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1

Recurrent infective endocarditis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Infective endocarditis is a serious disease associated with high mortality. Patients surviving recurrent bouts of infective endocarditis are reported infrequently. We report on a non-drug abuser patient who experienced seven episodes of infective endocarditis--the largest number reported to our know...

Lossos, I. S.; Oren, R.

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[Epidemiology of infective endocarditis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In industrialized countries, after the eradication of rheumatic fever, rheumatic valve diseases progressively disappeared and the proportion of post-rheumatic infective endocarditis significantly decreased. Intravenous drug use, prosthetic valves, age-related degenerative valve sclerosis, and invasive procedures have become the most important risk factors for infective endocarditis. These changes resulted in a decreased incidence of streptococcal endocarditis and an increased incidence of staphylococcal endocarditis.

Hoen B; Duval X

2012-04-01

3

[Surgery for infective endocarditis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Surgical treatment is a cornerstone in the management of infective endocarditis, approximately 50% of patients should be operated in the acute phase. Surgery is indicated in heart failure by acute valvular insufficiency refractory to medica treatment, persistent sepsis despite adequate antibiotic therapy, infections by microorganisms with low response to antibiotics, paravalvular abscess or cardiac fistulas, and for prevention of cerebral embolism when large vegetations are present. Other indication in prosthetic valve endocarditis is prosthesis dysfunction including significant perivalvular leaks or obstruction. In infection of leads of electrophysiological cardiac devices material should always be removed, preferably percutaneously, surgery is indicated when it is not technically possible. PMID:22641898

Pavie, Alain; Barreda, Eleodoro

2012-04-01

4

[Surgery for infective endocarditis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surgical treatment is a cornerstone in the management of infective endocarditis, approximately 50% of patients should be operated in the acute phase. Surgery is indicated in heart failure by acute valvular insufficiency refractory to medica treatment, persistent sepsis despite adequate antibiotic therapy, infections by microorganisms with low response to antibiotics, paravalvular abscess or cardiac fistulas, and for prevention of cerebral embolism when large vegetations are present. Other indication in prosthetic valve endocarditis is prosthesis dysfunction including significant perivalvular leaks or obstruction. In infection of leads of electrophysiological cardiac devices material should always be removed, preferably percutaneously, surgery is indicated when it is not technically possible.

Pavie A; Barreda E

2012-04-01

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Pathophysiology of infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infective endocarditis (IE) is an uncommon infection, occurring as a complication in varying percentages of bacteremic episodes. The ability of an organism to cause endocarditis is the result of an interplay between the predisposing structural abnormalities of the cardiac valve for bacterial adherence, the adhesion of circulating bacteria to the valvular surface, and the ability of the adherent bacteria to survive on the surface and propagate as vegetation or systemic emboli. Certain bacteria, if present in the bloodstream, may colonize the initially sterile vegetation composed of fibrin and platelets; bacterial growth enlarges the vegetation, further impeding blood flow and inciting inflammation that involves the vegetation and adjacent endothelium. The true incidence of endocarditis complicating each of the bacterial species causing IE is difficult to estimate. About 20 %-30 % of individuals with community-acquired staphylococcal bacteremia develop IE [1, 2].

Keynan Y; Rubinstein E

2013-08-01

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Infective endocarditis: Updated guidelines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most recent revision of the American Heart Association guidelines on infective endocarditis prophylaxis occurred in 2007. These revisions were based on the fact that current data have brought into question the benefit of previous recommendations for infective endocarditis prophylaxis. It was noted that the bacteremia that occurs following dental procedures represents only a fraction of the episodes of bacteremia that occur with activities of daily living (such as chewing, brushing teeth and other oral hygiene measures). The target groups and the procedures for which prophylaxis is reasonable have been significantly reduced in number. The focus is now on patients who are most likely to have adverse outcomes from infectious endocarditis. The present article is targeted at practicing Canadian physicians and provides the rationale for the current recommendations. In addition to a summary of the indications for prophylaxis, information is provided on the conditions for which prophylaxis is not recommended.

Allen U

2010-01-01

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Staphylococcus lugdunensis infective endocarditis: a literature review and analysis of risk factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Infective endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a rare disease. Since its first description in 1988, there have only been a few reports of this disease and the causative organism. These publications were primarily case reports and brief case series. We conducted a literature review to identify the nature of the disease and its risk factors. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the cases reported between 1988 and 2008 by searching the relevant literature using the keywords "endocarditis" and "Staphylococcus lugdunensis" in the Medline database. All cases included met the definition of the modified Duke criteria. RESULTS: For the period 1988-2008, 67 cases from 27 articles were reviewed. The mean age of individuals was 53.9 years. Left-sided valvular endocarditis represented 52 (82.5%) of cases and native-valve endocarditis was evident in 48 (78.7%) of cases. A large proportion (82%) of 50 S. lugdunensis strains were susceptible to penicillin. Valve replacement operations were performed in 42 (66.7%) patients and the mortality rate was 38.8%. Univariate analysis showed a higher mortality rate in patients aged more than 50 years, those treated before 1995, those treated with antibiotics alone, and those with growth not detected by echocardiography. Medical treatment alone was the independent risk factor for mortality by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: S. lugdunensis endocarditis led to substantial morbidity and mortality. Detailed microbiological identification, echocardiography evaluation, and valve replacement may improve the clinical outcome of individuals with S. lugdunensis endocarditis.

Liu PY; Huang YF; Tang CW; Chen YY; Hsieh KS; Ger LP; Chen YS; Liu YC

2010-12-01

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[Associated factors and descriptive analysis of healthcare-related infective endocarditis in a tertiary reference hospital].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate associated factors, clinical features and prognosis of healthcare-related infective endocarditis cases compared with community-acquired and intravenous drug user-related episodes. Changes in the distribution of healthcare-related infective endocarditis were also analysed over time in our setting. METHODS: A prospective, observational, comparative study was performed. We included all the cases of infective endocarditis from January 2003 to June 2010, which were then classified into 2 groups: group 1: community-acquired and intravenous drug user origin, and group 2: nosocomial and non-nosocomial healthcare-related cases. The episodes were classified into 2 periods: period I: January/2003-June/2006 and period II: July/2006-June 2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 212 cases were included (group 1: 138, group 2: 74). The variables of age (risk ratio 1.026; 95%CI, 1.003 to 1.049), Charlson index (risk radio 1.242; 95%CI, 1.067 to 1.445), and previous heart surgery (risk ratio 2.522; 95%CI, 1.353 to 4.701) were independently associated with healthcare-related infective endocarditis on multivariate analysis. A non-significant increase was observed in healthcare-related cases of infective endocarditis in period II (40/104; 38.4% vs. 34/108; 31.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The recent increase in healthcare-related infective endocarditis seems to be associated with the use of invasive procedures in elderly patients with prosthetic cardiac valve, and those with a greater number of underlying diseases, especially patients with chronic renal failure on haemodialysis.

Núñez Aragón R; Pedro-Botet Montoya ML; Mateu Pruñonosa L; Vallejo Camazón N; Sopena Galindo N; Casas García I; Molinos Arbós S; Sabrià Leal M

2013-01-01

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[Recurrent infective endocarditis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Between August, 1974 and May, 1987, 486 patients were treated for infective endocarditis. In 16 of these patients (12 men, 4 women, mean age 44.3 +/- 18.0 years at the time of the first episode) the endocarditis recurred: once in 14 patients, twice in 2 patients. The time elapsed between recovery from the first episode and onset of the recurrence varied from 6 to 159 months (mean 54.3 +/- 35.1 months). Among the 18 recurrences, 10 affected native valves (mitral 6, aortic 4) and 8 aortic prostheses. In all but one case the organism isolated during the recurrence (Streptococcus in 14 cases, Staphylococcus in 3 cases, Rickettsia in 1 case) was different from the organism responsible for the previous infection. The 16 patients were followed up for periods of 28 to 203 months (mean 107.0 +/- 58.0 months), counting from the onset of the first episode. Ten patients were treated medically during the second episode: 4 died and 2 had a second recurrence, lethal in one of them (time elapsed between the onset of the first episode and the date of death: 32 to 149 months). Six patients were operated upon (valve replacement in 5 cases, closure of a left aorto-ventricular fistula in 1 case) without deaths. Nine of the 11 survivors are now asymptomatic. The actuarial survival rate in recurrent endocarditis (75 p. 100, 10 years after the onset of the first episode) is not different from that observed in non-recurrent endocarditis.

Delahaye JP; Beuchot T; Delahaye F; Durand de Gevigney G; Etienne J; Malquarti V; Finet G

1989-04-01

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Endocarditis infecciosa. Análisis retrospectivo de tres años (1995-1997). Infective endocarditis: a 3-year retrospective analysis (1995-97)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fueron analizadas retrospectivamente las historias clínicas de 24 pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa en el período comprendido entre enero de 1995 y diciembre de 1997, con el objetivo de conocer las características de este grupo. La mitad de los pacientes tenían implantados marcapasos permanentes y la tercera parte eran portadores de cardiopatías valvulares primitivas. La puerta de entrada se identificó en el 45,8 % de los pacientes y en casi las dos terceras partes de ellos fue la sepsis del bolsillo del marcapasos el inicio de la infección. Los microorganismos causales se determinaron en el 79,2 % y los gérmenes más frecuentes fueron el estafilococo coagulasa positivo, el estafilococo coagulasa negativo y el estreptococo viridans. La forma de resolución fue quirúrgica en 14 enfermos y médica en 2. Fallecieron 8 pacientes como consecuencia de complicaciones cardíacas y sépticas. Concluimos que debe realizarse una rigurosa profilaxis antibiótica a los pacientes con prótesis valvular cardíaca o con marcapasos permanentes ante cualquier instrumentación quirúrgica por el alto riesgo de que se presente la endocarditis infecciosa. A retrospective analysis of the medical histories of 24 patients suffering from infective endocarditis from January 1995 to December 1997 was made, with a view to finding out the characteristics of this group of patients. Half of the patients had permanent pacemakers and one third were carriers of native valve cardiopathies. Access route for the disease was detected in 45.8 % of them whereas pacemaker pocket sepsis was the origin of the infection in almost two-thirds of them. Microorganisms causing the sepsis were determined in 79.2 % of cases and the most commom were positive staphylococcus coagulase, negative staphylococcus coagulase and streptococcus viridans. 14 patients were treated with surgical therapy and 2 with medical treatment. Eight patients died from heart septic complications. We concluded that a strict antibiotic prophylaxis should be followed in patients having heart valve protheses or permanent pacemakers in the face of any surgical intervention because of the risks posed by infective endocarditis.

