteoarthritis according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, were included in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups after ar...

Ahmet Aslan; Vecihi K?rdemir; Tolga Atay; Yakup Barbaros Baykal; Özgür Aytekin; Faz?l Cüneyt Aydo?an

2012-01-01

254

Comparison of somnolence associated with asenapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol relative to placebo in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Keming Gao,1 Mary Mackle,2 Pilar Cazorla,2 Jun Zhao,2 Armin Szegedi2 1Department of Psychiatry, Mood and Anxiety Clinic in the Mood Disorders Program, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Merck, Rahway, NJ, USA Background: Patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (BPD may be differentially sensitive to antipsychotics. This study assessed the median time to onset, duration, and rate of somnolence associated with asenapine and other antipsychotics in both indications. Methods: Ten clinical trials (n = 4786 were analyzed as five cohorts pooled according to indication and study design. Results: In the short-term schizophrenia cohort, the incidence of somnolence was 13.1%, 19.1%, 8.5% 5.2%, and 6.9% with asenapine, olanzapine, risperidone, haloperidol, and placebo, respectively. Median time to onset of somnolence was 2 days for asenapine and olanzapine, and 6, 3, and 7 days for risperidone, haloperidol, and placebo, respectively. Median duration was 15 days for asenapine and olanzapine, and 3, 22.5, and 4.5 days for risperidone, haloperidol, and placebo, respectively. In the long-term schizophrenia cohort, the incidence, time to onset, and duration of somnolence with asenapine and olanzapine were 18.4% versus 19.6%, 9.0 days versus 12 days, and 22 days versus 21 days, respectively. In schizophrenia with persistent negative symptoms, the incidence, median time to onset, and duration of somnolence with asenapine and olanzapine were 18.5% versus 21.1%, 9.0 days versus 7.5 days, and 25.0 days versus 41.5 days, respectively. In the monotherapy for BPD cohort, the incidence of somnolence with asenapine, olanzapine, and placebo was 23.8%, 26.4%, and 6.4%, respectively. Median time to onset and duration of somnolence with asenapine, olanzapine, and placebo were 1, 2, and 2 days, respectively, and 7, 8.5, and 5 days. In the adjunctive therapy for BPD cohort, the incidence, median time to onset, and duration of somnolence with asenapine and placebo were 24.0% versus 10.2%, 1.5 days versus 2 days, and 12.5 days versus 7 days, respectively. Conclusion: In the short-term schizophrenia cohort, time to onset and duration of somnolence with asenapine was similar to that with olanzapine and haloperidol. Only asenapine and olanzapine had significantly higher rates of somnolence relative to placebo. The time to onset, duration, and incidence of somnolence with asenapine and olanzapine was similar in patients with long-term schizophrenia and those with BPD. Patients with BPD were more sensitive than those with schizophrenia to asenapine and olanzapine. Keywords: asenapine, somnolence, sedation, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder

Gao K

2013-08-01

255

LEP injection  

CERN Document Server

Studies have commenced of an injector for LEP, the CERN 100 GeV e/sup +/-e/sup -/ storage ring design. The minimum energy for injection is 20 GeV, and a synchrotron injector is chosen in preference to a linac for cost reasons and to obtain faster ring filling. Factors involved in the design of the injector synchrotron are discussed and 2 alternative schemes are outlined for the filling of the 32 e/sup +/ and 32 d/sup -/ LEP bunches. (4 refs.).

Bennett, J R J; Gray, D A; Harold, M R; Maidment, J R; Rees, G H; Weldon, A G

1977-01-01

256

LEP injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies have commenced of an injector for LEP (Billinge et al, 'Design Concept for a 100 GeV e+e- Storage Ring,' Proceedings of 1977 Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago), the CERN 100 GeV e+e- storage ring design. The minimum energy for injection is 20 GeV, and a synchrotron injector is chosen in preference to a linac for cost reasons and to obtain faster ring filling. Factors involved in the design of the injector synchrotron are discussed and 2 alternative schemes are outlined for the filling of the 32 e+ and 32 e- LEP bunches. (author)

257

Preparation, characterization and biocompatibility studies on risperidone-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN): high pressure homogenization versus ultrasound.  

Science.gov (United States)

The suitability of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for the encapsulation of risperidone (RISP), an antipsychotic lipophilic drug, was assessed for oral administration. The hot high pressure homogenization (HPH) and the ultrasound (US) technique were used as production methods for SLN. All the studies on the SLN formulations were done in parallel, in order to compare the results and conclude about the advantages and limitations of both techniques. The particle sizes were in the nanometer range for all prepared SLN formulations and the zeta potential absolute values were high, predicting good long-term stability. Optical analyses demonstrated the achievement of stable colloidal dispersions. Physicochemical characterization of dispersions and bulk lipids, performed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray assays, support prediction of occurrence of drug incorporation in the SLN and good long term stability of the systems. The toxicity of SLN with Caco-2 cells and the existence of contaminations derived from the production equipments were assessed by the (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed 90% of cell viability after SLN exposure, with no significant differences within all prepared formulations (p > 0.05). From this study, we conclude that SLN can be considered as efficient carriers for RISP encapsulation. Moreover, HPH and US revealed to be both effective methods for SLN production. PMID:21530187

Silva, A C; González-Mira, E; García, M L; Egea, M A; Fonseca, J; Silva, R; Santos, D; Souto, E B; Ferreira, D

2011-08-01

258

Methodology for the Randomised Injecting Opioid Treatment Trial (RIOTT): evaluating injectable methadone and injectable heroin treatment versus optimised oral methadone treatment in the UK  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Whilst unsupervised injectable methadone and diamorphine treatment has been part of the British treatment system for decades, the numbers receiving injectable opioid treatment (IOT) has been steadily diminishing in recent years. In contrast, there has been a recent expansion of supervised injectable diamorphine programs under trial conditions in a number of European and North American cities, although the evidence regarding the safety, efficacy and cost effectiveness of this treatmen...

Byford Sarah; Metrebian Nicola; Strang John; Lintzeris Nicholas; Hallam Christopher; Lee Sally; Zador Deborah

2006-01-01

259

Efficacy of different Anthelmintic formulations against Helminth Infestation in Sheep  

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Full Text Available A study of comparative efficacy of six different commercial anthelmintic formulations against natural helminth infestations in sheep was conducted. Pre and post-treatment EPG (eggs per gram values were recorded and efficacies compared. Results showed that a combination of Ivermectin and Clorsulon in injectable form gave the overall highest curative rate against the parasites studied.

S. Nasreen, M. R. Khan, S. Peerzada and S. A. Andrabia

2008-07-01

260

Development of controlled-release matrix tablet of risperidone: influence of Methocel®- and Ethocel®-based novel polymeric blend on in vitro drug release and bioavailability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlled-release (CR) matrix tablet of 4 mg risperidone was developed using flow bound dry granulation-slugging method to improve its safety profile and compliance. Model formulations F1, F2, and F3, consisting of distinct blends of Methocel® K100 LV-CR and Ethocel® standard 7FP premium, were slugged. Each batch of granules (250-1,000 ?m), obtained by crushing the slugs, was divided into three portions after lubrication and then compressed to 9-, 12-, and 15-kg hard tablets. In vitro drug release studies were carried out in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) and phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) using a paddle dissolution apparatus run at 50 rpm. The CR test tablet, containing 30% Methocel® and 60% Ethocel® (F3) with 12-kg hardness, exhibited pH-independent zero-order release kinetics for 24 h. The drug release rate was inversely proportional to the content of Ethocel®, while the gel layer formed of Methocel® helped in maintaining the integrity of the matrix. Changes in the hardness of tablet did not affect the release kinetics. The tablets were reproducible and stable for 6 months at 40 ± 2°C/75 ± 5% relative humidity. Risperidone and its active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, present in the pooled rabbit's serum, were analyzed with HPLC-UV at ?(max) 280 nm. The CR test tablet exhibited bioequivalence to reference conventional tablet in addition to the significantly (p < 0.05) optimized peak concentration, C(max), and extended peak time, T (max), of the active moiety. There was a good association between drug absorption in vivo and drug release in vitro (R(2) = 0.7293). The successfully developed CR test tablet may be used for better therapeutic outcomes of risperidone. PMID:21494924

Badshah, Amir; Subhan, Fazal; Rauf, Khalid; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Shah, Kifayatullah; Khan, Samiullah; Ahmed, Zia; Khan, Ihsanullah

2011-06-01

261

Development of Controlled-Release Matrix Tablet of Risperidone: Influence of Methocel®- and Ethocel®-Based Novel Polymeric Blend on In Vitro Drug Release and Bioavailability  

OpenAIRE

Controlled-release (CR) matrix tablet of 4 mg risperidone was developed using flow bound dry granulation–slugging method to improve its safety profile and compliance. Model formulations F1, F2, and F3, consisting of distinct blends of Methocel® K100 LV-CR and Ethocel® standard 7FP premium, were slugged. Each batch of granules (250–1,000 ?m), obtained by crushing the slugs, was divided into three portions after lubrication and then compressed to 9-, 12-, and 15-kg hard tablets. In vit...

Badshah, Amir; Subhan, Fazal; Rauf, Khalid; Irfan Bukhari, Nadeem; Shah, Kifayatullah; Khan, Samiullah; Ahmed, Zia; Khan, Ihsanullah

2011-01-01

262

Priapismo secundario a antipsicóticos: a propósito de un caso asociado a risperidona / Priapism associated with risperidone use: Report of one case  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: The use of drugs with ?-adrenergic antagonistic effect is one of the most prominent etiologies of priapism. We report a 32-year-old schizophrenic male in treatment with risperidone who consulted in the emergency room for a painful priapism. A low flow priapism was diagnosed. Medical trea [...] tment was unsuccessful and the patient was subjected to a proximal corporo-spongiosal shunt (Quackels technique), with good results. The patient was discharged in good conditions.

Lizardo, Cruzado; César E, Vallejos.

1445-14-01

263

The Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Hyaluronic Acid With Supplemental Peroral Vitamin E Following Arthroscopic Debridement in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study  

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Full Text Available Objective: We evaluated clinical results of intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid and peroral Vitamin E treatment after arthroscopic debridement in patients with knee osteoarthritis who got no cure with medical treatment previously. Materials and Methods: A total of 44 patients with knee pain, who were diagnosed as having knee osteoarthritis according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, were included in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups after arthroscopic debridement: Group S was given intra-articular Hylan G-F 20 treatment; Group S+E - intraarticular Hylan G-F 20 treatment plus oral vitamin E; and Group C underwent only arthroscopic debridement. Pain, stiffness and functional capacity scores were evaluated preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively according to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC. Results: In all groups, 6- and 12-month postoperative WOMAC scores were lesser than the preoperative ones. The WOMAC scores at 6 and 12 months were statistically lower in the S+E and S groups than in the group C (p<0.05. The S+E group demonstrated better results in terms of improvement in symptoms than the S-group at 6 and 12 months postoperatively (p<0.05. Conclusion: We believe that arthroscopic debridement is beneficial in suitable knee osteoarthritis cases and vitamin E and intra-articular hyaluronic acid may reduce the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. Turk J Phys Med Re­hab 2012;58:199-203.

Ahmet Aslan

2012-09-01

264

Management of Tennis Elbow with sodium hyaluronate periarticular injections  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of peri-articular hyaluronic acid injections in chronic lateral epicondylosis (tennis elbow). Design Prospective randomized clinical trial in primary care sport medicine. Patients Three hundred and thirty one consecutive competitive racquette sport athletes with chronic (>3 months) lateral epicondylosis were administered 2 injections (first injection at baseline) into the subcutaneous tissue and muscle 1 cm. from the lateral epicondyle ...

Petrella Robert J; Cogliano Anthony; Decaria Joseph; Mohamed Naem; Lee Robert

2010-01-01

265

Moderation of antipsychotic-induced weight gain by energy balance gene variants in the RUPP autism network risperidone studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Second-generation antipsychotic exposure, in both children and adults, carries significant risk for excessive weight gain that varies widely across individuals. We queried common variation in key energy balance genes (FTO, MC4R, LEP, CNR1, FAAH) for their association with weight gain during the initial 8 weeks in the two NIMH Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network trials (N=225) of risperidone for treatment of irritability in children/adolescents aged 4-17 years with autism spectrum disorders. Variants in the cannabinoid receptor (CNR)-1 promoter (P=1.0 × 10(-6)), CNR1 (P=9.6 × 10(-5)) and the leptin (LEP) promoter (P=1.4 × 10(-4)) conferred robust-independent risks for weight gain. A model combining these three variants was highly significant (P=1.3 × 10(-9)) with a 0.85 effect size between lowest and highest risk groups. All results survived correction for multiple testing and were not dependent on dose, plasma level or ethnicity. We found no evidence for association with a reported functional variant in the endocannabinoid metabolic enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, whereas body mass index-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in FTO and MC4R showed only trend associations. These data suggest a substantial genetic contribution of common variants in energy balance regulatory genes to individual antipsychotic-associated weight gain in children and adolescents, which supersedes findings from prior adult studies. The effects are robust enough to be detected after only 8 weeks and are more prominent in this largely treatment naive population. This study highlights compelling directions for further exploration of the pharmacogenetic basis of this concerning multifactorial adverse event. PMID:23799528

Nurmi, E L; Spilman, S L; Whelan, F; Scahill, L L; Aman, M G; McDougle, C J; Arnold, L E; Handen, B; Johnson, C; Sukhodolsky, D G; Posey, D J; Lecavalier, L; Stigler, K A; Ritz, L; Tierney, E; Vitiello, B; McCracken, J T

2013-01-01

266

Moderation of antipsychotic-induced weight gain by energy balance gene variants in the RUPP autism network risperidone studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Second-generation antipsychotic exposure, in both children and adults, carries significant risk for excessive weight gain that varies widely across individuals. We queried common variation in key energy balance genes (FTO, MC4R, LEP, CNR1, FAAH) for their association with weight gain during the initial 8 weeks in the two NIMH Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network trials (N=225) of risperidone for treatment of irritability in children/adolescents aged 4–17 years with autism spectrum disorders. Variants in the cannabinoid receptor (CNR)-1 promoter (P=1.0 × 10?6), CNR1 (P=9.6 × 10?5) and the leptin (LEP) promoter (P=1.4 × 10?4) conferred robust-independent risks for weight gain. A model combining these three variants was highly significant (P=1.3 × 10?9) with a 0.85 effect size between lowest and highest risk groups. All results survived correction for multiple testing and were not dependent on dose, plasma level or ethnicity. We found no evidence for association with a reported functional variant in the endocannabinoid metabolic enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, whereas body mass index-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in FTO and MC4R showed only trend associations. These data suggest a substantial genetic contribution of common variants in energy balance regulatory genes to individual antipsychotic-associated weight gain in children and adolescents, which supersedes findings from prior adult studies. The effects are robust enough to be detected after only 8 weeks and are more prominent in this largely treatment naive population. This study highlights compelling directions for further exploration of the pharmacogenetic basis of this concerning multifactorial adverse event. PMID:23799528

Nurmi, E L; Spilman, S L; Whelan, F; Scahill, L L; Aman, M G; McDougle, C J; Arnold, L E; Handen, B; Johnson, C; Sukhodolsky, D G; Posey, D J; Lecavalier, L; Stigler, K A; Ritz, L; Tierney, E; Vitiello, B; McCracken, J T

2013-01-01

267

Iron Dextran Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... dextran injection; any other iron injections such as ferric carboxymaltose (Injectafer), ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit);any other medications; or any of ...

