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Infective endocarditis.  

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Infective endocarditis is a serious disease of the endocardium of the heart and cardiac valves, caused by a variety of infectious agents, ranging from streptococci to rickettsia. The proportion of cases associated with rheumatic valvulopathy and dental surgery has decreased in recent years, while endocarditis associated with intravenous drug abuse, prosthetic valves, degenerative valve disease, implanted cardiac devices, and iatrogenic or nosocomial infections has emerged. Endocarditis causes constitutional, cardiac and multiorgan symptoms and signs. The central nervous system can be affected in the form of meningitis, cerebritis, encephalopathy, seizures, brain abscess, ischemic embolic stroke, mycotic aneurysm, and subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke in endocarditis is an ominous prognostic sign. Treatment of endocarditis includes prolonged appropriate antimicrobial therapy and in selected cases, cardiac surgery. In ischemic stroke associated with infective endocarditis there is no indication to start antithrombotic drugs. In previously anticoagulated patients with an ischemic stroke, oral anticoagulants should be replaced by unfractionated heparin, while in intracranial hemorrhage, all anticoagulation should be interrupted. The majority of unruptured mycotic aneurysms can be treated by antibiotics, but for ruptured aneurysms, endovascular or neurosurgical therapy is indicated. PMID:24365290

Ferro, José M; Fonseca, Ana Catarina

2014-01-01

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Prophylaxis of infective endocarditis  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Infective endocarditis is defined as an infection of the endothelial surface of the heart and heart valves, above all. It is a great challenge for doctors to diagnose infective endocarditis especially in primary health care, because this is a disease in evolution, bearing in mind changes in epidemiological and clinical characteristics, which developed in the last decades. Even today this is a very severe and insidious disease, with poor prognosis and high mortality. Prevention of Infective Endocarditis. Although previous guidelines proposed a limitation to prophylaxis in patients at increased risk of adverse outcome of infective endocarditis, new guidelines recommend the principles of antibiotic prophylaxis when performing procedures at risk of infective endocarditis in patients with predisposing cardiac conditions, and limit its indication to patients at the highest risk of infective endocarditis undergoing the highest risk procedures. Conclusion. Despite the fact that previous guidelines for diagnostics and treatment of infective endocarditis were published only several years ago, the Task Force on Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis of the European Society of Cardiology identify infective endocarditis as a clearly evolving disease, with changes in its microbiological profile and higher incidence of health care associated cases which has brought about a need for new recommendations to help health care providers in making clinical decisions including preventive measures and antibiotic prophylaxis. As a novelty, a group of patients at the highest risk of infective endocarditis was defined as well as the type of procedures at risk divided into four categories.

Saka? Dejan

2011-01-01

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Nosocomial infective endocarditis in hemodialysis.  

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There is an increased risk of infective endocarditis catheterization used for hemodialysis. We report a case of a young man who had endocarditis secondary to the use of a permanent jugular catheter for hemodialysis. Blood cultures were repeatedly negative, but vegetations were seen on the tricuspid valve on echocardiography. A high index of suspicion is recommended for this serious complication. PMID:17660659

Bhat, Abdul Wahid; Solangi, Shamus-Ud-Din; Murtada, Osman

2002-01-01

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[Myocardial infarction in infective endocarditis].  

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Two patients with chronic valvular heart disease and myocardial infarction were assisted at our hospital. Both of them were febrile and only one had petechiae associated with signs of valvular involvement led to suspicion of infective endocarditis. Although blood cultures were negative, echocardiographic, surgical and anatomopathologic findings were compatible with infective endocarditis. They required cardiac surgery during the acute phase of the infection because they presented progressive hemodynamic deterioration and no satisfactory response to antimicrobial regimen too. One patient died at late follow-up (two weeks after the hospital discharge) and the other survived, but with signs of cardiac failure (class II of NYHA) one year after the procedure. PMID:7944984

Jorge, S do C; Arêas, C A; Shibata, M; Assef, J E; Arnoni, A S; Zamorano, M M; da Silva, L M; Souza, L C; Piegas, L S; Magalhães, H M

1994-02-01

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Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Infective Endocarditis  

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Full Text Available Surgical treatment of active Infective Endocarditis (IE requires not only homodynamic repair, but also, special emphasis on the eradiation of the infection to prevent recurrence. This study was undertaken to examine the outcome of surgery for active infective endocarditis in a cohort of patients. One hundred and sixty-four consecutive patients underwent valve surgery for active IE in Madani heart centre (Tabriz, Iran from 1996-2006. The patients with diagnosis of IE (according to Duke Criteria were eligible for the study. The mean age of patients was 36.3±16 years, with 34.6±17.5 years for native valve endocarditis and 38.6±15.2 years for prosthetic valve endocarditis (p = 0.169. Ninety-one (55.5% of patients were males. The infected valve was native in 112 (68.3% of patients and prosthetic in 52 (31.7%. There was no predisposing heart disease in 61 (37% of patients. The aortic valve was infected in 78 (47.6%, the mitral valve in 69 (42.1% and multiple valves in 17 (10.3% of patients. Active culture-positive endocarditis was present in 81 (49.4% whereas, 83(50.6% patients had culture-negative endocarditis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated microorganism. Ninety patients (54.8% were in NYHA classes III and IV. Mechanical valves were implanted in 69 patients (42.1% and bioprostheses in 95 (57.9%, including homograft in 19 (11.5% cases. There were 16 (9% operation-related deaths, but only 1 death in patients undergoing aortic homograft replacement. Reoperation was required in 18 (10.9% cases. Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, Staphylococcus aureus infection (p = 0.008, prosthetic valve endocarditis (p = 0.01, paravalvular abscess (p = 0.001 and left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40% (p = 0.04 were independent predictors of hospital mortality. Surgery for infective endocarditis continues to be challenging and associated with high operation-related mortality and morbidity. Prosthetic valve endocarditis, impaired ventricular function, paravalvular abscess and Staphylococcus aureus infection associated with hospital mortality. Also we found that aortic valve replacement with an aortic homograft could be performed with acceptable hospital mortality and provided satisfactory results.

2008-01-01

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Complicated infective endocarditis: surgical treatment.  

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The destructive intracardiac complications of infective endocarditis present a continuing problem even though the mortality from the disease is decreasing. Osler in 1885 correctly described it as a malignant process. Tissue necrosis secondary to infection can cause destruction of valve leaflets and abscess formation in the valve annulus; the process may extend into adjacent parts of the heart and may even perforate into the pericardial cavity. For surgery to succeed it is necessary to excise all necrotic tissue, to replace the valve, and repair annular or other defects and suture the prosthesis to healthy tissue. The technical considerations in achieving a successful surgical result are illustrated and discussed in relation to a patient suffering from severe aortic valve regurgitation and a ventricular septal defect due to active infective endocarditis. PMID:3155748

Rodis, E; Yakirevich, V; Almog, C; Michaeli, D; Vidne, B A

1985-01-01

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Neurological complications of infective endocarditis  

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We reviewed the files of 80 successive patients with native and prosthetic valve endocarditis admitted to Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital. Neurolological complications (NC) occurred in 28 (35%) patients. The valves involved were mitral in 12 (43%), aortic in eight (29%), combined mitral and aortic lesions in six (21%) and others in two (7%). The common causative organisms were Streptococci in 12 (43%), Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermides, both occurring in four (14%). Compared to the 52 infective endocarditis patients with no neurological complications (NNC), the NC occurred more frequently in male patients, those with aortic valve lesion, those with atrial fibrillation, those with delayed therapy and those with causative organisms being Streptococci or Staphylococci. Eleven patients died (39%), 12 (43%) recovered with motor sequelae, six (21%) had seizure disorder and five (18%) had full recovery. The frequency of neurological complications and mortality is comparable to those reported in the literature: however, the frequency was higher in our patients. (author)

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Infective Endocarditis After Renal Transplantation  

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Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious complication in immunosuppressive patients that has adverse effects. Objectives: The aim of this study was to define the characteristics, outcomes, and correlating factors of mortality in renal transplant recipients. Patients and Methods: Infective endocarditis was diagnosed in 22 patients from three renal transplant centers in Iran between 2000 and 2010. Modified Duke criteria were applied to confirm the diagnosis. Results: Twenty-two renal transplant patients with IE were evaluated. Blood culture results were positive in 81%. Enteroccous and group D non-enterococcal were the causative microorganisms in 31% and 25% of patients, respectively. In-hospital and 12-month mortality was 41% and the mortality rate was higher in older patients in comparison to younger patients. Overall, the rates of one-year disease-free patient and graft survival were 49% and 88%, respectively. Conclusions: Despite the availability of different and potent antibiotics, the mortality caused by IE remains considerably high. These patients are significantly prone to endovascular infections that affect the mortality and survival. PMID:24719812

Moshkani Farahani, Maryam; Rostami, Zohreh; Einollahi, Behzad; Khosravi, Arezoo; Nemati, Eghlim; Lessan Pezeshki, Mahboob; Pourfarziani, Vahid; Joneidi, Nematollah; Hosseini, Mohammad Javad; Ghorbani, Gholam Ali

2014-01-01

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Endocarditis infecciosa: Una enfermedad cambiante / Infective endocarditis: A changing disease  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A pesar de los avances en el diagnóstico y en el tratamiento antibiótico y quirúrgico, la endocarditis infecciosa sigue siendo una enfermedad con una mortalidad elevada. Los estudios llevados a cabo en nuestro país y en otros países demostraron que el perfil clínico del paciente ha cambiado. Existe [...] mayor prevalencia de pacientes añosos con enfermedad degenerativa valvular, las endocarditis protésicas y nosocomiales son más frecuentes y aumentó la presencia del Staphylococcus aureus. Estos cambios podrían justificar la ausencia de disminución en la mortalidad de esta enfermedad y plantean la necesidad de encarar enfoques más agresivos de tratamiento mediante la confección de estudios prospectivos bien diseñados y controlados. Abstract in english In spite of the advance in diagnosis and antibiotic and surgical treatment, mortality of infective endocarditis remains high. Recent studies in various countries and in Argentina have shown that the clinical profile of infective endocarditis has changed. Currently the patients are older with higher [...] frequency of degenerative valve disease and prosthetic valve and nosocomial endocarditis. The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus as etiological agent has increased. These changes may justify the absence of decrease in mortality and suggests that more aggressive measures are needed based on prospective, well designed and controlled trials.

José Horacio, Casabé.

2008-04-01

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Clinical manifestations of lead-dependent infective endocarditis: analysis of 414 cases.  

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It is important to identify clinical manifestations of lead-dependent infective endocarditis (LDIE), as it begins insidiously with the slow development of nonspecific symptoms. Clinical data from 414 patients with the diagnosis of LDIE according to Modified Duke Lead Criteria (MDLC) were analyzed. Patients with LDIE had been identified in a population of 1,426 subjects submitted to transvenous lead extraction (TLE) in the Reference Clinical Cardiology Center in Lublin between 2006 and 2013. The symptoms of LDIE and pocket infection were detected in 62.1 % of patients. The mean duration of LDIE symptoms prior to referral for TLE was 6.7 months. Fever and shivers were found in 55.3 % of patients, and pulmonary infections in 24.9 %. Vegetations were detected in 67.6 % of patients, and positive cultures of blood, lead, and pocket in 34.5, 46.4, and 30.0 %, respectively. The most common pathogens in all type cultures were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), with Staphylococcus epidermidis domination; the second most common organism was Staphylococcus aureus. 76.3 % of patients were treated with empirical antibiotic therapy before hospitalization due to TLE. In the laboratory tests, the mean white blood cell count was 9,671?±?5,212/?l, mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate 43 mm, C-reactive protein (CRP) 46.3 mg/dl?±?61, and procalcitonin 1.57?±?4.4 ng/ml. The multivariate analysis showed that the probability of LDIE increased with increasing CRP. The diagnosis of LDIE based on MDLC may be challenging because of a relatively low sensitivity of major criteria, which is associated with early antibiotic therapy and low usefulness of minor criteria. The important clinical symptoms of LDIE include fever with shivering and recurrent pulmonary infections. The most specific pathogens were Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Laboratory tests most frequently revealed normal white blood cell count, relatively rarely elevated procalcitonin level, and significantly increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and CRP. This constellation of signs should prompt a more thorough search for LDIE. PMID:24791953

Polewczyk, A; Janion, M; Podlaski, R; Kutarski, A

2014-09-01

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Infective endocarditis caused by Kingella denitrificans.  

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The clinical and bacteriological findings in a case of infective endocarditis caused by Kingella denitrificans are presented. This appears to be only the second report providing clear evidence for a pathogenic role for this species.

Swann, R. A.; Holmes, B.

1984-01-01

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Diagnostic value of echocardiography in infective endocarditis  

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Objective: To investigate the feature and value of echocardiography for diagnosing infective endocarditis. Methods: The shape, size, echogenicity, distribution of vegetations and valvular injury of the heart were observed in 30 patients with infective endocarditis. Results: The vegetations were located in the aortic valves (10 cases), bicuspid valves (5), tricuspid valve (1), pulmonary valve (2), main pulmonary artery with patent ductus arteriosus (2), and right ventricle with ventricular septal defect (2). The size of vegetation ranged from 2 to 27 mm and the echogenicity of vegetations was low to high. The location, size, shape and amount of vegetations observed on echocardiography correlated well with the operative findings. Echocardiography also demonstrated underlying heart disease and abnormal hemodynamics induced by infective endocarditis. Conclusion: Echocardiography can determine the location, size, shape, amount of vegetation and concomitant cardiac disease in patients with infective endocarditis. It play an important role in treatment and prognosis. (authors)

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Complete genome and comparative analysis of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, an emerging pathogen of infective endocarditis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an important causative agent of infectious endocarditis, while the pathogenicity of this species is widely unclear. To gain insight into the pathomechanisms and the underlying genetic elements for lateral gene transfer, we sequenced the entire genome of this pathogen. Results We sequenced the whole genome of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain ATCC BAA-2069, consisting of a 2,356,444 bp circular DNA molecule with a G+C-content of 37.65% and a novel 20,765 bp plasmid designated as pSGG1. Bioinformatic analysis predicted 2,309 ORFs and the presence of 80 tRNAs and 21 rRNAs in the chromosome. Furthermore, 21 ORFs were detected on the plasmid pSGG1, including tetracycline resistance genes telL and tet(O/W/32/O. Screening of 41 S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates revealed one plasmid (pSGG2 homologous to pSGG1. We further predicted 21 surface proteins containing the cell wall-sorting motif LPxTG, which were shown to play a functional role in the adhesion of bacteria to host cells. In addition, we performed a whole genome comparison to the recently sequenced S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain UCN34, revealing significant differences. Conclusions The analysis of the whole genome sequence of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus promotes understanding of genetic factors concerning the pathogenesis and adhesion to ECM of this pathogen. For the first time we detected the presence of the mobilizable pSGG1 plasmid, which may play a functional role in lateral gene transfer and promote a selective advantage due to a tetracycline resistance.

Dreier Jens

2011-08-01

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Endocarditis infecciosa activa: 152 casos / Active infective endocarditis: 152 cases  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endocarditis infecciosa es una enfermedad de baja incidencia que en las últimas décadas mostró modificaciones respecto de su presentación, posibilidad diagnóstica y tratamiento. A pesar de estos avances, la mortalidad hospitalaria sigue siendo muy elevada. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las caract [...] erísticas de los pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa activa y su relación con la mortalidad hospitalaria a lo largo de 16 años. Se realizó un registro prospectivo entre 1994 y 2010 de pacientes ingresados con endocarditis. Se analizaron características clínicas, evolución y tratamiento y se registraron los eventos intrahospitalarios. Ingresaron 152 pacientes, 64.5% varones, edad 45 ± 16 años, las causas más frecuentes de cardiopatía de base fueron: congénita 32 (21%) y reumática 20 (13.2%). Los motivos de internación fueron síndrome febril 116 (76.3%) e insuficiencia cardíaca 61 (40.1%). Se identificó el agente infeccioso en 106 (69.7%) de los casos, el más frecuente fue Streptococcus viridans. El ecocardiograma mostró vegetaciones en 123 (80.9%) de los pacientes y 88 (57.8%) presentaron complicaciones durante su internación, siendo la más frecuente la insuficiencia cardíaca. Se indicó tratamiento quirúrgico en 96 (63.1%) de los casos, fundamentalmente por insuficiencia cardíaca en 66. La mortalidad hospitalaria global fue 46 (30.2%). El desarrollo de complicaciones en la internación, la indicación de cirugía y la presencia de insuficiencia cardíaca refractaria al tratamiento fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad hospitalaria, mientras que la presencia de vegetaciones resultó un predictor independiente de mejor supervivencia. La identificación temprana de estos predictores descriptos podría ayudar a mejorar los resultados. Abstract in english Active infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of low incidence that has showed changes in presentation, diagnosis and treatment options during the past decades. Despite these advances, mortality remains very high. Our goal was to analyze the characteristics of patients with active IE and their rel [...] ationship with in-hospital mortality over 16 years. Between 1994 and 2010 we performed a prospective registry of 152 consecutive patients (64.5% male, age 45 ± 16 years) admitted with IE. Clinical characteristics, treatment and inpatient outcomes were analyzed. The most common causes of underlying heart disease were: congenital (21%) and rheumatic fever (13.2%). The reasons for hospitalization were fever (76.3%) and heart failure (40.1%). The infectious agent was identified in 69.7% of cases, and the most frequent was Streptococcus viridans. The echocardiogram showed vegetations in 80.9% of patients and 57.8% of them presented complications (the most frequent was heart failure) during hospitalization. Surgical treatment was indicated in 63.2% of cases, mainly due to heart failure. The overall hospital mortality was 30.2%. The presence of complications, requirement of surgical treatment and refractory heart failure were independent predictors of mortality whereas the single presence of vegetation showed better survival rate. The identification of these predictors could help to improve the outcomes in IE.

Lucía R., Kazelian; Luis A., Vidal; Roberto, Neme; Juan A., Gagliardi.

2012-04-01

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Endocarditis infecciosa activa: 152 casos / Active infective endocarditis: 152 cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endocarditis infecciosa es una enfermedad de baja incidencia que en las últimas décadas mostró modificaciones respecto de su presentación, posibilidad diagnóstica y tratamiento. A pesar de estos avances, la mortalidad hospitalaria sigue siendo muy elevada. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las caract [...] erísticas de los pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa activa y su relación con la mortalidad hospitalaria a lo largo de 16 años. Se realizó un registro prospectivo entre 1994 y 2010 de pacientes ingresados con endocarditis. Se analizaron características clínicas, evolución y tratamiento y se registraron los eventos intrahospitalarios. Ingresaron 152 pacientes, 64.5% varones, edad 45 ± 16 años, las causas más frecuentes de cardiopatía de base fueron: congénita 32 (21%) y reumática 20 (13.2%). Los motivos de internación fueron síndrome febril 116 (76.3%) e insuficiencia cardíaca 61 (40.1%). Se identificó el agente infeccioso en 106 (69.7%) de los casos, el más frecuente fue Streptococcus viridans. El ecocardiograma mostró vegetaciones en 123 (80.9%) de los pacientes y 88 (57.8%) presentaron complicaciones durante su internación, siendo la más frecuente la insuficiencia cardíaca. Se indicó tratamiento quirúrgico en 96 (63.1%) de los casos, fundamentalmente por insuficiencia cardíaca en 66. La mortalidad hospitalaria global fue 46 (30.2%). El desarrollo de complicaciones en la internación, la indicación de cirugía y la presencia de insuficiencia cardíaca refractaria al tratamiento fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad hospitalaria, mientras que la presencia de vegetaciones resultó un predictor independiente de mejor supervivencia. La identificación temprana de estos predictores descriptos podría ayudar a mejorar los resultados. Abstract in english Active infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of low incidence that has showed changes in presentation, diagnosis and treatment options during the past decades. Despite these advances, mortality remains very high. Our goal was to analyze the characteristics of patients with active IE and their rel [...] ationship with in-hospital mortality over 16 years. Between 1994 and 2010 we performed a prospective registry of 152 consecutive patients (64.5% male, age 45 ± 16 years) admitted with IE. Clinical characteristics, treatment and inpatient outcomes were analyzed. The most common causes of underlying heart disease were: congenital (21%) and rheumatic fever (13.2%). The reasons for hospitalization were fever (76.3%) and heart failure (40.1%). The infectious agent was identified in 69.7% of cases, and the most frequent was Streptococcus viridans. The echocardiogram showed vegetations in 80.9% of patients and 57.8% of them presented complications (the most frequent was heart failure) during hospitalization. Surgical treatment was indicated in 63.2% of cases, mainly due to heart failure. The overall hospital mortality was 30.2%. The presence of complications, requirement of surgical treatment and refractory heart failure were independent predictors of mortality whereas the single presence of vegetation showed better survival rate. The identification of these predictors could help to improve the outcomes in IE.

Lucía R., Kazelian; Luis A., Vidal; Roberto, Neme; Juan A., Gagliardi.

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Infective endocarditis causing acute aortic regurgitation  

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Full Text Available Interesting echocardiographic features in a case o f acute onset aortic regurgitation due to infective endocarditis of bicuspid aortic valve are reported. Early closure of mitral valve (ECMV recog-nised by echocardiography confirmed the clinical diagnosis of acute inset aortic regurgitation. Aortic root echocardiogram showed ec-centric diastolic closure line of bicuspid aortic leaflets and multiple echoes on aortic leaflets due to bacterial vegetations.

Shah Lilam

1979-01-01

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Prevention of Infective (Bacterial) Endocarditis: Wallet Card  

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... highest risk of adverse outcomes from endocarditis, including: • Prosthetic cardiac valve or prosthetic material used in valve repair • Previous endocarditis • Congenital heart disease only in ...

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Infective endocarditis: a consumptive disease among the elderly Infective endocarditis: a consumptive disease among the elderly  

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Full Text Available The clinical presentation of infective endocarditis varies according to theetiologic agent and the host. In elderly individuals, infective endocarditis canbe difficult to diagnose and poses a challenge for the physician. The course ofsubacute infective endocarditis is indolent, and the onset of cardiac structurallesion is slow and gradual. In elderly patients, anemia and weight loss areoccasionally the only or the most striking symptoms. In such cases, the clinicalreasoning process leads to a hypothesis of wasting syndrome or neoplasticdisease, especially when there is no fever. We report the case of an elderlypatient who had mitral insufficiency due to degenerative valve disease andpresented with bacterial endocarditis due to Streptococcus mitis. The patientwas not treated, because the diagnosis was not established in a timely manner.It is of note that the patient presented with marked weight loss and no fever.The autopsy revealed impairment of the mitral valve and left atrium due toendocarditis, as well as lung involvement due to chronic inhalation of smokefrom biomass burning, such as that produced by wood-burning stoves.The clinical presentation of infective endocarditis varies according to theetiologic agent and the host. In elderly individuals, infective endocarditis canbe difficult to diagnose and poses a challenge for the physician. The course ofsubacute infective endocarditis is indolent, and the onset of cardiac structurallesion is slow and gradual. In elderly patients, anemia and weight loss areoccasionally the only or the most striking symptoms. In such cases, the clinicalreasoning process leads to a hypothesis of wasting syndrome or neoplasticdisease, especially when there is no fever. We report the case of an elderlypatient who had mitral insufficiency due to degenerative valve disease andpresented with bacterial endocarditis due to Streptococcus mitis. The patientwas not treated, because the diagnosis was not established in a timely manner.It is of note that the patient presented with marked weight loss and no fever.The autopsy revealed impairment of the mitral valve and left atrium due toendocarditis, as well as lung involvement due to chronic inhalation of smokefrom biomass burning, such as that produced by wood-burning stoves.

Vilma Takayasu

2011-12-01

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Endocarditis infecciosa en el anciano / Infective endocarditis in the elderly  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: La influencia de la edad sobre la presentación clínica y el pronóstico de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es desconocida. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y bacteriológicas de la EI en pacientes ancianos y compararlas con las de adultos m [...] ás jóvenes. Pacientes y método: Estudio retrospectivo de todos los casos de EI en pacientes no usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral diagnosticados en nuestro hospital durante el periodo de 1990 a 2000. Se utilizaron los criterios de Duke para comparar las características de 46 episodios de EI definitiva en pacientes ancianos (>65 años) y de 46 episodios en adultos jóvenes (20-64 años). Resultados: No encontramos diferencias significativas entre los dos grupos con respecto al retraso en el diagnóstico, a la posible fuente de infección, frecuencia de hemocultívos positivos y tipo de microorganismos, presentación clínica y evolución de la EI. Los ancianos tienen más a menudo un factor de riesgo predisponente (lesiones valvulares degenerativas, válvulas protésicas y marcapasos), que disminuye la sensibilidad de la ecocardiografía transtorácica hasta el 46,5% comparada con el 64,4% en los enfermos más jóvenes. La ecocardiografía transesofágica incrementó el diagnóstico de EI en un 37,2% en los ancianos. Los pacientes de ambos grupos fueron operados con igual frecuencia (el 36,9% de ancianos y el 39,1% de los adultos jóvenes), y la tasa de mortalidad no fue significativamente mayor en los ancianos (19,5%) que en los pacientes adultos jóvenes (10,8%). Conclusiones: La edad en si misma no es un factor de peor pronóstico, y no debería utilizarse como criterio fundamental para denegar un tratamiento temprano y agresivo a los pacientes con EI. Abstract in english Background: The influence of age on the clinical presentation and on the prognosis of infective endocarditis (IE) is unclear. Our aim was to analyse the epidemiologic, clinical and bacteriological characteristics of IE in the elderly compared with younger adult patients. Patients and method: A retro [...] spective study of all patients with IE non intravenous drug users diagnosed in our hospital during the period from 1990 to 2000. We used the Duke criteria to compare the characteristics of 46 episodes of definitive IE in elderly patients ( >65 years old ) and of 46 episodes in younger adult patients ( 20-64 years of age ). Results: No significant differences were observed among the two groups with respect to the delay in diagnosed, possible source of infection, the frecuency of positive blood cultures and the type of infective organism, clinical presentation and evolution of the IE. Elderly patients more often had risk factors predisposing ( degenerative valvular disease, prosthetic valve and pacemaker ), which decreased the sensitivity of transtoracic echocardiography to 46.5% compared with 64.4% in the younger patients. Transesophageal echocardiography improved the diagnostic of IE in the 37.2% in elderly patients. The patients in the both groups underwent surgical therapy with similar frecuency (36.9% in the elderly and the 39.1% in the younger adult patient ) and the mortality rate not was significantly higher in the elderly (19.5%) than in the younger adult patients (10.8%). Conclusions: The age itself is not a poor prognostic, and should not be used prejudicially in denying a early and aggressive treatment of the patients with IE.

J. M., Cruz; R., Martínez; M., García; J. M., Zarzalejos; F. de la, Peña.

2003-11-01

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Infective endocarditis at a hospital in Saudi Arabia: epidemiology, bacterial pathogens and outcome  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective : Data on infective endocarditis prevalence, epidemiology and etiology from Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region are sparse. We undertook this study to describe the pattern and the causative agents of endocarditis at a hospital in Saudi Arabia. Methods : We conducted a retrospective analysis of all reported endocarditis cases at the Dhahran Health Center from January 1995 to December 2008. Results : Of the 83 cases of endocarditis, 54 (65% were definite endocarditis and the remaining 29 (35% were possible endocarditis based on the Duke criteria. Patients with definite endocarditis included 39 males and 15 females (ratio of 2.6:1 with a mean age (SD of 59.7 (18.2 years. Of the definite endocarditis cases, native valve endocarditis occurred in 44 (81.5% cases of and prosthetic valve endocarditis was observed in 10 (18.5%. The most commonly involved valves were mitral (n=24; 44.4% and aortic (n=20; 39.2%. The most common organisms were S aureus (n=23; 42.6%, Enterococcus faecalis (n=12; 22.2% and viridans streptococci (n=9; 16.7%. Surgical intervention was required in 17 (31.4% cases and the in-hospital mortality rate was 29.4% (n=15. Of all the patients, 3 (5.5% had embolic stroke as a complication. Conclusion : Native valve endocarditis is the predominant type of endocarditis. The patients were older adults and the most common organisms were S aureus, E faecalis and viridans streptococci.

Al-Tawfiq Jaffar

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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A severe infective endocarditis successfully treated with linezolid  

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Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in surgical and medical therapy, prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and is often associated with a severe prognosis. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman, with  PVE and bacterial endocarditis (Streptococcus bovis successfully treated with linezolid. Linezolid is a bacteriostatic oxazolidinone antibiotic that has been proven to be effective for the treatment of patients with pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections, and infections due to Gram-positive cocci. Linezolid is not yet recognised as a standard therapy for infective endocarditis, but its use becomes a necessity when infection is due to multidrug-resistant microorganisms.

Graziano Antonio Minafra

2013-01-01

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[Infective endocarditis in patients with permanent pacemaker].  

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Five patients who had permanent pacemaker and infective endocarditis were analyzed. Diagnose was confirmed by a positive blood cultures in all patients and 2 of them had identifiable vegetation in the echocardiogram too. The etiologic agent was Staphylococcus aureus in 3, Staphylococcus epidermidis in 1 and Staphylococcus viridans in 1. Three patients were treated with antibiotics alone: one had no clinical conditions to be operated, one died before surgery and one had good response to antimicrobial therapy alone. Two patients were submitted to antibiotic therapy and surgical removal of the pacemaker system, without complications. It was concluded that the surgical removal of the pacemaker system, as soon as possible, is the choice's therapy. PMID:7998851

Jorge, S do C; Kormann, D D; Medeiros, P; Mateos, J C; Zamorano, M M; Silva, L M; Zambonini, M N; Arnoni, A S; Assef, J E; Magalhães, H M

1994-04-01

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Endocarditis infecciosa por Paecilomyces variotii / Endocarditis due to infection by Paecilomyces variotii  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endocarditis infecciosa por hongos es una complicación cada vez más frecuente en el mundo. Presentamos un caso de endocarditis infecciosa por Paecilomyces variotii en un paciente de sexo masculino con bioprótesis mitral, que respondió satisfactoriamente al tratamiento con cirugía de reemplazo val [...] vular mitral y anfotericina B (dosis total de 3.670 mg). Hasta la fecha, sólo se han reportado seis casos similares en el mundo, con una mortalidad del 100%. Abstract in english Fungal endocarditis is a cardiac complication that has been increasing throughout the world. We present a case of infective endocarditis by Paecilomyces variotii in a male patient with a prosthetic mitral valve. Successful treatment consisted of administration of amphotericin B (total dose 3,670 mg) [...] and mitral valve replacement. Only six cases have been reported previously, with a 100% mortality rate.

Juan Manuel, Senior; Clara, Saldarriaga.

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Endocarditis infecciosa por Paecilomyces variotii / Endocarditis due to infection by Paecilomyces variotii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endocarditis infecciosa por hongos es una complicación cada vez más frecuente en el mundo. Presentamos un caso de endocarditis infecciosa por Paecilomyces variotii en un paciente de sexo masculino con bioprótesis mitral, que respondió satisfactoriamente al tratamiento con cirugía de reemplazo val [...] vular mitral y anfotericina B (dosis total de 3.670 mg). Hasta la fecha, sólo se han reportado seis casos similares en el mundo, con una mortalidad del 100%. Abstract in english Fungal endocarditis is a cardiac complication that has been increasing throughout the world. We present a case of infective endocarditis by Paecilomyces variotii in a male patient with a prosthetic mitral valve. Successful treatment consisted of administration of amphotericin B (total dose 3,670 mg) [...] and mitral valve replacement. Only six cases have been reported previously, with a 100% mortality rate.

Juan Manuel, Senior; Clara, Saldarriaga.

2009-06-01

25

Endocarditis infecciosa por Paecilomyces variotii Endocarditis due to infection by Paecilomyces variotii  

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Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa por hongos es una complicación cada vez más frecuente en el mundo. Presentamos un caso de endocarditis infecciosa por Paecilomyces variotii en un paciente de sexo masculino con bioprótesis mitral, que respondió satisfactoriamente al tratamiento con cirugía de reemplazo valvular mitral y anfotericina B (dosis total de 3.670 mg. Hasta la fecha, sólo se han reportado seis casos similares en el mundo, con una mortalidad del 100%.Fungal endocarditis is a cardiac complication that has been increasing throughout the world. We present a case of infective endocarditis by Paecilomyces variotii in a male patient with a prosthetic mitral valve. Successful treatment consisted of administration of amphotericin B (total dose 3,670 mg and mitral valve replacement. Only six cases have been reported previously, with a 100% mortality rate.

Clara Saldarriaga

2009-06-01

26

Infective endocarditis caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae involving three native valves.  

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Human infection with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is extremely rare and occupationally related. This paper presents for the first time a case of a 47 year-old male with endocarditis involving three valves simultaneously. PMID:21850630

Tomaszuk-Kazberuk, Anna; Kami?ska, Marta; Sobkowicz, Bo?ena; Hirnle, Tomasz; Prokop, Jolanta; Lewczuk, Anna; Sawicki, Robert; Musia?, W?odzimierz

2011-01-01

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Prevention of the infective endocarditis during the dental procedures  

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Full Text Available Endocarditis is endovascular infective disease of intracardiac structures, which are in contact with blood. The most common cause is Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus viridans, which inhabit oral cavity. During dental intervention, which includes gingival trauma (risky dental intervention microorganisms that cause infective endocarditis could penetrate into circulation of the blood. The group of high risk patients consists of patients which have already had infective endocarditis, patients with prosthetic heart valves or other foreign endovascular bodies, patients with congenital heart defect, patients with acquired heart defect, prolapse of mitral valve with registered mitral regurgitation and hyphertrophic cardiomiopathy. Those groups of patients should have prevention from infective endocarditis before any risky dental intervention with bactericidal dosage of wide spectrum antibiotics at least an hour before the procedure. .

Puškar Tatjana

2005-01-01

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Aortic valve endocarditis associated with Legionella infection after Mycoplasma pneumonia.  

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A 38 year old woman with diabetes mellitus and bronchial asthma was admitted to hospital with pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae; she recovered promptly on erythromycin treatment. Six weeks later she presented with aortic valve endocarditis without concurrent lung disease. A concurrent increase in titres of antibody to Legionella bozemanii, L longbeachae, and L jordanis indicated a Legionella infection. Legionella infection should be considered, even in the absence of pneumonia, in cases of endocarditis where no other cause can be detected. PMID:3117081

Littrup, P; Madsen, J K; Lind, K

1987-01-01

29

Endocarditis  

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... lining of the heart. The most common type, bacterial endocarditis, occurs when germs enter your heart. These germs ... another part of your body, often your mouth. Bacterial endocarditis can damage your heart valves. If untreated, it ...

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Infective endocarditis: prevention, diagnosis, and management.  

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Infective endocarditis (IE) is among the most severe infectious disease, the prevention of which has not decreased its incidence. The age of patients and the rate of health care-associated IE have increased as a consequence of medical progress. The prevention strategies have been subjected to an important debate and nonspecific hygiene measures are now placed above the use of antibiotic prophylaxis. Indeed, the level of evidence of antibiotic prophylaxis efficiency is low and the indications of its prescription have been restricted in the recent international guidelines. In cases carrying a high suspicion of IE, efforts should be made to rapidly identify patients with a definite or highly probable diagnosis of IE and to find the causative pathogen to ensure that appropriate treatment, including urgent valvular surgery, begins promptly. Although echocardiography remains the main accurate imaging modality to identify endocardial lesions associated with IE, it can be negative or inconclusive especially in cases of prosthetic valve or other intracardiac devices. Recent studies demonstrated the diagnostic value of other imaging strategies including cardiac computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/CT, radiolabelled leukocyte single-photon emission CT/CT, and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. Novel perspectives on the management of endocarditis are emerging and offer a hope for decreasing the rate of residual deaths by accelerating the processes of diagnosis, risk stratification, and instauration of antimicrobial therapy. Moreover, the rapid transfer of high-risk patients to specialized mediosurgical centres (IE team), the development of new surgical modalities, and close long-term follow-up are of crucial importance. PMID:25151287

Thuny, Franck; Grisoli, Dominique; Cautela, Jennifer; Riberi, Alberto; Raoult, Didier; Habib, Gilbert

2014-09-01

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Endocarditis Infecciosa: Morbimortalidad en Chile. Resultados del Estudio Cooperativo Nacional de Endocarditis Infecciosa (ECNEI: 1998-2002 Mortality and complications of infective endocarditis in Chile: Results of the National Cooperative Study of Infective Endocarditis (1998-2002  

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Full Text Available Background: Infective endocarditis is a severe condition, with a mortality that fluctuates between 16 and 25% in the Metropolitan area of Chile. Aim: To perform a prospective assessment of clinical and microbiological features of patients with infective endocarditis in Chile. Material and methods: Collaborative study of regional hospitals in the whole country and teaching hospitals in Santiago. Patients with a possible or definitive infective endocarditis, according to Duke's criteria, were included in the protocol and a structured data entry form was completed. Results: Three hundred twenty one patients (65% male, mean age 49±16.5 years were studied. According Duke's criteria, 89% had a definitive and 11% a possible endocarditis. The subacute form occurred in 64% of patients. The most frequent predisposing cardiopathies were rheumatic in 25%, prosthetic valves in 15% and congenital in 13%. There was no evidence of cardiopathy in 20%. Twenty percent of patients were on hemodialysis, 11% were diabetic and only one patient abused intravenous drugs. The most frequent complication was cardiac failure in 59% of cases, followed by renal failure in 32% and embolism in 28%. The most frequent causing organism was coagulase positive Staphylococcus in 35%. Blood cultures were negative in 28% of cases from the metropolitan region, in 56% of cases from the north and 38% of cases from the south. Echocardiographic diagnosis was done in 92% of cases. Aortic valve was involved in 42% and mitral valve in 29%. Successful antimicrobial treatment was achieved in 59% of patients. Thirty five percent of patients were subjected to surgical procedures with a 78% survival. Overall mortality was 29%. Univariate analysis identified sepsis, an age over 60 years and the presence of cardiac or renal failure as prognostic indicators of mortality. On multivariate analysis, the identified prognostic indicators were the presence of sepsis, renal failure, mitroaortic involvement associated to combined surgery and failure of antimicrobial treatment not associated to surgery. Conclusions: Subacute form is the most common presentation of infective endocarditis and rheumatic valve disease is the most common underlying cardiac lesion. Intravenous drugs users infective endocarditis is exceptional in Chile. The most frequent causing agent is coagulase positive Staphylococcus and the most frequent complication is cardiac failure. Surgical and overall mortality were 22 and 29% respectively. Sepsis, renal failure, combined surgical procedures, failure of medical treatment were identified as prognostic indicators of mortality (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 237-50.

Miguel Oyonarte G

2003-03-01

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Endocarditis Infecciosa: Morbimortalidad en Chile. Resultados del Estudio Cooperativo Nacional de Endocarditis Infecciosa (ECNEI: 1998-2002) / Mortality and complications of infective endocarditis in Chile: Results of the National Cooperative Study of Infective Endocarditis (1998-2002)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Infective endocarditis is a severe condition, with a mortality that fluctuates between 16 and 25% in the Metropolitan area of Chile. Aim: To perform a prospective assessment of clinical and microbiological features of patients with infective endocarditis in Chile. Material and methods: C [...] ollaborative study of regional hospitals in the whole country and teaching hospitals in Santiago. Patients with a possible or definitive infective endocarditis, according to Duke's criteria, were included in the protocol and a structured data entry form was completed. Results: Three hundred twenty one patients (65% male, mean age 49±16.5 years) were studied. According Duke's criteria, 89% had a definitive and 11% a possible endocarditis. The subacute form occurred in 64% of patients. The most frequent predisposing cardiopathies were rheumatic in 25%, prosthetic valves in 15% and congenital in 13%. There was no evidence of cardiopathy in 20%. Twenty percent of patients were on hemodialysis, 11% were diabetic and only one patient abused intravenous drugs. The most frequent complication was cardiac failure in 59% of cases, followed by renal failure in 32% and embolism in 28%. The most frequent causing organism was coagulase positive Staphylococcus in 35%. Blood cultures were negative in 28% of cases from the metropolitan region, in 56% of cases from the north and 38% of cases from the south. Echocardiographic diagnosis was done in 92% of cases. Aortic valve was involved in 42% and mitral valve in 29%. Successful antimicrobial treatment was achieved in 59% of patients. Thirty five percent of patients were subjected to surgical procedures with a 78% survival. Overall mortality was 29%. Univariate analysis identified sepsis, an age over 60 years and the presence of cardiac or renal failure as prognostic indicators of mortality. On multivariate analysis, the identified prognostic indicators were the presence of sepsis, renal failure, mitroaortic involvement associated to combined surgery and failure of antimicrobial treatment not associated to surgery. Conclusions: Subacute form is the most common presentation of infective endocarditis and rheumatic valve disease is the most common underlying cardiac lesion. Intravenous drugs users infective endocarditis is exceptional in Chile. The most frequent causing agent is coagulase positive Staphylococcus and the most frequent complication is cardiac failure. Surgical and overall mortality were 22 and 29% respectively. Sepsis, renal failure, combined surgical procedures, failure of medical treatment were identified as prognostic indicators of mortality (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 237-50).

Miguel, Oyonarte G; Rodrigo, Montagna M; Sandra, Braun J; Emilio, Maiers P; Pamela, Rojo S; José Francisco, Cumsille G.

2003-03-01

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Brain magnetic resonance findings in infective endocarditis with neurological complications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diagnosing infective endocarditis and its complications can be difficult because of the nonspecific symptoms. We reviewed findings of intracranial abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 14 patients with neurological complications and herein discuss the overall intracranial MRI findings. We retrospectively reviewed patients with infective endocarditis from August 2004 to August 2006. Brain MRI, the causative bacteria, and abnormal neurological symptoms were reviewed for 14 patients with neurological complications. Of the 14 patients, 13 showed intracranial abnormalities on MRI. Embolization was seen in 10 patients, hemorrhage in 3, abscess formation in 3, and encephalitis in 2. Hyperintense lesions with a central hypointense area on T2-weighted and/or T2*-weighted imaging (Bull's-eye-like lesion) were seen in four patients. A combination of these intracranial abnormalities was observed in 6 patients. The MRI findings associated with infective endocarditis are wide-ranging: embolization, hemorrhage, meningitis, cerebritis, abscess, the bull's-eye-like lesion. Clinicians should consider the possibility of infective endocarditis in patients with unknown fever and neurological abnormality. Brain MRI should be promptly performed for those patients, and T2*-weighted imaging is recommended for an early diagnosis of infective endocarditis. (author)

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Surgical Management of Active Infective Endocarditis During 1996-06 in Tabriz, Northwestern Iran  

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Full Text Available Objective: Surgical treatment of active infective endocarditis (IE requires not only homodynamic repair, but also, special emphasis on the eradiation of the infection to prevent recurrence. This study was undertaken to examine the outcome of surgery for active infective endocarditis in a cohort of patients.Patients and Methods: One hundred and sixty-four consecutive patients underwent valve surgery for active IE in Madani heart centre (Tabriz, Iran from 1996 to 2006. The patients with diagnosis of IE (according to Duke Criteria were eligible for the study.Results: The mean age of patients was 36.3 ± 16 years, with 34.6±17.5 yrs for native valve endocarditis and 38.6±15.2 yrs for prosthetic valve endocarditis (p= 0.169. Ninety-one (55.5% of patients were males. The infected valve was native in 112 (68.3% of patients and prosthetic in 52 (31.7%. There was no predisposing heart disease in 61 (37% of patients. The aortic valve was infected in 78(47.6%, the mitral valve in 69 (42.1%, and multiple valves in 17 (10.3% of patients. Active culture-positive endocarditis was present in 81 (49.4% whereas 83(50.6% patients had culture-negative endocarditis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated microorganism. Ninety patients (54.8% were in NYHA classes III and IV. Mechanical valves were implantedin 69 patients (42.1% and bioprostheses in 95 (57.9%, including homograft in 19 (11.5% cases. There were 16 (9% operation-related deaths, but only 1 death in patients undergoing aortic homograft replacement. Reoperation was required in 18 (10.9% cases.Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, Staphylococcus aureus infection (p= 0.008, prosthetic valve endocarditis (p=0.01, paravalvular abscess (p=0.001 and left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40% (p=0.04 were independent predictors of hospital mortality.Conclusions: Surgery for infective endocarditis continues to be challenging and associated with high operation-related mortality and morbidity. Prosthetic valve endocarditis, impaired ventricular function, paravalvular abscess and Staphylococcus aureus infection associated with hospital mortality. Also we found that aortic valve replacement with an aortic homograft could be performed with acceptable hospital mortality and provided satisfactory results.

Azin Alizadehasl1,

2008-03-01

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Endocarditis infecciosa por enterococo: descripción de 12 casos / Enterococcal infective endocarditis: description of 12 cases  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de identificar a los pacientes diagnosticados en nuestro hospital de endocarditis infecciosa por enterococo se ha realizado un estudio retrospectivo durante un período de 12 años (1994-2005), analizando sus características clínicas y microbiológicas, así como el tratamiento y la evol [...] ución de la enfermedad. Se encontraron 12 casos de endocarditis por enterococo, lo que representó el 6% del total de endocarditis y el 7% de las bacteriemias por enterococo. Se trataba de 8 hombres y 4 mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre los 37 y los 94 años. El microorganismo causante fue E. faecalis en 10 casos y E. faecium en 2 casos. Dos de los E. faecalis eran resistentes a aminoglucósidos. La válvula afectada con mayor frecuencia fue la aórtica, con 9 casos, seguida de la mitral, con 2 y de la tricúspide, 1 caso. En 10 pacientes la endocarditis se instaló sobre una válvula nativa y sólo en 2 casos sobre válvula protésica. Únicamente 5 pacientes tenían antecedentes de enfermedad valvular cardiaca. El tratamiento antimicrobiano más utilizado fue la combinación de ampicilina y gentamicina, que se empleó en 8 pacientes. Cuatro casos fueron tratados con monoterapia; 2 de ellos con ampicilina y 2 con vancomicina. Siete pacientes se complicaron con insuficiencia cardíaca, cinco de los cuales precisaron tratamiento quirúrgico de sustitución valvular aórtica. Los 4 enfermos tratados con monoterapia presentaron complicaciones graves, que provocaron la muerte de 2 pacientes. Abstract in english We have performed a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis due to Enterococcus in our hospital for a period of 12 years (1994-2005). We review clinical and microbiological aspects, therapy, and outcome. We found 12 cases that were 6 % of total endocarditis, and 7% of e [...] nterococcal bacteremia. Eight cases were male, and 4 were female, aged between 37 and 94 years. The causative organism of endocarditis was E. faecalis in 10 patients and E. faecium in 2. Two E. faecalis were resistant to aminoglycosides. Aortic valve was the most frequently affected with 9 cases, followed by mitral valve (2 cases), and tricuspid valve (1 case). In 10 cases endocarditis affected a native valve, and only in 2 cases a prosthetic valve. Only 5 patients had underlying valve disease. The most frequently used antimicrobial therapy was the combination of ampicillin plus gentamicin (8 patients). Four cases were treated with monotherapy, 2 with ampicillin, and 2 with vancomycin. Seven patients suffered heart failure, and five of them required surgical therapy with aortic valve replacement. All the patients treated with monotherapy had severe complications, that led to death in 2 of them.

P., Martínez Odriozola; J., Muñoz Sánchez; P., Arriola Martínez; E., Lizarralde Palacios; J. M., Santamaría Jáuregui; J., Zuazo Meabe; R., Cisterna Cáncer; F. M. de, La Villa.

2007-11-01

36

Endocarditis infecciosa por enterococo: descripción de 12 casos / Enterococcal infective endocarditis: description of 12 cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de identificar a los pacientes diagnosticados en nuestro hospital de endocarditis infecciosa por enterococo se ha realizado un estudio retrospectivo durante un período de 12 años (1994-2005), analizando sus características clínicas y microbiológicas, así como el tratamiento y la evol [...] ución de la enfermedad. Se encontraron 12 casos de endocarditis por enterococo, lo que representó el 6% del total de endocarditis y el 7% de las bacteriemias por enterococo. Se trataba de 8 hombres y 4 mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre los 37 y los 94 años. El microorganismo causante fue E. faecalis en 10 casos y E. faecium en 2 casos. Dos de los E. faecalis eran resistentes a aminoglucósidos. La válvula afectada con mayor frecuencia fue la aórtica, con 9 casos, seguida de la mitral, con 2 y de la tricúspide, 1 caso. En 10 pacientes la endocarditis se instaló sobre una válvula nativa y sólo en 2 casos sobre válvula protésica. Únicamente 5 pacientes tenían antecedentes de enfermedad valvular cardiaca. El tratamiento antimicrobiano más utilizado fue la combinación de ampicilina y gentamicina, que se empleó en 8 pacientes. Cuatro casos fueron tratados con monoterapia; 2 de ellos con ampicilina y 2 con vancomicina. Siete pacientes se complicaron con insuficiencia cardíaca, cinco de los cuales precisaron tratamiento quirúrgico de sustitución valvular aórtica. Los 4 enfermos tratados con monoterapia presentaron complicaciones graves, que provocaron la muerte de 2 pacientes. Abstract in english We have performed a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis due to Enterococcus in our hospital for a period of 12 years (1994-2005). We review clinical and microbiological aspects, therapy, and outcome. We found 12 cases that were 6 % of total endocarditis, and 7% of e [...] nterococcal bacteremia. Eight cases were male, and 4 were female, aged between 37 and 94 years. The causative organism of endocarditis was E. faecalis in 10 patients and E. faecium in 2. Two E. faecalis were resistant to aminoglycosides. Aortic valve was the most frequently affected with 9 cases, followed by mitral valve (2 cases), and tricuspid valve (1 case). In 10 cases endocarditis affected a native valve, and only in 2 cases a prosthetic valve. Only 5 patients had underlying valve disease. The most frequently used antimicrobial therapy was the combination of ampicillin plus gentamicin (8 patients). Four cases were treated with monotherapy, 2 with ampicillin, and 2 with vancomycin. Seven patients suffered heart failure, and five of them required surgical therapy with aortic valve replacement. All the patients treated with monotherapy had severe complications, that led to death in 2 of them.

P., Martínez Odriozola; J., Muñoz Sánchez; P., Arriola Martínez; E., Lizarralde Palacios; J. M., Santamaría Jáuregui; J., Zuazo Meabe; R., Cisterna Cáncer; F. M. de, La Villa.

37

Clinical Profile and Outcome of Infective Endocarditis at the Aga Khan University Hospital  

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Full Text Available Background: The spectrum of infective endocarditis (IE is significantly different in developed and developing countries. The present study was conducted to study the clinical profile and outcome of infective endocarditis in Pakistan. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study with review of medical records for 188 patients admitted to our teaching hospital with a diagnosis of IE from January 1988 to December 2001. One hundred fifty-nine subjects fulfilled the modified Duke diagnostic criteria. Results: Definite IE was found in 59.7% (95/159 patients, while the rest had possible IE. One-third of subjects had acute IE 55/159 (34.5%. Subacute IE was found in 62% (99/159 and Nosocomial IE in 3% of the cases. Eighty six (54% were classified as having culture-negative endocarditis and 73 (46% as culture positive. Ninty four patients (59% had an underlying predisposing factor including congenital heart disease (31% and rheumatic heart disease (21%. The most frequently isolated organisms were streptococci (52% and followed by staphylococci (29%. Fourteen (8.1% patients had right-sided cardiac involvement. Using univariate analysis, patients with heart failure, neurologic or renal complications, septicemia, nosocomial endocarditis, and prosthetic valve endocarditis were at increased risk of death (p ? 0.05, however no individual microorganism, or specific site, size, or morphology of vegetation seen on echocardiogram were significantly associated with death. Thirty-seven (23% patients died of endocarditis or its complications. Conclusion: Endocarditis continues to be an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in Pakistan, especially in young adults. Our patients differ from the west in terms of epidemiology, predisposing factors, microbiology, complications, and outcome.

Raymond A. Smego

2009-05-01

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Surgical management for active infective endocarditis: a single hospital 10 years experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the outcome of surgery for active infective endocarditis (IE) in a cohort of patients. One hundred sixty-four consecutive patients who underwent valve surgery for active IE (diagnosis according to Duke criteria) in Madani Heart Center, Tabriz, Iran from 1996 to 2006 were studied. The mean age of patients was 36.3+-16 years overall: 34.6+-17.5 years for native valve endocarditis and 38.6+-15.2 yrs for prosthetic valve endocarditis (p=0.169). Ninety one (55.5%) patients were men. The infected valve was native in 112 (68.7%) of patients and prosthetic in 52(31.3%). In 61 (37%) patients, no predisposing heart disease was found. The aortic valve was infected in 78 (47.6%), mitral valve in 69 (42.1%), and multiple valves in 17 (10.3%) of patients. Active culture positive endocarditis was present in 81 (49.4%) whereas 83 (50.6%) patients had culture-negative endocarditis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated microorganism. Ninety patients (54.8%) were in NYHA classes III and IV. Mechanical valves were implanted in 69 patients (42.1%) and bioprostheses in 95 (57.9%), including a homograft in 19 (11.5%). There were 16 (9%) operative deaths, but there was only 1 death in patients that underwent aortic homograft replacement. Reoperation was required in 18 (10.9%) of cases. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, Staphylococcus aureus infection (p=0.008), prosthetic valve endocarditis (p=0.01), paravalvular abscess (p=0.001) and left ventricular ejeabscess (p=0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40% (p=0.04) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Surgery for infective endocarditis continues to be challenging and associated with high operative mortality and morbidity. Prosthetic valve endocarditis, impaired ventricular function, paravalvular abscess and Staphylococcus aureus infection adversely affect in-hospital mortality. Also we found that aortic valve replacement with an aortic homograft can be performed with acceptable in hospital mortality and provides satisfactory results. (author)

39

Cardiobacterium valvarum infective endocarditis and phenotypic/molecular characterization of 11 Cardiobacterium species strains  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cardiobacterium valvarum is a newly recognized human pathogen related to infective endocarditis. Cardiobacterium species are, however, only rarely the aetiology of infective endocarditis. An infective endocarditis case is presented and, additionally, phenotypic and phylogenetic comparison of a further 10 collection strains, representing the two species within the genus, was performed. C. valvarum was isolated from the blood and DNA was present in valvular tissue (partial 16S rRNA gene analysis) from a 64-year-old man with infective endocarditis of the mitral valve, rupture of chordae and prolapse of pulmonary valves in addition to a fluttering excrescence. A mechanical mitral valve and neochordae were inserted successfully. Phenotypically, the two species within the genus Cardiobacterium resemble each other greatly. When using the Vitek 2 Neisseria–Haemophilus identification card, the reaction for phenylphosphonate was positive for all Cardiobacterium hominis strains, but negative for all C. valvarum strains,thereby separating the two species. The two species made up two separate clusters by phylogenetic examination using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

Chen, Ming; Kemp, Michael

2011-01-01

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Aortic valve endocarditis associated with Legionella infection after Mycoplasma pneumonia.  

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A 38 year old woman with diabetes mellitus and bronchial asthma was admitted to hospital with pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae; she recovered promptly on erythromycin treatment. Six weeks later she presented with aortic valve endocarditis without concurrent lung disease. A concurrent increase in titres of antibody to Legionella bozemanii, L longbeachae, and L jordanis indicated a Legionella infection. Legionella infection should be considered, even in the absence of pneumonia, in cas...

Littrup, P.; Madsen, J. K.; Lind, K.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate imaging of experimental infective endocarditis  

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Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) cardiac scintigraphy was performed in 15 rabbits with experimental Streptococcus sanguis aortic-valve infective endocarditis. The animals were imaged five to seven days after the administration of bacteria, and in each case abnormal accumulation of the tracer was visualized in the region of the aortic valve. Three types of cardiac scintigraphic patterns were demonstrated: focal, multifocal, and extensive, each correlating well with the anatomical extent of the lesion as defined by gross pathology. Tissue distribution studies demonstrated a 30 +- 5.3 (mean +- SEM) fold excess of radionuclide uptake in the infective endocarditis lesion compared with that of normal myocardium. Imaging of excised hearts from four animals showed an excellent correlation with in vivo imaging as well as gross pathology. Five animals with nonbacterial thrombotic aortic valve endocarditis demonstrated similar scintigraphic and tissue distribution results. In contrast, four normal animals failed to demonstrate abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PYP cardiac scintigrams or tissue uptake. This study demonstrates that /sup 99m/Tc-PYP cardiac scintigraphy is a sensitive technique to detect experimental aortic valve endocarditis

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New Approaches to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis: Review of 100 Consecutive Cases  

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To assess the effect of our new, more aggressive approach to treating infective endocarditis, we retrospectively reviewed our recent experience with this disease. Between 1983 and 1989, we treated 100 patients with endocarditis, in 94 of whom the diagnosis was confirmed. Fifty-four (57%) of the 94 patients had native valve endocarditis, and the other 40 patients (43%) had prosthetic valve endocarditis. The patients' mean ages were 50 years for native valve disease and 58 years for prosthetic ...