Juana María Zulueta Fuentes; Aida Crespo Guerra; Jesús Castro Hevia; José D. Barrera Sarduy

1999-01-01

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Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Infective Endocarditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surgical treatment of active Infective Endocarditis (IE) requires not only homodynamic repair, but also, special emphasis on the eradiation of the infection to prevent recurrence. This study was undertaken to examine the outcome of surgery for active infective endocarditis in a cohort of patients. One hundred and sixty-four consecutive patients underwent valve surgery for active IE in Madani heart centre (Tabriz, Iran) from 1996-2006. The patients with diagnosis of IE (according to Duke Criteria) were eligible for the study. The mean age of patients was 36.3±16 years, with 34.6±17.5 years for native valve endocarditis and 38.6±15.2 years for prosthetic valve endocarditis (p = 0.169). Ninety-one (55.5%) of patients were males. The infected valve was native in 112 (68.3%) of patients and prosthetic in 52 (31.7%). There was no predisposing heart disease in 61 (37%) of patients. The aortic valve was infected in 78 (47.6%), the mitral valve in 69 (42.1%) and multiple valves in 17 (10.3%) of patients. Active culture-positive endocarditis was present in 81 (49.4%) whereas, 83(50.6%) patients had culture-negative endocarditis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated microorganism. Ninety patients (54.8%) were in NYHA classes III and IV. Mechanical valves were implanted in 69 patients (42.1%) and bioprostheses in 95 (57.9%), including homograft in 19 (11.5%) cases. There were 16 (9%) operation-related deaths, but only 1 death in patients undergoing aortic homograft replacement. Reoperation was required in 18 (10.9%) cases. Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, Staphylococcus aureus infection (p = 0.008), prosthetic valve endocarditis (p = 0.01), paravalvular abscess (p = 0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40% (p = 0.04) were independent predictors of hospital mortality. Surgery for infective endocarditis continues to be challenging and associated with high operation-related mortality and morbidity. Prosthetic valve endocarditis, impaired ventricular function, paravalvular abscess and Staphylococcus aureus infection associated with hospital mortality. Also we found that aortic valve replacement with an aortic homograft could be performed with acceptable hospital mortality and provided satisfactory results.

Azin Alizadehasl; Rasoul Azarfarin; Farnaz Sepasi; Shamsi Ghaffari

2008-01-01

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Nosocomial infective endocarditis in Hemodialysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is an increased risk of infective endocarditis catheterization usedfor Hemodialysis. We report a case of a young man who had endocarditissecondary to the use of a permanent jugular catheter for hemodialysis. Bloodcultures were repeatedly negative, but vegetations were seen on the tricuspidvalve on echocardiography. A high index of suspicion is recommended for thisserious complication. (author)

2002-01-01

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Immunologic evaluation in infective endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immune response in peripheral blood of patients with infective endocarditis. METHODS: We studied 10 patients with infective endocarditis, age range from 20 to 50 years-old, males and females, and 20 healthy subjects in the same age range. The diagnosis of the disease was based on the clinical picture, echocardiogram, and hemoculture based upon samples drawn and tested before the treatment started. The were no history of atopy or malnutrition, no (more) autoimmune disease, and they were not using any immunosuppressant or antibiotic medication. RESULTS: The patients with endocarditis had significantly higher T and B lymphocyte, CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts, IgM and IgG serum levels, and C4 component of the complement than the control group; no significant difference concerning serum IgA and neutrophil oxidative metabolism; a significant decrease in C3, chemotaxis, and monocyte phagocytosis;cryoglobulins were detected in 66.6% of patients and they were formed by IgG, IgM, IgA, C3, and C4. CONCLUSION: The patients with infective endocarditis were immunocompetent in most sectors of immune response and, at a certain moment, an autoimmune component may be present.

Forte, Wilma C. Neves; Mario, Aline C.; Costa, Adilson da; Henriques, Luciana S.; Gonzales, Carla L.; Franken, Roberto A.

2001-01-01

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Diagnostic approaches in infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Infective endocarditis is a true systemic infection and a life-threatening disease associated with high mortality. AIM: To evaluate the problems that occur during making the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, in order to highlight the need of other diagnostic prospects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study using clinical, microbiological, and echocardiographic findings from 45 patients admitted to the Iasi Infectious Diseases Hospital in the interval January 2007 - January 2011. RESULTS: A positive diagnosis of infective endocarditis was made based on Duke Criteria. Inflammatory syndrome revealed leukocytosis with neutrophilia in 42% of the patients. In 91% of the cases fever syndrome was present. Blood cultures were positive in almost 45% of the cases, and the identified etiologic agents were Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Achromobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., E. coli. In 95% of the patients, the echocardiographic appearance was a major criterion for diagnosis. Associated diseases were most often present with rebound on the course. Cardiac complications occurred despite treatment and re-evaluations. Ten percent of our cases required transfer to cardiology and cardiac surgery units. CONCLUSIONS: Microbiologic diagnosis was mainly based on cultured-dependent methods that often fail because of previous antibiotic therapy or the involvement of fastidious microorganism. In this case, advances in molecular diagnostics have yielded new tools (polymerase chain reaction - PCR techniques) to diagnose this disease.

Begezsán II; Dorob?? CM

2012-01-01

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Changing epidemiology of infective endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infective endocarditis (IE) continues to be a serious infection with a stable incidence rate over time and a persistently high mortality. Population-based studies from France, Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States reported on the epidemiology of this infection. These studies suggest a changing distribution of underlying valvular heart disease in patients with IE, namely a decreasing proportion of patients with rheumatic heart disease and an increasing proportion with underlying prosthetic valves or mitral valve prolapse. There is controversy regarding the change of spectrum of IE-causative organisms. In some geographically defined populations with complete case ascertainment, viridans group streptococci continue to be the most common causative organisms, whereas in passively reported community surveys and in referral-center case series, Staphylococcus aureus is surpassing streptococci as the leading cause for IE. PMID:16822369

Tleyjeh, Imad M; Steckelberg, James M

2006-06-01

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Vascular complications of infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The complications of infective endocarditis (IE) are frequent and severe. Our objectives were to analyze the clinical, paraclinical, and prognostic features of IE vascular complications observed in two cardiology units, in Dakar. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied 90 patients presenting with of IE, hospitalized between January 2005 and February 2011. The diagnostic criteria for IE were modified Duke University criteria. We selected in our study population, patients with vascular complications. RESULTS: Seventeen patients (18.8%) presented with one or more vascular complications of IE: eight male and nine female patients, with a mean age of 28 years. Infective endocarditis occurred on an abnormal valve in 15 cases. We identified 22 vascular lesions: ten neurological complications, seven arterial complications in the limbs, two myocardial infarctions, two cases of pulmonary embolism, and one splenic infarction. The vascular complication revealed an IE in seven cases. The vascular complication occurred during antibiotic treatment, in 15 cases including seven cases before the 14th day, nine of the 17 patients died. Death was related to vascular complications in six cases, in one case it was related to septic shock. CONCLUSION: Vascular complications of IE are frequent, the most common are neurological. Their prevention requires early and adequate management of IE.

Pessinaba S; Kane A; Ndiaye MB; Mbaye A; Bodian M; Dia MM; Sarr SA; Diao M; Sarr M; Kane A; Ba SA

2012-05-01

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Infective endocarditis associated with a scorpion sting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report the successful surgical intervention in two cases of aortic valve bacterial endocarditis after scorpion stings. Infective endocarditis developed in both patients several weeks after they suffered repeated scorpion stings. Both patients had similar, but uncommon features: (1) the isolated organisms were unusual causes of infective endocarditis (streptococcus group G and Streptococcus milleri), (2) annular abscesses developed that required either aortic root replacement with a homograft or annular patch repair with pericardium, and (3) complete heart block developed postoperatively, requiring permanent pacemaker implantation. Both patients completed a 6-week postoperative course of antibiotic therapy and are without recurrent infection.

Wheatley GH 3rd; Wait MA; Jessen ME

2005-10-01

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Infective endocarditis associated with a scorpion sting.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the successful surgical intervention in two cases of aortic valve bacterial endocarditis after scorpion stings. Infective endocarditis developed in both patients several weeks after they suffered repeated scorpion stings. Both patients had similar, but uncommon features: (1) the isolated organisms were unusual causes of infective endocarditis (streptococcus group G and Streptococcus milleri), (2) annular abscesses developed that required either aortic root replacement with a homograft or annular patch repair with pericardium, and (3) complete heart block developed postoperatively, requiring permanent pacemaker implantation. Both patients completed a 6-week postoperative course of antibiotic therapy and are without recurrent infection. PMID:16181896

Wheatley, Grayson H; Wait, Michael A; Jessen, Michael E

2005-10-01

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Surgery in current therapy for infective endocarditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stuart J Head1, M Mostafa Mokhles1, Ruben LJ Osnabrugge1,2, Ad JJC Bogers1, A Pieter Kappetein11Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: The introduction of the Duke criteria and transesophageal echocardiography has improved early recognition of infective endocarditis but patients are still at high risk for severe morbidity or death. Whether an exclusively antibiotic regimen is superior to surgical intervention is subject to ongoing debate. Current guidelines indicate when surgery is the preferred treatment, but decisions are often based on physician preferences. Surgery has shown to decrease the risk of short-term mortality in patients who present with specific symptoms or microorganisms; nevertheless even then it often remains unclear when surgery should be performed. In this review we i) systematically reviewed the current literature comparing medical to surgical therapy to evaluate if surgery is the preferred option, ii) performed a meta-analysis of studies reporting propensity matched analyses, and iii), briefly summarized the current indications for surgery.Keywords: endocarditis, surgery, antibiotics, review, meta-analysis, propensity analysis, mortality, complications

Head SJ; Mokhles MM; Osnabrugge RLJ; Bogers AJJC; Kappetein AP

2011-01-01

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Tratamiento quirúrgico de la endocarditis infecciosa Surgical treatment of infective endocarditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La cirugía constituye un ataque vigoroso a la incompetencia valvular que ocasiona las graves complicaciones hemodinámicas que se observan en la endocarditis infecciosa. Se presenta una breve revisión de las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas que se emplean para el tratamiento de la endocarditis infecciosa de la válvula mitral nativa, utilización de homoinjertos mitrales, tratamiento quirúrgico de la endocarditis infecciosa de la válvula aórtica y de la endocarditis infecciosa de prótesis valvular aórtica, homoinjertos criopreservados, prótesis sin soporte valvular y otros tipos de prótesis, así como de otras técnicas que se pueden emplear en caso de no contar con homoinjertos. Se revisan las técnicas que se utilizan en la endocarditis infecciosa de la válvula tricúspide y la conducta quirúrgica en la endocarditis por cables de marcapasos o desfibriladores automáticos implantables.Surgery is a strong attack to valvular incompetence causing the severe hemodynamic complications seen in infective endocarditis. This is a brief review of the different surgical techniques used in the treatment of infective endocarditis of native mitral valve, utilization of mitral homografts, surgical treatment of the infective endocarditis of the aortic valve and the infective endocarditis of the aortic valvular prosthesis, cryopreservation of the homografts, prosthesis without valvular support and other types of prostheses, as well as of other techniques that could be used if the homografts are not available. Techniques used in the infective endocarditis of tricuspid valve are reviewed and the surgical behavior in the endocarditis provoked by the pacemakers cables or implanted automated defibrillators.

Milvio Ramírez López; Fidel Manuel Cáceres Lóriga; Horacio Pérez López

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Tratamiento quirúrgico de la endocarditis infecciosa/ Surgical treatment of infective endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La cirugía constituye un ataque vigoroso a la incompetencia valvular que ocasiona las graves complicaciones hemodinámicas que se observan en la endocarditis infecciosa. Se presenta una breve revisión de las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas que se emplean para el tratamiento de la endocarditis infecciosa de la válvula mitral nativa, utilización de homoinjertos mitrales, tratamiento quirúrgico de la endocarditis infecciosa de la válvula aórtica y de la endocarditis (more) infecciosa de prótesis valvular aórtica, homoinjertos criopreservados, prótesis sin soporte valvular y otros tipos de prótesis, así como de otras técnicas que se pueden emplear en caso de no contar con homoinjertos. Se revisan las técnicas que se utilizan en la endocarditis infecciosa de la válvula tricúspide y la conducta quirúrgica en la endocarditis por cables de marcapasos o desfibriladores automáticos implantables. Abstract in english Surgery is a strong attack to valvular incompetence causing the severe hemodynamic complications seen in infective endocarditis. This is a brief review of the different surgical techniques used in the treatment of infective endocarditis of native mitral valve, utilization of mitral homografts, surgical treatment of the infective endocarditis of the aortic valve and the infective endocarditis of the aortic valvular prosthesis, cryopreservation of the homografts, prosthesis (more) without valvular support and other types of prostheses, as well as of other techniques that could be used if the homografts are not available. Techniques used in the infective endocarditis of tricuspid valve are reviewed and the surgical behavior in the endocarditis provoked by the pacemakers cables or implanted automated defibrillators.