268

Hiperprolactinemia y disfunción sexual en el primer episodio psicótico tratado con risperidona Hiperprolactinaemia and sexual disfunction in first psychotic episode treated with risperidone  

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Full Text Available La hiperprolactinemia y las disfunciones sexuales son complicaciones frecuentes, pero poco estudiadas del tratamiento con risperidona. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de hiperprolactinemia y disfunciones sexuales en un grupo de personas jóvenes con esquizofrenia, tratadas con risperidona. Métodos: Un total de 40 pacientes (19 mujeres, edad promedio: 27 años completaron el Cuestionario de Funcionamiento Sexual del Hospital General de Massachussets y el Cuestionario sobre Calidad de Vida: Satisfacción y Placer. Todos los pacientes fueron evaluados con las escalas PANSS y UKU y se determinó su nivel plasmático de prolactina. Resultados: El 90% de los pacientes presenta hiperprolactinemia, con valores significativamente más altos para las mujeres. El 62,5% de los pacientes, informó padecer alguna disfunción sexual, sin diferencias con la contraparte no afectada, en cuanto a género, edad ni tiempo de tratamiento. Aunque no se encontró relación con la prolactinemia, ni con la dosis de risperidona, quienes reportaron alguna disfunción sexual obtuvieron mayores puntajes de efectos adversos psíquicos y neurológicos en la escala UKU. Las disfunciones sexuales se asociaron con los síntomas negativos y generales de la PANSS y con menores puntajes en las subescalas de salud física y ánimo del Cuestionario sobre Calidad de Vida: Satisfacción y Placer. Conclusiones: Los resultados confirman la elevada frecuencia de disfunciones sexuales e hiperprolactinemia en las personas enfermas de esquizofrenia. Nuevos estudios se requieren para clarificar, en la práctica clínica habitual, la asociación entre disfunción sexual y el empleo de la risperidona, y su impacto en la calidad de vida de los pacientes.Hyperprolactinemia and Sexual dysfunction arefrequent, yetseldom studied, complications of the use of risperidone Objectives: To determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunctions and hyperprolactinemia in a sample of youngpeople with schizophrenia treated with risperidone Methods: 40 outpatients (19females; mean age: 27years with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, participated in the study Sexual dysfunction and quality oflife were assessed with the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q, respectively Allpatients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the UKU side effect rating scale. Blood samples were analyzed for prolactine. Results: Hyperprolactinemia was found in 90% ofpatients, with levéis significantly higher in women. Sexual dysfunctions occurred in 25 (62.5% patients. Patients with and without sexual dysfunction, did not significantly differ in gender, age or years of treatment. Although no association was found with prolactinemia or the dose of risperidone, patients with sexual dysfunction reported more psychic and neurologic side effects, and had higher scores in the negative symptoms and general psychopatology subscales ofthe PANSS and lower scores in the physical health and mood items of the Q-LES-Q. Conclusions: Results confirm the high prevalence of hyperprolactinemia and sexual dysfunctions in people with schizophrenia. Further study is warranted in order to clarify the association between sexual dysfunction and risperidone treatment in clinical practice and its impact in the quality oflife ofthe patients.

Alvaro Cavieres F

2008-06-01

269

Hiperprolactinemia y disfunción sexual en el primer episodio psicótico tratado con risperidona / Hiperprolactinaemia and sexual disfunction in first psychotic episode treated with risperidone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La hiperprolactinemia y las disfunciones sexuales son complicaciones frecuentes, pero poco estudiadas del tratamiento con risperidona. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de hiperprolactinemia y disfunciones sexuales en un grupo de personas jóvenes con esquizofrenia, tratadas con risperidona. Métod [...] os: Un total de 40 pacientes (19 mujeres, edad promedio: 27 años) completaron el Cuestionario de Funcionamiento Sexual del Hospital General de Massachussets y el Cuestionario sobre Calidad de Vida: Satisfacción y Placer. Todos los pacientes fueron evaluados con las escalas PANSS y UKU y se determinó su nivel plasmático de prolactina. Resultados: El 90% de los pacientes presenta hiperprolactinemia, con valores significativamente más altos para las mujeres. El 62,5% de los pacientes, informó padecer alguna disfunción sexual, sin diferencias con la contraparte no afectada, en cuanto a género, edad ni tiempo de tratamiento. Aunque no se encontró relación con la prolactinemia, ni con la dosis de risperidona, quienes reportaron alguna disfunción sexual obtuvieron mayores puntajes de efectos adversos psíquicos y neurológicos en la escala UKU. Las disfunciones sexuales se asociaron con los síntomas negativos y generales de la PANSS y con menores puntajes en las subescalas de salud física y ánimo del Cuestionario sobre Calidad de Vida: Satisfacción y Placer. Conclusiones: Los resultados confirman la elevada frecuencia de disfunciones sexuales e hiperprolactinemia en las personas enfermas de esquizofrenia. Nuevos estudios se requieren para clarificar, en la práctica clínica habitual, la asociación entre disfunción sexual y el empleo de la risperidona, y su impacto en la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Abstract in english Hyperprolactinemia and Sexual dysfunction arefrequent, yetseldom studied, complications of the use of risperidone Objectives: To determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunctions and hyperprolactinemia in a sample of youngpeople with schizophrenia treated with risperidone Metho [...] ds: 40 outpatients (19females; mean age: 27years) with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, participated in the study Sexual dysfunction and quality oflife were assessed with the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ) and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), respectively Allpatients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the UKU side effect rating scale. Blood samples were analyzed for prolactine. Results: Hyperprolactinemia was found in 90% ofpatients, with levéis significantly higher in women. Sexual dysfunctions occurred in 25 (62.5%) patients. Patients with and without sexual dysfunction, did not significantly differ in gender, age or years of treatment. Although no association was found with prolactinemia or the dose of risperidone, patients with sexual dysfunction reported more psychic and neurologic side effects, and had higher scores in the negative symptoms and general psychopatology subscales ofthe PANSS and lower scores in the physical health and mood items of the Q-LES-Q. Conclusions: Results confirm the high prevalence of hyperprolactinemia and sexual dysfunctions in people with schizophrenia. Further study is warranted in order to clarify the association between sexual dysfunction and risperidone treatment in clinical practice and its impact in the quality oflife ofthe patients.

Alvaro, Cavieres F.

2008-06-01

270

Sipuleucel-T Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Sipuleucel-T injection is used to treat certain types of advanced prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T injection is in a class of medications called ... Sipuleucel-T injection comes as a suspension (liquid) to be injected over about 60 minutes into a vein by ...

271

Comparative cardiovascular safety of risperidone and olanzapine, based on electrocardiographic parameters and blood pressure: A prospective open label observational study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To assess the cardiovascular safety of two commonly prescribed atypical antipsychotics risperidone (RSP) and olanzapine (OZP) in schizophrenic patients, using electrocardiography (ECG) and Blood Pressure (BP). Materials and Methods: This was a 10-week prospective open label, observational study, carried out in a newly diagnosed 64 schizophrenic patients receiving either RSP or OZP. RSP (n = 32) was started with dose of 2 mg/day and increased to 4 mg/day after 2 weeks, whereas OZP (n = 32) was started at a dose of 5 mg/day and was increased to 10 mg/day after 2 weeks. Heart rate (HR), ECG parameters (PR, RR, QRS, QT intervals and QTc and QTd) and BP (systolic and diastolic in supine and standing position) were recorded at baseline (before drug therapy)) and during follow-up visits at 2(I), 6(II) and 10(III) weeks. Results: In the RSP group, at II and III follow-ups, a significant increase in the HR (P = 0.018, P = 0.011 respectively) as well as in QTc (P = 0.025, P = 0.015, respectively) was observed when compared to the basal values. In the OZP group, diastolic BP was significantly decreased in standing position at II and III follow-ups (P = 0.045 and P = 0.024, respectively) compared to the basal values. When the two groups were compared with each other, no significant differences were observed in the changes of HR, PR, QRS, QT, RR, QT, QTd and SBP (supine and standing position); and DBP (supine position). However, DBP in standing position showed a significant decrease in the OZP group at II and III follow-up (P = 0.036 and P = 0.016, respectively) compared to the RSP group. Conclusions: Patients treated with OZP are at higher risk to develop postural hypotension as compared with RSP; hence RSP could be better tolerated by patients taking antihypertensive drugs as compared with OZP whereas OZP would have a safer cardiac profile. PMID:25298577

Choure, Balwant Kisanrao; Gosavi, Devesh; Nanotkar, Sanjay

2014-01-01

272

Eficácia e segurança dos antipsicóticos atípicos nas demências: uma revisão sistemática Efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotics in dementia: a sistematic review  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O emprego de antipsicóticos atípicos (AA no tratamento de sintomas psicológicos e comportamentais das demências (SPCD tem sido alvo de discussão em relação à eficácia e à segurança. O objetivo deste artigo é propiciar atualização sobre o tema. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura publicada nos últimos dez anos com ênfase em metanálises e ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR controlados com placebo. RESULTADOS: Três metanálises e nove ensaios clínicos foram analisados. Há evidências de eficácia clínica para risperidona (1mg/dia, olanzapina (5 a 10mg/dia e aripiprazol (2 a 15mg/dia no tratamento de agressividade e/ou SPCD em geral, e para risperidona (1mg/dia no tratamento de sintomas psicóticos associados à demência. Os eventos adversos comuns com o uso de AA foram sonolência, sintomas extrapiramidais (SEP, incontinência ou infecção do trato urinário e alterações de marcha. O tratamento com AA associou-se a maior risco de eventos cerebrovasculares e de mortalidade em idosos com demência. CONCLUSÃO: Baixas dosagens de risperidona, olanzapina e aripiprazol são eficazes na redução de agressividade e/ou SPCD globais; risperidona é eficaz na redução de sintomas psicóticos associados à demência. Em virtude de esses tratamentos associarem-se a pequeno aumento no risco de eventos cerebrovasculares e mortalidade, seu uso deve ser reservado para sintomatologia moderada/grave.OBJECTIVE: Concerns have been raised about efficacy and adverse events of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD. This paper is an update on current evidence of this theme. METHODS: Review of published meta-analysis and randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs in the last ten years. RESULTS: Three meta-analysis and nine RCTs were evaluated. Evidence suggests that risperidone (1mg/day, olanzapine (5 to 10mg/day, and aripiprazole (2 to 15mg/day are effective in treating aggression and/or BPSD overall; risperidone (1mg/day reduces psychosis. Adverse events were mainly somnolence, extrapyramidal symptoms, urinary tract infection or incontinence, and abnormal gait with drug treatment. Atypical antipsychotics were associated with increased risk for cerebrovascular adverse events and mortality in elderly patients with dementia. CONCLUSION: Low doses of risperidone, olanzapine, and aripiprazole are effective in treating aggression and/or BPSD overall, and risperidone reduces psychosis associated with dementia. In view of the increased risk of cerebrovascular adverse events and mortality, the use of atypical antipsychotics in individuals with dementia should be reserved for patients with moderate/severe behavioural symptoms.

Melissa Guarieiro Ramos

2006-01-01

273

Eficácia e segurança dos antipsicóticos atípicos nas demências: uma revisão sistemática / Efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotics in dementia: a sistematic review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O emprego de antipsicóticos atípicos (AA) no tratamento de sintomas psicológicos e comportamentais das demências (SPCD) tem sido alvo de discussão em relação à eficácia e à segurança. O objetivo deste artigo é propiciar atualização sobre o tema. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura publicada nos [...] últimos dez anos com ênfase em metanálises e ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) controlados com placebo. RESULTADOS: Três metanálises e nove ensaios clínicos foram analisados. Há evidências de eficácia clínica para risperidona (1mg/dia), olanzapina (5 a 10mg/dia) e aripiprazol (2 a 15mg/dia) no tratamento de agressividade e/ou SPCD em geral, e para risperidona (1mg/dia) no tratamento de sintomas psicóticos associados à demência. Os eventos adversos comuns com o uso de AA foram sonolência, sintomas extrapiramidais (SEP), incontinência ou infecção do trato urinário e alterações de marcha. O tratamento com AA associou-se a maior risco de eventos cerebrovasculares e de mortalidade em idosos com demência. CONCLUSÃO: Baixas dosagens de risperidona, olanzapina e aripiprazol são eficazes na redução de agressividade e/ou SPCD globais; risperidona é eficaz na redução de sintomas psicóticos associados à demência. Em virtude de esses tratamentos associarem-se a pequeno aumento no risco de eventos cerebrovasculares e mortalidade, seu uso deve ser reservado para sintomatologia moderada/grave. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Concerns have been raised about efficacy and adverse events of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This paper is an update on current evidence of this theme. METHODS: Review of published meta-analysis and randomized placeb [...] o-controlled trials (RCTs) in the last ten years. RESULTS: Three meta-analysis and nine RCTs were evaluated. Evidence suggests that risperidone (1mg/day), olanzapine (5 to 10mg/day), and aripiprazole (2 to 15mg/day) are effective in treating aggression and/or BPSD overall; risperidone (1mg/day) reduces psychosis. Adverse events were mainly somnolence, extrapyramidal symptoms, urinary tract infection or incontinence, and abnormal gait with drug treatment. Atypical antipsychotics were associated with increased risk for cerebrovascular adverse events and mortality in elderly patients with dementia. CONCLUSION: Low doses of risperidone, olanzapine, and aripiprazole are effective in treating aggression and/or BPSD overall, and risperidone reduces psychosis associated with dementia. In view of the increased risk of cerebrovascular adverse events and mortality, the use of atypical antipsychotics in individuals with dementia should be reserved for patients with moderate/severe behavioural symptoms.

Melissa Guarieiro, Ramos; Fábio Lopes, Rocha.

274

Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome in patients treated with olanzapine pamoate: mechanism, incidence, and management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are a mainstay in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. However, continuity in intake of the prescribed medication has been one of the greatest challenges in these patients. One option to improve medication adherence is to prescribe depot or long-acting injectable formulations (LAIs) of antipsychotics. Following risperidone, several other SGAs have been introduced as LAIs. Olanzapine pamoate, paliperidone palmitate, and aripiprazole are the new-generation LAIs, which are available for 2- to 4-week intervals of application in many countries. The literature shows a clear advantage of these drugs over placebo regarding symptom reduction and relapse prevention. LAIs show a similar safety profile to oral formulations of the relevant drug, with the exception of olanzapine pamoate, which can lead to rare cases of post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS). PDSS is characterized by heavy sedation (possibly including coma) and/or delirium after injection. During PDSS events, patients show higher plasma concentrations of olanzapine, leading to the assumption that unintended partial intravascular injection or blood vessel injury during the injection is causative of PDSS. Therefore, a risk-management plan proposing an observation period of 3 h was introduced. In August 2013, a new proposal by the European Medicines Agency terminated the requirement to accompany these patients to their next destination, although this requirement remains in place according to US FDA recommendations. PMID:25424243

Luedecke, Daniel; Schöttle, Daniel; Karow, Anne; Lambert, Martin; Naber, Dieter

2015-01-01

275

Avaliação da eficácia do antiveneno botrópico administrado no local da inoculação intramuscular do veneno de Bothrops jararaca: estudo experimental em camundongos Assessment of the efficacy of antivenom injection at the site of the intramuscular inoculation of Bothrops jararaca venom in mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi determinada, em camundongos de 18 a 20 g, a dose efetiva 50% do antiveneno botrópico, por via intraperitoneal (ip, imediatamente (DE50 Oh e 30 minutos (DE50 30' após a inoculação de 2 DL50 do veneno de B. jararaca, por via intramuscular (im. A DE50 30' foi três vezes maior do que a DE50 Oh. A eficácia do antiveneno administrado no local da inoculação do veneno foi avaliada inoculando-se duas DL50 do veneno, por via im, e administrando-se a DE50 do antiveneno imediatamente (DE50 Oh e 30 minutos após (DE50 30', de duas formas a saber: totalmente por via ip (1ª e metade por via ip e metade por via im (2ª, no mesmo local da inoculação do veneno. O antiveneno ofereceu, por via ip, maior proteção aos camundongos (menor taxa de óbito em 48 horas do que quando metade do mesmo foi administrado, por via im, no local da inoculação do veneno. Conclui-se que, neste modelo experimental, quando se inicia o tratamento tardiamente há necessidade de maior dose de antiveneno botrópico e que não há benefício em administrá-lo no local da picada.The 50% effective intraperitoneal (ip dose of Bothrops jararaca antivenom (ED50 was assessed in mice immediately (ED50 Oh and thirty minutes (ED50 30' after the intramuscular (im injection of two 50% lethal dose (LD50 of Bothrops jararaca venom. The efficacy of the antivenom injected at the venom inoculation site was assessed by the inoculation of two LD50 of the venom by im route, followed immediately (ED50 Oh and 30 minutes later (ED50 30' by administration of the ED50 of the antivenom either entirely by the ip route or 50 percent ip plus 50 percent im, at the same inoculation site. It was shown that the ED50 30' was 3 times greater, than the ED50 Oh and that the antivenom was more protective to mice (lower death rate in 48 hours when given entirely ip. It was concluded that, in this experimental model, a higher dose of bothropic antivenom is needed when the treatment is started lately, and that there is no benefit in its administration at the venom inoculation site.