Gentry, Layne O.; Khoshdel, Abbas

1989-01-01

43

Endocardite infecciosa em adolescentes. Análise dos fatores de risco de mortalidade intra-hospitalar / Infective endocarditis in adolescents. analysis of risk factors for in-hospital mortality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Estudar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, terapêuticos e evolutivos da endocardite infecciosa (EI) em grupo de pacientes com idade entre 12 e 20 (média de 15,5) anos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 33 pacientes consecutivos (14 do sexo masculino e 19 do feminino), admit [...] idos com diagnóstico de EI. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade da EI foi de 42%. A cardiopatia reumática predominou como condição predisponente (63% dos casos), seguida das cardiopatias congênitas (24%) e próteses cardíacas (12%). A maioria dos pacientes (78%) encontrava-se na admissão em CF III e IV e apresentava mortalidade significativamente maior do que os que se encontravam na CF I e II (p=0,01). Complicações embólicas foram detectadas em 51% e determinaram maior mortalidade (p=0,05). O agente etiológico mais isolado foi o Staphylococcus aureus (em 42% das hemoculturas positivas), seguido do Staphylococcus viridans (em 21%). A análise multivariada mostrou que a contagem global de leucócitos acima de 10.000/mm ³, e a CF referidos na admissão (p=0,01 e p=0,04), e a ocorrência de embolias (p=0,03) eram preditores independentes de mortalidade intra-hospitalar. CONCLUSÃO: A cardiopatia reumática permanece, semelhante à população adulta, como principal fator predisponente da EI nos adolescentes, tendo como principal agente etiológico o S.aureus, semelhante à população pediátrica. A mortalidade é elevada e representam preditores de mortalidade intra-hospitalar a CF na admissão, a ocorrência da fenômenos embólicos e a leucocitose. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To study the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutive aspects of endocarditis in a group of patients aging 12 to 20 years-old ( mean 15.5). METHODS: Thirty-three consecutive patients (14 males, 19 females) admitted with infective endocarditis were retrospectively studied. RESULT [...] S: Infective endocarditismortality was 42%. Rheumatic heart disease was the predominant underlying condition in 63% of patients. Congenital heart disease (24%) and cardiac prosthesis (12%) were the other affections involved. The majority of patients (78%) were in functional class III and IV, with more deaths than the 22% who were in functional class I and II (p=0.01). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated agent (42% of the positive blood cultures, followed by Staphylococcus viridans, 21%). Multivariate analysis identified total leukocyte count above 10,000/mm³ and functional class, both at admission (p=0.01 and p=0.004, respectively), and the occurrence of embolic complications (p=0.03) as independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Rheumatic heart disease remains, as in adults, the main predisposing factor for infective endocarditis in adolescents, and S.aureus is, like in children, the leading agent. Mortality is high and functional class at hospital admission, embolic complications and leukocytosis are independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.

Nádia Barreto Tenório, Aoun; Francisco Manes, Albanesi Fº; Maurício Bastos de Freitas, Rachid; Luíz André Vieira, Fernandes; José Augusto da Silva, Messias.

44

Endocardite infecciosa em adolescentes. Análise dos fatores de risco de mortalidade intra-hospitalar / Infective endocarditis in adolescents. analysis of risk factors for in-hospital mortality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Estudar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, terapêuticos e evolutivos da endocardite infecciosa (EI) em grupo de pacientes com idade entre 12 e 20 (média de 15,5) anos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 33 pacientes consecutivos (14 do sexo masculino e 19 do feminino), admit [...] idos com diagnóstico de EI. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade da EI foi de 42%. A cardiopatia reumática predominou como condição predisponente (63% dos casos), seguida das cardiopatias congênitas (24%) e próteses cardíacas (12%). A maioria dos pacientes (78%) encontrava-se na admissão em CF III e IV e apresentava mortalidade significativamente maior do que os que se encontravam na CF I e II (p=0,01). Complicações embólicas foram detectadas em 51% e determinaram maior mortalidade (p=0,05). O agente etiológico mais isolado foi o Staphylococcus aureus (em 42% das hemoculturas positivas), seguido do Staphylococcus viridans (em 21%). A análise multivariada mostrou que a contagem global de leucócitos acima de 10.000/mm ³, e a CF referidos na admissão (p=0,01 e p=0,04), e a ocorrência de embolias (p=0,03) eram preditores independentes de mortalidade intra-hospitalar. CONCLUSÃO: A cardiopatia reumática permanece, semelhante à população adulta, como principal fator predisponente da EI nos adolescentes, tendo como principal agente etiológico o S.aureus, semelhante à população pediátrica. A mortalidade é elevada e representam preditores de mortalidade intra-hospitalar a CF na admissão, a ocorrência da fenômenos embólicos e a leucocitose. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To study the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutive aspects of endocarditis in a group of patients aging 12 to 20 years-old ( mean 15.5). METHODS: Thirty-three consecutive patients (14 males, 19 females) admitted with infective endocarditis were retrospectively studied. RESULT [...] S: Infective endocarditismortality was 42%. Rheumatic heart disease was the predominant underlying condition in 63% of patients. Congenital heart disease (24%) and cardiac prosthesis (12%) were the other affections involved. The majority of patients (78%) were in functional class III and IV, with more deaths than the 22% who were in functional class I and II (p=0.01). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated agent (42% of the positive blood cultures, followed by Staphylococcus viridans, 21%). Multivariate analysis identified total leukocyte count above 10,000/mm³ and functional class, both at admission (p=0.01 and p=0.004, respectively), and the occurrence of embolic complications (p=0.03) as independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Rheumatic heart disease remains, as in adults, the main predisposing factor for infective endocarditis in adolescents, and S.aureus is, like in children, the leading agent. Mortality is high and functional class at hospital admission, embolic complications and leukocytosis are independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.

Nádia Barreto Tenório, Aoun; Francisco Manes, Albanesi Fº; Maurício Bastos de Freitas, Rachid; Luíz André Vieira, Fernandes; José Augusto da Silva, Messias.

1997-12-01

45

Variables predictoras de embolias en endocarditis infecciosa / Embolism predictors of infective endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El evento embólico (EE) aumenta la morbi-mortalidad de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI). La prevalencia de EE oscila entre 22% y 50%, pudiendo ocasionar hasta el 25% de las muertes de los pacientes que lo presentan. El EE puede ocurrir previamente al diagnóstico, durante el tratamiento o bien posteri [...] ormente al mismo. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las características demográficas, clínicas, microbiológicas, ecocardiográficas y terapeúticas, de pacientes con EI (con y sin embolias) para tratar de establecer variables predictoras del EE. Se realizó en el Hospital Italiano de La Plata, desde marzo de 1996 hasta diciembre de 2004, un estudio descriptivo observacional de una cohorte de pacientes con diagnóstico de EI. Se analizaron en forma retrospectiva 53 pacientes con EI (35 sin EE y 18 con EE). La presencia de vegetación (en el ecocardiograma transtorácico (ETT) y/o en el transesofágico (ETE) al momento del diagnóstico, el tamaño ³ 10 mm y el compromiso de la válvula mitral nativa, fueron las variables en las que existió una asociación estadísticamente significativa con el EE para ser consideradas como predictoras. El tamaño ³ 10 mm fue la única variable asociada a EE en el análisis de regresión logística. Durante el tratamiento antibiótico electivo hubo una reducción de EE, no observándose a partir de la segunda semana. Abstract in english The embolic event (EE) increases the morbidity and mortality of infective endocarditis (IE). Prevalence of EE ranges between 22% and 50%, death rates being up to 25% of patients. EE may occur prior to diagnosis, during treatment or afterwards. The objective of this study was to evaluate the demograp [...] hic, clinical, microbiological, echocardiographic and therapeutic characteristics in patients suffering from IE (with or without emboli) in order to determine predictors for EE. A descriptive study based on observations of patient population diagnosed with IE was conducted at the Hospital Italiano of La Plata during the period March 1996 - December 2004. Fifty-three patients with IE were analyzed (35 without EE and 18 with EE) in retrospect. We found that the presence of vegetations in the transthoracic (TTE) and/or transesophagic (TEE) echocardiographies at the time of diagnosis, the size ³ 10 mm and the compromise of the native mitral valve were the variables that showed significant statistical association with EE to be considered as predictors. The size ³ 10 mm was the only variable associated with EE in the logistic regression analysis. During the elective antibiotic treatment, there was a reduction in EE, without their being present from the second week onwards.

Alberto R., Cremona; Santiago J., Ramírez Borga; Juan F., Losinno; Luis R., Cartasegna; Eduardo M., Escudero; José L., Fernández; Gustavo E., Cremona; Miriam E., Blanco.

46

Variables predictoras de embolias en endocarditis infecciosa Embolism predictors of infective endocarditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El evento embólico (EE aumenta la morbi-mortalidad de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI. La prevalencia de EE oscila entre 22% y 50%, pudiendo ocasionar hasta el 25% de las muertes de los pacientes que lo presentan. El EE puede ocurrir previamente al diagnóstico, durante el tratamiento o bien posteriormente al mismo. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las características demográficas, clínicas, microbiológicas, ecocardiográficas y terapeúticas, de pacientes con EI (con y sin embolias para tratar de establecer variables predictoras del EE. Se realizó en el Hospital Italiano de La Plata, desde marzo de 1996 hasta diciembre de 2004, un estudio descriptivo observacional de una cohorte de pacientes con diagnóstico de EI. Se analizaron en forma retrospectiva 53 pacientes con EI (35 sin EE y 18 con EE. La presencia de vegetación (en el ecocardiograma transtorácico (ETT y/o en el transesofágico (ETE al momento del diagnóstico, el tamaño ³ 10 mm y el compromiso de la válvula mitral nativa, fueron las variables en las que existió una asociación estad?sticamente significativa con el EE para ser consideradas como predictoras. El tamaño ³ 10 mm fue la única variable asociada a EE en el análisis de regresión logística. Durante el tratamiento antibiótico electivo hubo una reducción de EE, no observándose a partir de la segunda semana.The embolic event (EE increases the morbidity and mortality of infective endocarditis (IE. Prevalence of EE ranges between 22% and 50%, death rates being up to 25% of patients. EE may occur prior to diagnosis, during treatment or afterwards. The objective of this study was to evaluate the demographic, clinical, microbiological, echocardiographic and therapeutic characteristics in patients suffering from IE (with or without emboli in order to determine predictors for EE. A descriptive study based on observations of patient population diagnosed with IE was conducted at the Hospital Italiano of La Plata during the period March 1996 - December 2004. Fifty-three patients with IE were analyzed (35 without EE and 18 with EE in retrospect. We found that the presence of vegetations in the transthoracic (TTE and/or transesophagic (TEE echocardiographies at the time of diagnosis, the size ³ 10 mm and the compromise of the native mitral valve were the variables that showed significant statistical association with EE to be considered as predictors. The size ³ 10 mm was the only variable associated with EE in the logistic regression analysis. During the elective antibiotic treatment, there was a reduction in EE, without their being present from the second week onwards.

Alberto R. Cremona

2007-02-01

47

Cytokine profiles linked to fatal outcome in infective prosthetic valve endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infective endocarditis is a disease normally of bacterial cause which affects the endocardic tissue, specifically the valves (native or prosthetic). It is a serious illness and mortality rates remain high, ranging between 20% and 40%. Previous reports have evidenced the potential role of cytokines in the diagnosis of this disease, but no information is available on their relationship with outcome. We recruited 26 consecutive patients with late prosthetic valve endocarditis requiring surgical treatment according to Duke criteria. Eight cytokines were measured in plasma in the first 24 h following diagnosis by using a Bio-Rad multiplex assay. Levels of IL-6, IL-8 and interferon gamma (IFN-?) were higher in non survivors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis evidenced that IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-? behaved as good diagnostic tests for identifying those patients with fatal outcome (area under the curve, CI 95%, p): IL-6: [0.81 (0.61-1.00) 0.012]; IL-8 [0.76 (0.56-0.96) 0.035]; IFN-? [0.79 (0.59-0.99) 0.021]. Levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-? correlated positively between them, indicating that they are produced as consequence of a simultaneous response to the infection. Our findings support the participation of IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-? in the events linked to fatal outcome in infective prosthetic valve endocarditis. PMID:24106887

Bustamante, Juan; Arévalo, Adolfo; Tamayo, Eduardo; Sarria, Cristina; Aguilar-Blanco, Eva M; Heredia, Maria; Almansa, Raquel; Rico, Lucia; Iglesias, Verónica; Bermejo-Martin, Jesús F

2014-06-01

48

Bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis associated with infective endocarditis: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare condition initiated by infection by microbes in the bloodstream, such as those arising from a foci of infective endocarditis. We report a case and discuss the diagnostic aspects and the clinical outcome of a patient with characteristic findings of the disease. The patient was a 49 year old white male who had a metallic aortic valve implanted 7 months previously, and who presented to the hospital with 10 days of fever, cough and dyspnea, then diarrhea and mental confusion. On the second day of hospitalization, he experienced sudden loss of vision in both eyes. A Gram-positive coccobacillus was isolated from the bloodstream, he was treated with fluoroquinolone with disappearance of fever, decreased ocular inflammation, and improvement in his vision to light perception. He later underwent valve replacement surgery but died during the procedure. We review the occurrence of ocular signs and symptoms and their importance in patients with endocarditis.

Arcieri Enyr Saran

2001-01-01

49

A case of infective endocarditis after transurethral prostatic resection  

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Full Text Available We report a case of infective endocarditis (IE after transurethral prostatic resection (TUR-P. A 63-year-old man who had underwent TUR-P for benign prostatic hyperplasia. After 40 days of surgery, he developed a fever. A diagnosis of IE was established by cardiography which detected large vegetation at mitral valve. After intravenous antibiotics therapy, he underwent mitral valve replacement surgery.

Kawahara Takashi

2010-01-01

50

ANCA positivity in a patient with infective endocarditis-associated glomerulonephritis: a diagnostic dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glomerulonephritis (GN) is an immunological phenomenon in bacterial endocarditis. These may be pauci-immune/vasculitic GN, post-infective GN, and sub-endothelial membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Each type of glomerulonephritis usually occurs in isolation. We report a case of infective endocarditis with dual existence of pauci-immune/vasculitic GN and post infective type of GN at the same time. PMID:25191152

Ghosh, Gopal Chandra; Sharma, Brijesh; Katageri, Bhimarey; Bhardwaj, Minakshi

2014-09-01

51

Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis: A case report of a patient with mitral valve infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract A case of infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva is presented. The use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis is discussed.

Holler, Jon Gitz; Pedersen, Line Kynemund

2010-01-01

52

Infective endocarditis cause: fastidious agents (Agentes fastidiosos, como causa de endocarditis infecciosa  

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Full Text Available Infective Endocarditis disease has infectious origin which affects endocardium, heart valve with vegetations and less frequently mural endocardium. The main etiology of endocarditidis infection is bacterium and next one is mycosis. Fastidious agents are inside of these one, they are bacterium with slow growth in cell culture. For its diagnosis it is necessary epidemic data, and a good anamnesis. That is the main reason to recognize its principal characteristics of presentation, diagnosis and treatment. –RESUMEN: Endocarditis Infecciosa, es una enfermedad de origen infeccioso que afecta al endocardio, que cursa con vegetaciones en las válvulas cardíacas y menos frecuentemente en el mismo endocardio mural. La principal etiología de la infección endocárdica es bacteriana, seguida por la micótica, y es dentro de estos agentes causales, que se encentran los agentes fastidiosos, los cuales, son bacterias de crecimiento lento en cultivos, por lo que, para poder diagnosticarlos, debemos de basarnos en la epidemiología de los mismos, además de realizar una buena anamnesis, y es en ese sentido que gira la importancia de saber reconocer sus características de presentación, diagnóstico y tratamiento.

Carpio-Deheza Gonzalo

2010-11-01

53

Aspectos históricos da endocardite infecciosa / Historical aspects of infective endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A endocardite infecciosa era fatal até há três gerações. A evolução temporal do conhecimento da doença possibilitou avanços nas técnicas diagnósticas, especialmente na ecocardiografia, a possibilidade de se realizar a cirurgia cardíaca, mesmo com o processo infeccioso em atividade, e novas recomenda [...] ções de profilaxia por antibióticos antes dos procedimentos de intervenção. Hoje a endocardite infecciosa é curável. Nesta revisão são abordados os aspectos históricos da endocardite, desde as observações de Osler, no século XIX, até a transformação de doença "clinicamente possível" em "clinicamente definida". Abstract in english Infective endocarditis was a fatal disease three generations ago. Temporal evolution of knowledge made possible important advances in diagnostic techniques, especially in echocardiography, the possibility of cardiac surgery during the active infectious process and new guidelines for antibiotic proph [...] ylaxis before interventional procedures. Nowadays, infective endocarditis is curable. In this review, we describe historical aspects of endocarditis, from Osler´s observations in the 19th century to the change from a "clinically possible" to a "clinically defined" disease.

Max, Grinberg; Maria Cecilia, Solimene.

54

Aspectos históricos da endocardite infecciosa Historical aspects of infective endocarditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A endocardite infecciosa era fatal até há três gerações. A evolução temporal do conhecimento da doença possibilitou avanços nas técnicas diagnósticas, especialmente na ecocardiografia, a possibilidade de se realizar a cirurgia cardíaca, mesmo com o processo infeccioso em atividade, e novas recomendações de profilaxia por antibióticos antes dos procedimentos de intervenção. Hoje a endocardite infecciosa é curável. Nesta revisão são abordados os aspectos históricos da endocardite, desde as observações de Osler, no século XIX, até a transformação de doença "clinicamente possível" em "clinicamente definida".Infective endocarditis was a fatal disease three generations ago. Temporal evolution of knowledge made possible important advances in diagnostic techniques, especially in echocardiography, the possibility of cardiac surgery during the active infectious process and new guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis before interventional procedures. Nowadays, infective endocarditis is curable. In this review, we describe historical aspects of endocarditis, from Osler´s observations in the 19th century to the change from a "clinically possible" to a "clinically defined" disease.

Max Grinberg

2011-04-01

55

Tratamiento quirúrgico de la endocarditis infecciosa / Surgical treatment of infective endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: describir las características epidemiológicas y los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico temprano de los pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa intervenidos en el Departamento de Cirugía Cardiovascular de la Clínica Medellín, Colombia. Métodos: estudio observacional, descrip [...] tivo, retrospectivo, de todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa tratados mediante cirugía en la Clínica Medellín, entre enero de 2003 y enero de 2010. Resultados: se incluyeron en total 54 pacientes, 37 (68,5%) de ellos de género masculino. La mediana de la edad fue 57,5 años (9 - 76 años). El 77,7% tenía algún factor de riesgo para desarrollar endocarditis infecciosa; entre los más destacados insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC) en hemodiálisis (18,5%) y prótesis valvulares cardiacas (18,5%). El 66,7% de los hemocultivos fue positivo. Staphylococcus aureus fue el principal germen aislado en el 40,7% del total de pacientes. El 81,4% de las válvulas comprometidas eran nativas con predominio de la válvula mitral (44,5%) y el 7,5% presentaba compromiso de dos válvulas. En el 68,5% el motivo de consulta fue falla cardiaca y 35,3% presentaron fenómenos embólicos como manifestación inicial o asociada (cerebral 16,7%, pulmonar 13%, esplénica 5,6%). En el 83,3% de los casos se realizó cirugía temprana; 66% recibieron válvulas mecánicas. La mortalidad total a tres meses fue del 13% (muerte intraoperatoria 3,7%, mortalidad a 30 días, 9%). La mediana en el tiempo de estancia hospitalaria fue de 36 días (7 a 130 días). En este estudio se reporta una mortalidad total que se encuentra en el límite inferior de lo reportado en el mundo. Una de las razones atribuibles a este hallazgo es el manejo quirúrgico temprano que se protocoliza en el servicio. Abstract in english Objective: to describe the epidemiological characteristics and the results of early surgical treatment of patients diagnosed with infectious endocarditis who underwent surgery in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery in the Medellin Clinic, Colombia. Methods: observational, descriptive, retrospec [...] tive study of all the patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis treated by surgery in the Medellin Clinic between January 2003 and January 2010. Results: a total of 54 patients were included. 37 (68.5%) were male. Mean age was 57.5 years (9-76 years). 77.7% had a risk factor for developing infective endocarditis; among the most prominent risk factors were chronic renal failure (CRF), patients on hemodialysis (18.5%) and heart valve prostheses (18.5%). 66.7% of the blood cultures were positive. Staphylococcus aureus was the main germ isolated in 40.7% of patients. 81.4% of the involved valves were native, with mitral valve predominance (44.5%) and 7.5% had involvement of two valves. In 68.5% the reason for the consultation was heart failure and 35.3% had embolic phenomena as the initial manifestation or associated (16.7% cerebral, pulmonary 13%, spleen 5.6%). In 83.3 % of cases early surgery was performed: 66% received mechanical valves. The three-month total mortality was 13% (3.7% intraoperative death, mortality at 30 days 9%). The median length of hospital stay was 36 days (7-130 days). In this study the total mortality reported is at the lower limit of the reported in the world. One of the reasons attributed to this finding is the early surgical management that is the protocol in the service.

Alain, Eusse; Mauricio, Atehortúa; Luis, Vélez; Víctor, Bucheli; Carlos, Dallos; Gerardo, Flores; Ana M, Herrera; Sergio, Franco.

2014-02-01

56

Tratamiento quirúrgico de la endocarditis infecciosa / Surgical treatment of infective endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: describir las características epidemiológicas y los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico temprano de los pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa intervenidos en el Departamento de Cirugía Cardiovascular de la Clínica Medellín, Colombia. Métodos: estudio observacional, descrip [...] tivo, retrospectivo, de todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa tratados mediante cirugía en la Clínica Medellín, entre enero de 2003 y enero de 2010. Resultados: se incluyeron en total 54 pacientes, 37 (68,5%) de ellos de género masculino. La mediana de la edad fue 57,5 años (9 - 76 años). El 77,7% tenía algún factor de riesgo para desarrollar endocarditis infecciosa; entre los más destacados insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC) en hemodiálisis (18,5%) y prótesis valvulares cardiacas (18,5%). El 66,7% de los hemocultivos fue positivo. Staphylococcus aureus fue el principal germen aislado en el 40,7% del total de pacientes. El 81,4% de las válvulas comprometidas eran nativas con predominio de la válvula mitral (44,5%) y el 7,5% presentaba compromiso de dos válvulas. En el 68,5% el motivo de consulta fue falla cardiaca y 35,3% presentaron fenómenos embólicos como manifestación inicial o asociada (cerebral 16,7%, pulmonar 13%, esplénica 5,6%). En el 83,3% de los casos se realizó cirugía temprana; 66% recibieron válvulas mecánicas. La mortalidad total a tres meses fue del 13% (muerte intraoperatoria 3,7%, mortalidad a 30 días, 9%). La mediana en el tiempo de estancia hospitalaria fue de 36 días (7 a 130 días). En este estudio se reporta una mortalidad total que se encuentra en el límite inferior de lo reportado en el mundo. Una de las razones atribuibles a este hallazgo es el manejo quirúrgico temprano que se protocoliza en el servicio. Abstract in english Objective: to describe the epidemiological characteristics and the results of early surgical treatment of patients diagnosed with infectious endocarditis who underwent surgery in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery in the Medellin Clinic, Colombia. Methods: observational, descriptive, retrospec [...] tive study of all the patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis treated by surgery in the Medellin Clinic between January 2003 and January 2010. Results: a total of 54 patients were included. 37 (68.5%) were male. Mean age was 57.5 years (9-76 years). 77.7% had a risk factor for developing infective endocarditis; among the most prominent risk factors were chronic renal failure (CRF), patients on hemodialysis (18.5%) and heart valve prostheses (18.5%). 66.7% of the blood cultures were positive. Staphylococcus aureus was the main germ isolated in 40.7% of patients. 81.4% of the involved valves were native, with mitral valve predominance (44.5%) and 7.5% had involvement of two valves. In 68.5% the reason for the consultation was heart failure and 35.3% had embolic phenomena as the initial manifestation or associated (16.7% cerebral, pulmonary 13%, spleen 5.6%). In 83.3 % of cases early surgery was performed: 66% received mechanical valves. The three-month total mortality was 13% (3.7% intraoperative death, mortality at 30 days 9%). The median length of hospital stay was 36 days (7-130 days). In this study the total mortality reported is at the lower limit of the reported in the world. One of the reasons attributed to this finding is the early surgical management that is the protocol in the service.

Alain, Eusse; Mauricio, Atehortúa; Luis, Vélez; Víctor, Bucheli; Carlos, Dallos; Gerardo, Flores; Ana M, Herrera; Sergio, Franco.

57

Infective Endocarditis: Identification of Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci from Blood Cultures by Partial 16S rRNA Gene Analysis and by Vitek 2 Examination  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Streptococci, enterococci and Streptococcus-like bacteria are frequent etiologic agents of infective endocarditis and correct species identification can be a laboratory challenge. Viridans streptococci (VS) not seldomly cause contamination of blood cultures. Vitek 2 and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were applied in order to compare the results of both methods. STRAINS ORIGINATED FROM TWO GROUPS OF PATIENTS: 149 strains from patients with infective endocarditis and 181 strains assessed as blood culture contaminants. Of the 330 strains, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing results, 251 (76%) were VS strains, 10 (3%) were pyogenic streptococcal strains, 54 (16%) were E. faecalis strains and 15 (5%) strains belonged to a group of miscellaneous catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci. Among VS strains, respectively, 220 (87,6%) and 31 (12,3%) obtained agreeing and non-agreeing identifications with the two methods with respect to allocation to the same VS group. Non-agreeing species identification mostly occurred among strains in the contaminant group, while for endocarditis strains notably fewer disagreeing results were observed.Only 67 of 150 strains in the mitis group strains obtained identical species identifications by the two methods. Most VS strains belonging to the groups of salivarius, anginosus, and mutans obtained agreeing species identifications with the two methods, while this only was the case for 13 of the 21 bovis strains. Pyogenic strains (n=10), Enterococcus faecalis strains (n=54) and a miscellaneous group of catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci (n=15) seemed well identified by both methods, except that disagreements in identifications in the miscellaneous group of strains occurred for 6 of 15 strains.

Abdul-Redha, Rawaa Jalil; Kemp, Michael

2010-01-01

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Evaluation of vancomycin population susceptibility analysis profile as a predictor of outcomes for patients with infective endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

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Infective endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA IE) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Vancomycin continues to be the primary treatment for this disease. The emergence of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA), defined as a modified population analysis profile (PAP) of ? 0.9, may affect patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of vancomycin subpopulation susceptibility and the clinical outcomes of MRSA IE. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients treated with vancomycin for MRSA IE from 2002 to 2013 at the Detroit Medical Center. A modified PAP was used to measure the vancomycin PAP MIC and the PAP-to-area under the curve (AUC) ratio. Treatment failure was defined as bacteremia for ? 7 days or death attributed to MRSA. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to select a failure breakpoint between the PAP-AUC ratios and the PAP MIC. A total of 202 patients were included in the study. Twenty-seven percent of the patients had left-sided IE, 19% of the strains were hVISA, and 70% of the strains were staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) type IV. Overall treatment failure was observed in 64%; 59% had persistent bacteremia, and the 30-day attributable mortality rate was 21%. The CART breakpoint between failure and success in terms of the PAP-AUC ratio was 0.9035. On logistic regression analysis, intensive care unit (ICU) admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 5.2) and a PAP MIC of ? 4 mg/liter (aOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 8.4) were associated with failure (P = 0.001 and 0.015, respectively). A PAP MIC of ? 4 mg/liter and ICU admission were significant for treatment failure for patients with MRSA IE. The PAP-AUC ratio of ? 0.9035 predicted failure consistent with the hVISA definition. The role of population MIC analysis in predicting outcome with MRSA infections warrants further investigation. PMID:24890596

Casapao, Anthony M; Davis, Susan L; McRoberts, John Paul; Lagnf, Abdalhamid M; Patel, Sonal; Kullar, Ravina; Levine, Donald P; Rybak, Michael J

2014-08-01

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Endocardite infecciosa causada por Eikenella corrodens / Eikenella corrodens infective endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os microorganismos do grupo HACEK (Haemophilus spp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens e Kingella kingae) são responsáveis por 3% dos casos de endocardites. Eles apresentam propriedades clínicas e microbiológicas semelhantes entre si: são bacilos gram- [...] negativos, isolados mais facilmente em meios aeróbicos, suas culturas necessitam de tempo prolongado de incubação para crescimento (média 3,3 dias) e podem ser considerados como parte da flora normal do trato respiratório superior e da orofaringe1,2. Algumas características foram identificadas nas endocardites por esses agentes, como o quadro clínico insidioso¹, diagnóstico difícil pela natureza fastidiosa e culturas negativas3,4. A endocardite por Eikenella corrodens foi descrita pela primeira vez em 1972(5) e continua sendo um agente etiológico raro. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com valva nativa que apresentou endocardite infecciosa causada por Eikenella corrodens. Abstract in english The HACEK microorganisms (Haemophilus spp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) account for 3% of the cases of endocarditis. They have the following similar clinical and microbiological properties: are Gram-negative bacilli, more ea [...] sily isolated in aerobic media; their cultures require prolonged incubation time for growing (mean, 3.3 days); and may be considered part of normal flora of upper respiratory tract and oropharynx1,2. The following characteristics have been identified in endocarditis caused by the HACEK microorganisms: insidious clinical findings¹; difficult diagnosis due to the fastidious nature of the microorganisms; and negative cultures3,4. The Eikenella corrodens endocarditis was first described in 1972(5). That microorganism continues to be a rare etiological agent. We report the case of a female patient with native valve, who had Eikenella corrodens infective endocarditis.

Juliano Novaes, Cardoso; Marcelo Eidi, Ochiai; Múcio T., Oliveira Jr.; Paulo, Morgado; Robinson, Munhoz; Fernanda E., Andretto; Alfredo José, Mansur; Antonio Carlos Pereira, Barretto.

2005-07-01

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Case report: Infective endocarditis caused by Brevundimonas vesicularis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reports in the literature of invasive infection caused by Brevundimonas vesicularis in patients without immunosuppression or other predisposing factors. The choice of antimicrobial therapy for bacteremia caused by the pathogen requires more case experience to be determined. Case presentation The case of a 40-year-old previously healthy man with subacute endocarditis proposed to be contributed from an occult dental abscess is described. The infection was found to be caused by B. vesicularis on blood culture results. The patient recovered without sequelae after treatment with ceftriaxone followed by subsequent ciprofloxacin therapy owing to an allergic reaction to ceftriaxone and treatment failure with ampicillin/sulbactam. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. vesicularis as a cause of infective endocarditis. According to an overview of the literature and our experience, we suggest that third-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin/tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin are effective in treating invasive B. vesicularis infections, while the efficacy of ampicillin-sulbactam needs further evaluation.

Chen Tun-Chieh

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
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[Infective endocarditis caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae--case report].  

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Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infectious disease, which leads to death when is untreated. In most cases IE is caused by typical bacteria. IE caused by atypical bacteria is rare. In this paper, we describe a female patient with IE caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (ER). Due to inflammation and leaflets' damage she underwent double-valve implantation (aortic and mitral ones). A long-term antibiotic therapy was given with good outcome. We also describe the organism, types of human diseases caused by ER and treatment options. PMID:15116160

Grabowski, Maciej; Cybulski, Micha?; Szostek, Jacek; Stepi?ska, Janina

2004-02-01

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Insufficient Living : Experiences of Recovery After Infective Endocarditis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND:: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a traumatic health event, and recovery is often associated with massive physical deconditioning and reduced quality of life. Patients also report reduced cognitive functioning and are at risk of developing anxiety and depression as well as posttraumatic stress disorder. Although studies have found that survivors of IE have impaired physical functioning and mental health, little is known about patient experiences contributing to these findings. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to describe patient experiences of recovery after IE. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:: Within a phenomenological-hermeneutical framework, a qualitative interview study was conducted that included 6 men and 5 women (aged 29-86 years). Patients were interviewed 3 to 6 months after discharge. Analysis consisted of 3 levels: naive reading, structured analysis, and critical interpretation and discussion. FINDINGS:: The overall concept that emerged was "Insufficient Living." Patients all experienced a life after illness, which was perceived as insufficient. The overall concept can be interpreted in terms of the following 3 themes. The first was "an altered life," where participants described a phase of adaptation to a new life situation, which some perceived as manageable and temporary, whereas others found extremely distressing and prolonged. "Shocking weakness" was experienced physically, cognitively, and emotionally, and although it subsided quickly for a few, most experienced a persisting weakness and felt frustrated about the prolonged recovery phase. In "the road to recovery," support from relatives and healthcare professionals, as well as one's own actions, was emphasized as important in facilitating recovery. CONCLUSIONS:: Recovery after IE is perceived as "Insufficient Living." Patients experience an altered life and shocking weakness, and on the road to recovery, support is needed. Research in follow-up care, supporting patients' ability to cope with potential physical and psycho-emotional consequences of IE, is encouraged as a result of these findings.

Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

2014-01-01

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Surgical treatment of infective endocarditis with special reference to prosthetic valve endocarditis.  

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Patients with native valve endocarditis treated surgically between 1968 and 1978 (n = 15) and all patients presenting with prosthetic valve endocarditis during this period (n = 21) were followed up for at least four years. Five of the patients with native valve endocarditis required urgent early surgical intervention, of whom two died. The remaining 10 underwent valve replacement after a course of antibiotic treatment: all survived, though one required further valve replacement. The 21 patien...

Westaby, S.; Oakley, C.; Sapsford, R. N.; Bentall, H. H.

1983-01-01

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Endocardite infecciosa valvar submetida a tratamento cirúrgico: análise de 64 casos / Infective valve endocarditis treated by surgery: analysis of 64 cases  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar aspectos clínico-laboratoriais da endocardite infecciosa valvar, tratada com cirurgia, no Hospital de Messejana, Fortaleza, CE, no período de 1988 a 2003. MÉTODO: Estudo observacional, retrospectivo, da fase hospitalar, de 64 pacientes portadores de endocardite infecciosa, subm [...] etidos à substituição valvar aórtica e/ou mitral, vegectomia e plastia da tricúspide e excisão da valva pulmonar, como parte do tratamento. Analisados o sexo, a idade, o tempo decorrido entre a internação e a cirurgia e entre a internação e a alta hospitalar, a valva acometida, o resultado da hemocultura, o procedimento cirúrgico efetuado e a mortalidade. RESULTADOS: A endocardite infecciosa valvar, tratada com cirurgia, preponderou na terceira década, 81,2% dos pacientes eram masculinos. O tempo decorrido entre a internamento e a cirurgia foi menor nos pacientes que faleceram. A valva aórtica, de modo isolado ou associado, foi acometida em 65% dos casos. Hemoculturas foram positivas em 42%; em 52,4% delas, isolou-se Estafilolococo aureus. Necessitaram de substituição valvar 93,7% dos pacientes. Houve mortalidade de 14,1%, não influenciada pela idade nem pelo resultado da hemocultura. CONCLUSÃO: Endocardite infecciosa valvar, submetida ao tratamento cirúrgico, foi mais freqüente em homens e na terceira década. Acometeu preferencialmente a valva aórtica. Estafilolococo aureus foi o patógeno mais comum. Na quase totalidade dos casos, procedeu-se substituição valvar e a mortalidade hospitalar foi de 14,1%. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify some aspects of the infective valve endocarditis treated by heart surgery, as well as antibiotic therapy, in a public hospital, in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil, from1988 to 2003. METHOD: A retrospective and observational study of 64 patients with Infective Valve [...] Endocarditis who required aortic and/or mitral valve replacement, tricuspid vegectomy and repair or pulmonary valve valvulectomy, as well as antibiotic therapy, during their in-hospital stay. They were analyzed in respect to gender, age, time elapsed from hospital admission to the surgery, time elapsed from hospital admission to hospital discharge, valve lesion, blood culture result, surgical treatment and mortality. RESULTS: Infective valve endocarditis treated with heart surgery was more frequent in the third decade of life. Most of patients (81.2%) were males. The patients who died spent a shorter time from hospital admission to the surgery than the patients who survived. The aortic valve was affected in 65% of cases. Positivity blood culture were seen in 42% and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 52.4% of these cases. Valve replacement was necessary in 93.7% of cases. The in-hospital mortality rate was 14.1% which was not influenced by the age of the patient or the blood culture result. CONCLUSION: Infective valve endocarditis treated by heart surgery was more frequent in men and in the third decade of life. It mostly affected the aortic valve. Staphylococcus aureus was the more common pathogen found. Almost all the patients needed replacement of the infected valve and the in-hospital mortality rate was 14.1%.

Demóstenes G. Lima, Ribeiro; Ricardo Pereira, Silva; Carlos Roberto Martins, Rodrigues Sobrinho; Pedro José Negreiros de, Andrade; Marcos Vinícius V., Ribeiro; Rosa M. Salani, Mota; João Martins de Sousa, Torres.

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Infective endocarditis and antibiotic prophylaxis: an issue that remains controversial in Dentistry  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The issue of infective endocarditis and its antibiotic prophylaxis has passed through major changes recently.All these changes are very dynamic and therefore cause much controversy. Historically and with no scientific basis, great emphasis has been given to the concept that dental procedures are the main cause of infective endocarditis cases.Objective: The purpose of this communication is to reconsider the procedures in dental practice, analyzing the important aspects in the prescription of antibiotics and minimizing the use ofantibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures. Conclusion:The oral health care and biofilm control should be the first steps in the prevention of infective endocarditis of odontogenic origin.

Orlando Cavezzi Junior

2010-07-01

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Surgical Management of Active Infective Endocarditis During 1996-06 in Tabriz, Northwestern Iran  

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Objective: Surgical treatment of active infective endocarditis (IE) requires not only homodynamic repair, but also, special emphasis on the eradiation of the infection to prevent recurrence. This study was undertaken to examine the outcome of surgery for active infective endocarditis in a cohort of patients.Patients and Methods: One hundred and sixty-four consecutive patients underwent valve surgery for active IE in Madani heart centre (Tabriz, Iran) from 1996 to 2006. The patients with diagn...

Azin Alizadehasl; Rasoul Azarfarin2,; Rezayat Parvizi; Farnaz Sepasi3,; Shamsi Ghaffari1

2008-01-01

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Infective endocarditis caused by Salmonella enteritidis in a dialysis patient: a case report and literature review  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Infective endocarditis is significantly more common in haemodialysis patients as compared with the general population, the causative pathogen is generally Staphylococcus aureus; there have been no previously reported cases of infective endocarditis caused by a Salmonella species in haemodialysis patients. Case Presentation We report the case of a 68 year-old woman on haemodialysis who developed infective endocarditis as a result of Salmonella enteritidis. Although we treated the patient with ceftriaxone combined with ciprofloxacin, infective endocarditis was not detected early enough and unfortunately developed into cerebral septic emboli, which ultimately resulted in death. Conclusion Although there are several reports that Salmonella endocarditis without cardiac failure can be successfully treated with antibiotics alone, early surgical intervention is essential for some cases to prevent life-threatening complications. Transesophageal echocardiography should be performed in any patient with high clinical suspicion of infective endocarditis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case-report of Salmonella endocarditis in a haemodialysis patient.

Tamagaki Keiichi

2009-09-01

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Postcaesarean open-heart surgery for Streptococcus sanguinis infective endocarditis.  

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A 33-week pregnant (gravida 3), 29-year-old woman was transferred for management of Streptococcus sanguinis infective endocarditis. A vegetation was present on the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve with moderate mitral regurgitation. On admission (day 1), the ultrasound examination revealed splenic abscesses and retarded intrauterine growth albeit with normal vessels. The fetal heart rate was 140 bpm. On day 11, the baby was delivered by Caesarean, and then the mother underwent tubal ligation followed by a mitral valve repair. The splenic abscess was treated with antibiotics. The woman was clinically stable and recovered uneventfully. This successful outcome was achieved by a strategic (optimal and sequential) timeline for selecting the mode of delivery and type of mitral valve correction. PMID:24234426

Kongwattanakul, Kiattisak; Tribuddharat, Sirirat; Prathanee, Sompop; Pachirat, Orathai

2013-01-01

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Infective endocarditis detection through SPECT/CT images digital processing  

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Infective endocarditis (IE) is a difficult-to-diagnose pathology, since its manifestation in patients is highly variable. In this work, it was proposed a semiautomatic algorithm based on SPECT images digital processing for the detection of IE using a CT images volume as a spatial reference. The heart/lung rate was calculated using the SPECT images information. There were no statistically significant differences between the heart/lung rates values of a group of patients diagnosed with IE (2.62+/-0.47) and a group of healthy or control subjects (2.84+/-0.68). However, it is necessary to increase the study sample of both the individuals diagnosed with IE and the control group subjects, as well as to improve the images quality.

Moreno, Albino; Valdés, Raquel; Jiménez, Luis; Vallejo, Enrique; Hernández, Salvador; Soto, Gabriel

2014-03-01

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Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: the value of screening with echocardiography  

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Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population.

Gill, Sabine; Rosenvinge, Flemming S

2011-01-01

71

Biodegradable materials for surgical management of infective endocarditis: new solution or a dead end street?  

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Background One third of patients with infective endocarditis will require operative intervention. Given the superiority of valve repair over valve replacement in many indications other than endocarditis, there has been increasing interest and an increasing number of reports of excellent results of valve repair in acute infective endocarditis. The theoretically ideal material for valve repair in this setting is non-permanent, “vanishing” material, not at risk of seeding or colonization. The goal of this contribution is to review currently available data on biodegradable materials for valve repair in infective endocarditis. Discussion Rigorous electronic and manual literature searches were conducted to identify reports of biodegradable materials for valve repair in infective endocarditis. Articles were identified in electronic database searches of Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library, using a predetermined search strategy. 49 manuscripts were included in the review. Prosthetic materials needed for valve repair can be summarized into annuloplasty rings to remodel the mitral or tricuspid annulus, and patch materials to replace resected valvar tissue. The commercially available biodegradable annuloplasty ring has shown interesting clinical results in a single-center experience; however further data is required for validation and longer follow-up. Unmodified extra-cellular matrix patches, such as small intestinal submucosa, have had promising initial experimental and clinical results in non-infected valve repair, although in valve repair for endocarditis has been reported in only one patient, and concerns have been raised regarding their mechanical stability in an infected field. Summary These evolving biodegradable devices offer the potential for valve repair with degradable materials replaced with autologous tissue, which could further improve the results of valve repair for infective endocarditis. This is an evolving field with promising experimental or initial clinical results, however long-term outcomes are lacking and further data is necessary to validate this theoretically interesting approach to infective endocarditis. PMID:25087015

2014-01-01

72

Infective endocarditis complicated by aortic graft infection and osteomyelitis: case report and review of literature.  

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Primary aortic graft infection early after aortic graft insertion is well described in the literature. Here, we present a unique case of late aortic graft infection 5 years after insertion secondary to mitral valve endocarditis, resulting from cellulitis in a patient with severe venous varicosities. A 63-year-old male presented for severe low back pain, constipation, and low-grade fever. An abdominal computed tomography scan with oral and intravenous contrast showed a normal spine and urinary tract. Blood and urine cultures, done at the same time, grew Staphylococcus aureus. A transesophageal echocardiogram confirmed the diagnosis of endocarditis. Subsequently, a gallium scan showed increased uptake in the vertebral bodies, aortic graft, left patella, and left ankle. After 3 months of antibiotic therapy, the patient's low back pain resolved with normalization of his laboratory values. He remained free of infection at a 2-year follow-up. We reviewed the literature concerning the atypical presentation of infective endocarditis, with a focus on distant metastases at initial presentation, such as osteomyelitis and aortic graft infection, as well as the different treatment modalities. This report describes successful medical treatment with intravenous followed by oral antibiotics for an infected endovascular graft without any surgical intervention. PMID:22866008

Zouein, Elie; Wetz, Robert; Mobarakai, Neville; Hassan, Samer; Tong, Iris

2012-01-01

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Estudio retrospectivo de la endocarditis infecciosa en diferentes grupos de riesgo Infective endocarditis in an internal medicine ward  

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Full Text Available Background: Due to the increasing number of intravenous drug users, subjects with immune deficiencies or with prosthetic valves, infective endocarditis (IE continues to be prevalent and to have a high mortality. Aim: To review all cases of infective endocarditis diagnosed in an Internal Medicine Service. Material and methods: Retrospective review of medical records of all patients with infective endocarditis, hospitalized in an Internal Medicine ward, between 1989 and 2003. Dukes criteria were used to define definitive, possible and less probable cases of IE. Results: Eighty seven patients with definite IE were identified (66 males, age range 19-84 years, with a mean incidence of 5.3 per 1000 hospitalizations. IE in intravenous drugs users was usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus and presented high risk of embolism (RR: 3,21. Subjects aged over 70 years had a relative risk of mortality of 5.5. Hospital acquired IE was associated with advanced age and IV catheters appeared as the only predisposing factor. Patients with prosthetic valves were also older, their main complication was abscess formation and their mortality was higher. Conclusions: A closer approach to differential conditions of patients, according to age, intravenous drug use or the presence of prosthetic valves, is necessary

Álvaro Hermida Ameijeiras

2007-01-01

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Infective endocarditis complicated by aortic graft infection and osteomyelitis: case report and review of literature  

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Full Text Available Elie Zouein,1 Robert Wetz,1 Neville Mobarakai,1 Samer Hassan,1 Iris Tong21Department of Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, New York, NY USA; 2Department of Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Primary aortic graft infection early after aortic graft insertion is well described in the literature. Here, we present a unique case of late aortic graft infection 5 years after insertion secondary to mitral valve endocarditis, resulting from cellulitis in a patient with severe venous varicosities. A 63-year-old male presented for severe low back pain, constipation, and low-grade fever. An abdominal computed tomography scan with oral and intravenous contrast showed a normal spine and urinary tract. Blood and urine cultures, done at the same time, grew Staphylococcus aureus. A transesophageal echocardiogram confirmed the diagnosis of endocarditis. Subsequently, a gallium scan showed increased uptake in the vertebral bodies, aortic graft, left patella, and left ankle. After 3 months of antibiotic therapy, the patient's low back pain resolved with normalization of his laboratory values. He remained free of infection at a 2-year follow-up. We reviewed the literature concerning the atypical presentation of infective endocarditis, with a focus on distant metastases at initial presentation, such as osteomyelitis and aortic graft infection, as well as the different treatment modalities. This report describes successful medical treatment with intravenous followed by oral antibiotics for an infected endovascular graft without any surgical intervention.Keywords: endocarditis, osteomyelitis, aortic graft infection, septic emboli, endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR

Zouein E

2012-07-01

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Identification of bacterial antigens in circulating immune complexes of infective endocarditis.  

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The presence of circulating immune complexes (IC) in patients with infective endocarditis has been well documented but the contributions of host and bacterial components to these IC have not been defined. To study this question, IC were isolated from serum of a patient with Streptococcus faecalis endocarditis by differential polyethylene glycol precipitation and competitive binding to staphylococcal protein A. A rabbit antiserum raised against the purified IC had reactivity by crossed immunoe...

Inman, R. D.; Redecha, P. B.; Knechtle, S. J.; Schned, E. S.; Rijn, I.; Christian, C. L.

1982-01-01

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Endocarditis infecciosa actinomicótica de la válvula mitral: Caso de autopsia y revisión de la literatura / Actinomycotic infective endocarditis of the mitral valve: Anatomoclinical case and review of literature  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La infección actinomicótica del corazón es una enfermedad poco común, especialmente cuando el compromiso endocárdico valvular es primario. Sólo unos pocos casos han sido publicados. Comunicamos un caso de endocarditis primaria por Actinomyces sp de la válvula mitral, diagnosticada en la necropsia de [...] un hombre de 34 años con antecedentes de valvulopatía reumática crónica, que falleció con una endocarditis infecciosa Abstract in english Actinomycotic infections of the heart is an uncommon disease, especially if the infection affects the valvular endocardium as primary focus. Just a few cases have been reported previously. We report a case of primary endocarditis of the mitral valve caused by Actinomyces sp diagnosed at necropsy in [...] a 34 year-old man with history of chronic rheumatic disease presenting as a usual case of infective endocarditis

David, Oddó B; Fernanda, Ayala R.

2007-06-01

77

Infective endocarditis of a rare etiology: Serratia marcescens  

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Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is a unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is a severe disease, fatal before penicillin discovery. Atypical presentations frequently led to delayed diagnosis and poor outcome. There was little information about the natural history of the vegetations during medical treatment or the relation of morphologic changes in vegetation to late complications. Application of a new diagnostic criteria and echocardiography, increased the number of definite diagnosis. Trans-thoracic and trans-esophageal echocardiography had an established role in the management of patients with IE. The evolution of vegetation size, its mobility, and consistency, the extent of the disease, and the severity of valvular regurgutation were related to late complications. With therapeutic options including modern antibiotic treatment and early surgical intervention IE turned out to be a curable disease. Reduction in mortality also depended on prevention. Antibiotic prophylaxis of IE was important, but low mortality was also the result of early treatment, especially in the event of early recognition of symptoms and signs of the disease.

?oki? Milomir

2004-01-01

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[Embolomycotic pseudoaneurysm of the common femoral artery in infective endocarditis].  

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A male patient, six years old, with mitral valve endocarditis presented with pseudoaneurysm of the right femoral artery. He was submitted to surgical treatment with reconstruction of the artery with good outcome. PMID:8285868

Jorge, S do C; Sampaio, M F; Leão, P P; Izukawa, N; Kambara, A M; Assef, J E; Arnoni, A S; Paulista, P P; Piegas, L S; Magalhães, H M

1993-07-01

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Infective endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in a patient with atopic dermatitis: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction- Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common condition in the United Kingdom with the prevalence varying from 21% in infants aged 0–6 months to 6.4% at the age of 16 years. Patients with AD experience high rates of colonization of their skin surfaces by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. In severe AD there is a potential risk of staphylococcal bacteremia and invasive infection such as acute endocarditis. Case presentation- We report a case of acute endocarditis with mitral valve destruction caused by S. aureus in a 30-year-old man with severe AD. The patient received intensive inpatient treatment with antibiotics and underwent successful mitral valve replacement and skin treatment for AD. Conclusion- Patients with severe AD are at higher risk of staphylococcal bacteremia and endocarditis. Staphylococcal endocarditis has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile illness in patients with uncontrolled atopic dermatitis.

Mohiyiddeen Gadha

2008-05-01

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Infective endocarditis caused by Neisseria elongata on a native tricuspid valve and confirmed by DNA sequencing.  

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Neisseria elongata, a common oral bacterium, has been recognized as a cause of infections such as infective endocarditis, septicemia, and osteomyelitis. Neisseria-induced infective endocarditis, although infrequently reported, typically arises after dental procedures. Without antibiotic therapy, its complications can be severe. We report the case of a 27-year-old man who presented with fever, severe dyspnea, and a leg abscess from cellulitis. An echocardiogram showed a vegetation-like echogenic structure on the septal leaflet of the patient's native tricuspid valve, and an insignificant Gerbode defect. Three blood cultures grew gram-negative, antibiotic-susceptible coccobacilli that were confirmed to be N. elongata. Subsequent DNA sequencing conclusively isolated N. elongata subsp nitroreducens as the organism responsible for the infective endocarditis. The patient recovered after 21 days of antibiotic therapy. In addition to the patient's unusual case, we discuss the nature and isolation of N. elongata and its subspecies. PMID:24808790

Yoo, Yeon Pyo; Kang, Ki-Woon; Yoon, Hyeon Soo; Yoo, Seungmin; Lee, Myung-Shin

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Infective Endocarditis Caused by Neisseria elongata on a Native Tricuspid Valve and Confirmed by DNA Sequencing  

Science.gov (United States)

Neisseria elongata, a common oral bacterium, has been recognized as a cause of infections such as infective endocarditis, septicemia, and osteomyelitis. Neisseria-induced infective endocarditis, although infrequently reported, typically arises after dental procedures. Without antibiotic therapy, its complications can be severe. We report the case of a 27-year-old man who presented with fever, severe dyspnea, and a leg abscess from cellulitis. An echocardiogram showed a vegetation-like echogenic structure on the septal leaflet of the patient's native tricuspid valve, and an insignificant Gerbode defect. Three blood cultures grew gram-negative, antibiotic-susceptible coccobacilli that were confirmed to be N. elongata. Subsequent DNA sequencing conclusively isolated N. elongata subsp nitroreducens as the organism responsible for the infective endocarditis. The patient recovered after 21 days of antibiotic therapy. In addition to the patient's unusual case, we discuss the nature and isolation of N. elongata and its subspecies. PMID:24808790

Yoo, Yeon Pyo; Kang, Ki-Woon; Yoon, Hyeon Soo; Yoo, Seungmin; Lee, Myung-Shin

2014-01-01

82

Mitro-aortic infective endocarditis produced by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae: case report and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endocarditis produced by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is an uncommon disease in humans. This bacterial species is found worldwide as a commensal or a pathogen in many animals. Infection in humans is usually due to occupational exposure. The case is reported of a 43-year-old male parrot breeder with native aortic and mitral valve endocarditis and NYHA class II heart failure at six months after wound infection. The patient was discharged after six weeks' treatment with intravenous penicillin G and replacement of the mitral and aortic valves due to severe regurgitation. At one year after surgery the patient was asymptomatic and infection-free. PMID:15974525

Nassar, Ibrahim M; de la Llana, Ramiro; Garrido, Pilar; Martinez-Sanz, Rafael

2005-05-01

83

Mitral leaflet restoration using a billowing leaflet in active infective endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A key to the success of mitral valve repair in patients with infective endocarditis is the technique used for reconstruction of the missing leaflet. We report the case of a 47-year-old man with active mitral infective endocarditis. After dissection of the infected segments of P3 and the posteromedial commissure, the defect was reconstructed using tissue from a billowing A2 medial and A3 segment. Chordal transfer with an anterior chord was performed to correct the A3 mild prolapse. Follow-up echocardiography showed recovery of mitral valve morphology and function without regurgitation. PMID:24484843

Miura, Takashi; Nakaji, Shun; Ariyoshi, Tsuneo; Tsuneto, Akira; Hashizume, Koji; Eishi, Kiyoyuki

2014-02-01

84

Infective endocarditis caused by Cellulomonas spp. in an intravenous drug user: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulomonas spp. are often believed to be of low virulence. There are only a few reports of human infections. We report the first case of endocarditis caused by Cellulomonas in an intravenous drug abuser. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) in this case was definite using the Duke criteria. The course of the disease was complicated with a heart failure and possible mycotic aneurysm in the left leg. After the end of antimicrobial therapy aortic valve replacement was done because of severe heart failure. PMID:23653152

Logar, Mateja; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana

2013-06-01

85

Infective endocarditis and osteomyelitis caused by Cellulomonas: a case report and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulomonas spp. are often believed to be of low virulence and have never been reported as a pathogen causing human disease before. We report the first case of endocarditis caused by Cellulomonas and complicated with osteomyelitis of the lumbar spine in a 78-year-old woman. General weakness and aggravated lower back pain followed by sudden-onset of fever and chills were the major presentation. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis in this case was definitely using the Duke criteria. The magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine revealed infective spondylodisciitis at an early stage. After a full course of antibiotics treatment, the patient's fever subsided but her lower back pain persisted. A slow clinical response to appropriate antimicrobial agents was characteristic of Gram-positive bacillary endocarditis. PMID:19748430

Lai, Ping-Chang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung

2009-10-01

86

Infective endocarditis associated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement: potential importance of local trauma for a deadly nidus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as an alternative for the treatment of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis patients. Although experience with TAVR is increasing exponentially, few cases of post-TAVR endocarditis are reported. We present a case of 76-year-old man with infective endocarditis after TAVR who was definitely diagnosed by echocardiography. PMID:25309690

Lee, Hak Seung; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Jung, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hyue Mee; Kim, Chee Hae; Park, Jun-Bean; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Sohn, Dae-Won

2014-09-01

87

Infective Endocarditis Associated with Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Potential Importance of Local Trauma for a Deadly Nidus  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as an alternative for the treatment of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis patients. Although experience with TAVR is increasing exponentially, few cases of post-TAVR endocarditis are reported. We present a case of 76-year-old man with infective endocarditis after TAVR who was definitely diagnosed by echocardiography. PMID:25309690

Lee, Hak Seung; Jung, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hyue Mee; Kim, Chee Hae; Park, Jun-Bean; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Sohn, Dae-Won

2014-01-01

88

Un brote epidémico de endocarditis por Pseudomonas aeruginosa secundario a angiografía coronaria / An outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infective endocarditis subsequent to coronary angiography  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Describir un brote de endocarditis por Pseudomonas aeruginosa que afectó a tres pacientes tras habérseles efectuado una coronariografía en el Centro Médico de Cardiología y de Cirugía Cardiovascular (CMC-CCV) de un hospital privado. Métodos: Después de reconocer la aparición de un brote e [...] n un periodo de un mes, este hecho fue comunicado al Departamento de Salud de Antalya, iniciándose una exhaustiva investigación para precisar la más probable causa y/o fuente de las endocarditis nosocomiales. Se extrajo de los registros médicos los datos clínicos de los pacientes y se efectuaron entrevistas a los pacientes o sus familiares. Se extrajo 36 muestras medioambientales de vigilancia en busca de P. aeruginosa de diversos sitios dentro de la unidad de coronariografía. Un team que investigó el brote revisó los procedimientos en uso para la prevención de infecciones en el CMC-CCV. Se estudió la epidemiología de la P. aeruginosa mediante análisis de su fenotipos, incluyendo el perfil de susceptibilidad in vitro a antimicrobianos. Resultados: La auditoria comprobó el quiebre de diversas normas de control de infecciones. Sólo 1/36 de las muestras ambientales arrojó el cultivo de P. aeruginosa, a partir de una solución de medio radio-opaco dentro de una bomba inyectora empleada en las angiografías. Los aislados de P. aeruginosa desde la solución del medio radio-opaco tenían idéntico patrón de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana que las cepas recuperadas de los pacientes. Ambos tipos de muestras eran susceptibles a todos los antimicrobianos con actividad anti-pseudomonas. El brote pudo evitarse si se hubieran instaurado una serie de medidas de control de infecciones. Conclusiones: Este brote enfatiza la importancia de adherir a los estándares y prácticas de control de infecciones para la cateterización cardiaca, así como la necesidad de una estrecha colaboración entre el Comité de Control de Infecciones y el personal involucrado en el procedimiento de coronariografía. Abstract in english Objectives: To describe an endocarditis outbreak affecting three patients due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection post coronary angiography performed in the Cardiovascular Surgery and Cardiology Medical Center of a private hospital. Methods: After recognition of an infection cluster within a onemont [...] h period, the outbreak was reported to Antalya Department of Health and a broad investigation was initiated in order to determine the most probable cause and/or source of nosocomial pseudomonal endocarditis. Patient data were obtained by medical record review as well as interviews with patients or their next of kin. Thirty-six surveillance samples for P. aeruginosa were collected from various locations within the coronary angiography unit. The outbreak research team reviewed the private hospital's Cardiovascular Surgery and Cardiology Medical Center's infection control procedures. The epidemiology of P. aeruginosa was studied through analysis of phenotypic markers, including antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. Results: The infection control audit revealed multiple breaches of infection control procedures. Only 1/36 environmental samples yielded, which was isolated from a radio-opaque solution within an angiography injector pump. P. aeruginosa from the radio-opaque solution had an identical antimicrobial susceptibility pattern to the strain isolated from patients. Both samples were susceptible to all antipseudomonal agents. This outbreak could have been successfully controlled by instituting combined infection control measures. Conclusions: This outbreak emphasizes the important of adherence to infection control standards and practices for cardiac catheterization, as well as the need for closer collaboration between the Infection Control Committee and coronary angiography personnel.