Ramírez López, Milvio; Cáceres Lóriga, Fidel Manuel; Pérez López, Horacio

2010-09-01

22

Infective endocarditis-experience in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ninety cases of infective endocarditis seen over a 10-year-period at University College Hospital, Ibadan, are reviewed. The peak incidence was in the third decade and rheumatic heart disease was the commonest pre-existing lesion in 59 cases with subacute endocarditis. In most cases the source of infection was not known. In 41 of the 90 cases (44%) the diagnosis was made only at autopsy. The bacterial isolation rate was low, the commonest organisms being staphylococci, streptococci, micrococci and gramnegative bacilli. The overall mortality was 70%. A plea is made for increasing awareness of the disease and prompt institution of effective treatment.

Falase AO; Jaiyesimi F; Iyun AO; Attah EB

1976-03-01

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Infective endocarditis-experience in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety cases of infective endocarditis seen over a 10-year-period at University College Hospital, Ibadan, are reviewed. The peak incidence was in the third decade and rheumatic heart disease was the commonest pre-existing lesion in 59 cases with subacute endocarditis. In most cases the source of infection was not known. In 41 of the 90 cases (44%) the diagnosis was made only at autopsy. The bacterial isolation rate was low, the commonest organisms being staphylococci, streptococci, micrococci and gramnegative bacilli. The overall mortality was 70%. A plea is made for increasing awareness of the disease and prompt institution of effective treatment. PMID:941246

Falase, A O; Jaiyesimi, F; Iyun, A O; Attah, E B

1976-03-01

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Clinical consideration for infective endocarditis antibiotic prophylaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines to prevent infective endocarditis recommend the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to treat hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by mitral regurgitation. The syndrome of congestive heart failure is frequently seen with clinical findings similar to those of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but antibiotic prophylaxis is not specifically recommended in the current AHA guidelines for congestive heart failure. Clinicians should be aware of the incidence of valvular abnormalities in congestive heart failure, and other cardiomyopathies, and consider the use of infective endocarditis antibiotic prophylaxis per AHA guidelines. PMID:9667169

Roberts, H W; Tahn, C; Nevins, S

25

[Early diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite progress in medical and surgical treatment, morbidity and mortality remain high in infective endocarditis. Multiple diagnostic tools are now available to decrease delays in the diagnosis and instauration of appropriate treatment. Identification of patients at high risk of developing complications and those who may benefit from early surgery could improve prognosis and outcome. This article reviews some of the existing tools and options available for the diagnosis, risk evaluation and treatment of infective endocarditis, as well as the evidence for their systematic use.

Rossel A; Carballo D; Carballo S

2012-10-01

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Infective endocarditis: retrospective analysis at the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza between 2002 and 2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the clinical, epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics of patients with infective endocarditis (IE). Methods: We perform a retrospective and analytical study. We reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with probable or definitive IE according to the modified Duke criteria, hospitalized at the National Hospital A. Loayza between January 2003 and December 2007. We determined the prevalence of IE and the frecuency of diagnostic criteria, clinical, echocardiographic and microbiologic characteristcs, complications, treatment and letality rate of IE. Results: We included 33 cases of IE, of which 18 (54.50%) had a definitive diagnosis. The incidence calculated over five years was 0.91 cases per 1 000 hospitalizations. Mean age was 40.1±13.58 years, and 75.5% were males. The average time between symptom onset and was 9.53 weeks. Sixteen (48.48%) patients had a history of heart disease, rheumatic fever was the most frequent (37.50%). Heart murmur (93.97%), fever (75.75%), and constitutional symptoms (63.60%) were the most common clinical presentation. The aortic valve was the most affected by vegetations (60.60%). In 40.7% of cases a positive blood culture was found, with Streptococo viridans as the most frequently isolated microorganism (54.50%). The lethality rate was 6%. Conclusions: The profile of IE in this study is similar to recents studies in other countries, especially in South America, where rheumatic fever and Streptococo viridans remain as the underlying cardiopathy and most common microorganism, although the new trends.

Franco Romaní; José Cuadra; Fernando Atencia; Fernando Vargas; Carlos Canelo

2009-01-01

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Infective endocarditis, rheumatoid factor, and anticardiolipin antibodies.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Serum samples from 22 patients with infective endocarditis were analysed for the presence of antibodies to cardiolipin, false positive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, and rheumatoid factor in order to determine the prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies, their level, and to ascer...

Asherson, R A; Tikly, M; Staub, H; Wilmshurst, P T; Coltart, D J; Khamashta, M; Hughes, G R

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Infective endocarditis secondary to intravenous Subutex abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Subutex (buprenophine) was approved by the Health Science Authority of Singapore for heroin detoxification in 2002. The number of heroin addicts has decreased in Singapore since the introduction of Subutex. However, Subutex abuse and its associated complications became arising medical problems. We report the management of a series of infective endocarditis cases secondary to Subutex abuse. METHODS: We identified 12 cases of infective endocarditis in former heroin addicts treated with Subutex from August 2005 to April 2006. All patients were interviewed by the research coordinator and prospectively followed-up for two years. RESULTS: The treatment period of Subutex endocarditis was often prolonged with a mean hospitalisation stay of 48 days, with 3.8 days in the intensive care unit. Multiple medical complications were noted. Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia accounted for 92 percent of cases. Mortality rate was 42 percent. Failure rate of medical therapy alone was common. 25 percent underwent open heart valve surgery. All patients were subsidised. Mean hospitalisation expenses was S$31,218. CONCLUSION: Subutex endocarditis causes significant morbidity and mortality. It imposes a heavy medical and financial burden to the patient and society. Multidisciplinary treatment involving cardiologists, infectious disease physicians, psychiatrists, surgeons, medical counsellors and social workers is required to manage these patients.

Chong E; Poh KK; Shen L; Yeh IB; Chai P

2009-01-01

29

Long-term results of surgery for active infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This paper was undertaken to determine the long-term outcome of active infective endocarditis treated with antibiotic and radical excision of infected tissues by surgery. METHODS: From October 1978 to August 1994, 122 consecutive patients were operated on during the acute phase of infective endocarditis. There were 85 men and 37 women whose mean age was 50 years, ranging from 20 to 79. Surgery was needed because of one or more of the following complications: cardiogenic/septic shock in 19 patients, congestive heart failure in 68, persistent sepsis in 64, peripheral embolization in 20, and cerebral embolization in 10. The offending microorganism was identified in 110 patients, staphylococci were the most common ones. Seventy-six patients had native valve endocarditis and 46 had prosthetic valve endocarditis. Simple valve replacement or repair was performed in 60 patients and radical resection of the valve and surrounding tissues with reconstruction of the heart with either fresh autologous pericardium or glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine pericardium was performed in 62 with paravalvular abscess. Pulmonary autograft and aortic homograft were used in only three patients, the remaining patients had either bioprostheses or mechanical heart valves if valve repair was not feasible. RESULTS: There were nine deaths, for an operative mortality of 7.4%. Logistic regression analysis identified preoperative shock and renal failure as predictors of operative mortality. Operative survivors were followed up from 4 to 173 months, mean of 56.4. The actuarial survival at 10 years was 61 +/- 6%. Logistic regression analysis identified preoperative New York Heart Association functional class IV and perioperative renal failure as predictors of late mortality. Eight patients developed recurrent endocarditis 10-102 months postoperatively. The freedom from recurrent endocarditis at 10 years was 79 +/- 9%. All patients who developed this late complication had paravalvular abscess at the time of original operation. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that surgery for active infective endocarditis yield a high probability of eradicating the infection with relatively low operative mortality and good long-term results.

d'Udekem Y; David TE; Feindel CM; Armstrong S; Sun Z

1997-01-01

30

Current indications for infective endocarditis antibiotic prophylaxis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Indications of endocarditis prophylaxis have changed in the past years, because of the absence of any evidence that justified its use. The last guidelines only recommend prophylaxis in patients with underlying cardiac conditions with the higher risk of adverse outcomes, including patients with a previous history of infective endocarditis, patients with prosthetic heart valve or prosthetic material used for valve repair, patients with a valvulopathy after cardiac transplantation, and patients with an specific congenital heart disease. The list of procedures in which prophylaxis is necessary has been limited too. Nowadays it is recommended in patients who undergo any dental procedure that involves the gingival tissues or periapical region of a tooth and for those invasive procedures of the oral cavity or an invasive procedure of the respiratory tract that involves incision or biopsy of the respiratory mucosa. In this revision we try to expose the recent tendencies recommended by the international guidelines.

Valle-Caballero MJ; Muñoz-Calero B; Araji OA

2010-02-01

31

Current indications for infective endocarditis antibiotic prophylaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indications of endocarditis prophylaxis have changed in the past years, because of the absence of any evidence that justified its use. The last guidelines only recommend prophylaxis in patients with underlying cardiac conditions with the higher risk of adverse outcomes, including patients with a previous history of infective endocarditis, patients with prosthetic heart valve or prosthetic material used for valve repair, patients with a valvulopathy after cardiac transplantation, and patients with an specific congenital heart disease. The list of procedures in which prophylaxis is necessary has been limited too. Nowadays it is recommended in patients who undergo any dental procedure that involves the gingival tissues or periapical region of a tooth and for those invasive procedures of the oral cavity or an invasive procedure of the respiratory tract that involves incision or biopsy of the respiratory mucosa. In this revision we try to expose the recent tendencies recommended by the international guidelines. PMID:20218953

Valle-Caballero, Maria Jose; Muñoz-Calero, Blanca; Araji, Omar A

2010-02-01

32

Infective endocarditis: a consumptive disease among the elderly Infective endocarditis: a consumptive disease among the elderly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The clinical presentation of infective endocarditis varies according to theetiologic agent and the host. In elderly individuals, infective endocarditis canbe difficult to diagnose and poses a challenge for the physician. The course ofsubacute infective endocarditis is indolent, and the onset of cardiac structurallesion is slow and gradual. In elderly patients, anemia and weight loss areoccasionally the only or the most striking symptoms. In such cases, the clinicalreasoning process leads to a hypothesis of wasting syndrome or neoplasticdisease, especially when there is no fever. We report the case of an elderlypatient who had mitral insufficiency due to degenerative valve disease andpresented with bacterial endocarditis due to Streptococcus mitis. The patientwas not treated, because the diagnosis was not established in a timely manner.It is of note that the patient presented with marked weight loss and no fever.The autopsy revealed impairment of the mitral valve and left atrium due toendocarditis, as well as lung involvement due to chronic inhalation of smokefrom biomass burning, such as that produced by wood-burning stoves.The clinical presentation of infective endocarditis varies according to theetiologic agent and the host. In elderly individuals, infective endocarditis canbe difficult to diagnose and poses a challenge for the physician. The course ofsubacute infective endocarditis is indolent, and the onset of cardiac structurallesion is slow and gradual. In elderly patients, anemia and weight loss areoccasionally the only or the most striking symptoms. In such cases, the clinicalreasoning process leads to a hypothesis of wasting syndrome or neoplasticdisease, especially when there is no fever. We report the case of an elderlypatient who had mitral insufficiency due to degenerative valve disease andpresented with bacterial endocarditis due to Streptococcus mitis. The patientwas not treated, because the diagnosis was not established in a timely manner.It is of note that the patient presented with marked weight loss and no fever.The autopsy revealed impairment of the mitral valve and left atrium due toendocarditis, as well as lung involvement due to chronic inhalation of smokefrom biomass burning, such as that produced by wood-burning stoves.