Carla Lilian Agostini Utescher

1994-06-01

276

Evaluating the antifracture efficacy of bisphosphonates.  

OpenAIRE

Oral bisphosphonate dosing schedules have evolved from the original daily regimens to weekly (alendronate and risedronate) and monthly (risedronate and ibandronate) regimens. Intravenous (i.v.) bisphosphonates are administered less frequently-quarterly ibandronate injection and yearly zoledronic acid i.v. infusion. Comparative fracture efficacy among BP options is increasingly a focus of debate. The approved daily oral BPs and annual zoledronic acid infusion demonstrated vertebral fracture pr...

Pazianas, M.; Epstein, S.; Zaidi, M.

2009-01-01

277

Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder - related nightmares and other sleep disturbances with risperidone in combat veterans and victims of domestic and childhood abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sleep disturbances including nightmares are often reported as hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The literature related to the pharmacological treatment of PTSD-related nightmares is sparse and inconclusive. After reviewing the literature it was obvious that currently a limited data on studies supporting the use of antipsychotic medications for the treatment of PTSD are published. Moreover, even more limited scientific evidence is now available to formulate evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of PTSD-related nightmares which are often reported as the most intrusive and disruptive symptom. Objective for this study is to review comprehensively the current research literature which reflects use of antipsychotic medication risperidone for the treatment of PTSD-related nightmares of different etiology.

Nina Khachiyants

2010-09-01

278

Urinary incontinence - injectable implant  

Science.gov (United States)

Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

279

Antigen injection (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

280

Injection losses and protection  

CERN Document Server

Injection losses are compared for 2010 and 2011 operation. Mitigation techniques which were put in place in 2010 to reduce losses at injection are described. Issues in 2011 operation, their potential improvements and the performance reach for 2012 are shown.

Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Dehning, B; Di Mauro, A; Drosdal, L; Emery, J; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Höfle, W; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Radaelli, S; Shaposhnilova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

2012-01-01

281

Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

282

Ferric Carboxymaltose Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Ferric carboxymaltose injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... to stop working) who are not on dialysis. Ferric carboxymaltose injection is in a class of medications called ...

283

Rich catalytic injection  

Science.gov (United States)

A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

2008-12-30

284

Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections

285

Multicenter clinical trial of gadodiamide injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper determines the safety and efficacy of gadodiamide injection when administered intravenously to patients with spine lesions. MR imaging of the spine was performed before and after administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadodiamide injection (Gd-DTPA BMA and 5 mol/dL of CaNa-DTPA BMA). Contrast enhancement of abnormal structures was evaluated. Data were further analyzed according to which spinal compartment was involved. Multiple safety parameters were also analyzed. Of 439 patients entered into a multi-center clinical trail, 88 were evaluated for abnormalities of the spine. Lesions or abnormal structures were identified in 77 patients. Gadodiamide injection provided contrast enhancement or facilitated visualization of abnormalities in 77% of the cases. Contrast enhancement was not observed in 22% of the cases

286

A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of Piracetam Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been reported that autism is a hypoglutamatergic disorder. Therefore, it was of interest to assess the efficacy of piracetam, a positive modulator of AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptors in autistic disorder. About 40 children between the ages three and 11 years (inclusive) with a DSM IV clinical diagnosis of autism and who were outpatients…

Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Tajdar, Hamid; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Nouroozinejad, Gholam-Hossein; Shabstari, Omid L.; Ghelichnia, Hossein-Ali

2008-01-01

287

Control of Ink disease by trunk injection of potassium phosphite  

OpenAIRE

Potassium phosphite was applied to 4-year-old chestnut plants either in the form of a foliar spray or by xylem injection (prophylactic or curative) to control the development of ink disease, following inoculation with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Foliar spraying reduced symptom expression by ~90% within 30 days, and later served to inhibit fungal colonisation of the stem. The prophylactic injection treatment fully prevented infection, but the efficacy of the curative treatment depended on the init...

Valentino, Danila; Tamietti, Giacomo

2009-01-01

288

Optimising corticosteroid injection for lateral epicondylalgia with the addition of physiotherapy: A protocol for a randomised control trial with placebo comparison  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Corticosteroid injection and physiotherapy are two commonly prescribed interventions for management of lateral epicondylalgia. Corticosteroid injections are the most clinically efficacious in the short term but are associated with high recurrence rates and delayed recovery, while physiotherapy is similar to injections at 6 weeks but with significantly lower recurrence rates. Whilst practitioners frequently recommend combining physiotherapy and injection to overcome harmful...

Brooks Peter; Connelly Luke B; Bisset Leanne; Coombes Brooke K; Vicenzino Bill

2009-01-01

289

In thrombin stimulated human platelets Citalopram, Promethazine, Risperidone, and Ziprasidone, but not Diazepam, may exert their pharmacological effects also through intercalation in membrane phospholipids in a receptor-independent manner  

OpenAIRE

Intercalation of drugs in the platelet membrane affects phospholipid-requiring enzymatic processes according to the drugs’ intercalation capability. We investigated effects of Promethazine, Citalopram, Ziprasidone, Risperidone, and Diazepam on phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and polyphosphoinositide (PPI) metabolism in thrombin-stimulated human platelets. We also examined effects of the drugs on monolayers of glycerophospholipids using the Langmuir technique. Diazepam did not influence PLA2 activit...

Oruch, Ramadhan; Hodneland, Erlend; Pryme, Ian F.; Holmsen, Holm

2009-01-01

290

Evaluation of periapical injection of Ketorolac for management of endodontic pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective pain management of the endodontic emergency patient is often a problem. Ketorolac tromethamine is the first nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug available for intramuscular injection in the United States. Although its analgesic efficacy is comparable with opiates after intramuscular injection, to date no study has evaluated its efficacy after intraoral periapical injection. Fifty-two endodontic emergency patients were injected (injection routes = intraoral infiltration/intramuscular deltoid) on a double-blind basis with either: (i) placebo/placebo, (ii) 30 mg ketorolac/placebo, (iii) placebo/30 mg ketorolac, or (iv) 2% mepivicaine with 1:20 K levonordefrin/placebo. Infiltration injection of ketorolac at on oral site produced significant analgesic effects, particularly in treating pain of mandibular origin. These results suggest that intraoral injection of ketorolac may prove to be a useful adjunct in the management of endodontic pain patients. Further studies are required to replicate these findings and to develop optimal treatment combinations. PMID:8935018

Penniston, S G; Hargreaves, K M

1996-02-01

291

Geysers injection modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our research is concerned with mathematical modeling techniques for engineering design and optimization of water injection in vapor-dominated systems. The emphasis in the project has been on the understanding of physical processes and mechanisms during injection, applications to field problems, and on transfer of numerical simulation capabilities to the geothermal community. This overview summarizes recent work on modeling injection interference in the Southeast Geysers, and on improving the description of two-phase flow processes in heterogeneous media.

Pruess, K.

1994-04-01

292

Splitting of a Dexamethasone Implant (Ozurdex) following the Injection  

OpenAIRE

In this brief report, we share our observations on a splitted Dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) which we discovered a week after the injection. It is likely that implant splitting neither changes the efficacy of the implant nor creates a mishap for the patient.

Ali Osman Saatci; Aylin Yaman; Melih Parlak; Oya Donmez

2013-01-01

293

Efeitos cardiotóxicos resultantes da interação da risperidona com diuréticos tiazídicos / Cardiotoxic effects resulting from the interaction between risperidone and thiazide diuretics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Antipsicóticos atípicos têm sua ação em doses que podem produzir efeitos colaterais importantes. A risperidona é o antipsicótico atípico de nova geração mais utilizado na atualidade e seu uso está associado a tratamento de esquizofrenia, transtornos psicóticos, episódio [...] s de mania e nos distúrbios de comportamento, entre outros. Os efeitos adversos mais importantes estão relacionados ao sistema nervoso central e autônomo, sistema endócrino e sistema cardiovascular. Neste último, pode haver efeitos inotrópicos negativos e alterações no eletrocardiograma, como prolongamento do intervalo QT, podendo causar taquicardia e arritmias. Relatamos um caso de um homem de 48 anos com história de delírio persecutório após ser ameaçado no trabalho, que estava sendo tratado com risperidona e paroxetina. Por não haver melhora, suas doses foram aumentadas e o paciente apresentou alargamento do intervalo QTc, com diminuição da amplitude da onda T e aumento da onda U, e hipocalemia. Além disso, o paciente era hipertenso e estava em uso de hidroclorotiazida. A risperidona tem o potencial de bloquear o componente rápido do canal cardíaco de potássio e isso prolonga o processo de repolarização dos ventrículos, podendo causar torsade de pointes, morte súbita e arritmias. Já a hidroclorotiazida causa hipocalemia, provocando alterações na contração e relaxamento do miocárdio. Houve interação medicamentosa grave entre duas drogas com potencial arritmogênico, o que levou às alterações no eletrocardiograma e produziu sintomas danosos ao paciente. A troca do antipsicótico atípico para um típico e da hidroclorotiazida por um diurético que não causa hipocalemia trouxe melhoras ao paciente. Abstract in english Atypical antipsychotics have their actions in doses that can cause important side effects. The risperidone is the new generation atypical antipsychotic most widely used these days and it is related to the treatment of schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, manic episodes a [...] nd behavioral disorder, among others. The most significant side effects are associated with the central and autonomic nervous system, endocrine system and cardiovascular system. Considering the latter, negative inotropic effects and changes on eletrocardiograma can occur, with QT-interval prolongation, which can cause tachycardia and arrhythmias. We reported a case of a 48 years old man with history of persecutory delusion after being threatened at work, treated with risperidone and paroxetine. Since there was no improvement, the doses were increased and the patient showed QTc-interval prolongation, with a T-wave amplitude decrease and an increase on the U-wave, in addition to hypokalemia. Besides, the patient was hypertensive and was using hydrochlorothiazide. Risperidone has the potential to block the fast component of the cardiac potassium channel and it extends the repolarization process of the ventricles, which can lead to torsade de pointes, sudden cardiac death and arrhythmias. Also hydrochlorothiazide can cause hypokalemia, with disturbances on the myocardium depolarization and repolarization. There was a serious drug interaction with two potentially arrhythmogenic drugs, which led to the alterations on the electrocardiogram and generated hurtful symptoms to the patient. The shift of the atypical antipsychotic to one typical and of the hydrochlorothiazide to a diuretic that does not cause hypokalemia brought improvements to the patient.

Aline Costa, Barcelos; Andreia Mota, Trein; Gustavo Santos, Sousa; Luciano, Fleury Neto; Leonardo, Baldaçara.

2014-12-01

294

Injection molding metallic glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advances in alloy development have produced the Zr35Ti30Be27.5Cu7.5 alloy with a crystallization-glass transition temperature, ?T, of 165 deg. C. This alloy's large supercooled liquid region provides the longest processing times and lowest processing viscosities of any metallic glass and was injection molded using tooling based on plastic injection molding technology. Injection-molded beams and die-cast beams were tested in three-point bending. The average modulus of rupture (MOR) was found to be similar, while injection-molded beams had a smaller standard deviation in MOR

295

The effect of local corticosteroid injection on F-wave conduction velocity and sympathetic skin response in carpal tunnel syndrome  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of steroid injection for the treatment of the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), with F-wave parameters and sympathetic skin response (SSR). Seventeen hands of 10 women patients were treated with local steroid injection with 2-month follow-up. All patients underwent single injection into the carpal tunnel. Response to injection was measured nerve conduction studies (NCSs), median nerve F waves, and SSR before and after treatment. To determine the ...

Deniz, Orhan; Aygu?l, Recep; Kotan, Dilcan; O?zdemir, Go?khan; Odabas?, Faruk O?mer; Kaya, M. Dursun; Ulvi, H?z?r

2011-01-01

296

Intracutaneous or subcutaneous sterile water injection compared with blinded controls for pain management in labour.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Intracutaneous or subcutaneous injection of sterile water is rapidly gaining popularity as a method of pain relief in labour and it is therefore essential that it is properly evaluated. Adequate analgesia in labour is important to women worldwide. Sterile water injection is inexpensive, requires basic equipment, and appears to have few side effects. It is purported to work for labour pain. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of sterile water injections for relief of pain (both t...

Derry, S.; Straube, S.; Moore, Ra; Hancock, H.; Collins, Sl

2012-01-01

297

Efficacy of different steam distribution systems against five soil-borne pathogens under controlled laboratory conditions  

OpenAIRE

The efficacy of three steam application techniques (steam injection, iron pan and sheet steaming) was evaluated against five soilborne pathogens under controlled laboratory conditions. Injection and pan steam systems proved to be efficient and feasible alternatives to traditional sheet steaming for suppressing Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici at 60% moisture field capacity in sandy-loam soil. Injecting steam was the best technique to suppress F. oxysporum f. sp. b...

Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Gilardi, Giovanna; Ricauda Aimonino, Davide

2010-01-01

298

Intravitreal injections and complications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

The name and ratio's of intravitreal agents were as follows; bevacizumab (57, ranibizumab (17, triamcinolone acetonide (16 and bevacizumab + triamcinolone acetonide (10. Conclusion: The most common indication for intravitreal injections was diabetic macular edema and the most common drug that injected intravitreally was bevacizumab. The most serious complication that occurred in 2 cases was endophthalmitis. Endophthalmitis rate was 0.046. A spontaneously cleared vitreous hemorrhage occurred in one eye. Pseudoendophtalmitis was occurred in one case after triamcinolone injection. Retinal detachment was not recorded.

Mehmet Demir

2015-01-01

299

The RHIC Injection System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. They describe their solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999

300

LDAP Injection Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increase in the number of databases accessed only by some applications has made code injection attacks an important threat to almost any current system. If one of these applications accepts inputs from a client and executes these inputs without first validating them, the attackers are free to execute their own queries and therefore, to extract, modify or delete the content of the database associated to the application. In this paper a deep analysis of the LDAP injection techniques is presented. Furthermore, a clear distinction between classic and blind injection techniques is made.

Jose Maria ALONSO

2009-11-01

301

Once-a-month estrogen/progestogen injectables.  

Science.gov (United States)

About 8 million women use the long acting injectable contraceptive depot-medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN). These progesterone only injectables are not dependent on sexual activity and are easy to administer. Yet they are not always well accepted since they can interfere with menstrual bleeding and often induce amenorrhea. Researchers find that adding estrogen to DMPA and NET-EN treats these irregularities. They must use esters with limited action to protect the endometrium from constant estrogens, however, which requires monthly injections. Thus bleeding occurs once a month just like the normal menstrual cycle. Clinical trials in China of Injectable No. 1 (250 mg 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and 5 mg estradiol valerate) show that it has few side effects and is acceptable. Other trials in China are evaluating monthly injectables with NET-EN or megestrol acetate. Numerous developing countries often as WHO's Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction for effective, safe, and fully studied monthly injectables. WHO operates under a 2 part strategy: optimum improvement of HPR 102 (50 m NET-EN and 5 mg estradiol valerate) and Cyclofem (25 mg DMPA and 5 mg estradiol cypionate) resulting in a reduction of the dose of at least 1 of the hormones and results of a study of the efficacy and side effects of these 2 injectables. It hopes the study provides the impetus to introduce them into national family planning programs. It demonstrates that they are indeed efficacious, effect fewer changes in the menstrual cycle than the progesterone only injectables, and are well accepted, even though women must go to a clinic every 27-33 days for an injection. Other studies are determining their effects on lipid and glucose metabolism, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. They are also looking at the time needed for ovulation to return. 1 study shows that menstruation returned in all women by the 3rd cycle. PMID:12222332

D'arcangues, C

1991-12-01

302

OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... people older than 18 years of age with chronic migraine (severe, throbbing headaches that are sometimes accompanied by ... upper limb spasticity, urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, or chronic migraine, you may receive additional injections every 3 to ...

303

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)  

Science.gov (United States)

... for Reproductive Medicine What is intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)? Before a man’s sperm can fertilize a woman’s ... directly into the cytoplasm the egg. How does ICSI work? There are two ways that an egg ...