Derya, Seyman; Dilara, Inan; Nevgun, Sepin Ozen; Dilara, Ogunc.

89

Un brote epidémico de endocarditis por Pseudomonas aeruginosa secundario a angiografía coronaria / An outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infective endocarditis subsequent to coronary angiography  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Describir un brote de endocarditis por Pseudomonas aeruginosa que afectó a tres pacientes tras habérseles efectuado una coronariografía en el Centro Médico de Cardiología y de Cirugía Cardiovascular (CMC-CCV) de un hospital privado. Métodos: Después de reconocer la aparición de un brote e [...] n un periodo de un mes, este hecho fue comunicado al Departamento de Salud de Antalya, iniciándose una exhaustiva investigación para precisar la más probable causa y/o fuente de las endocarditis nosocomiales. Se extrajo de los registros médicos los datos clínicos de los pacientes y se efectuaron entrevistas a los pacientes o sus familiares. Se extrajo 36 muestras medioambientales de vigilancia en busca de P. aeruginosa de diversos sitios dentro de la unidad de coronariografía. Un team que investigó el brote revisó los procedimientos en uso para la prevención de infecciones en el CMC-CCV. Se estudió la epidemiología de la P. aeruginosa mediante análisis de su fenotipos, incluyendo el perfil de susceptibilidad in vitro a antimicrobianos. Resultados: La auditoria comprobó el quiebre de diversas normas de control de infecciones. Sólo 1/36 de las muestras ambientales arrojó el cultivo de P. aeruginosa, a partir de una solución de medio radio-opaco dentro de una bomba inyectora empleada en las angiografías. Los aislados de P. aeruginosa desde la solución del medio radio-opaco tenían idéntico patrón de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana que las cepas recuperadas de los pacientes. Ambos tipos de muestras eran susceptibles a todos los antimicrobianos con actividad anti-pseudomonas. El brote pudo evitarse si se hubieran instaurado una serie de medidas de control de infecciones. Conclusiones: Este brote enfatiza la importancia de adherir a los estándares y prácticas de control de infecciones para la cateterización cardiaca, así como la necesidad de una estrecha colaboración entre el Comité de Control de Infecciones y el personal involucrado en el procedimiento de coronariografía. Abstract in english Objectives: To describe an endocarditis outbreak affecting three patients due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection post coronary angiography performed in the Cardiovascular Surgery and Cardiology Medical Center of a private hospital. Methods: After recognition of an infection cluster within a onemont [...] h period, the outbreak was reported to Antalya Department of Health and a broad investigation was initiated in order to determine the most probable cause and/or source of nosocomial pseudomonal endocarditis. Patient data were obtained by medical record review as well as interviews with patients or their next of kin. Thirty-six surveillance samples for P. aeruginosa were collected from various locations within the coronary angiography unit. The outbreak research team reviewed the private hospital's Cardiovascular Surgery and Cardiology Medical Center's infection control procedures. The epidemiology of P. aeruginosa was studied through analysis of phenotypic markers, including antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. Results: The infection control audit revealed multiple breaches of infection control procedures. Only 1/36 environmental samples yielded, which was isolated from a radio-opaque solution within an angiography injector pump. P. aeruginosa from the radio-opaque solution had an identical antimicrobial susceptibility pattern to the strain isolated from patients. Both samples were susceptible to all antipseudomonal agents. This outbreak could have been successfully controlled by instituting combined infection control measures. Conclusions: This outbreak emphasizes the important of adherence to infection control standards and practices for cardiac catheterization, as well as the need for closer collaboration between the Infection Control Committee and coronary angiography personnel.

Derya, Seyman; Dilara, Inan; Nevgun, Sepin Ozen; Dilara, Ogunc.

2014-06-01

90

Awareness of infective endocarditis prophylaxis in parents of children with congenital heart disease: A prospective survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A prospective survey of parents of the children with congenital heart disesease was conducted to determine their awareness as regards the importance of oral hygiene and prophylaxis against infective endocarditis (IE. The results of this study demonstrated that only 8% of the parents were aware of the importance of good oro-dental hygiene and need for IE prophylaxis.

Nath Parrimala

2008-01-01

91

[Infective endocarditis with perivalvular abscess in a patient with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae bacteremia].  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacterial species Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is found worldwide as a commensal or a pathogen in a variety of animals. One well-defined pattern of human infection is an uncommon bacteremic form, with or without cutaneous involvement, usually complicated by endocarditis. We report the case of a 38-year-old male butcher with E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia, native aortic valve endocarditis and perivalvular abscess. The patient was released after six weeks of intravenous ceftriaxone and aortic valve replacement because of severe regurgitation. PMID:12150010

Melero, Marcelo J; Campos, Ana L; Benetucci, Ariana; Famiglietti, Angela; Vay, Carlos A

2002-01-01

92

Infective endocarditis associated with mitral valve prolapse in a patient with Klinefelter syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

We herein report a case of infective endocarditis associated with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) in a 34-year-old man with Klinefelter syndrome. The patient was admitted with a fever and headache that had persisted for three weeks. Repeated blood cultures showed growth of Streptococcus oralis. Echocardiography demonstrated severe mitral regurgitation with a large vegetation attached to the prolapsed anterior leaflet. Surgical plasty of the mitral valve was performed because the vegetation measured over 10 mm in diameter and there was a risk of recurrence of embolic complications. This case demonstrates the link between MVP and Klinefelter syndrome and highlights the importance of performing cardiovascular screening and preventing endocarditis. PMID:24785888

Ueki, Yasushi; Izawa, Atsushi; Ebisawa, Souichiro; Motoki, Hirohiko; Miyashita, Yusuke; Tomita, Takeshi; Koyama, Jun; Takano, Tamaki; Amano, Jun; Ikeda, Uichi

2014-01-01

93

Cardiobacterium valvarum infective endocarditis and phenotypic/molecular characterization of 11 Cardiobacterium species strains  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cardiobacterium valvarum is a newly recognized human pathogen related to infective endocarditis. Cardiobacterium species are, however, only rarely the aetiology of infective endocarditis. An infective endocarditis case is presented and, additionally, phenotypic and phylogenetic comparison of a further 10 collection strains, representing the two species within the genus, was performed. C. valvarum was isolated from the blood and DNA was present in valvular tissue (partial 16S rRNA gene analysis) from a 64-year-old man with infective endocarditis of the mitral valve, rupture of chordae and prolapse of pulmonary valves in addition to a fluttering excrescence. A mechanical mitral valve and neochordae were inserted successfully. Phenotypically, the two species within the genus Cardiobacterium resemble each other greatly. When using the Vitek 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus identification card, the reaction for phenylphosphonate was positive for all Cardiobacterium hominis strains, but negative for all C. valvarum strains,thereby separating the two species. The two species made up two separate clusters by phylogenetic examination using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

Kemp, Michael

2011-01-01

94

NICE guideline on antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: attitudes to the guideline and implications for dental practice in Ireland.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

To investigate attitudes of Irish dental practitioners, cardiologists and patients with cardiac lesions to the new NICE guideline for antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis and to determine the implications of this guideline for dental practice in Ireland.

2009-03-28

95

Patient with congenital heart malformation and infective endocarditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present the case of a 17 year-old-man, with no remarkable past medical history, who had a one month history of worsening functional class, fatigability and dyspnea, in addition to fever and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS; a de-novo congenital heart malformation, situs inversus type, with levocardia and a ventricular septal defect (VSD associated with transposition of great vessels were documented. During hospitalization he received several antibiotic treatments without microbiological isolation or identification of the cause of hemodynamic decompensation. An Aspergillus endocarditis with emboli to different organs was identified in the post-mortem examination.

Ramírez Ortiz, Zoraida

2014-10-01

96

Health Care-Associated Infective Endocarditis: a Growing Entity that Can Be Prevented.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infective endocarditis (IE) continues to be a serious disease with a poor prognosis and high mortality. Neither incidence rates nor mortality have decreased in recent decades. Because of this, it is important to prevent IE in patients at risk. In the past, prevention of IE has focused on antimicrobial prophylaxis, mainly for dental procedures. However, recent major changes in epidemiology, the most significant being the growing frequency and high mortality rate of health care-associated valve endocarditis (HAIE), mean that preventive strategies against IE must also change. Since intravascular catheters are the most common source of bacteremia among patients with HAIE, significant efforts must be made to minimize the risk of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Measures for preventing the infection of prosthetic valves and cardiac implantable devices at the time of implantation also need to be implemented. PMID:25230606

Benito, Natividad; Pericas, Juan M; Gurguí, Mercè; Mestres, Carlos A; Marco, Francesc; Moreno, Asunción; Horcajada, Juan P; Miró, José M

2014-11-01

97

Efficacy of Levofloxacin for Experimental Aortic-Valve Endocarditis in Rabbits Infected with Viridans Group Streptococcus or Staphylococcus aureus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Levofloxacin is among the more active fluoroquinolones against streptococci and staphylococci. It is effective against moderately severe infections caused by these organisms, but its efficacy in the treatment of bacteremia and serious infections such as endocarditis is not well defined. We compared the efficacy of levofloxacin to those of standard agents in the rabbit model of aortic-valve endocarditis caused by fluoroquinolone-susceptible strains including a penicillin-susceptible strain of ...

Chambers, Henry F.; Xiang, Qing; Liu; Chow, Lucian Liuxin; Hackbarth, Corinne

1999-01-01

98

Isolated Pulmonary Valve Endocarditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is one of the most severe complications of parenteral drug abuse. The outstanding clinical feature of infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers is the high incidence of right-sided valve infection, and the tricuspid valve is involved in 60% to 70% of the cases. We herein report a case of isolated pulmonic valve infective endocarditis with a native pulmonary valve.

Mohammad Ali Hatamizadeh

2009-06-01

99

Radiolabeled antibody in the detection of infection using endocarditis as a model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have examined a method to detect infections using radiolabeled antibodies. Staphylococcal endocarditis was chosen as a model because it poses a common clinical diagnostic problem. The experiments demonstrate that biologically active antibodies may be extracted and efficiently labeled by a relatively simple process. This has the potential to make the specificity of the in vivo antigen-antibody reaction available through the use of autologously extracted, labeled ?-globulin

100

Infective endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in a patient with atopic dermatitis: a case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Introduction- Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common condition in the United Kingdom with the prevalence varying from 21% in infants aged 0–6 months to 6.4% at the age of 16 years. Patients with AD experience high rates of colonization of their skin surfaces by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). In severe AD there is a potential risk of staphylococcal bacteremia and invasive infection such as acute endocarditis. Case presentation- We report a case of acut...

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

[A surgical technique of tricuspid valve repair for infective endocarditis using an autologous pericardium].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a surgically treated case of tricuspid valve endocarditis. A 33-year-old man was diagnosed with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and active infective endocarditis associated with severe tricuspid regurgitation. Ultrasonic echocardiography (UCG) showed vegetations attached to the tricuspid valve. His blood culture was positive for Streptococcus oralis. Although intravenous antibiotics therapy was effective, chest computed tomography( CT) revealed multiple septic pulmonary enboli in right lung and UCG showed severe tricuspid valve regurgitation. So we performed tricuspid valve repair by reconstructing septal leaflet using an autologous pericardium, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene( ePTFE) artificial chordae and annuloplasty ring. The postoperative course was uneventful, without tricuspid regurgitation or stenosis. He has been free from any complication for over 8 months. This surgical technique of tricuspid valve repair with an autologous pericardium and ePTFE artificial chordae for infective endocarditis might be useful choice of procedure for patients with leaflet destruction, in particular for young patients because of less recurrence of infection, less chance of anticoagulant therapy and expected long uneventful course. PMID:22485034

Yamamoto, Naoki; Fujii, Taro; Kogure, Shuhei; Watanabe, Fumiaki; Yuasa, Uhito; Tokui, Toshiya; Okada, Yukikatsu

2012-04-01

102

Endocarditis infecciosa en pacientes con daño hepático crónico: Serie de 4 casos clínicos Infective endocarditis in patients with chronic hepatic failure: A four cases series  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La asociación entre daño hepático y endocarditis infecciosa es infrecuente. Para analizar los factores predisponentes de esta asociación, la etiología microbiana y evolución clínica, se efectuó un análisis retrospectivo de los egresos por endocarditis infecciosa en pacientes con cirrosis hepática desde 1995 a junio de 2008. Se identificaron cuatro casos, asociados a categoría Child A en tres y en todos había una cardiopatía predisponente. Las manifestaciones clínicas fueron clásicas excepto en un caso que se presentó como descompensación hepática. Sólo un caso se asoció a un agente típico, otros a un agente nosocomial y Corynebacterium diphtheriae. En un caso no se identificó la etiología. Uno de los pacientes requirió cirugía de reemplazo valvular. Tres pacientes se recuperaron (Child A y el paciente en categoría Child C falleció. Aunque infrecuente, la asociación cirrosis y endocarditis ocurre en la práctica clínica, se puede asociar a agentes inhabituales y tener manifestaciones encubiertas.Infective endocarditis and liver cirrhosis is an infrequent association. A retrospective study was performed in order to characterize predisposing factors, microbial causes and evolution. Medical records between 1995 and 2008 (June were searched. Four cases were identified. In three cases liver cirrhosis was in stage Child A, and in all 4 there was a predisposing cardiac disease. Clinical manifestations were classical in 3 cases and in one presented as hepatic failure. Only in one case a typical agent was recovered. Other cases were associated to a nosocomial agent or Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and in one no agent was identified. One patient required valve replacement. Three patients recovered satisfactorily, all of them in Child A stage. One died of non-infectious causes (Child C. Infective endocarditis and liver cirrhosis is an infrequent association in clinical practice, it can be associated to unusual agents or clinical manifestations.

Dan Oksenberg R

2009-06-01

103

Surgical Management of Infective Endocarditis in Patients with Non-Valvular Congenital Heart Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to develop the surgical management of infective endocarditis in patients with non-valvular congenital heart diseases. Materials and Methods. 31 patients with non-valvular congenital heart diseases complicated by infective endocartitis were operated in Nizhny Novgorod Specialized Cardiological Clinical Hospital from 1993 till 2011. The patients’ age varied from 4 months to 37 years. Among non-valvular defects there were vegetations of mural endocardium and endothelium of major arteries, infected erosions, thrombi; and most frequently they developed in patients with ventricular septal defect (19 patients, valvular and infundibular pulmonary artery stenosis (3 patients, coronaro-right-ventricular fistula (3 patients, Fallot’s tetrad (2 patients, a patent arterial duct (2 patients. In two cases infection developed in patients with the previous plasty of septal defects and was accompanied by their recanalization.Results. Four patients died in early postoperative period. The mortality rate was 12.9%. Three patients died of progressive acute heart failure, and one — of major postoperative bleeding. 19 patients managed to avoid heart valve replacement due to a timely surgery performed before gross destructive cardiac valve damage developed. In 12 patients one of cardiac valves was replaced due to a late operation and a highly active infectious process. Conclusion. Early surgery enables to improve treatment results and save the cardiac valvular apparatus. Recanalization of septal defect against the background of the developed infective endocarditis is to be considered an indication for surgical sanitation of cardiac chambers and repeated plasty of congenital heart disease. Surgical approach to different types of congenital malformations against the background of infective endocarditis is patient-centered, though the general principle is the maximum correction of turbulent blood flows contributing to endocardial damage and persistent infection, with minimal use of synthetic materials and conduits.

I.S. Chistyakov

2013-03-01

104

Are we missing anaerobic infective endocarditis in some acute coronary syndromes?  

Science.gov (United States)

A 76-year-old man presented with a 3-week history of intermittent fevers and dyspnoea on exertion after a dental bridge placement 2?months ago. The patient's medical history was significant for mild to moderate mitral valve prolapse. Initial evaluation was notable for a 3/6 systolic apical murmur. Laboratory investigations revealed leucocytosis and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein and cardiac biomarkers. Patient was treated initially for non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. A 2-dimensional echocardiography was concerning for a new mitral regurgitation and a questionable vegetation adjacent to the mitral valve annulus. Transoesophageal echocardiography study confirmed the diagnosis. Subsequent microbial identification was notable for Peptostreptococci and he was started on intravenous penicillin therapy. The unexplained illness with underlying valve disease prompted consideration of infective endocarditis. This case describes a rare occurrence of anaerobic endocarditis imitating an acute coronary event. PMID:24943143

Abuzaid, Ahmed; Smer, Aiman; Akturk, Halis Kaan; Bittner, Marvin

2014-01-01

105

Infective and non-infective endocarditis in critically ill patients: a clinical-pathological study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this study are to estimate the incidence, the outcome and the associated risk factors of infective and non-infective endocarditis (IE and NIE, respectively) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We studied the post-mortem findings and the clinical data of the patients who died in our ICU between 1996 and 2010. Of the 765 reviewed autopsies, 21 patients (2.7%) presented cardiac vegetations. These cases consisted of 12 IEs and 9 NIEs. Three patients with IE had a mechanical prosthetic valve, and in 11 cases invasive devices had been used. Multiple peripheral embolisms were discovered at autopsy. In particular, the brain appeared to be more affected in patients with IE, while pulmonary embolisms were commonly associated with NIE. Blood cultures were positive in nine patients with IE. The imaging diagnostics (transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography) which were seldom performed in both groups, proved to be of little help. As a consequence, an IE was correctly diagnosed before death in three patients (25%) and suspected in two other cases (17%), while a NIE was diagnosed before death in one patient alone. In conclusions, critically ill patients admitted to general ICUs, multiple factors related both to the underlying conditions and to performed procedures can facilitate the occurrence of IE and NIE making, at the same time, their diagnosis challenging. Many cases, in fact, are diagnosed only at autopsy. Yet again, post-mortem examination proves to be an invaluable tool for the evaluation of diagnostic accuracy in critical care. PMID:24519321

Berlot, Giorgio; Calderan, Cristina; Fiorenza, Cristina; Cappelli, Davide; Addesa, Stefano; Bussani, Rossana

2014-10-01

106

Niveles de péptido natriurético tipo B y su asociación con la morbimortalidad en endocarditis infecciosa / Association Levels of brain natriuretic peptide with morbidity and mortality in infective endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una infección con alta morbimortalidad. Identificar a los pacientes con mayor riesgo de presentar complicaciones proporciona la oportunidad de establecer una terapéutica agresiva. El péptido natriurético tipo B es un estudio rápido y disponible, y se ha relacionado [...] a los niveles elevados con una mala evolución en la EI. Objetivos: Determinar la asociación entre los niveles de péptido natriurético tipo B y la morbimortalidad en pacientes con EI. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes ?15 años, durante el periodo de julio de 2010 a julio de 2012. Se dividieron en distintos grupos con base en los niveles de péptido natriurético tipo B: grupo 1, péptido natriurético tipo B Abstract in english Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection with high morbidity and mortality. Identify patients with increased risk for complications, provides the opportunity to establish an aggressive therapeutic. B-type natriuretic peptide is a quick, available and high levels has been linked with poor outcome [...] in IE. Objectives: To determine the association between B-type natriuretic peptide levels and morbidity and mortality in patients with infective endocarditis. Material and methods: We included patients ? 15 years, during the period July 2010 to July 2012. They were divided into groups based on the levels of B-type natriuretic peptide, group 1 B-type natriuretic peptide

Oddir, Jáuregui Ruiz; Eduardo, Galván García; Cyntia Zulema, Machain Leyva.

2013-12-01

107

Niveles de péptido natriurético tipo B y su asociación con la morbimortalidad en endocarditis infecciosa / Association Levels of brain natriuretic peptide with morbidity and mortality in infective endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una infección con alta morbimortalidad. Identificar a los pacientes con mayor riesgo de presentar complicaciones proporciona la oportunidad de establecer una terapéutica agresiva. El péptido natriurético tipo B es un estudio rápido y disponible, y se ha relacionado [...] a los niveles elevados con una mala evolución en la EI. Objetivos: Determinar la asociación entre los niveles de péptido natriurético tipo B y la morbimortalidad en pacientes con EI. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes ?15 años, durante el periodo de julio de 2010 a julio de 2012. Se dividieron en distintos grupos con base en los niveles de péptido natriurético tipo B: grupo 1, péptido natriurético tipo B Abstract in english Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection with high morbidity and mortality. Identify patients with increased risk for complications, provides the opportunity to establish an aggressive therapeutic. B-type natriuretic peptide is a quick, available and high levels has been linked with poor outcome [...] in IE. Objectives: To determine the association between B-type natriuretic peptide levels and morbidity and mortality in patients with infective endocarditis. Material and methods: We included patients ? 15 years, during the period July 2010 to July 2012. They were divided into groups based on the levels of B-type natriuretic peptide, group 1 B-type natriuretic peptide

Oddir, Jáuregui Ruiz; Eduardo, Galván García; Cyntia Zulema, Machain Leyva.

108

Infective endocarditis prophylaxis and the current AHA, BSAC, NICE and Australian guidelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The latest guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA) 2007, the Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA) 2008, the Australian Prevention of Endocarditis Guidelines 2008, the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) 2006, and the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) 2008 were reviewed for this article. As a result of recent literature reviews by the AHA and NICE committees, both groups made recommendations regarding antibiotic prophylaxis for dental treatment. While both agree that the benefit of prophylaxis for dental treatment is unproven, the NICE committee has recommended no antibiotic cover for any patients previously classified as 'at risk' of infective endocarditis (IE), while the AHA has recommended cover only for patients deemed to be at high risk of developing IE and with the poorest outcome in the event of IE development. The BSAC guidelines and the recently published Australian Therapeutic Guidelines on Prevention of Endocarditis 2008 fall broadly into line with the AHA guidelines. This paper will review all the separate guidelines and advocate a regimen for treating at-risk patients. PMID:19189746

Rahman, Naomi; Rogers, Seamus; Ryan, David; Healy, Claire; Flint, Stephen

109

Healthcare-associated infective endocarditis: an undesirable effect of healthcare universalization.  

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Invasive medical technology has led to an increase in the incidence of healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HAIE). A prospective multicentre cohort study was conducted at seven hospitals in Andalusia, Spain, to establish the characteristics of HAIE and to compare them with those of community-acquired infective endocarditis (CAIE). HAIE was defined as either infective endocarditis (IE) manifesting >48 h after admission to hospital, or IE associated with a significant invasive procedure performed in the 6 months before diagnosis. Seven hundred and ninety-three cases of IE were investigated, and HAIE accounted for 127 (16%). As compared with patients with CAIE, patients with HAIE were older (60.1 ± 14.4 years vs. 53.6 ± 17.5 years) and had more comorbidities (Charlson index 3.3 ± 2.3 vs. 1.8 ± 2.3) and staphylococcal infections (58.3% vs. 24.8%). Vascular manipulation was the main cause of bacteraemia responsible for HAIE (63%). Peripheral vein catheter-associated bacteraemia accounted for 32.8% of the catheter-related bacteraemias. In-hospital mortality (44.9% vs. 24.2%) was higher in the HAIE group. Septic shock (OR 2.2, 95% CI 2.9-30.2) and surgery not performed because of high surgical risk (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-20) were independent predictors of mortality in HAIE. The present study demonstrates that HAIE is a growing health problem associated with high mortality. Careful management of vascular devices is essential to minimize the risk of bacteraemias leading to HAIE. PMID:19732086

Lomas, J M; Martínez-Marcos, F J; Plata, A; Ivanova, R; Gálvez, J; Ruiz, J; Reguera, J M; Noureddine, M; de la Torre, J; de Alarcón, A

2010-11-01

110

Forced Arterial Suction Thrombectomy of Septic Embolic Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Due to Infective Endocarditis: an Illustrative Case and Review of the Literature  

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In acute ischemic stroke patients with major intracranial vessel occlusion due to infective endocarditis, treatment modalities are not well established. A 40-year-old woman presented with acute stroke due to left middle cerebral artery occlusion. She was successfully treated with intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy, and the subsequent clinical outcome was favorable. Pathological analysis of the retrieved clots showed septic thrombi containing gram-positive cocci. Based on literature review and the present case regarding treatment strategies for patients with septic embolic stroke, pharmacological thrombolysis might increase the risk of hemorrhagic complications, which might alter clinical outcome. Therefore, we can consider intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy as a first-line treatment option in patients with acute stroke resulting from infective endocarditis.

Kim, Jeong-Min; Jeon, Ji-Su; Kim, Yong-Won; Kang, Dong-Hun; Kim, Yong-Sun

2014-01-01

111

Cool seasons are related to poor prognosis in patients with infective endocarditis  

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Many cardiac diseases demonstrate seasonal variations in the incidence and mortality. This study was designed to investigate whether the mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) was higher in cool seasons and to evaluate the effects of cool climate for IE. We enrolled 100 IE patients with vegetations in our hospital. The temperatures of the IE episodes were defined as the monthly average temperatures of the admission days. The average temperatures in the cool (fall/winter) and warm seasons (spring/summer) were 19.2°C and 27.6°C, respectively. In addition, patients admitted with the diagnosis of IE were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) and the in-hospital mortality rates in cool and warm seasons were compared to validate the findings derived from the data of our hospital. The mortality rate for IE was significantly higher in fall/winter than in spring/summer which presents consistently in the patient population of our hospital (32.7% versus 12.5%, p = 0.017) and from NHIRD (10.4% versus 4.6%, p = 0.019). IE episodes which occurred during cool seasons presented with a higher rate of heart failure (44.2% versus 22.9%, p = 0.025) and D-dimer level (5.5 ± 3.8 versus 2.4 ± 1.8 ?g/ml, p = 0.017) at admission than that of warm seasons. These results may reflect the impact of temperatures during the pre-hospitalized period on the disease process. In the multivariate analysis, Staphylococcal infection, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic dysfunction and temperature were the independent predictors of mortalities in IE patients.

Chen, Su-Jung; Chao, Tze-Fan; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Hsu, Tsui-Lieh; Yu, Wen-Chung; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Chen, Shih-Ann

2012-09-01

112

Cirurgia conservadora de próteses aórtica e mitral na endocardite infecciosa Conservative surgery for aortic and mitral prosthesis in infective endocarditis  

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Full Text Available A endocardite infecciosa (EI acometendo próteses valvares é uma complicação freqüente, sendo tratada geralmente com cirurgia, devido ao seu difícil controle clínico e má resposta à antibioticoterapia. Este relato descreve o caso de uma paciente com EI, acometendo simultaneamente as biopróteses aórtica (Ao e mitral (Mi após vinte e quatro meses de cirurgia de implantes valvares, submetida a tratamento cirúrgico conservador, e com resultado favorável. Discutem-se as vantagens deste procedimento em situações específicas.Infective endocarditis is a frequent complication for valvar prosthesis currently treated with surgery, orving to its difficult control and poor response to therapy with antibiotics. Although conservative surgery for infective endocarditis of prosthesis is not a procedure of choice, this report shows a case of infective endocarditis of aortic and mitral prosthesis, after 24 months of implantation, treated by conservative surgery with favorable outcome.

Kanim Kalil KASSAB

2001-03-01

113

Cirurgia conservadora de próteses aórtica e mitral na endocardite infecciosa / Conservative surgery for aortic and mitral prosthesis in infective endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A endocardite infecciosa (EI) acometendo próteses valvares é uma complicação freqüente, sendo tratada geralmente com cirurgia, devido ao seu difícil controle clínico e má resposta à antibioticoterapia. Este relato descreve o caso de uma paciente com EI, acometendo simultaneamente as biopróteses aórt [...] ica (Ao) e mitral (Mi) após vinte e quatro meses de cirurgia de implantes valvares, submetida a tratamento cirúrgico conservador, e com resultado favorável. Discutem-se as vantagens deste procedimento em situações específicas. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis is a frequent complication for valvar prosthesis currently treated with surgery, orving to its difficult control and poor response to therapy with antibiotics. Although conservative surgery for infective endocarditis of prosthesis is not a procedure of choice, this report show [...] s a case of infective endocarditis of aortic and mitral prosthesis, after 24 months of implantation, treated by conservative surgery with favorable outcome.

Kanim Kalil, KASSAB; José Antônio Garcia, MENEGOLI; Vera Lúcia A. M., PICARDI; Marcos Cesar V. de, ALMEIDA; Emil, SABINO; Edgard, SAN JUAN; Ricardo Gomes, CAMACHO; César Morioki, OGIDO; Enoch Brandão de Souza, MEIRA.

2001-03-01

114

Changing Profile of Infective Endocarditis: A Clinicopathologic Study of 220 Patients in a Single Medical Center from 1998 through 2009  

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The epidemiologic profile of infective endocarditis has changed substantially over the past few years, especially in industrialized countries. Our study evaluates the clinical and pathologic characteristics of infective endocarditis patients treated by cardiac surgery in China during a 12-year period. We retrospectively evaluated 220 surgically treated infective endocarditis patients and analyzed their changes from the beginning of 1998 through 2009. The mean age of the patients increased from 36.9 to 42.7 years during those 12 years (P=0.036). The chief predisposing disease was congenital heart disease (32.8%), rather than rheumatic heart disease (13.2%); this rate did not change significantly during the 12 years. The prevalent congenital lesion was bicuspid aortic valve, the rate of which (55.6%) increased significantly over the 3 time intervals studied (P=0.016). The frequency of infective endocarditis after non-dental surgical and nonsurgical intervention was significantly greater (23.3%) during 1998 through 2001, compared with the 2 intervals that followed (9%; P=0.019). Streptococcus viridans was the most frequent causative agent overall (25.6%). Forty-seven of the 220 patients (21.4%) carried the clinical diagnosis of some other form of heart disease before surgery, but at surgery they were found to have infective endocarditis as the fundamental disease process. Of 47 patients, 33 (70.2%) had either very small or no vegetations but had focal necrosis and inflammation of valve tissue that supported the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. PMID:25425980

Wang, Hongyue; Wang, Linlin; Pu, Jielin; Zhao, Hong

2014-01-01

115

Community-acquired multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infective endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe two cases of bacterial endocarditis secondary to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms. In both cases, the diagnosis was made in accordance with the modified Duke's criteria and confirmed by histopathological analysis. Furthermore, in both instances there were no identifiable sources of bacteraemia and no history of contact with hospital or other medical services prior to the onset of symptoms. The patients were managed in similar fashion with prolonged broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention and made complete recoveries. These cases highlight Gram-negative organisms as potential agents for endocarditis, as well as expose the dissemination of such multidrug-resistant bacteria into the community. The application of an integrated medical and surgical approach and therapeutic dilemmas encountered in managing these cases are described. PMID:25096655

Naha, Sowjanya; Naha, Kushal; Acharya, Vasudev; Hande, H Manjunath; Vivek, G

2014-01-01

116

Primer reporte en Cuba de endocarditis infecciosa a consecuencia de brucelosis First report of infective endocarditis in Cuba as a result of brucellosis  

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Full Text Available Introducción: las manifestaciones clínicas por brucelosis han sido muy poco investigadas y no se profundiza en los síntomas y las posibles complicaciones que puede causar. Objetivo: reportar por primera vez en Cuba un caso de endocarditis infecciosa a consecuencia de brucelosis. Métodos: hombre blanco, de 57 años, campesino, remitido desde Vertientes, que ingresó en diciembre de 2009 en el Hospital Provincial "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" de Camagüey, con diagnóstico presuntivo de endocarditis infecciosa por Brucella e insuficiencia aórtica moderada, que refirió presentar fiebre, malestar general, decaimiento, dolores musculares, articulares, artritis, astenia marcada, anorexia, signos neurológicos, sudoración y fuerte dolor en el pecho. En anteriores ingresos fue tratado con antimicrobianos, indicándole entre los complementarios, serología lenta en busca de brucelosis, pero por no disponibilidad de reactivos no se realizaron estas pruebas hasta enero de 2010. Se precisaron como antecedentes epidemiológicos el contacto directo con ganado vacuno y porcino y la presencia de heridas y microtraumatismos en manos y pies, propios de su labor. Su finca colinda con otra donde hay ganado afectado de brucelosis. Resultados: los exámenes de laboratorio resultaron positivos con elevados títulos serológicos, y aunque no fue posible el aislamiento del agente etiológico mediante el cultivo, se confirmó serológicamente la enfermedad y la endocarditis infecciosa como complicación sobreañadida; esto llevó tratamiento con antimicrobianos y medicamentos para la afección cardíaca. Se diagnostican muy poco estas complicaciones a consecuencia de brucelosis en la literatura internacional, este es el primer reporte para Cuba. Conclusiones: la descripción de este caso, constituye una alerta en el diagnóstico de las endocarditis infecciosas quizá asociadas a antecedentes epidemiológicos de brucelosis.Introduction: the clinical manifestations of brucellosis have been poorly researched on and the symptoms and possible complications have not been deeply studied either. Objective: to report a case of infective endocarditis caused by brucellosis for the first time in Cuba. Methods: a Caucasian male farmer aged 57 years was referred from Vertientes municipality to be admitted at "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" provincial hospital in Camaguey province in December,2009. He had been presumptively diagnosed with infectious endocarditis caused by Brucella and with moderate aortic failure since he presented with fever, general malaise, fatigue, muscle and joint pains, arthritis, marked asthenia, anorexia, neurological signs, sweating and strong chest pain. In his previous hospitalization, he had been treated with antimicrobials after indication of supplementary tests such as slow serology for brucellosis; however, specific reagents were not available,so these tests were not performed until January 2010.The epidemiological history of this case included his direct contact with cows and pigs as well as wounds and minor traumas inflicted on his hands and feet resulting from his type of work. His farm is next to another farm where the cattle is also affected with brucellosis. Results: the lab tests were positive with high serological titres, and although it was not possible to isolate the etiologic agent through culturing, the disease and the infective endocarditis were serologically confirmed as additional complication; this required antimicrobial treatment and drugs for the heart disease. These complications from brucellosis are barely diagnosed in the international literature, and in Cuba, this is the first report of the disease. Conclusions: the description of this case is an alert to diagnosis of infective endocarditis that may be associated with epidemiological history of brucellosis.

Gloria Sofía García González

2012-04-01

117

Primer reporte en Cuba de endocarditis infecciosa a consecuencia de brucelosis / First report of infective endocarditis in Cuba as a result of brucellosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: las manifestaciones clínicas por brucelosis han sido muy poco investigadas y no se profundiza en los síntomas y las posibles complicaciones que puede causar. Objetivo: reportar por primera vez en Cuba un caso de endocarditis infecciosa a consecuencia de brucelosis. Métodos: hombre blan [...] co, de 57 años, campesino, remitido desde Vertientes, que ingresó en diciembre de 2009 en el Hospital Provincial "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" de Camagüey, con diagnóstico presuntivo de endocarditis infecciosa por Brucella e insuficiencia aórtica moderada, que refirió presentar fiebre, malestar general, decaimiento, dolores musculares, articulares, artritis, astenia marcada, anorexia, signos neurológicos, sudoración y fuerte dolor en el pecho. En anteriores ingresos fue tratado con antimicrobianos, indicándole entre los complementarios, serología lenta en busca de brucelosis, pero por no disponibilidad de reactivos no se realizaron estas pruebas hasta enero de 2010. Se precisaron como antecedentes epidemiológicos el contacto directo con ganado vacuno y porcino y la presencia de heridas y microtraumatismos en manos y pies, propios de su labor. Su finca colinda con otra donde hay ganado afectado de brucelosis. Resultados: los exámenes de laboratorio resultaron positivos con elevados títulos serológicos, y aunque no fue posible el aislamiento del agente etiológico mediante el cultivo, se confirmó serológicamente la enfermedad y la endocarditis infecciosa como complicación sobreañadida; esto llevó tratamiento con antimicrobianos y medicamentos para la afección cardíaca. Se diagnostican muy poco estas complicaciones a consecuencia de brucelosis en la literatura internacional, este es el primer reporte para Cuba. Conclusiones: la descripción de este caso, constituye una alerta en el diagnóstico de las endocarditis infecciosas quizá asociadas a antecedentes epidemiológicos de brucelosis. Abstract in english Introduction: the clinical manifestations of brucellosis have been poorly researched on and the symptoms and possible complications have not been deeply studied either. Objective: to report a case of infective endocarditis caused by brucellosis for the first time in Cuba. Methods: a Caucasian male f [...] armer aged 57 years was referred from Vertientes municipality to be admitted at "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" provincial hospital in Camaguey province in December,2009. He had been presumptively diagnosed with infectious endocarditis caused by Brucella and with moderate aortic failure since he presented with fever, general malaise, fatigue, muscle and joint pains, arthritis, marked asthenia, anorexia, neurological signs, sweating and strong chest pain. In his previous hospitalization, he had been treated with antimicrobials after indication of supplementary tests such as slow serology for brucellosis; however, specific reagents were not available,so these tests were not performed until January 2010.The epidemiological history of this case included his direct contact with cows and pigs as well as wounds and minor traumas inflicted on his hands and feet resulting from his type of work. His farm is next to another farm where the cattle is also affected with brucellosis. Results: the lab tests were positive with high serological titres, and although it was not possible to isolate the etiologic agent through culturing, the disease and the infective endocarditis were serologically confirmed as additional complication; this required antimicrobial treatment and drugs for the heart disease. These complications from brucellosis are barely diagnosed in the international literature, and in Cuba, this is the first report of the disease. Conclusions: the description of this case is an alert to diagnosis of infective endocarditis that may be associated with epidemiological history of brucellosis.

Gloria Sofía, García González; Iraida María, Saborido Pérez; Lázaro, Ramírez Lana; Isabel, Ponce de León Ávila.

118

Primer reporte en Cuba de endocarditis infecciosa a consecuencia de brucelosis / First report of infective endocarditis in Cuba as a result of brucellosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: las manifestaciones clínicas por brucelosis han sido muy poco investigadas y no se profundiza en los síntomas y las posibles complicaciones que puede causar. Objetivo: reportar por primera vez en Cuba un caso de endocarditis infecciosa a consecuencia de brucelosis. Métodos: hombre blan [...] co, de 57 años, campesino, remitido desde Vertientes, que ingresó en diciembre de 2009 en el Hospital Provincial "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" de Camagüey, con diagnóstico presuntivo de endocarditis infecciosa por Brucella e insuficiencia aórtica moderada, que refirió presentar fiebre, malestar general, decaimiento, dolores musculares, articulares, artritis, astenia marcada, anorexia, signos neurológicos, sudoración y fuerte dolor en el pecho. En anteriores ingresos fue tratado con antimicrobianos, indicándole entre los complementarios, serología lenta en busca de brucelosis, pero por no disponibilidad de reactivos no se realizaron estas pruebas hasta enero de 2010. Se precisaron como antecedentes epidemiológicos el contacto directo con ganado vacuno y porcino y la presencia de heridas y microtraumatismos en manos y pies, propios de su labor. Su finca colinda con otra donde hay ganado afectado de brucelosis. Resultados: los exámenes de laboratorio resultaron positivos con elevados títulos serológicos, y aunque no fue posible el aislamiento del agente etiológico mediante el cultivo, se confirmó serológicamente la enfermedad y la endocarditis infecciosa como complicación sobreañadida; esto llevó tratamiento con antimicrobianos y medicamentos para la afección cardíaca. Se diagnostican muy poco estas complicaciones a consecuencia de brucelosis en la literatura internacional, este es el primer reporte para Cuba. Conclusiones: la descripción de este caso, constituye una alerta en el diagnóstico de las endocarditis infecciosas quizá asociadas a antecedentes epidemiológicos de brucelosis. Abstract in english Introduction: the clinical manifestations of brucellosis have been poorly researched on and the symptoms and possible complications have not been deeply studied either. Objective: to report a case of infective endocarditis caused by brucellosis for the first time in Cuba. Methods: a Caucasian male f [...] armer aged 57 years was referred from Vertientes municipality to be admitted at "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" provincial hospital in Camaguey province in December,2009. He had been presumptively diagnosed with infectious endocarditis caused by Brucella and with moderate aortic failure since he presented with fever, general malaise, fatigue, muscle and joint pains, arthritis, marked asthenia, anorexia, neurological signs, sweating and strong chest pain. In his previous hospitalization, he had been treated with antimicrobials after indication of supplementary tests such as slow serology for brucellosis; however, specific reagents were not available,so these tests were not performed until January 2010.The epidemiological history of this case included his direct contact with cows and pigs as well as wounds and minor traumas inflicted on his hands and feet resulting from his type of work. His farm is next to another farm where the cattle is also affected with brucellosis. Results: the lab tests were positive with high serological titres, and although it was not possible to isolate the etiologic agent through culturing, the disease and the infective endocarditis were serologically confirmed as additional complication; this required antimicrobial treatment and drugs for the heart disease. These complications from brucellosis are barely diagnosed in the international literature, and in Cuba, this is the first report of the disease. Conclusions: the description of this case is an alert to diagnosis of infective endocarditis that may be associated with epidemiological history of brucellosis.

Gloria Sofía, García González; Iraida María, Saborido Pérez; Lázaro, Ramírez Lana; Isabel, Ponce de León Ávila.

2012-04-01

119

Cell-Wall Glycolipid Mutations and Their Effects on Virulence of E. faecalis in a Rat Model of Infective Endocarditis  

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Enterococci are among the major pathogens implicated in cardiac infections and biofilm formation. E. faecalis has been shown to play an important role in infectious endocarditis. Several distinct mechanisms for biofilm formation have been identified in E. faecalis. Our group has previously characterized two distinct bacterial glucosyltransferases playing key roles in the production of the major cell wall glycolipids and leading to reduced biofilm production. To assess if this mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of enterococcal endocarditis we compared the wild-type strain of E. faecalis 12030 with two mutants in gene EF2891 and EF2890 respectively in a rat model of infective endocarditis. The results showed less endocarditic lesions and reduced colony counts per vegetation in the two mutants. indicating that the modification of bacterial surface lipids results in significantly reduced virulence in infective endocarditis. These results underscore the important role of biofilm formation in the pathogenicity of enterococcal endocarditis and may indicate an interesting target for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24637922

Haller, Christoph; Berthold, Martin; Wobser, Dominique; Kropec, Andrea; Lauriola, Marinella; Schlensak, Christian; Huebner, Johannes

2014-01-01

120

Streptococcus sinensis sp. nov., a novel species isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis  

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A bacterium was isolated from the blood culture of a patient with infective endocarditis. The cells were facultative anaerobic, nonsporulating, gram-positive cocci arranged in chains. The bacterium grows on sheep blood agar as alpha-hemolytic, gray colonies of 0.5 to 1 mm in diameter after 24 h of incubation at 37°C in ambient air. Growth also occurs in 10 or 40% bile and on bile esculin agar but not in 6% NaCl. No enhancement of growth is observed in 5% CO2. It is nongroupable with Lancefie...

Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Tam, Dorothy M. W.; Leung, Kit-wah; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Teng, Jade L. L.; Wong, Michelle K. M.; Yuen, Kwok-yung

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Mycotic left main coronary artery aneurysm following double-valve replacement for active infective endocarditis.  

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A 68-year-old man underwent double-valve replacement (DVR) for active infective endocarditis caused by Enterococcus faecalis. Postoperative coronary angiography (CAG) revealed a saccular aneurysm originating from the distal portion of LMCA with severe stenosis at the ostium of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery and left circumflex artery (LCx). Emergent surgical resection with concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting were performed.Mycotic coronary artery aneurysms have a great tendency to rupture, and this may result in cardiac tamponade and sudden death. Early recognition and prompt surgical intervention is mandatory to minimize those fatal complications. PMID:22673548

Matsuno, Yukihiro; Fukumoto, Yukiomi; Ishida, Narihiro; Shimabukuro, Katsuya; Takemura, Hirofumi

2013-02-20

122

Multiple Embolism in a Female Patient with Infective Endocarditis: Low Back Pain and Hematuria as the Initial Clinical Manifestations  

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Full Text Available A 59-year-old female patient with mitral valve prolapse and a previous history of lumbosacral spondyloarthrosis and lumbar disk hernia had an episode of infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus viridans, which evolved with peripheral embolism to the left kidney, spleen, and left iliac artery, and intraventricular cerebral hemorrhage. Her clinical manifestations were low back pain and hematuria, which were initially attributed to an osteoarticular condition. Infective endocarditis is a severe polymorphic disease with multiple clinical manifestations and it should always be included in the differential diagnosis by clinicians.

Marcelo Luiz Campos Vieira

2002-06-01

123

Multiple Embolism in a Female Patient with Infective Endocarditis: Low Back Pain and Hematuria as the Initial Clinical Manifestations  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A 59-year-old female patient with mitral valve prolapse and a previous history of lumbosacral spondyloarthrosis and lumbar disk hernia had an episode of infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus viridans, which evolved with peripheral embolism to the left kidney, spleen, and left iliac artery, and [...] intraventricular cerebral hemorrhage. Her clinical manifestations were low back pain and hematuria, which were initially attributed to an osteoarticular condition. Infective endocarditis is a severe polymorphic disease with multiple clinical manifestations and it should always be included in the differential diagnosis by clinicians.

Marcelo Luiz Campos, Vieira; Mônica Luisa Rappi, Schmidt; Marcos Valério Coimbra de, Resende; Luis Sérgio Afonso de, André Júnior.

124

Successful treatment of Candida parapsilosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection using medical and surgical management in an injecting drug user with mitral and aortic valve endocarditis: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Polymicrobial endocarditis is a well-recognized problem in intravenous drug users and it accounts for 1 to 3% of endocarditis cases overall and up to 9% in other series. The most common combinations of organisms include Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Candida parapsilosis endocarditis carries a mortality rate of 45%, and each infection with Candida or Pseudomonas endocarditis per se carries a very high mortality rate approaching 85% and 80%, respectively. The combination of P. aeruginosa and C. parapsilosis has never been encountered and there have been no earlier reports of the combination of C. parapsilosis and P. aeruginosa in adult intravenous drug users as a cause of endocarditis. Case presentation We present a 49-year-old man with bivalvular endocarditis with P. aeruginosa and C. parapsilosis. He had a prior bivalvular replacement in 2005 that became infected with the above microorganisms and he was treated with intravenous antibiotics. Because of ongoing intravenous drug use, a second valve replacement was denied. A few days later, the patient presented with septic shock secondary to P. aeruginosa and C. parapsilosis recurrent endocarditis. The infection was cured with a second bivalvular replacement and extended therapy with antibiotics and antifungals. Conclusion This is the first time a patient has presented with P. aeruginosa and C. parapsilosis endocarditis. Relapsing polymicrobial endocarditis can be cured with medical and surgical therapy.

Daas Hanady

2009-05-01

125

Genetic Variants in Genes of the Inflammatory Response in Association with Infective Endocarditis  

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Aims Inflammation in infective endocarditis (IE) is a complex network including interactions of inflammatory cytokines and other components of host response. Certainly, any variation in this network could influence susceptibility or disease progression of IE. In this study, 14 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in genes coding for interleukin-1?, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, toll–like receptor-4, tumor necrosis factor-?, selectin E and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were analyzed for an association with susceptibility to IE and correlated with disease-related laboratory parameters. Furthermore, the occurrence of SNVs was examined to elucidate pathogen-dependent associations. Methods and Results The distribution of SNVs was determined in IE-patients and healthy blood donors by RFLP analysis. White blood cells (WBC) were counted using flow cytometry, concentration of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin was measured immunologically. Interleukin-6 c.471+870G>A genotypes differed significantly between IE patients and controls. The frequency of the heterozygote genotype GA was considerably higher in the patient group (68.9% vs. 43.8%, PcT and IE. Pathogen-dependent analysis showed no significantly associated subgroup in relation to IE susceptibility, but gave hints towards alterations regarding Enterococcus-caused IE cases. Patients with genotype selectin-E c.-19 GT tend to have higher preoperative WBC counts than patients with genotype GG. We further showed an association between two interleukin-1? SNVs and laboratory biomarkers. Conclusion This study shows genetic predispositions for the establishment of IE. Furthermore, correlation of SNVs with disease-related biomarkers suggests a role of genetic variants regarding the inflammatory response in IE. PMID:25299518

Weinstock, Melanie; Grimm, Imke; Dreier, Jens; Knabbe, Cornelius; Vollmer, Tanja

2014-01-01

126

Neurologic Complications Of Infective Endocarditis : A Clinical Study  

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Full Text Available The complications of infective endorcarditis are well known. However the pattern of underlying heart disease, organisms, types of complications and outcome are likely to vary depending on the study population, local epidemiology and associated medical variables. In India the patterns of medical practice is changing with technical and medical advancement. These change are likely to influence the pattern of infective endorcarditis and its neurological complications. To study the profile of neurological complications out come, 22 consecutive patients with infective endorcarditis were studied. There were 13 males and nine female. Three patients had late prosthetic valve endorcarditis and rest had native valve endorcarditis. Two patients with native valve developed endorcarditis after balloon dilatation of mitral valve. All prosthetic valve patients survived while both patients with post dilatation endorcarditis expired. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent organism. Bland infarction was the commonest neurologic complication in this series. Two third patients with staphylococcus endorcarditis survived. Or results suggest that in patients with neurologic complications due to infective endorcarditis staphylococcus is the most frequent organism, bland infraction is the commonest radiological finding and mortality is high.

Dhanuka AK

2001-01-01

127

Complicaciones posoperatorias y mortalidad en pacientes operados por endocarditis infecciosa / Postoperative complications and mortality observed in patients operated on from infective endocarditis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: describir las causas de morbilidad y mortalidad perioperatorias en los pacientes afectos de endocarditis infecciosa activa y significar cómo pueden ser disminuidas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de las complicaciones posoperatorias y mortalidad en 139 pacientes operados por [...] presentar endocarditis infecciosa en un período de 16 años. Se efectuaron 147 operaciones a los 139 pacientes de las cuales 83 (57,1 %) fueron electivas y 64 (42,9 %) fueron de urgencia. El 24 % de los pacientes fueron remitidos de otros centros en los que habían sido sometidos a tratamiento médico no exitoso por más de 4 semanas. Resultados: las operaciones efectuadas fueron: Sustituciones valvulares aórticas,mitrales y tricuspídeas 75 (41,1 %), extracción de electrodos de marcapasos o desfibriladores automáticos implantables del ventrículo derecho 57 (41 %) , otras operaciones en número de 7 (4,9 %)y 8 reintervenciones. La complicación más frecuente fue la sepsis generalizada (10,07 % p Abstract in english Objective: To describe the causes of perioperative morbidity and mortality of patients suffering active infectious endocarditis and to explain how both aspects can be reduced. Methods: A retrospective study of postoperative complications and mortality observed in 139 patients operated on from infect [...] ious endocarditis in 16 years. One hundred forty seven surgeries were performed, of which 83 (57.1 %) were elective and 64 (42.9 %) were emergency surgeries. In this group, 24 % had been referred from other medical centers where they had been unsuccessfully treated for 4 weeks. Results: The performed surgeries comprised 15 aortic, mitral and tricuspid valve replacements, 57 (41 %) removals of pacemaker electrodes or of implanted automatic defibrillators in the right ventricle, seven other types of surgeries and 8 reoperations. The most frequent complication was generalized sepsis ((10.07 % p

Joaquín, Gómez Armando Gonga; Milvio B, Ramírez López; Horacio E, Pérez López; Fidel Manuel, Cáceres Loriga; José R, Llanes.

2013-03-01

128

Endocarditis infecciosa por S. aureus en la Argentina: EIRA 2. Análisis comparativo luego de 10 años de los estudios EIRA 1 y 2 / S. aureus Infective Endocarditis in Argentina: A Comparative Analysis after 10 Years of EIRA-1 and EIRA-2 Surveys  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Comparar el perfil y la evolución de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI) en nuestro país a lo largo de 10 años, a través de los registros EIRA-1 y EIRA-2. Determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas y la evolución hospitalaria de la EI por Staphylococcus aureus (EISA) en la Argent [...] ina. Métodos El estudio EIRA-2 fue un registro prospectivo multicéntrico conducido en 82 hospitales de 16 provincias de la Argentina. En el presente análisis se incluyeron pacientes con EI definidas (clasificación de Duke) relevados en un período de 18 meses. Resultados Se registraron 390 episodios de EI definidas (108 EISA y 282 no EISA); edad media 58,5 ± 17,3 años, sexo masculino 70%. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las 108 EISA y las 282 no EISA con respecto a edad, sexo, endocarditis de válvula protésica, enfermedad valvular degenerativa, presencia de insuficiencia cardíaca y frecuencia de tratamiento quirúrgico. La comparación de los registros EIRA-2 y EIRA-1 demostró cambios importantes en el perfil de la enfermedad en la última década, actualmente caracterizada por pacientes de mayor edad (58 versus 51 años), mayor prevalencia de cardiopatía subyacente 67% versus 55% (en particular prótesis valvulares 19,2% versus 8,5%, enfermedades valvulares degenerativas 12,4% versus 4,8% y cardiopatías congénitas 9,5% versus 4,2%), mayor frecuencia de infección causada por S. aureus (30% versus 26%) y menor por Streptococcus viridans (30,8% versus 26,8%), con una reducción del tiempo hasta el diagnóstico definitivo (21,5 versus 33 días). No se encontraron modificaciones en la tasa de mortalidad de la enfermedad. Se observó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p Abstract in english Work Objective To analyze the evolution and profile of infective endocarditis (IE) in Argentina during the last 10 years through the comparison of EIRA-1 and EIRA-2 surveys. To determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, and in-hospital evolution of S. aureus IE (SAIE) in Argentina. [...] Research Design and Methods The EIRA-2 survey was a prospective, multicentric study performed in 82 hospitals belonging to 16 of the 24 Argentinean provinces. Patients with definitive diagnosis of IE (Duke criteria) were followed-up during an 18-month period. Results Three hundred and ninety episodes of definitive IE were reported (108 SAIE and 282 non-SAIE); mean age was 58.5±17.3 years, male sex 70%. No statistically significant differences were observed between SAIE and non-SAIE regarding mean age, sex, prosthetic valve IE, degenerative valve IE, prevalence of heart failure and surgical treatment. The comparison of the EIRA-2 and EIRA-1 surveys showed that IE profile has changed in the last decade in Argentina. Currently, patients are older (58 vs. 51 years), and have a higher prevalence of underlying heart disease (67% vs. 55%) particularly prosthetic valve (19.2% vs. 8.5%), degenerative valve disease (12.4% vs. 4.8%), and congenital heart disease (9.5% vs. 4.2%); infections were more frequently caused by S. aureus (30% vs. 26%) and less by S. viridans (30.8% vs. 26.8%) with a decreased time until final diagnosis (21.5 vs. 33 days). No significant changes were observed in the overall mortality rate. Patients with SAIE showed a significantly (p

Ernesto R., Ferreirós; José H., Casabé; Francisco, Nacinovich; Sandra, Swieszkowski; Hernán, Cohen Arazi; Claudia, Cortés; Juan Carlos, Modenesi; Sergio, Varini.