Vilma Takayasu; Fabiana Roberto Lima; Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

2011-01-01

33

Surgical treatment of active infective endocarditis: a continued challenge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine the outcomes of surgery for active infective endocarditis in a large cohort of patients. METHODS: Three hundred eighty-three consecutive patients underwent surgery for active infective endocarditis. The mean age was 51 +/- 16 years, and 64% were men. The infected valve was native in 266 patients and prosthetic in 117. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common microorganism. Surgery consisted of valve replacement or repair in patients with infection limited to the cusps or leaflets of the valve or radical resection of seemingly infected paravalvular tissues, and reconstruction with patches and valve replacement in patients with abscess (135 patients). The mean follow-up was 6.1 +/- 5.2 years. RESULTS: There were 45 (12%) operative and 88 (23%) late deaths. The operative mortality did not change during the period of study. Preoperative shock, prosthetic valve endocarditis, paravalvular abscess, and S aureus were independent predictors of operative mortality. Age, shock, prosthetic valve endocarditis, left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40%, and recurrent endocarditis were independent predictors of death from all causes. Survivals at 15 years were 44% +/- 5% overall, 59% +/- 5% for native valve endocarditis, and 25% +/- 7% for prosthetic valve endocarditis (P = .001). Freedom from recurrent endocarditis at 15 years was 86% +/- 3% for all patients, similar to those for native and prosthetic valve endocarditis (P = .39). Freedom from reoperation at 15 years was 70% +/- 6% for all patients, similar to those for native and prosthetic valve endocarditis (P = .55). CONCLUSIONS: Surgery for endocarditis continues to be challenging and associated with high operative mortality and morbidity. Age, shock, prosthetic valve endocarditis, impaired ventricular function, and recurrent infections adversely affect long-term survival.

David TE; Gavra G; Feindel CM; Regesta T; Armstrong S; Maganti MD

2007-01-01

34

Infective Endocarditis at Costa Rica's Children's Hospital, 2000-2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Few reports of infective endocarditis in Latin American children have been published. We describe the epidemiology of infective endocarditis at the only pediatric tertiary hospital in Costa Rica. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rate was isolated in 44% of cases. The case fatality rate was 23%.

Yock-Corrales A; Segreda-Constenla A; Ulloa-Gutierrez R

2013-08-01

35

The role of echocardiography in suspected infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 14 of 15 patients initially suspected of having infective endocarditis echocardiography accurately predicted the final diagnosis. Echocardiography is particularly valuable in culture negative cases and in excluding patients with other conditions whose clinical features mimic those of infective endocarditis. The presence of fibrosed aortic valve cusps resulted in one false positive diagnosis of valvular vegetations.

Naik DR; Ward C; Hardisty C

1978-07-01

36

Gerbode defect with Staphylococcus lugdunensis native tricuspid valve infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coagulase-negative staphylococci are generally not considered to be very virulent; they are an uncommon cause of native valve endocarditis. Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an important exception and causes more severe infections, clinically mimicking S. aureus. We present a case of direct Gerbode defect associated with S. lugdunensis native valve infective endocarditis (IE) requiring cardiac surgery.

Carpenter RJ; Price GD; Boswell GE; Nayak KR; Ramirez AR

2012-05-01

37

Gerbode defect with Staphylococcus lugdunensis native tricuspid valve infective endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coagulase-negative staphylococci are generally not considered to be very virulent; they are an uncommon cause of native valve endocarditis. Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an important exception and causes more severe infections, clinically mimicking S. aureus. We present a case of direct Gerbode defect associated with S. lugdunensis native valve infective endocarditis (IE) requiring cardiac surgery. PMID:22329696

Carpenter, Robert J; Price, Gregory D; Boswell, Gilbert E; Nayak, Keshav R; Ramirez, Alfredo R

2012-02-13

38

Endocarditis infecciosa en el anciano/ Infective endocarditis in the elderly  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Fundamento: La influencia de la edad sobre la presentación clínica y el pronóstico de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es desconocida. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y bacteriológicas de la EI en pacientes ancianos y compararlas con las de adultos más jóvenes. Pacientes y método: Estudio retrospectivo de todos los casos de EI en pacientes no usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral diagnosticados en nuestro hospit (more) al durante el periodo de 1990 a 2000. Se utilizaron los criterios de Duke para comparar las características de 46 episodios de EI definitiva en pacientes ancianos (>65 años) y de 46 episodios en adultos jóvenes (20-64 años). Resultados: No encontramos diferencias significativas entre los dos grupos con respecto al retraso en el diagnóstico, a la posible fuente de infección, frecuencia de hemocultívos positivos y tipo de microorganismos, presentación clínica y evolución de la EI. Los ancianos tienen más a menudo un factor de riesgo predisponente (lesiones valvulares degenerativas, válvulas protésicas y marcapasos), que disminuye la sensibilidad de la ecocardiografía transtorácica hasta el 46,5% comparada con el 64,4% en los enfermos más jóvenes. La ecocardiografía transesofágica incrementó el diagnóstico de EI en un 37,2% en los ancianos. Los pacientes de ambos grupos fueron operados con igual frecuencia (el 36,9% de ancianos y el 39,1% de los adultos jóvenes), y la tasa de mortalidad no fue significativamente mayor en los ancianos (19,5%) que en los pacientes adultos jóvenes (10,8%). Conclusiones: La edad en si misma no es un factor de peor pronóstico, y no debería utilizarse como criterio fundamental para denegar un tratamiento temprano y agresivo a los pacientes con EI. Abstract in english Background: The influence of age on the clinical presentation and on the prognosis of infective endocarditis (IE) is unclear. Our aim was to analyse the epidemiologic, clinical and bacteriological characteristics of IE in the elderly compared with younger adult patients. Patients and method: A retrospective study of all patients with IE non intravenous drug users diagnosed in our hospital during the period from 1990 to 2000. We used the Duke criteria to compare the charac (more) teristics of 46 episodes of definitive IE in elderly patients ( >65 years old ) and of 46 episodes in younger adult patients ( 20-64 years of age ). Results: No significant differences were observed among the two groups with respect to the delay in diagnosed, possible source of infection, the frecuency of positive blood cultures and the type of infective organism, clinical presentation and evolution of the IE. Elderly patients more often had risk factors predisposing ( degenerative valvular disease, prosthetic valve and pacemaker ), which decreased the sensitivity of transtoracic echocardiography to 46.5% compared with 64.4% in the younger patients. Transesophageal echocardiography improved the diagnostic of IE in the 37.2% in elderly patients. The patients in the both groups underwent surgical therapy with similar frecuency (36.9% in the elderly and the 39.1% in the younger adult patient ) and the mortality rate not was significantly higher in the elderly (19.5%) than in the younger adult patients (10.8%). Conclusions: The age itself is not a poor prognostic, and should not be used prejudicially in denying a early and aggressive treatment of the patients with IE.

Cruz, J. M.; Martínez, R.; García, M.; Zarzalejos, J. M.; Peña, F. de la

2003-11-01

39

Infective endocarditis caused by Granulicatella adiacens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Granulicatella adiacens, a recently nomenclatured bacterium, was considered as one of the nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS) and is a mouth commensal. It is redesignated as a streptococcus like bacterium since it differs from streptococci. We report a case of infective endocarditis (IE) caused by this fastidious and unusual bacteria in a 63-year-old man with rheumatic valvular heart disease. G. adiacens was isolated from four of his blood culture samples, which was sensitive to beta lactams, moderately sensitive to gentamicin and resistant to erythromycin and co-trimoxazole. Patient recovered completely on treatment with high dose of ampicillin and gentamicin for 28 days. PMID:23993006

Shailaja, T S; Sathiavathy, K A; Unni, Govindan

2013-07-12

40

Infective endocarditis caused by Granulicatella adiacens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Granulicatella adiacens, a recently nomenclatured bacterium, was considered as one of the nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS) and is a mouth commensal. It is redesignated as a streptococcus like bacterium since it differs from streptococci. We report a case of infective endocarditis (IE) caused by this fastidious and unusual bacteria in a 63-year-old man with rheumatic valvular heart disease. G. adiacens was isolated from four of his blood culture samples, which was sensitive to beta lactams, moderately sensitive to gentamicin and resistant to erythromycin and co-trimoxazole. Patient recovered completely on treatment with high dose of ampicillin and gentamicin for 28 days.

Shailaja TS; Sathiavathy KA; Unni G

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Peptostreptococcus anaerobius infective endocarditis complicated by spleen infarction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Peptostreptococcus sp., which are normal flora of human mucocutaneous surfaces, can be recovered in mixed infections involving the skin, soft tissue, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and genitourinary tract. Peptostreptococci are rarely reported to be the cause of infective endocarditis. Because of their fastidiousness, peptostreptococci are difficult to isolate and are often overlooked. The authors report a case of Peptostreptococcus infective endocarditis of a native mitral valve complicated by splenic infarction. The authors also review the literature to identify features of infective endocarditis caused by Peptostreptococcus anaerobius.

Wu PH; Lin YT; Lin CY; Lin WR; Chen TC; Lu PL; Chen YH

2011-08-01

42

Infective endocarditis, the conundrum of antibiotic prophylaxis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (I.E.) is a common bacterial infection of the endocardium, which before the advent of antibiotics, had a high mortality rate. Endocarditis has been described as a serious and a potentially fatal condition in which the heart beats in a muffled march towards the grave, in quick time in the acute form and with a slower, but as deadly rhythm, in the subacute form. I.E. can occur at any period of life, but presently, there has been a shift towards younger individuals due to intravenous drug abuse. Thus the overall incidence since the pre-antibiotic era has remained constant. This has been the situation in spite of the periodic revisions made by the American Heart Association (AHA) for the guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis. In India there are no guidelines issued by any professional organisations and hence the decision to use antibiotic prophylaxis depends on the dentist?s awareness of the patient?s predisposition, the standard regime learnt from a textbook, the patient?s economic status and belief to comply with the advice and the choice of antibiotic, route of administration and dose. In this paper, an attempt is made to collect data on the incidence of I.E. from two large teaching hospitals and use it to decide whether antibiotic prophylaxis of patients predisposed to I.E. should be followed or not.