304

Ziv-aflibercept Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Ziv-aflibercept injection is used in combination with other medications to treat cancer of the colon (large ... has spread to other parts of the body. Ziv-aflibercept is in a class of medications called ...

305

AbobotulinumtoxinA Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis; uncontrollable tightening of the neck muscles that may ... If you are receiving abobotulinumtoxinA injection for cervical dystonia, your doctor will probably start you on a ...

306

RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis; uncontrollable tightening of the neck muscles that may ... be substituted for another.RimabotulinumtoxinB injection controls cervical dystonia but does not cure it. It may take ...

307

Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... Clostridium histolyticum injection is also used to treat Peyronie's disease (a thickening of tissue [plaque] inside the ... the finger(s) to be straightened. In people with Peyronie's disease, it works by helping to break down ...

308

Premixed direct injection disk  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

2013-04-23

309

Injection scenarios for TNS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutral beam injection heating is the most technically advanced and experimentally proven form of auxiliary Tokamak heating. In TNS, due to its large size and density, the major problem is a lack of beam penetration. An attempt is made to determine the scope of the problem and outline possible strategies for dealing with it. Some of these strategies are: raise the injection energy, injection vertically into a locally produced minimum in the toroidal magnetic field so that the injected ions are trapped in this well and anti B x nablaB drift into the center of the machine, and using a low density startup and taking advantage of ?-particle heating and flux surface shifts will allow 150 keV deuteron beams to have adequate protection

310

Morphine Sulfate Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... drug will be either injected into a large muscle (such as your buttock or hip) or added ... alcoholism, lung or thyroid disease, heart disease, prostatic hypertrophy, or lung or urinary problems.tell your doctor ...

311

Meperidine Hydrochloride Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... drug will be either injected into a large muscle (such as your buttock or hip) or added ... lung or thyroid disease, heart disease, seizures, prostatic hypertrophy, or urinary problems.tell your doctor if you ...

312

Tevatron injection timing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ''reverse injection.'' Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks

313

Gas chromatograph injection system  

Science.gov (United States)

An injection system for a gas chromatograph is described which uses a small injector chamber (available in various configurations). The sample is placed in the chamber while the chamber is not under pressure and is not heated, and there is no chance of leakage caused by either pressure or heat. It is injected into the apparatus by changing the position of a valve and heating the chamber, and is volatilized and swept by a carrier gas into the analysis apparatus.

Pollock, G. E.; Henderson, M. E.; Donaldson, R. W., Jr. (inventors)

1975-01-01

314

Injection and Dump Systems  

CERN Document Server

Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

2012-01-01

315

Intramuscular injections into the buttocks: Are they truly intramuscular?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To radiologically determine if intramuscular (IM) injections into the buttocks are truly intramuscular. Materials and methods: This was a prospective study conducted during a 6 month period beginning in October 2004. Fifty inpatients were recruited from a single tertiary referral hospital. Approval was obtained from the hospital research ethics committee and informed written consent was acquired from all participants. Prior to computerised tomography (CT), each patient received an IM injection of their prescribed medication along with 1 mL of air into the upper outer quadrant of the buttocks. CT images were subsequently analyzed by two radiologists to determine the position of the injected air bubble and to assess whether it was intramuscular or subcutaneous in position. Body mass index (BMI), distance to injection site, subcutaneous fat and muscle thickness were also measured. Results: Overall, only 32% (n = 16/50) of patients had intramuscular injections, with the majority of injections (68%, n = 34/50) being subcutaneous. When analysed by gender, 56% (n = 14/25) of males had intramuscular injections while in females, the efficacy rate was significantly lower at 8% (n = 2/25). Conclusion: The majority of assumed intramuscular injections are actually subcutaneous

316

Rehospitalization rates of patients with schizophrenia discharged on haloperidol, risperidone or clozapine / Taxas de re-hospitalização de pacientes após alta hospitalar em uso de haloperidol, risperidona ou clozapina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O propósito desse estudo foi observar as taxas de re-hospitalização de pacientes com esquizofrenia que receberam alta do Instituto de Psiquiatria do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo em uso de haloperidol, risperidona ou clozapina. MÉTODO: Este foi [...] um estudo naturalístico conduzido de forma a observar as taxas de re-hospitalizações dos pacientes que receberam alta em uso de haloperidol (n = 43), risperidona (n = 22) ou clozapina (n = 31). O tempo de re-hospitalização foi analisado de acordo com a fórmula produto-limite (Kaplan-Meier) por três anos. Fatores de risco associados à internação foram examinados. RESULTADOS: Aos 36 meses, permaneceram em seguimento extra-hospitalar 74% dos pacientes em uso de haloperidol, 59% em uso de risperidona e 84% em uso de clozapina. O grupo tratado com haloperidol apresentou predomínio do gênero feminino, idade de início mais tardia e menor tempo de doença que os demais grupos, enquanto o oposto ocorreu em relação ao grupo com clozapina. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes em uso de clozapina apresentaram taxas de re-hospitalização menores que aqueles em uso de haloperidol e risperidona. No entanto, variáveis tais como distribuição de gênero e idade de início da doença podem representar limitações importantes que devem ser levadas em consideração na interpretação dos resultados. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rehospitalization rates of patients discharged from the Institute of Psychiatry of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade de São Paulo Medical School while being treated with haloperidol, risperidone or clozapine. METHOD: This is a natur [...] alistic study designed to monitor rehospitalization rates for patients discharged on haloperidol (n = 43), risperidone (n = 22) or clozapine (n = 31). Time to readmission over the course of three years was measured by the product-limit (Kaplan-Meier) method. Risk factors associated with rehospitalizations were examined. RESULTS: At 36 months, remained in the community 74% of the haloperidol-treated patients, 59% of the risperidone-treated patients and 84% of the clozapine-treated patients. The haloperidol group showed a higher proportion of women, a late age of onset and shorter length of illness than the other groups, whereas the opposite was observed in the clozapine group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the rehospitalization rates of patients taking clozapine are lower than the rate for patients treated with haloperidol and risperidone. However confounding variables such as gender distribution and age of onset represent limitations that should be taken into account for the interpretation of the results.

Ana Paula Werneck de, Castro; Helio, Elkis.

2007-09-01

317

Differential Long-Term Effects of Haloperidol and Risperidone on the Acquisition and Performance of Tasks of Spatial Working and Short-Term Memory and Sustained Attention in Rats  

OpenAIRE

A common feature of the neuropsychiatric disorders for which antipsychotic drugs are prescribed is cognitive dysfunction, yet the effects of long-term antipsychotic treatment on cognition are largely unknown. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of long-term oral treatment with the first-generation antipsychotic haloperidol (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg daily) and the second-generation antipsychotic risperidone (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg daily) on the acquisition and performance of two radial-arm maz...

Hutchings, Elizabeth J.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Terry, Alvin V.

2013-01-01

318

Rehospitalization rates of patients with schizophrenia discharged on haloperidol, risperidone or clozapine Taxas de re-hospitalização de pacientes após alta hospitalar em uso de haloperidol, risperidona ou clozapina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rehospitalization rates of patients discharged from the Institute of Psychiatry of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade de São Paulo Medical School while being treated with haloperidol, risperidone or clozapine. METHOD: This is a naturalistic study designed to monitor rehospitalization rates for patients discharged on haloperidol (n = 43, risperidone (n = 22 or clozapine (n = 31. Time to readmission over the course of three years was measured by the product-limit (Kaplan-Meier method. Risk factors associated with rehospitalizations were examined. RESULTS: At 36 months, remained in the community 74% of the haloperidol-treated patients, 59% of the risperidone-treated patients and 84% of the clozapine-treated patients. The haloperidol group showed a higher proportion of women, a late age of onset and shorter length of illness than the other groups, whereas the opposite was observed in the clozapine group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the rehospitalization rates of patients taking clozapine are lower than the rate for patients treated with haloperidol and risperidone. However confounding variables such as gender distribution and age of onset represent limitations that should be taken into account for the interpretation of the results.OBJETIVO: O propósito desse estudo foi observar as taxas de re-hospitalização de pacientes com esquizofrenia que receberam alta do Instituto de Psiquiatria do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo em uso de haloperidol, risperidona ou clozapina. MÉTODO: Este foi um estudo naturalístico conduzido de forma a observar as taxas de re-hospitalizações dos pacientes que receberam alta em uso de haloperidol (n = 43, risperidona (n = 22 ou clozapina (n = 31. O tempo de re-hospitalização foi analisado de acordo com a fórmula produto-limite (Kaplan-Meier por três anos. Fatores de risco associados à internação foram examinados. RESULTADOS: Aos 36 meses, permaneceram em seguimento extra-hospitalar 74% dos pacientes em uso de haloperidol, 59% em uso de risperidona e 84% em uso de clozapina. O grupo tratado com haloperidol apresentou predomínio do gênero feminino, idade de início mais tardia e menor tempo de doença que os demais grupos, enquanto o oposto ocorreu em relação ao grupo com clozapina. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes em uso de clozapina apresentaram taxas de re-hospitalização menores que aqueles em uso de haloperidol e risperidona. No entanto, variáveis tais como distribuição de gênero e idade de início da doença podem representar limitações importantes que devem ser levadas em consideração na interpretação dos resultados.

Ana Paula Werneck de Castro

2007-09-01

319

Topiramate Versus Valproate Sodium as Adjunctive Therapies to a Combination of Lithium and Risperidone for Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder: Effects on Weight and Serum Lipid Profiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effects of topiramate versus valproate sodium as an add-on therapy to a combination of lithium and risperidone (Li+Ris on body weight and serum lipid profile in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. Methods: In a single-blind randomized clinical trial, thirty children and adolescents with bipolar disorder type I in the manic or mixed phase ,treated with the combination of Li+Ris at therapeutic doses for at least 4 weeks who had the indication of add-on therapy due to a recurrent episode; a partial response or non response in the current episode or relapse were included. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either topiramate or sodium valproate as the third drug add-on therapy for a total of 6 weeks. Weight, height and serum lipid profiles were determined at baseline and at the end of week 6. Results: Differences in the mean levels of lipid profiles at baseline and after week 6 evaluation were not significant in both treatment groups. BMI z-score increased in both treatment groups, being significant only in the Li+Ris/Valproate group, increasing from (mean ±SD 0.38 ±0.55 to 0.72 ±1.23 (p<0.05. Between group changes in BMI z-score was not significant.Among the BMI percentile categories, participants in the normal weight subgroup showed a significant increase in BMI z-score during the 6 week trial, compared to overweight/obese subgroup, in both Li+Ris/Valproate and Li+Ris/Topiramate treatment groups. Elevated mean serum level of triglyceride and a high proportion of participants with elevated total cholesterol (? 170 mg/dl, triglyceride (? 110 mg/dl, and BMI percentile 85-<95 at baseline (before randomization and at the end of 6 week study were noted. Conclusion: When topiramate and valproate sodium are used for six weeks as adjunctive treatment to a combination of Li+Ris, they act alike on lipid milieu of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. Both Li+Ris/Valproate and Li+Ris/Topiramate therapies can lead to an increase in BMI z-score. This increase is statistically significant with Li+Ris/Valproate therapy. This suggests that topiramate could attenuate the ongoing weight gain from lithium and risperidone .In this study, the majority of participants who gained weight were those with BMI less than 85th percentile. This suggests that normal weight patients may have greater weight gain potential than overweight/obese patients.High proportion of metabolic abnormalities among the patients at baseline, which remained elevated throughout the trial, warrants cardiometabolic monitoring in this population.

Javad Alaghband-Rad

2012-04-01

320

Storage ring injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some basic issues involved in injecting the beam into storage rings with the principal parameters of those studied at the workshop have been considered. The main conclusion is that straightforward adjustments of the storage ring parameters makes injection easy. The largest number of injected turns is fourteen, and the phase space dilution allowance seems adequate to ensure very small beam loss during injection. The adjustments also result in lower bending magnet fields, and high field superconducting magnets (e.g., 5 Tesla) are not necessary. The design changes do not necessarily affect the Keil-Schnell criterion for stability of the longitudinal microwave instability, although that criterion appears to be irrelevant. Because the beams are expected to be unstable, but with slow growth rates, the vacuum chamber impedances required to give equal risetimes for the various designs are compared for systems posing various degrees of difficulty for injection. Finally, the impact of the parameters on cost is noted, and a system is considered that cuts the length of the linac in half by using doubly charged ions

321

Il trattamento dei disturbi psicotici con olanzapina, risperidone e neurolettici tipici: una valutazione comparativa di costo/efficacia in una realtà psichiatrica locale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several clinical trials demonstrated that atypical antipsychotics are more effective but also more expensive (as drug cost compared with the typical neuroleptics by treating psychotic disorders. The present study aimed to evaluate this result using an observational approach which better reflects the real clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical effectiveness (including work and social functioning and overall direct costs in a group of patients affected by psychotic disorders (schizophrenia and bipolar and treated with typical and atypical (olanzapine and risperidone antipsychotics. METHODS: With a multicentre observational design - two years long - 89 patients (in charge by Psychiatric Centers of Regione Campania - Italy were assessed using CGI (Clinical Global Impression and GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning scales. Moreover economic data were collected with reference to pharmacological and non-pharmacological (hospitalization, medical/nurse visits, etc. resources consumption. The pharmacoeconomic analysis were conducted choosing the perspective of the local Psychiatric Services for costs attribution. RESULTS: Considering the treatment outcomes, the use of the atypical drugs provided better performances with reference to the patients quality of life. The results in terms of work and social functioning indicated an advantage in the olanzapine group of patients. Overall direct costs of treatment (drugs and healthcare resources didn’t generate significant differences among the groups of therapy despite the pharmacological cost evidentiated an economic advantage (p<0,05 in the typical group due to the cheaper cost of these drugs. The use of olanzapine was associated to a lower number of hospitalizations and showed a general reduction (- 16% of total treatment costs between 1st and 2nd year of observation. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of side effects, the improvement in work and social functioning, associated to a more efficient use of total healthcare resources seems to be at the basis of the better pharmacoeconomic profile for olanzapine compared with the other antipsychotic therapies.

Egidio Filippelli

2005-09-01

322

Botulinum toxin injection: a review of injection principles and protocols  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the favorable outcomes seen using botulinum toxin (BTX for voiding dysfunction using BTX, a standardized technique and protocol for toxin injection is not defined. We reviewed the current literature on intravesical BTX injection for DO (detrusor overactivity. Specific attention was placed on defining optimal injection protocol, including dose, volume, and injection sites. In addition, we sought to describe a standard technique to BTX injection.

David E. Rapp

2007-04-01

323

Botulinum toxin injection: a review of injection principles and protocols  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Despite the favorable outcomes seen using botulinum toxin (BTX) for voiding dysfunction using BTX, a standardized technique and protocol for toxin injection is not defined. We reviewed the current literature on intravesical BTX injection for DO (detrusor overactivity). Specific attention was placed [...] on defining optimal injection protocol, including dose, volume, and injection sites. In addition, we sought to describe a standard technique to BTX injection.

David E., Rapp; Alvaro, Lucioni; Gregory T., Bales.

2007-04-01

324

Botulinum toxin injection: a review of injection principles and protocols  

OpenAIRE

Despite the favorable outcomes seen using botulinum toxin (BTX) for voiding dysfunction using BTX, a standardized technique and protocol for toxin injection is not defined. We reviewed the current literature on intravesical BTX injection for DO (detrusor overactivity). Specific attention was placed on defining optimal injection protocol, including dose, volume, and injection sites. In addition, we sought to describe a standard technique to BTX injection.

Rapp, David E.; Alvaro Lucioni; Bales, Gregory T.

2007-01-01

325

Electrically injected cavity polaritons  

CERN Document Server

We have realised a semiconductor quantum structure that produces electroluminescence while operating in the light-matter strong coupling regime. The mid-infrared light emitting device is composed of a quantum cascade structure embedded in a planar microcavity, based on the GaAs/AlGaAs material system. At zero bias, the structure is characterised using reflectivity measurements which show, up to room temperature, a wide polariton anticrossing between an intersubband transition and the resonant cavity photon mode. Under electrical injection the spectral features of the emitted light change drastically, as electrons are resonantly injected in a reduced part of the polariton branches. Our experiment demonstrates that electrons can be selectively injected into polariton states up to room temperature.