2006-02-01

129

67Ga imaging in the patients with infective endocarditis after surgery for congenital heart disease  

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67Ga imaging was performed in sixteen patients (age: 8 m.-18 y.) who had persistent fever and positive acute phase reactants after surgery for congenital heart disease. Abnormal uptake of 67Ga over the heart and the lungs was evaluated with a computer. Abnormal uptake of 67Ga was observed in seven patients. Of them, three showed it in the area of peripheral pulmonary artery and the other four showed it in the area of artificial vessels for pulmonary artery reconstruction. In six patients with positive blood cultures, five showed abnormal uptake of 67Ga and in ten patients with negative blood cultures, two showed it. Vegetation was detected with 2D-echocardiography in four patients and all of them showed abnormal uptake of 67Ga, while in 12 patients without vegetation three showed it. In conclusion, 67Ga imaging was useful to detect the foci of infective endocarditis or pulmonary embolism caused by the vegetation in infective endocarditis in the patients after surgery for congenital heart disease, especially in the peripheral pulmonary arteries and artificial vessels which could not be detected with 2D-echo. (author)

130

sup 67 Ga imaging in the patients with infective endocarditis after surgery for congenital heart disease  

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{sup 67}Ga imaging was performed in sixteen patients (age: 8 m.-18 y.) who had persistent fever and positive acute phase reactants after surgery for congenital heart disease. Abnormal uptake of {sup 67}Ga over the heart and the lungs was evaluated with a computer. Abnormal uptake of {sup 67}Ga was observed in seven patients. Of them, three showed it in the area of peripheral pulmonary artery and the other four showed it in the area of artificial vessels for pulmonary artery reconstruction. In six patients with positive blood cultures, five showed abnormal uptake of {sup 67}Ga and in ten patients with negative blood cultures, two showed it. Vegetation was detected with 2D-echocardiography in four patients and all of them showed abnormal uptake of {sup 67}Ga, while in 12 patients without vegetation three showed it. In conclusion, {sup 67}Ga imaging was useful to detect the foci of infective endocarditis or pulmonary embolism caused by the vegetation in infective endocarditis in the patients after surgery for congenital heart disease, especially in the peripheral pulmonary arteries and artificial vessels which could not be detected with 2D-echo. (author).

Kohata, Tohru; Ono, Yasuo; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Takamiya, Makoto; Yagihara, Toshikatsu (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

1991-11-01

131

Embolic Complications of Infective Endocarditis: Report of Two Cases and Review of National Literature  

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Full Text Available All classical signs of infective endocarditis (IE such as fever, a new cardiac murmur, and splenomegaly are rarely found all together. IE should be considered in every patient with unexplained fever. In this report, two patients diagnosed initially as urosepsis and neuro-Behçet’s disease due to embolic complications of infective endocarditis (IE were presented. A 67-year-old male was admitted to the emergency room with fever, dysuria and flank pain. Both urinary and sequential blood cultures revealed methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA. A 11x6 mm sized mitral valve vegetation was detected on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE. Findings of renal ultrasound were compatible with bilateral pyelonephritis. Mitral valve repair surgery was planned after subsequent TTE controls revealing enlargement of the vegetation. A 45-year-old male with Behçet’s disease was hospitalized in the Department of Neurology because of a speech disorder and weakness on left side of the body for two days, and his blood cultures yielded viridans streptococci. Mobile vegetation on the ventricular surface of the aortic valve and severe aortic regurgitation were detected on TEE. After antibiotic therapy, an aortic valve replacement was performed. Both patients showed an uneventful postoperative course.

Ay?egül Ulu-K?l?ç

2011-12-01

132

Clinical features of right-sided infective endocarditis occurring in non-drug users.  

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Right-sided infective endocarditis (RIE) occurs predominantly in intravenous drug users in western countries, and it has a relatively good prognosis. Clinical features and prognosis of RIE occurring in non-drug users are not well known. We investigated the clinical findings of RIE in non-drug users. We retrospectively reviewed 345 cases diagnosed with IE. Cases with RIE or left-sided infective endocarditis (LIE) defined by the vegetation site were included and cases having no vegetation or both-side vegetation were excluded. Clinical findings and in-hospital outcome of RIE were compared to those of LIE. Among the 245 cases, 39 (16%) cases had RIE and 206 (84%) cases had LIE. RIE patients were younger (40 ± 19 yr vs 50 ± 18 yr, P=0.004), and had a higher incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) (36% vs 13%, PLIE patients. A large vegetation was more common in RIE (33% vs 9%, PLIE. In-hospital mortality and cardiac surgery were not different between the two groups. CHD and use of CVC were common in non-drug users with RIE. The short-term clinical outcome of RIE is not different from that of LIE. PMID:24932077

Lee, Mi-Rae; Chang, Sung-A; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Ga-Yeon; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Peck, Kyong-Ran; Park, Seung Woo

2014-06-01

133

Cases of active infective endocarditis in a university hospital during a 10-year period  

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Objective: To determine the features of patients with active infective endocarditis, and to identify causative microorganisms in blood and/or valve cultures. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Surgical Intensive Care Unit of Istanbul University Cardiology Institute, Istanbul, Turkey, and comprised 22 patients with clinical evidence of the affliction who underwent operation between January 2001 and December 2010. Modified Duke Criteria was used for the diagnosis of the condition. Frequencies and percentages were calculated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 46.68±18 years, and 12 (54.5%) were male. Native valve endocarditis was present in 13 (59.1%) cases and prosthetic valve endocarditis was present in 9 (40.9%). Rheumatic heart disease was the commonest underlying heart disease (n=12; 54.5%). None of patient was intravenous drug abuser and positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Operative mortality was 18% (n=4). Vegetation and abscess formation were detected in 19 (86.3%) cases. Blood culture positivity was 50% (n=11). Staphylococci was the most common causative micro-organism (n=4; 36.3%), followed by Streptococci (n=3; 27.3%), and 1 (9.1%) each for Enterococci, Brucella species, Candida albicans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Positive cultures from vegetations and tissue retrieved at the operation was not detected. Conclusion: Active IE remains a severe disease affecting the young population in our study and rheumatic heart disease continues to be the most underlying heart disease. Culture negativity was found to be very high and prior antibiotic therapy may be the prime reason.

134

MRI Visualization of Staphyloccocus aureus-Induced Infective Endocarditis in Mice  

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Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe and often fatal disease, lacking a fast and reliable diagnostic procedure. The purpose of this study was to establish a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus-induced IE and to develop a MRI technology to characterize and diagnose IE. To establish the mouse model of hematogenous IE, aortic valve damage was induced by placing a permanent catheter into right carotid artery. 24 h after surgery, mice were injected intravenously with either iron particle-labeled or unlabeled S. aureus (strain 6850). To distinguish the effect of IE from mere tissue injury or recruited macrophages, subgroups of mice received sham surgery prior to infection (n?=?17), received surgery without infection (n?=?8), or obtained additionally injection of free iron particles to label macrophages (n?=?17). Cardiac MRI was performed 48 h after surgery using a self-gated ultra-short echo time (UTE) sequence (TR/TE, 5/0.31 ms; in-plane/slice, 0.125/1 mm; duration, 12?08 min) to obtain high-resolution, artifact-free cinematographic images of the valves. After MRI, valves were either homogenized and plated on blood agar plates for determination of bacterial titers, or sectioned and stained for histology. In the animal model, both severity of the disease and mortality increased with bacterial numbers. Infection with 105 S. aureus bacteria reliably caused endocarditis with vegetations on the valves. Cinematographic UTE MRI visualised the aortic valve over the cardiac cycle and allowed for detection of bacterial vegetations, while mere tissue trauma or labeled macrophages were not detected. Iron labeling of S. aureus was not required for detection. MRI results were consistent with histology and microbial assessment. These data showed that S. aureus-induced IE in mice can be detected by MRI. The established mouse model allows for investigation of the pathophysiology of IE, testing of novel drugs and may serve for the development of a clinical diagnostic strategy. PMID:25229324

Ring, Janine; Hoerr, Verena; Tuchscherr, Lorena; Kuhlmann, Michael T.; Loffler, Bettina; Faber, Cornelius

2014-01-01

135

Awareness of Iranian's General Dentists Regarding the Latest Prophylaxis Guideline for Prevention of Infective Endocarditis  

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Statement of Problem : Dental procedures leading to oral tissue injuries may provoke bacterial release to the blood stream causing infective endocarditis (IE) in vulnerable patients. The guideline which was proposed by AHA has been updated 9 times having the last update published in 2007. This study was endeavored to uncover the level of knowledge of general dental practitioners in Shiraz, concerning the 2007 AHA guidelines for endocarditis prophylaxis in patients with cardiac problems receiving dental treatments. Materials and Method: This cross- sectional and descriptive analytical study included 150 dentists as participants. All practitioners were given a self –report questionnaire which consisted of three sections. Questions were designed to assess their knowledge of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with cardiac disease. Results: Almost all participants (93%) were aware of antibiotic prophylaxis to be essential for tooth extraction. Most participants did not believe in prophylaxis for noninvasive procedures (such as shedding of primary teeth, impression, intraoral radiography). From all of the respondents, 75% considered Amoxicillin to be the antibiotic of choice and 57% were acquainted with the correct dose of Amoxicillin for high risk patients. Conclusion: The study identified a potential for under/over prescription of antibiotic prophylaxis under the current guideline. Burden of IE necessitates more accurate knowledge of antibiotic prophylaxis in the undergraduate curriculum and continuing education programs of dentistry. PMID:24724110

Ghaderi, F; Oshagh, M; Dehghani, R; Hasanshahi, R

2013-01-01

136

Endocardite infecciosa: 12 anos de tratamento cirúrgico Infective endocarditis: 12 years of surgical treatment  

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Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A endocardite é uma doença de tratamento difícil e que freqüentemente necessita da participação cirúrgica. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro de 1987 e janeiro de 1999, 159 pacientes foram operados em nosso Serviço, sendo 64,7% do sexo masculino. Este grupo apresentou idade média de 39,2 anos (2 a 78 anos, com peso médio de 57,1 kg. O acometimento valvar aórtico foi o mais freqüente (66 pacientes, sendo na valva nativa em 47 casos e em próteses em 19 (8 metálicas e 11 biológicas: a lesão mitral verificou-se em 53 pacientes, sendo mais comum em portadores de prótese (28 biológicas e 2 metálicas. O comprometimento das duas valvas esteve presente em 28 casos. Os demais pacientes eram portadores de defeitos congênitos ou de marcapasso definitivo. A operação foi indicada por refratariedade ao tratamento clínico, insuficiência cardíaca, quadro infeccioso levando a disfunção valvar ou de prótese, vazamento periprotético, ou ainda por arritmia. RESULTADOS: O estudo microbiológico evidenciou maior prevalência de infecção por Streptococcus viridans e Staphilococcus aureus. A operação realizada nos portadores de endocardite infecciosa em valva nativa propiciou a conservação da valva em 3 pacientes do grupo mitral e em 1 do grupo aórtico; nos demais pacientes empregaram-se próteses (a maioria metálica em aórticos e biológica em mitrais. As reoperações foram freqüentes, tendo pacientes com até quarta operação. A lesão congênita responsável pela maioria dos casos foi a comunicação interventricular (3 casos e 4 pacientes apresentavam a endocardite em eletrodo de marcapasso. A mortalidade global foi de 16,3%, com maior incidência em portadores de prótese mitral e aórtica submetidos a reoperação. A presença de abscesso como complicação da endocardite infecciosa verificou-se em 18,2% dos pacientes, utilizando-se pericárdio bovino na reconstrução da maioria, com mortalidade de 17,2%. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que o tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite infecciosa representa um desafio para o cirurgião, apesar de todo o progresso adicionado ao arsenal diagnóstico e terapêutico desta patologia.BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis is a disease of difficult and multidisciplinar treatment that frequently needs the surgical participation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 1987 and January 1999, 159 patients were operated on in our Service for infective endocarditis. Male group represented 64.7%. The mean age was 39.2 yr. (2 to 78 yr. and the mean weight 57.1 kg. The aortic valve was affected most frequently (66 patients, the native valve was affected in 47 cases and the prostheses in 19 (11 bioprostheses and 8 mechanic valves. The mitral valve was affected in 53 patients, most commonly in prostheses (28 bioprostheses and 2 mechanical. Aortic and mitral valves were together affected in 28 cases. The other patients had congenital defects or definitive pacemaker. Surgical treatment was indicated in cases of heart failure, refractory to medical treatment, valvar or prosthesis dysfunction secondary to infection, leak or arrhythmia. RESULTS: Cultures revealed that Streptococcus viridans and Staphilococcus aureus were the most prevalent microorganisms. Valve repair was possible in 3 patients of mitral group and one of aortic group. For the others, prostheses were used (mechanical for aortic valve and bioprostetic for mitral valve in the majority of the cases. Reoperation was frequent. Ventricular septal defect was the most common congenital pathology (3 cases and 4 patients presented infective endocarditis in pacemaker wire. The global mortality was 16.3%. Abscess as a complication was presented in 18.2% of the patients. We used bovine pericardium for reconstruction with a surgical mortality of 17.2%. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the treatment for infective endocarditis represents a surgical challenge, in spite of the progress added to the diagnostic and therapeutic armamentarium of this pathology.

Antoninho Sanfins ARNONI

2000-12-01

137

Endocardite infecciosa: 12 anos de tratamento cirúrgico / Infective endocarditis: 12 years of surgical treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A endocardite é uma doença de tratamento difícil e que freqüentemente necessita da participação cirúrgica. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro de 1987 e janeiro de 1999, 159 pacientes foram operados em nosso Serviço, sendo 64,7% do sexo masculino. Este grupo apresentou idade média de 39, [...] 2 anos (2 a 78 anos), com peso médio de 57,1 kg. O acometimento valvar aórtico foi o mais freqüente (66 pacientes), sendo na valva nativa em 47 casos e em próteses em 19 (8 metálicas e 11 biológicas): a lesão mitral verificou-se em 53 pacientes, sendo mais comum em portadores de prótese (28 biológicas e 2 metálicas). O comprometimento das duas valvas esteve presente em 28 casos. Os demais pacientes eram portadores de defeitos congênitos ou de marcapasso definitivo. A operação foi indicada por refratariedade ao tratamento clínico, insuficiência cardíaca, quadro infeccioso levando a disfunção valvar ou de prótese, vazamento periprotético, ou ainda por arritmia. RESULTADOS: O estudo microbiológico evidenciou maior prevalência de infecção por Streptococcus viridans e Staphilococcus aureus. A operação realizada nos portadores de endocardite infecciosa em valva nativa propiciou a conservação da valva em 3 pacientes do grupo mitral e em 1 do grupo aórtico; nos demais pacientes empregaram-se próteses (a maioria metálica em aórticos e biológica em mitrais). As reoperações foram freqüentes, tendo pacientes com até quarta operação. A lesão congênita responsável pela maioria dos casos foi a comunicação interventricular (3 casos) e 4 pacientes apresentavam a endocardite em eletrodo de marcapasso. A mortalidade global foi de 16,3%, com maior incidência em portadores de prótese mitral e aórtica submetidos a reoperação. A presença de abscesso como complicação da endocardite infecciosa verificou-se em 18,2% dos pacientes, utilizando-se pericárdio bovino na reconstrução da maioria, com mortalidade de 17,2%. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que o tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite infecciosa representa um desafio para o cirurgião, apesar de todo o progresso adicionado ao arsenal diagnóstico e terapêutico desta patologia. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis is a disease of difficult and multidisciplinar treatment that frequently needs the surgical participation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 1987 and January 1999, 159 patients were operated on in our Service for infective endocarditis. Male group represented 6 [...] 4.7%. The mean age was 39.2 yr. (2 to 78 yr.) and the mean weight 57.1 kg. The aortic valve was affected most frequently (66 patients), the native valve was affected in 47 cases and the prostheses in 19 (11 bioprostheses and 8 mechanic valves). The mitral valve was affected in 53 patients, most commonly in prostheses (28 bioprostheses and 2 mechanical). Aortic and mitral valves were together affected in 28 cases. The other patients had congenital defects or definitive pacemaker. Surgical treatment was indicated in cases of heart failure, refractory to medical treatment, valvar or prosthesis dysfunction secondary to infection, leak or arrhythmia. RESULTS: Cultures revealed that Streptococcus viridans and Staphilococcus aureus were the most prevalent microorganisms. Valve repair was possible in 3 patients of mitral group and one of aortic group. For the others, prostheses were used (mechanical for aortic valve and bioprostetic for mitral valve in the majority of the cases). Reoperation was frequent. Ventricular septal defect was the most common congenital pathology (3 cases) and 4 patients presented infective endocarditis in pacemaker wire. The global mortality was 16.3%. Abscess as a complication was presented in 18.2% of the patients. We used bovine pericardium for reconstruction with a surgical mortality of 17.2%. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the treatment for infective endocarditis represents a surgical challenge, in spite of the progress added to the diagn

Antoninho Sanfins, ARNONI; Josué de, CASTRO NETO; Renato Tambellini, ARNONI; Antonio Flávio Sanches de, ALMEIDA; Camilo, ABDULMASSIH NETO; Jarbas J., DINKHUYSEN; Mario, ISSA; Paulo, CHACCUR; Paulo P., PAULISTA.

2000-12-01

138

Infective Endocarditis  

Science.gov (United States)

... Females Impact on Children Insurance Coverage • Understand Your Risk • Symptoms & Diagnosis • Care & Treatment • Tools & Resources Find and Give Support When faced with challenges recovering after heart disease or stroke, it’s important to have emotional support. That is ...

139

From Recussitation to Birth: Double Valve Replacement Due to Infective Endocarditis in Pregnant Woman  

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Full Text Available Pregnancy carries an increased risk for mother and the fetus in patients with cardiac disease. In this case we represent a woman with gestational age of 16 weeks, who was resuscitated and underwent double valve replacement with longer cardiopulmonary bypass times (112 minutes of cross clamping and 133 minutes of perfusion time due to infective endocarditis and decompensed heart failure. After the surgery at 38th gestational weeks, she gave birth uneventfully to a healthy child whose Apgar score was 9 at first and fifth minutes of the delivery. Heart surgery during pregnancy can be performed with acceptable maternal and fetal mortality rates. These rates may even be lower if strict protocols performed during every step of surgery and after.

Vedat Y?ld?r?m

2012-01-01

140

Infective endocarditis epidemiology and consequences of prophylaxis guidelines modifications: the dialectical evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically, infective endocarditis (IE) affected patients with predisposing cardiac conditions and community-acquired bacteremia. Over the past 30 years, significant changes have occurred, regarding microorganisms, underlying valvular heart diseases, portals of entry, and patients' comorbidities. Given these epidemiological changes and unproven prophylaxis efficacy, experts in most countries currently limit antibiotic indications to patients with high-risk cardiac conditions having oral procedures and, in the UK, recommend discontinuing their use altogether. To date, no epidemiological impact on streptococcal IE incidence has been observed. Policy must now address these epidemiological modifications, focus on community-acquired and health care-associated staphylococcal bacteremia prevention, and prompt the adoption of broader and nonexclusively antibiotic-based strategies. PMID:25233804

Chirouze, C; Hoen, B; Duval, X

2014-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

Endocardite infecciosa num recém-nascido pré-termo / Infective endocarditis in a preterm newborn  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: A endocardite infecciosa é uma situação rara mas grave no período neonatal. Caso clínico: Os autores descrevem o caso clínico de um recém-nascido, pré-termo de 31 semanas que ao 15º dia de vida apresentou quadro séptico pelo que iniciou antibioticoterapia. Nas hemoculturas efectuadas iso [...] lou-se Staphylococus aureus, sensível aos antibióticos prescritos e o cateter epicutâneo-cava introduzido no sexto dia de vida foi nesta altura substituído. Ao 25º dia detectou-se sopro sistólico grau II/VI, tendo o ecocardiograma mostrado imagem sugestiva de vegetação na válvula tricúspide (dimensões-8,5x4mm). Por suspeita de endocardite bacteriana, efectuou tratamento com vancomicina, gentamicina e rifampicina. As hemoculturas posteriores foram estéreis e não se verificou aumento do tamanho da vegetação. Em ambulatório manteve-se clinicamente bem e actualmente, com nove meses de idade corrigida apresenta vegetação de 3x3mm. Conclusão: A suspeita de endocardite bacteriana deve ser considerada nos recém-nascidos com sépsis hospitalar, internados numa Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos, com colocação de cateter venoso central, sobretudo se os agentes envolvidos são o Staphylococcus aureus ou fungos. A base do tratamento é um curso prolongado de antibioticoterapia com um regime bactericida apropriado. Contudo a mortalidade permanece elevada. Abstract in english Background: Infective endocarditis is a rare but serious illness in neonatal period. Case report: The authors describe the case of a preterm newborn, 31 weeks of gestation who presented at 15th day of life a condition consistent with neonatal sepsis and antibiotic therapy was administered. Staphyloc [...] ocus aureus, sensitive to antibiotics that were prescribed, were detected in blood cultures and the central venous line introduced at 6th day of life was replaced at this point. At 25th day an II/VI grade blowing systolic murmur was heard and the echocardiography showed a suggestive image of vegetation (size-8,5x4mm) in the tricuspid valve. Bacterial endocarditis was suspected and the newborn was treated with vancomycin, gentamicin and rifampicin. The subsequent blood cultures were negative and no increase on vegetation size was observed. In ambulatory, he remained clinically well and actually, with nine months of corrected age, the size of vegetation is 3x3mm. Conclusion: Suspicion of infective endocarditis must be considered in newborns with hospital sepsis in an intensive care setting, with an indwelling catheter, especially if the agents involved are Staphylococcus aureus or fungi. The cornerstone of treatment is a prolonged course of antibiotic treatment with an appropriate bactericidal regimen. However mortality remains high.

Cristiana, Ribeiro; Marta, Rios; Luísa, Lopes; Sílvia, Álvares; Elisa, Proença; Ana, Guedes.

142

Healthcare-Associated Infective Endocarditis: a Case Series in a Referral Hospital from 2006 to 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HCA-IE), a severe complication of medical care, shows a growing incidence in literature. Objective To evaluate epidemiology, etiology, risk factors for acquisition, complications, surgical treatment, and outcome of HCA-IE. Methods Observational prospective case series study (2006-2011) in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Results Fifty-three patients with HCA-IE from a total of 151 cases of infective endocarditis (IE) were included. There were 26 (49%) males (mean age of 47 ± 18.7 years), 27 (51%) females (mean age of 42 ± 20.1 years). IE was acute in 37 (70%) cases and subacute in 16 (30%) cases. The mitral valve was affected in 19 (36%) patients and the aortic valve in 12 (36%); prosthetic valves were affected in 23 (43%) patients and native valves in 30 (57%). Deep intravenous access was used in 43 (81%) cases. Negative blood cultures were observed in 11 (21%) patients, Enterococcus faecalis in 10 (19%), Staphylococcus aureus in 9 (17%), and Candida sp. in 7 (13%). Fever was present in 49 (92%) patients, splenomegaly in 12 (23%), new regurgitation murmur in 31 (58%), and elevated C-reactive protein in 44/53 (83%). Echocardiograms showed major criteria in 46 (87%) patients, and 34 (64%) patients were submitted to cardiac surgery. Overall mortality was 17/53 (32%). Conclusion In Brazil HCA-IE affected young subjects. Patients with prosthetic and native valves were affected in a similar proportion, and non-cardiac surgery was an infrequent predisposing factor, whereas intravenous access was a common one. S. aureus was significantly frequent in native valve HCA-IE, and overall mortality was high. PMID:25352503

Francischetto, Oslan; da Silva, Luciana Almenara Pereira; Senna, Katia Marie Simoes e; Vasques, Marcia Regina; Barbosa, Giovanna Ferraiuoli; Weksler, Clara; Ramos, Rosana Grandelle; Golebiovski, Wilma Felix; Lamas, Cristiane da Cruz

2014-01-01

143

sup(99m)Tc-labeled antibacterial antibody scan for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (in rabbit)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mortality of infective endocarditis is high and the results of blood cultures and clinical manifestations may be unreliable in its diagnosis. A technique has been developed using the specific antigen-antibody reaction against sup(99m)Tc-labelled antibacterial antibody. The antibody, tagged by an electrolytic method, remained very active and was not denatured since 99% of the sup(99m)Tc-antibody was able to react with antigen. The labelled antibody was injected intravenously into rabbits with experimental aortic endocarditis. The radioactivity of the infected aortic valves was about four times greater than that in the uninfected valves. A scintillation scan was able to detect the infected valves in vivo. (U.K.)

144

Endocarditis infecciosa de alto riesgo embolígeno durante el embarazo: ¿manejo conservador o quirúrgico? / High risk infective endocarditis embolism during pregnancy: Medical or surgical management?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 22 años de edad con embarazo de 14 semanas y endocarditis infecciosa de válvula mitral nativa con una vegetación de 15 mm con amplia movilidad, acompañada de insuficiencia valvular severa. Inicialmente, y pese al riesgo embolígeno, se dio tratamiento antibiótic [...] o durante 4 semanas. Por persistencia del tamaño de la vegetación se decide llevar a cirugía para reparación mitral y remoción de la lesión en la semana 18 de gestación, considerando que el balance entre el riesgo fetal y materno estaba a favor del procedimiento quirúrgico. Se usaron técnicas de protección fetal intraoperatoria y se colocó una prótesis biológica previo intento de reparación. La evolución postintervención fue satisfactoria, lográndose parto por cesárea a las 30 semanas. Abstract in english A 22-year-old pregnant woman was seen at 14 weeks of pregnancy for infective endocarditis with a vegetation of 15 mm and wide mobility, which affected the native mitral valve accompanied by severe valvular insufficiency. Antibiotic treatment was given for 4 weeks despite the embolism risk. Due to pe [...] rsistence of vegetation size and after considering the fetal and maternal risk, the surgical procedure was favored. We decided to perform valvuloplasty and removal of lesion at 18 weeks of pregnancy. Fetal protection techniques were used and a bioprosthesis was placed before attempting a repair. The postoperative follow-up was satisfactory, achieving a successful birth by cesarean section at 30 weeks.

Luis Eduardo, Echeverría; Antonio, Figueredo; Juan Carlos, Gómez; Leonardo Alberto, Salazar; Jaime Alberto, Rodriguez; Camilo Ernesto, Pizarro; Carlos Eduardo, Riaño; Addy, Perroni; Alba Lucía, Cuadros; María Cristina, Villamizar; Edwin Uriel, Suárez.

145

Acute endocarditis in drug addicts: surgical treatment for multiple valve infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 72 drug abusers surgically treated for acute infective endocarditis, 14 patients (19%) required surgical procedures on two valves. The predominant infecting organisms were Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29%). In contrast to single valve infection, congestive heart failure was the most common operative indication (86%, p less than 0.05) and was uniformly present when both left-sided valves were involved. Surgery was performed 20 +/- 13 days after initiation of antibiotic therapy, yet 7 of the 14 patients had perivalvular abscess formation. In nine patients with solely left-sided infection, aortic and mitral valve replacements were performed. In five patients with bilateral infection, partial or complete tricuspid valvectomy was performed in conjunction with one aortic and four mitral valve replacements. Tricuspid valve competence was reestablished by valve insertion or anuloplasty in two patients, and these patients experienced less perioperative heart failure than did those with tricuspid excision alone. There was no early (less than 30 day) mortality. However, long-term follow-up revealed a reoperative incidence of 21% and a 36% late mortality rate due to prosthetic valve infection with or without dehiscence at 3 to 18 months (mean 7.2 +/- 6) after the initial operation. These late infectious complications were not related to infecting organism or prosthetic material in the tricuspid anulus, but did occur in four (57%) of seven patients with intracardiac abscess. The data indicate that multiple valve infection does not preclude successful early surgical therapy, maintaining tricuspid competence may be hemodynamically preferable, and reinfection in this addict population increases late mortality. PMID:6481010

Silverman, N A; Levitsky, S; Mammana, R

1984-10-01

146

A case of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus infective endocarditis with colon cancer: identification by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the association between Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and colon carcinoma is well known, very few cases of S. bovis infection associated with underlying malignancies have been reported in Korea. The S. bovis group has been recently reclassified and renamed as Streptococcus gallolyticus and Streptococcus infantarius subspecies under a new nomenclature system. We report a case of infective endocarditis with colon cancer caused by S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (previously named S. bovis biotype I). A 59-yr-old woman presented with a 1-month history of fever. Initial blood cultures were positive for gram-positive cocci, and echocardiography showed vegetation on mitral and aortic valves. Antibiotic treatment for infective endocarditis was started. The infecting strain was a catalase-negative and bile-esculin-positive alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin. The strain was identified as S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus with the use of the Vitek 2 GPI and API 20 Strep systems (bioMérieux, USA). The 16S rDNA sequences of the blood culture isolates showed 100% homology with those of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus reported in GenBank. The identification of the infecting organism, and the subsequent communication among clinical microbiologists and physicians about the changed nomenclature, led to the detection of colon cancer. The patient recovered after treatment with antibiotics, valve surgery, and operation for colon cancer. This is the first report of biochemical and genetic identification of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus causing infective endocarditis associated with underlying colon cancer in a Korean patient. PMID:20445334

Kim, Seon Young; Joo, Sei Ick; Yi, Jongyoun; Kim, Eui Chong

2010-04-01

147

Effects of changes in management of active infective endocarditis on outcome in a 25-year period.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical outcome and long-term follow-up of 130 consecutive patients (141 episodes) with active infective endocarditis who were treated between 1966 and 1991 were analyzed. There was a shift toward a higher proportion of referred patients (39 to 78%), patients aged > 60 years (11 to 41%) and urgent surgical treatment (11 to 44%). Medical treatment was administered in 98 patients (70%); 30-day mortality was 27%. Surgery was performed in 43 patients (30%), with an operative mortality of 26%; 9 of 14 patients (64%) who underwent operation within the first week of admission died. Patients with severe heart failure are at the highest risk for early mortality (relative risk = 21.1; 95% confidence interval 7.4-60.3). Referred patients were much more often treated surgically than were nonreferred patients (48 versus 14%) and had a lower operative mortality (24 vs 30%). Nonreferred patients were more often treated medically (86 vs 52%) and with lower mortality (19 vs 39%). The total follow-up time was 730 patient-years; only 1 patient was considered lost to follow-up. The overall cumulative 5-year and 10-year survival after hospital discharge for patients after urgent surgery were 84 +/- 7% and 53 +/- 7%, respectively, and for those after medical treatment 84 +/- 5% and 77 +/- 6%, respectively. The probability of remaining free of late events (recurrent endocarditis, late valve replacement or death) during 5 and 10 years for patients after urgent surgery was 84 +/- 7% and 53 +/- 15%, respectively, and for those after medical treatment 59 +/- 6% and 40 +/- 7%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8249845

Verheul, H A; van den Brink, R B; van Vreeland, T; Moulijn, A C; Düren, D R; Dunning, A J

1993-09-15

148

Gemella morbillorum endocarditis.  

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A case of Gemella morbillorum (G.morbillorum endocarditis of the mitral valve in a patient with previously normal heart valves is reported. The presentation was subacute, and the infection was complicated by perforation of the posterior mitral leaflet that necessitated valve repair. Gemella morbillorum infections are uncommon, and endocarditis is the most common presentation. G.morbillorum endocarditis is probably under recognized, and has not been reported from our region. The case is described, and problems in the identification of the organism are discussed.

Hussam Al Soub

2003-10-01

149

Chest pain with ST segment elevation in a patient with prosthetic aortic valve infective endocarditis: a case report  

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Abstract Introduction Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction secondary to atherosclerotic plaque rupture is a common medical emergency. This condition is effectively managed with percutaneous coronary intervention or thrombolysis. We report a rare case of acute myocardial infarction secondary to coronary embolisation of valvular vegetation in a patient with infective endocarditis, and we highlight how the management of this phenomenon may not be the same. Cas...

Gamma Reto; Showkathali Refai; Luther Vishal

2011-01-01

150

Successful recovery of infective endocarditis-induced rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis by steroid therapy combined with antibiotics: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The mortality rate among patients with infective endocarditis, especially associated with the presence of complications or coexisting conditions such as renal failure and the use of combined medical and surgical therapy remains still high. Prolonged parenteral administration of a bactericidal antimicrobial agent or combination of agents is usually recommended, however, the optimal therapy for infective endocarditis associated with renal injury is not adequately defined. Case presentation Patient was a 24-years old man who presented to our hospital with fever, fatigue, and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. He had a history of ventricular septum defect (VSD. A renal biopsy specimen revealed crescentic glomerulonephritis and echocardiogram revealed VSD with vegetation on the tricuspid valve. Specimens of blood demonstrated Propionibacterium Acnes. The intensive antibiotic therapy with penicillin G was started without clinical improvement of renal function or resolution of fever over the next 7 days. After the short-term treatment of low dose of corticosteroid combined with continuous antibiotics, high fever and renal insufficiency were dramatically improved. Conclusion Although renal function in our case worsened despite therapy with antibiotics, a short-term and low dose of corticosteroid therapy with antibiotics was able to recover renal function and the patient finally underwent tricuspid valve-plasty and VSD closure. We suggest that the patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis associated with infective endocarditis might be treated with a short-term and low dose of corticosteroid successfully.

Kikkawa Ryuichi

2004-12-01

151

Surgical treatment for infective endocarditis and hospital mortality in a Brazilian single-center / Tratamento cirúrgico para endocardite infecciosa e mortalidade hospitalar em centro único brasileiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliamos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia valvar em vigência de endocardite infecciosa na tentativa de identificar preditores independentes de mortalidade intrahospitalar em 30 dias. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 837 pacientes consecutivamente submetidos à cirurgia valvar, no período de janeiro [...] de 2003 a maio de 2010, em um hospital terciário de São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brasil. O Grupo de Estudo compreendeu indivíduos submetidos à intervenção em vigência de endocardite infecciosa e foi comparado ao Grupo Controle, considerando complicações clínicas perioperatórias e óbito por todas as causas em 30 dias. RESULTADOS: Em nossa casuística, 64 (8%) pacientes foram submetidos à cirurgia valvar em vigência de endocardite infecciosa, sendo 37,5% deles com indicação de intervenção cirúrgica em múltiplas valvas. O Grupo de Estudo apresentou maior permanência em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (16%), necessidade de diálise (9%) e maior mortalidade em 30 dias (17%) comparado ao Grupo Controle (7%, P=0,020; 2%, P=0,002 e 9%, P=0,038; respectivamente). A análise de regressão de Cox confirmou idade (P=0,007), lesão renal aguda (P=0,004), diálise (P=0,026), reoperação (P=0,026), reintervenção por sangramento (P=0,013), reintubação orotraqueal (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patients underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis in an attempt to identify independent predictors of 30-day mortality. METHODS: We evaluated 837 consecutive patients underwent cardiac valve surgery from January 2003 to May 2010 in a tertiary [...] hospital in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The study group comprised patients who underwent intervention in the presence of infective endocarditis and was compared to the control group (without infective endocarditis), evaluating perioperative clinical outcomes and 30-day all cause mortality. RESULTS: In our series, 64 patients (8%) underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis, and 37.5% of them had surgical intervention in multiple valves. The study group had prolonged ICU length of stay (16%), greater need for dialysis (9%) and higher 30-day mortality (17%) compared to the control group (7%, P=0.020; 2%, P=0.002 and 9%, P=0.038; respectively). In a Cox regression analysis, age (P = 0.007), acute kidney injury (P = 0.004), dialysis (P = 0.026), redo surgery (P = 0.026), re-exploration for bleeding (P = 0.013), tracheal reintubation (P

Maurício Nassau, Machado; Marcelo Arruda, Nakazone; Jamil Ali, Murad-Júnior; Lilia Nigro, Maia.

152

Surgical treatment for infective endocarditis and hospital mortality in a Brazilian single-center / Tratamento cirúrgico para endocardite infecciosa e mortalidade hospitalar em centro único brasileiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliamos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia valvar em vigência de endocardite infecciosa na tentativa de identificar preditores independentes de mortalidade intrahospitalar em 30 dias. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 837 pacientes consecutivamente submetidos à cirurgia valvar, no período de janeiro [...] de 2003 a maio de 2010, em um hospital terciário de São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brasil. O Grupo de Estudo compreendeu indivíduos submetidos à intervenção em vigência de endocardite infecciosa e foi comparado ao Grupo Controle, considerando complicações clínicas perioperatórias e óbito por todas as causas em 30 dias. RESULTADOS: Em nossa casuística, 64 (8%) pacientes foram submetidos à cirurgia valvar em vigência de endocardite infecciosa, sendo 37,5% deles com indicação de intervenção cirúrgica em múltiplas valvas. O Grupo de Estudo apresentou maior permanência em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (16%), necessidade de diálise (9%) e maior mortalidade em 30 dias (17%) comparado ao Grupo Controle (7%, P=0,020; 2%, P=0,002 e 9%, P=0,038; respectivamente). A análise de regressão de Cox confirmou idade (P=0,007), lesão renal aguda (P=0,004), diálise (P=0,026), reoperação (P=0,026), reintervenção por sangramento (P=0,013), reintubação orotraqueal (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patients underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis in an attempt to identify independent predictors of 30-day mortality. METHODS: We evaluated 837 consecutive patients underwent cardiac valve surgery from January 2003 to May 2010 in a tertiary [...] hospital in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The study group comprised patients who underwent intervention in the presence of infective endocarditis and was compared to the control group (without infective endocarditis), evaluating perioperative clinical outcomes and 30-day all cause mortality. RESULTS: In our series, 64 patients (8%) underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis, and 37.5% of them had surgical intervention in multiple valves. The study group had prolonged ICU length of stay (16%), greater need for dialysis (9%) and higher 30-day mortality (17%) compared to the control group (7%, P=0.020; 2%, P=0.002 and 9%, P=0.038; respectively). In a Cox regression analysis, age (P = 0.007), acute kidney injury (P = 0.004), dialysis (P = 0.026), redo surgery (P = 0.026), re-exploration for bleeding (P = 0.013), tracheal reintubation (P

Maurício Nassau, Machado; Marcelo Arruda, Nakazone; Jamil Ali, Murad-Júnior; Lilia Nigro, Maia.

2013-03-01

153

Dental implants in patients at high risk for infective endocarditis: a preliminary study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The safety of dental implant placement in patients at high risk for infective endocarditis (IE) has never been shown. The outcome of osseointegrated implants in patients with artificial heart valves or with a history of an infected valve is not known. In this article we describe our experience of dental implant placement in patients at high risk for IE. A retrospective study was conducted on patients at high risk for IE who underwent dental implant placement. All the patients received prophylactic antibiotic treatment before the surgical procedure, in accordance with the relevant American Heart Association guidelines. A total 13 patients underwent 16 surgical procedures for the placement of 57 dental implants over a period of 17 years. Within the follow-up period, no case of IE was reported. Two implants failed before exposure in one patient, one patient suffered from mitral valve thrombosis 14 days after the dental procedure, and another patient suffered a stroke 6 months following treatment. Despite the limitation of the small group of patients and the known low incidence of IE, dental implants may be regarded as a legitimate procedure for patients at high risk for IE. PMID:24893765

Findler, M; Chackartchi, T; Regev, E

2014-10-01

154

Once versus twice daily gentamicin dosing for infective endocarditis : a randomized clinical trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objectives: The aim of this randomized study was to investigate the effects of once versus twice daily gentamicin dosing on renal function and measures of infectious disease in a population with infective endocarditis (IE). Methods: Seventy-one IE patients needing gentamicin treatment according to guidelines were randomized to either once (n = 37) or twice daily (n = 34) doses of gentamicin. Kidney function (glomerular filtration rate, GFR) was measured with an isotope method ( 51 Cr-EDTA) at the beginning of treatment and at discharge. Treatment efficacy was assessed by C-reactive protein (CRP) time to half-life, mean CRP and leukocytes. Results: Baseline GFR was similar in the two groups. Both groups displayed a significant fall in GFR from admission to discharge. The mean decrease in GFR was as follows: with once daily gentamicin, 17.0% (95% confidence interval 7.5– 26.5), and with twice daily gentamicin, 20.4% (95% confidence interval 12.0–28.8). However, there was no significant difference in the GFR decrease between the once and twice daily regimens (p = 0.573). No difference in infection parameters was demonstrated between the two dosing regimens. Conclusions: A twice daily gentamicin dosing regimen is neither less nephrotoxic nor more efficient than a once daily regimen in the treatment of IE patients. When indicated, gentamicin may therefore also be administered as a singledose regimen in the treatment of IE patients.

Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten Toftager

2011-01-01

155

Multiresistant-MRSA tricuspid valve infective endocarditis with ancient osteomyelitis locus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA with low susceptibility to glycopeptides is uncommon. Case presentation The case of a 50-year-old non-drug addict patient presenting with tricuspid valve infective endocarditis (IE by MRSA resistant to vancomycin and linezolid is presented. There was response only to quinupristin/dalfopristin. He had a motorcycling accident four years before undergoing right above-the-knee amputation and orthopaedic fixation of the left limb. There were multiple episodes of left MRSA-osteomyelitis controlled after surgery and vancomycin therapy. MRSA isolated from the blood at the time of IE presented with the same profile than the isolated four years earlier. Sequential treatment with teicoplanin-cotrimoxazole and Linezolid associated to vancomycin – rifampicin – cotrimoxazole had no improvement. Infection was controlled after 28 days of therapy with quinupristin/dalfopristin. Conclusion The literature presents only a few cases of MRSA IE not susceptible to glycopeptides in not drug addicted patients. This case shows the comparison of a highly-resistant MRSA after previous S. aureus osteomyelitis treated with glycopeptides. This is the first description of successful treatment of resistant-MRSA IE of the tricuspid valve complicated by multiple pulmonary septic infarction with quinupristin/dalfopristin

Gambarati Gianpaolo

2006-07-01

156

One-year mortality in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis.  

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The aim of this study was to investigate in-hospital mortality and 12-month mortality in patients with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) compared to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infective endocarditis (IE). We used a prospective cohort study of 66 consecutive CoNS and 170 S. aureus IE patients, collected at 2 tertiary university hospitals in Copenhagen (Denmark) and at 1 tertiary university hospital in Gothenburg (Sweden). Median (range) C-reactive protein at admission was higher in patients with S. aureus IE (150 mg/l (1-521) vs 94 mg/l (6-303); p<0.001), which may suggest a more serous infection. CoNS was associated with prosthetic valve IE (49% vs 24%; p<0.001) and median diagnostic delay was longer in CoNS IE patients (20 d (0-232) vs 9 d (0-132); p<0.001). In-hospital mortality was equally high in both groups but 25% of the CoNS IE patients had died after 1 y compared to 39% of patients with S. aureus IE (p =0.05). In conclusion, CoNS IE was associated with a long diagnostic delay and high in-hospital mortality, whereas post-discharge prognosis was better in this group of patients compared to patients with IE due to S. aureus. PMID:19396665

Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Olaison, Lars; Andersson, Rune; Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten T; Hansen, Thomas F; Køber, Lars; Hassager, Christian; Bruun, Niels E

2009-01-01

157

Infective endocarditis (IE first diagnosed at autopsy: analysis of 31 cases in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil Endocardite infecciosa (EI com diagnóstico feito apenas à necrópsia: análise de 31 casos ocorridos entre 1992 e 1997, em Ribeirão Preto, Brasil  

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Full Text Available Thirty one infective endocarditis (IE fatal cases whose diagnosis was first obtained at autopsy were studied. The clinical data of these patients (Group 1 showed significant differences compared to other 141 IE cases (Group 2. The average age of 53 years in Group 1 patients was 18 years higher than that of Group 2. The Group 1 patients had a low frequency of IE predisposing heart disease. Both patient groups presented fever (about 87%, but a significant low frequency of cardiac murmur (25.8% was observed in Group 1 patients and echocardiography tests were performed in only 16.1%, suggesting that IE diagnosis was not suspected. Likewise, although most Group 1 patients appeared with severe acute illness, they did not present the classic IE clinical presentation. Blood cultures were performed in only 64.5% of the Group 1 patients. However, bacteria were isolated in 70% of these blood cultures and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 71.4%. The bacteria attacked mitral and aortic valves. Complications such as embolizations and cardiac failure occurred in almost half of the cases and they also presented with infections of the lungs, urinary tract, and central nervous system. Medical procedures were performed in practically all fatal cases whose diagnosis was first obtained at autopsy. Sepsis occurred in about half of the patients and it was followed by shock in more than 25%. This form of IE must be suspected in mature and in old febrile hospitalized patients having infection predisposing diseases, embolization, and suffering medical procedures.Trinta e um casos fatais de EI, que tiveram este diagnóstico apenas à necrópsia, foram analisados. Os dados clínicos destes pacientes (Grupo 1 mostrou diferenças significantes quando comparados aos de outros 141 casos de EI (Grupo 2. A idade média de 53 anos nos pacientes do Grupo 1 foi 18 anos mais alta que nos do Grupo 2. Os pacientes do Grupo 1 tiveram uma baixa freqüência de cardiopatias predisponentes à EI. Ambos os grupos de pacientes apresentaram febre (aproximadamente 87%, mas uma significante baixa freqüência de sopro cardíaco (25,8% foi observado no Grupo 1, provavelmente, em conseqüência disto, o ecocardiograma foi efetuado em apenas 16,1% dos casos, não sendo, portanto, suspeitada EI. Os pacientes do Grupo 1, embora tivessem grave enfermidade aguda, não apresentaram apresentação clínica compatível com EI clássica. Hemoculturas foram feitas em apenas 64,5% dos pacientes do Grupo 1, porém, isolou-se bactérias em 70% e dentre os isolados, predominou o Staphylococcus aureus (71,4%. Foram predominantemente acometidas as válvulas mitral e aórtica. Complicações como embolização e insuficiência cardíaca ocorreram em quase metade dos casos e eles também apresentaram infecções pulmonares, urinárias e do sistema nervoso central. Praticamente todos os casos fatais de EI, que tiveram este diagnóstico apenas à necrópsia, foram submetidos a procedimentos médicos. Sepse aconteceu em aproximadamente metade dos pacientes e mostrou-se acompanhada de choque em mais de 25%. Esta forma de EI deve ser suspeitada em pacientes de idade madura ou idosos, hospitalizados, com doenças que predispõem a infecções, com embolização e que sofreram procedimentos médicos.

Luiz Tadeu M. FIGUEIREDO

2001-08-01

158

Infective endocarditis (IE) first diagnosed at autopsy: analysis of 31 cases in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil / Endocardite infecciosa (EI) com diagnóstico feito apenas à necrópsia: análise de 31 casos ocorridos entre 1992 e 1997, em Ribeirão Preto, Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Trinta e um casos fatais de EI, que tiveram este diagnóstico apenas à necrópsia, foram analisados. Os dados clínicos destes pacientes (Grupo 1) mostrou diferenças significantes quando comparados aos de outros 141 casos de EI (Grupo 2). A idade média de 53 anos nos pacientes do Grupo 1 foi 18 anos ma [...] is alta que nos do Grupo 2. Os pacientes do Grupo 1 tiveram uma baixa freqüência de cardiopatias predisponentes à EI. Ambos os grupos de pacientes apresentaram febre (aproximadamente 87%), mas uma significante baixa freqüência de sopro cardíaco (25,8%) foi observado no Grupo 1, provavelmente, em conseqüência disto, o ecocardiograma foi efetuado em apenas 16,1% dos casos, não sendo, portanto, suspeitada EI. Os pacientes do Grupo 1, embora tivessem grave enfermidade aguda, não apresentaram apresentação clínica compatível com EI clássica. Hemoculturas foram feitas em apenas 64,5% dos pacientes do Grupo 1, porém, isolou-se bactérias em 70% e dentre os isolados, predominou o Staphylococcus aureus (71,4%). Foram predominantemente acometidas as válvulas mitral e aórtica. Complicações como embolização e insuficiência cardíaca ocorreram em quase metade dos casos e eles também apresentaram infecções pulmonares, urinárias e do sistema nervoso central. Praticamente todos os casos fatais de EI, que tiveram este diagnóstico apenas à necrópsia, foram submetidos a procedimentos médicos. Sepse aconteceu em aproximadamente metade dos pacientes e mostrou-se acompanhada de choque em mais de 25%. Esta forma de EI deve ser suspeitada em pacientes de idade madura ou idosos, hospitalizados, com doenças que predispõem a infecções, com embolização e que sofreram procedimentos médicos. Abstract in english Thirty one infective endocarditis (IE) fatal cases whose diagnosis was first obtained at autopsy were studied. The clinical data of these patients (Group 1) showed significant differences compared to other 141 IE cases (Group 2). The average age of 53 years in Group 1 patients was 18 years higher th [...] an that of Group 2. The Group 1 patients had a low frequency of IE predisposing heart disease. Both patient groups presented fever (about 87%), but a significant low frequency of cardiac murmur (25.8%) was observed in Group 1 patients and echocardiography tests were performed in only 16.1%, suggesting that IE diagnosis was not suspected. Likewise, although most Group 1 patients appeared with severe acute illness, they did not present the classic IE clinical presentation. Blood cultures were performed in only 64.5% of the Group 1 patients. However, bacteria were isolated in 70% of these blood cultures and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 71.4%. The bacteria attacked mitral and aortic valves. Complications such as embolizations and cardiac failure occurred in almost half of the cases and they also presented with infections of the lungs, urinary tract, and central nervous system. Medical procedures were performed in practically all fatal cases whose diagnosis was first obtained at autopsy. Sepsis occurred in about half of the patients and it was followed by shock in more than 25%. This form of IE must be suspected in mature and in old febrile hospitalized patients having infection predisposing diseases, embolization, and suffering medical procedures.

Luiz Tadeu M., FIGUEIREDO; Everaldo, RUIZ-JUNIOR; Tarciso, SCHIRMBECK.

159

Yersinia enterocolitica endocarditis on a prosthetic valve.  

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Yersinia entercolitica endocarditis has rarely been described before. This is the first report of prosthetic valve Yersinia enterocolitis endocarditis, complicated by infected brain embolization. The patient, however, completely recovered after 6 weeks of combined therapy with ceftriaxone and gentamicin.

Pras, E.; Arber, N.; Pinkhas, J.; Sidi, Y.

1992-01-01

160

Gram-negative bacteria causing infective endocarditis: Rare cardiac complication after liver transplantation  

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Full Text Available Bacterial endocarditis is a rare complication amongst solid organ transplant recipients and is often linked to bacteremia. Majority of these recipients do not have underlying valvular heart disease or congenital valvular abnormalities. Staphylococoocusaureus and Enterococcus species are the most commonly isolated organisms. There are very few reports of gram-negative bacteria causing endocarditis in liver transplant recipients. We report a 51-year-old male, a liver transplant recipient, who developed bacterial endocarditis of the mitral valve due to extended spectrum of betalactamase producing strain of Escherichia coli and was managed successfully with antibiotics.

Susan George

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Endocarditis infecciosa por Listeria monocytogenes: revisión de la literatura a partir de un caso clínico / Infective endocarditis caused by Listeria monocytogenes: review of the literature and a case report  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endocarditis infecciosa por Listeria monocytogenes es una enfermedad extremadamente infrecuente, pero usualmente agresiva. Se ha observado en los últimos años un aumento en la edad de presentación y una predilección por pacientes con enfermedad valvular, especialmente válvula protésica. El tratam [...] iento de elección es ampicilina combinada con un aminoglucósido para obtener sinergismo. Aun con un tratamiento adecuado, la mortalidad es elevada y mayor que en otros tipos de endocarditis bacteriana. Con una terapia óptima, incluyendo la resolución quirúrgica, la mortalidad ha disminuido significativamente en los últimos años. Se presenta una revisión de la literatura científica a partir de un caso clínico de un paciente con un síndrome febril en el que se diagnosticó una endocarditis por L. monocytogenesque fue tratada en forma médica con un resultado exitoso. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis caused by Listeria monocytogenesis an extremely rare but usually aggressive disease. We have seen in recent years an increase in age of onset of this disease and a predilection for patients with valvular disease, especially prosthetic valve. The treatment of choice is ampicill [...] in, which is combined with gentamicin for synergy. It is known that even with treatment the mortality is very high and higher than in other types of bacterial endocarditis. With optimal therapy, that is medical-surgical, mortality has declined significantly in recent years. We presents a review of the literature and a clinical case of a patient with a febrile syndrome diagnosed as a infective endocarditis caused by L. monocytogenestreated medically with successful outcome to date.

Arnaldo, Marín; Nicole, Lustig; Ricardo, Cruz; Samuel, Córdova.

162

Endocarditis infecciosa por Listeria monocytogenes: revisión de la literatura a partir de un caso clínico / Infective endocarditis caused by Listeria monocytogenes: review of the literature and a case report  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endocarditis infecciosa por Listeria monocytogenes es una enfermedad extremadamente infrecuente, pero usualmente agresiva. Se ha observado en los últimos años un aumento en la edad de presentación y una predilección por pacientes con enfermedad valvular, especialmente válvula protésica. El tratam [...] iento de elección es ampicilina combinada con un aminoglucósido para obtener sinergismo. Aun con un tratamiento adecuado, la mortalidad es elevada y mayor que en otros tipos de endocarditis bacteriana. Con una terapia óptima, incluyendo la resolución quirúrgica, la mortalidad ha disminuido significativamente en los últimos años. Se presenta una revisión de la literatura científica a partir de un caso clínico de un paciente con un síndrome febril en el que se diagnosticó una endocarditis por L. monocytogenesque fue tratada en forma médica con un resultado exitoso. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis caused by Listeria monocytogenesis an extremely rare but usually aggressive disease. We have seen in recent years an increase in age of onset of this disease and a predilection for patients with valvular disease, especially prosthetic valve. The treatment of choice is ampicill [...] in, which is combined with gentamicin for synergy. It is known that even with treatment the mortality is very high and higher than in other types of bacterial endocarditis. With optimal therapy, that is medical-surgical, mortality has declined significantly in recent years. We presents a review of the literature and a clinical case of a patient with a febrile syndrome diagnosed as a infective endocarditis caused by L. monocytogenestreated medically with successful outcome to date.

Arnaldo, Marín; Nicole, Lustig; Ricardo, Cruz; Samuel, Córdova.

2013-08-01

163

Prophylaxis to prevent infective endocarditis: to use or not to use?  