Anupama P; Gopalakrishnan N

1995-01-01

43

[Infective endocarditis appearing with meningeal signs].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present the case of a 12-year old girl with infective endocarditis. Following an initial three-day period of malaise, she was admitted to the hospital with meningeal signs. The clinical symptoms and the results of the laboratory examinations, lumbar puncture and hemoculture supported the diagnosis of Staphylococcus sepsis and meningitis. The initiation of antimicrobial therapy resulted in temporary improvement while a systolic cardiac murmur appeared. Transthoracal echocardiogram raised the diagnosis of mitral valve endocarditis. Due to the subsequent deterioration in her condition, the patient was referred to the Pediatric Heart Center of the Gottsegen György National Institute of Cardiology where transoesophageal echocardiogram confirmed the diagnosis. The vegetations were removed by extracorporeal cardiac surgery including mitral valve plasty. Retrospectively, septic embolisation caused multiplex brain infarcts were identified by cranial MRI scan as the underlying cause of the initial clinical symptoms and liquor results. Following her recovery, patient remained well with some mild residual mitral regurgitation and without any residual neurological symptoms. PMID:19801358

Aschenbrenner, Zsuzsanna; Simon, Gábor; Mayer, Gizella; Szokó, Márta; Hartyánszky, István; Szatmári, András; Simon, Gábor

2009-10-11

44

Infective endocarditis: diagnostic and therapeutic approach in emergency medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The infective endocarditis is an uncommon disease in the Emergency Department. Anyway, the emergency physician may be in front of the complications of this disease. A case of a patient with fever, laboratory signs of infection and an acute heart failure is described in this article. The final diagnosis was infective endocarditis with vegetations on the aortic valve and severe valvular regurgitation. The definition of infective endocarditis according to the major and minor criteria for the diagnosis is discussed. The echocardiography is central in the diagnosis and management of patients with infective endocarditis in the emergency setting, even if the clinical suspicion is very important. The main available therapeutic options in according to the Internation Guidelines are evaluated. The possible complications are also discussed. Several clinical and echocardiographic features identify patients at high risk for a complicated course or with a need for surgery.

Rita Previati

2007-01-01

45

Infective endocarditis in chronic hemodialysis patients: Experience from Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the 1960s, regular hemodialysis (HD) was recognized as a risk factor for the development of infective endocarditis (IE), particularly at vascular access sites. The present report describes our experience at the Etat Major General Agadir, Morocco, of taking care of IE in patients on regular dialysis. A retrospective analysis was made of five cases of IE in patients receiving re-gular HD having arteriovenous fistula as vascular access. They were sent from four private centers and admitted in our formation between January 2004 and March 2009. Infective endocarditis was detected after 34.5 months following initiation of dialysis. The causative organisms included Sta-phylococcus and Enterococcus in two cases each and negative blood culture in one case. A recent history of infection (<3 months) of the vascular access was found in three cases. Peripheric embolic phenomena were noted in two cases. A pre-existing heart disease was common and contributed to heart failure. Mortality was frequent due to valvular perforations and congestive heart failure, making the medical treatment alone unsatisfactory. Two patients survived and three of our patients received a prosthetic valve replacement, with a median survival after surgery of 10.3 months/person. The clinical diagnosis of infective endocarditis in regularly dialyzed patients remains difficult, with the presence of vascular calcification as a common risk factor. The vascular catheter infections are the cardinal gateway of pathogenic organisms, which are mainly Staphlococcus. The prognosis is bad and the mortality is significant, whereas medical and surgical treatments are often established in these patients who have many factors of comorbidity.

Montasser Dina; Bahadi Abdelali; Zajjari Yassir; Asserraji Mohamed; Alayoude Ahmed; Moujoud Omar; Aattif Toufik; Kadiri Moncef; Zemraoui Nadir; El Kabbaj Driss; Hassani Mohamed; Benyahia Mohamed; El Allam Mustapha; Oualim Zouhir; Akhmouch Ismail

2011-01-01

46

Infective endocarditis in chronic hemodialysis patients: experience from Morocco.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since the 1960s, regular hemodialysis (HD) was recognized as a risk factor for the development of infective endocarditis (IE), particularly at vascular access sites. The present report describes our experience at the Etat Major General Agadir, Morocco, of taking care of IE in patients on regular dialysis. A retrospective analysis was made of five cases of IE in patients receiving regular HD having arteriovenous fistula as vascular access. They were sent from four private centers and admitted in our formation between January 2004 and March 2009. Infective endocarditis was detected after 34.5 months following initiation of dialysis. The causative organisms included Staphylococcus and Enterococcus in two cases each and negative blood culture in one case. A recent history of infection (<3 months) of the vascular access was found in three cases. Peripheric embolic phenomena were noted in two cases. A pre-existing heart disease was common and contributed to heart failure. Mortality was frequent due to valvular perforations and congestive heart failure, making the medical treatment alone unsatisfactory. Two patients survived and three of our patients received a prosthetic valve replacement, with a median survival after surgery of 10.3 months/person. The clinical diagnosis of infective endocarditis in regularly dialyzed patients remains difficult, with the presence of vascular calcification as a common risk factor. The vascular catheter infections are the cardinal gateway of pathogenic organisms, which are mainly Staphylococcus. The prognosis is bad and the mortality is significant, whereas medical and surgical treatments are often established in these patients who have many factors of comorbidity.

Montasser D; Bahadi A; Zajjari Y; Asserraji M; Alayoude A; Moujoud O; Aattif T; Kadiri M; Zemraoui N; El Kabbaj D; Hassani M; Benyahia M; El Allam M; Oualim Z; Akhmouch I

2011-01-01

47

Infective endocarditis in chronic hemodialysis patients: experience from Morocco.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the 1960s, regular hemodialysis (HD) was recognized as a risk factor for the development of infective endocarditis (IE), particularly at vascular access sites. The present report describes our experience at the Etat Major General Agadir, Morocco, of taking care of IE in patients on regular dialysis. A retrospective analysis was made of five cases of IE in patients receiving regular HD having arteriovenous fistula as vascular access. They were sent from four private centers and admitted in our formation between January 2004 and March 2009. Infective endocarditis was detected after 34.5 months following initiation of dialysis. The causative organisms included Staphylococcus and Enterococcus in two cases each and negative blood culture in one case. A recent history of infection (<3 months) of the vascular access was found in three cases. Peripheric embolic phenomena were noted in two cases. A pre-existing heart disease was common and contributed to heart failure. Mortality was frequent due to valvular perforations and congestive heart failure, making the medical treatment alone unsatisfactory. Two patients survived and three of our patients received a prosthetic valve replacement, with a median survival after surgery of 10.3 months/person. The clinical diagnosis of infective endocarditis in regularly dialyzed patients remains difficult, with the presence of vascular calcification as a common risk factor. The vascular catheter infections are the cardinal gateway of pathogenic organisms, which are mainly Staphylococcus. The prognosis is bad and the mortality is significant, whereas medical and surgical treatments are often established in these patients who have many factors of comorbidity. PMID:21196639

Montasser, Dina; Bahadi, Abdelali; Zajjari, Yassir; Asserraji, Mohamed; Alayoude, Ahmed; Moujoud, Omar; Aattif, Toufik; Kadiri, Moncef; Zemraoui, Nadir; El Kabbaj, Driss; Hassani, Mohamed; Benyahia, Mohamed; El Allam, Mustapha; Oualim, Zouhir; Akhmouch, Ismail

2011-01-01

48

Prevention of the infective endocarditis during the dental procedures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endocarditis is endovascular infective disease of intracardiac structures, which are in contact with blood. The most common cause is Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus viridans, which inhabit oral cavity. During dental intervention, which includes gingival trauma (risky dental intervention) microorganisms that cause infective endocarditis could penetrate into circulation of the blood. The group of high risk patients consists of patients which have already had infective endocarditis, patients with prosthetic heart valves or other foreign endovascular bodies, patients with congenital heart defect, patients with acquired heart defect, prolapse of mitral valve with registered mitral regurgitation and hyphertrophic cardiomiopathy. Those groups of patients should have prevention from infective endocarditis before any risky dental intervention with bactericidal dosage of wide spectrum antibiotics at least an hour before the procedure. .

Puškar Tatjana; Puškar S.; Nikoli? Z.

2005-01-01

49

Double ANCA-positive vasculitis in a patient with infective endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common pattern of renal involvement in infective endocarditis is infection-associated glomerulonephritis. Due to clinical symptoms and signs that overlap with vasculitis, the diagnosis of infective endocarditis may be delayed. The unusual combination of reduced complement with positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody should raise the suspicion of infections such as infective endocarditis. PMID:23439873

Veerappan, I; Prabitha, E N; Abraham, A; Theodore, S; Abraham, G

2012-11-01

50

Surgical management of mitral valve infective endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Active mitral valve infective endocarditis is a challenging clinical problem with a high rate of mortality. Surgery is currently performed in more than 40% of patients, and selecting those patients who will benefit from surgical intervention and performing a technically sound operation at the proper time are keys to optimizing outcomes. Moderate-to-severe and severe mitral regurgitation, large, mobile vegetations, paravalvular abscess, embolic events, failure of antibiotic therapy, and infection with a fungal organism are indications for prompt operation. The use of computed tomography imaging is important to determine whether there are noncardiac sources of infection, and transesophageal echocardiography is essential to delineate valvular dysfunction, identify paravalvular abscesses, rule out involvement of other valves, and plan operative therapy. In most cases, surgery should not be delayed because of cerebrovascular emboli. Mitral valve repair is favored over replacement whenever possible, is associated with superior short- and long-term outcomes, and should be possible in most cases. Operative mortality is 80%. PMID:22172361

Evans, Charles F; Gammie, James S

2011-01-01

51

Surgical management of mitral valve infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Active mitral valve infective endocarditis is a challenging clinical problem with a high rate of mortality. Surgery is currently performed in more than 40% of patients, and selecting those patients who will benefit from surgical intervention and performing a technically sound operation at the proper time are keys to optimizing outcomes. Moderate-to-severe and severe mitral regurgitation, large, mobile vegetations, paravalvular abscess, embolic events, failure of antibiotic therapy, and infection with a fungal organism are indications for prompt operation. The use of computed tomography imaging is important to determine whether there are noncardiac sources of infection, and transesophageal echocardiography is essential to delineate valvular dysfunction, identify paravalvular abscesses, rule out involvement of other valves, and plan operative therapy. In most cases, surgery should not be delayed because of cerebrovascular emboli. Mitral valve repair is favored over replacement whenever possible, is associated with superior short- and long-term outcomes, and should be possible in most cases. Operative mortality is <10% and 5-year survival is >80%.

Evans CF; Gammie JS

2011-01-01

52

[Nosocomial infective endocarditis in patients without hear prosthesis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis is a complication of nosocomial bacteremia and is associated with a high mortality rate. The objective of the present study was to know the clinical and microbiological characteristics of nosocomial endocarditis (NE) diagnosed in a general hospital in a five-year period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients diagnosed of NE following Durack's criteria at Juan Canalejo Hospital from January 1990 to January 1995 were studied. Endocarditis in patients with cardiac valve prosthesis were excluded. RESULTS: NE represented 12% of the total endocarditis cases diagnosed during the study period. The mean age of patients was 52.6 years (range: 17-79 years) and male accounted for 81% of cases. NE was related to an intravascular catheter in 85.7% of cases, whereas a urinary source was found in 14.3%. Staphylococcus aureus was the microorganism recovered most frequently (62%), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (20%), which was always associated with intravascular catheters. Left valve involvement predominated (76.2%) and the involvement of right cavities was detected exclusively in patients with an intravascular catheter as known source of NE. Transoesophageal echocardiography detected vegetations in 19% of cases in which transthoracic echography failed to identify them. Surgery was required by 28.5% of patients and its indication was always congestive heart failure refractory to medical treatment. The overall mortality rate was 28.5%, compared with 26.8% in community acquired endocarditis. Two patients with Candida spp. endocarditis were not treated surgically and the outcome was satisfactory. CONCLUSIONS: Nosocomial endocarditis represent a significant percentage of endocarditis once endocarditis on prosthetic cardiac valves has been excluded. To remark Staphylococcus spp. in the etiology of this entity, the intravascular catheter as risk factor, and left cavities as location. Transoesophageal echocardiography is of great diagnostic usefulness. In contrast with reports in literature, the mortality rate in our series was similar to that of community endocarditis.