Sapienza, Luca; Colombelli, Raffaele; Ciuti, Cristiano; Chassagneux, Yannick; Manquest, Christophe; Gennser, Ulf; Sirtori, Carlo

2007-01-01

326

The LHC Injection Tests  

CERN Document Server

A series of LHC injection tests was performed in August and September 2008. The first saw beam injected into sector 23; the second into sectors 78 and 23; the third into sectors 78-67 and sectors 23-34-45. The fourth, into sectors 23-34-45, was performed the evening before the extended injection test on the 10th September which saw both beams brought around the full circumference of the LHC. The tests enabled the testing and debugging of a number of critical control and hardware systems; testing and validation of instrumentation with beam for the first time; deployment, and validation of a number of measurement procedures. Beam based measurements revealed a number of machine configuration issues that were rapidly resolved. The tests were undoubtedly an essential precursor to the successful start of LHC beam commissioning. This paper provides an outline of preparation for the tests, the machine configuration and summarizes the measurements made and individual system performance.

Aberle, O; Aiba, M; Albert, M; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Arduini, Gianluigi; Assmann, Ralph Wolfgang; Bailey, R; Billen, R; Bottura, L; Brüning, Oliver Sim; Butterworth, A; Calaga, R; Carlier, E; Collier, P; Dehning, B; Deniau, L; Fartoukh, S; Follin, F; Forkel-Wirth, D; Fuchsberger, K; Giachino, R; Giovannozzi, M; Goddard, B; Gras, J J; Hatziangeli, E; Hagen, P; Jacquet, D; Jensen, L; Jones, R; Kain, V; Kozsar, I; Kramer, T; Kruk, G; Lamont, M; Lewis, J; Losito, R; MacPherson, A; Masi, A; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Page, S; Ponce, L; Puccio, B; Redaelli, S; Roderick, C; Roesler, S; Roncarolo, F; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, R; Sliwinski, W; Steinhagen, R; Strzelczyk, M; Sun, Y; Todd, B; Todesco, E; Tomas Garcia, R; Uythoven, J; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Vincke, H; Vincke, H; Veyrunes, E; Wenninger, J; Wolf, R; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F

2008-01-01

327

Quality evaluation of lentinan injection produced in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lentinan is a ?-(1?6) branched ?-(1?3)-glucan derived from Lentinula edodes mushroom. It has been developed as an adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy and clinically used in Japan and China. Up to date, six lentinan injections or powders for injection produced by individual manufacturers were widely used in clinic in China. Since antitumor effect of lentinan is highly related to its structure, conformation and molecular weight, quality evaluation of lentinan injection produced in China is crucial to ensure its efficacy, which has never been performed. In this study, absolute molecular weights and their distributions of lentinan in multiple batches of injections from different manufacturers in China were firstly determined through a high performance size exclusive chromatography (HPSEC) combined with multiple angle light scattering detection (MALSD) and refractive index detection (RID). Enzymatic (?-1,3-D-glucanase) digestion characters and triple helical conformation of lentinan were also investigated. The results showed that quality consistency of lentinan injections from different manufacturers in China was poor, which should be greatly improved to ensure their safety and efficacy. PMID:23499917

Chen, Y W; Hu, D J; Cheong, K L; Li, J; Xie, J; Zhao, J; Li, S P

2013-05-01

328

Trigger point injection in myofscial pain syndrom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Myofascial pain syndrome is a disorder characterized by hypersensitive sites called trigger points at one or more muscles and/or connective tissue, leading to pain, muscle spasm, sensitivity, rigor, weakness. The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy of lidocain and steroid in myofascial pain syndrome. Material and Methods: One hundred and sixty-four patients with myofascial pain syndrome were recruited into the study. Patients received lidocaine 2% (5ml+NaCl 0.9% (5ml onto the trigger points at first day. Lidocaine 2% (5ml+triamsinolone 40mg (1ml+NaCl 0.9% (4ml were injected to the patients at fourth and eighth day. Pain was evaluated with visual analogue score (VAS, palpable muscle spasm scoring (PMSS and number of trigger point at baseline, first and second month. Results: Pain control values with treatment were statistically better compared with pretreatment values. VAS scores, PMSS and number of trigger points significantly reduced 1 and 2 months after lidocaine and triamsinolone injection at the trigger point (p<0.01. Conclusion: The local anesthetic and steroid injection at the trigger point seems to be beneficial in myofascial pain syndrome. In conclusion, this therapy may be a alternative to other methods in the management of myofascial pain syndrome.

Gülten Arslan

2011-01-01

329

Superior efficacy of new medicines?  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Purpose To provide an overview of and discuss newly authorised medicines with an improved efficacy. Methods This analysis focussed on new medicines with an improved efficacy based on the results of randomised active control trials. Information on comparative efficacy was obtained from the European Medicines Agency European Public Assessment Reports. Results ...

Luijn, Johan C. F.; Gribnau, Frank W. J.; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.

2010-01-01

330

Magnetron injection gun scaling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations

331

PETRA - injection-system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description of the injection system of the PETRA storage ring with circulating current of 2x30 mA contained in 2x4 bunches is presented. Principle of operation is described. In the injection system every 20 ms a train of positron bunches separated 32 ns from each other is accelerated in Linac 2 up to 300 MeV and then injected into DESY for acceleration up to 2.2 GeV. At 2.2 GeV these bunches are transferred to DORIS for accumulation. It will be reinjected into DESY, accelerated up to 7 GeV, transferred to PETRA and accumulated there. For the present all elements of the 7 GeV - ejection were installed and the e- ejection was tested. The positron transfer channel between DESY and PETRA is completed. In the single ring mode operation of DORIS acceptances of Asub(x) >= 40 mm mrad and Asub(z) <= 10 mm mrad have been achieved. The injection repetition rate is 50 Hz, the ejection rate - 10 Hz, and single bunches were transferred via DESY through the first octant of PETRA

332

Injection and Beam Dump  

CERN Document Server

The hardware changes and maintenance actions on the LHC injection and beam dumping systems will be presented. The requirements for equipment tests, hardware commissioning and machine check-out will be given, highlighting the dependence and the impact on other interfaced LHC equipment.

Uythoven, J

2009-01-01

333

Split Injection Gas Chromatography  

Science.gov (United States)

This animation site deals specifically with split injection in gas chromatography. The animations are short (one to two minutes each) and can easily be shown in class as part of a lecture. They are extremely helpful in illustrating key components and concepts of chromatographic systems. Users are encouraged to explore the site and the other brief animations as well.

334

Impact of point-source injection methodologies on injection studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effective interdiction of illicit radioactive material requires decision criteria that are sensitive to the material of interest, while insensitive to material of lesser interest. Injection studies are used to assess the sensitivities of decision criteria to radioactive threat scenarios. Configuring injection studies requires decisions about methodological factors that represent or simplify actual field conditions. Understanding the relative impact of different source injection methods on alarm rates and other outcome measures is vital for interpreting results of injection studies. The most complete and realistic way to inject point-source counts into a vehicle count profile is with the randomly positioned source profile approach. In this paper, we report a study of the impacts of methodological simplifications to this approach. We assessed relative sensitivity of two field-deployed detection algorithms to two experimental factors in point-source injection studies. The first factor featured 'centered' versus 'random' point-source position along the vehicle count profile. The second factor featured either adding the entire injection profile ('profile injection') or adding only the central 'spike' portion of the injection profile nearest to the point-source position ('spike injection'). A collection of 75 059 archived vehicle count profiles from an operating border crossing were injected with a simulated low-energy gamma-ray point-source intended to emulate surrogates ont-source intended to emulate surrogates of highly enriched uranium or plutonium. Outcomes were assessed by means of injection curves (alarm rate vs. injection source size) and a derived measure, minimum detectable count rates (MDC) required to attain a detection probability of 95%. Results show that injection methodology combined with algorithm impacts study outcomes in different ways. For gross count results, centered spike injections yield higher detection sensitivity than centered profile injections, and random spike injections yield even higher detection sensitivity than centered spike injections. Conversely, for energy window ratio results, centered spike injections yield less sensitivity than centered profile injections, and random spike injections yield even less sensitivity than centered spike injections. These effects may be partially attributable to background suppression in the vehicle profile of detection statistics. Although the observed effects (up to 10%) are not large, the injection method impacts alarm rates from the two detection algorithms in opposite directions. These results inform methodological decisions and assessments of results in injection studies

335

Radiotracer injections through microfilters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Problems with the injection of radiotracers (99mTc-HAMS, 99mTc-DPD) to infants when administered through polar-filter-protected venous pathways caused us to get a closer look of what happens to a tracer in such a system. We simulated injections of the tracers mainly used at our institution in an in-vitro array and measured full and empty tracer syringes, filters (0.2 ?m micropores) and the post-filter receptacle of the radioactivity. We calculated the percentage of filter-trapped activity and of activity in the receptacle. For several tracers we repeated this process with a neutral filter of the same pore size to get a comparison between the behavior in polarized and electrically inert filters. In general injection of a soluble radiotracer through a polar filter system means a dose loss in the filter of about 10 %, up to the tracer molecule size of IgG-antibodies. Suspended tracers, which consist of comparatively large particles, like RES- or pulmonary perfusion markers, are blocked by the filter, as can be foreseen with a particle size of >> 0.2 ?m. DMSA and DPD (a biphosphonate), although both being soluble and rather small molecules, were blocked by the polar filter to a high extent, and by the neutral filter to a much lower, almost neglectable degree. The conclusions are: if possible avoid any use of a filter in your tracer injection pathway. Never use a filter with bone scan or DMSA applications. When doing uptake calculations you have to add the filter counts to the empty syringe value in the formula. If you cannot avoid to inject the radiotracer through a filter you have to replace the filter afterwards and treat the used filter as radioactive waste. The polarity of the filter material might severely affect retention of radiotracer in the filter. (author)

336

Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of tetracycline gutta percha (TGP and calcium hydroxide impregnated gutta percha against Enterococcus faecalis, an invitro study. Methodology: Inocula of E.faecalis were spread onto trypticase soy agar medium using sterile glass spreaders. Tetracycline gutta percha, Calcium hydroxide gutta percha and traditional gutta percha cones were aseptically transferred onto each of the inoculated plates using sterile forceps separately. The plates were incubated for 24, 48 and 72 hours at 370 Celsius aerobically. Following incubation the diameters of zone of bacterial inhibition (clear zone were measured in millimeter for each period of time. Results: Tetracycline gutta percha had the maximum antibacterial efficacy, exhibiting broader zones of inhibition, where as calcium hydroxide gutta percha had no effect on test bacteria. Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study tetracycline gutta percha offers maximum antibacterial advantage over Calcium hydroxide and traditional gutta percha.

Vijay.R

2010-10-01

337

Efficacy of OTC analgesics.  

Science.gov (United States)

For many 'over-the-counter' (OTC) analgesics, there is little information available about their relative efficacy. We have examined information available in a series of Cochrane reviews of single doses of analgesic drugs in acute pain and migraine for its relevance for analgesic products commonly available without prescription, at doses generally equivalent to two tablets. Pain following third molar extraction was used as a homogeneous acute pain model; with the outcome of at least 50% maximum pain relief over 6 h. For many OTC drugs, there was no information available. For some OTC drugs, there was at least some information available either for the marketed product itself, or from studies that used the same doses of drug or drugs. For acute pain, data from third molar extraction studies showed that several OTC products were highly efficacious, principally non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac) and combination products based on ibuprofen; aspirin and paracetamol-based products were less efficacious. Fixed-dose combinations, especially those with ibuprofen, provided high levels of analgesia. For migraine headache, the outcome used was pain initially moderate or severe becoming no worse than mild pain (no pain, mild pain) at 2 h. Single-dose ibuprofen 400 mg was better than aspirin and paracetamol. PMID:23163544

Moore, R A; Derry, C

2013-01-01

338

Leukemic cell xenograft in zebrafish embryo for investigating drug efficacy  

OpenAIRE

Zebrafish were proposed as an alternative to mammalian models to assess the efficacy and toxicity of antileukemic drugs. Due to the limited number of transgenic zebrafish leukemia models, we explored human leukemic cell xenograft in zebrafish embryos. Human leukemic cell lines and blast cells sorted from patients with acute myelogenous leukemia were injected 48 hours post-fertilization and remained in the circulation of zebrafish embryos for several days without affecting their development. I...

Pruvot, Benoist; Jacquel, Arnaud; Droin, Nathalie; Auberger, Patrick; Bouscary, Didier; Tamburini, Jerome; Muller, Marc; Fontenay, Michaela; Chluba, Johanna; Solary, Eric

2011-01-01

339

A comparison of the growth responses following intramuscular GHRH plasmid administration versus daily growth hormone injections in young pigs  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of daily porcine growth hormone (GH) injections versus plasmid-driven porcine GH-releasing hormone (pGHRH) production to promote growth was assessed. Ten-day-old piglets were injected intramuscularly with 0.1, 1, or 3 mg pGHRH, or a control plasmid followed by electroporation. Plasmid c...

340

Ultrasound-guided sacroiliac joint injection technique.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

We describe a case report and technique for using a portable ultrasound scanner and a curvilinear transducer (4-5MHz) (SonoSite Micromaxx SonoSite, Inc. 21919 30th Drive SE Bothwell W. A.) to guide sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injection. A 42-year-old male presented with chronic lower back pain centered on his left SIJ. His pain averaged 7 out of 10 (numerical rating scale). For the ultrasound-guided SIJ injection the patient was placed in the prone position. The ultrasound transducer was oriented in a transverse orientation at the level of the sacral hiatus. Here the sacral cornuae were identified. Moving the transducer laterally from here, the lateral edge of the sacrum was identified. This bony edge was followed in a cephalad direction with the transducer maintained in a transverse orientation. A second bony contour, the ileum, was identified. The cleft between both bony contours represented the sacroiliac joint. This was found at 4.5 cm depth. Real-time imaging was used to direct a 22G spinal needle into the SIJ, where solution was injected under direct vision. The patient\\'s pain intensity decreased to a 2 out of 10 (numerical rating scale). Function improved and the patient was able to return to work. These improvements were maintained at 16 weeks. Ultrasound guidance does not expose patients and personnel to radiation and is readily accessible. Ultrasound-guided SIJ injections may have particular applications in the management of chronic lower back pain in certain clinical scenarios (e.g. pregnancy). Future studies to demonstrate efficacy and reproducibility are needed.

Harmon, Dominic

2008-07-01

341

Effectiveness of long-acting injectable antipsychotics in delusional disorders with nonprominent hallucinations and without hallucinations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of nonprominent hallucinations in delusional disorder (DD) has been accepted by the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. A recent meta-analysis revealed that patients with schizophrenia treated with long-acting atypical antipsychotics showed a significant improvement in psychotic symptoms. However, little research has been conducted on DD. Our goal was to investigate demographic and clinical differences between two subgroups of DD patients, those with nonprominent hallucinations and those without hallucinations, and to determine treatment effectiveness of long-acting antipsychotics in these patients. We conducted a longitudinal observational study with a 6-month follow-up period in a clinical group of 45 DD outpatients. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Personal and Social Performance Scale, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17 (HRSD-17) were used for assessment. Age at onset of DD, scores in baseline assessment scales, and drug compliance were included in the analysis as potential confounders. When uncorrected for influencing factors, patients treated with long-acting antipsychotics showed lower scores in PANSS positive and negative subscales. There were no statistically significant clinical subgroup×treatment group interactions for any of the scores in assessment scales at 6 months. After adjustment, patients treated with long-acting antipsychotics showed lower scores in the PANSS negative subscale and a tendency toward improvement in scores in the PANSS positive subscale. Our study suggests that risperidone long-acting injection and paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection may be useful in the treatment of DD patients, specifically those with nonprominent hallucinations. PMID:24681811

González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Molina-Andreu, Oriol; Penadés, Rafael; Bernardo, Miquel; Catalán, Rosa

2014-05-01

342

SPS injection kicker magnet  

CERN Multimedia

One of the first-generation SPS injection kicker magnets, view of the complete tank. First proton beam from the PS was injected into the SPS in 1976, at a beam momentum of 10 GeV/c. These kickers served until the end of 1979 and were replaced at the beginning of 1980 by stronger ones, in preparation for the SPS as a proton-antiproton collider. For this, transfer momentum from the PS to the SPS was raised to 26 GeV/c, so as to avoid acceleration of the dense p and pbar bunches through SPS transition energy. Bearded Roland Tröhler is at the left, Giacomo Busetta smiles at the right. See also 7502073X, 7502074X and Annual Report 1975, 162.