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The American Heart Association (AHA) published their revised guidelines in 2007 in which they markedly limited the recommendations for the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis for the prevention of infective endocarditis (IE), except for patients who are at highest risk of adverse outcomes. A recent focused update on valvular heart diseases changed the recommendation for antibiotic use for patients with many underlying heart conditions including mitral valve prolapse (MVP) which were considered as "low risk" heart defects. In this article, we argue that antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered until concrete clinical evidence is provided to dispute against the use of this strategy, especially for patients with MVP. This approach is cost efficient, and provides a chance to prevent a dreadful disease. We have also enlisted 2 clinical cases to support our argument. These are not uncommon clinical scenarios, and emphasize that IE can be fatal in spite of optimum treatment. Patients have the right to make the final decision, and they should be allowed to participate in choosing for or against this approach until adequate clinical evidence is available. PMID:19685514

Dhoble, Abhijeet; Vedre, Ameeth; Abdelmoneim, Sahar S; Sudini, Srikar Reddy; Ghose, Amit; Abela, George S; Karve, Milind

2009-08-01

164

Balloon aortic valvuloplasty in pregnancy with severe aortic stenosis and infective endocarditis  

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Full Text Available Twenty seven year old lady, previously diagnosed to have aortic stenosis, presented to the obstetric outpatient department at 19 weeks of gestation with fever and breathlessness, NYHA class 4, for one week. Two D Echo revealed left ventricular hypertrophy, a severely stenosed, calcified bicuspid aortic valve, with vegetations on aortic and mitral valves and severe mitral regurgitation. Blood cultures grew nutrionally variant streptococci and she was treated with crystalline penicillin and gentamicin. She stabilised clinically by 21 weeks, by which time, the risk of termination of pregnancy was comparable to continuing the pregnancy. She underwent balloon aortic valvuloplasty. Post balloon aortic valvuloplasty, she was stable. At 34+2 weeks, she underwent emergency LSCS, the indication being intrauterine growth restriction with fetal compromise and breech presentation. She delivered a baby girl, 1.6 kg, Apgar 9 & 10. Our case report highlights the fact that a timely, balloon aortic valvuloplasty can be life saving for patients with pregnancy complicated by severe aortic stenosis and infective endocarditis. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2012; 1(1.000: 69-71

Vinotha

2012-12-01

165

The importance of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging in valve surgery for active infective endocarditis  

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Valve surgery for active infective endocarditis (IE) can cause fatal brain hemorrhage. Our current study aimed to evaluate the incidence of septic cerebral lesions in active IE patients by performing preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2*-weighted sequences and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) before urgent valve surgery, and to investigate whether such preoperative evaluation affects postoperative outcomes. Eighteen patients were referred to our department for native valve IE during 2006-2010. Urgent surgery was indicated in cases of hemodynamic failure resulting from valve destruction, refractory sepsis, and mobile vegetations measuring >10 mm. For these patients, we performed preoperative MRI and MRA. Males comprised 67% of the subjects, with average age 53±15 years. No clinical evidence of acute stroke was noted. Of the 18 patients, urgent surgery was indicated in 15; of these, 10 (67%) showed a brain lesion related to IE: 6 patients had acute or subacute brain infarctions, 2 patients had brain infarction with brain abscess, and 2 patients had hemorrhagic brain infarction and so did not undergo urgent surgery. Thus, 13 patients underwent urgent valve surgery. Among the 5 patients who did not undergo urgent surgery, 4 patients later underwent valve surgery for healed IE. No hospital deaths or neurological complications occurred. MRI of patients with active IE revealed a high incidence of cerebral lesions caused by IE. The use ofcerebral lesions caused by IE. The use of MRI to detect septic embolism and intracerebral hemorrhage may provide important information for better surgical outcomes. (author)

166

Diagnostic value of harmonic transthoracic echocardiography in native valve infective endocarditis: comparison with transesophageal echocardiography  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although echocardiography has been incorporated into the diagnostic algorithm of patients with suspected infective endocarditis (IE, systematic usage in clinical practice remains ill defined. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of detecting vegetations using harmonic transthoracic echocardiography (hTTE as compared to transesophageal echocardiography (TEE in patients with an intermediate likelihood of native valve IE. Methods Between 2004 and 2005, 36 consecutive inpatients with an intermediate likelihood of disease were prospectively evaluated by hTTE and TEE. Results Of 36 patients (21 males with a mean age of 57 ± 15 years, range 32 to 86 years, 19 patients had definite IE by TEE. The sensitivity for the detection of vegetations by hTTE was 84%, specificity of 88%, positive predictive value (PPV of 89% and negative predictive value (NPV of 82%. The association between hTTE and TTE interpretation for the presence and absence of vegetations were high (kappa = 0.90 and 0.85 respectively. Conclusion In patients with an intermediate likelihood of native valve IE, TTE with harmonic imaging provides diagnostic quality images in the majority of cases, has excellent concordance with TEE and should be recommended as the first line test.

Embil John M

2007-05-01

167

Significado de la fiebre persistente o recurrente durante el tratamiento de la endocarditis infecciosa / Clinical significance of persistent or recurrent fever during the treatment of infective endocarditis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluaron 81 pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa con el objeto de establecer la significación clínica de la presencia de fiebre persistente (FP) y/o fiebre recurrente (FR) durante el tratamiento. Un total de 46 pacientes (56.8%) (Grupo 1) tuvieron FP y/o FR durante el tratamiento: 35 FP y 16 FR [...] , que se compararon con 35 sin FP/FR (Grupo 2). No hubo diferencias en la edad, sexo, permanencia hospitalaria, origen nosocomial, demora diagnóstica y comorbilidad asociada. El compromiso aórtico (47.8 vs 34.2%) y tricuspídeo (21.7 vs 11.4%) y la infección por Staphylococcus aureus (55.5 vs 28%) fueron más frecuentes en el Grupo 1, aunque no significativamente. El S. aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR) (22.2 vs 4%), las complicaciones (95.6 vs 65.7%), la disfunción renal (58.6 vs 31.4%), el embolismo mayor (60.8 vs 34%), los fenómenos microvasculares (43.4 vs 17.1%) y la cirugía valvular (34.7 vs 11.4%) ocurrieron significativamente en el Grupo 1 (p Abstract in english Patients with infective endocarditis (IE) were studied to assess incidence, clinical features and mortality in a population with either persistent (PF) or recurrent fever (RF) during treatment. A sample of 81 patients was evaluated. Of these, 46 patients (56.8%) had fever during treatment: 35 had PF [...] and 16 had RF (Group 1). This group was compared with 35 patients with IE without fever (Group 2). Age, sex, in-hospital days, nosocomial acquisition, delay in diagnosis, and co-morbidities were similar among each group. The aortic and tricuspid valve compromise, and Staphylococcus aureus as etiologic agent were more frequent in Group 1 (although not significantly). However, the development of complications (95.6 vs. 65.7%), renal dysfunction (58.6 vs. 31.4%), major vessel embolization (60.8 vs. 34%), microvascular phenomena (43.4 vs. 17.1%), infections with MRSA (22.2 vs. 4%) and valvular surgery (34.7 vs. 11.4%) were significantly higher in Group 1(p

José, Carena; Guillermo, Marucci; Susana, Salomón.

2004-06-01

168

Significado de la fiebre persistente o recurrente durante el tratamiento de la endocarditis infecciosa / Clinical significance of persistent or recurrent fever during the treatment of infective endocarditis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluaron 81 pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa con el objeto de establecer la significación clínica de la presencia de fiebre persistente (FP) y/o fiebre recurrente (FR) durante el tratamiento. Un total de 46 pacientes (56.8%) (Grupo 1) tuvieron FP y/o FR durante el tratamiento: 35 FP y 16 FR [...] , que se compararon con 35 sin FP/FR (Grupo 2). No hubo diferencias en la edad, sexo, permanencia hospitalaria, origen nosocomial, demora diagnóstica y comorbilidad asociada. El compromiso aórtico (47.8 vs 34.2%) y tricuspídeo (21.7 vs 11.4%) y la infección por Staphylococcus aureus (55.5 vs 28%) fueron más frecuentes en el Grupo 1, aunque no significativamente. El S. aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR) (22.2 vs 4%), las complicaciones (95.6 vs 65.7%), la disfunción renal (58.6 vs 31.4%), el embolismo mayor (60.8 vs 34%), los fenómenos microvasculares (43.4 vs 17.1%) y la cirugía valvular (34.7 vs 11.4%) ocurrieron significativamente en el Grupo 1 (p Abstract in english Patients with infective endocarditis (IE) were studied to assess incidence, clinical features and mortality in a population with either persistent (PF) or recurrent fever (RF) during treatment. A sample of 81 patients was evaluated. Of these, 46 patients (56.8%) had fever during treatment: 35 had PF [...] and 16 had RF (Group 1). This group was compared with 35 patients with IE without fever (Group 2). Age, sex, in-hospital days, nosocomial acquisition, delay in diagnosis, and co-morbidities were similar among each group. The aortic and tricuspid valve compromise, and Staphylococcus aureus as etiologic agent were more frequent in Group 1 (although not significantly). However, the development of complications (95.6 vs. 65.7%), renal dysfunction (58.6 vs. 31.4%), major vessel embolization (60.8 vs. 34%), microvascular phenomena (43.4 vs. 17.1%), infections with MRSA (22.2 vs. 4%) and valvular surgery (34.7 vs. 11.4%) were significantly higher in Group 1(p

José, Carena; Guillermo, Marucci; Susana, Salomón.

169

[Morbimortality of infective endocarditis associated with permanent cardiovascular implantable electronic devices].  

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Infective endocarditis (IE) associated with permanent cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is a complication of low frequency, but high mortality without adequate treatment. Progress on the knowledge of this disease and the development of therapeutic strategies such as early diagnosis, antibiotic management and better extraction techniques, among others, have improved the prognosis of these patients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in-hospital and out-of-hospital morbidity, and analyze some factors that explain the differences among the published mortality data. Patients diagnosed with IE associated with CIEDs were studied, retrospectively, between March/2002 and March/2011. We analyzed baseline, diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics, and in-hospital and out-of-hospital courses of the disease. We included 26 cases treated in our hospital, 23 of whom were referred from other centers for diagnosis and treatment. The average age of the patients was 67.5 years. All patients received antibiotics for six weeks and underwent complete removal of the device system, in 95% of patients by percutaneous extraction and 2 patients required a median sternotomy, atriotomy and epicardial pacemaker placement. Mortality was 4% and the follow up mortality was zero. The in-hospital morbidity was 31%. In the follow-ups there were no reinfections or other complications. In conclusion, IE is a serious condition that has a high morbidity with prolonged hospital stays, but with a low mortality. The explanation may lie in the use percutaneous extraction techniques, experience, complete extraction of the device system, the time of reimplantation of the new device and early treatment, among other factors. PMID:24502180

Pérez-Baztarrica, Gabriel; Salvaggio, Flavio; Blanco, Norberto; Mazzetti, Héctor; Levin, Ricardo; Botbol, Alejandro; Porcile, Rafael

2013-12-01

170

Outcome of Infective Endocarditis: Improved Results Over 18 Years (1990–2007  

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Full Text Available Background: High morbidity and mortality characterize patients suffering infective endocarditis (IE. The treatment of IE has undergone significant changes within ten years but it is not known whether mortality has decreased and which factors are determinant of the outcome.Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic significance of clinical characteristics and outcomes of IE.Methods and Results: 312 definite cases of IE diagnosed using the Duke criteria were evaluated. Overall in-hospital mortality was 28%. Independent predictors of death, determined by a Weibull regression model, in medically-treated patients were (1 treatment era 1990–1995 vs. 2005–2007 (hazard ratio 3.14; 95% CI 1.37?7.21; (2 aging for each year (hazard ratio 1.02; 95% CI 1.004?1.03; (3 cardiac complications (hazard ratio 1.91; 95% CI 1.06?3.43; and (4 heart failure (hazard ratio 2.27; 95% CI 1.34?3.85. Independent predictors of the death in surgically-treated patients were (1 treatment era 2001–2004 vs. 2005–2007 (hazard ratio: 0.31; 95% CI 0.10?0.97, (2 aging for each year (hazard ratio: 0.96; 95% CI 0.94?0.99, and (3 cardiac complications (hazard ratio: 1.91; 95% CI 1.01?3.63.Conclusions: Some of the predictive factors for a poor prognosis were the same as those observed in previous studies. These factors could be used to identify those patients for more aggressive treatment. A new finding was the hazard function for mortality being highest at enrollment and declining rapidly in both medically and surgically treated patients, especially during the first 12 months.

Pachirat O

2008-01-01

171

Pneumococcal endocarditis of subacute evolution  

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Full Text Available With the development of penicillin, Streptococcus pneumoniae has become an uncommon cause of bacterial endocarditis in adults. Subacute manifestation of pneumococcal endocarditis has been reported a few times in the literature, but most reports define the disease as acute, severe, and having a high mortality rate. We report the case of a 58-year-old male with subacute bacterial endocarditis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. We stress the low frequency of this agent as a cause of endocarditis and the atypical evolution of this case. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and evolution, and the therapeutical options for this type of infection are also discussed.

Laercio Uemura

2001-04-01

172

Rheumatic manifestations of infective endocarditis in non-addicts. A 12-year study.  

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Infective endocarditis (IE) is due to a microbial infection of the heart valves or of the endocardium in close proximity to either congenital or acquired cardiac defects. This infection is associated with a high risk of complications. Rheumatic manifestations are known to be frequent complications of IE. Controversy, however, frequently exists about the actual incidence of these complications. This may be due to the small number of series describing the frequency and type of rheumatic manifestations, the absence of uniform criteria used for the diagnosis of IE, and the fact that some studies on rheumatic manifestations in IE have been described from tertiary referral centers, which implicates associated problems of referral bias and uncertainty of denominator population. To investigate further the incidence, clinical spectrum, and outcome of patients with IE and rheumatic manifestations, we examined the features of patients diagnosed with clinically definite IE according to the Duke classification criteria at the single reference hospital for a defined population in northwestern Spain during a 12-year period. Between 1987 and 1998, 100 consecutive patients had 110 episodes of clinically definite IE. Rheumatic manifestations were observed in 46 of the 110 episodes (41.8%). As in other western countries, they occurred more commonly in men aged in their 50s. The most frequent valve involved was the aortic (43.5%) followed by the mitral valve (30.4%). Myalgia was a frequent symptom. Peripheral arthritis, generally as monoarthritis, was clinically evident in 15 cases (13.6%), and sacroiliitis in 1 patient. Low back pain was described in 14 cases (12.7%). Septic discitis was observed in 2 cases, and biopsy-proved cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis was found in 4 cases. Other conditions such as trochanteric bursitis and polymyalgia were observed in 2 and 1 case, respectively. Apart from a significantly higher frequency of hematuria and a trend to lower serum complement levels in patients with rheumatic complications, no differences in clinical features, laboratory tests, or microbiologic blood culture results were found between cases with IE with or without rheumatic manifestations. Also, although patients with rheumatic manifestations had more embolic complications, the inhospital mortality rate in patients with rheumatic manifestations was not significantly different from that of the rest of the patients. The present study supports the claim that rheumatic complications are frequent in patients with clinically definite IE from southern Europe. The presence of musculoskeletal or vasculitic manifestations may be of some help, as warning signs, for the recognition of patients with severe disease who require rapid diagnosis and therapy. PMID:11204504

González-Juanatey, C; González-Gay, M A; Llorca, J; Crespo, F; García-Porrúa, C; Corredoira, J; Vidán, J; González-Juanatey, J R

2001-01-01

173

Fatal aortic endocarditis associated with community-acquired Serratia marcescens infection in a dog.  

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A 12 yr old Dalmatian was referred for evaluation of acute lethargy, fever, neurologic signs, and a recently ausculted heart murmur. Echocardiography in combination with blood cultures resulted in a diagnosis of nonhospital-acquired Serratia marcescens bacteremia and aortic valve endocarditis. Despite early diagnosis and aggressive therapy, the dog failed to respond to antimicrobials and died within 6 hr after admission. Necropsy findings included aortic valve endocarditis, septicemia, and diffuse thromboembolic disease. There was no history of pre-existing underlying disease or immunosuppressive therapy, and the dog had not been hospitalized before referral. PMID:21311076

Perez, Cristina; Fujii, Yoko; Fauls, Megan; Hummel, James; Breitschwerdt, Edward

2011-01-01

174

Contribution of the Interaction of Streptococcus mutans Serotype k Strains with Fibrinogen to the Pathogenicity of Infective Endocarditis.  

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Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen responsible for dental caries, is occasionally isolated from the blood of patients with bacteremia and infective endocarditis (IE). Our previous study demonstrated that serotype k-specific bacterial DNA is frequently detected in S. mutans-positive heart valve specimens extirpated from IE patients. However, the reason for this frequent detection remains unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the virulence of IE from S. mutans strains, focusing on the characterization of serotype k strains, most of which are positive for the 120-kDa cell surface collagen-binding protein Cbm and negative for the 190-kDa protein antigen (PA) known as SpaP, P1, antigen I/II, and other designations. Fibrinogen-binding assays were performed with 85 clinical strains classified by Cbm and PA expression levels. The Cbm(+)/PA(-) group strains had significantly higher fibrinogen-binding rates than the other groups. Analysis of platelet aggregation revealed that SA31, a Cbm(+)/PA(-) strain, induced an increased level of aggregation in the presence of fibrinogen, while negligible aggregation was induced by the Cbm-defective isogenic mutant SA31CBD. A rat IE model with an artificial impairment of the aortic valve created using a catheter showed that extirpated heart valves in the SA31 group displayed a prominent vegetation mass not seen in those in the SA31CBD group. These findings could explain why Cbm(+)/PA(-) strains are highly virulent and are related to the development of IE, and the findings could also explain the frequent detection of serotype k DNA in S. mutans-positive heart valve clinical specimens. PMID:25287921

Nomura, Ryota; Otsugu, Masatoshi; Naka, Shuhei; Teramoto, Noboru; Kojima, Ayuchi; Muranaka, Yoshinori; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo; Ooshima, Takashi; Nakano, Kazuhiko

2014-12-01

175

Identity of streptococcal blood isolates and oral isolates from two patients with infective endocarditis  

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The purpose of this study was to isolate streptococcal strains from the oral cavities of streptococcal endocarditis patients and compare these strains biochemically and genetically with the corresponding streptococcal blood isolates. Total identity was observed between the blood and oral cavity isolates from the two patients studied.

Fiehn, N E; Gutschik, E

1995-01-01

176

Small Colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis: a case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus produces a particular morphological variant called small colony variant(SCV which is responsible for persistent subclinical infections in predisposed individuals and is usually resistant to aminoglycosides and cell wall active antibiotics. Infections by SCV of S. aureus is an upcoming problem due to difficulty in laboratory diagnosis and resistance to antimicrobial chemotherapy. We here report a case of infective endocarditis caused by SCV of Staphylococcus aureus in a pediatric patient.

Sayan Bhattacharyya

2012-06-01

177

Fungal endocarditis: current challenges.  

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Whilst it used to affect mostly intravenous drug users and patients who underwent valvular surgery with suboptimal infection control procedures, fungal endocarditis is now mostly observed in patients with severe immunodeficiency (onco-haematology), in association with chronic central venous access and broad-spectrum antibiotic use. The incidence of fungal endocarditis has probably decreased in most developed countries with access to harm-reduction policies (i.e. needle exchange programmes) and with improved infection control procedures during cardiac surgery. Use of specific blood culture bottles for diagnosis of fungal endocarditis has decreased due to optimisation of media and automated culture systems. Meanwhile, the advent of rapid techniques, including fungal antigen detection (galactomannan, mannan/anti-mannan antibodies and ?-1,3-d-glucans) and PCR (e.g. universal fungal PCR targeting 18S rRNA genes), shall improve sensitivity and reduce diagnostics delays, although limited data are available on their use for the diagnosis of fungal endocarditis. New antifungal agents available since the early 2000s may represent dramatic improvement for fungal endocarditis: (i) a new class, the echinocandins, has the potential to improve the management of Candida endocarditis owing to its fungicidal effect on yeasts as well as tolerability of increased dosages; and (ii) improved survival in patients with invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole compared with amphotericin B, and this may apply to Aspergillus sp. endocarditis as well, although its prognosis remains dismal. These achievements may allow selected patients to be cured with prolonged medical treatment alone when surgery is considered too risky. PMID:25178919

Tattevin, Pierre; Revest, Matthieu; Lefort, Agnès; Michelet, Christian; Lortholary, Olivier

2014-10-01

178

Meningite como complicação de endocardite infecciosa Meningitis as a complication of infective endocarditis  

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Full Text Available As complicações neurológicas estão presentes em aproximadamente 30% dos pacientes com endocardite infecciosa; no entanto, a meningite apresenta-se como uma complicação rara. Apresenta-se aqui o caso de paciente do gênero feminino com quadro de meningite decorrente de endocardite em valva mitral, que necessitou de procedimento cirúrgico em razão de quadro agudo de insuficiência cardíaca por ruptura de cordoalha valvar.Although approximately 30% of patients with endocarditis present with neurological complications, the development of meningitis in these patients is rare. This case report describes a female patient who developed meningitis as a complication of mitral valve endocarditis, and surgery was required for this patient due to acute heart failure resulting from the rupture of the chordae tendineae.

Viviane Cordeiro Veiga

2012-09-01

179

Meningite como complicação de endocardite infecciosa / Meningitis as a complication of infective endocarditis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As complicações neurológicas estão presentes em aproximadamente 30% dos pacientes com endocardite infecciosa; no entanto, a meningite apresenta-se como uma complicação rara. Apresenta-se aqui o caso de paciente do gênero feminino com quadro de meningite decorrente de endocardite em valva mitral, que [...] necessitou de procedimento cirúrgico em razão de quadro agudo de insuficiência cardíaca por ruptura de cordoalha valvar. Abstract in english Although approximately 30% of patients with endocarditis present with neurological complications, the development of meningitis in these patients is rare. This case report describes a female patient who developed meningitis as a complication of mitral valve endocarditis, and surgery was required for [...] this patient due to acute heart failure resulting from the rupture of the chordae tendineae.

Viviane Cordeiro, Veiga; Júlio César de, Carvalho; Luis Enrique Campodonico, Amaya; Marcos Sérgio, Martins; Salomón Soriano Ordinola, Rojas.

2012-09-01

180

Aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial após endocardite infecciosa de valva mitral / Infected aneurysm of brachial artery after mitral valve infective endocarditis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Apresentamos um caso de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial em paciente com endocardite infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis. Homem de 49 anos de idade se apresentou com febre, dispnéia e sopro regurgitativo em foco mitral com irradiação para axila. O ecocardiograma demonstrou vegetação em valva m [...] itral nativa. Após troca valvar mitral com implante de prótese biológica, observou-se massa pulsátil de cinco centímetros de diâmetro em fossa antecubital direita. Foi feito o diagnóstico de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial, e o tratamento cirúrgico foi realizado com sucesso. O objetivo desse relato de caso é apresentar uma complicação pouco comum após endocardite infecciosa. Abstract in english We present a case of brachial artery infected aneurysm in a patient with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis. A 49-year-old man presented with fever dyspnea and a pansystolic murmur with irradiation to axilla. The echocardiogram revealed vegetation in native mitral valve. After mitr [...] al valve replacement with bioprosthesis, it was observed pulsatile mass of five centimeters in diameter at antecubital fossa of right upper limb. It was made the diagnosis of infected aneurysm of the brachial artery, and the surgery was performed successfully. The aim of this case report is to show a rare complication after infective endocarditis.

Heraldo Guedis, Lobo Filho; Eduardo Rebouças, Carvalho; José Glauco, Lobo Filho; Patrícia Leal Dantas, Lobo.

 
 
 
 
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Awareness of Iranian’s General Dentists Regarding the Latest Prophylaxis Guideline for Prevention of Infective Endocarditis  

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Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Dental procedures leading to oral tissue injuries may provoke bacterial release to the blood stream causing infective endocarditis (IE in vulnerable patients. The guideline which was proposed by AHA has been updated 9 times having the last update published in 2007. This study was endeavored to uncover the level of knowledge of general dental practitioners in Shiraz, concerning the 2007 AHA guidelines for endocarditis prophylaxis in patients with cardiac problems receiving dental treatments.Materials and Method: This cross- sectional and descriptive analytical study included 150 dentists as participants. All practitioners were given a self –report questionnaire which consisted of three sections. Questions were designed to assess their knowledge of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with cardiac disease. Results: Almost all participants (93% were aware of antibiotic prophylaxis to be essential for tooth extraction. Most participants did not believe in prophylaxis for noninvasive procedures (such as shedding of primary teeth, impression, intraoral radiography. From all of the respondents, 75% considered Amoxicillin to be the anti-biotic of choice and 57% were acquainted with the correct dose of Amoxicillin for high risk patients.Conclusion: The study identified a potential for under/over prescription of antibiotic prophylaxis under the current guideline. Burden of IE necessitates more accurate knowledge of antibiotic prophylaxis in the undergraduate curriculum and continuing education programs of dentistry.

Ghaderi F.

2013-03-01

182

Surgical treatment for infective endocarditis and hospital mortality in a Brazilian single-center Tratamento cirúrgico para endocardite infecciosa e mortalidade hospitalar em centro único brasileiro  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patients underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis in an attempt to identify independent predictors of 30-day mortality. METHODS: We evaluated 837 consecutive patients underwent cardiac valve surgery from January 2003 to May 2010 in a tertiary hospital in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo (SP, Brazil. The study group comprised patients who underwent intervention in the presence of infective endocarditis and was compared to the control group (without infective endocarditis, evaluating perioperative clinical outcomes and 30-day all cause mortality. RESULTS: In our series, 64 patients (8% underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis, and 37.5% of them had surgical intervention in multiple valves. The study group had prolonged ICU length of stay (16%, greater need for dialysis (9% and higher 30-day mortality (17% compared to the control group (7%, P=0.020; 2%, P=0.002 and 9%, P=0.038; respectively. In a Cox regression analysis, age (P = 0.007, acute kidney injury (P = 0.004, dialysis (P = 0.026, redo surgery (P = 0.026, re-exploration for bleeding (P = 0.013, tracheal reintubation (P OBJETIVO: Avaliamos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia valvar em vigência de endocardite infecciosa na tentativa de identificar preditores independentes de mortalidade intrahospitalar em 30 dias. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 837 pacientes consecutivamente submetidos à cirurgia valvar, no período de janeiro de 2003 a maio de 2010, em um hospital terciário de São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brasil. O Grupo de Estudo compreendeu indivíduos submetidos à intervenção em vigência de endocardite infecciosa e foi comparado ao Grupo Controle, considerando complicações clínicas perioperatórias e óbito por todas as causas em 30 dias. RESULTADOS: Em nossa casuística, 64 (8% pacientes foram submetidos à cirurgia valvar em vigência de endocardite infecciosa, sendo 37,5% deles com indicação de intervenção cirúrgica em múltiplas valvas. O Grupo de Estudo apresentou maior permanência em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (16%, necessidade de diálise (9% e maior mortalidade em 30 dias (17% comparado ao Grupo Controle (7%, P=0,020; 2%, P=0,002 e 9%, P=0,038; respectivamente. A análise de regressão de Cox confirmou idade (P=0,007, lesão renal aguda (P=0,004, diálise (P=0,026, reoperação (P=0,026, reintervenção por sangramento (P=0,013, reintubação orotraqueal (P<0,001 e lesão neurológica tipo I (P<0,001 como preditores independentes para óbito. Embora a manifestação de endocardite infecciosa influencie na mortalidade na análise univariada, a regressão de Cox não confirmou tal variável como preditor independente de óbito em nossa casuística. CONCLUSÃO: Idade e complicações perioperatórias destacam-se como preditores de mortalidade hospitalar em população brasileira. Cirurgia valvar em vigência de infecção ativa não se confirma como preditor independente de óbito nesta casuística.

Maurício Nassau Machado

2013-03-01

183

Changes in Patient Characteristics of Infective Endocarditis with Congenital Heart Disease: 25 Years Experience in a Single Institution  

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Background and Objectives The profile of infective endocarditis (IE) has changed and is now showing an increasing prevalence of IE among congenital heart disease (CHD) patients. We studied the change of clinical profiles of IE over the past 25 years in patients with CHD at a single institution. Subjects and Methods We reviewed medical records retrospectively for 325 patients diagnosed with IE between January 1, 1987, and March 31, 2012. We analyzed and compared the differences in patient characteristics and outcomes between 1987-2000 (group A) and 2001-2012 (group B). Results Over the 25-year period, 93 cases of IE in CHD patients were diagnosed (59 cases in group A and 34 cases in group B). Ventricular septal defect was the most common underlying cardiac disease observed during the entire period. The most common causative pathogen was Streptococcus in both groups. Group A contained 16 cases (27.1%) that had undergone cardiac surgery, whereas this number was 19 (55.8%) in group B. The number of patients who had undergone palliative care or surgery using prosthetic materials was higher among group B patients (p<0.001). Surgical procedures due to uncontrolled infection were performed in three cases in group A and 10 cases in group B. Conclusion Infective endocarditis and CHD show a close correlation, and the profile of IE patients can change in line with an increase in the survival rate of patients with complex CHD and the improvement of surgical techniques. Ongoing reassessment and the systematic management of these patients is crucial in the prevention and treatment of IE. PMID:24497888

Baek, Jae Eun; Park, Su Jin; Woo, Saet Byul; Choi, Jae Young; Jung, Jo Won

2014-01-01

184

Predictores de mortalidad intrahospitalaria de la endocarditis infecciosa en la República Argentina: resultados del EIRA-II / Predictors of In-hospital Mortality due to Infective Endocarditis in the Argentine Republic: Results of EIRA II Study  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Determinar la mortalidad hospitalaria y los marcadores clínicos relacionados con la mortalidad de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI) en la República Argentina. Métodos Registro prospectivo, multicéntrico (82 centros de 16 provincias de la Argentina) de EI definidas o posibles según los criteri [...] os Duke, entre junio de 2001 y noviembre de 2002. Resultados Se evaluaron 470 episodios de EI en 452 pacientes (edad media: 58,1 ± 17,6 años; sexo masculino 69,7%; EI definida 83% y posible 17%). Bacteriología: Staphylococcus 38% (S. aureus 30%, Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo 8%), Streptococcus 39,4% (S. viridans 36,8%), Enterococcus 10,8%, HACEK 6,6%, hemocultivos negativos 17,7%. Existía cardiopatía subyacente en el 66,4% y EI de válvula protésica en el 19,2%. Se indicó tratamiento quirúrgico en el 33,3% de los pacientes. La mortalidad fue del 24,3%. En el análisis de regresión logística fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad: edad > 65 años (OR 2,1; IC 95%, 1,1- 3,96; p = 0,024); insuficiencia cardíaca en la evolución (OR 5,9; IC 95%, 3,1-10,9; p Abstract in english Work objective To determine the in-hospital mortality rate and the predictors of mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) in Argentina. Research Design and Methods Prospective, multicentric survey carried out in 82 hospitals all over the country (16 provinces). Patients were enrolled according to Du [...] ke criteria (definite or possible IE) during an 18-month period (June 2001-November 2002). Results Four hundred and seventy episodes in 452 patients were included (mean age 58.1±17.6 years, 69.7% male, 83% definite and 17% possible IE). Blood cultures were negative in 17.7%. The most frequent causative microorganisms were: Staphylococcus 38% (S. aureus 30%, S. coagulase-negative 8%), Streptococcus 39.4% (S. viridans 26.8%), Enterococcus 10,8%, S. coagulase-negative 8%, HACEK group 6,6% and S. bovis 5,5%. Underlying heart disease was present in 66.4% and prosthetic-valve IE was diagnosed in 19.2%. Surgical treatment was indicated in 33.3% and in-hospital mortality was 24.3%. In a logistic regression analysis the following variables were independent predictors of increased mortality: age > 65 years (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-3.96; p = 0.024); heart failure (OR 5.9; 95% CI 3.1-10.9; p

Juan C., Modenesi; Ernesto R., Ferreirós; Sandra, Swieskowski; Francisco M., Nacinovich; Claudia, Cortés; Hernán, Cohen Arazi; Lucía, Kazelián; Sergio, Varini; Mario, Ciruzzi; José Horacio, Casabé.

185

Predictores de mortalidad intrahospitalaria de la endocarditis infecciosa en la República Argentina: resultados del EIRA-II / Predictors of In-hospital Mortality due to Infective Endocarditis in the Argentine Republic: Results of EIRA II Study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Determinar la mortalidad hospitalaria y los marcadores clínicos relacionados con la mortalidad de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI) en la República Argentina. Métodos Registro prospectivo, multicéntrico (82 centros de 16 provincias de la Argentina) de EI definidas o posibles según los criteri [...] os Duke, entre junio de 2001 y noviembre de 2002. Resultados Se evaluaron 470 episodios de EI en 452 pacientes (edad media: 58,1 ± 17,6 años; sexo masculino 69,7%; EI definida 83% y posible 17%). Bacteriología: Staphylococcus 38% (S. aureus 30%, Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo 8%), Streptococcus 39,4% (S. viridans 36,8%), Enterococcus 10,8%, HACEK 6,6%, hemocultivos negativos 17,7%. Existía cardiopatía subyacente en el 66,4% y EI de válvula protésica en el 19,2%. Se indicó tratamiento quirúrgico en el 33,3% de los pacientes. La mortalidad fue del 24,3%. En el análisis de regresión logística fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad: edad > 65 años (OR 2,1; IC 95%, 1,1- 3,96; p = 0,024); insuficiencia cardíaca en la evolución (OR 5,9; IC 95%, 3,1-10,9; p Abstract in english Work objective To determine the in-hospital mortality rate and the predictors of mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) in Argentina. Research Design and Methods Prospective, multicentric survey carried out in 82 hospitals all over the country (16 provinces). Patients were enrolled according to Du [...] ke criteria (definite or possible IE) during an 18-month period (June 2001-November 2002). Results Four hundred and seventy episodes in 452 patients were included (mean age 58.1±17.6 years, 69.7% male, 83% definite and 17% possible IE). Blood cultures were negative in 17.7%. The most frequent causative microorganisms were: Staphylococcus 38% (S. aureus 30%, S. coagulase-negative 8%), Streptococcus 39.4% (S. viridans 26.8%), Enterococcus 10,8%, S. coagulase-negative 8%, HACEK group 6,6% and S. bovis 5,5%. Underlying heart disease was present in 66.4% and prosthetic-valve IE was diagnosed in 19.2%. Surgical treatment was indicated in 33.3% and in-hospital mortality was 24.3%. In a logistic regression analysis the following variables were independent predictors of increased mortality: age > 65 years (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-3.96; p = 0.024); heart failure (OR 5.9; 95% CI 3.1-10.9; p

Juan C., Modenesi; Ernesto R., Ferreirós; Sandra, Swieskowski; Francisco M., Nacinovich; Claudia, Cortés; Hernán, Cohen Arazi; Lucía, Kazelián; Sergio, Varini; Mario, Ciruzzi; José Horacio, Casabé.

2005-08-01

186

Brucella endocarditis in prosthetic valves.  

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Human brucellosis is a multiple organ disease that presents with fever and is most often transmitted via contaminated, unpasteurized goat milk and cheese. In chronic cases, focal complications (eg, spondylitis, neurobrucellosis and endocarditis) are frequently seen. Although the disease may be severely debilitating, the mortality rate is low. Fatal cases are often due to endocarditis. Because Brucella endocarditis is a rare complication (2% to 5%), therapeutic considerations are based on single-case experiences only. Therapy includes long-term antibiotic treatment using combinations of various antimicrobial drugs and surgical valve replacement when required. A case of Brucella endocarditis complicated by the infection of two valvular prostheses implanted after involvement of the mitral and aortic valve due to rheumatic fever is described. The patient was successfully treated by a medical and surgical approach. Therapeutic strategies in Brucella endocarditis are discussed in light of the current literature. PMID:16971982

Al Dahouk, Sascha; Schneider, Thomas; Jansen, Andreas; Nöckler, Karsten; Tomaso, Herbert; Hagen, Ralf M; Scholz, Holger C; Rudwaleit, Martin; Neubauer, Heinrich; Morguet, Andreas J

2006-09-01

187

Symptomatic peripheral mycotic aneurysms due to infective endocarditis: a contemporary profile.  

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Peripheral mycotic aneurysms (PMAs) are a relatively rare but serious complication of infective endocarditis (IE). We conducted the current study to describe and compare the current epidemiologic, microbiologic, clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic characteristics of patients with symptomatic PMAs (SPMAs). A descriptive, comparative, retrospective observational study was performed in 3 tertiary hospitals, which are reference centers for cardiac surgery. From 922 definite IE episodes collected from 1996 to 2011, 18 patients (1.9%) had SPMAs. Because all SPMAs developed in left-sided IE, we performed a comparative study between 719 episodes of left-sided IE without SPMAs and 18 episodes with SPMAs. We found a higher frequency of intravenous drug abuse, native valve IE, intracranial bleeding, septic emboli, multiple embolisms, and IE diagnostic delay >30 days in patients with SPMAs than in patients without SPMAs. The causal microorganisms were gram-positive cocci (n =10), gram-negative bacilli (n = 2), gram-positive bacilli (n = 3), Bartonella henselae (n = 1), Candida albicans (n = 1), and negative culture (n = 1). The median IE diagnosis delay was 15 days (interquartile range [IQR], 13-33 d) in the case of high-virulence microorganisms versus 45 days (IQR, 30-240 d) in the case of low- to medium-virulence microorganisms. Twelve SPMAs were intracranial and 6 were extracranial. In 10 cases (8 intracranial and 2 extracranial), SPMAs were the initial presentation of IE; the remaining cases developed symptoms during or after finishing parenteral antibiotic treatment. The initial diagnosis of intracranial SPMAs was made by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging in 6 unruptured aneurysms and by angiography in 6 ruptured aneurysms. The initial test in extracranial SPMAs was Doppler ultrasonography in limbs, CT in liver, and coronary angiography in heart. Four (3 intracranial, 1 extracranial) of 7 (6 intracranial, 1 extracranial) patients treated only with antibiotics died. Surgical resection was performed in 7 (3 intracranial, 4 extracranial) and endovascular repair in 4 (3 intracranial, 1 extracranial) patients; all of them survived. In conclusion, we found that SPMAs were a rare complication of IE that developed only in left-sided IE, and especially in native valves. Intracranial hemorrhage, embolism, multiple embolisms, and diagnostic delay of IE were more common in patients with SPMAs. The microbiologic profile was diverse, but microorganisms of low-medium virulence were predominant, and had a greater delayed diagnosis of IE than those caused by microorganisms of high virulence. SPMAs were often the initial presentation of IE. The most common location of SPMAs was intracranial. Noninvasive radiologic imaging techniques were the initial imaging test in intracranial unruptured SPMAs and in most extracranial SPMAs. Surgical and endovascular treatments were safe and effective. Endovascular treatment could be the first line of treatment in selected cases. Mortality was high in those cases treated only with antibiotics. PMID:24378742

González, Isabel; Sarriá, Cristina; López, Javier; Vilacosta, Isidre; San Román, Alberto; Olmos, Carmen; Sáez, Carmen; Revilla, Ana; Hernández, Miguel; Caniego, Jose Luis; Fernández, Cristina

2014-01-01

188

Septal endocarditis, bone infection and severe leg ischemia detected in Tc-99m labelled monoclonal anti granulocyte scan  

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Full Text Available Patient 28 years old has continued to have a persistent fever (39.2°C, despite ten days treatment by specific antibiotics for bacterial endocarditis associated to a recent claudication of the right lower leg. The persistent fever has motivated a 99mTc-labelled monoclonal anti granulocyte scan which has showed an important uptake in the myocardial septum, and other infection locations in temporal bone and in right tibial arteries. Two days after, a nanocolloids-99mTc WBS showed no uptake in the heart area, a total absence of uptake of the nanocolloids in the bone marrow of right tibia b and cranial SPECT views confirmed the infectious site in the right temporal bone. New antibiotic strategy was adopted successfully associated with surgical amputation of the right lower leg.

Bechelaghem, A.I. MD.

2006-07-01

189

Septal endocarditis, bone infection and severe leg ischemia detected in Tc-99m labelled monoclonal anti granulocyte scan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Patient 28 years old has continued to have a persistent fever (39.2OC), despite ten days treatment by specific antibiotics for bacterial endocarditis associated to a recent claudication of the right lower leg. The persistent fever has motivated a 99mTc-labelled monoclonal anti granulocyte scan which has showed an important uptake in the myocardial septum, and other infection locations in temporal bone and in right tibial arteries. Two days after, a nanocolloids-99mTc WBS showed no uptake in the heart area, a total absence of uptake of the nanocolloids in the bone marrow of right tibia b and cranial SPECT views confirmed the infectious site in the right temporal bone. New antibiotic strategy was adopted successfully associated with surgical amputation of the right lower leg (au)

190

A randomised clinical trial of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients treated for infective endocarditis--the CopenHeartIE trial protocol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION: Infective endocarditis (IE) is among the most serious infectious diseases in the western world. Treatment requires lengthy hospitalisation, high-dosage antibiotic therapy and possible valve replacement surgery. Despite advances in treatment, the 1-year mortality remains at 20-40%. Studies indicate that patients experience persisting physical symptoms, diminished quality of life and difficulties returning to work up to a year postdischarge. No studies investigating the effects of rehabilitation have been published. We present the rationale and design of the CopenHeart(IE) trial, which investigates the effect of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients treated for IE. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a randomised clinical trial to investigate the effects of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care on the physical and psychosocial functioning of patients treated for IE. The trial is a multicentre, parallel design trial with 1?:?1 individual randomisation to either the intervention or control group. The intervention consists of five psychoeducational consultations provided by specialised nurses and a 12-week exercise training programme. The primary outcome is mental health (MH) measured by the standardised Short Form 36 (SF-36). The secondary outcome is peak oxygen uptake measured by the bicycle ergospirometry test. Furthermore, a number of exploratory analyses will be performed. Based on sample size calculation, 150 patients treated for left-sided (native or prosthetic valve) or cardiac device endocarditis will be included in the trial. A qualitative and a survey-based complementary study will be undertaken, to investigate postdischarge experiences of the patients. A qualitative postintervention study will explore rehabilitation participation experiences. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the regional research ethics committee (no H-1-2011-129) and the Danish Data Protection Agency (no 2007-58-0015). Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01512615.

Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

2012-01-01

191

Efficacy of cardiac surgery in endocarditis  

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Full Text Available 2 factors changed the clinical course of infective endocarditis dramatically: 1 The discovery and evolution of techniques for identifying and treating its microbiologic causes and 2 Valvular surgery. We retrospectively evaluated 43 (33.5% patients (8 female, 35 male from 4 to 65 years old of 128 patients with infective endocarditis who underwent surgical intervention. Indication for surgery were: Refractory congestive heart failure 14 (32.5%, prosthetic valves 10 (23.2%, large vegetation 6 (13.9%, recurrent endocarditis 4 (9.3%, ring abscess 4 (9.3%, brucella endocarditis 2 (4.6%, staph aureus endocarditis 3 (6.9% and recurrent emboli 2 (4.6%. 30 to 50% of patients with infective endocarditis are operated during the active phase of the disease, this percentage is higher in case of aortic valve endocarditis, prosthetic valve endocarditis, some microorganisms such as staph aureus, gram negative bacilli, fungus and brucella. We suggest that internists refer patients for surgical intervention with infective endocarditis as early as possible in the active stage of infection.

Moradmand S

2000-06-01

192

Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis.  

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The increasing usage of cephalosporins, to which the enterococci are resistant, has resulted in the rising number of enterococcal infections worldwide. Enterococci are a normal part of the flora of the human gastrointestinal tract, buccal cavity, perineal skin, vagina, urethra and gallbladder, but may occur as pathogens in a number of sites causing urinary tract infections, intra-abdominal infections, fatal bacteremia, meningitis and endocarditis. A Saudi male who developed enterococcal endocarditis with vegetations on both aortic and mitral valves required mitral and aortic valve replacement. The attention of physicians is drawn to the increasing frequency of enterococcus as a cause of nosocomial infections, the risk factors, and antibiotic resistance pattern including resistance to vancomycin as well as its potential for virulence.

Mona A. Kholeif

2002-09-01

193

Endocardite infecciosa por Haemophilus aphrophilus: relato de caso / Infective endocarditis due to Haemophilus aphrophilus: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Descrever o caso de uma criança com endocardite infecciosa causada por Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIÇÃO: Menino com febre e calafrios há 20 dias. À internação, apresentava-se febril, descorado e sem sinais de instabilidade hemodinâmica; à ausculta cardíaca, tinha sopro holosistólico em f [...] oco mitral. Os exames laboratoriais identificaram anemia (hemoglobina = 9,14 g/dL), leucócitos totais de 11.920 mm³, plaquetas de 250.000 mm³, velocidade de sedimentação das hemácias e proteína C reativa elevadas. O ecocardiograma revelou imagem em válvula mitral, sugestiva de vegetação. Com a hipótese de endocardite, foi iniciada antibioticoterapia com penicilina cristalina (200.000 UI/kg/dia) associada à gentamicina (4 mg/kg/dia). No terceiro dia de tratamento, foi identificado Haemophilus aphrophilus em hemoculturas, sendo então trocado o esquema antibiótico para ceftriaxona (100 mg/kg/dia). No 20º dia de internação, encontrava-se pálido, mas sem febre e sem outras queixas. Os exames mostravam hemoglobina = 7,0 g/dL, leucócitos = 2.190 mm³, plaquetas = 98.000 mm³, razão normatizada internacional = 1,95 e R = 1,89. Foi feita hipótese de reação adversa ao ceftriaxona, que foi substituído por ciprofloxacina, 20 mg/kg/dia, até completar 6 semanas de tratamento. Após 72 horas da troca, houve normalização dos exames. Durante seguimento ambulatorial, apresentou insuficiência mitral grave, sendo submetido a troca de válvula por prótese metálica 9 meses após quadro agudo. Há 3 anos encontra-se bem, em acompanhamento ambulatorial. COMENTÁRIOS: É rara a identificação de agentes do grupo HACEK (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens e Kingella kingae) em crianças com endocardite infecciosa. O caso apresentado, sem fatores de risco relacionados a esses agentes, reafirma a necessidade de tentar sempre identificar o agente etiológico das endocardites para adequação do tratamento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a child with infective endocarditis caused by Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIPTION: Boy with 20 days of fever and chills. On admission, he was febrile, pale and with no signs of hemodynamic instability; on cardiac auscultation, a mitral-related holosystolic murmur wa [...] s observed. Laboratory examination identified anemia (hemoglobin = 9.14 g/dL), total leukocytes of 11,920 mm³, platelets of 250,000 mm³, elevated sedimentation velocity of red cells and elevated C-reactive protein. The echocardiogram revealed image on mitral valve, resembling vegetation. Considering endocarditis, antibiotic therapy was started with crystalline penicillin (200,000 UI/kg/day) in association with gentamicin (4 mg/kg/day). On the third day of treatment, Haemophilus aphrophilus was identified in the blood cultures and the antibiotic scheme was replaced with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day). On the 20th day of evolution, the patient was pale but with no fever or other complaints. Examinations showed hemoglobin = 7.0 g/dL, leukocytes = 2,190 mm³, platelets = 98,000 mm³, international normalized ratio = 1.95 and R = 1.89. Considering the hypothesis of adverse reaction to ceftriaxone, a 6-week replacement treatment with ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg/day) was started. Examination results normalized after 72 hours of the replacement therapy. During ambulatory follow-up, patient presented with severe mitral regurgitation, undergoing a valve replacement with a metallic prosthetic valve 9 months after acute event. Patient has done well throughout the 3-year ambulatory follow-up. COMMENTS: Identification of agents of the HACEK group (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae) in children with infective endocarditis is rare. This case report, with no HACEK agent-related risk factors, reinforces the need for identification of the etiological agent of endocarditis to ensure a

Ricardo M., Pereira; Fabio, Bucaretchi; Antonia T., Tresoldi.

2008-04-01

194

Enterococcal endocarditis: A case report  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Bacteria from genus Enterococcus may cause infections mostly in those who are immunocompromised and those who underwent endoscopic or surgical procedures. Endocarditis is caused by enterococci in 5-10% of cases. Its clinical presentation does not differ from endocarditis of other bacterial origin. Previous susceptibility testing is needed for appropriate choice of antibiotics against enterococci. The treatment recommendations for enterococcal endocarditis were given by American Heart Association recently. Case report. A case of enterococcal endocarditis in a young female person hospitalised at Clinic for infectious diseases was reviewed. The disease was diagnosed during an extensive diagnostic procedure. Multiply repeated echocardiographic examination helped to find out bacterial vegetations on the mitral valve. Enterococcus species was isolated from several blood cultures. Despite powerful antibiotic treatment, the additional valvular replacement had to be done. Discussion. A case of enerococcal endocarditis in a young female person was reviewed. The right diagnosis was based on a thorough clinical examination in cooperation with cardiologists using repeated transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography. Echocardiography, even if it is transesophageal, has limited sensitivity and specify, so it is sometimes necessary to be repeated for several times in diagnosing endocarditis. The source of endocarditis was not identified. The combined antimicrobial and surgical treatment led to the complete recovery of patient. Conclusion. Enterococcal endocarditis rarely occurrs in young females. Infective disease specialists sometimes face enterococcal endocarditis in their practice, mostly when they have to cope with fever of unknown origin. An appropriate approach to such conditions includes careful search for heart valve changes by repeated echocardiographic finding, if necessary.

Cvjetkovi? Dejan

2009-01-01

195

Utilidad diagnóstica de los nódulos de Osler en la endocarditis infecciosa en usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral (UDVP) / Diagnostic utility of Osler´s nodes in the infective endocarditis in intravenous drug users  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: Se describen los datos clínicos, microbiológicos e histológicos de cinco episodios de endocarditis infecciosa (EI) con nódulos de Osler en usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral (UDVP). Pacientes y métodos: Se han estudiado de forma prospectiva 43 casos de EI en UDVP. En 4 pacientes se re [...] alizó punción aspiración y en otro biopsia de un nódulo de Osler, con tinción de Gram y cultivo de la muestra. Resultados: De los 43 episodios de EI 33 fueron derechas, 9 izquierdas y 1 mixta. Cinco de los 10 (50%) pacientes con endocarditis izquierda o mixta presentaron nódulos de Osler, pero no se encontraron en ninguno de los pacientes con EI derecha. En todas las muestras tomadas por punción aspiración se observaron cocos grampositivos en racimos en la tinción de Gram y se obtuvo crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus con el mismo antibiotipo que los aislados en los hemocultivos. En el único caso en el que se realizo biopsia del nódulo se apreciaba trombos sépticos en la microcirculación. Conclusiones: La tinción de Gram y el cultivo del material aspirado de los nódulos de Osler tiene una alta rentabilidad en el diagnóstico etiológico de la EI en los usuarios a drogras por vía parenteral. La presencia de nódulos de Osler en un paciente con EI nos debe sugerir que la localización es izquierda. Estos datos sugieren que los nódulos de Osler, en la EI por S. aureus en los UDVP se origina como consecuencia de embolismos sépticos microvasculares. Abstract in english Background: The objective of study is to describe of clinic, microbiological and histological data of five cases of infective endocarditis (IE) with Osler's nodes in intravenous drug users . Patients y methods: Prospectively, 43 cases of IE in intravenous drugs users was revised. In 4 patients, a as [...] pirate puncture of Osler's node was performed and in one patient a biopsy of Osler's node was done with Gram's stain and culture of specimen. Results: From 43 episodes of IE, 33 were right-side IE, 9 left-side y 1 right and left side. No patients with right-side IE presented Osler's nodes, however five of 10 (50%) patients with left-side endocarditis. In all of cases grampositive cocci were observed in Gram's strain and Staphylococcus aureus growth on culture of lesion with the same antibiotype than isolated from blood culture. One case a cutaneous biopsy was performed, and inflammatory infiltrate with necrosis was found. Conclusions: The Gram's strain and culture of specimen aspirated from Osler's nodes were of high utility in the diagnosis of IE in intravenous drugs users. The presence of Osler's nodes in a patient with infective endocarditis must be suggest that the location in left-side. These data suggest that Osler's nodes in infective endocarditis by S. aureus in intravenous drugs users was originated by microvascular septic emboli.

F. J., Espinosa Parra; J. M., Ramos Rincón; F., Herrero Huerta; L., Pretel Serrano; A. A., Lorenzo.

196

Infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus and colon cancer.  

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A 56-year-old man presented to our department with a 2-month history of fever and chills. He had received a mitral valvuloplasty 3 years ago. He had been administered levofloxacin for 2 months. We discontinued levofloxacin and repeated the blood cultures. Bacterial blood cultures were positive and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed vegetation attached to the posterior mitral leaflet. We started the patient on intravenous antibiotic therapy for infectious endocarditis by Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus. A colonoscopic screening revealed adenomatoid intracellular carcinoma. Previous studies have reported a weak association between colorectal cancer and Streptococcus bovis biotype II/2, which includes S gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus; however, the rate is notably higher than the rate of colorectal cancer as indicated by positive faecal occult-blood test results. We conclude that colonoscopies should be routine while scanning for colorectal cancer in all patients with S bovis bacteraemia, regardless of the subspecies. PMID:24798358

Takamura, Noriko; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Minami, Kensuke; Matsumura, Masami

2014-01-01

197

High rates of complications following Kingella kingae infective endocarditis in children: a case series and review of the literature.  

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Kingella kingae is part of the Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter spp., Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella spp. organisms that are known to cause bacterial endocarditis. Evidence suggests it is also a common pharyngeal colonizer in children endocarditis in children. PMID:24921624

Foster, Monique A; Walls, Tony

2014-07-01

198

Bacterial mural endocarditis. A case series.  

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Mural endocarditis represents a rare subset of intracardiac infections, with potentially life threatening sequelae. Clinically alike, with many shared aetiologies, substrates and risk factors such as valvular endocarditis, it can be difficult to differentiate without the use of sophisticated cardiovascular imaging techniques. Despite high rates of complications, there are no definite strategies for management. Herein we present three interesting cases of left ventricular mural endocarditis, without valvular involvement, due to staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24816290

Adel, Alexander; Jones, Elizabeth; Johns, Jennifer; Farouque, Omar; Calafiore, Paul

2014-08-01

199

Índice de risco de mortalidade por endocardite infecciosa: um modelo logístico multivariado Risk index for death by infective endocarditis: a multivariate logistic model  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram identificar variáveis preditivas de mortalidade hospitalar em endocardite infecciosa e criar fórmula matemática para cálculo do risco de óbito e um escore de risco, comparando os dois métodos com a curva ROC. MÉTODO: Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 186 casos consecutivos de endocardite infecciosa (EI confirmados, divididos em dois grupos: alta (137 e óbito hospitalar (49. A partir das razões das chances obtidas em análise multivariada, foram criados: uma fórmula para cálculo do risco de óbito e um escore de risco. RESULTADOS: Fatores preditivos de maior mortalidade (análise multivariada e o escore de risco com seus respectivos pesos foram: idade > 40 anos (RC = 4.16-95%I.C. [1.63,10.80] - 4 pontos, insuficiência cardíaca classe IV ou choque cardiovascular (RC = 4.93 - 95%I.C. [1.86,13.05] - 5 pontos, sepsis não-controlada (RC =5.97 - 95%I.C. [1.95,18.35] - 6 pontos, distúrbio de condução (RC = 5.07-95%I.C. [1.67,15.35] - 5 pontos, arritmia (RC = 8.17 - 95%I.C. [2.60,25.71] - 8 pontos, valva com grande destruição ou abscesso ou prótese (RC = 4.77-95%I.C. [1.44,15.76] - 5 pontos, e vegetação grande e móvel (RC = 4.36-95%I.C. [1.55,12.90] - 4 pontos. Pacientes com escore entre 0 e 10 tiveram 5,26% de MT e maior que 20: 78,9%. CONCLUSÕES: Quanto maior o escore, maior é a mortalidade, complemente-se, ainda, que a estimativa de mortalidade obtida por cálculo ou pelo escore é semelhante. É possível utilizar software para facilitar a aplicação do escore e calcular risco de mortalidade por endocardite infecciosa.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at identifying predictive variables for in-hospital mortality, calculating the probability of death and creating a risk index for death by infective endocarditis by comparing two methods using a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of 186 consecutive cases of confirmed infective endocarditis divided into two groups: discharged (137 and in-hospital death (49. Based on the odds ratios obtained by multivariate analysis, the probability of death was calculated and a mortality risk index created. RESULTS: Factors predictive of higher mortality (multivariate analysis and the risk index, with their repective weights were: age > 40 years (OR = 4.16; 95%CI [1.63-10.80] - 4 points, class IV heart failure or cardiovascular shock (OR = 4.93; 95%CI [1.86-13.05] - 5 points, uncontrolled sepsis (OR = 5.97; 95%CI [1.95-18.35] - 6 points, conduction disorder (OR = 5.07; 95%CI [1.67-15.35] - 5 points, arrhythmia (OR = 8.17; 95%CI [2.60-25.71] - 8 points, valve with extensive damage or abscess or prosthesis (OR = 4.77; 95%CI [1.44-15.76] - 5 points and large and mobile vegetation (OR = 4.36; 95%CI [1.55-12.90] - 4 points. Patients with scores between 0 and 10 had a mortality of 5.26% and scores over 20 of 78.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The higher the score, the higher the mortality rate. The mortality risk index may be used to estimate mortality in Infective Endocarditis.