Llinares Mondéjar P; Núñez Fernández M; Cordero Lorenzana L; Pereira Santelesforo S; Romero Picos E; Moure Crespo R

1997-12-01

53

Endocarditis Infecciosa: Morbimortalidad en Chile. Resultados del Estudio Cooperativo Nacional de Endocarditis Infecciosa (ECNEI: 1998-2002) Mortality and complications of infective endocarditis in Chile: Results of the National Cooperative Study of Infective Endocarditis (1998-2002)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Infective endocarditis is a severe condition, with a mortality that fluctuates between 16 and 25% in the Metropolitan area of Chile. Aim: To perform a prospective assessment of clinical and microbiological features of patients with infective endocarditis in Chile. Material and methods: Collaborative study of regional hospitals in the whole country and teaching hospitals in Santiago. Patients with a possible or definitive infective endocarditis, according to Duke's criteria, were included in the protocol and a structured data entry form was completed. Results: Three hundred twenty one patients (65% male, mean age 49±16.5 years) were studied. According Duke's criteria, 89% had a definitive and 11% a possible endocarditis. The subacute form occurred in 64% of patients. The most frequent predisposing cardiopathies were rheumatic in 25%, prosthetic valves in 15% and congenital in 13%. There was no evidence of cardiopathy in 20%. Twenty percent of patients were on hemodialysis, 11% were diabetic and only one patient abused intravenous drugs. The most frequent complication was cardiac failure in 59% of cases, followed by renal failure in 32% and embolism in 28%. The most frequent causing organism was coagulase positive Staphylococcus in 35%. Blood cultures were negative in 28% of cases from the metropolitan region, in 56% of cases from the north and 38% of cases from the south. Echocardiographic diagnosis was done in 92% of cases. Aortic valve was involved in 42% and mitral valve in 29%. Successful antimicrobial treatment was achieved in 59% of patients. Thirty five percent of patients were subjected to surgical procedures with a 78% survival. Overall mortality was 29%. Univariate analysis identified sepsis, an age over 60 years and the presence of cardiac or renal failure as prognostic indicators of mortality. On multivariate analysis, the identified prognostic indicators were the presence of sepsis, renal failure, mitroaortic involvement associated to combined surgery and failure of antimicrobial treatment not associated to surgery. Conclusions: Subacute form is the most common presentation of infective endocarditis and rheumatic valve disease is the most common underlying cardiac lesion. Intravenous drugs users infective endocarditis is exceptional in Chile. The most frequent causing agent is coagulase positive Staphylococcus and the most frequent complication is cardiac failure. Surgical and overall mortality were 22 and 29% respectively. Sepsis, renal failure, combined surgical procedures, failure of medical treatment were identified as prognostic indicators of mortality (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 237-50).

Miguel Oyonarte G; Rodrigo Montagna M; Sandra Braun J; Emilio Maiers P; Pamela Rojo S; José Francisco Cumsille G

2003-01-01

54

Endocarditis Infecciosa: Morbimortalidad en Chile. Resultados del Estudio Cooperativo Nacional de Endocarditis Infecciosa (ECNEI: 1998-2002)/ Mortality and complications of infective endocarditis in Chile: Results of the National Cooperative Study of Infective Endocarditis (1998-2002)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background: Infective endocarditis is a severe condition, with a mortality that fluctuates between 16 and 25% in the Metropolitan area of Chile. Aim: To perform a prospective assessment of clinical and microbiological features of patients with infective endocarditis in Chile. Material and methods: Collaborative study of regional hospitals in the whole country and teaching hospitals in Santiago. Patients with a possible or definitive infective endocarditis, according to Du (more) ke's criteria, were included in the protocol and a structured data entry form was completed. Results: Three hundred twenty one patients (65% male, mean age 49±16.5 years) were studied. According Duke's criteria, 89% had a definitive and 11% a possible endocarditis. The subacute form occurred in 64% of patients. The most frequent predisposing cardiopathies were rheumatic in 25%, prosthetic valves in 15% and congenital in 13%. There was no evidence of cardiopathy in 20%. Twenty percent of patients were on hemodialysis, 11% were diabetic and only one patient abused intravenous drugs. The most frequent complication was cardiac failure in 59% of cases, followed by renal failure in 32% and embolism in 28%. The most frequent causing organism was coagulase positive Staphylococcus in 35%. Blood cultures were negative in 28% of cases from the metropolitan region, in 56% of cases from the north and 38% of cases from the south. Echocardiographic diagnosis was done in 92% of cases. Aortic valve was involved in 42% and mitral valve in 29%. Successful antimicrobial treatment was achieved in 59% of patients. Thirty five percent of patients were subjected to surgical procedures with a 78% survival. Overall mortality was 29%. Univariate analysis identified sepsis, an age over 60 years and the presence of cardiac or renal failure as prognostic indicators of mortality. On multivariate analysis, the identified prognostic indicators were the presence of sepsis, renal failure, mitroaortic involvement associated to combined surgery and failure of antimicrobial treatment not associated to surgery. Conclusions: Subacute form is the most common presentation of infective endocarditis and rheumatic valve disease is the most common underlying cardiac lesion. Intravenous drugs users infective endocarditis is exceptional in Chile. The most frequent causing agent is coagulase positive Staphylococcus and the most frequent complication is cardiac failure. Surgical and overall mortality were 22 and 29% respectively. Sepsis, renal failure, combined surgical procedures, failure of medical treatment were identified as prognostic indicators of mortality (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 237-50).

Oyonarte G, Miguel; Montagna M, Rodrigo; Braun J, Sandra; Maiers P, Emilio; Rojo S, Pamela; Cumsille G, José Francisco

2003-03-01

55

Fatal Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis: the dental implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infective endocarditis remains an important and life-threatening infection despite improvements in diagnosis and management. There is currently a greater role for nosocomial acquisition of organisms and immunosuppression in the pathogenesis of this disease and emergence of a broader spectrum of infective organisms including those not commonly isolated from the mouth such as staphylococci. We report a case of infective endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in which the patient developed disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiple septic infarcts resulting in a frontal lobe brain abscess. Multiple dental extractions were complicated by delayed postextraction hemorrhage and the immediate cause of death was abdominal hemorrhage. The dental management in infective endocarditis should be planned in consultation with the attending physician, and should take into account both the causative organism and the presence of complications. When the oral cavity cannot be proven as the bacterial source for infective endocarditis, the immediate dental management should be directed toward improving the patient's oral hygiene and providing pain relief. Definitive long-term treatment, including any extractions, is ideally delayed until the patient has fully recovered from the infective endocarditis and its attendant complications.

Younessi OJ; Walker DM; Ellis P; Dwyer DE

1998-02-01

56

Fatal Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis: the dental implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infective endocarditis remains an important and life-threatening infection despite improvements in diagnosis and management. There is currently a greater role for nosocomial acquisition of organisms and immunosuppression in the pathogenesis of this disease and emergence of a broader spectrum of infective organisms including those not commonly isolated from the mouth such as staphylococci. We report a case of infective endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in which the patient developed disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiple septic infarcts resulting in a frontal lobe brain abscess. Multiple dental extractions were complicated by delayed postextraction hemorrhage and the immediate cause of death was abdominal hemorrhage. The dental management in infective endocarditis should be planned in consultation with the attending physician, and should take into account both the causative organism and the presence of complications. When the oral cavity cannot be proven as the bacterial source for infective endocarditis, the immediate dental management should be directed toward improving the patient's oral hygiene and providing pain relief. Definitive long-term treatment, including any extractions, is ideally delayed until the patient has fully recovered from the infective endocarditis and its attendant complications. PMID:9503451

Younessi, O J; Walker, D M; Ellis, P; Dwyer, D E

1998-02-01

57

Brain magnetic resonance findings in infective endocarditis with neurological complications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diagnosing infective endocarditis and its complications can be difficult because of the nonspecific symptoms. We reviewed findings of intracranial abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 14 patients with neurological complications and herein discuss the overall intracranial MRI findings. We retrospectively reviewed patients with infective endocarditis from August 2004 to August 2006. Brain MRI, the causative bacteria, and abnormal neurological symptoms were reviewed for 14 patients with neurological complications. Of the 14 patients, 13 showed intracranial abnormalities on MRI. Embolization was seen in 10 patients, hemorrhage in 3, abscess formation in 3, and encephalitis in 2. Hyperintense lesions with a central hypointense area on T2-weighted and/or T2*-weighted imaging (Bull's-eye-like lesion) were seen in four patients. A combination of these intracranial abnormalities was observed in 6 patients. The MRI findings associated with infective endocarditis are wide-ranging: embolization, hemorrhage, meningitis, cerebritis, abscess, the bull's-eye-like lesion. Clinicians should consider the possibility of infective endocarditis in patients with unknown fever and neurological abnormality. Brain MRI should be promptly performed for those patients, and T2*-weighted imaging is recommended for an early diagnosis of infective endocarditis. (author)

2009-01-01

58

Surgical Management of Active Infective Endocarditis During 1996-06 in Tabriz, Northwestern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Surgical treatment of active infective endocarditis (IE) requires not only homodynamic repair, but also, special emphasis on the eradiation of the infection to prevent recurrence. This study was undertaken to examine the outcome of surgery for active infective endocarditis in a cohort of patients.Patients and Methods: One hundred and sixty-four consecutive patients underwent valve surgery for active IE in Madani heart centre (Tabriz, Iran) from 1996 to 2006. The patients with diagnosis of IE (according to Duke Criteria) were eligible for the study.Results: The mean age of patients was 36.3 ± 16 years, with 34.6±17.5 yrs for native valve endocarditis and 38.6±15.2 yrs for prosthetic valve endocarditis (p= 0.169). Ninety-one (55.5%) of patients were males. The infected valve was native in 112 (68.3%) of patients and prosthetic in 52 (31.7%). There was no predisposing heart disease in 61 (37%) of patients. The aortic valve was infected in 78(47.6%), the mitral valve in 69 (42.1%), and multiple valves in 17 (10.3%) of patients. Active culture-positive endocarditis was present in 81 (49.4%) whereas 83(50.6%) patients had culture-negative endocarditis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated microorganism. Ninety patients (54.8%) were in NYHA classes III and IV. Mechanical valves were implantedin 69 patients (42.1%) and bioprostheses in 95 (57.9%), including homograft in 19 (11.5%) cases. There were 16 (9%) operation-related deaths, but only 1 death in patients undergoing aortic homograft replacement. Reoperation was required in 18 (10.9%) cases.Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, Staphylococcus aureus infection (p= 0.008), prosthetic valve endocarditis (p=0.01), paravalvular abscess (p=0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40% (p=0.04) were independent predictors of hospital mortality.Conclusions: Surgery for infective endocarditis continues to be challenging and associated with high operation-related mortality and morbidity. Prosthetic valve endocarditis, impaired ventricular function, paravalvular abscess and Staphylococcus aureus infection associated with hospital mortality. Also we found that aortic valve replacement with an aortic homograft could be performed with acceptable hospital mortality and provided satisfactory results.