1975-01-01

343

Ceramic injection molding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interest in making complex net-shape ceramic parts with good surface finishing and sharp tolerances without machining is a driving force for studying the injection molding technique. This method consists of softhening the ceramic material by means of adding some plastic and heating in order to inject the mixture under pressure into a relatively cold mold where solidification takes place. Essentially, it is the same process used in thermoplastic industry but, in the present case, the ceramic powder load ranges between 80 to 90 wt.%. This work shows results obtained from the fabrication of pieces of different ceramic materials (alumina, barium titanate ferrites, etc.) in a small scale, using equipments developed and constructed in the laboratory. (Author)

344

Injection of deuterium pellets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A discussion is given of the work done at Riso National Laboratory on the design and construction of deuterium pellet injectors. A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Next some of the details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated to velocities above 1400 m/s, deuterium pellets to velocities above 1300 m/s and neon pellets to velocities above 550 m/s. Finally, a new acceleration method where a pellet should be accelerated by means of a magnetically stabilised electrical discharge is discussed, and a set up for measuring of the pellet size by means of a microwave cavity is outlined

345

Injection of Deuterium Pellets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Some details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated to velocities above 1400 m/s, deuterium pellets to velocities above 1300 m/s and neon pellets to velocities above 500 m/s. Finally, a new acceleration method where a pellet should be accelerated by means of a magnetically stabilised electrical discharge is discussed, and a set up for measuring of the pellet size by means of a microwave cavity is outlined.

SØrensen, H.; Andersen, P.

1984-01-01

346

PS Injection Area  

CERN Multimedia

To the left is the PS ring, viewed against the direction of the protons. At the left, the injection line (also viewed upstream), coming from the 50 MeV linac 1 (behind the wall) and going towards the 800 MeV Booster. The drum-like device is a "debuncher" (a 200 MHz cavity), which reduces the momentum spread of the proton bunches. See also 7802261.

1974-01-01

347

Gallium arsenide injection lasers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The semiconductor injection laser includes a thin inner GaAs p-n junction layer between two outer GaAlAs layers which are backed by further thin outer GaAlAs layers with a heavier doping of AlAs. This reduces optical losses. Optical energy is further confined within the inner layers and the lasing threshold reduced by added outer GaAs layers of low electrical and thermal resistivity

348

Long-term result of endoscopic Histoacryl (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) injection for treatment of gastric varices  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of endoscopic obliteration with Histoacryl® for treatment of gastric variceal bleeding and prophylaxis.METHODS: Between January 1994 and March 2010 at SoonChunHyang University Hospital, a total of 127 patients with gastric varices received Histoacryl® injections endoscopically. One hundred patients underwent endoscopic Histoacryl® injections because of variceal bleeding, the other 27 patients received such injections as a prophylactic proc...

Eun Jung Kang, Soung Won Jeong

2011-01-01

349

Diuretic effect of injecting furosemide into low hydraulic resistance point Shuifen along the conception meridian in pigs with acute edema  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To observe whether injection of medicine into low hydraulic resistance point along meridian brings about higher medicinal effect and to explore the efficacy of the theory that meridians are made up of channels featuring low hydraulic resistance by observing the diuretic effect of injecting furosemide or saline into the low hydraulic resistance point Shuifen (CV 9), vein and Zusanli (St 36) respectively. Methods: Acute edema was induced in pigs by rapid intravenous injection of 2 00...

Xie, Heng-hui; Zhang, Wei-bo

2007-01-01

350

Phase 4 Pharmacovigilance Trial of Paromomycin Injection for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis in India  

OpenAIRE

Background. A phase 3 study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of paromomycin (paromomycin IM injection) for treatment of VL in an inpatient setting. Methods. This phase 4 study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of paromomycin in children and adults in an outpatient setting in Bihar, India. Results. This study enrolled 506 adult and pediatric patients. Of the 494 patients in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population, 98% received a full course of treatment. The overall study comple...

Sinha, Prabhat K.; Jha, T. K.; Thakur, Chandreshwar P.; Devendra Nath; Supriyo Mukherjee; Amrendra Kumar Aditya; Shyam Sundar,

2011-01-01

351

Are young injection drug users ready and willing to participate in preventive HCV vaccine trials?  

OpenAIRE

Trials to evaluate the efficacy of preventive HCV vaccines will need participation from high risk HCV seronegative injection drug users (IDUs). To guide trial planning, we assessed willingness of young IDU in San Francisco to participate in HCV vaccine efficacy trials and evaluate knowledge of vaccine trial concepts: placebo, randomization and blinding. During 2006 and 2007, a total of 67 participants completed the survey. A substantial proportion (88%) would definitely (44%) or probably (44%...

Levy, Vivian; Evans, Jennifer L.; Stein, Ellen S.; Davidson, Peter J.; Lum, Paula J.; Hahn, Judith A.; Page, Kimberly

2010-01-01

352

Injection-induced earthquakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard. PMID:23846903

Ellsworth, William L

2013-07-12

353

Flow Injection Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter provides an introduction to automated chemical analysis, which essentially can be divided into two groups: batch assays, where the solution is stationary while the container is moved through a number of stations where various unit operations performed; and continuous-flow procedures, where the system is stationary while the solution moves through a set of conduits in which all required manipulations are performed. Emphasis is placed on flow injection analysis (FIA) and its further developments, that is, sequential injection analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Since FIA is based on the creation of a concentration gradient of the injected sample solution and on reproducible and precise timing of all events, it allows exploitation of a transient read-out. This in turn implies that not only does FIA allow the augmentation of existing analytical techniques, but it permits thr execution of novel and unique analytical procedures which are difficult or even impossible by conventional means. The performance and applicability of FIA, SI and LOV are illustrated by a series of practical examples.

Hansen, Elo Harald

2004-01-01

354

Study on effects of an atypical antipsychotic, risperidone on regional cerebral blood flow with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in drug-naive and unmedicated schizophrenic patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the underlying mechanisms of intracerebral or clinical actions of the atypical antipsychotic, risperidone (RIS), the effects of RIS on absolute regional cerebral blood flows (rCBFs) measured with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT and correlations between the rCBFs and psychotic symptoms assessed with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) were investigated in 10 drug-naive and unmedicated schizophrenic patients with acute hallucinatory and delusional state. Both the SPECT and PANSS were repeated before and after oral 2-week administration of RIS 3 mg/day in all of the 10 patients and after subsequent 2-week administration of RIS 4-6 mg/day in half of the patients. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the left precentral gyrus alone after the low dose of RIS 3 mg/day in comparison with before the RIS dose. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the right cingulate, postcentral, inferior parietal gyri and the left inferior temporal gyrus after the high dose of RIS 4-6 mg/day in comparison with before the low dose of RIS 3 mg/day. The psychiatric assessment with PANSS showed an improvement of positive and negative symptoms after the low RIS dose and still more after the high RIS dose. Statistical analyses on relationships between the rCBF values and PANSS scores before and after the low RIS dose showed a positive correlation between the rCBF values in the right middle temporal gyrus and hallucinations (mainly auditory hallucination). These results su auditory hallucination). These results suggest that chronic RIS administration dose-dependently produces a decrease of rCBF in the cerebral cortex in the manner that the low dose decreases rCBF in a few restricted cortical regions, while the high dose induces the rCBF reduction in more widespread cortical regions. The RIS-induced rCBF decrease in the cerebral cortex is considered to be attributable to a secondary inactivation in the cerebral cortex due to D2 dopamine receptor blockade of RIS in the striatum through the cortico-striatal thalamic pathway. Furthermore, the positive correlation between the rCBF values in the right middle temporal gyrus and hallucinations suggests that functional changes of the temporal lobe correlate with fluctuation of the hallucinations. (author)

355

Método analítico para la cuantificación y ensayo de disolución de risperidona tabletas 3 mg / Analytical method for quantification and dissolution essay of 3 mg tablets of Risperidone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución para la cuantificación y el ensayo de disolución de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg. El método se basó en la separación del principio activo a través una columna cromatográfica Lichrosorb RP-18 (5 µm) (250 x 4 mm), con d [...] etección UV a 278 nm, para lo cual se empleó una fase móvil compuesta por acetonitrilo:buffer fosfato de potasio 0,05 M, de proporción 45:55. El método para la cuantificación del principio activo fue validado a través de la linealidad del sistema, especificad, exactitud y precisión. Mientras que en la validación del ensayo de disolución se evaluó la linealidad, precisión, especificidad e influencia del filtrado. Ambos métodos fueron sencillos, rápidos y económicos; además de específicos, lineales, precisos y exactos en el rango de concentraciones estudiadas. El método analítico alternativo desarrollado para la cuantificación y disolución de las tabletas de risperidona 3 mg, se comparó estadísticamente con el método propuesto en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos 30, y se demostró que no existían diferencias significativas entre los resultados obtenidos por cada método. Abstract in english A high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method was developed for quantification and in dissolution assay of 3 mg Risperidone tablets. Method was based in active principle separation through a Lichrosorb RP-18 (250 x 4 mm) chromatographic column with UV detection to 278 nm using a mobile [...] phase composed of 0.05 potassium phosphate buffer:acetonitrile, of 45:55 ratio. Method for active principle quantification was validated through linearity, specificity, precision and accuracy of system. Whereas in dissolution assay validation the linearity, precision, specificity and filtrate influence was assessed. Both methods were simple, fast and economic as well as specific, linear, precise and exact within the study concentrations rank. The alternative analytical method developed for 3 mg Risperidona tablets quantification and dissolution was statistically compared to method proposed by USA Pharmacopeia demonstrating that there were not significant differences among the results achieved by each method.

Caridad Margarita, García Peña; Lissette, Martínez Miranda; Antonio, Iraizoz Barrios; Vivian, Martínez Espinosa; Matilde, Torres García; Gissel María, León Guerrero.

2009-12-01

356

Efficacy of repeated intrathecal triamcinolone acetonide application in progressive multiple sclerosis patients with spinal symptoms  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background There are controversial results on the efficacy of the abandoned, intrathecal predominant methylprednisolone application in multiple sclerosis (MS) in contrast to the proven effectiveness in intractable postherpetic neuralgia. Methods We performed an analysis of the efficacy of the application of 40 mg of the sustained release steroid triamcinolone acetonide (TCA). We intrathecally injected in sterile saline dissolved TCA six times within three weeks on a regular basis eve...

Przuntek Horst; Stein Franz; Hellwig Kerstin; Müller Thomas

2004-01-01

357

Efficacy and Tolerability of Intramuscular Dexketoprofen in Postoperative Pain Management following Hernia Repair Surgery  

OpenAIRE

Objective. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intramuscular dexketoprofen for postoperative pain in patients undergoing hernia surgery. Methodology. Total 202 patients received single intramuscular injection of dexketoprofen 50?mg or diclofenac 50?mg postoperatively. The pain intensity (PI) was self-evaluated by patients on VAS at baseline 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. The efficacy parameters were number of responders, difference in PI (PID) at 8?hours, sum of analogue of pain intensity ...

Kolte, S. S.; Bhagat, H.; Irpatgire, R.; Dhorepatil, S.; Bhagtani, K.; Karmarkar, P. S.; Kamat, V. V.; Erram, S. S.; Shinde, J. V.; Porwal, A.; Jamdade, P. T.; Shirure, P. A.

2011-01-01

358

Pharmacodynamic effects of once-a-month combined injectable contraceptives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharmacology and clinical assessment of existing first generation once-a-month combined injectable contraceptives, mainly Deladroxate and Chinese Injectable No. 1, are reviewed. Although these two types of monthly injectables have been used in some million women in China and Latin America, Deladroxate needs indepth re-evaluation of its long-term toxicity and possible accumulation. For injectable No. 1, its disadvantage of being administered on an erratic schedule will cause significant confusion in family planning practice. When used in a strict once-a-month schedule, it is not sufficiently effective for contraception. In order to attain predictable menstrual cycle control as well as high efficacy with a 30-day injection schedule, two improved once-a-month injectable formulations, Cyclofem and Mesigyna, were developed. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study on estrogenic components suggested that estradiol valerate and cypionate were suitable estrogen esters to give elevated plasma estrogen levels for 7 to 11 days. After a single injection of Cyclofem and Mesigyna, both formulations showed equal contraceptive effect with inhibition of follicle maturation for some 30 days and ovulation, corpus luteum formation for some 60 days. Multicentre studies on the optimization of dosages of progestogens and estrogens in once-a-month injectables confirmed that the full doses of Cyclofem (DMPA 25 mg/estradiol cypionate 5 mg) and Mesigyna (NET-EN 50 mg/estradiol valerate 5 mg) are suitable for large scale clinical trials. Pharmacodynamics and progestogen/estrogen ratio study indicated the importance of not only the absolute amounts of the progestogen and estrogen but also of their ratio. Reduction of estrogen dose resulted in breakthrough ovulation with both Cyclofem and Mesigyna. Also, it is important to note that the second part of the injection cycle is dominated by the progestogen component of both monthly formulations. A longitudinal study indicated that there is no accumulation of norethisterone after 12 months of treatment with NET-EN 50 mg and estradiol valerate 5 mg. PMID:8013220

Sang, G W

1994-04-01

359

Injection Therapies in Temporomandibular Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The indications for injection therapies in temporomandibular joint (TMJ are myofascial pain syndrome, osteoarthritis of TMJ, non-reducing disc displacements, TMJ involvement of inflammatory diseases, bruxism, masseter hypertrophy, orofacial dystonia and trigeminal neuralgia. Intra-articular injections, local trigger point injections, dry needling, botulinum toxin injections, and ganglion blocks are frequently used in this region. The general complications of the injections are bleeding, infections, syncope, local or severe allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. In the TMJ region, similar with the other parts of the body, success of the injection therapies depends on correct patient sellection, attention to application rules, using the right and adequate injection technique, and regular follow-up of the patients together with exercise program in post-injection period.Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2010; 56 Suppl 1: 1-6.

Demirhan D?raço?lu

2010-04-01

360

Ondansetron Pretreatment Reduces Pain on Injection of Propofol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To assess the effectiveness of ondansetron pretreatment in alleviating propofol injection pain, 135 patients were randomly assigned to one of following three groups. Group 1 who received up to 2 mL pretreatment 50 mg tramadol in the saline, group 2 cases who received up to 2 mL pretreatment 4 mg ondansetron in saline, and group 3 who received up to 2 mL solution saline. A 20 gauge cannula was placed into the largest vein on the dorsum of the hand. Tourniquet was closed to the arm above the cannula and inflates to 70 mmHg, and then drug was injected. After 20 seconds, the tourniquet deflated, and propofol 2mg/kg injected over 10 seconds and pain assessment was made. Results: Tramadol and ondansetron significantly reduced the incidence and severity of propofol injection pain more than placebo (P=0.001. The efficacy of ondansetron in alleviating the pain on injection of propofol was no different from tramadol (P=0.330. Ondansetron pretreatment may be used to reduce the incidence of pain on injection of propofol, an advantage added to the useful prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

Anahid Maleki

2012-04-01

361

Intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane for the treatment of vitreomacular traction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To study the efficacy of a single intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane(C3F8in releasing vitreomacular traction. METHODS: Twelve eyes of 12 consecutive patients with vitreomacular traction received a single intravitreal injection of 0.3mL 100%(C3F8were retrospectively analyzed. The best corrected vision acuity and the neural epithelium thickness of central macular were observed. RESULTS: One month following treatment, vitreomacular traction was released in 5 eyes(42%, mean final visual acuity(VAimproved 0.04 and mean central foveal thickness decreased by 69?m. The vision acuity before and after treatment were 0.20±0.07, 0.25±0.04 respectively.CONCLUSION: Intravitreal C3F8 injection could offer a minimally invasive alternative to pars plana vitrectomy in patients with vitreomacular traction.