Mário Augusto Cray da Costa

2007-06-01

200

Índice de risco de mortalidade por endocardite infecciosa: um modelo logístico multivariado / Risk index for death by infective endocarditis: a multivariate logistic model  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram identificar variáveis preditivas de mortalidade hospitalar em endocardite infecciosa e criar fórmula matemática para cálculo do risco de óbito e um escore de risco, comparando os dois métodos com a curva ROC. MÉTODO: Foram estudados, retrospectivamen [...] te, 186 casos consecutivos de endocardite infecciosa (EI) confirmados, divididos em dois grupos: alta (137) e óbito hospitalar (49). A partir das razões das chances obtidas em análise multivariada, foram criados: uma fórmula para cálculo do risco de óbito e um escore de risco. RESULTADOS: Fatores preditivos de maior mortalidade (análise multivariada) e o escore de risco com seus respectivos pesos foram: idade > 40 anos (RC = 4.16-95%I.C. [1.63,10.80] - 4 pontos), insuficiência cardíaca classe IV ou choque cardiovascular (RC = 4.93 - 95%I.C. [1.86,13.05] - 5 pontos), sepsis não-controlada (RC =5.97 - 95%I.C. [1.95,18.35] - 6 pontos), distúrbio de condução (RC = 5.07-95%I.C. [1.67,15.35] - 5 pontos), arritmia (RC = 8.17 - 95%I.C. [2.60,25.71] - 8 pontos), valva com grande destruição ou abscesso ou prótese (RC = 4.77-95%I.C. [1.44,15.76] - 5 pontos), e vegetação grande e móvel (RC = 4.36-95%I.C. [1.55,12.90] - 4 pontos). Pacientes com escore entre 0 e 10 tiveram 5,26% de MT e maior que 20: 78,9%. CONCLUSÕES: Quanto maior o escore, maior é a mortalidade, complemente-se, ainda, que a estimativa de mortalidade obtida por cálculo ou pelo escore é semelhante. É possível utilizar software para facilitar a aplicação do escore e calcular risco de mortalidade por endocardite infecciosa. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at identifying predictive variables for in-hospital mortality, calculating the probability of death and creating a risk index for death by infective endocarditis by comparing two methods using a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. METHODS: A retrospective study [...] was conducted of 186 consecutive cases of confirmed infective endocarditis divided into two groups: discharged (137) and in-hospital death (49). Based on the odds ratios obtained by multivariate analysis, the probability of death was calculated and a mortality risk index created. RESULTS: Factors predictive of higher mortality (multivariate analysis) and the risk index, with their repective weights were: age > 40 years (OR = 4.16; 95%CI [1.63-10.80] - 4 points), class IV heart failure or cardiovascular shock (OR = 4.93; 95%CI [1.86-13.05] - 5 points), uncontrolled sepsis (OR = 5.97; 95%CI [1.95-18.35] - 6 points), conduction disorder (OR = 5.07; 95%CI [1.67-15.35] - 5 points), arrhythmia (OR = 8.17; 95%CI [2.60-25.71] - 8 points), valve with extensive damage or abscess or prosthesis (OR = 4.77; 95%CI [1.44-15.76] - 5 points) and large and mobile vegetation (OR = 4.36; 95%CI [1.55-12.90] - 4 points). Patients with scores between 0 and 10 had a mortality of 5.26% and scores over 20 of 78.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The higher the score, the higher the mortality rate. The mortality risk index may be used to estimate mortality in Infective Endocarditis.

Mário Augusto Cray da, Costa; Darley Rugery, Wollmann Jr; Antonio Carlos Ligoski, Campos; Cláudio Leinig Pereira da, Cunha; Roberto Gomes de, Carvalho; Dalton Francisco de, Andrade; Danton Richilin Rocha, Loures.

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Endocarditis infecciosa: características clínicas, complicaciones y mortalidad en 506 pacientes y factores pronósticos de sobrevida a 10 años (1998-2008). Estudio cooperativo nacional en endocarditis infecciosa en Chile (ECNEI-2) / Clinical characteristics, complications and mortality in 506 patients with infective endocarditis and determinants of survival rate at 10 years  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Rates ofmorbidity and mortality in Infective Endocarditis (IE) remain high and prognosis in this disease is still difficult and uncertain. Aim: To study IE in Chile in its active phase during inpatient hospital stay and long term survival rates. Material and Methods: Observational prospe [...] ctive national cohort study of 506 consecutive patients included between June 1,1998 and July 31, 2008, from 37 Chilean hospitals (secondary and tertiary centers) nationwide. Results: The main findings were the presence of Rheumatic valve disease in 22.1 % of patients, a history of intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) only in 0.7%, the presence of Staphylo-coccus aureus in 29.2% of blood cultures, negative blood cultures in 33.2%, heart failure in 51.7% and native valve involvement in 86% ofpatients. Echocardiographic diagnosis was achieved in 94% of patients. Hospital mortality was 26.1% and its prognostics factors were persisting infection (Odds ratio (OR) 6.43, Confidence Interval (CI) 1.45-28.33%), failure of medical treatment and no surgical intervention (OR 48.8; CI 6.67-349.9). Five and 10 years survival rates were 75.6 and 48.6%, respectively. The significant prognostic factors for long term mortality, determined by multivariate analysis were the presence of diabetes, Staphylococcus aureus infection, sepsis, heart failure, renal failure and lack of surgical treatment during the IE episode. Conclusions: The microbiologic diagnosis of IE must be urgently improved in Chile. Mortality rates are still high (26.1%) partly because of a high incidence of negative blood cultures and the need for more surgical valve interventions during in-hospital period. Long term prognostic factors for mortality should be identified early to improve outcome.

Miguel, Oyonarte; Rodrigo, Montagna; Sandra, Braun; Pamela, Rojo; José L, Jara; Mauricio, Cereceda; Marcelo, Morales; Carolina, Nazal; Faustino, Alonso.

1517-15-01

202

Pneumococcal endocarditis of subacute evolution  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english With the development of penicillin, Streptococcus pneumoniae has become an uncommon cause of bacterial endocarditis in adults. Subacute manifestation of pneumococcal endocarditis has been reported a few times in the literature, but most reports define the disease as acute, severe, and having a high [...] mortality rate. We report the case of a 58-year-old male with subacute bacterial endocarditis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. We stress the low frequency of this agent as a cause of endocarditis and the atypical evolution of this case. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and evolution, and the therapeutical options for this type of infection are also discussed.

Laercio, Uemura; Newton César, Grassi; Luciane, Cazarin.

2001-04-01

203

Candida endocarditis: report of four cases.  

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Four patients who developed left-sided endocarditis due to infection with Candida species are reported. Three of them had had previous prosthetic valve replacement, and the fourth one developed endocarditis on a normal valve following pancreaticoduodenectomy. The difficulties presented in diagnosis and management are discussed. PMID:3623720

Guzman, F; Cartmill, I; Holden, M P; Freeman, R

1987-08-01

204

Bivalvular Bartonella henselae Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis?  

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Prosthetic valve endocarditis is an uncommon manifestation of infection with Bartonella species. Herein, we report a case of Bartonella henselae endocarditis involving prosthetic mitral and aortic valves. The patient had a favorable outcome with combined medical and surgical therapy. Concomitant crescentic glomerulonephritis led to an initial mistaken diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis.

Vikram, Holenarasipur R.; Bacani, A. Kirstin; Devaleria, Patrick A.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Cockerill, Franklin R.

2007-01-01

205

Infective endocarditis: long-term reversibility of kidney function impairment. A 1-y post-discharge follow-up study.  

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The aim of this study was to quantify the long-term reversibility of kidney function decrease occurring during hospitalization and treatment for infective endocarditis (IE). A prospective observational cohort study was performed at a tertiary university hospital in Copenhagen from October 2002 through May 2008; 223 consecutive IE patients were included. Forty patients died in hospital and 38 within 1 y of discharge. Of the 145 patients called in for the 1-y follow-up, 111 accepted. Kidney function was assessed by estimated endogenous creatinine clearance (EECC). Statistical correlation between EECC at admission, discharge and follow-up, as well as correlations between gentamicin and EECC changes, were analyzed. In the 111 follow-up patients, the bacteriological aetiologies were: Streptococcus species (47.7%), Enterococcus (16.2%) and Staphylococcus aureus (11.7%). The mean EECC decrease from admission to discharge was 8.4% (95% confidence interval 1.6-15.2; p EECC decrease of >22%. In conclusion, kidney function impairment occurring during hospitalization for IE is potentially reversible within the first y post-discharge. PMID:20337565

Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten T; Hassager, Christian; Bruun, Niels E

2010-07-01

206

Infective endocarditis: long-term reversibility of kidney function impairment. A 1-y post-discharge follow-up study  

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The aim of this study was to quantify the long-term reversibility of kidney function decrease occurring during hospitalization and treatment for infective endocarditis (IE). A prospective observational cohort study was performed at a tertiary university hospital in Copenhagen from October 2002 through May 2008; 223 consecutive IE patients were included. Forty patients died in hospital and 38 within 1 y of discharge. Of the 145 patients called in for the 1-y follow-up, 111 accepted. Kidney function was assessed by estimated endogenous creatinine clearance (EECC). Statistical correlation between EECC at admission, discharge and follow-up, as well as correlations between gentamicin and EECC changes, were analyzed. In the 111 follow-up patients, the bacteriological aetiologies were: Streptococcus species (47.7%), Enterococcus (16.2%) and Staphylococcus aureus (11.7%). The mean EECC decrease from admission to discharge was 8.4% (95% confidence interval 1.6-15.2; p 22%. In conclusion, kidney function impairment occurring during hospitalization for IE is potentially reversible within the first y post-discharge.

Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten T

2010-01-01

207

Maternal understanding of infective endocarditis after hospitalization: assessing the knowledge of mothers of children with congenital heart disease and the practical implications.  

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This study aimed to examine the knowledge of mothers of children with congenital heart disease as well as the association of cardiological factors and maternal characteristics with maternal understanding. Mothers of 135 children (?2 years old) were interviewed to assess maternal knowledge of infective endocarditis (IE) using the Hannover Inventory of Parental Knowledge of Congenital Heart Disease. Two subscales, endocarditis and risk factors, were used. Cardiological data as well as maternal characteristics were collected. Two-thirds of the mothers achieved only low scores, answering 0-20 % of the questions correctly (endocarditis = 64.4 %; risk factors = 71.1 %). Mothers with higher education recalled the correct definition of IE (P = 0.001) and the importance of dental hygiene (P = 0.004) more often. Mothers with only one child were more likely to know the most typical symptom (P = 0.007). The severity of the heart disease and the requirement of endocarditis prophylaxis did not influence maternal understanding. Yet, mothers assessing the heart disease as severe showed better knowledge (typical symptom P = 0.021; importance of dental hygiene P = 0.007). If mothers learned the diagnosis before their child's birth, they remembered relevant information more often. Mothers receiving information by the medical staff and from the Internet showed better knowledge (definition P = 0.014; importance of dental hygiene P = 0.001). Due to low levels of knowledge, more efforts must be put into the education of mothers. Educational programs should take maternal characteristics into account, providing written material and thereby keeping the instruction of lower-educated persons in mind. Furthermore, education should be focused on mothers of children requiring IE prophylaxis. PMID:23982219

Knöchelmann, Anja; Geyer, Siegfried; Grosser, Urte

2014-02-01

208

Comparison between transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography in screening for infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.  

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Echocardiography is an important diagnostic tool in evaluating a patient with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) for diagnosing infective endocarditis (IE). We sought to compare the utility of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in screening for IE in patients with SAB. We performed a retrospective chart review of 285 adult patients from two tertiary care hospitals with at least one positive blood culture for S. aureus between 2010 and 2012. Patients who underwent echocardiography were divided into two groups: TTE (screened with TTE only) and TEE (screened with both TTE and TEE). The demographic factors and clinical outcomes were compared between the groups. Of the 285 charts reviewed, 213 (74.7 %) patients were screened with echocardiography: 183 (85.9 %) were screened with TTE alone and 30 (14.1 %) were screened with both TTE and TEE. TEE disclosed more cases of definite IE than TTE (8 [26.7 %] vs. 22 [12.0 %], p?=?0.046). The TEE group had higher mortality than the TTE group (15 [50.0 %] vs. 43 [23.5 %], p?=?0.004). In patients with definite IE, mortality was higher in the TEE group than in the TTE group (6 [75.0 %] vs. 6 [27.3 %], p?=?0.034). TEE discovered additional findings that were missed by TTE in 36.7 % of cases and refuted the findings of TTE in 13.3 % of cases. We do not support the routine use of TEE in patients with uncomplicated SAB. High-risk patients in which IE is a serious consideration should undergo investigation with TEE. PMID:24930043

Wong, D; Keynan, Y; Rubinstein, E

2014-11-01

209

Fístula aorto pulmonar: endocarditis izquierda en paciente VIH y ADVP: Revisión de la literatura / Aorto pulmonary fistula: left-sided infective endocarditis in HIV and intravenous drugs abuser patient: Review of literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una de las complicaciones más severas en la población adicta a drogas por vía parenteral (ADVP). La infección por el VIH incrementa el riesgo de aparición en los pacientes que además son ADVP. La EI en ambas poblaciones posee una especial tendencia a infectar las v [...] álvulas del hemicardio derecho, siendo infrecuente la afectación aórtica. Se expone el caso un paciente VIH y ADVP, que ingresa por síndrome febril, con Rx de tórax inicial normal y hemocultivos negativos. CD4 90 mm³. Imposible realizar ecocardiograma transesofágico (ETE), revelando el transtorácico (ETT) una insuficiencia aórtica moderada con función sistólica conservada. A pesar de antibioterpia de amplio espectro, antifúngico y tratamiento antirretroviral (TAR) presentó SDRA por lo que es intubado. Se realizó ETT apreciando una gran desestructuración aórtica y una fístula aorto-pulmonar secundaria a una EI izquierda. Posteriormente solo un hemocultivo fue positivo para S. aureus. Fue desestimado el tratamiento quirúrgico. El paciente falleció tras 3 semanas de evolución. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis (IE) is the most severe complication in intravenous drug abusers (IVDAs). HIV infection increases the risk of IE in IVDAs too. IE in both population are special tendency to infect the rigth-sided heart, but unusual infective aortic valve. We report a case of HIV and IVDA patie [...] nt admitted in hospital due to fever syndrome, with X-ray test normal and the first blood cultures negatives. CD4 count cell 90 mm³. It was impossible doing a transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and transtoracic echocardiogramma (TTE) only showed a moderate aortic insufficiency with conserved systolic function. Despite using antibiotics, antifungals and highly active antirretroviral therapy, he developed ARDS, and mechanical ventilation should be performed. At that moment, TEE showed an aorto pulmonary fistula due to left-sided IE. Further cultures was undergone and only one blood culture was positive to Staphylococcus aureus. Cardiac surgery was not indicated. The patient died 3 weeks later.

B., Obón Azuara; B., Zalba Etayo; I., Gutiérrez Cía; B., Villanueva Anadón.

210

Fístula aorto pulmonar: endocarditis izquierda en paciente VIH y ADVP: Revisión de la literatura / Aorto pulmonary fistula: left-sided infective endocarditis in HIV and intravenous drugs abuser patient: Review of literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una de las complicaciones más severas en la población adicta a drogas por vía parenteral (ADVP). La infección por el VIH incrementa el riesgo de aparición en los pacientes que además son ADVP. La EI en ambas poblaciones posee una especial tendencia a infectar las v [...] álvulas del hemicardio derecho, siendo infrecuente la afectación aórtica. Se expone el caso un paciente VIH y ADVP, que ingresa por síndrome febril, con Rx de tórax inicial normal y hemocultivos negativos. CD4 90 mm³. Imposible realizar ecocardiograma transesofágico (ETE), revelando el transtorácico (ETT) una insuficiencia aórtica moderada con función sistólica conservada. A pesar de antibioterpia de amplio espectro, antifúngico y tratamiento antirretroviral (TAR) presentó SDRA por lo que es intubado. Se realizó ETT apreciando una gran desestructuración aórtica y una fístula aorto-pulmonar secundaria a una EI izquierda. Posteriormente solo un hemocultivo fue positivo para S. aureus. Fue desestimado el tratamiento quirúrgico. El paciente falleció tras 3 semanas de evolución. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis (IE) is the most severe complication in intravenous drug abusers (IVDAs). HIV infection increases the risk of IE in IVDAs too. IE in both population are special tendency to infect the rigth-sided heart, but unusual infective aortic valve. We report a case of HIV and IVDA patie [...] nt admitted in hospital due to fever syndrome, with X-ray test normal and the first blood cultures negatives. CD4 count cell 90 mm³. It was impossible doing a transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and transtoracic echocardiogramma (TTE) only showed a moderate aortic insufficiency with conserved systolic function. Despite using antibiotics, antifungals and highly active antirretroviral therapy, he developed ARDS, and mechanical ventilation should be performed. At that moment, TEE showed an aorto pulmonary fistula due to left-sided IE. Further cultures was undergone and only one blood culture was positive to Staphylococcus aureus. Cardiac surgery was not indicated. The patient died 3 weeks later.

B., Obón Azuara; B., Zalba Etayo; I., Gutiérrez Cía; B., Villanueva Anadón.

2007-11-01

211

Heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate susceptibility in a community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemic clone, in a case of Infective Endocarditis in Argentina  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA has traditionally been related to skin and soft tissue infections in healthy young patients. However, it has now emerged as responsible for severe infections worldwide, for which vancomycin is one of the mainstays of treatment. Infective endocarditis (IE due to CA-MRSA with heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate susceptibility-(h-VISA has been recently reported, associated to an epidemic USA 300 CA-MRSA clone. Case Presentation We describe the occurrence of h-VISA phenotype in a case of IE caused by a strain belonging to an epidemic CA-MRSA clone, distinct from USA300, for the first time in Argentina. The isolate h-VISA (SaB2 was recovered from a patient with persistent bacteraemia after a 7-day therapy with vancomycin, which evolved to fatal case of IE complicated with brain abscesses. The initial isolate-(SaB1 was fully vancomycin susceptible (VSSA. Although MRSA SaB2 was vancomycin susceptible (?2 ?g/ml by MIC (agar and broth dilution, E-test and VITEK 2, a slight increase of MIC values between SaB1 and SaB2 isolates was detected by the four MIC methods, particularly for teicoplanin. Moreover, Sab2 was classified as h-VISA by three different screening methods [MHA5T-screening agar, Macromethod-E-test-(MET and by GRD E-test] and confirmed by population analysis profile-(PAP. In addition, a significant increase in cell-wall thickness was revealed for SaB2 by electron microscopy. Molecular typing showed that both strains, SaB1 and SaB2, belonged to ST5 lineage, carried SCCmecIV, lacked Panton-Valentine leukocidin-(PVL genes and had indistinguishable PFGE patterns (subtype I2, thereby confirming their isogenic nature. In addition, they were clonally related to the epidemic CA-MRSA clone (pulsotype I detected in our country. Conclusions This report demonstrates the ability of this epidemic CA-MRSA clone, disseminated in some regions of Argentina, to produce severe and rapidly fatal infections such as IE, in addition to its ability to acquire low-level vancomycin resistance; for these reasons, it constitutes a new challenge for the Healthcare System of this country.

Vindel Ana

2011-04-01

212

Diagnostic methods. Current best practices and guidelines for identification of difficult-to-culture pathogens in infective endocarditis.  

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IE is a serious, life-threatening disease. Because treatment must often be adapted to the pathogen involved, rapid identification of the etiologic agent is critical to successful management of each patient. When difficult-to-culture pathogens are involved, routine microbiologic tests, including blood culture, may remain negative. Because such cases may account for up to 31% of all IE cases, alternative diagnostic approaches are necessary. Among the etiologic agents of culture-negative endocarditis, C burnetii and Bartonella spp play a major role; each is responsible for up to 3% of episodes of IE. The authors therefore recommend the systematic use of specific serologies in all cases of clinically suspected endocarditis. The cross-reactivity between C burnetii, Bartonella spp, and Chlamydia spp is of diagnostic importance because all are potential etiologic agents of endocarditis. However, given that the levels of specific antibodies observed in Bartonella endocarditis are extremely high, low-level cross-reactions with other antigens should not lead to misdiagnosis, provided serology for all suspected agents is performed. When serologic test results are negative for both Bartonella spp and C burnetii, special staining by the Gram, Giemsa, Gimenez, PAS, Warthin-Starry, and Grocott methods may guide the use of new diagnostic tools such as PCR and tissue culture for isolation and identification of the causative agent. Such novel approaches may lead to more comprehensive patient evaluations and the discovery of new etiologic agents of IE. PMID:12874894

Houpikian, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

2003-05-01

213

Characteristics and outcomes for right heart endocarditis: six-year cohort study.  

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Right heart endocarditis makes up 5-10% of all infective endocarditis involving valvular, congenital and artificial structures. Given the limited literature in this area, we reviewed the characteristics, management and outcomes of this condition in this retrospective cohort study. Thirty-five patients with right heart endocarditis admitted to Auckland City Hospital during 2005-2010 were followed-up for 3.4+/-2.5 years. In-hospital mortality was 11.4% (4), all occurring in those treated medically (20.0% (4) vs 0.0% (0), P=0.119). Surgical intervention was independently associated with reduced long-term mortality (HR 0.078, 95%CI 0.010-0.609, P=0.015) in multivariate analysis, while concurrent left heart endocarditis predicted both in-hospital mortality (HR 11.0, 95%CI 1.18-102, P=0.027) and long-term mortality (HR 3.20, 95%CI 1.03-9.92, P=0.044). Our study showed that surgical intervention and concomitant left heart endocarditis are positive and negative prognostic factors for outcomes after right heart endocarditis. PMID:24618277

Wang, Tom Kai Ming; Oh, Timothy; Voss, Jamie; Pemberton, James

2014-07-01

214

Bartonella endocarditis-associated glomerulonephritis: a case report and review of the literature.  

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Infectious endocarditis is associated with a number of systemic manifestations, including kidney disease. Kidney manifestations, including hematuria, parenchymal infarction, and glomerulonephritis, may affect as many as 40%-50% of patients with infective endocarditis. In a minority of cases of infective endocarditis, routine bacterial cultures do not yield an offending organism. Bartonella species are a known and relatively common cause of culture-negative endocarditis and have been associated with the development of endocarditis-associated glomerulonephritis. We present a case of Bartonella endocarditis-associated glomerulonephritis in which recognition of a characteristic immunofluorescent pattern and thorough investigation of the clinical history led to this uncommon diagnosis. PMID:24332768

Khalighi, Mazdak A; Nguyen, Stephanie; Wiedeman, Jean A; Palma Diaz, Miguel F

2014-06-01

215

[Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis].  

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Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a thin, non-sporulating, gram-positive rod found worldwide and hosted by many domestic or savage animals, birds, fish, and shell/fish. It is extremely resistant in the external environment (soil, surface waters). Human infection is prevalently related to occupational exposure to sick or infected contaminated animals (anthropozoonosis). Frequently, the disease manifests itself as an acute cellulitis on the skin around the gate of entry. Systemic infection is uncommon, most commonly involving the endocardium or joints. We present a case of subacute E. rhusiopathiae endocarditis in a male patient at occupational hazard for this infection (animal genitor in a zoo). The patient was treated with cefoperazone, the course being favorable. Later on, he required mitral valvuloplasty. PMID:17571546

Amb?ru?, Aurora; Ambaru?, V; Moldovanu, C?t?lina; Cosovanu, A

2006-01-01

216

A case of Mycobacterium goodii prosthetic valve endocarditis in a non-immunocompromised patient: use of 16S rDNA analysis for rapid diagnosis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium goodii is a rare cause of significant infection. M. goodii has mainly been associated with lymphadenitis, cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and wound infection. Case presentation A case of a 76-year-old Caucasian female is presented. The patient developed a prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by M. goodii. She had also suffered from severe neurological symptoms related to a septic emboli that could be demonstrated as an ischemic lesion found on CT of the brain. Transesophageal echocardiography verified a large vegetation attached to the prosthetic valve. Commonly used blood culture bottles showed growth of the bacteria after 3?days. Conclusions Although M. goodii is rarely involved in these kinds of severe infections, rapidly growing mycobacteria should be recognized during conventional bacterial investigations and identified by molecular tools such as analysis of 16S rDNA. Species identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria is demanding and is preferably done in collaboration with a mycobacterial laboratory. An early diagnosis provides the opportunity for adequate treatment. In the present case, prolonged antimicrobial treatment and surgery with replacement of the prosthetic valve was successful.

Jönsson Göran

2012-11-01

217

Challenge in the management of infective endocarditis with multiple valvular involvement / Desafio no manejo clínico da endocardite infecciosa com acometimento multivalvar  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Paciente do sexo masculino, 41 anos, portador de cardiopatia congênita apresentando-se com endocardite infecciosa (EI) e vegetações nas valvas pulmonar, aórtica e mitral. Três trocas valvares foram realizadas, mas o paciente evoluiu com recidiva da infecção, desenvolvendo abscesso na região da fibro [...] sa intervalvar mitro-aórtica progredindo para sépsis e óbito. Nesse relato, discutimos brevemente as indicações para a cirurgia na EI, destacando sua indicação no tratamento da infecção não controlada. Abstract in english We describe the case of a 41-year-old man with congenital heart disease and infective endocarditis (IE), who presented multiple vegetations attached to the pulmonary, mitral, and aortic valves. Three valve replacements were performed, but the patient developed an abscess at the mitral-aortic interva [...] lvular fibrosa and died due to sepsis. We briefly discuss the indications for surgery in IE, emphasizing its role in the treatment of uncontrolled infection.

Izabella Rodrigues de, Araújo; Maria do Carmo Pereira, Nunes; Claudio Leo, Gelape; Vinicius Tostes, Carvalho; Benone Evaristo Rezende Araújo, Lacerda; Gustavo Brandão de, Oliveira; Luiza Caldeira, Brant; Teresa Cristina Abreu, Ferrari.

2012-04-01

218

Endocarditis due to Chryseobacterium meningosepticum  

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Full Text Available Chryseobacterium meningosepticum is a gram negative rod widely distributed in nature. It is known to cause meningitis in neonates and premature infants. Adult infections are not common and are usually nosocomially acquired. We report an unusual case of native valve endocarditis in a 58-year-old man due to this organism. A high degree of suspicion and correct identification and sensitivity testing is required to diagnose infections by this rare isolate.

Bomb K

2007-01-01

219

Fungal endocarditis after cardiac valve replacement  

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Full Text Available Fungal endocarditis developed in 15 cases out of 205 in whom cardiac valves were replaced during the years 1969-75. Bacterial and fungal infections co-existed in 3 cases. Pure bacterial endo-carditis was seen only in one case during this period. Fungal endo-carditis was not observed following any other type of open or closed heart surgery. Clinicopathologic features of these cases are briefly described. Paucity of clinical signs and symptoms make early diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis of fungal infection was essentially histological. It was corroborated by culture in 3 cases. In 6 cases candida was responsible while in others either Aspergillus or Penicillium was responsible. In 11 out of 15 cases, endocarditis supervened in the early post-operative period stressing the need for vigilance.

Kinare Suman

1978-01-01

220

Prosthetic valve sewing-ring sealing with antibiotic and fibrin glue in infective endocarditis. A prospective clinical study.  

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To analyze the benefits of prosthetic valve sewing ring sealing with antibiotic and fibrin glue in endocarditis, a prospective study was undertaken in 16 consecutive patients. Valvular lesions concerned aortic valve in seven patients, mitral valve in three and both in six. Preoperative antibiotic treatment was started 15+/-15 days before surgery. Peroperative findings showed six isolated valvular lesions and ten perivalvular extensions. Before the prostheses were sutured to the annulus, the Dacron sewing rings were covered with antibiotic and fibrin glue. The antibiotic was chosen according to the micro-organism identified preoperatively. We didn't have any peroperative mortality or paravalvular leakage (PVL). One patient died suddenly on postoperative day (POD) nine (non-contributive autopsy). Another patient was reoperated on POD 31 for PVL. Peroperative local bacteriological examinations were sterile. Mean follow-up was of 9.3+/-6.8 months and was completed in all cases. Actuarial survival rate was 94+/-6% and freedom from reoperation was 92+/-7%. Antibiotic treatment was stopped after 59+/-64 days for 10 patients. None of them had recurrence of endocarditis or PVL. Prosthetic valve sewing ring sealing with adapted antibiotic and fibrin glue can constitute a good weapon in the armamentarium of surgical treatment of active endocarditis. PMID:17669758

Farhat, Fadi; Durand, Marion; Delahaye, François; Jegaden, Olivier

2007-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

Valve replacement for bacterial endocarditis.  

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During the 10-year period 1970-79, 88 patients underwent valve replacement for complications of bacterial endocarditis. The mean age of the patients was 42 (15-60) years. There were 64 men and 22 women. Thirty-three patients had a history of rheumatic fever. In 11 cases the murmur was heard already in childhood. In 44 cases (50%) no heart disease was diagnosed before the onset of symptoms of bacterial endocarditis. Strepto- and staphylococci were the most common organisms found in culture. In 12 cases a dental and in 12 a respiratory tract infection preceded the endocarditis. In 51 cases, however, the origin of the infection remained unestablished. Intractable heart failure and embolizations were most common indications for operation. Only 9 patients underwent operation in the acute phase. Aortic valve replacement (AVR) was performed in 58 cases, mitral valve replacement (MVR) in 19, both AVR and MVR in 6, AVR and aneurysm of sinus Valsalva repair in 3 cases, AVR and repair of VSD in one and AVR combined with myocardial revascularization and replacement of the ascending aorta for aneurysm in one case. The early mortality was 9 patients (10%) and late mortality 9 patients. During follow-up times of up to 10 years, 7 patients experienced embolic complications. They recovered uneventfully. One valve prosthesis was replaced because of thrombosis and another due to paraprosthetic leak. Two patients had a late recurrent bacterial endocarditis 5 and 8 years postoperatively. They were treated conservatively and recovered. It was concluded that after valve replacement for bacterial endocarditis, the risk of recurrent infection is relatively low and that results approaching those for elective valve replacement can be achieved. PMID:7071543

Mattila, S; Ketonen, P; Kyllönen, K; Tala, P

1982-01-01

222

[Neurologic manifestations of infectious endocarditis].  

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Thirty out of 287 patients (10.4%) admitted to hospital for infective endocarditis between December 1970 and January 1990 had neurological complications. Twenty-three patients had native valve infectious endocarditis and 7 had prosthetic valve endocarditis. The clinical features were characterized by the frequency of aortic valve involvement (23 out of 30) and other complications, especially cardiac failure (16 cases) and peripheral vascular manifestations (7 cases). The commonest organism was the staphylococcus (53% of identified organisms) but the number of negative blood cultures was high (50% of cases). The neurological complication was often the presenting symptom of the endocarditis (19 cases) but it occurred after bacteriological cure in 4 cases. The complications observed were cerebral ischemia (16 cases), cerebral haemorrhage (11 cases), coma (2 cases), and one peripheral neuropathy causing a Claude Bernard Horner syndrome. These complications presented with hemiplegia in 17 cases, a meningeal syndrome in 8 cases, a convulsion in 1 case, a Von Wallenberg syndrome in 1 case, and a Claude Bernard Horner syndrome in 1 case. Twelve patients had a transient or permanent neurological coma. Cerebral CT scan showed ischemic lesions in 7 cases and haemorrhagic lesions in 10 cases. Carotid angiography demonstrated mycotic aneurysms in 6 patients. Twelve patients died: the cause of death was neurological coma (7 cases), low cardiac output (4 cases) and haemorrhagic shock (1 case). Four patients underwent neurosurgery: 3 for clipping a mycotic aneurysm and 1 for drainage of an intracerebral haematoma. Poor prognostic factors were: coma, cardiac failure, cardiac valve prosthesis and, above all, the extent and multiplicity of the neurological lesions. The authors propose the following measures to improve the prognosis: early surgery in cases of large and/or mobile vegetations especially when the infecting organism is a staphylococcus and when a systemic embolism has occurred; routine CT scanning and/or digitised cerebral angiography in all patients with infective endocarditis to detect surgically accessible mycotic aneurysms. PMID:2012489

Hannachi, N; Béard, T; Ben Ismail, M

1991-01-01

223

Acute myocardial infarction in infectious endocarditis. Report of one case  

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The acute myocardial infarction is a rare complication in the course of an acute endocarditis. It takes place in the first weeks infection. Although is not associated with any particular microorganism it has been associated with virulent microorganism and is common in aortic valve endocarditis insufficiency. This report is a case of a patient who suffered a myocardial infarction during a acute endocarditis of native valve

224

Endocarditis bacteriana: reporte de caso / Bacterial endocarditis: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endocarditis bacteriana es una inflamación del endocardio donde hay colonización bacteriana que genera vegetaciones en alguna válvula del corazón, las cuales alteran la función cardiaca generando regurgitaciones y alteraciones hemodinámicas. Además, puede producir cuadros propios de la infección [...] como tromboembolismo séptico y alteraciones inflamatorias como complejos inmunes. En el presente estudio se describe el caso de un canino hembra de 2.5 años, que presentó fiebre, decaimiento, anorexia y un soplomarcado(IV/VI) en elladoizquierdodeltórax.Losexámenesdelaboratorioevidenciaron leucocitosis con desviación a la izquierda e insuficiencia renal aguda. Además, la ecocardiografía mostró un crecimiento a nivel de la válvula aórtica que alteraba el flujo sanguíneo produciendo un jet regurgitante diastólico. Se concluye que la lesión era compatible con una endocarditis bacteriana Abstract in english Bacterial endocarditis is an inflammation of the endocardium, where a bacterial colonization produces vegetation in the cardiac valve, which can alter its normal function causing regurgitations and hemodynamic alterations. Also, this infection can cause septic thromboembolism or inflammatory alterat [...] ions like immune complexes. The present study describes the case of a female canine of 2.5 years of age that presented fever, depression, anorexia and a severe murmur (IV/VI) on the left side of the thorax. Laboratory exams revealed leukocytosis with left shift and renal failure. Besides, the echocardiography showed vegetation at the aortic valve that altered the hemodynamics producing a diastolic regurgitation jet. It was concluded that the lesion was compatible with bacterial endocarditis

Roberto, Dávila F; Miguel, Marroquín A.

2014-04-01

225

Endocarditis bacteriana: reporte de caso / Bacterial endocarditis: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endocarditis bacteriana es una inflamación del endocardio donde hay colonización bacteriana que genera vegetaciones en alguna válvula del corazón, las cuales alteran la función cardiaca generando regurgitaciones y alteraciones hemodinámicas. Además, puede producir cuadros propios de la infección [...] como tromboembolismo séptico y alteraciones inflamatorias como complejos inmunes. En el presente estudio se describe el caso de un canino hembra de 2.5 años, que presentó fiebre, decaimiento, anorexia y un soplomarcado(IV/VI) en elladoizquierdodeltórax.Losexámenesdelaboratorioevidenciaron leucocitosis con desviación a la izquierda e insuficiencia renal aguda. Además, la ecocardiografía mostró un crecimiento a nivel de la válvula aórtica que alteraba el flujo sanguíneo produciendo un jet regurgitante diastólico. Se concluye que la lesión era compatible con una endocarditis bacteriana Abstract in english Bacterial endocarditis is an inflammation of the endocardium, where a bacterial colonization produces vegetation in the cardiac valve, which can alter its normal function causing regurgitations and hemodynamic alterations. Also, this infection can cause septic thromboembolism or inflammatory alterat [...] ions like immune complexes. The present study describes the case of a female canine of 2.5 years of age that presented fever, depression, anorexia and a severe murmur (IV/VI) on the left side of the thorax. Laboratory exams revealed leukocytosis with left shift and renal failure. Besides, the echocardiography showed vegetation at the aortic valve that altered the hemodynamics producing a diastolic regurgitation jet. It was concluded that the lesion was compatible with bacterial endocarditis

Roberto, Dávila F; Miguel, Marroquín A.

226

Hampered by historical paradigms--echinocandins and the treatment of Candida endocarditis.  

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Infective endocarditis due to Candida sp. has a high mortality rate. Traditionally, management involves early surgery and prolonged amphotericin ± flucytosine. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis bileaflet mitral valve endocarditis cured with anidulafungin and fluconazole, and review the role of echinocandins in the management of Candida endocarditis. PMID:24251958

Gardiner, B J; Slavin, M A; Korman, T M; Stuart, R L

2014-05-01

227

Tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite infecciosa na fase aguda: experiência de três anos / Surgical treatment of infective endocarditis in the acute phase: a three-year experience  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite na fase aguda vem-se impondo como o mais efetivo, em muitas circunstâncias clínicas. As contínuas modificações nos aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e bacteriológicos desta afecção tornam necessária permanente avaliação dos resultados, nas situações concretas de a [...] tuação dos diversos grupos clínico-cirúrgicos. A definição de normas de conduta ante esta grave afecção tem-nos preocupado, ultimamente, por sua crescente participação em nossa prática clínica-cirúrgica. De novembro de 1983 a novembro de 1986, 6,7% das substituições valvares por nosso grupo cirúrgico deveram-se a endocardite (32 de 4,77 pacientes). A sede do processo infeccioso teve a seguinte distribuição: mitral 6 casos, aórtica 12 casos (um óbito), mitral e aórtica 6 casos (dois óbitos) prótese aórtica 4 casos (três óbitos), prótese mitral 2 casos (um óbito) mitral, aórtica e tricúspide 1 caso (um óbito) e parede do ventrículo esquerdo 1 caso. A idade variou entre 10 e 56 anos. Sete pacientes eram do sexo feminino e 24 do masculino. Todos os pacientes eram brancos. A análise dos achados anátomo-patológicos permitiu determinação de três grupos: no Grupo A, tivemos 11 operações por lesões valvares simples, consistentes basicamente de vegetações infectadas. Todos os pacientes sobreviveram e obtiveram alta hospitalar. Nos 15 pacientes do Grupo B, havia acometimento multivalvar, ou lesões complicadas por mutilações valvares extensas e/ou comunicações entre câmaras cardíacas; 5 pacientes faleceram. No Grupo C, houve 5 operações por infecções em próteses, ocorrendo 4 óbitos. O prognóstico favorável dos pacientes operados com lesões simples e o alto risco daqueles em que havia destruição tissular mais extensa e daqueles em que a endocardite se instalou em próteses, nos levam a defender o tratamento cirúrgico precoce das infecções valvares, em todos os casos em que não haja rápida resposta ao tratamento antibiótico. Abstract in english Surgical treatment is becoming accepted as the best means of dealing with acute bacterial endocarditis in many clinical settings. The continuing changes in diagnosis, bacteriology and clinical picture of this disease must be accounted for by the surgical teams. Definition of the rules for management [...] of this severe condition has been a matter of concern for us in the last years. From November 1983 to November 1986, 6.7% of the valvar substitutions in our Service were due to active infection (32 of 477 patients). The site of infection was the mitral valve in six patients, aortic valve in 12 patients (one death) mitral and aortic valves in six patients (two deaths), mitral prostheses in two patients (one death) aortic prostheses (three deaths), mitral, aortic and tricuspid valves in one patient (one death) and the wall of the left ventricle in one patient. Age varied from 10 to 56 years (m=29.2 years). Seven patients were females and 24 males. All patients were white. Analysis of the pathologic findings allowed us to define three subgroups: In subgroup A, 11 operations were done for simple valvar lesions. All patients left the hospital. Fifteen patients were in the subgroup of extensive valvar or perivalvar lesions, five of which died. Among the six prosthetic infections there were four deaths. The favorable outcome of the patients operated on for simple valvar lesions and the high risk of those who presented extensive tissue destruction or prosthetic infection makes us to prefer immediate surgical treatment if there is no clear response to antibiotics within 24 to 48 hours.

Iseu Affonso da, Costa; Djalma Luiz, Faraco; Fábio, Sallum; Aldo, Pesarini; Elson C, Oliveira; Francisco Diniz Affonso da, Costa; Álvaro B, Soeiro.

1987-08-01

228

Aortic root abscess resulting from endocarditis: spectrum of angiographic findings  

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Abscesses in the aortic root are a serious complication of infective endocarditis and require accurate diagnosis for antibiotic and surgical management. Nineteen cases of endocarditis of a native valve or prosthetic valve and adjacent abscess cavities were identified with angiography. Of 6 patients with endocarditis of a native valve, 5 had bicuspid aortic valves and all had severe aortic regurgitation. Of 13 patients with endocarditis of a prosthetic aortic valve, all had paravalvular regurgitation. Fistulas were detected into the mitral anulus in 8 patients, and into the right ventricle in 3 patients. No complications from the catheterization were recorded during the 48-hour follow-up.

Miller, S.W.; Dinsmore, R.E.

1984-11-01

229

Aortic root abscess resulting from endocarditis: spectrum of angiographic findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abscesses in the aortic root are a serious complication of infective endocarditis and require accurate diagnosis for antibiotic and surgical management. Nineteen cases of endocarditis of a native valve or prosthetic valve and adjacent abscess cavities were identified with angiography. Of 6 patients with endocarditis of a native valve, 5 had bicuspid aortic valves and all had severe aortic regurgitation. Of 13 patients with endocarditis of a prosthetic aortic valve, all had paravalvular regurgitation. Fistulas were detected into the mitral anulus in 8 patients, and into the right ventricle in 3 patients. No complications from the catheterization were recorded during the 48-hour follow-up

230

Fusobacterium necrophorum endocarditis Case report and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusobacterium necrophorum is a gram-negative anaerobic bacillus that can cause serious systemic infections typically in previously healthy young adults. Lemierre's syndrome, also known as post-anginal sepsis or necrobacillosis, is the infection most usually associated with F. necrophorum. However, F. necrophorum is also a very rare cause of anaerobic endocarditis. Mortality and rates of thromboembolism are high with F. necrophorum endocarditis. In this article, we describe a case of F. necrophorum native valve infective endocarditis. The patient was treated with penicillin plus clindamycin followed by penicillin alone for 6 weeks resulting in complete resolution of infection. PMID:21251564

Samant, Jyoti S; Peacock, James E

2011-02-01

231

Endocarditis Prophylaxis in Cardiac Patients: Knowledge among General Dental Practitioners in Tabriz  

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Background and aims. Dental procedures injuring oral tissues may induce bacterial release to blood stream that can cause infective endocarditis in susceptible patients. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of general dental practitioners (GDPs in Tabriz, Northwest of Iran, regarding endocarditis prophylaxis in cardiac patients receiving dental treatments.

Materials and methods. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study that included 150 GDPs. All practitioners were given a self-administered questionnaire which consisted of three parts assessing their knowledge of cardiac diseases requiring prophylaxis, dental procedures requiring prophylaxis, and antibiotic regimen for endocarditis prophylaxis. Statistical analysis of data was carried out using independent t-test, one-way ANOVA and chi-square test.

Results. The level of knowledge among GDPs in three areas of cardiac diseases requiring prophylaxis, dental procedures requiring prophylaxis, and antibiotic regimen for endocarditis prophylaxis were 63.7%, 66.8% and 47.7%, respectively. Their overall level of knowledge regarding endocarditis prophylaxis was 59%. Association of the level of knowledge with age and practice period was statistically significant (P < 0.05. However, the level of knowledge was not significantly associated with gender or university of graduation in either of three areas evaluated (P > 0.05.

Conclusion. According to our results, the knowledge of endocarditis prophylaxis among GDPs in Tabriz was in a moderate level. Regarding the importance of endocarditis prophylaxis in susceptible patients, it should be more emphasized in the curriculum of dental schools and continuing dental education programs.

Ardeshir Lafzi

2008-04-01

232

Endocarditis infecciosa: análisis de 261 casos y resultados del tratamiento con un enfoque multidisciplinario Infective endocarditis: short and long term results in 261 cases managed by a multidiciplinary approach  

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Full Text Available Background: Early diagnosis, an effective treatment and prompt recognition of complications are essential to improve the prognosis of infective endocarditis (IE Aim: To report the results of a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and management of patients with IE at the Universidad Católica de Chile Hospital. Patients and methods: The clinical history, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of 261 episodes (Duke criteria of IE admitted between January 1980 and January 1999 were analyzed. These included 185 episodes of native, 73 of prosthetic valve and 3 of nonvalvular IE. Results: Sixty nine percent of patients were men and the mean age was 49 ± 16 years. Seventy five percent had a definite diagnosis of IE (Duke. S. viridans, staphylococci and enterococci together constituted 85% of the isolated bacterial strains. Twenty seven had culture-negative IE, related to a high incidence of antibiotic therapy prior to diagnosis. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed in 102 cases and it detected vegetations in 91% of aortic and 96% of mitral IE, rupture or prosthesis dehiscence in 67% of aortic and 52% of mitral IE and abscesses in 51% of aortic and 15% of mitral IE. Fifty one percent developed heart failure and 34% had embolic events. S. aureus IE was associated to a higher incidence of embolic events, complications which contraindicated surgery and increased mortality rate (27%. Of all patients, 40% were treated exclusively with antibiotics, 52% were operated on and 8% had surgical indication but were nonoperable because of serious complications. The overall mortality was 16.3%: 13% in the medical, 9% in the surgical and 81% in the non-operable groups. The type of treatment and mortality rates did not differ between IE of native valves and prosthetic valves. Long term follow up showed survival rates of 73% at 5 years and 66% at 10 years. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach may be very helpful to improve the prognosis of IE. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 708-20.

Sandra Braun J

2000-07-01

233

Perfil clínico-epidemiológico de pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa, período 2003-2010 en el hospital de Temuco, Chile Profile of patients with infective endocarditis admitted to a Chilean regional hospital  

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Full Text Available Background: Mortality due to infective endocarditis (IE in Chile is close to 30%. Aim: To report the experience with patients admitted with the diagnosis of IE in a regional tertiary hospital. Material and Methods: Retrospective study of 107 patients aged 50 ± 16years (75% males discharged with a definitive diagnosis of IE according to modified DUKE criteria, between years 2003 and 2010. Demographic variables, severity scores, clinical characteristics, bacteriology and hospital evolution were recorded. Results: Fifty nine percent of patients had concomitant cardiovascular problems. APACHE II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA scores on admission were 8.4 ± 4.7 and 2.7 ± 2.8 respectively. Native valves were affected in 91% of cases (aortic and mitral valves in 62% and 50% of cases respectively. Prosthetic valves were affected in 9.3% of cases. Rheumatic heart disease was the predominant primary lesion in 10% of patients. Antibiotics were used in 45.1% before blood cultures were performed. In 68% of patients blood cultures were positive. S. viridans (30.8%, S.aureus (18.6% and coagulase negative Streptocicci (5.6% were the identified microorganisms. Intensive care unit admission was required in 48% of patients. Renal, heart and neurological deterioration was observed in 53, 34 and 14% of patients, respectively. Twenty percent of patients developed systemic embolism and 37% required heart surgery. Mean hospital stay was 28.3 ± 19.1 days and 27% of patients died. Conclusions: In this series of patients, IE has a high mortality. Most patients studied were admitted in bad conditions.

Benjamín Stockins

2012-10-01

234

Tricuspid endocarditis following a Papanicolaou smear: case report.  

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Infective endocarditis is an uncommon complication of obstetrical and gynecological practice and has not been reported in the literature to be associated with Papanicolaou smears. The authors report a nonintravenous drug user who developed group B streptococcal endocarditis of the tricuspid valve following a routine Papanicolaou smear. She required surgical excision of the valve and replacement after failed antibiotic therapy. PMID:9374943

Mong, K; Taylor, D; Muzyka, T; Freed, D; Koshal, A

1997-10-01

235

Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. lwoffi.  

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Acinetobacter spp. are uncommon etiologic agents of prosthetic valve endocarditis. Two patients with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. lwoffi prosthetic valve endocarditis are described. The patients were successfully treated with antibiotics (cefotaxime sodium and gentamicin sulfate); thus, we suggest medical treatment rather than early valve replacement in this particular type of infection.

Weinberger, I.; Davidson, E.; Rotenberg, Z.; Fuchs, J.; Agmon, J.

1987-01-01

236

A study of infectious endocarditis in Ribeirão Preto, SP - Brazil. Analysis of cases occurring between 1992 and 1997  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical aspects causes and evolution of infectious endocarditis. METHODS: The patients analyzed were treated at the University Hospital of the Faculdade de Medicina of Ribeirão Preto-USP and had a diagnosis of infectious endocarditis defined by Duke's criteria, which classifies infectious endocarditis as native, prosthetic valve or that occurring in intravenous drug users. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty episodes of infectious endocarditis in 168 patients were observed. Echocardiograms in 132 (73.3% provided a diagnosis of infectious endocarditis in 111 (84% patients; mitral valves were affected in 55 (30.5%, tricuspid valves in 30 (16.6% and the aortic valve in 28 (15.5% patients. Hemocultures were performed in 148 (93.8% episodes of IE. The most commonly isolated infectious organisms were Staphylococcus aureus in 46 (27.2% patients and Streptococcus viridans in 27 (15.9%. Complications occurred in 116 (64.4% patients and 73 (40.5% of the patients died. CONCLUSION: The general profile of the observed infectious endocarditis was similar to that reported in studies performed in other countries and included users of intravenous drugs. The high degree of mortality observed is not compatible with progress in diagnosis and treatment of infectious endocarditis and is probably due to the absence of diagnostic suspicion. The high frequency of fatal cases of septicemia (45.1% of deaths in the patients studied indicates that unnoticed cases of infectious endocarditis had only been diagnosed at necropsy.

Everaldo Ruiz Jr

2000-03-01

237

Technetium 99m-labeled annexin v scintigraphy of platelet activation in vegetations of experimental endocarditis  

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Background: The pathophysiology of infective endocarditis involves a pathogen/host tissue interaction, leading to formation of infected thrombotic vegetations. Annexin V is a ligand of phosphatidyl-serines exposed by activated platelets and apoptotic cells. Because vegetations are platelet-fibrin clots in which platelet pro-aggregant activity is enhanced by bacterial colonization, we investigated the ability of annexin V labeled with technetium 99mTc (99mTc-ANX) to provide functional imaging of these vegetations in experimental models of infective endocarditis. This ability was assessed in rabbits and rats because of the different interest of these 2 species in preclinical analysis. Methods and Results: Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis was induced with the use of a catheter left indwelling through the aortic or tricuspid valve, and animals were injected with either a bacterial inoculum or saline. Scintigraphic investigations were performed 5 days later and showed a higher 99mTc-ANX uptake by vegetations in infected versus non-infected animals (ratio,1.3 for in vivo acquisitions and 2 for autoradiography; P ? 0.0001 for all), whereas no significant uptake was present in controls. Right-sided endocarditis was associated with pulmonary uptake foci corresponding to emboli. Histological analysis of vegetations showed a specific uptake of 99mTc-ANX at the interface between circulating blood and vegetation. In parallel, unde blood and vegetation. In parallel, underlying myocardial tissue showed myocyte apoptosis and mucoid degeneration, without extracellular matrix degradation at this stage. Conclusions: 99mTc-ANX is suitable for functional imaging of platelet-fibrin vegetations in endocarditis, as well as embolic events. 99mTc-ANX uptake reflects mainly platelet activation in the luminal layer of vegetations. This uptake is enhanced by bacterial colonization. (authors)

238

Technetium 99m-labeled annexin v scintigraphy of platelet activation in vegetations of experimental endocarditis  

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Background: The pathophysiology of infective endocarditis involves a pathogen/host tissue interaction, leading to formation of infected thrombotic vegetations. Annexin V is a ligand of phosphatidyl-serines exposed by activated platelets and apoptotic cells. Because vegetations are platelet-fibrin clots in which platelet pro-aggregant activity is enhanced by bacterial colonization, we investigated the ability of annexin V labeled with technetium {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-ANX) to provide functional imaging of these vegetations in experimental models of infective endocarditis. This ability was assessed in rabbits and rats because of the different interest of these 2 species in preclinical analysis. Methods and Results: Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis was induced with the use of a catheter left indwelling through the aortic or tricuspid valve, and animals were injected with either a bacterial inoculum or saline. Scintigraphic investigations were performed 5 days later and showed a higher {sup 99m}Tc-ANX uptake by vegetations in infected versus non-infected animals (ratio,1.3 for in vivo acquisitions and 2 for autoradiography; P {<=} 0.0001 for all), whereas no significant uptake was present in controls. Right-sided endocarditis was associated with pulmonary uptake foci corresponding to emboli. Histological analysis of vegetations showed a specific uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-ANX at the interface between circulating blood and vegetation. In parallel, underlying myocardial tissue showed myocyte apoptosis and mucoid degeneration, without extracellular matrix degradation at this stage. Conclusions: {sup 99m}Tc-ANX is suitable for functional imaging of platelet-fibrin vegetations in endocarditis, as well as embolic events. {sup 99m}Tc-ANX uptake reflects mainly platelet activation in the luminal layer of vegetations. This uptake is enhanced by bacterial colonization. (authors)

Rouzet, F.; Sarda-Mantel, L.; Le Guludec, D. [Nucl Med Serv, Grp Hosp Bichat Claude Bernard, AP-HP, Paris (France); Rouzet, F.; Sarda-Mantel, L.; LeGuludec, D. [Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, UMR S773, Paris (France); Rouzet, F.; Sarda-Mantel, L.; Le Guludec, D. [INSERM, U773, Paris (France); Hernandez, M.D.; Louedec, L.; Michel, J.B. [Univ Paris 07, CHU Xavier Bichat, INSERM, U698, Paris (France); Hervatin, F. [CEA, DSV, DRM, SHFJ, Orsay (France); Lefort, A.; Fantin, B. [Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, EA 3964, Paris (France); Duval, X. [Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, INSERM, CIC 007, Paris (France); Duval, X. [Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, AP-HP, Grp Hosp Bichat Claude Bernard, Ctr Invest Clin, Paris (France); Hernandez, M.D. [Univ Guadalajara, DeptPathol, Guadalajara 44430, Jalisco (Mexico)

2008-07-01

239

Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Pseudomonas luteola  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas luteola has been recognized as an uncommon cause of bacteremia and of infections in patients with underlying medical disorders Case presentation We isolated P. luteola from blood cutures in a patient with prosthetic valve endocarditis developed 16 months after cardiac surgery. Conclusion P. luteola is a rare opportunistic agent, with a propensity of infecting valvular prostheses.

Riberi Alberto

2005-10-01

240

Musculoskeletal manifestations of bacterial endocarditis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: A incidência da Infecção estafilocócica vem aumentando durante os últimos 20 anos. OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de infecção estafilocócica precedida por sintomas músculo-esqueléticos, o que é uma forma rara de apresentação clínica. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Relado de caso. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente de 4 [...] 5 anos, sexo masculino, sem co-morbidades, não usuário de drogas endovenosas e com diagnóstico de endocardite bacteriana estafilocócica em válvula mitral, adquirida na comunidade e sem foco primário aparente. O diagnóstico foi precedido por dor lombar em cerca de 20 dias e complicada com eventos vasculares e petéquias, além de insuficiência mitral abordada apenas clinicamente. Abstract in english CONTEXT: The incidence of staphylococcal infection has been increasing during the last 20 years. OBJECTIVE: Report a case of staphylococcal endocarditis preceded by musculoskeletal manifestations, which is a rare form of clinical presentation. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old-man, wit [...] hout addictions and without known previous cardiopathy, was diagnosed as having definitive acute bacterial endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus. Its etiology was community-acquired, arising from a non-apparent primary focus. In addition, the musculoskeletal symptoms preceded the infective endocarditis (IE) by about 1 month, which occurred together with other symptoms, e.g. mycotic aneurysms and petechiae. Later, the patient showed perforation of the mitral valve and moderate mitral insufficiency with clinical control.

Érika Bevilaqua, Rangel; Álvaro Nagib, Atallah.

2000-09-07

 
 
 
 
241

Endocarditis infecciosa: análisis de 261 casos y resultados del tratamiento con un enfoque multidisciplinario / Infective endocarditis: short and long term results in 261 cases managed by a multidiciplinary approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Early diagnosis, an effective treatment and prompt recognition of complications are essential to improve the prognosis of infective endocarditis (IE) Aim: To report the results of a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and management of patients with IE at the Universidad Católica de [...] Chile Hospital. Patients and methods: The clinical history, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of 261 episodes (Duke criteria) of IE admitted between January 1980 and January 1999 were analyzed. These included 185 episodes of native, 73 of prosthetic valve and 3 of nonvalvular IE. Results: Sixty nine percent of patients were men and the mean age was 49 ± 16 years. Seventy five percent had a definite diagnosis of IE (Duke). S. viridans, staphylococci and enterococci together constituted 85% of the isolated bacterial strains. Twenty seven had culture-negative IE, related to a high incidence of antibiotic therapy prior to diagnosis. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed in 102 cases and it detected vegetations in 91% of aortic and 96% of mitral IE, rupture or prosthesis dehiscence in 67% of aortic and 52% of mitral IE and abscesses in 51% of aortic and 15% of mitral IE. Fifty one percent developed heart failure and 34% had embolic events. S. aureus IE was associated to a higher incidence of embolic events, complications which contraindicated surgery and increased mortality rate (27%). Of all patients, 40% were treated exclusively with antibiotics, 52% were operated on and 8% had surgical indication but were nonoperable because of serious complications. The overall mortality was 16.3%: 13% in the medical, 9% in the surgical and 81% in the non-operable groups. The type of treatment and mortality rates did not differ between IE of native valves and prosthetic valves. Long term follow up showed survival rates of 73% at 5 years and 66% at 10 years. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach may be very helpful to improve the prognosis of IE. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 708-20).

Sandra, Braun J; Alex, Escalona P; Gastón, Chamorro S; Ramón, Corbalán H; Carlos, Pérez C; Jaime, Labarca L; Manuel José, Irarrázaval L; Ricardo, Zalaquett S; José Antonio, Rodríguez V; Pablo, Casanegra P.