Azin Alizadehasl1,; Rasoul Azarfarin2,; Rezayat Parvizi1,; Farnaz Sepasi3,; Shamsi Ghaffari1

2008-01-01

59

Surgical treatment for infective endocarditis and hospital mortality in a Brazilian single-center.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patients underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis in an attempt to identify independent predictors of 30-day mortality. METHODS: We evaluated 837 consecutive patients underwent cardiac valve surgery from January 2003 to May 2010 in a tertiary hospital in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The study group comprised patients who underwent intervention in the presence of infective endocarditis and was compared to the control group (without infective endocarditis), evaluating perioperative clinical outcomes and 30-day all cause mortality. RESULTS: In our series, 64 patients (8%) underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis, and 37.5% of them had surgical intervention in multiple valves. The study group had prolonged ICU length of stay (16%), greater need for dialysis (9%) and higher 30-day mortality (17%) compared to the control group (7%, P=0.020; 2%, P=0.002 and 9%, P=0.038; respectively). In a Cox regression analysis, age (P = 0.007), acute kidney injury (P = 0.004), dialysis (P = 0.026), redo surgery (P = 0.026), re-exploration for bleeding (P = 0.013), tracheal reintubation (P <0.001) and type I neurological injury (P <0.001) were identified as independent predictors for death. Although the manifestation of infective endocarditis influenced on mortality in univariate analysis, multivariate Cox regression analysis did not confirm such variable as an independent predictor of death. CONCLUSION: Age and perioperative complications stand out as predictors of hospital mortality in Brazilian population. Cardiac valve surgery in the presence of active infective endocarditis was not confirmed itself as an independent predictor of 30-day mortality.

Machado MN; Nakazone MA; Murad-Júnior JA; Maia LN

2013-03-01

60

Current etiotropic diagnostics and rational antibacterial therapy of infective endocarditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Up to date principles of diagnostics and treatment of infective endocarditis are presented. Advantages of the special highly-sensitive concentrated media over the standard low-sensitive media for etiological verification of the infective agent are discussed.

V.G. Seyidov; B.G. Andryukov

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

[The features of the clinical course of modern infective endocarditis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The article considers the peculiarities of the development and clinical course of contemporary infective endocarditis (IE). The prevalence of various infective pathogens causing IE over the last decades is analyzed. Modern concepts of the pathogenesis of the disease are covered. The rate of IE complication is analyzed. PMID:17294874

Nikolaevski?, E N; Avram, G Kh; Soldatenko, M V

2006-01-01

62

[Infective endocarditis. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After careful review of evidence-based literature, clinical and laboratory criteria for diagnosis of bacterial and fungal endocarditis are examined. The choice criteria for therapy of bacterial endocarditis, both empiric and directed against a specific pathogen, are reviewed, on the basis of the clinical and epidemiological context (prosthetic or native valve, left or right heart, drug addiction). Different treatment options are proposed, based on results of antibiotic resistance testing. Indications and contraindications for a parenteral home treatment and those for surgical treatment are examined, also according to the results of ultrasonography.

Boumis E; Alba L; Cicalini S; De Marco M; Festa A; Macrì G; Vincenzi L; Petrosillo N

2004-12-01

63

[Infective endocarditis. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

After careful review of evidence-based literature, clinical and laboratory criteria for diagnosis of bacterial and fungal endocarditis are examined. The choice criteria for therapy of bacterial endocarditis, both empiric and directed against a specific pathogen, are reviewed, on the basis of the clinical and epidemiological context (prosthetic or native valve, left or right heart, drug addiction). Different treatment options are proposed, based on results of antibiotic resistance testing. Indications and contraindications for a parenteral home treatment and those for surgical treatment are examined, also according to the results of ultrasonography. PMID:15666493

Boumis, Evangelo; Alba, Lucia; Cicalini, Stefania; De Marco, Michele; Festa, Anna; Macrì, Giulia; Vincenzi, Laura; Petrosillo, Nicola

2004-12-01

64

Posterior leaflet P2-P1 transposition for mitral repair in a case of infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infective endocarditis represents a pathological process associated with a high mortality. The dysfunction of cardiac valves and its consequent hemodynamic deterioration often requires urgent surgery. Tissue preservation and valve repair without a substitute material may be extremely difficult. Herein, the details are reported of a safe technique used to repair a mitral valve presenting with P1 destruction caused by pneumococcal endocarditis vegetation, associated with severe mitral regurgitation. A safe repair was achieved by performing a P2 to P1 transposition, after a subvalvular apparatus analysis, followed by annular plication and ring annuloplasty. The postoperative course was uneventful, and echocardiography at discharge showed excellent mitral valve competence. Sufficient evidence was provided to demonstrate that, in these cases, it is better to repair than to replace. Hence, the present technique should be considered, whenever possible, for mitral valve surgical repair in order to avoid substitute interposition in cases of infective endocarditis.

Ruggieri VG; Paramythiotis A; Corbineau H; Leguerrier A

2013-01-01

65

Posterior leaflet P2-P1 transposition for mitral repair in a case of infective endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infective endocarditis represents a pathological process associated with a high mortality. The dysfunction of cardiac valves and its consequent hemodynamic deterioration often requires urgent surgery. Tissue preservation and valve repair without a substitute material may be extremely difficult. Herein, the details are reported of a safe technique used to repair a mitral valve presenting with P1 destruction caused by pneumococcal endocarditis vegetation, associated with severe mitral regurgitation. A safe repair was achieved by performing a P2 to P1 transposition, after a subvalvular apparatus analysis, followed by annular plication and ring annuloplasty. The postoperative course was uneventful, and echocardiography at discharge showed excellent mitral valve competence. Sufficient evidence was provided to demonstrate that, in these cases, it is better to repair than to replace. Hence, the present technique should be considered, whenever possible, for mitral valve surgical repair in order to avoid substitute interposition in cases of infective endocarditis. PMID:23610987

Ruggieri, Vito Giovanni; Paramythiotis, Andreas; Corbineau, Herve; Leguerrier, Alain

2013-01-01

66

Superantigens Are Critical for Staphylococcus aureus Infective Endocarditis, Sepsis, and Acute Kidney Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Infective endocarditis and kidney infections are serious complications of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. We investigated the role of superantigens (SAgs) in the development of lethal sepsis, infective endocarditis, and kidney infections. SAgs cause toxic shock syndrome, but it is unclear if SAgs contribute to infective endocarditis and kidney infections secondary to sepsis. We show in the methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain MW2 that lethal sepsis, infective endocarditis, and kidney infections in rabbits are critically dependent on high-level SAgs. In contrast, the isogenic strain lacking staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC), the major SAg in this strain, is attenuated in virulence, while complementation restores disease production. SAgs’ role in infective endocarditis appears to be both superantigenicity and direct endothelial cell stimulation. Maintenance of elevated blood pressure by fluid therapy significantly protects from infective endocarditis, possibly through preventing bacterial accumulation on valves and increased SAg elimination. These data should facilitate better methods to manage these serious illnesses.

Salgado-Pabon, Wilmara; Breshears, Laura; Spaulding, Adam R.; Merriman, Joseph A.; Stach, Christopher S.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Peterson, Marnie L.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

2013-01-01

67

Cardiobacterium valvarum infective endocarditis and phenotypic/molecular characterization of 11 Cardiobacterium species strains  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cardiobacterium valvarum is a newly recognized human pathogen related to infective endocarditis. Cardiobacterium species are, however, only rarely the aetiology of infective endocarditis. An infective endocarditis case is presented and, additionally, phenotypic and phylogenetic comparison of a further 10 collection strains, representing the two species within the genus, was performed. C. valvarum was isolated from the blood and DNA was present in valvular tissue (partial 16S rRNA gene analysis) from a 64-year-old man with infective endocarditis of the mitral valve, rupture of chordae and prolapse of pulmonary valves in addition to a fluttering excrescence. A mechanical mitral valve and neochordae were inserted successfully. Phenotypically, the two species within the genus Cardiobacterium resemble each other greatly. When using the Vitek 2 Neisseria–Haemophilus identification card, the reaction for phenylphosphonate was positive for all Cardiobacterium hominis strains, but negative for all C. valvarum strains,thereby separating the two species. The two species made up two separate clusters by phylogenetic examination using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

Chen, Ming; Kemp, Michael

2011-01-01

68

Surgical management for active infective endocarditis: a single hospital 10 years experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the outcome of surgery for active infective endocarditis (IE) in a cohort of patients. One hundred sixty-four consecutive patients who underwent valve surgery for active IE (diagnosis according to Duke criteria) in Madani Heart Center, Tabriz, Iran from 1996 to 2006 were studied. The mean age of patients was 36.3+-16 years overall: 34.6+-17.5 years for native valve endocarditis and 38.6+-15.2 yrs for prosthetic valve endocarditis (p=0.169). Ninety one (55.5%) patients were men. The infected valve was native in 112 (68.7%) of patients and prosthetic in 52(31.3%). In 61 (37%) patients, no predisposing heart disease was found. The aortic valve was infected in 78 (47.6%), mitral valve in 69 (42.1%), and multiple valves in 17 (10.3%) of patients. Active culture positive endocarditis was present in 81 (49.4%) whereas 83 (50.6%) patients had culture-negative endocarditis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated microorganism. Ninety patients (54.8%) were in NYHA classes III and IV. Mechanical valves were implanted in 69 patients (42.1%) and bioprostheses in 95 (57.9%), including a homograft in 19 (11.5%). There were 16 (9%) operative deaths, but there was only 1 death in patients that underwent aortic homograft replacement. Reoperation was required in 18 (10.9%) of cases. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, Staphylococcus aureus infection (p=0.008), prosthetic valve endocarditis (p=0.01), paravalvular abscess (p=0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40% (p=0.04) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Surgery for infective endocarditis continues to be challenging and associated with high operative mortality and morbidity. Prosthetic valve endocarditis, impaired ventricular function, paravalvular abscess and Staphylococcus aureus infection adversely affect in-hospital mortality. Also we found that aortic valve replacement with an aortic homograft can be performed with acceptable in hospital mortality and provides satisfactory results. (author)

2007-01-01

69

Contemporary epidemiology and prognosis of septic shock in infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The prognosis of patients with infective endocarditis (IE) remains poor despite the great advances in the last decades. One of the factors closely related to mortality is the development of septic shock (SS). The aim of our study was to describe the profile of patients with IE complicated with SS, and to identify prognostic factors of new-onset SS during hospitalization. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a prospective study including 894 episodes of IE diagnosed at three tertiary centres. A backward logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine prognostic factors associated with SS development. Multivariable analysis identified the following as predictive of SS development: diabetes mellitus [odds ratio (OR) 2.06; confidence interval (CI) 1.16-3.68], Staphylococcus aureus infection (OR: 2.97; CI: 1.72-5.15), acute renal insufficiency (OR: 3.22; CI: 1.28-8.07), supraventricular tachycardia (OR: 3.29; CI: 1.14-9.44), vegetation size ?15 mm (OR: 1.21; CI: 0.65-2.25), and signs of persistent infection (OR: 9.8; CI: 5.48-17.52). Risk of SS development could be stratified when combining the first five variables: one variable present: 3.8% (CI: 2-7%); two variables present: 6.3% (CI: 3.2-12.1%); three variables present: 14.6% (CI: 6.8-27.6%); four variables present: 29.1% (CI: 11.7-56.1%); and five variables present: 45.4% (95% CI: 17.5-76.6%). When adding signs of persistent infection, the risk dramatically increased, reaching 85.7% (95% CI: 61.2-95.9%) of risk. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with IE, the presence of diabetes, acute renal insufficiency, Staphylococcus aureus infection, supraventricular tachycardia, vegetation size ?15 mm, and signs of persistent infection are associated with the development of SS.