Xiao-Ping Wan

2013-07-01

362

Subcutaneous injection of fish: radionuclide release from the injection site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technique is described for the subcutaneous injection of small fish using the goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) as a model. Using radioactive tracers, (109Cd, 125I), maximum levels occur in the plasma at 4 and 16 min, with statistical plateaus evident by 2 and 4 min, respectively. The plateau level of injected material occurring in the plasma shortly after the injection exposes the tissues to a constant dose of the injected material for the duration of the plateau. In the case of 109Cd, this period is in excess of 4h. Subcutaneous injection by this method provides low variability in delivery, rapid plasma - delivery site equilibration of the injected material, and a constant plasma level of the injected material for a significant time interval. (author)

363

Unilateral versus bilateral thyroarytenoid Botulinum toxin injections in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: a prospective study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objectives In this preliminary prospective study, we compared unilateral and bilateral thyroarytenoid muscle injections of Botulinum toxin (Dysport in 31 patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia, who had undergone more than 5 consecutive Dysport injections (either unilateral or bilateral and had completed 5 concomitant self-rated efficacy and complication scores questionnaires related to the previous injections. We also developed a Neurophysiological Scoring (NPS system which has utility in the treatment administration. Method and materials Data were gathered prospectively on voice improvement (self-rated 6 point scale, length of response and duration of complications (breathiness, cough, dysphagia and total voice loss. Injections were performed under electromyography (EMG guidance. NPS scale was used to describe the EMG response. Dose and unilateral/bilateral injections were determined by clinical judgment based on previous response. Time intervals between injections were patient driven. Results Low dose unilateral Dysport injection was associated with no significant difference in the patient's outcome in terms of duration of action, voice score (VS and complication rate when compared to bilateral injections. Unilateral injections were not associated with any post treatment total voice loss unlike the bilateral injections. Conclusion Unilateral low dose Dysport injections are recommended in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

Abiola Jesuloba

2009-10-01

364

SQL Injection Defenses  

CERN Document Server

This Short Cut introduces you to how SQL injection vulnerabilities work, what makes applications vulnerable, and how to protect them. It helps you find your vulnerabilities with analysis and testing tools and describes simple approaches for fixing them in the most popular web-programming languages. This Short Cut also helps you protect your live applications by describing how to monitor for and block attacks before your data is stolen. Hacking is an increasingly criminal enterprise, and web applications are an attractive path to identity theft. If the applications you build, manage, or guar

Nystrom, Martin

2007-01-01

365

MKI UFOs at Injection  

CERN Document Server

During the MD, the production mechanism of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) was studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs on a gap in the circulating beam, which led to an increased number of UFOs. In total 43 UFO type beam loss patterns at the MKIs were observed during the MD. The MD showed that pulsing the MKIs directly induces UFO type beam loss patterns. From the temporal characteristics of the loss profile, estimations about the dynamics of the UFOs are made.

Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Drosdal, L; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

2011-01-01

366

Neutral beam injection system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of the neutral injection (NI) system for the Joint European Torus and its status in 1985 are reported. First the system parameters are discussed and the layout is described, followed by a summary of the physics design calculations, the development, production, and testing of the components and the subsystem assembly. The system commissioning is presented, including a description of the function and the realization of the NI test bed. A summary of performance predictions for 80-keV beam heating experiments, and of the experimental evidence on balanced versus coinjection, is presented. The operational experience with the first injector and the plasma physics results obtained so far are summarized

367

Neutral beam injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of the neutral injection (NI) system for the Joint European Torus and its status in 1985 are reported. First the system parameters are discussed and the layout is described, followed by a summary of the physics design calculations, the development, production, and testing of the components and the subsystem assembly. The system commissioning is presented, including a description of the function and the realization of the NI test bed. A summary of performance predictions for 80-keV beam heating experiments, and of the experimental evidence on balanced versus coinjection, is presented. The operational experience with the first injector and the plasma physics results obtained so far are summarized.

Duesing, G.; Altmann, H.; Falter, H.; Goede, A.; Haange, R.; Hemsworth, R.S.; Kupschus, P.; Stork, D.; Thompson, E.

1987-01-01

368

Increasing the Efficacy of Oncolytic Adenovirus Vectors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oncolytic adenovirus (Ad vectors present a new modality to treat cancer. These vectors attack tumors via replicating in and killing cancer cells. Upon completion of the vector replication cycle, the infected tumor cell lyses and releases progeny virions that are capable of infecting neighboring tumor cells. Repeated cycles of vector replication and cell lysis can destroy the tumor. Numerous Ad vectors have been generated and tested, some of them reaching human clinical trials. In 2005, the first oncolytic Ad was approved for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer by the Chinese FDA. Oncolytic Ads have been proven to be safe, with no serious adverse effects reported even when high doses of the vector were injected intravenously. The vectors demonstrated modest anti-tumor effect when applied as a single agent; their efficacy improved when they were combined with another modality. The efficacy of oncolytic Ads can be improved using various approaches, including vector design, delivery techniques, and ancillary treatment, which will be discussed in this review.

William S. M. Wold

2010-08-01

369

Efficient Spin Injection into Semiconductor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spintronic research has made tremendous progress nowadays for making future devices obtain extra advantages of low power, and faster and higher scalability compared to present electronic devices. A spintronic device is based on the transport of an electron's spin instead of charge. Efficient spin injection is one of the very important requirements for future spintronic devices. However, the effective spin injection is an exceedingly difficult task. In this paper, the importance of spin injection, basics of spin current and the essential requirements of spin injection are illustrated. The experimental technique of electrical spin injection into semiconductor is also discussed based on the experimental experience. The electrical spin injection can easily be implemented for spin injection into any semiconductor. (author)

370

A field trial evaluation of the effectiveness and benefit of cydectin long-acting injectable and ivomec injectable as used one time in grazing stocker cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of moxidectin long-acting injectable and ivermectin injectable in female Bos taurus beef-type calves was evaluated in terms of efficacy (fecal egg counts) and performance parameters (weight gain). In this 150-day study, moxidectin-treated calves gained 20% more weight than did ivermectin-treated and control calves. Mean fecal egg count reductions ranged from 76.7 to 99.0 for moxidectin and -0.8 to 83.4 for ivermectin. Moxidectin long-acting injection provided efficacious (immediate as well as long-term) egg count suppressions as well as enhanced animal productivity (weight gains). The study also showed that Cooperia spp appear poised to present the most immediate challenges once long-acting macrocyclic lactone treatments become available. PMID:16598683

Yazwinski, T A; Tucker, C A; Johnson, Z; Powell, J

2006-01-01

371

Validación del método analítico aplicable al estudio de estabilidad de risperidona solución oral 1 mg/mL Validation of an analytical method applicable to study of 1 mg/mL oral Risperidone solution stability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se validó un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, aplicable al estudio de estabilidad de risperidona solución oral 1 mg/mL. El método analítico validado resultó lineal, preciso, específico y exacto. Se desarrolló el estudio de estabilidad de la solución oral de risperidona 1 mg/mL y se determinó su fecha de vencimiento. El estudio de vida de estante se desarrolló por un periodo de 24 meses a temperatura ambiente; mientras que el estudio de estabilidad acelerada se efectuó sometiendo el producto a la influencia de la humedad y la temperatura; se realizó el análisis durante 3 meses. La formulación cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad descritas en la Farmacopea. Los resultados del estudio de estabilidad por vida de estante después de transcurridos los 24 meses indicaron que el producto mantiene los parámetros que determinan su calidad durante ese tiempo, y en los estudios acelerados no se observó degradación significativa (p> 0,05 del producto. Se estableció 2 años como fecha de vencimiento en las condiciones señaladas.A validated analytical method by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was applicable to study of 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution stability. The above method was linear, accurate, specific and exact. A stability study of the 1 mg/mL Risperidone oral solution was developed determining its expiry date. The shelf life study was conducted for 24 months at room temperature; whereas the accelerated stability study was conducted with product under influence of humidity and temperature; analysis was made during 3 months. Formula fulfilled the quality specifications described in Pharmacopeia. The results of stability according to shelf life after 24 months showed that the product maintains the parameters determining its quality during this time and in accelerated studies there was not significant degradation (p> 0.05 in the product. Under mentioned conditions expiry date was of 2 years.

Maikel Abreu Álvarez

2010-09-01

372

Measurement of permeability by injection tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In fractured geothermal reservoirs, injection tests should normally be interpreted by using formation fluid viscosity, not injected water viscosity. Some injection tests cannot be simply related to formation permeability because injection increases permeability.

Grant, M.A.

1982-01-01

373

Premixed direct injection nozzle  

Science.gov (United States)

An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC); Johnson, Thomas Edward (Greer, SC); Lacy, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC); Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC)

2011-02-15

374

Carbon dioxide injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article gives a brief description of environmental protection offshore by the separation of CO2 from produced natural gas on the Norwegian Sleipner field. The separation process is done by adding amine during the production phase. The liberated volume of CO2, which is about one million ton annually, is to be injected into the watery sandstone formation of Utsira which is about 100 metres below sea surface. The maximum content of CO2 will be 2.5% which is in accordance with the Troll agreement. The natural content of CO2 varies between 4 and 9.5%. Energy is released during the separation process. This energy is used for the operation of generators having a total output of 6 MW. The discharged volumes of CO2 is lower compared with traditional types of gas turbines. The lifetime of the field will be 40 years. 1 fig

375

KEK PF storage ring injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conceptual design of the injection system of KEK PF storage ring is described. Four kicker magnets and two septum magnets are used in the injection system. The injection process is repeated with the repetition rate of 1 Hz. In order to store electrons of 500 mA, it takes a few minutes with the electron linac with the peak current of 50 mA. (auth.)

376

EVALUATION OF AEROSOL SPRAY AND INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION OF BACTERIOPHAGE TO TREAT AN ESCHERICHIA COLI RESPIRATORY INFECTION  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteriophage are viruses that can be used to prevent and treat bacterial diseases, and reduce human foodborne pathogens on agricultural products. Two studies were conducted to determine the efficacy of either aerosol or intramuscular (im) injection of bacteriophage to treat an E. coli respiratory ...

377

New perspectives on substorm injections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been significant progress in understanding substorm injections since the Third International Conference on Substorms in 1996. Progress has come from a combination of new theories, quantitative modeling, and observations--particularly multi-satellite observations. There is now mounting evidence that fast convective flows are the mechanism that directly couples substorm processes in the mid tail, where reconnection occurs, with substorm processes the inner magnetosphere where Pi2 pulsations, auroral breakups, and substorm injections occur. This paper presents evidence that those flows combined with an earthward-propagating compressional wave are responsible for substorm injections and discusses how that model can account for various substorm injection signatures

378

SQL Injection Attacks and Defense  

CERN Document Server

SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

Clarke, Justin

2012-01-01

379

Injectable barriers for waste isolation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification

380

The efficacy of heparin in the treatment of common brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of heparin therapy after subcutaneous injection of Common Brown Snake (Pseudonaja textilis) venom was studied in anaesthetised, mechanically ventilated dogs. Intravenous heparin (100 U/kg), administered fifteen minutes after envenomation, neither prevented nor hastened the recovery from cardiovascular depression and coagulopathy observed after venom administration. Heparin therapy is not recommended for the treatment of established human envenomation. PMID:1609938

Tibballs, J; Sutherland, S K

1992-02-01

381

CT guided ozone injection for the ablation treatment of cervical spondylosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To explore the value of CT guided ozone (O3) injection in the ablation treatment of cervical spondylosis. Methods: All 86 patients with cervical spondylosis including 37 myelopathy type, 30 radiculopathy type, and 16 sympathetic type were treated with O3 injection under CT guidance. The puncture rout was from the anteroparaline of neck to the disk. A total of (4 ± 3) ml of O3 with concentration 60 ?g/ml was injected into the disk and 10 ml of O3 with concentration 40 ?g/ml was injected to the paraspinal tissue. Results: After injection CT scan showed that O3 was distributed within the disk and the protruding part as low-density air shadow in 37 myelopathy type and 30 radiculopathy type patients. O3 was observed to spread in the anterior epidural space of spinal canal and the paraspinal tissue. Three months after O3 injection, 67 patients (78%) showed excellent clinical efficacy, 14 (16%) had good clinical efficacy, and 5 (6%) were poor respectively. Conclusion: CT guided O3 injection is an accurate, safe, and effective method in the treatment of cervical spondylosis. (authors)

382

Nitrocobinamide, a new cyanide antidote that can be administered by intramuscular injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5-10 min, making them ill-suited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative (referred to as nitrocobinamide) that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection. We also show that the efficacy of nitrocobinamide is markedly enhanced by coadministering sodium thiosulfate (reducing the total injected volume), and we calculate that ?1.4 mL each of nitrocobinamide and sodium thiosulfate should rescue a human from a lethal cyanide exposure. PMID:25650735

Chan, Adriano; Jiang, Jingjing; Fridman, Alla; Guo, Ling T; Shelton, G Diane; Liu, Ming-Tao; Green, Carol; Haushalter, Kristofer J; Patel, Hemal H; Lee, Jangwoen; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B; Boss, Gerry R

2015-02-26

383

Efficacy and effectiveness of LAM.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two major protocols of non-randomized clinical trials of the efficacy of the Lactational Amenorrhea Method of contraception (LAM) were performed in the 1990s that suggested LAM to be a highly effective albeit temporary method of contraception. Data from a longitudinal study of over 4000 breastfeeding women performed by the World Health Organization provide supporting information as to the efficacy of LAM. Effectiveness data are scarce, as is information on the use of LAM in industrialized countries. Issues surrounding LAM efficacy and effectiveness are reviewed, and the existing information from industrialized countries is highlighted. PMID:12026022

Kennedy, Kathy I

2002-01-01

384

SNS Injection Foil Experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Spallation Neutron Source comprises a 1 GeV, 1.4 MW linear accelerator followed by an accumulator ring and a liquid mercury target. To manage the beam loss caused by the H0 excited states created during the H charge exchange injection into the accumulator ring, the stripper foil is located inside one of the chicane dipoles. This has some interesting consequences that were not fully appreciated until the beam power reached about 840 kW. One consequence was sudden failure of the stripper foil system due to convoy electrons stripped from the incoming H beam, which circled around to strike the foil bracket and cause bracket failure. Another consequence is that convoy electrons can reflect back up from the electron catcher and strike the foil and bracket. An additional contributor to foil system failure is vacuum breakdown due to the charge developed on the foil by secondary electron emission. In this paper we will detail these and other interesting failure mechanisms, and describe the improvements we have made to mitigate them.

Cousineau, Sarah M [ORNL; Galambos, John D [ORNL; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL; Ladd, Peter [ORNL; Luck, Chris [ORNL; Peters, Charles C [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Macek, Robert James [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Raparia, Deepak [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Plum, Michael A [ORNL

2010-01-01

385

SNS Injection Foil Experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Spallation Neutron Source comprises a 1 GeV, 1.4 MW linear accelerator followed by an accumulator ring and a liquid mercury target. To manage the beam loss caused by the H0 excited states created during the H charge exchange injection into the accumulator ring, the stripper foil is located inside one of the chicane dipoles. This has some interesting consequences that were not fully appreciated until the beam power reached about 840 kW. One consequence was sudden failure of the stripper foil system due to convoy electrons stripped from the incoming H beam, which circled around to strike the foil bracket and cause bracket failure. Another consequence is that convoy electrons can reflect back up from the electron catcher and strike the foil and bracket. An additional contributor to foil system failure is vacuum breakdown due to the charge developed on the foil by secondary electron emission. In this paper we will detail these and other interesting failure mechanisms, and describe the improvements we have made to mitigate them.

386

Peginterferon Alfa-2a Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... your doctor. If you switch to a different brand or type of interferon, your dose may need to be changed.You can inject peginterferon alfa-2a yourself or have a friend or relative give you the injections. Before you ...

387

Towards spin injection into silicon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

Dash, S.P.

2007-08-15

388

Injection and lessons for 2012  

CERN Document Server

Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and a nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished during MD time. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the transfer line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking debunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by-shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular resteering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches.