2000-07-01

242

A study of infectious endocarditis in Ribeirão Preto, SP - Brazil. Analysis of cases occurring between 1992 and 1997  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical aspects causes and evolution of infectious endocarditis. METHODS: The patients analyzed were treated at the University Hospital of the Faculdade de Medicina of Ribeirão Preto-USP and had a diagnosis of infectious endocarditis defined by Duk [...] e's criteria, which classifies infectious endocarditis as native, prosthetic valve or that occurring in intravenous drug users. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty episodes of infectious endocarditis in 168 patients were observed. Echocardiograms in 132 (73.3%) provided a diagnosis of infectious endocarditis in 111 (84%) patients; mitral valves were affected in 55 (30.5%), tricuspid valves in 30 (16.6%) and the aortic valve in 28 (15.5%) patients. Hemocultures were performed in 148 (93.8%) episodes of IE. The most commonly isolated infectious organisms were Staphylococcus aureus in 46 (27.2%) patients and Streptococcus viridans in 27 (15.9%). Complications occurred in 116 (64.4%) patients and 73 (40.5%) of the patients died. CONCLUSION: The general profile of the observed infectious endocarditis was similar to that reported in studies performed in other countries and included users of intravenous drugs. The high degree of mortality observed is not compatible with progress in diagnosis and treatment of infectious endocarditis and is probably due to the absence of diagnostic suspicion. The high frequency of fatal cases of septicemia (45.1% of deaths) in the patients studied indicates that unnoticed cases of infectious endocarditis had only been diagnosed at necropsy.

Everaldo, Ruiz Jr; Tarciso, Schirmbeck; Luiz Tadeu Moraes, Figueiredo.

2000-03-01

243

Epidural abscess and Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis - a rare association.  

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Full Text Available Epidural abscess is a relatively uncommon disorder. Although the surgical management is the mainstay of treatment, there are case reports of it being managed conservatively in selected patients. We report a patient who presented with quadreparesis due to epidural abscess and had infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus septicemia. Both epidural abscess and infective endocarditis were managed conservatively with intravenous antibiotics given for four weeks, with complete recovery of patient.

Malhotra P

2002-07-01

244

Translocation of Prosthetic Aortic Valve in Advanced Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis  

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Advanced prosthetic valve endocarditis is often associated with substantial destruction of the tissues adjacent to the prosthesis. Removal of the infected prosthesis and débridement of the infected tissues make implantation of a new prosthesis challenging. Herein, we discuss successful surgical aortic valve translocation in a 50-year-old man who had advanced acute prosthetic valve endocarditis with destruction of the aortic annulus. One year after being discharged from the hospital, the pati...

Saxena, Pankaj; Shehatha, Jaffar; Downie, Stuart; Newman, Mark A. J.; Konstantinov, Igor E.

2009-01-01

245

Achados clínico-laboratoriais de uma série de casos com endocardite infecciosa / Clinical and laboratory findings in a series of cases of infective endocarditis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Descrever os achados clínico-laboratoriais da endocardite infecciosa (EI) em 28 crianças, em Vitória/ES. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de 28 crianças, com idade abaixo de 18 anos e diagnóstico de endocardite infecciosa, internadas no serviço de infectologia do Hospital Infan [...] til Nossa Senhora da Glória, em Vitória - Espírito Santo, no período de janeiro de 1993 a dezembro de 2001. Os critérios para diagnóstico de endocardite infecciosa foram os do Duke Endocarditis Service (Duke University, Durham, North Carolina - USA): critérios maiores (hemoculturas e ecocardiograma positivos) e critérios menores (febre, doença cardíaca prévia, sopro cardíaco recente, fenômenos vasculares e imunológicos). Através de protocolo específico, preenchido pelos médicos-residentes e acadêmicos do serviço de infectologia, e revisados pelos médicos da equipe, foram anotadas as idades, sexo, achados clínicos e laboratoriais, e os resultados da ecocardiografia transtorácica das 28 crianças que preenchiam os critérios clínicos e laboratoriais. Em todos os casos, as hemoculturas foram realizadas com coleta do sangue (três amostras), sob condições assépticas e com inoculação em meios aeróbicos e anaeróbicos, incubados a uma temperatura de 37ºC e testados com sistema automatizado Vitec System® (Biolab). RESULTADOS: Das 28 crianças, 16 eram do sexo masculino, com idade entre 3 e 180 meses (média 70,6±59,2 m), e a maioria (68%) era procedente da região metropolitana de Vitória. Metade apresentava cardiopatia prévia. Os achados clínicos mais freqüentes que levaram à suspeita de EI foram: febre prolongada (100%), sopro cardíaco (67,9%), dispnéia (57,1%), hepatomegalia (57,1%), fenômenos vasculares (32,2%), esplenomegalia (28,6%) e nódulos de Osler (7,1%). Foram colhidas hemoculturas dos 28 casos, sendo 16 (57,1%) positivas. O S. aureus adquirido na comunidade foi o germe mais freqüentemente isolado (9/16-56,6%). Houve persistência da febre, apesar do tratamento, duração da febre de 2,5 a 30 dias, mediana de 18,0 dias. O valor médio de leucócitos à internação foi de 11.657±7.085mm³. O ecocardiograma transtorácico, realizado em todos os pacientes, evidenciou vegetações, principalmente nas válvulas tricúspide (25,0%), mitral (25,0%) e na borda de CIV (28,6%). Treze (46,4%) crianças apresentaram sepse concomitante, e três (10,7%) infecção hospitalar. Houve um óbito (3,6%). CONCLUSÕES: A endocardite infecciosa em nosso meio é freqüente em crianças abaixo de dois anos de idade e com uma cardiopatia congênita. O S. aureus de origem comunitária foi o microorganismo isolado mais freqüentemente, e em crianças sem lesão cardíaca prévia. Endocardite infecciosa aguda, endocardite bacteriana, Staphylococcus aureus, ecocardiografia transtorácica. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and laboratory data of infective endocarditis (IE) in 28 children from Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 28 children aged 18 years and under admitted to the Infectious Diseases Unit of Nossa Senhora da Glória Childre [...] n's Hospital with a diagnosis of IE from January 1993 to December 2001. The diagnosis of IE was based on the criteria established by the Duke Endocarditis Service (Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA): positive blood cultures and echocardiogram (primary criteria); and fever, history of heart disease, recent heart murmur, and vascular and immunological phenomena (secondary criteria). A specific protocol was filled out by interns and medical students and revised by physicians from the hospital medical team to obtain the following data: age, sex, clinical and laboratory findings, and results of transthoracic echocardiography. In all cases, three blood samples were collected under aseptic conditions and inoculated in aerobic and anaerobic environments. The samples were then incubated at 37º C and test

Carla A.Z., Pereira; Scheila C.G.P., Rocio; Maria-Fátima R., Ceolin; Ana-Paula N.B., Lima; Felippe, Borlot; Roberto S.T., Pereira; Sandra F., Moreira-Silva.

2003-10-01

246

Spondylodiscitis and endocarditis caused by S. vestibularis  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus vestibularis is a recently described member of the viridans group that was first isolated from the vestibular mucosa of the human oral cavity and described as a new species in 1988. It has been rarely associated with human infections. In few papers, it has been reported as a causal agent of systemic infection in immunosupressed adults and in those with other severe underlying diseases, like coronary valve diseases. A 65-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with complaints of fever for three months, general malaise, effort dyspnea, weight loss, back pain and myalgia. Both native aortic valve endocarditis and spondylodiscitis due to Streptococcus vestibularis were detected. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous potassium penicillin G and gentamicin for six weeks, followed by oral amoxicillin for three months, in addition to aortic valve replacement. In all patients with spondylodiscitis, infective endocarditis should be considered, particularly in patients with heart valve disease history, since spondylodiscitis may be the presenting sign of an infective endocarditis. Cardiac valve replacement surgery should be performed if the course of fever and inflammatory syndrome is unfavorable after appropriate antibiotic treatment. We report the first case with both native aortic valve endocarditis and spondylodiscitis due to Streptococcus vestibularis.

Muge Aydin Tufan

2010-08-01

247

Spondylodiscitis and endocarditis caused by S. vestibularis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus vestibularis is a recently described member of the viridans group that was first isolated from the vestibular mucosa of the human oral cavity and described as a new species in 1988. It has been rarely associated with human infections. In few papers, it has been reported as a causal age [...] nt of systemic infection in immunosupressed adults and in those with other severe underlying diseases, like coronary valve diseases. A 65-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with complaints of fever for three months, general malaise, effort dyspnea, weight loss, back pain and myalgia. Both native aortic valve endocarditis and spondylodiscitis due to Streptococcus vestibularis were detected. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous potassium penicillin G and gentamicin for six weeks, followed by oral amoxicillin for three months, in addition to aortic valve replacement. In all patients with spondylodiscitis, infective endocarditis should be considered, particularly in patients with heart valve disease history, since spondylodiscitis may be the presenting sign of an infective endocarditis. Cardiac valve replacement surgery should be performed if the course of fever and inflammatory syndrome is unfavorable after appropriate antibiotic treatment. We report the first case with both native aortic valve endocarditis and spondylodiscitis due to Streptococcus vestibularis.

Muge Aydin, Tufan; Kart-Koseoglu, Hamide; Ersozlu-Bozkirli, Duygu; Azap, Ozlem; Tufan, Kadir; Yucel Ahmet, Eftal.

2010-08-01

248

Streptococcus sinensis Endocarditis outside Hong Kong  

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Streptococcus sinensis has been described as a causative organism for infective endocarditis in 3 Chinese patients from Hong Kong. We describe a closely related strain in an Italian patient with chronic rheumatic heart disease. The case illustrates that S. sinensis is a worldwide emerging pathogen.

Uc?kay, Ilker; Rohner, Peter; Bolivar, Ignacio; Ninet, Be?atrice; Djordjevic, Marina; Nobre, Vandack; Garzoni, Christian; Schrenzel, Jacques

2007-01-01

249

Native valve endocarditis due to Micrococcus luteus: a case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Micrococcus luteus endocarditis is a rare case of infective endocarditis. A total of 17 cases of infective endocarditis due to M luteus have been reported in the literature to date, all involving prosthetic valves. To the best of our knowledge, we describe the first case of native aortic valve M luteus endocarditis in an immunosuppressed patient in this report. Case report A 74-year-old Greek-Cypriot woman was admitted to our Internal Medicine Clinic due to fever and malaise and the diagnosis of aortic valve M luteus endocarditis was made. She was immunosuppressed due to methotrexate and steroid treatment. Our patient was unsuccessfully treated with vancomycin, gentamicin and rifampicin for four weeks. The aortic valve was replaced and she was discharged in good condition. Conclusions Prosthetic infective endocarditis due to M luteus is rare. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case in the literature involving a native valve.

Elisaf Moses

2011-06-01

250

Fusobacterium necrophorum causing infective endocarditis and liver and splenic abscesses / Fusobacterium necrophorum causando endocardite infecciosa e abscesso hepático e esplênico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Homem de 25 anos de idade, sem antecedentes mórbidos foi admitido ao hospital com bacteremia por Fusobacterium necrophorum e abscessos no fígado e no baço. Avaliação posterior com ecografia revelou válvula aórtica bicúspide com insuficiência severa e vegetação de 1,68 x 0,86 cm. Foi feita drenagem d [...] os abscessos, terapia antimicrobiana intravenosa e substituição da válvula aórtica. Resolução completa da infecção foi conseguida após substituição valvular e curso prolongado de terapêutica intravenosa antimicrobiana. É apresentada breve análise do curso clínico do paciente e revisão da literatura. Abstract in english A 25-year-old male without prior co-morbidities was admitted to hospital with Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteremia, where he was found to have liver and splenic abscesses. Further evaluation with echocardiography revealed a bicuspid aortic valve with severe insufficiency and a 1.68 x 0.86 cm vegetat [...] ion. The patient required abscess drainage, intravenous antimicrobial therapy and aortic valve replacement. Complete resolution of the infection was achieved after valve replacement and a prolonged course of intravenous antimicrobial therapy. A brief analysis of the patient's clinical course and review of the literature is presented.

Marc Zac, Handler; Benjamin, Miriovsky; Howard E., Gendelman; Uriel, Sandkovsky.

2011-06-01

251

Fusobacterium necrophorum causing infective endocarditis and liver and splenic abscesses / Fusobacterium necrophorum causando endocardite infecciosa e abscesso hepático e esplênico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Homem de 25 anos de idade, sem antecedentes mórbidos foi admitido ao hospital com bacteremia por Fusobacterium necrophorum e abscessos no fígado e no baço. Avaliação posterior com ecografia revelou válvula aórtica bicúspide com insuficiência severa e vegetação de 1,68 x 0,86 cm. Foi feita drenagem d [...] os abscessos, terapia antimicrobiana intravenosa e substituição da válvula aórtica. Resolução completa da infecção foi conseguida após substituição valvular e curso prolongado de terapêutica intravenosa antimicrobiana. É apresentada breve análise do curso clínico do paciente e revisão da literatura. Abstract in english A 25-year-old male without prior co-morbidities was admitted to hospital with Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteremia, where he was found to have liver and splenic abscesses. Further evaluation with echocardiography revealed a bicuspid aortic valve with severe insufficiency and a 1.68 x 0.86 cm vegetat [...] ion. The patient required abscess drainage, intravenous antimicrobial therapy and aortic valve replacement. Complete resolution of the infection was achieved after valve replacement and a prolonged course of intravenous antimicrobial therapy. A brief analysis of the patient's clinical course and review of the literature is presented.

Marc Zac, Handler; Benjamin, Miriovsky; Howard E., Gendelman; Uriel, Sandkovsky.

252

Fusobacterium necrophorum causing infective endocarditis and liver and splenic abscesses Fusobacterium necrophorum causando endocardite infecciosa e abscesso hepático e esplênico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 25-year-old male without prior co-morbidities was admitted to hospital with Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteremia, where he was found to have liver and splenic abscesses. Further evaluation with echocardiography revealed a bicuspid aortic valve with severe insufficiency and a 1.68 x 0.86 cm vegetation. The patient required abscess drainage, intravenous antimicrobial therapy and aortic valve replacement. Complete resolution of the infection was achieved after valve replacement and a prolonged course of intravenous antimicrobial therapy. A brief analysis of the patient's clinical course and review of the literature is presented.Homem de 25 anos de idade, sem antecedentes mórbidos foi admitido ao hospital com bacteremia por Fusobacterium necrophorum e abscessos no fígado e no baço. Avaliação posterior com ecografia revelou válvula aórtica bicúspide com insuficiência severa e vegetação de 1,68 x 0,86 cm. Foi feita drenagem dos abscessos, terapia antimicrobiana intravenosa e substituição da válvula aórtica. Resolução completa da infecção foi conseguida após substituição valvular e curso prolongado de terapêutica intravenosa antimicrobiana. É apresentada breve análise do curso clínico do paciente e revisão da literatura.

Marc Zac Handler

2011-06-01

253

Valve Repair Using Autologous Pericardium in Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis  

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Full Text Available Tricuspid valve endocarditis is a significant cause of valve-related morbidity and mortality. Prosthetic valve reconstruction can be costly and requires life-long anticoagulation. We present our experience with surgical management of an endocarditis damaged tricuspid valve leaflet in an intravenous drug user. We were able to excise the infected tissue and successfully repair the native valve using autologous pericardium, effectively eliminating the need for prostheses and associated complications. Our case report demonstrates that tricuspid valve reconstruction, using autologous pericar-dium, is a suitable option in patients with tricuspid endocarditis.

Kuldeep Singh

2012-06-01

254

Neisseria meningitidis endocarditis: A case report and review of the literature.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults, with an overall mortality rate of up to 25%, but it is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. We present herein a case of N. meningitidis meningitis complicated with infective endocarditis.

Ali, Mohammed

2011-04-08

255

Left atrial endocarditis as a rare complication of mitral valve endocarditis: a clinical case  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Infective Endocarditis (IE is considered as a multifaceted problem in every aspect from etiology and presentation to diagnosis and management. Early recognition of this disease and especially its complications, remain a critical task for the cardiologist. Atrial endocarditis is a rare and sometimes unrecognized complication of mitral valve endocarditis. Case presentation We present a 48 year-old male patient who was admitted to our clinic because of recent onset of malaise, fever, jaundice and peripheral edema. Important physical findings were peripheral stigmata of IE in addition to holosystolic murmur over the left sternal border. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiophy revealed a severe eccentric MR due to a flailed posterior mitral valve caused by IE. The presence of atrial septal endocarditis caused by jet streaming was also observed. Blood culture was positive for streptococcus oralis and antibiotic therapy was immediately initiated. Considering the large burden of infective tissue, the patient was planned for an early surgical intervention. A minimally invasive resection of the atrial mass, direct closure of the defect, resection of the diseased portions of mitral leaflets and implantation of a biological mitral valve prosthesis was performed. Intra-operative and histological findings confirmed provisional diagnosis by echocardiography. Conclusions Together with comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation, attention should be placed on mural vegetations and excluded among all cases of mitral valve endocarditis, particularly those with severe eccentric regurgitant jets.

Hamadanchi Ali

2012-11-01

256

Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis in patients with an implanted cardiac device: a prospective study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Infective endocarditis (IE) is widely underdiagnosed or diagnosed after a major delay. The diagnosis is currently based on the modified DUKE criteria, where the only validated imaging technique is echocardiography, and remains challenging especially in patients with an implantable cardiac device. The aim of this study was to assess the incremental diagnostic role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with an implanted cardiac device and suspected IE. We prospectively analysed 27 consecutive patients with an implantable device evaluated for suspected device-related IE between January 2011 and June 2013. The diagnostic probability of IE was defined at presentation according to the modified DUKE criteria. PET/CT was performed as soon as possible following the clinical suspicion of IE. Patients then underwent medical or surgical treatment based on the overall clinical evaluation. During follow-up, we considered: lead cultures in patients who underwent extraction, direct inspection and lead cultures in those who underwent surgery, and a clinical/instrumental reevaluation after at least 6 months in patients who received antimicrobial treatment or had an alternative diagnosis and were not treated for IE. After the follow-up period, the diagnosis was systematically reviewed by the multidisciplinary team using the modified DUKE criteria and considering the new findings. Among the ten patients with a positive PET/CT scan, seven received a final diagnosis of ''definite IE'', one of ''possible IE'' and two of ''IE rejected''. Among the 17 patients with a negative PET/CT scan, four were false-negative and received a final diagnosis of definite IE. These patients underwent PET/CT after having started antibiotic therapy (?48 h) or had a technically suboptimal examination. In patients with a cardiac device, PET/CT increases the diagnostic accuracy of the modified Duke criteria for IE, particularly in the subset of patients with possible IE in whom it may help the clinician manage a challenging situation. (orig.)

257

Clinical impact of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the extra cardiac work-up of patients with infective endocarditis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical importance of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT used in the extra cardiac work-up of patients with infective endocarditis (IE). BACKGROUND: IE is a serious condition with a significant mortality. Besides the degree of valvular involvement, the prognosis relies crucially on the presence of systemic infectious embolism. METHODS: Seventy-two patients (71% males and mean age 63 ± 17 years) with IE were evaluated with (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in addition to standard work-up including patient history, physical examination, conventional imaging modalities, and weekly interdisciplinary conferences. When previous unknown lesions detected by (18)F-FDG-PET/CT were confirmed by succeeding examinations, they were considered true positive new findings and were further assessed for their clinical importance. Number needed to investigate was calculated as the number of patients who needed to undergo (18)F-FDG-PET/CT to find at least one clinical important true positive new finding, not identified by standard work-up prior to (18)F-FDG-PET/CT. RESULTS: (18)F-FDG-PET/CT detected 114 lesions and 64 were true positive, of which 25 were new findings and detected in 17 patients. In 11 patients, the lesions were considered to have a clinical importance; osteomyelitis (n = 7), iliopsoas abscess (n = 1), gastrointestinal lesions (n = 2), and vascular prosthetic graft (n = 1). Number needed to investigate was 7 (11 of 72 patients). CONCLUSIONS: (18)F-FDG-PET/CT detected lesions of clinical importance in one of seven IE patients and may be a substantial imaging technique for tracing peripheral infectious embolism due to IE. Thus, (18)F-FDG-PET/CT may help to guide adequate therapy and thereby improve the prognosis of patients with IE.

Diederichsen, Axel C P; Thomassen, Anders

2014-01-01

258

Perforated mitral valve aneurysm associated with Libman-Sacks endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The perforation of a mitral valve aneurysm is a rare disease which induces acute mitral regurgitation and is usually induced by infective endocarditis; however, in this case report, acute heart failure was caused by a perforated mitral valve aneurysm that was speculated to be due to Libman-Sacks endocarditis with systemic lupus erythematosis and secondary anti-phospholipid syndrome. Mitral valve plasty was performed and thereafter heart failure improved. PMID:18797120

Takayama, Tomoyuki; Teramura, Masanori; Sakai, Hiroshi; Tamaki, Shinji; Okabayashi, Tabito; Kawashima, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Horie, Minoru; Suzuki, Tomoaki; Asai, Tohru

2008-01-01

259

A case of Kingella kingae endocarditis complicated by native mitral valve rupture  

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We report a case of Kingella kingae endocarditis in a patient with a history of recent respiratory tract infection and dental extraction. This case is remarkable for embolic and vasculitic phenomena in association with a large valve vegetation and valve perforation. Kingella kingae is an organism known to cause endocarditis, however early major complications are uncommon. Our case of Kingella endocarditis behaved in a virulent fashion necessitating a combined approach of intravenous antibioti...

Mohammad Bagherirad; Damoon Entesari-Tatafi; Sam Mirzaee; Allan Appelbe; Chenghon Yap; Eugene Athan

2013-01-01

260

Capnocytophaga canimorsus endocarditis with root abscess in a patient with a bicuspid aortic valve  

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Full Text Available Infective endocarditis caused by a zoonotic micro organism is a rare clinical condition. Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a commensal bacterium living in the saliva of dogs and cats which produces rarely reported endocarditis whose incidence may be underestimated, considering its failure to grow on standard media. We reported the case of a 65-year-old man with bicuspid aortic valve endocarditis and multiple abscesses of the aortic wall caused by the canine bacteria C. canimorsus.

Michèle Hamon

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia prosthetic valve endocarditis: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an environmental bacterium increasingly involved in nosocomial infections and resistant to most antibiotics. It is important to recognize and efficiently treat infections with this bacterium as soon as possible. Case presentation We present a case of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia prosthetic valve endocarditis secondary to an indwelling catheter infection. The patient was cured without surgery. We review other cases of S. maltophilia endocarditis from the literature and describe the peculiarities of this case. Conclusion S. maltophilia endocarditis is a rare disease that is often hospital-acquired and related to an indwelling catheter infection. The high lethality is likely related to the intrinsic resistance of nosocomial bloodstream infections to commonly prescribed antibiotics.

Bayle Sophie

2008-05-01

262

Fusobacterium necrophorum causing infective endocarditis and liver and splenic abscesses Fusobacterium necrophorum causando endocardite infecciosa e abscesso hepático e esplênico  

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A 25-year-old male without prior co-morbidities was admitted to hospital with Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteremia, where he was found to have liver and splenic abscesses. Further evaluation with echocardiography revealed a bicuspid aortic valve with severe insufficiency and a 1.68 x 0.86 cm vegetation. The patient required abscess drainage, intravenous antimicrobial therapy and aortic valve replacement. Complete resolution of the infection was achieved after valve replacement and a prolonged...

Marc Zac Handler; Benjamin Miriovsky; Gendelman, Howard E.; Uriel Sandkovsky

2011-01-01

263

Prevención de la Endocarditis Bacteriana :: Revisión de la Literatura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endocarditis infecciosa es una infección del revestimiento de las cavidades del corazón y de las válvulas cardíacas, causadas por bacterias, hongos virus u otros microorganismos. La endocarditis bacteriana se refiere específicamente a la infección por agentes bacterianos. La mayoría de las person [...] as que desarrollan la endocarditis han padecido una enfermedad cardíaca previa. El origen de la infección podría ser una bacteremia transitoria, la cual es común durante diagnósticos y procedimientos quirúrgicos; ya sean dentales, urológicos, del tracto respiratorio o gastrointestinal. La endocarditis es una enfermedad que amenaza a la vida a pesar de ser poco frecuente, por lo que la prevención es lo más importante. La Asociación Americana del Corazón, realizó algunos cambios en las pautas a seguir para la prevención de esta enfermedad, como son: una reducción de la antibioticoterapia para la protección del paciente, tanto bajando la dosis de ataque como eliminando la dosis posterior al tratamiento. De igual forma se limitaron los tratamientos que ameritan la profilaxis antibiótica. Estas nuevas recomendaciones definen mejor a los pacientes en riesgo y los procedimientos dentales que requieren protección con antibióticos. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart and heart valves. Caused by bacterias, fungus, viruses or other micro-organisms. Bacterial endocarditis is refered especially to infection for bacterial agents. The most people that developes endocarditis has sufered a prior cardiac d [...] isease. Cardiac source may be a transient bacteremia, common during diagnosis and surgical procedures, such dental, genitourinary, upper respiratory tract or gastrointestinal. Endocarditis is a life-threatening disease, although it is relatively uncommon so prevention is the most important. The American Heart Association, made some changes in guidelines for prevention of this disease: an antibioticoterapy decrease for pacients’cover, as much as lowering attack dosis and eliminating the follow doses to treatment. This new recommendations define better pacients at risk and dental procedures that require antibiotic cover.

Patricia R, Guzmán H; Sonia M, Corte F; Mónica P., Delgado O..

2000-09-01

264

[One case with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report case of a 67-year-old alcoholic fisherman who developed infective endocarditis caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. The initial manifestations were fever and back pain of approximately three months' duration. Auscultation of the heart revealed a loud systolic murmur at the apex and a diastolic murmur over the aortic valve area. Echocardiographic studies showed vegetations on both the aortic valve and mitral valve. Blood cultures grew Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and it was sensitive to aminobenzyl penicillin. No other bacteria grew aut. A diagnosis of infective endocarditis caused by the Erysipelothnx rhusiopatniae was made, and the patient was treated with aminobenzyl penicillin 12g/day for 6 weeks. His clinical course was complicated by heart failure, multiple cerebral embolism, and renal infarctions. However, he recovered without valve replacement. Although the exact route of infection remains unknown, erosions of the skin, of his palms at the time of tho initial examination appeared to be one possible source of the systemic infection in this case. The serotype of the bacteria was Ib. To our knowledge this is the first case of serotyping of bacterium that caused endocarditis in humans. PMID:16922485

Kodera, Satoshi; Nakamura, Akira; Ooe, Kenji; Furukawa, Keiichi; Shibata, Naohiro; Arakawa, Yoshitika

2006-07-01

265

Group B streptococcus endocarditis associated with multiple pulmonary septic emboli  

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Full Text Available Endocarditis is a rare presentation of group B streptococcal infection. Its association with pulmonary septic embolism was only barely studied and limited data is available up to date. Multiple septic emboli is a common complication of bacterial endocarditis, but only a few cases have been documented in relation to group B streptococcus. We present the case of an 87-year-old female patient with multiple underlying conditions that predisposed the development of bacterial endocarditis secondary to group B streptococcus and subsequently multiple pulmonary septic emboli. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone and azythromycin with good response and complete recovery without any further complications. In the event of a diagnosed case of group B streptococcus endocarditis, there should be a low threshold for the suspicion of septic pulmonary emboli especially in cases with right valves involvement.

Deborah Abaitey

2011-03-01

266

Molecular diagnosis of infective endocarditis by real-time broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing directly from heart valve tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, infective endocarditis (IE) has been microbiologically diagnosed by blood cultures or serology. However, conventional microbiologic methods do not always provide an etiologic diagnosis. We conducted the current study to evaluate the usefulness of a universal real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 16S rRNA gene followed by sequencing for the diagnosis of IE in explanted heart valve tissue (HV) as part of the routine of a clinical microbiology laboratory, and to compare it with conventional culture of blood or HV. We prospectively analyzed 177 HV samples by universal PCR and sequencing: 48 were from 35 patients with definite IE and 129 were from 120 patients without IE. Specific PCR tests were used when necessary to confirm broad-range PCR results. For the 35 patients with IE, all of the HV samples except for 2 from the same patient gave positive PCR results. The microorganisms identified matched those isolated by blood culture in 31 cases. The other 3 patients had negative blood culture IE, but PCR made possible the detection of Tropheryma whipplei, Bartonella quintana, and Streptococcus gallolyticus. For the negative control group, universal PCR was completely negative in 123 of the 129 samples. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of this real-time PCR method were 96%, 95.3%, 98.4%, and 88.5%, respectively, for the diagnosis of IE, using the Duke criteria to define IE and using blood culture results to identify etiologic microorganisms. Conventional HV culture correlated poorly with blood cultures and molecular techniques, and frequently represented tissue contamination resulting from valve handling. Our universal PCR method has proved to be more sensitive, specific, and rapid than conventional culture methods, and should therefore be included as a new major Duke criterion for the diagnosis of IE. According to the results of the current study, this technique should be used to supplement blood and HV culture. Conventional HV cultures are frequently responsible for false-positive and false-negative results, and are not always useful to establish the etiology of IE. PMID:17632260

Marín, Mercedes; Muñoz, Patricia; Sánchez, Mónica; del Rosal, Marina; Alcalá, Luis; Rodríguez-Créixems, Marta; Bouza, Emilio

2007-07-01

267

Role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis in patients with an implanted cardiac device: a prospective study  

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Infective endocarditis (IE) is widely underdiagnosed or diagnosed after a major delay. The diagnosis is currently based on the modified DUKE criteria, where the only validated imaging technique is echocardiography, and remains challenging especially in patients with an implantable cardiac device. The aim of this study was to assess the incremental diagnostic role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with an implanted cardiac device and suspected IE. We prospectively analysed 27 consecutive patients with an implantable device evaluated for suspected device-related IE between January 2011 and June 2013. The diagnostic probability of IE was defined at presentation according to the modified DUKE criteria. PET/CT was performed as soon as possible following the clinical suspicion of IE. Patients then underwent medical or surgical treatment based on the overall clinical evaluation. During follow-up, we considered: lead cultures in patients who underwent extraction, direct inspection and lead cultures in those who underwent surgery, and a clinical/instrumental reevaluation after at least 6 months in patients who received antimicrobial treatment or had an alternative diagnosis and were not treated for IE. After the follow-up period, the diagnosis was systematically reviewed by the multidisciplinary team using the modified DUKE criteria and considering the new findings. Among the ten patients with a positive PET/CT scan, seven received a final diagnosis of ''definite IE'', one of ''possible IE'' and two of ''IE rejected''. Among the 17 patients with a negative PET/CT scan, four were false-negative and received a final diagnosis of definite IE. These patients underwent PET/CT after having started antibiotic therapy (?48 h) or had a technically suboptimal examination. In patients with a cardiac device, PET/CT increases the diagnostic accuracy of the modified Duke criteria for IE, particularly in the subset of patients with possible IE in whom it may help the clinician manage a challenging situation. (orig.)

Graziosi, Maddalena; Lorenzini, Massimiliano; Diemberger, Igor; Pasquale, Ferdinando; Ziacchi, Matteo; Biffi, Mauro; Martignani, Cristian; Boriani, Giuseppe; Rapezzi, Claudio [Alma Mater-University of Bologna, and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Cardiology Unit, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Nanni, Cristina; Bonfiglioli, Rachele; Fanti, Stefano [Alma Mater-University of Bologna, and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Bartoletti, Michele; Tumietto, Fabio; Viale, Pier Luigi [Alma Mater-University of Bologna, and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Bologna (Italy)

2014-08-15

268

A case of Kingella kingae endocarditis complicated by native mitral valve rupture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a case of Kingella kingae endocarditis in a patient with a history of recent respiratory tract infection and dental extraction. This case is remarkable for embolic and vasculitic phenomena in association with a large valve vegetation and valve perforation. Kingella kingae is an organism known to cause endocarditis, however early major complications are uncommon. Our case of Kingella endocarditis behaved in a virulent fashion necessitating a combined approach of intravenous antibiotic therapy and a valve replacement. It highlights the importance of expedited investigation for endocarditis in patients with Kingella bacteraemia.

Mohammad Bagherirad

2013-04-01

269

Acute meningitis as an initial manifestation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a gram-positive bacillus which is found worldwide. Although bloodstream infections caused by E. rhusiopathiae are not common, there is a strong association between bacteremia and the development of infective endocarditis. The risk of human infection with Erysipelothrix is closely related to the opportunity for exposure to the organisms. We report a case of community-acquired meningitis as an initial manifestation of E. rhusiopathiae endocarditis in a 56-year-old woman, who had no history of exposure to animals. PMID:21409531

Joo, Eun-Jeong; Kang, Cheol-In; Kim, Wook Sung; Lee, Nam Yong; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

2011-10-01

270

Association of Bartonella spp bacteremia with Chagas cardiomyopathy, endocarditis and arrythmias in patients from South America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Infection with Bartonella spp may cause cardiac arrhythmias, myocarditis and endocarditis in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and endocarditis, arrhythmia and Chagas cardiomyopathy in patients from Brazil and Argentina. We [...] screened for the presence of bacterial 16S rRNA in human blood by PCR using oligonucleotides to amplify a 185-bp bacterial DNA fragment. Blood samples were taken from four groups of subjects in Brazil and Argentina: i) control patients without clinical disease, ii) patients with negative blood-culture endocarditis, iii) patients with arrhythmias, and iv) patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. PCR products were analyzed on 1.5% agarose gel to visualize the 185-bp fragment and then sequenced to confirm the identity of DNA. Sixty of 148 patients (40.5%) with cardiac disease and 1 of 56 subjects (1.8%) from the control group presented positive PCR amplification for Bartonella spp, suggesting a positive association of the bacteria with these diseases. Separate analysis of the four groups showed that the risk of a Brazilian patient with endocarditis being infected with Bartonella was 22 times higher than in the controls. In arrhythmic patients, the prevalence of infection was 45 times higher when compared to the same controls and 40 times higher for patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and Chagas disease. The present data may be useful for epidemiological and prevention studies in Brazil and Argentina.

F.G., Corrêa; C.L.S., Pontes; R.M.M., Verzola; J.C.P., Mateos; P.E.N.F., Velho; A.G., Schijman; H.S., Selistre-de-Araujo.

2012-07-01

271

Association of Bartonella spp bacteremia with Chagas cardiomyopathy, endocarditis and arrythmias in patients from South America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infection with Bartonella spp may cause cardiac arrhythmias, myocarditis and endocarditis in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and endocarditis, arrhythmia and Chagas cardiomyopathy in patients from Brazil and Argentina. We screened for the presence of bacterial 16S rRNA in human blood by PCR using oligonucleotides to amplify a 185-bp bacterial DNA fragment. Blood samples were taken from four groups of subjects in Brazil and Argentina: i control patients without clinical disease, ii patients with negative blood-culture endocarditis, iii patients with arrhythmias, and iv patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. PCR products were analyzed on 1.5% agarose gel to visualize the 185-bp fragment and then sequenced to confirm the identity of DNA. Sixty of 148 patients (40.5% with cardiac disease and 1 of 56 subjects (1.8% from the control group presented positive PCR amplification for Bartonella spp, suggesting a positive association of the bacteria with these diseases. Separate analysis of the four groups showed that the risk of a Brazilian patient with endocarditis being infected with Bartonella was 22 times higher than in the controls. In arrhythmic patients, the prevalence of infection was 45 times higher when compared to the same controls and 40 times higher for patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and Chagas disease. The present data may be useful for epidemiological and prevention studies in Brazil and Argentina.

F.G. Corrêa

2012-07-01

272

Acute Haemophilus parainfluenzae endocarditis: a case report  

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Abstract Introduction Numerous pathogens can cause infective endocarditis, including Haemophilus parainfluenzae. H. parainfluenzae is part of the H. aphrophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae group that may cause about 3% of the total endocarditis cases, and is characterized by a subacute course and large vegetations. Case presentation ...

Christou Leonidas; Economou Georgios; Zikou Anastasia K; Saplaoura Kaiti; Argyropoulou Maria I; Tsianos Epameinondas V

2009-01-01

273

Management of vascular complications of bacterial endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral arterial emboli that result from bacterial endocarditis may be silent or catastrophic. Cardiac surgical intervention may prevent embolism, but the guidelines for timing of intervention are unclear. An accepted approach is to intervene only if two episodes of peripheral embolism occur. Our recent experience suggests a more refined approach is in order. Eight children with active bacterial endocarditis have been treated with embolic complications. One patient with abdominal pain and GI bleeding was treated with heparin for multiple peripheral mesenteric emboli. Four patients had femoral embolectomies, one twice. Three patients developed embolomycotic aneurysms of the aorta in two cases and the common iliac in one; all were ruptured and two survived with staged reconstruction in one and extra-anatomic bypass in the other. Staph aureus and Strep viridans were the organisms involved most often. A review of the details of care in these patients leads to the following conclusions: angiographic survey reveals that most patients have multiple emboli; early embolectomy may prevent formation of infected aneurysms; Staph aureus infected patients are at risk for development of infected aneurysms; patients with large floppy vegetations in the left heart on echocardiography are at high risk for embolism; and 2 to 3 weeks from onset of endocarditis is the peak time for embolic risk. PMID:3755471

Nakayama, D K; O'Neill, J A; Wagner, H; Cooper, A; Dean, R H

1986-07-01

274

Haemophilus segnis endocarditis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Haemophilus segnis is a rarely recognised commensal in the oropharynx. We wish to report the first published case of endocarditis caused by H. segnis. The patient, a 76-year-old female did not recover until after 2 courses of ampicillin given for a total of 57 days. In the second course of treatment, ampicillin was combined with 10 days of netilmicin therapy.

Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Tvede, M

1988-01-01

275

Mitral valve endocarditis during brucellosis relapse  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Endocarditis is the most common cardiovascular manifestation of brucellosis with high mortality rate. Brucella is less accesable to antibiotic (but not for all and relapse can occur after a various period of clinical latency. Case report. A 55-year-old farmer was diagnozed with acute systemic Brucella infection in May 2008 and treated with antibiotic therapy in regional hospital for two months and for three months after discharge. He began to feel myalgia, arthralgia, malaise, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea and lost weight eight months after initial symptoms occured. Because symptoms progressed he was admitted to our hospital in February 2009. Based on a combination of epidemiological, clinical data (on admission he was catchetic, adynamic, dyspneic, hypotensive 80/50 mmHg, fever up to 39.50C, positive serological Wright test for brucellosis (1 : 5,120, and echocardiographic examination findings, the diagnosis of very severe relapse of brucellosis with mitral valve endocarditis, complicated with perforation of anterior mitral leaflet, severe mitral regurgitation and pulmonary hypertension was established. He was treated with a combined triple antibiotic therapy (vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin, and swiched to regimen with doxycycline, gentamicin and imipenem, replacing gentamicin by rifampicin for 4 weeks and for the next 2 weeks was receiving trimetoprime/sulfamethoxazole and rifampicin. The patients' condition was improved and he was operated. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis was confirmed intraoperatively. Mitral valve replacement was performed, and combined triple antibiotic treatment (amikacin + ciprofloxacin + cefazolin, for 2 weeks and cephazolin + doxycycline + rifampicin, for 2 weeks was continued, following with two antibiotics (doxycycline + rifampicin for 5 months. The patient completely recovered without any signs of infection 30 months postoperatively. Conclusion. A combined antibiotic therapy and surgery reduce complications and mortality associated with Brucella endocarditis and improve quality of patients' life.

Obrenovi?-Kir?anski Biljana

2012-01-01

276

Valve replacement for left-sided endocarditis in drug addicts.  

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Eighteen drug addicts with left-sided valvular endocarditis requiring operation are reviewed. Gram-positive bacteria were the most common organisms cultured (61%), with Staphylococcus aureus present in 7 of 11 patients. Gram-negative bacteria, exclusively Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were cultured in the remaining 39%. Indications for operation included sepsis (61%), heart failure (78%), and systemic emboli (22%). Abscesses formed in 6 of 11 patients with gram-positive endocarditis, while only one abscess was present with gram-negative endocarditis. Normal valves were infected in 17 of 18 patients (94%). Early surgical mortality (less than 30 days) was 11%. There were major complications in 79% of these patients, including persistent sepsis (50%), valvular dehiscence, prosthetic endocarditis or perivalvular leakage (37%), and mycotic aneurysms (22%). These complications were directly related to a late mortality of 44%, yielding an overall mortality of 50% in the first nine months after operation. Contrary to previous reports of acceptable surgical survival for valvular endocarditis, these data suggest that endocarditis involving the aortic or mitral valve in a drug addict is a highly lethal disease due to the virulence of the organisms, the severity of the complications encountered, and the predisposition to continued addiction. PMID:6838269

Mammana, R B; Levitsky, S; Sernaque, D; Beckman, C B; Silverman, N A

1983-04-01

277

The Role of Endocarditis, Myocarditis and Pericarditis in Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis  

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Full Text Available The current study is the first scientometric analysis of research activity and output in the field of inflammatory disorders of the heart (endo-, myo- and pericarditis. Scientometric methods are used to compare scientific performance on national and on international scale to identify single areas of research interest. Interest and research productivity in inflammatory diseases of the heart have increased since 1990. The majority of publications about inflammatory heart disorders were published in Western Europe and North America. The United States of America had a leading position in terms of research productivity and quality; half of the most productive authors in this study came from American institutions. The analysis of international cooperation revealed research activity in countries that are less established in the field of inflammatory heart disorder research, such as Brazil, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia. These results indicate that future research of heart inflammation may no longer be influenced predominantly by a small number of countries. Furthermore, this study revealed weaknesses in currently established scientometric parameters (i.e., h-index, impact factor that limit their suitability as measures of research quality. In this respect, self-citations should be generally excluded from calculations of h-index and impact factor.

David A. Groneberg

2009-11-01

278

A case of native valve endocarditis caused by Burkholderia cepacia without predisposing factors  

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Abstract Background Infective endocarditis is rarely caused by Burkholderia cepacia. This infection is known to occur particularly in immunocompromised hosts, intravenous heroin users, and in patients with prosthetic valve replacement. Most patients with Burkholderia cepacia endocarditis usually need surgical treatment in addition to antimicrobial treatment. Case Presentation Here, we report the case of a patient who developed Burkholderia ...

Han Seong; Kim Sung; Ki Hyun; Cheong Hae

2011-01-01

279

Actualización sobre endocarditis infecciosa en válvula protésica / UP-Date in prosthetic valve endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Prosthetic valve endocarditis is still a matter of controversy especially the type of treatment that should be chosen for an individual patient. Since the current knowledge of this patology is based mainly on the literature and in its many and varied exponents (clinical experience, sistematic review [...] , practice guideslines of cardiology associations, observational studies, etc), it is necessary to update the information continuously This review is focused mainly in the incidence, etiology diagnostics and treatment of prosthetic endocarditis. The principal microroganisms related to this patology are Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphyloccoco. Risk factors were identified for witch surgery is mandatory, such us Staphylococcus aureus infection and a complicated prosthetic valve endocarditis (cardiac failure, conduction abnormalities, abscess formation and recurrent embolism). With this information, patients that could have a medical treatment option can be recognized, as well as those who will require surgery. In order to present in a better way our conclusions, easily reading diagrams were included to facilitate the decisión process when facing up a prosthetic valve endocarditis. Abstract in english La endocarditis en válvulas protésicas es aún tema de controversia, en especial en referencia al tipo de tratamiento que se debe elegir. Debido a que los conocimientos actuales sobre esta patología están basados principalmente en la literatura y por ende, en sus variados exponentes (experiencias clí [...] nicas, revisiones sistemáticas, guía clínicas de diferentes sociedades de cardiología, estudios observacionales, entre otros), es necesario hacer una actualización continua de la información. Esta revisión bibliográfica se centra en la incidencia, etiología, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la endocarditis protésica. En ella se llega la conclusión de que los principales microorganismos productores de esta patología son el Estafilococo aureus y el Estafilococo coagulasa-negativo. También se reconocen aquellos factores de riesgo para los cuales la cirugía es mandatoria, entre los que destacan las infecciones por S. aureus y la endocarditis protésica complicada, ya sea por insuficiencia cardíaca, alteración de la conducción, formación de abscesos y/o embolias recurrentes. De esta manera, con la información recopilada, se identificaron aquellos pacientes con opción a tratamiento médico, y aquellos con indicación de manejo quirúrgico. Para presentar mejor nuestras conclusiones, se construyeron esquemas de fácil consulta y lectura, para apoyar la decisión del tipo de manejo frente a una endocarditis en válvulas protésicas.

Nathalia, Badilla A; Ricardo, Zalaquett S.

2009-12-01

280

Actualización sobre endocarditis infecciosa en válvula protésica / UP-Date in prosthetic valve endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Prosthetic valve endocarditis is still a matter of controversy especially the type of treatment that should be chosen for an individual patient. Since the current knowledge of this patology is based mainly on the literature and in its many and varied exponents (clinical experience, sistematic review [...] , practice guideslines of cardiology associations, observational studies, etc), it is necessary to update the information continuously This review is focused mainly in the incidence, etiology diagnostics and treatment of prosthetic endocarditis. The principal microroganisms related to this patology are Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphyloccoco. Risk factors were identified for witch surgery is mandatory, such us Staphylococcus aureus infection and a complicated prosthetic valve endocarditis (cardiac failure, conduction abnormalities, abscess formation and recurrent embolism). With this information, patients that could have a medical treatment option can be recognized, as well as those who will require surgery. In order to present in a better way our conclusions, easily reading diagrams were included to facilitate the decisión process when facing up a prosthetic valve endocarditis. Abstract in english La endocarditis en válvulas protésicas es aún tema de controversia, en especial en referencia al tipo de tratamiento que se debe elegir. Debido a que los conocimientos actuales sobre esta patología están basados principalmente en la literatura y por ende, en sus variados exponentes (experiencias clí [...] nicas, revisiones sistemáticas, guía clínicas de diferentes sociedades de cardiología, estudios observacionales, entre otros), es necesario hacer una actualización continua de la información. Esta revisión bibliográfica se centra en la incidencia, etiología, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la endocarditis protésica. En ella se llega la conclusión de que los principales microorganismos productores de esta patología son el Estafilococo aureus y el Estafilococo coagulasa-negativo. También se reconocen aquellos factores de riesgo para los cuales la cirugía es mandatoria, entre los que destacan las infecciones por S. aureus y la endocarditis protésica complicada, ya sea por insuficiencia cardíaca, alteración de la conducción, formación de abscesos y/o embolias recurrentes. De esta manera, con la información recopilada, se identificaron aquellos pacientes con opción a tratamiento médico, y aquellos con indicación de manejo quirúrgico. Para presentar mejor nuestras conclusiones, se construyeron esquemas de fácil consulta y lectura, para apoyar la decisión del tipo de manejo frente a una endocarditis en válvulas protésicas.

Nathalia, Badilla A; Ricardo, Zalaquett S.

 
 
 
 
281

Candida albicans isolated from human fungaemia induces apoptosis in an experimental endocarditis model  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen known to cause endovascular infections, such as vascular catheter sepsis, infections of vascular prostheses and infective endocarditis. A C. albicans isolate was used to determine the apoptotic potential of the fungus in a rat endocarditis model. T [...] his study confirms the ability of C. albicans to induce apoptosis in myocardial tissue.

Iván, Hernández-Cañaveral; Gerardo, Becerra; Alberto, Jiménez-Cordero; Jean-Baptiste, Michel; Arturo, Plascencia; Miguel, Domínguez-Hernández.

2009-09-01

282

Endocarditis aguda estafilococcica fatal con periodontitis severa  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endocarditis infecciosa usualmente está asociada con una alteración del endocardio, la cual promueve los depósitos de fibrina donde las bacterias, en su mayoría Streptococcus spp., se establecen y de ahí se descargan a la sangre. El diagnóstico se hace empleando imágenes de ecocardiografía, reali [...] zando hemocultivos e investigando los síntomas clínicos. El presente caso corresponde a una niña de un año y nueve meses de edad, que desarrolló una endocarditis asociada con una infección por Staphylococcus aureus. La causa de muerte se debió a un choque séptico con múltiples embolias sépticas en diversos órganos. La posible puerta de entrada la constituyó una sepsis oral con gingivitis sangrante y caries. Este caso indica que una higiene oral pobre representa un riesgo de invasión bacteriana con infección en tejidos cardiacos previamente normales. En nuestro país frecuentemente hay casos de niños con lesiones orales como las observadas en el presente caso. Por esta razón es importante una atención apropiada y el cuidado de estos pacientes. Abstract in english Infectious endocarditis is usually associated with alteration of the cardiac tissues that promotes deposits of fibrin in which bacteria, mainly Streptococcus spp., establish and shed to blood. The diagnosis is made with ecocardiograph images, blood cultures, clinical syntoms and signs. The present c [...] ase correspond to a child less than two years old that developed an endocarditis associated with Staphylococcus aureus infection. The cause of dead was due to a septic shock with multiple septic emboli in diverse organs. The possible entrance of the bacteria to the blood stream was a severe bleeding gingivitis. This case indicates that a poor oral hygiene represented a risk of bacterial invasion and infection of the normal cardiac tissues. In our country frequently there are cases of children with oral lesions like those observed in the present case. For this reason it is important a proper attention and care of these patients.

Alfonso, Carranza; Patricia, Rivera; Rafael, Gutiérrez; Francisco, Hernández.

2000-12-01

283

Pacing lead endocarditis due to Aspergillus fumigatus  

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Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis is an opportunistic infection with a high mortality rate that usually occurs in the immunocompromised host. Several cases of fungal infections have been reported after cardiac surgery. We present here a case of Aspergillus fumigatus tricuspid valve endocarditis associated with permanent pacemaker leads. Tricuspid valve vegetectomy was done and the pacing leads were also removed. Culture from the excised vegetation grew Aspergillus fumigatus. The patient was started on IV Amphotericin B for eight weeks. The patient was subsequently followed up in the out-patient clinic, and remains afebrile after one year, with no evidence of any vegetation.

Kothari A

2010-01-01

284

Aspergillus pacemaker lead endocarditis.  

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A 47-year-old man who had a pacemaker implanted 2 years earlier, recently developed a fever and had been on antibiotics for 2 months. He presented with pulmonary emboli, and underwent lead extraction and emboli removal. Histopathology demonstrated Aspergillus. Amphotericin B was continued postoperatively. This rare case of pacemaker lead endocarditis suggests that vigorous medical and surgical intervention can be curative. PMID:24532625

Pillai, Jeewan; Mubeen, Mohammad; Chaudhari, Amit; Dalmia, Basant

2013-04-01

285

Salmonella species group B causing endocarditis of the prosthetic mitral valve.  

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The Salmonella species is an extremely rare cause of infective endocarditis. This case report is for Salmonella spp. group B proven by positive multiple blood cultures, and positive intraoperative culture from the vegetation of the mitral valve prosthesis.

Nisreen M. Al-Sherbeeni

2009-08-01

286

Group B streptococcus tricuspid endocarditis presenting with arthralgia in a postpartum woman: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Infective endocarditis presenting with arthralgia is rare. Group B streptococcus tricuspid endocarditis as a postpartum complication is even rarer. The present case is an example of both. Case presentation We report the case of a 30-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with painful swelling of her wrists and ankles. Conclusion Even when the clinical presentation of systemic inflammation is more suggestive of a primary rheumatological disorder, it is important to remember that bacterial infection can also present in this manner. Group B streptococcus tricuspid valve endocarditis is a rare, but recognized, postpartum complication.

Vincent Paul

2012-08-01

287

A case of native valve endocarditis caused by Burkholderia cepacia without predisposing factors  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Infective endocarditis is rarely caused by Burkholderia cepacia. This infection is known to occur particularly in immunocompromised hosts, intravenous heroin users, and in patients with prosthetic valve replacement. Most patients with Burkholderia cepacia endocarditis usually need surgical treatment in addition to antimicrobial treatment. Case Presentation Here, we report the case of a patient who developed Burkholderia cepacia-induced native valve endocarditis with consequent cerebral involvement without any predisposing factors; she was successfully treated by antimicrobial agents only. Conclusion In this report, we also present literature review of relevant cases.

Han Seong

2011-05-01

288

Combined brucella melitensis and streptococcal viridans endocarditis.  

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Infectious endocarditis is a potentially lethal inflammation of the hearts' inner lining invaded by microorganisms. The mortality from this illness increases as the number of infective organisms rises to 2, due to involvement of the left side of the heart. These microorganisms usually arise from the patient's own flora but can be acquired from the environment. Fever and heart murmurs are the principal clinical manifestations followed by a plethora of peripheral signs due to dissemination of microorganisms via the bloodstream. Echocardiographic imaging and sensitive culture techniques form the cornerstone of diagnosis. We report a patient with rheumatic heart disease who had combined brucella melitensis and streptococcus viridans endocarditis complicated by heart failure and an aortic root abscess. He was diagnosed on the basis of a history of prolonged fever and occupational risk as a shepherd, the presence of heart murmurs, positive blood cultures and echocardiographic evidence of aortic vegetations. He had an excellent response to intravenous antibiotic therapy combined with aortic valve replacement, which nowadays is regarded as the safest therapeutic approach for aortic valve endocarditis.

Tarig S. Al-Khuwaitir

2002-01-01

289

Molecular characterization of endocarditis-associated Staphylococcus aureus.  

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Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening infection of the heart endothelium and valves. Staphylococcus aureus is a predominant cause of severe IE and is frequently associated with infections in health care settings and device-related infections. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and virulence gene microarrays are frequently used to classify S. aureus clinical isolates. This study examined the utility of these typing tools to investigate S. aureus epidemiology associated with IE. Ninety-seven S. aureus isolates were collected from patients diagnosed with (i) IE, (ii) bloodstream infection related to medical devices, (iii) bloodstream infection not related to medical devices, and (iv) skin or soft-tissue infections. The MLST clonal complex (CC) for each isolate was determined and compared to the CCs of members of the S. aureus population by eBURST analysis. The spa type of all isolates was also determined. A null model was used to determine correlations of IE with CC and spa type. DNA microarray analysis was performed, and a permutational analysis of multivariate variance (PERMANOVA) and principal coordinates analysis were conducted to identify genotypic differences between IE and non-IE strains. CC12, CC20, and spa type t160 were significantly associated with IE S. aureus. A subset of virulence-associated genes and alleles, including genes encoding staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins, fibrinogen-binding protein, and a leukocidin subunit, also significantly correlated with IE isolates. MLST, spa typing, and microarray analysis are promising tools for monitoring S. aureus epidemiology associated with IE. Further research to determine a role for the S. aureus IE-associated virulence genes identified in this study is warranted. PMID:23616460

Nethercott, Cara; Mabbett, Amanda N; Totsika, Makrina; Peters, Paul; Ortiz, Juan C; Nimmo, Graeme R; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Walker, Mark J; Schembri, Mark A

2013-07-01

290

Induction of Experimental Endocarditis by Continuous Low-Grade Bacteremia Mimicking Spontaneous Bacteremia in Humans ?  

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Transient high-grade bacteremia following invasive procedures carries a risk of infective endocarditis (IE). This is supported by experimental endocarditis. On the other hand, case-control studies showed that IE could be caused by cumulative exposure to low-grade bacteremia occurring during daily activities. However, no experimental demonstration of this latter possibility exists. This study investigated the infectivity in animals of continuous low-grade bacteremia compared to that of brief h...

Veloso, T. R.; Amiguet, M.; Rousson, V.; Giddey, M.; Vouillamoz, J.; Moreillon, P.; Entenza, J. M.

2011-01-01

291

Cardiac Device-Related Endocarditis Caused by Paenibacillus glucanolyticus  

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We report the first case of Paenibacillus glucanolyticus infection in a 65-year-old patient with type 2 diabetes who developed a cardiac device-related endocarditis. The identification of the isolate was performed using phenotypic methods, including mass spectrometry-based methods, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID:23884996

Ferrand, Janina; Hadou, Tahar; Selton-Suty, Christine; Goehringer, Francois; Sadoul, Nicolas; Alauzet, Corentine

2013-01-01

292

Diffuse Crescentic Glomerulonephritis in Bacterial Endocarditis: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Renal involvement is common in patients with bacterial endocarditis. Very rarely, patients may present with an extensive glomerular epithelial crescent formation with a rapid deterioration in renal function. We report a 9-years old female patient with endocarditis and crescentic glomerulonephritis with impaired renal function. We tried a brief course of corticosteroid therapy and appropriate antibiotic due to hypocomplementemia. Appropriate antibiotic therapy is essential to eradicate the infection. A brief course of corticosteroid therapy may be helpful in those with deteriorating renal function. Plasmapheresis may be useful in those with persistent hypocomplementemia

Sadeghi Bojd Simin

2009-03-01

293

Revisiting Libman-Sacks endocarditis: a historical review and update.  

Science.gov (United States)

Libman-Sacks (LS) endocarditis was first described by Libman and Sacks in 1924, and is characterized by sterile, verrucous valvular lesions with a predisposition for the mitral and aortic valves. It is now regarded as both a cardiac manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus and, in recent years, of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Though typically mild and asymptomatic, LS endocarditis can lead to significant complications, including severe valvular insufficiency requiring surgery, infective endocarditis, and thromboembolic events, such as stroke and transient ischemic events. Improvements in imaging modalities, particularly in echocardiography, have allowed better estimation of the prevalence of the disease, but further investigation is still needed into its pathogenesis, treatment, and association with APS. PMID:19089657

Lee, Jennifer L; Naguwa, Stanley M; Cheema, Gurtej S; Gershwin, M Eric

2009-06-01

294

Serological and pathogenic characterization of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolates from two human cases of endocarditis in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

We characterized the serological and pathogenic properties of two Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolates from human cases of infective endocarditis in Japan. One isolate was recovered from a fisherman, and was identified as serovar 3, which is known to be prevalent among fish isolates. This strain exhibited high virulence in mice but was avirulent in swine. Another was untypable, and avirulent in both mice and swine. Our results suggest that various serological and athogenical types of E. rhusiopathiae can induce human endocarditis. This is the first report to characterize the pathogenicity of E. rhusiopathiae isolates from human endocarditis. PMID:22143815

Harada, Kazuki; Amano, Kennichiro; Akimoto, Shinnich; Yamamoto, Kinya; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru; Kishida, Naoki; Takahashi, Toshio

2011-10-01

295

Rothia aeria endocarditis in a patient with a bicuspid aortic valve: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rothia aeria is an uncommon pathogen mainly associated with endocarditis in case reports. In previous reports, endocarditis by R. aeria was complicated by central nervous system embolization. In the case we report herein, endocarditis by R. aeria was diagnosed after acute self-limited diarrhea. In addition to the common translocation of R. aeria from the oral cavity, we hypothesize the possibility of intestinal translocation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and genetic sequencing are important tools that can contribute to early and more accurate etiologic diagnosis of severe infections caused by Gram-positive rods. PMID:24905425

Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos; Gonçalves, Luiz Guilherme; Odongo, Fatuma Catherine Atieno; Martino, Marines Dalla Valle; Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello

2014-01-01

296

Bacterial endocarditis complicating body art.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing numbers of patients are living with congenital heart disease at a time when body art is growing in popularity. We present a case of subacute bacterial endocarditis following repeated tattooing in a patient with known valvular heart disease. This case highlights the importance of education of patients with structural heart disease to the potential risks of such procedures, particularly at a time when endocarditis prophylaxis protocols are being revised. PMID:18180055

Tse, Donald; Khan, Sadia; Clarke, Sarah

2009-03-20

297

Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis With Group B Streptococcus After an Elective Abortion: The Need for New Data  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae, commonly known as Group B streptococcus (GBS, was originally discovered as a cause of bovine mastitis. GBS colonizes the genital tract of up to 40% of women and has become a major pathogen in neonatal meningitis. GBS endocarditis is thought to be an uncommon manifestation of this infection and carries a higher mortality compared to other streptococcal pathogens. Studies have shown that endocarditis after abortion has an incidence of about one per million. However, this figure was published prior to routine use of echocardiography for diagnosis. The American Heart Association has recently declared transesophageal echocardiography the gold standard for endocarditis diagnosis. This case report illustrates that, given the potentially devastating consequences of endocarditis, there is a need for updated studies to adequately assess the true incidence of this infection. Pending the outcome of these studies, routine GBS screening and prophylactic antibiotics prior to abortion should be recommended.

W. David Hardy

2006-11-01

298

[Endocarditis caused by Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae].  

Science.gov (United States)

Infective endocarditis due to gramnegative bacteria is rare. Overall, its relative frequency seems to be much lower than 10 percent. According to the extensive literature reviewed most often the causative microorganisms belong to the families of enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonads. Extremely rare, however, are cases where certain fastidious gramnegative bacteria such as hemophili, neisseria and others are the causative organisms. We report two cases of infective endocarditis due to Haemophilus parainfluenzae and to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Despite their fastidious growth, both organisms could rapidly be isolated from venous blood cultures. Both were sensitive to ampicillin or penicillin respectively, and adequate antimicrobial therapy could early be initiated. As compared to reports in the literature both cases showed typical valve involvement and took a relatively typical course under medical treatment. The Haemophilus parainfluenzae endocarditis presented as a subacute illness following a tooth extraction and showed large vegetations on a prolapsed mitral valve. In contrast to the findings of others signs of slight renal involvement but no signs of major arterial embolization were noted. Medical treatment with ampicillin plus an aminoglycoside was effective as in most other reported cases. Vegetations were echocardiographically no longer seen after five weeks. The gonococcal endocarditis early led to destructive lesions of the aortic valve, significant regurgitation, vascular congestion and complicating pneumonia. Medical treatment alone was not effective despite the high susceptibility to antibiotics ot the strain isolated. As reported für the majority of cases reviewed in the literature early valve replacement became necessary for a favourable outcome. PMID:3119466

Kern, W; Anger, B; Haerer, W; Vanek, E; Heimpel, H

1987-09-01

299

Surgical Treatment of Native Valve Aspergillus Endocarditis and Fungemic Vascular Complications  

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Systemic infection with Aspergillus is an opportunistic disease that affects mainly immunocompromised hosts, and is associated with a high mortality rate. It typically occurs in patients with several predisposing factors, but Aspergillus endocarditis of native valves is rare and experience in diagnosis and treatment is limited. We report a case of native valve endocarditis caused by Aspergillus. A 35-yr-old male patient who underwent pericardiocentesis four months previously for pericardial e...

Ryu, Kyoung Min; Seo, Pil Won; Kim, Sam-hyun; Park, Seongsik; Ryu, Jae-wook

2009-01-01

300

Late prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Cardiobacterium hominis, an unusual complication  

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We report a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Cardiobacterium hominis in a patient who had undergone atrial septal defect closure and mitral valve replacement of the heart in 1978. He presented with pyrexia of unknown origin and congestive cardiac failure. Investigations revealed infective endocarditis of prosthetic valve in mitral portion. Blood culture samples grew C. hominis . The patient was empirically started on vancomycin and gentamicin intravenously and ...

Shivaprakasha S; Radhakrishnan K; Kamath P; Pms, Karim

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Mycobacterium neoaurum causing prosthetic valve endocarditis: a case report and review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Mycobacterium neoaurum is a rare cause of bacteremia, and infection usually occurs in an immunocompromised host in the setting of an indwelling catheter. Prosthetic valve endocarditis due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria typically carries a dismal prognosis; we report a case ofM. neoaurum prosthetic [...] valve endocarditis with favorable response to antimicrobial therapy without surgical intervention.

Anupam, Kumar; George S., Pazhayattil; Aparna, Das; Harry A., Conte.

2014-04-01

302

Mycobacterium neoaurum causing prosthetic valve endocarditis: a case report and review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Mycobacterium neoaurum is a rare cause of bacteremia, and infection usually occurs in an immunocompromised host in the setting of an indwelling catheter. Prosthetic valve endocarditis due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria typically carries a dismal prognosis; we report a case ofM. neoaurum prosthetic [...] valve endocarditis with favorable response to antimicrobial therapy without surgical intervention.

Anupam, Kumar; George S., Pazhayattil; Aparna, Das; Harry A., Conte.

303

Marfan's syndrome with aortic valve endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marfans syndrome is an Autosomal dominant disorder of the connective tissues resulting in abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system and eyes. It has a prevalence of 1 in 100,000 population1 and occurs in all ethnic groups. It may be familial or due to new mutation (30%), in the fibrillin gene on arm of chromosome 15. It is estimated that one person in every 3000-5000 has Marfans syndrome may have cardiovascular abnormalities and may be complicated by infective endocartditis. About 90% of Marfan patients will develop cardiac complications2. The patient under discussion has musculoskeletal (Tall stature, reduced upper-lower segment ratio, arm-span to height ratio > 1.05, high arched palate) and Cardiovascular features (Severe aortic regurgitation complicated with infective endocarditis). PMID:16400220

Jaiswal, S; Magar, B-S; Poudel, M; Joshi, L-N; Neopane, A; Karki, D-B

2004-01-01

304

Endocarditis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina en niños: Report of a case due to penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae / Pneumococcal endocarditis in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Streptococcus pneumoniae es el principal agente de infección bacteriana invasora en niños; sin embargo, es extremadamente infrecuente como causa de endocarditis. Esta entidad clínica se manifiesta generalmente como una enfermedad aguda y grave con alta mortalidad, que requiere tratamiento médico-qui [...] rúrgico precoz, afectando con mayor frecuencia la válvula mitral. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 6 años 4 meses, de extrema ruralidad, que presentó endocarditis infecciosa (EI) de válvula mitral asociada a meningitis, aislándose en hemocultivos S. pneumoniae resistente a penicilina y se discute las estrategias terapéuticas Abstract in english Despite S. pneumoniae is one of main etiologies of invasive bacterial infection in children, it rarely causes infectious endocarditis in children. Pneumococcal endocarditis is a serious condition that affects mainly the mitral valve, with a rapidly destructive nature and a high fatality rate, demand [...] ing prompt medical and surgical treatment. We report a case of pneumococcal endocarditis in a school girl coming from extreme rurality who presented both meningitis and endocarditis, and whose blood cultures isolated penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae

M. Soledad, Wenzel A; Marlis, Täger F; Roberto, Burgos L; M. Teresa, Bilbao M.

305

Endocarditis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina en niños: Report of a case due to penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumococcal endocarditis in children  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae es el principal agente de infección bacteriana invasora en niños; sin embargo, es extremadamente infrecuente como causa de endocarditis. Esta entidad clínica se manifiesta generalmente como una enfermedad aguda y grave con alta mortalidad, que requiere tratamiento médico-quirúrgico precoz, afectando con mayor frecuencia la válvula mitral. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 6 años 4 meses, de extrema ruralidad, que presentó endocarditis infecciosa (EI de válvula mitral asociada a meningitis, aislándose en hemocultivos S. pneumoniae resistente a penicilina y se discute las estrategias terapéuticasDespite S. pneumoniae is one of main etiologies of invasive bacterial infection in children, it rarely causes infectious endocarditis in children. Pneumococcal endocarditis is a serious condition that affects mainly the mitral valve, with a rapidly destructive nature and a high fatality rate, demanding prompt medical and surgical treatment. We report a case of pneumococcal endocarditis in a school girl coming from extreme rurality who presented both meningitis and endocarditis, and whose blood cultures isolated penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae

M. Soledad Wenzel A

2006-09-01

306

Endocarditis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina en niños: Report of a case due to penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae / Pneumococcal endocarditis in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Streptococcus pneumoniae es el principal agente de infección bacteriana invasora en niños; sin embargo, es extremadamente infrecuente como causa de endocarditis. Esta entidad clínica se manifiesta generalmente como una enfermedad aguda y grave con alta mortalidad, que requiere tratamiento médico-qui [...] rúrgico precoz, afectando con mayor frecuencia la válvula mitral. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 6 años 4 meses, de extrema ruralidad, que presentó endocarditis infecciosa (EI) de válvula mitral asociada a meningitis, aislándose en hemocultivos S. pneumoniae resistente a penicilina y se discute las estrategias terapéuticas Abstract in english Despite S. pneumoniae is one of main etiologies of invasive bacterial infection in children, it rarely causes infectious endocarditis in children. Pneumococcal endocarditis is a serious condition that affects mainly the mitral valve, with a rapidly destructive nature and a high fatality rate, demand [...] ing prompt medical and surgical treatment. We report a case of pneumococcal endocarditis in a school girl coming from extreme rurality who presented both meningitis and endocarditis, and whose blood cultures isolated penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae

M. Soledad, Wenzel A; Marlis, Täger F; Roberto, Burgos L; M. Teresa, Bilbao M.

2006-09-01

307

The evolving pattern of pediatric endocarditis from 1960 to 1985.  

Science.gov (United States)

A diagnosis of endocarditis was made in 37 patients (three days to 21 years old) on the basis of the following: histology in 11; at least two positive blood cultures in patients with underlying cardiac disease in 22; less than two positive blood cultures, vegetations seen at echocardiography and a suggestive clinical syndrome in four. Twenty-six patients had primary endocarditis (17 with pre-existing cardiopathy, nine with normal hearts). The 11 others developed secondary endocarditis following heart surgery (early onset in six, late onset in five). The mean delay before diagnosis was prolonged 35.8 days. The clinical and laboratory findings included weakness in 36 patients, fever in 35, new or modified heart murmur in 14, positive blood cultures in 30, anemia in 12, high white blood cell count in 15, increased sedimentation rate in 14, and positive echocardiogram in 11. Etiologic agents isolated were: streptococci in 17, staphylococci in seven, miscellaneous germs in eight, and aspergillus in two. Mortality was greater in patients less than one year old, infected with aspergillus or without underlying heart disease. The present study suggests that childhood endocarditis remains uncommon but presents a poor prognosis with a mortality of 27% and a morbidity of 85.7%. PMID:2344561

Coutlée, F; Carceller, A M; Deschamps, L; Kratz, C; Lapointe, J R; Davignon, A

1990-05-01

308

Triple valve endocarditis by mycobacterium tuberculosis. A case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Granulomas caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis have been observed at autopsy in the heart, pre-dominantly in the myocardium and endocardium, but rarely involving the coronary vessels and valvular structures. Mycobacterium tuberculosis valvular endocarditis is extremely rare, with most reports coming from autopsy series. Case presentation We report the case of a 17 year old immunocompetent girl who presented with history of fever, malaise, foot gangrene and a left sided hemiparesis. On investigation she was found to have infective endocarditis involving the aortic, mitral and tricuspid valves. She had developed a right middle cerebral artery stroke. She underwent dual valve replacement and tricuspid repair. The vegetations showed granulomatous inflammation but blood cultures and other biological specimen cultures were negative for any organisms. She was started on antituberculous treatment and anticoagulation. Conclusion This is the first reported case of triple valve endocarditis by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in an immunocompetent host. Especially important is the fact that the right heart is involved which has been historically described in the setting of intravenous drug abuse. This implies that Tuberculosis should be considered in cases of culture negative endocarditis in endemic areas like Pakistan even in immunocompetent hosts.

Shaikh Quratulain

2012-09-01

309

Aortic Root Pseudoaneurysm Following Surgery for Aortic Valve Endocarditis  

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Full Text Available Prosthetic aortic valve replacement for aortic valve endocarditis remains a primarypractice of most cardiac surgeons. Usually it cures endocarditis and restores cardiac function.However, in advanced aortic valve endocarditis with complex annular destruction,complications following prosthetic aortic valve replacement do occur and present a formidablechallenge for reoperation.Herein, we describe a case of an adult man who was operated on initially for advancedaortic valve endocarditis with a large periannular abscess cavity and who developed congestiveheart failure 3 months later. Furthermore, he was diagnosed with a giant pseudoaneurysmaround the aortic root without evidence of recurrent infection or aortic prostheticincompetence. During his reoperation, a cryopreserved aortic homograft as a root replacementthat included reimplantation of bilateral coronary artery buttons was used to exteriorizethis pseudoaneurysm and reconstruct a left ventricular outflow tract. The postoperativecourse was unremarkable, and the patient, during a follow-up of 2 years, remained in NewYork Heart Association functional class I.Aortic root pseudoaneurysm following prosthetic aortic valve replacement for infectiveendocarditis is rare in clinical practice and can cause rapid hemodynamic deteriorationwhich requires imminent reoperation. Homograft aortic root replacement has proven to be aversatile treatment option of this complex disease.

Kuei-Ton Tsai

2002-02-01

310

Diagnosis of endocarditis caused by Mycobacterium abscessus  

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Full Text Available We report a fatal case of native valve endocarditis due to Mycobacterium abscessus in a hemodialysis patient. The diagnosis was based on culture isolation of acid-fast bacilli from peripheral blood and a permanent catheter tip, and their identification as M abscessus by a reverse hybridization-based assay and direct DNA sequencing of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region. Rapid diagnosis and combination therapy are essential to minimize mortality due to this pathogen. Although combination therapy was started with clarithromycin and tigecycline, the patient refused to take clarithromycin due to severe abdominal pain. The patient became afebrile after therapy with tigecycline alone although bacteremia persisted. He was discharged against medical advice and readmitted three months later for persistent fever. His blood cultures again yielded M abscessus and a transesophageal echocardiogram showed two mobile vegetations. The patient was noncompliant with therapy and died due to cardiac arrest and multiorgan failure. This report shows that M abscessus should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of infective endocarditis in hemodialysis patients.

Al-Benwan Khalifa

2010-01-01

311

Listeria Infections (For Parents)  

Science.gov (United States)

... and diarrhea also called the "stomach flu"), bacteremia (bacterial infection in the blood), meningitis, pneumonia, osteomyelitis (infection in the bone), and endocarditis. People who have weakened immune systems are at ...

312

Tratamento ambulatorial da endocardite bacteriana estreptocócica / Ambulatory treatment of streptococcal bacterial endocarditis / Tratamiento clínico de la endocarditis bacteriana estreptocócica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A endocardite bacteriana é uma grave doença infecciosa cujo tratamento é tradicionalmente feito com o paciente internado. recebendo medicação intravenosa. A possibilidade de tratamento domiciliar ou ambulatorial. em casos estritamente selecionados. é atraente tanto do ponto de vista social quanto do [...] econômico. Apresentamos o relato de 6 pacientes com diagnóstico de endocardite bacteriana por Streptococcus. tratados parcial ou integralmente em regime ambulatorial. Todos evoluíram sem complicações e com resolução completa do quadro infeccioso. Abstract in spanish La endocarditis bacteriana es una severa enfermedad infecciosa cuyo tratamiento se hace tradicionalmente con el paciente internado, recibiendo medicación intravenosa. La posibilidad de tratamiento domiciliar o clínico, en casos estrictamente seleccionados, es atractivo desde el punto de vista social [...] como del económico. Presentamos el caso clínico de 6 pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis bacteriana por streptococcus, tratados parcial o integralmente en régimen ambulatorio. Todos evolucionaron sin complicaciones y con resolución completa del cuadro infeccioso. Abstract in english Bacterial endocarditis is a severe infectious disease. of which treatment is traditionally carried out in hospitalized patients through intravenous medication. The possibility of at-home or ambulatory treatment. for stringently selected cases. is attractive from the social as well as from the econom [...] ic point of view. We report 6 patients with a diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis caused by Streptococcus. treated partially or completely on an outpatient basis. All of them evolved without complications and presented complete resolution of the infection.

Sirio, Hassem Sobrinho; Carlos Henrique de, Marchi; Ulisses Alexandre, Croti; Cristiane Girotto de, Souza; Érico Vinícius Campos Moreira da, Silva; Moacir Fernandes de, Godoy.

313

Tratamento ambulatorial da endocardite bacteriana estreptocócica Tratamiento clínico de la endocarditis bacteriana estreptocócica Ambulatory treatment of streptococcal bacterial endocarditis  

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Full Text Available A endocardite bacteriana é uma grave doença infecciosa cujo tratamento é tradicionalmente feito com o paciente internado. recebendo medicação intravenosa. A possibilidade de tratamento domiciliar ou ambulatorial. em casos estritamente selecionados. é atraente tanto do ponto de vista social quanto do econômico. Apresentamos o relato de 6 pacientes com diagnóstico de endocardite bacteriana por Streptococcus. tratados parcial ou integralmente em regime ambulatorial. Todos evoluíram sem complicações e com resolução completa do quadro infeccioso.La endocarditis bacteriana es una severa enfermedad infecciosa cuyo tratamiento se hace tradicionalmente con el paciente internado, recibiendo medicación intravenosa. La posibilidad de tratamiento domiciliar o clínico, en casos estrictamente seleccionados, es atractivo desde el punto de vista social como del económico. Presentamos el caso clínico de 6 pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis bacteriana por streptococcus, tratados parcial o integralmente en régimen ambulatorio. Todos evolucionaron sin complicaciones y con resolución completa del cuadro infeccioso.Bacterial endocarditis is a severe infectious disease. of which treatment is traditionally carried out in hospitalized patients through intravenous medication. The possibility of at-home or ambulatory treatment. for stringently selected cases. is attractive from the social as well as from the economic point of view. We report 6 patients with a diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis caused by Streptococcus. treated partially or completely on an outpatient basis. All of them evolved without complications and presented complete resolution of the infection.

Sirio Hassem Sobrinho

2010-04-01

314

Tratamento ambulatorial da endocardite bacteriana estreptocócica / Ambulatory treatment of streptococcal bacterial endocarditis / Tratamiento clínico de la endocarditis bacteriana estreptocócica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A endocardite bacteriana é uma grave doença infecciosa cujo tratamento é tradicionalmente feito com o paciente internado. recebendo medicação intravenosa. A possibilidade de tratamento domiciliar ou ambulatorial. em casos estritamente selecionados. é atraente tanto do ponto de vista social quanto do [...] econômico. Apresentamos o relato de 6 pacientes com diagnóstico de endocardite bacteriana por Streptococcus. tratados parcial ou integralmente em regime ambulatorial. Todos evoluíram sem complicações e com resolução completa do quadro infeccioso. Abstract in spanish La endocarditis bacteriana es una severa enfermedad infecciosa cuyo tratamiento se hace tradicionalmente con el paciente internado, recibiendo medicación intravenosa. La posibilidad de tratamiento domiciliar o clínico, en casos estrictamente seleccionados, es atractivo desde el punto de vista social [...] como del económico. Presentamos el caso clínico de 6 pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis bacteriana por streptococcus, tratados parcial o integralmente en régimen ambulatorio. Todos evolucionaron sin complicaciones y con resolución completa del cuadro infeccioso. Abstract in english Bacterial endocarditis is a severe infectious disease. of which treatment is traditionally carried out in hospitalized patients through intravenous medication. The possibility of at-home or ambulatory treatment. for stringently selected cases. is attractive from the social as well as from the econom [...] ic point of view. We report 6 patients with a diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis caused by Streptococcus. treated partially or completely on an outpatient basis. All of them evolved without complications and presented complete resolution of the infection.

Sirio, Hassem Sobrinho; Carlos Henrique de, Marchi; Ulisses Alexandre, Croti; Cristiane Girotto de, Souza; Érico Vinícius Campos Moreira da, Silva; Moacir Fernandes de, Godoy.

2010-04-01

315

Visceral botryomycosis in a case of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis.  

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Botryomycosis is a rare bacterial infection of the skin and, rarely, viscera that is characterized by the formation of characteristic hyaline grains. We encountered a patient with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis who developed visceral botryomycosis. He was a 54-year-old black man who presented in sepsis with a history of progressive weakness and severe weight loss. He died 10 hours after admission. At autopsy, endocarditis was identified, along with infarcts of the spleen and kidneys. Microscopically, visceral botryomycosis was seen. With these bacteria, an animal source is usually identified, although one was not found in this man. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is an organism that is becoming identified in a range of infections in humans, the manifestations and pathophysiology of which are still being discovered. PMID:15712190

Carson, Henry J; Perkins, James T

2005-01-01

316

Uncommon acquired Gerbode defect following extensive bicuspid aortic valve endocarditis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Gerbode defect is a rare type of left ventricle to right atrium shunt. It is usually congenital in origin, but acquired cases are also described, mainly following infective endocarditis, valve replacement, trauma or acute myocardial infarction. We report a case of a 50-year-old man who suffered an extensive and complex infective endocarditis involving a bicuspid aortic valve, the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa and the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. After dual valve replacement and annular reconstruction, a shunt between the left ventricle and the right atrium - Gerbode defect, and a severe leak of the mitral prosthesis were detected. Reintervention was performed with successful shunt closure with an autologous pericardial patch and paravalvular leak correction. No major complications occurred denying the immediate post-surgery period and the follow-up at the first year was uneventful.

Dores Hélder

2012-02-01

317

Beta-hemolytic streptococcus group a endocarditis: a rare clinical presentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case report of an elderly gentleman is reported herein, who presented with one week history of fever, drowsiness and left lower limb weakness. Examination revealed left lower limb weakness with power of grade 3/5. His workup showed evidence of infection and multiple cerebral infarcts on the right side. Blood culture grew Streptococcus pyogens. Echocardiogram showed two vegetations on the aortic valve. Fever was the main presenting feature in this case but it was the presentation of patient with multiple cerebral infarcts that lead to the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. The organism causing Infective Endocarditis (IE) in this patient was a rare one. (author)

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Endocarditis infecciosa: Análisis de 5 años (1997-2001 en el Hospital "Hermanos Ameijeiras"  

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Full Text Available Se revisaron 50 historias clínicas de pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa atendidos entre los años 1997 y 2001 para conocer sus características clínicas en un centro terciario y analizar los factores que influyen en la mortalidad. Se recogieron datos generales, válvula afectada, cardiopatía de base, gérmenes causales, complicaciones, antibióticos empleados, hallazgos ecocardiográficos y evolución final, cada variable se relacionó con la mortalidad. Se halló que la edad promedio fue de 51,5 años, predominó la valvulopatía degenerativa (24 %; el germen más aislado fue el Estafilococo coagulasa negativa (22 % y se hallaron vegetaciones en el 52 %. Las variables que se relacionaron con la mortalidad fueron: toma del sistema nervioso central (p = 0,01, infarto pulmonar (p = 0,001, endocarditis de válvula nativa aguda (p = 0,001 y endocarditis de válvula protésica precoz (p = 0,003. Se concluyó que la endocarditis infecciosa es una enfermedad fatal si no se sigue una atención agresiva de los casos agudos o precoces.50 medical histories from patients with infective endocarditis that recieved medical attention between 1997 and 2001 were reviewed to know their clinical characteristics in an institute and to analyze those factors influencing mortality. General data, affected valve, base heart disease, causal germs, complications, antibiotics used, echocardiographic findings and final evolution were collected. Each variable was related to mortality. It was found that the average age was 51.5 years old. There was a predominance of the degenerative valvulopathy (24 %. The negative Staphilococcus coagulase was the most isolated germ (22 % and vegetations were observed in 52 %. The variables connected with mortality were: taking of the central nervous system (p=0.01, lung infarction (p=0.001, endocarditis of acute native valve (p=0.001 and endocarditis of early prosthetic valve (p=0.003. It was concluded that infective endocarditis may be a fatal disease if the acute or early cases do not receive an aggressive attention .

José Eugenio Negrín Expósito

2003-10-01

319

Streptobacillus moniliformis endocarditis: case report and review of literature.  

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Rat bite fever is a rare infection and sometimes results in complications. This case report describes native mitral valve endocarditis in a 44-year-old male patient caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis. The diagnosis was confirmed by transesophageal echocardiography and blood cultures (BACTEC). The patient was treated with IV crystalline penicillin (6 weeks) and gentamicin (2 weeks). The fundamental importance of a high index of suspicion, interpreting investigations and appropriateness of therapy are highlighted. PMID:23993005

Madhubashini, M; George, Susan; Chandrasekaran, Sujatha

2013-01-01

320

Pacemaker Endocarditis Caused by Propionibacterium acnes in an Adult Patient with Ebstein's Anomaly: A Report of a Rare Case.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a rare case of a Brazilian adult woman with Ebstein's Anomaly who presented with pacemaker endocarditis caused by Propionibacterium acnes. Ebstein's Anomaly is a rare congenital malformation of the heart. Infective endocarditis is defined as an infection of heart valves, of the mural endocardium, of a septal defect, or of a cardiac electronic implantable device. Propionibacterium acnes is a skin commensal bacterium, that is usually considered as a contaminant, but can, on rare occasions, cause serious infections including endocarditis of prosthetic valves, native valves and cardiac electronic implantable devices. Diagnosis was made after nearly two years of investigation by identification of the organism by the MALDI-TOF technique and transoesophageal echocardiogram. The patient was successfully treated with daptomycin and device removal. She remains free of endocarditis after 32 months of follow-up. PMID:25047281

Santo, Karla R E; Franceschi, Vinicius; Campos, André C B; Monteiro, Thaíssa S; Barbosa, Giovanna I F; Dantas, Angela; Lamas, Cristiane C

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Healthcare-Associated Infective Endocarditis: a Case Series in a Referral Hospital from 2006 to 2011 / Endocardite Infecciosa Associada aos Cuidados de Saúde: Série de Casos em Hospital de Referência entre 2006 e 2011  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Fundamento: A endocardite infecciosa associada aos cuidados de saúde (EI-ACS) é uma complicação grave associada aos cuidados médico-hospitalares, com uma incidência crescente na população. Objetivo: Avaliar a EI-ACS com relação à sua epidemiologia, etiologia, fatores de risco de aquisição, compli [...] cações, tratamento cirúrgico e quadro clínico. Métodos: Este estudo de caráter observacional e prospectivo avaliou uma série de casos reportados entre 2006 e 2011 em um hospital público no Rio de Janeiro. Resultados: Cinquenta e três pacientes com EI-ACS de um total de 151 casos de endocardite infecciosa (EI) foram incluídos no estudo, dos quais 26 (49%) eram do sexo masculino (idade média de 47 ± 18,7 anos), e 27 (51%) eram sexo feminino (idade média de 42 ± 20,1 anos). Quadros clínicos agudos de EI ocorreram em 37 casos (70%) e quadros subagudos em 16 casos (30%). A válvula mitral foi afetada em 19 casos (36%), e a valva aórtica em 12 casos (36%). As válvulas cardíacas protéticas foram afetadas em 23 casos (43%), e as válvulas cardíacas nativas em 30 casos (57%). O acesso venoso profundo foi usado em 43 pacientes (81%). Hemoculturas negativas foram observadas em amostras de 11 pacientes (21%). Nas hemoculturas positivas, Enterococcus faecalis foi identificado em 10 casos (19%), Staphylococcus aureus em 9 casos (17%) e Candida sp. em 7 casos (13%). Febre ocorreu em 49 pacientes (92%), esplenomegalia em 12 pacientes (23%), novo sopro de regurgitação valvar em 31 pacientes (58%) e proteína C reativa elevada em 44 pacientes (83%). O ecocardiograma apresentou critérios principais em 46 casos (87%). Trinta e quatro pacientes (64%) foram submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. A mortalidade ocorreu em 17 casos (32%). Conclusão: EI-ACS afeta pacientes mais jovens no Brasil. As válvulas cardíacas protéticas e nativas foram afetadas em proporção semelhante. A cirurgia não cardíaca foi um fator predisponente pouco frequente, ao passo que o acesso intravenoso foi um fator predisponente comum. Infecções por S. aureus foram significativamente mais frequentes em casos de EI-ACS envolvendo a válvula cardíaca nativa. A mortalidade por EI-ACS é elevada. Abstract in english Background: Healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HCA-IE), a severe complication of medical care, shows a growing incidence in literature. Objective: To evaluate epidemiology, etiology, risk factors for acquisition, complications, surgical treatment, and outcome of HCA-IE. Methods: Obse [...] rvational prospective case series study (2006-2011) in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Results: Fifty-three patients with HCA-IE from a total of 151 cases of infective endocarditis (IE) were included. There were 26 (49%) males (mean age of 47 ± 18.7 years), 27 (51%) females (mean age of 42 ± 20.1 years). IE was acute in 37 (70%) cases and subacute in 16 (30%) cases. The mitral valve was affected in 19 (36%) patients and the aortic valve in 12 (36%); prosthetic valves were affected in 23 (43%) patients and native valves in 30 (57%). Deep intravenous access was used in 43 (81%) cases. Negative blood cultures were observed in 11 (21%) patients, Enterococcus faecalis in 10 (19%), Staphylococcus aureus in 9 (17%), and Candida sp. in 7 (13%). Fever was present in 49 (92%) patients, splenomegaly in 12 (23%), new regurgitation murmur in 31 (58%), and elevated C-reactive protein in 44/53 (83%). Echocardiograms showed major criteria in 46 (87%) patients, and 34 (64%) patients were submitted to cardiac surgery. Overall mortality was 17/53 (32%). Conclusion: In Brazil HCA-IE affected young subjects. Patients with prosthetic and native valves were affected in a similar proportion, and non-cardiac surgery was an infrequent predisposing factor, whereas intravenous access was a common one. S. aureus was significantly frequent in native valve HCA-IE, and overall mortality was high.

Oslan, Francischetto; Luciana Almenara Pereira da, Silva; Katia Marie Simões e, Senna; Marcia Regina, Vasques; Giovanna Ferraiuoli, Barbosa; Clara, Weksler; Rosana Grandelle, Ramos; Wilma Felix, Golebiovski; Cristiane da Cruz, Lamas.

2014-08-28

322

Experimental endocarditis model of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endovascular infections, including endocarditis, are life-threatening infectious syndromes. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common world-wide cause of such syndromes with unacceptably high morbidity and mortality even with appropriate antimicrobial agent treatments. The increase in infections due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the high rates of vancomycin clinical treatment failures and growing problems of linezolid and daptomycin resistance have all further complicated the management of patients with such infections, and led to high healthcare costs. In addition, it should be emphasized that most recent studies with antibiotic treatment outcomes have been based in clinical settings, and thus might well be influenced by host factors varying from patient-to-patient. Therefore, a relevant animal model of endovascular infection in which host factors are similar from animal-to-animal is more crucial to investigate microbial pathogenesis, as well as the efficacy of novel antimicrobial agents. Endocarditis in rat is a well-established experimental animal model that closely approximates human native valve endocarditis. This model has been used to examine the role of particular staphylococcal virulence factors and the efficacy of antibiotic treatment regimens for staphylococcal endocarditis. In this report, we describe the experimental endocarditis model due to MRSA that could be used to investigate bacterial pathogenesis and response to antibiotic treatment. PMID:22711072

Hady, Wessam Abdel; Bayer, Arnold S; Xiong, Yan Q

2012-01-01

323

Service evaluation to establish the sensitivity, specificity and additional value of broad-range 16S rDNA PCR for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis from resected endocardial material in patients from eight UK and Ireland hospitals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infective endocarditis (IE) can be diagnosed in the clinical microbiology laboratory by culturing explanted heart valve material. We present a service evaluation that examines the sensitivity and specificity of a broad-range 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of the causative microbe in culture-proven and culture-negative cases of IE. A clinical case-note review was performed for 151 patients, from eight UK and Ireland hospitals, whose endocardial specimens were referred to the Microbiology Laboratory at Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) for broad-range 16S rDNA PCR over a 12-year period. PCR detects the causative microbe in 35/47 cases of culture-proven IE and provides an aetiological agent in 43/69 cases of culture-negative IE. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the 16S rDNA PCR assay were calculated for this series of selected samples using the clinical diagnosis of IE as the reference standard. The values obtained are as follows: sensitivity?=?67 %, specificity?=?91 %, PPV?=?96 % and NPV?=?46 %. A wide range of organisms are detected by PCR, with Streptococcus spp. detected most frequently and a relatively large number of cases of Bartonella spp. and Tropheryma whipplei IE. PCR testing of explanted heart valves is recommended in addition to culture techniques to increase diagnostic yield. The data describing the aetiological agents in a large UK and Ireland series of culture-negative IE will allow future development of the diagnostic algorithm to include real-time PCR assays targeted at specific organisms. PMID:24930039

Harris, K A; Yam, T; Jalili, S; Williams, O M; Alshafi, K; Gouliouris, T; Munthali, P; NiRiain, U; Hartley, J C

2014-11-01

324

Group B Streptococcus endocarditis with left ventricle-right atrium (Gerbode's) defect.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report an unusual case of a 61-year-old woman with group B Streptococcus-positive infective endocarditis and a left ventricular-right atrium or Gerbode's defect. We discuss the issues surrounding such an infection and the implications of such a rare cardiac defect in our case report. PMID:24882334

Ho, Jasmine O Y; Moghrabi, Fadel; Deshpande, Ranjit P

2014-06-01

325

Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Pseudomonas luteola  

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Abstract Background Pseudomonas luteola has been recognized as an uncommon cause of bacteremia and of infections in patients with underlying medical disorders Case presentation We isolated P. luteola from blood cutures in a patient with prosthetic valve endocarditis developed 16 months after cardiac surgery. Conclusion P. luteola is a rare opportunistic agent, with a propensity of infecting valvular prostheses.

Riberi Alberto; Habib Gilbert; Fournier Pierre-Edouard; Casalta Jean-Paul; Raoult Didier

2005-01-01

326

Cardiac imaging in infectious endocarditis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Infectious endocarditis remains both a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. A positive outcome depends on a rapid diagnosis, accurate risk stratification, and a thorough follow-up. Imaging plays a key role in each of these steps and echocardiography remains the cornerstone of the methods in use. The technique of both transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography has been markedly improved across the last decades and most recently three-dimensional real-time echocardiography has been introduced in the management of endocarditis patients. Echocardiography depicts structural changes and abnormalities in the heart, but it does not uncover the underlying pathophysiological processes at the cellular or molecular level. This problem is addressed with introduction of new molecular imaging methods as (18)F-fluorodesoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET-CT and single photon emission computed tomography fused with conventional CT (SPECT/CT). Of these methods, (18)F-FDG PET-CT carries the best promise for a future role in endocarditis. But there are distinct limitations with both SPECT/CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT which should not be neglected. MRI and spiral CT are methods primarily used in the search for extra cardial infectious foci. A flowchart for the use of imaging in both left-sided and right-sided endocarditis is suggested.

Bruun, Niels Eske; Habib, Gilbert

2014-01-01

327

Staphylococcal endocarditis as the first manifestation of heritable protein S deficiency in childhood.  

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A 12-year-old Japanese girl developed infective endocarditis and central nervous system disease. The previously healthy girl showed altered consciousness and abnormal behaviors along with the classical signs of septic emboli. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from peripheral blood, but not, the pleocytotic cerebrospinal fluid. Diagnostic imaging studies revealed a vegetative structure in the morphologically normal heart, and multiple thromboembolisms in the brain and spleen. Low plasma activity of protein S (12%) and thrombophilic family history allowed the genetic study, demonstrating that she carried a heterozygous mutation of PROS1 (exon 13; 1689C > T, p.R474C). Surgical intervention of the thrombotic fibrous organization and subsequent anticoagulant therapy successfully managed the disease. There are no reports of infective endocarditis in childhood occurring as the first presentation of heritable thrombophilia. Protein S deficiency might be a risk factor for the development or exacerbation of infective endocarditis in children having no pre-existing heart disease. PMID:24462440

Hoshina, Takayuki; Nakashima, Yasutaka; Sato, Daisuke; Nanishi, Etsuro; Nishio, Hisanori; Nagata, Hazumu; Yamamura, Kenichiro; Doi, Takehiko; Shiokawa, Yuichi; Koga, Yui; Kang, Dongchon; Ohga, Shouichi; Hara, Toshiro

2014-02-01

328

Genotypic characterization of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli isolates from sea otters with infective endocarditis and/or septicemia and from environmental mussel samples.  

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Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to type 128 Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli isolates from sea otters and mussels. Six SmaI PFGE groups were detected, with one predominant group representing 57% of the isolates collected over a wide geographic region. Several sea otter and mussel isolates were highly related, suggesting that an environmental infection source is possible. PMID:23052307

Counihan-Edgar, Katrina L; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Burek, Kathleen A; Miller, Woutrina A; Shewmaker, Patricia L; Jang, Spencer; Goertz, Caroline E C; Tuomi, Pamela A; Miller, Melissa A; Jessup, David A; Byrne, Barbara A

2012-12-01

329

 Native Valve Endocarditis Caused by Coagulase Negative Staphylococci; an Appeal to Start Outpatient Antimicrobial Therapy: An Unusual Case Report  

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Full Text Available  Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS were a rare cause of native valve endocarditis. However, they are emerging as an important cause of native valve endocarditis (NVE in both community and healthcare settings. We describe a 64 yrs. old male who developed mitral valve endocarditis caused by coagulase negative staphylococci. There were no predisposing conditions or underlying cardiac disease that could have been the risk factor for the development of native valve infection. The patient had good recovery after six weeks of treatment with anti-staphylococcal antibiotics.

Seif Al-Abri

2011-07-01

330

Histologic and bacteriologic findings in valvular endocarditis of slaughter-age pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Endocarditis lesions from 117 slaughter pigs were examined pathologically and etiologically in addition to 90 control hearts with cardiac valves. Lesions were located on the valves; however, the lesions had extended to the walls in 21 cases (18%). Lesions predominated on the mitral valve (59%). A total of 28 cases, from which no growth was obtained or a contamination flora was grown, were screened by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for bacteria (general bacterial probe) and probes specific for Streptococcus suis and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, respectively. Using FISH, an additional 10 cases of endocarditis due to S. suis and E. rhusiopathiae were disclosed. Within lesions, streptococci predominated (53%) followed by E. rhusiopathiae (30%). Distinct features of both the lesions and the shape and localization of bacterial colonies were related to streptococci and E. rhusiopathiae. The propensity for streptococci to be localized on more than 1 valve in single hearts may be because S. suis-infected pigs tend to have been infected for a longer period compared with E. rhusiopathiae. Mineralization of endocarditis lesions was significantly associated with infection by streptococci, and was seen in 71% of the cases, whereas it was present in only 28% of lesions caused by E. rhusiopathiae. In addition, areas with mineralization were significantly correlated to the presence of a granulomatous reaction. Granulomatous endocarditis is likely a result of a foreign body reaction due to dystrophic mineralization. Local proliferation of valvular endothelial cells, found in 9 hearts in the current study, may increase the risk of developing thrombosing endocarditis in pigs.

Jensen, Henrik E.; Gyllensten, Johanna

2010-01-01

331

An unusual native tricuspid valve endocarditis caused by Candida colliculosa.  

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Candida colliculosa, which grew in blood cultures of a 71-year-old retired man with fever of unknown origin that had lasted for 7 months, in conjunction with transthoracic echocardiography, demonstrating a 20-mm vegetation, superior to the tricuspid valve, herniating into the right atrial cavity. The finding led to the diagnosis of fungal endocarditis. Fluconazole, 600 mg daily, was commenced for 8 days; followed by amphotericin B, 1 mg/kg daily. On the fourth day of the amphotericin B treatment, the patient underwent replacement of the infected tricuspid valve. Even though the initial postoperative period was relatively uncomplicated, the patient died after a gross aspiration on the 67th day of his hospital stay, despite aggressive cardiovascular support and antimicrobial therapy. This is the first report of a native tricuspid valve fungal endocarditis due to C. colliculosa or Torulaspora delbrueckii, which is not known to be a human pathogen. PMID:12667244

Kaygusuz, I; Mulazimoglu, L; Cerikcioglu, N; Toprak, A; Oktay, A; Korten, V

2003-04-01

332

[Morphology of infectious endocarditis affecting bioprostheses of the cardiac valves].  

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Four varieties of infectious endocarditis were identified after cardiac valve bioprostheses: early acute, early subacute, late acute, and late subacute forms. Any of these forms may be of bacterial, fungal, or mixed (bacterial and fungal) origin. In the early forms, the infection was of exogenous origin, with a predominance of Gram-positive organisms, whereas in the late forms it was endogenous with a preponderance of Gram-negative flora. The hallmarks of fungal thromboendocarditis were an early massive thrombosis of the bioprosthesis, multiple thromboembolism, and an absence of cellular reaction in the cuspal tissue. In the subacute bacterial endocarditis, progressive dysfunction of the bioprosthesis resulting from calcination of bacteria-containing cusps and thrombi was noted. PMID:3439895

Iaroshinski?, Iu N; Shra?ber, A A; Ostraovskaia, E A; Bogonatov, B N; Fursov, B A

1987-01-01

333

What's New in the Treatment of Enterococcal Endocarditis?  

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Enterococcus spp. are among the common pathogens causing infective endocarditis (IE). Despite major medical advances and new potent antimicrobial agents, the mortality has not significantly improved for several decades. The usual lack of bactericidal activity of penicillin or ampicillin, the toxicity from the combination of penicillin plus aminoglycosides, and the increased reports of high-level resistance to aminoglycosides have led to the exploration of other regimens for treatment of Enterococcus faecalis IE. As an example, ampicillin plus ceftriaxone is now a well-recognized regimen for this organism. However, the emerging of new drug resistances in Enterococcus faecium dramatically reduces the therapeutic alternatives for this organism in IE which continues to be an immense challenge for clinicians even with the availability of newer antimicrobial agents. This article summarizes the current treatment options for enterococcal endocarditis and reviews of recent publications on the topic. PMID:25165018

Nigo, Masayuki; Munita, Jose M; Arias, Cesar A; Murray, Barbara E

2014-10-01

334

Candida tropicalis causing Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis  

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Full Text Available The incidence of endocarditis produced by the so-called "opportunists" as a complication of prosthetic valve surgery is progressively increasing in frequency and gradually transforming the clinical picture habitually associated with this disease. Candida endocarditis is an unusual but severe complication caused by Candida albicans or other fungal species. This case and a review of the literature indicate that Candida endocarditis treated with amphotericin B and prosthetic valve replacement may recur months after treatment, and that late recurrent Candida endocarditis, which is difficult to diagnose and treat, may be best prevented by lifelong antifungal suppressive therapy.

Nagaraja P

2005-01-01

335

[Combination of Libman-Sacks endocarditis with infectious endocarditis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Out of 242 patients treated for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Novosibirsk for 15 years, valvular lesions and endocarditis were diagnosed in 41(16.9%) patients. Combination of Libman-Sax endocarditis (LSE) with infectious endocarditis (IE) was observed in three patients (two women, one man, age 18-40 year). SLE ran a subacute course in one woman, an acute one--in the other. LSE emerged early in SLE in two patients. All the patients had polyorganic lupus pathology, lupus nephritis with nephrotic syndrome (morphological class IV). Two patients had mitral valve disease, one patient--mitral-aortic disease. The rise of secondary IE was seen after massive immunosuppressive therapy. The diagnosis of secondary IE was made after SLE duration for 10-36 months. At IE diagnosis, all the patients had high titers of blood antiphospholipid antibodies. IE was of staphylococcal origin in two patients and candidosis-induced in one patient. In SLE with IE there was thromboembolic syndrome. LSE and IE have related aspects which should be regarded in clinical practice: possible "IE mask" in LSE, risk of secondary IE in about 10% of LSE patients, prophylactic measures necessary to prevent IE in hemodynamically prominent forms of LSE. PMID:11980154

Demin, A A; Sentiakova, T N

2002-01-01

336

Endocarditis of native aortic and mitral valves due to Corynebacterium accolens: report of a case and application of phenotypic and genotypic techniques for identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endocarditis of native aortic and mitral valves due to an organism identified as Corynebacterium accolens developed in a 73-year-old patient without predisposing factors. The organism was identified as C. accolens by biochemical identification, amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis, and DNA-DNA hybridization. This is the first case of C. accolens endocarditis reported, adding to the increasing number of Corynebacterium-related cases of endocarditis. PMID:8727922

Claeys, G; Vanhouteghem, H; Riegel, P; Wauters, G; Hamerlynck, R; Dierick, J; de Witte, J; Verschraegen, G; Vaneechoutte, M

1996-05-01

337

Reemplazo de válvula mitral consecutivo a endocarditis micótica / Mitral valve replacement due to mycotic endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta el caso clínico de un niño de 15 meses de edad, el cual experimentó varias infecciones en la etapa neonatal (entre ellas por Candida albicans) y otras complicaciones; sin embargo, no pudo recibir el esquema terapéutico completo contra la candidiasis sistémica por habérsele diagnosticado [...] un daño funcional hepático. Posteriormente, al detectársele una endocarditis micótica, se le reemplazó la válvula mitral. En su último ingreso padecía, además, broncoespasmo asociado a neumonía bacteriana, anemia carencial, deshidratación isotónica moderada, acidosis metabólica e inmunodeficiencia mixta, causantes de una insuficiencia multiorgánica que le produjo la muerte al día siguiente de su admisión hospitalaria. Abstract in english A case report of a child aged 15 months who underwent several infections (i.e. due to Candida albicans) and other complications during the neonatal stage is presented. However, he could not receive the complete treatment against systemic candidiasis because of an impairment of liver function. Subseq [...] uently, mitral valve was replaced when detecting mycotic endocarditis. In addition, while being hospitalized for the last time, he underwent bronchial spasm associated with bacterial pneumonia, deficiency anemia, mild isotonic dehydration, non-respiratory acidosis, and mixed immunodeficiency which caused multiple organ failure and death the day after his hospital admission.

Yalili, Pouymiró Brooks; Iarmila, Pouymiró Brooks; Pedro Omar, Pouymiró Pubillones.

1008-10-01

338

Listeria monocytogenes tricuspid valve endocarditis with septic pulmonary emboli in a liver transplant recipient.  

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Listeria monocytogenes has long been known as a pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, including solid organ and bone marrow transplant recipients. Its principal manifestations include bacteremia and meningitis. Endocarditis due to Listeria is far less common and in general affects the left side of the heart. We here report an unusual case of Listeria tricuspid valve endocarditis and septic pulmonary emboli in a sulfa-intolerant liver transplant recipient with a history of relapsing cytomegalovirus (CMV) hepatitis and an indwelling Hickman catheter. The literature on Listeria endocarditis and infections in transplant recipients is reviewed. The possible relationship between susceptibility to Listeria infection and the discontinuation of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis is of interest. PMID:11428999

Avery, R K; Barnes, D S; Teran, J C; Wiedemann, H P; Hall, G; Wacker, T; Guth, K J; Frost, J B; Mayes, J T

1999-12-01

339

Prosthetic valve endocarditis. A survey.  

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Fifty eight patients (aged 8-59 years, mean 27) treated for prosthetic valve endocarditis from January 1966 to January 1985 were studied retrospectively by review of case notes. There were 12 cases of early and 46 cases of late prosthetic valve endocarditis. These developed in 28 patients with an isolated aortic valve, in 26 with an isolated mitral valve, and in four with both aortic and mitral prosthetic valves. Streptococci were the most commonly isolated microorganisms, followed by staphylococci, Gram negative bacteria, and fungi. A surgical (34 cases) or a necropsy specimen (10 cases) from 44 cases was examined. Eighty two per cent of the patients had congestive heart failure. Twenty four of the 58 patients were medically treated and 17 died (70% mortality). Combined medical and surgical treatment was used in 34 patients; the main indication for surgery was congestive heart failure. Fourteen patients on combined treatment died (40% mortality). Persistent sepsis and prosthetic valve dehiscence were the most common early and late operative complications. The most important influences on outcome were congestive heart failure, the type of micro-organism, the severity and extent of anatomical lesions, the time of onset of prosthetic valve endocarditis, and the type of treatment. This survey indicates that only patients without congestive heart failure or embolic complications and with sensitive micro-organism should be treated medically. In view of the poor prognosis patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis associated with congestive heart failure, persistent sepsis, and repeat arterial emboli should be treated by early surgical intervention. PMID:3620246

Ben Ismail, M; Hannachi, N; Abid, F; Kaabar, Z; Rouge, J F

1987-01-01

340

Artritis séptica como manifestación inicial de endocarditis bacteriana por Staphylococcus aureus / Septic arthritis as an initial manifestation of bacterial endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Comunicamos un caso de endocarditis bacteriana por Staphylococcus aureus, sobre válvula mitral nativa, en un varón de 80 años, que debutó con una monoartritis séptica, de la articulación glenohumeral, sin manifestaciones cardiológicas iniciales. La respuesta clínica inicial tras drenaje articular y [...] tratamiento antibiótico fue apropiada, pero la aparición de insuficiencia cardiaca recomendó el recambio quirúrgico de la válvula mitral. El paciente falleció súbitamente, el día previo a la intervención. En la literatura médica (Index Medicus, Medline, Embase, Excerpta Medica hasta 08/2005) están descritos 26 casos, de endocarditis bacteriana con afectación articular inicial, ninguno de ellos séptica, y solamente uno en la articulación glenohumeral. Queremos incidir en la necesidad de investigar la existencia de endocarditis bacteriana en toda artritis séptica, sin factores de riesgo evidentes, dadas las implicaciones pronosticas y terapéuticas. Abstract in english We describe a case of Staphylococcus aureus mitral valve endocarditis, in a 80-year-old man who presented with abrupt onset of septic arthritis of the glenohumeral joint, whithout cardiac sintomatology. Fever and articular infection recovery after articular drainage and antimicrobial therapy, but wo [...] rsening caused by heart failure made valve replacement surgery urgent.He died sudendly before surgery could be done, Until august 2005, in medical literature (Index Medicus, Medline, Embase, Excerpta Medica), we have found 26 cases of bacterial endocarditis with articular infection, as initial manifestation, but none whith septic arthritis and only one in the glenohumeral joint. This report highligths that unexplained arthritis should alert us to the possibility of bacterial endocarditis because their influence on the clinical management and pronostic implications.

A., Martínez Oviedo; P., Gracia Sánchez; E., Pueo; J. M., Chopo.

 
 
 
 
341

Artritis séptica como manifestación inicial de endocarditis bacteriana por Staphylococcus aureus / Septic arthritis as an initial manifestation of bacterial endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Comunicamos un caso de endocarditis bacteriana por Staphylococcus aureus, sobre válvula mitral nativa, en un varón de 80 años, que debutó con una monoartritis séptica, de la articulación glenohumeral, sin manifestaciones cardiológicas iniciales. La respuesta clínica inicial tras drenaje articular y [...] tratamiento antibiótico fue apropiada, pero la aparición de insuficiencia cardiaca recomendó el recambio quirúrgico de la válvula mitral. El paciente falleció súbitamente, el día previo a la intervención. En la literatura médica (Index Medicus, Medline, Embase, Excerpta Medica hasta 08/2005) están descritos 26 casos, de endocarditis bacteriana con afectación articular inicial, ninguno de ellos séptica, y solamente uno en la articulación glenohumeral. Queremos incidir en la necesidad de investigar la existencia de endocarditis bacteriana en toda artritis séptica, sin factores de riesgo evidentes, dadas las implicaciones pronosticas y terapéuticas. Abstract in english We describe a case of Staphylococcus aureus mitral valve endocarditis, in a 80-year-old man who presented with abrupt onset of septic arthritis of the glenohumeral joint, whithout cardiac sintomatology. Fever and articular infection recovery after articular drainage and antimicrobial therapy, but wo [...] rsening caused by heart failure made valve replacement surgery urgent.He died sudendly before surgery could be done, Until august 2005, in medical literature (Index Medicus, Medline, Embase, Excerpta Medica), we have found 26 cases of bacterial endocarditis with articular infection, as initial manifestation, but none whith septic arthritis and only one in the glenohumeral joint. This report highligths that unexplained arthritis should alert us to the possibility of bacterial endocarditis because their influence on the clinical management and pronostic implications.

A., Martínez Oviedo; P., Gracia Sánchez; E., Pueo; J. M., Chopo.

2006-04-01

342

Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial endocarditis: A study of knowledge of guidelines among dentists participated in the 47th international congress of dentistry  

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Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Infective endocarditis is a rare disease resulted in mortality and morbidity in 10-80% of patients. The purpose of present study was to investigate the knowledge of guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial endocarditis in a group of Iranian dentists. "nMaterials and Methods: This was a descriptive study in which the population under study was 205 who were participated in the 47th international congress of dentistry (Tehran-Spring 2007 and they were chosen by census sampling methods. Nameless questionnaires were designed and were given to the dentists to complete. The t-test, ?² and spearman with the SPSS 13.5 program were used in the data analysis. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance. "nResults: Regarding to the prescribing of prophylactic antibiotic for patients with prosthetic cardiac valves, 94.6% of all answers were correct. Also, the most common procedures in which the prophylaxis antibiotic was distinguished to be necessary were periodontal surgery, scaling, dental extraction and using subgingival cord, respectively. More than half of the dentists (65.8% had chosen amoxicillin as a prophylactic antibiotic. Mean knowledge score was 38.77±12.4. "nConclusion: Results of the present study showed that the knowledge of dentists about prescribing antibiotics for prevention of bacterial endocarditis is relatively low. It was also found that the level of knowledge decreases by passing time from graduation.

Hashemipour M.

2008-12-01

343

Preprocedure prophylaxis against endocarditis among United States pediatric cardiologists.  

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This study aimed to determine current practices regarding prophylaxis against infective endocarditis among pediatric cardiologists in the United States 5 years after publication of the most recent American Heart Association (AHA) recommendations. A descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2012 to November 2012 in the format of an anonymous self-administered e-mailed questionnaire among pediatric cardiologists across the United States. The questionnaire inquired about demographic information of cardiologists and their current practices of prescribing preprocedure antibiotic prophylaxis against endocarditis to patients with specific preexisting cardiac conditions. Descriptive analyses were done in percentages. Frequency and exploratory statistical analyses were done by the Chi-square method. Of the 980 cardiologists invited, 221 (23 %) responded to the survey. The findings showed that pediatric cardiologists generally follow the AHA guidelines. The most common cardiac conditions in which antibiotics were administered despite AHA guidelines not requiring prophylaxis were rheumatic heart disease with aortic insufficiency, transposition of the great vessels after the Mustard procedure, bicuspid aortic valve with severe aortic stenosis, cardiac transplantation without valvar disease, and bicuspid aortic valve with severe aortic insufficiency. More experienced pediatric cardiologists were significantly more likely to administer prophylaxis to certain patients than their less experienced peers. Many pediatric cardiologists in the United States continue to administer preprocedure antibiotic prophylaxis against endocarditis even when not recommended to do so per the 2007 AHA guidelines. With certain lesions, highly experienced pediatric cardiologists are more likely to administer prophylaxis than their less experienced counterparts. PMID:24821297

Patel, Jasminkumar; Kupferman, Fernanda; Rapaport, Susana; Kern, Jeffrey H

2014-10-01