Bracco, C; Bartmann, W; Cornelis, K; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

2012-01-01

389

Injection and lessons for 2012  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and one nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the Transfer Line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking de-bunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by- shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular re-steering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches. (authors)

390

Neutral beam injection on Mast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) [1] will require neutral beam injection (NBI) to provide heating and current drive, using beamlines developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), as used for neutral beam injection on START [2]. The strategies for achieving the MAST NBI requirements are discussed. (author)

Nightingale, M.P.S.; Warder, S.E.V.; Codling, D.M.; Smith, R.T.C.; Hill, M.; Gee, S.J. [UKAEA Fusion, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

1998-07-01

391

Neutral beam injection on Mast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) [1] will require neutral beam injection (NBI) to provide heating and current drive, using beamlines developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), as used for neutral beam injection on START [2]. The strategies for achieving the MAST NBI requirements are discussed. (author)

392

Injectable foams for regenerative medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The design of injectable biomaterials has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Many injectable biomaterials, such as hydrogels and calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), have nanoscale pores that limit the rate of cellular migration and proliferation. While introduction of macroporosity has been suggested to increase cellular infiltration and tissue healing, many conventional methods for generating macropores often require harsh processing conditions that preclude their use in injectable foams. In recent years, processes such as porogen leaching, gas foaming, and emulsion-templating have been adapted to generate macroporosity in injectable CPCs, hydrogels, and hydrophobic polymers. While some of the more mature injectable foam technologies have been evaluated in clinical trials, there are challenges remaining to be addressed, such as the biocompatibility and ultimate fate of the sacrificial phase used to generate pores within the foam after it sets in situ. Furthermore, while implantable scaffolds can be washed extensively to remove undesirable impurities, all of the components required to synthesize injectable foams must be injected into the defect. Thus, every compound in the foam must be biocompatible and noncytotoxic at the concentrations utilized. As future research addresses these critical challenges, injectable macroporous foams are anticipated to have an increasingly significant impact on improving patient outcomes for a number of clinical procedures. PMID:24127230

Prieto, Edna M; Page, Jonathan M; Harmata, Andrew J; Guelcher, Scott A

2014-01-01

393

Labour after intracytoplasmic sperm injection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of our study was to describe labour characteristics after intracytoplasmic sperm injection programe. This is the first study of those deliveries at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Novi Sad. Patients and methods. Subjects were 73 parturients and their babies from the intracy­toplasmic sperm injection programe (48 singletons, 22 twins and 3 triplets, delivered from January 1st, 2001 to December 31st, 2006. Results. At the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Novi Sad, 0.65% of all deliveries are those from assisted reproductive programes. 30.67% of all labours after assisted reproductive programes are after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. One half of all labours after intracytoplasmic sperm injection are twins. The mean age of women is 33-34. More than 95% of all babies were delivered by Cesarean section. Discussion. The most frequent pathologies in labours after intracytoplasmic sperm injection are hypertensive disorders and premature rup­ture of membranes. There is still a matter of debate what is a real cause for those pathologies, especially for hypertension (age of woman, laboratory factors and/or induction of ovulation. Conclusion. At the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Novi Sad, one third of all deliveries after assisted reproductive programe are after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The most frequent pathologies after intracytoplasmic sperm injection are hypertensive disorders, which is similar to findings of other authors. The mean age of women is also similar to the mean European age of women after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. .

Tabs Dunja

2008-01-01

394

An injection system for CHEER  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The injection system for CHEER must provide 34 bunches of 1011 electrons. We describe here a system consisting of a linear accelerator, accumulator-buncher ring, and a booster ring which can inject such bunches at 2 GeV into the main CHEER ring in an acceptably short time

395

Sequential injection separation and sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

Automated microfluidic analysis has historically been carried out by flow injection analysis techniques. Sequential injection analysis represents a more versatile method for automated fluid handling. We have explored the use of sequential injection analysis for performing microcolumn separations. These separations can be used as part of a microanalytical procedure, or for sample preparation. In addition, with detection of retained species on the microcolumn, sequential injection separation represents a technique for sensing. Recently, it has been demonstrated that sequential injection separation can be carried out with renewable separation columns--the beads with interactive surfaces can be delivered to the microcolumn, used for processing the sample, and discarded after each measurement. Delivery of new beads for each measurement provides a method for renewable surface separation and renewable surface sensing. Applications in environmental analysis and bioanalytical chemistry will be presented.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

1999-11-01

396

300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the treatability test was to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. A test site consisting of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells was installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. This report summarizes the work on the polyphosphate injection project, including bench-scale laboratory studies, a field injection test, and the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the results. Previous laboratory tests have demonstrated that when a soluble form of polyphosphate is injected into uranium-bearing saturated porous media, immobilization of uranium occurs due to formation of an insoluble uranyl phosphate, autunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•nH2O]. These tests were conducted at conditions expected for the aquifer and used Hanford soils and groundwater containing very low concentrations of uranium (10-6 M). Because autunite sequesters uranium in the oxidized form U(VI) rather than forcing reduction to U(IV), the possibility of re-oxidation and subsequent re-mobilization is negated. Extensive testing demonstrated the very low solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of autunite. In addition to autunite, excess phosphorous may result in apatite mineral formation, which provides a long-term source of treatment capacity. Phosphate arrival response data indicate that, under site conditions, the polyphosphate amendment could be effectively distributed over a relatively large lateral extent, with wells located at a radial distance of 23 m (75 ft) reaching from between 40% and 60% of the injection concentration. Given these phosphate transport characteristics, direct treatment of uranium through the formation of uranyl-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., autunite) could likely be effectively implemented at full field scale. However, formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases using the selected three-phase approach was problematic. Although amendment arrival response data indicate some degree of overlap between the reactive species and thus potential for the formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., apatite formation), the efficiency of this treatment approach was relatively poor. In general, uranium performance monitoring results support the hypothesis that limited long-term treatment capacity (i.e., apatite formation) was established during the injection test. Two separate overarching issues affect the efficacy of apatite remediation for uranium sequestration within the 300 Area: 1) the efficacy of apatite for sequestering uranium under the present geochemical and hydrodynamic conditions, and 2) the formation and emplacement of apatite via polyphosphate technology. In addition, the long-term stability of uranium sequestered via apatite is dependent on the chemical speciation of uranium, surface speciation of apatite, and the mechanism of retention, which is highly susceptible to dynamic geochemical conditions. It was expected that uranium sequestration in the presence of hydroxyapatite would occur by sorption and/or surface complexation until all surface sites have been depleted, but that the high carbonate concentrations in the 300 Area would act to inhibit the transformation of sorbed uranium to chernikovite and/or autunite. Adsorption of uranium by apatite was never considered a viable approach for in situ uranium sequestration in and of itself, because by definition, this is a reversible reaction. The efficacy of uranium sequestration by apatite assumes that the adsorbed uranium would subsequently convert to autunite, or other stable uranium phases. Because this appears to not be the case in the 300 Area aquifer, even in locations near the river, apatite may have limited efficacy for the retention and long-term immobilization of uranium at the 300 Area site..

Vermeul, Vincent R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

2009-06-30

397

Modeling the effects of prior infection on vaccine efficacy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We performed computer simulations to study the effects of prior infection on vaccine efficacy. We injected three antigens sequentially. The first antigen, designated the prior, represented a prior infection or vaccination. The second antigen, the vaccine, represented a single component of the trivalent influenza vaccine. The third antigen, the epidemic, represented challenge by an epidemic strain. For a fixed vaccine to epidemic strain cross-reactivities to the vaccine and to the epidemic strains. We found that, for many cross-reactivities, vaccination, when it had been preceded by a prior infection, provided more protection than vaccination alone. However, at some cross-reactivities, the prior infection reduced protection by clearing the vaccine before it had the chance to produce protective memory. The cross-reactivities between the prior, vaccine and epidemic strains played a major role in determining vaccine efficacy. This work has applications to understanding vaccination against viruses such as influenza that are continually mutating.

Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S.; Ackley, D.H. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-11-01

398

Optimization of injection law for direct injection diesel engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes how different timing and shape of the injection law can influence pollutant emission of a direct injection diesel engine. The study was carried out making use of a multizone thermodynamic model as regards the closed valve phase, and a filling-emptying one as regards the open valve phase. After being calibrated by comparison with experimental data, the abovementioned model was used for injection law optimization as regards minimum pollutant concentration (NOx and soot) in the exhaust gases with the smallest engine performance reduction possible

399

EMG-guided salpingopharyngeus Botox injection for palatal myoclonus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palatal myoclonus (PM) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by involuntary movements of the soft palate musculature causing objective clicking tinnitus. Two forms are recognized as distinct clinical entities, with poorly understood pathogenesis: essential and symptomatic PM. The intrusive nature of the tinnitus prompts patients to seek medical advice. Conventional medical treatments with anxiolytics, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants have limited efficacy in these patients. In this case report, electromyography-guided injection of botulinum toxin type A (Botox; Allergan, Irvine, CA, USA) to the involved salpingopharyngeus and tensor veli palatini yielded satisfactory results with minimal temporary adverse effects. PMID:23641594

Wan, T K; Chen, J T; Wang, P C

2013-01-01

400

A study to evaluate the field efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate, with preliminary observations on the efficacy of doramectin, as anthelmintics in horses  

OpenAIRE

The efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate and doramectin was evaluated under field conditions at 2 sites in the Free State Province of South Africa. The study involved 25 horses at each site, divided into 5 groups of equal size. Ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate were administered orally at doses of 0.2, 10 and 19 mg/kg respectively. Doramectin was administered by intramuscular injection at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg. Treatment efficacy was based on the mean faecal egg co...

Davies, J. A.; Schwalbach, L. M. J.

2012-01-01

401

Efficacy of Miltefosine for the Treatment of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

OpenAIRE

Miltefosine is an oral agent used for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment. An open-label, randomized, phase III clinical trial was carried out in the Colombian army population. Miltefosine, 50 mg capsule was taken orally three times per day for 28 days (N = 145) or meglumine antimoniate, 20 mg/kg body weight per day for 20 days by intramuscular injection (N = 143). The efficacy of miltefosine by protocol was 69.8% (85/122 patients) and 58.6% (85/145 patients) by intention to treat. For meglumin...

Ve?lez, Iva?n; Lo?pez, Liliana; Sa?nchez, Ximena; Mestra, Laureano; Rojas, Carlos; Rodri?guez, Erwin

2010-01-01

402

Development of intralesional therapy with fluorouracil/adrenaline injectable gel for management of condylomata acuminata: two phase II clinical studies.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a sustained release chemotherapy for treating condylomata acuminata with an injectable gel containing fluorouracil and adrenaline (5-FU/adrenaline gel). Study 1-- To assess contributions of the components of 5-FU/adrenaline gel to efficacy. Study 2--To assess therapeutic contribution of adrenaline and safety and efficacy of the formulations. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled studies. SETTING: Private practices and university clinics in the United Sta...

Swinehart, J. M.; Skinner, R. B.; Mccarty, J. M.; Miller, B. H.; Tyring, S. K.; Korey, A.; Orenberg, E. K.

1997-01-01

403

Evaluation of the persistent activity of moxidectin (10%) long-acting (LA) injectable formulation against Dictyocaulus viviparus, Haemonchus placei, Trichostrongylus axei and Oesophagostomum radiatum infections in cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the persistent efficacy of moxidectin (10%) long-acting (LA) injectable formulation against Dictyocaulus viviparus, Haemonchus placei, Trichostrongylus axei and Oesophagostomum radiatum in cattle. The moxidectin LA injectable formulation was administered as a single subcutaneous injection into the proximal third of the ear at a dose rate of 0.01ml/kg BW to provide 1.0mg moxidectin/kg BW. The product had persistent efficacy of >90% against D. viviparus, H. placei and Oe. radiatum for at least 150 days post-treatment and against T. axei for at least 90 days post-treatment. PMID:19896772

Ranjan, S; Search, R; Szewczyk, E; Amodie, D; Pollet, R; Rugg, D

2010-01-20

404

Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped withmulti-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changinghydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individualinjection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paperallows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injectionrates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today knownmeasuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate indiesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possibledifferences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformationalmeasuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation ofmembrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. Thepressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For eachhole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into whichfuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. Duringmeasurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain anoverpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into thegraduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.Themembrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane andforming the full Wheatstone’s bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shapeand temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

Milan Marcic

2006-10-01

405

MR evaluation of bone cysts treated with intracavital steroid injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heading Abstract.The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of MR examination in showing the effects of intralesional steroid injection on bone cysts. Nineteen patients with radiologically suspected (group A, n=15) or already treated (group B, n=4) bone cysts underwent MRI (0.5 T; protocol: T2* gradient recalled echo; short tau inversion recovery or inversion recovery fast spin echo; T1 SE before and after contrast administration, 0.2 mmol/kg). All patients underwent steroid therapy for bone cysts and were followed up for 6-18 months after treatment. Evaluation of bone cyst response to therapy was based mainly on the detection of reparative tissue outlining all cystic portions at first MRI control. In group A, as early as 1 month after the first injection, the presence of a thin reparative tissue lining the cystic wall was observed. Follow-up studies revealed the progressive thickening of this reparative tissue and new bone formation. Similar features were present in the cysts of group B. Residual cystic cavities were depicted in 7 cases, with no evidence of enhancing tissue, requiring further treatment. The formation of a reparative tissue is the first feature of bone cyst recovery after intracavital steroid injection and is appreciable only on MRI. Because of the optimal visualisation of this reparative tissue and of residual cystic cavities, MRI could be proposed as a non-invasive, alternative and effective tool for evaluating the efficacy of steroid injeor evaluating the efficacy of steroid injection therapy of bone cysts. (orig.)

406

Management of Tennis Elbow with sodium hyaluronate periarticular injections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of peri-articular hyaluronic acid injections in chronic lateral epicondylosis (tennis elbow. Design Prospective randomized clinical trial in primary care sport medicine. Patients Three hundred and thirty one consecutive competitive racquette sport athletes with chronic (>3 months lateral epicondylosis were administered 2 injections (first injection at baseline into the subcutaneous tissue and muscle 1 cm. from the lateral epicondyle toward the primary point of pain using a two-dimensional fanning technique. A second injection was administered 1 week later. Outcomes measures Assessments were done at baseline, days 7, 14, 30, 90 and 356. Efficacy measures included patient's visual analogue scale (VAS of pain at rest (0-100 mm and following assessment of grip strength (0-100 mm. Grip strength was determined using a jamar hydraulic hand dynamometer. Other assessments included patients' global assessment of elbow injury (5 point categorical scale; 1 = no disability, 5 = maximal disability, patients' assessment of normal function/activity (5 point categorical scale, patients/physician satisfaction assessment (10 point categorical scale, time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport and adverse events as per WHO definition. Differences between groups were determined using an intent-to-treat ANOVA. Results Average age of the study population was 49 years (± 12 years. One hundred and sixty-five patients were randomized to the HA and 166 were randomized to the control groups. The change in VAS pain was -6.7 (± 2.0 for HA vs -1.3 (± 1.5 for control (p Conclusion Peri-articular HA treatment for tennis elbow was significantly better than control in improving pain at rest and after maximal grip testing. Further, HA treatment was highly satisfactory by patients and physicians and resulted in better return to pain free sport compared to control.

Petrella Robert J

2010-02-01

407

Ceramic injection molding material analysis, modeling and injection molding simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

In comparison to unfilled polymers, a ceramic feedstocks has a very high viscosity, a very high heat conductivity and a different pvT-behavior. So far standard simulation tools for plastic injection molding are capable of simulating unfilled or fiber filled compounds with their typical low viscosity and heat conductivity etc. but not for very high ceramic powder filled polymers. This article shows an approach of preparing and adding ceramic feedstocks to standard injection molding tools. Two different feedstocks are used.

Drummer, D.; Messingschlager, S.

2014-05-01

408

LHC injection and dump protection  

CERN Document Server

The machine protection against fast failures including injection or dump kickers relies on fixed and movable devices. Results will be shown from the low-intensity beam commissioning of the moveable injection protection devices in the SPS to LHC transfer lines and downstream of the LHC injection kickers, and of the LHC dump protection elements in IR6. This paper is almost exclusively focussing on the issues arising during the 2009 commissioning. The implications of these results and a commissioning status report with the planning for 2010 will be addressed.

Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Rossi, A; Wollmann, D

2010-01-01

409

Injection nozzle for a turbomachine  

Science.gov (United States)

A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

2012-09-11