Olmos C; Vilacosta I; Fernández C; López J; Sarriá C; Ferrera C; Revilla A; Silva J; Vivas D; González I; San Román JA

2013-07-01

70

Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate imaging of experimental infective endocarditis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) cardiac scintigraphy was performed in 15 rabbits with experimental Streptococcus sanguis aortic-valve infective endocarditis. The animals were imaged five to seven days after the administration of bacteria, and in each case abnormal accumulation of the tracer was visualized in the region of the aortic valve. Three types of cardiac scintigraphic patterns were demonstrated: focal, multifocal, and extensive, each correlating well with the anatomical extent of the lesion as defined by gross pathology. Tissue distribution studies demonstrated a 30 +- 5.3 (mean +- SEM) fold excess of radionuclide uptake in the infective endocarditis lesion compared with that of normal myocardium. Imaging of excised hearts from four animals showed an excellent correlation with in vivo imaging as well as gross pathology. Five animals with nonbacterial thrombotic aortic valve endocarditis demonstrated similar scintigraphic and tissue distribution results. In contrast, four normal animals failed to demonstrate abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PYP cardiac scintigrams or tissue uptake. This study demonstrates that /sup 99m/Tc-PYP cardiac scintigraphy is a sensitive technique to detect experimental aortic valve endocarditis

1978-01-01

71

[Surgical treatment of right-sided infective endocarditis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Between 1980 and 1989, 8 patients (5 men, 3 women; mean age 30 years) were operated upon in our department of right-sided infective endocarditis. Six patients were heroin addicts and among these 3 were HIV positive and 2 had confirmed AIDS. The most frequently encountered microorganisms (6 cases) were staphylococci. It was decided to operate because of persistent infection and haemodynamic deterioration. The infection involved the pulmonary valve in only 1 of the 8 patients. Surgery was performed during the acute phase in 5 patients and was conservative in 6 patients, consisting of excision of the vegetations or valvulectomy combined or not with valvuloplasty. A high mortality rate (3/8 cases) was observed only among patients operated upon in the acute phase. This may be due to the underlying immunodeficiency and poor haemodynamic state of these patients. Among survivors, the long-term results were excellent, with no recurrent endocarditis and no death, and with only one subsequent operation, 4 years after the first one, for residual tricuspic valve regurgitation. This study shows that patients with right-sided infective endocarditis should be operated upon outside the acute phase of the disease and as soon as complications appear, and that surgery should preferably be conservative.

Pagbe JJ; Mesana T; Goudard A; Blin D; Gulino R; Cornen A; Mouly-Bandini A; Monties JR

1991-06-01

72

Surgical treatment of culture-negative aortic infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We retrospectively analyzed the results of operations done for culture-negative aortic infective endocarditis at a single center over a period of 26 years. METHODS: From June 1985 to January 2011, we operated on 82 patients with infective endocarditis of the aortic valve for which the results of culture were negative. Sixty-five of the patients (79.3%) were male and the patients' mean age was 38.0±14.4 years (range, 9 to 73 years). Nineteen of the patients (23.2%) had a history of previous cardiac surgery, and 16 of the patients (19.5%) had endocarditis of a prosthetic valve. Two patients (2.4%) had conduction blocks. The mean duration of follow-up was 7.1±4.3 years (range, 0.1 to 16.9 years), yielding a total of 477.0 patient-years for the study population. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-eight procedures were done on the 82 patients in the study. The most common procedure was aortic valve replacement, which was done on 67 patients (81.7%). Thirty-nine patients (47.6%) had concomitant procedures done on the mitral valve. In-hospital death occurred in 14 patients (17.1%). Postoperatively, 17 patients (20.7%) had a low cardiac output and 9 patients (11.0%) had heart block, of whom 3 required implantation of a permanent pacemaker. The actuarial rate of survival of the patient population at 1, 5, 10, and 15 years was 92.5%±3.2%, 85.6%±4.5%, 82.5±5.3%, and 72.2±10.7% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Culture-negative infective endocarditis is a major problem in the diagnosis and treatment of a significant proportion of cases of endocarditis. Most of the affected patients are in a healed state, which could be a cause of negative culture results. In-hospital mortality in patients with culture-negative infective aortic endocarditis is associated with a history of previous cardiac surgery, whereas long-term mortality in this patient population is associated with nonaortic procedures.

Polat A; Tuncer A; Tuncer EY; Mataraci I; Aksoy E; Donmez AA; Balkanay M; Zeybek R; Yakut C

2012-01-01

73

Infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus gallolyticus associated with colonic displasia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus gallolyticus is a microorganism belonging to the Streptococcus bovis I group isolated in humans, bovines and equines pigeons, among other animals. Streptococcus bovis is a Streptococcus strain found in the rumen, and has been isolated in the milk of animals with mastitis. The authors describe a case of an adult immunocompetent patient with underlying valvular heart disease, with bacteraemia and infective endocarditis by Streptococcus gallolyticus, in whom adenomatous colonic polyps with dysplasia were identified.

Quintas E; Pantarotto M; Moniz J; Pardal N; Pinheiro MD; Gomes MH; Sarmento A

2011-07-01

74

Infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus gallolyticus associated with colonic displasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus gallolyticus is a microorganism belonging to the Streptococcus bovis I group isolated in humans, bovines and equines pigeons, among other animals. Streptococcus bovis is a Streptococcus strain found in the rumen, and has been isolated in the milk of animals with mastitis. The authors describe a case of an adult immunocompetent patient with underlying valvular heart disease, with bacteraemia and infective endocarditis by Streptococcus gallolyticus, in whom adenomatous colonic polyps with dysplasia were identified. PMID:22521029

Quintas, Edna; Pantarotto, Marcos; Moniz, João; Pardal, Nuno; Pinheiro, Maria Dolores; Gomes, Maria Helena; Sarmento, António

2011-12-12

75

[What has changed in the profile of infective endocarditis?].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In industrialized countries, after the eradication of rheumatic fever, rheumatic valve diseases progressively disappeared and the proportion of post-rheumatic infective endocarditis (IE) significantly decreased. Intravenous drug use, prosthetic valves, degenerative valve sclerosis, and invasive procedures have become the most important risk factors for IE. These changes also resulted in a decreasing incidence of streptococcal IE, which was compensated by an increased incidence of staphylococcal IE.

Hoen B

2010-06-01

76

[Infective endocarditis in a dermatology unit].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although often clinically suspected, infectious endocarditis (IE) is frequently difficult to diagnose with certainty. Although the dermatological signs of endocarditis can vary, they must be routinely sought where there is a suspicion of IE. The aim of this study was to reveal the diversity of clinical manifestations of IE in a dermatology unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted between May 2006 and May 2007 and included all patients hospitalized in the dermatology unit in whom an IE was diagnosed according to the modified Duke criteria. RESULTS: Seven patients were included with a median age of 61 years. The reasons for hospital admission were: chronic ulcers (n=1), Sezary's syndrome (n=1), atopic dermatitis (n=1), epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (n=1) and purpura (n=1). Specific dermatological manifestations of IE included necrotic lesions on the lower limbs (n=2), purpura (n=5) and splinter haemorrhages (n=1). Blood cultures were positive in 3 cases (MSSA=2, MRSA=1). One patient had serological evidence of Coxiella burnetti IE. Cutaneous sources of IE were found in 6 cases, including acute dermohypodermitis or chronic dermatosis (3), peripheral venous catheter (n=2) and haemodialysis (n=1). Transthoracic echocardiography was negative in 6 patients, whereas transoesophageal echocardiography performed in 6 patients confirmed the diagnosis in 5 cases. The mean time to diagnosis was 21 days. Among these patients, 5 died after a mean period of 78 days. CONCLUSION: Diagnosing IE remains a clinical challenge and must be routinely considered in the presence of unusual dermatological findings such as purpura or distal necrosis, but also in patients with partially or poorly controlled chronic dermatosis, which comprise an underestimated potential source of IE. Physicians treating such patients must consider the risk of IE, especially in the event of chronic dermatosis or of an invasive cutaneous procedure involving affected skin.

Konstantinou MP; Valeyrie-Allanore L; Lesprit P; Terrazzoni S; Ortonne N; Roujeau JC; Bagot M

2009-12-01

77

Rothia mucilaginosa prosthetic device infections: a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rothia mucilaginosa is increasingly recognized as an emerging opportunistic pathogen associated with prosthetic device infections. Infective endocarditis is one of the most common clinical presentations. We report a case of R. mucilaginosa prosthetic valve endocarditis and review the literature of prosthetic device infections caused by this organism.

Bruminhent J; Tokarczyk MJ; Jungkind D; DeSimone JA Jr

2013-05-01

78

Inflammatory parameters and prediction of prognosis in infective endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin (PCT) is widely used in critically ill patients to diagnose clinically significant infection and sepsis. Aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of PCT in comparison to white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) for clinical outcome and its correlation with microbiological etiology in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). METHODS: A retrospective single-center analysis was performed from 2007 till 2009. All patients were diagnosed having IE according to Duke standard criteria. Before starting antibiotic therapy, WBC, CRP and PCT were measured and blood cultures were taken for microbiological diagnosis of the etiological pathogen. Patients were followed up during in-hospital stay for poor outcome, defined as death or serious complications due to IE. RESULTS: During the study period 50 patients (57 +/- 17 years, 72% male) fulfilling Duke criteria for IE were identified. In all patients PCT measurements before start of antibiotic therapy were available. In ROC analysis, a cut-off for PCT > 0.5 ng/mL was most accurate for the prediction of poor outcome with a sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 79%, a positive predictive value of 79% and a negative predictive value of 73%. Patients with a PCT > 0.5 ng/mL had an odds ratio of 12.8 (95% CI 2.5 -- 66.2) for finding Staphylococcus aureus in blood cultures. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, this study shows that in IE, an initial value of PCT > 0.5 ng/mL is a useful predictor of poor outcome, i.e. death or serious infectious complications. PCT > 0.5 ng/mL should raise the suspicion of Staphylococcus aureus as the etiological pathogen, whereas PCT levels < 0.5 ng/mL make staphylococcal infection unlikely. PMID:23767848

Cornelissen, Christian G; Frechen, Dirk A; Schreiner, Karin; Marx, Nikolaus; Krüger, Stefan

2013-06-15

79

Infective Endocarditis: Identification of Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci from Blood Cultures by Partial 16S rRNA Gene Analysis and by Vitek 2 Examination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococci, enterococci and Streptococcus-like bacteria are frequent etiologic agents of infective endocarditis and correct species identification can be a laboratory challenge. Viridans streptococci (VS) not seldomly cause contamination of blood cultures. Vitek 2 and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were applied in order to compare the results of both methods. STRAINS ORIGINATED FROM TWO GROUPS OF PATIENTS: 149 strains from patients with infective endocarditis and 181 strains assessed as blood culture contaminants. Of the 330 strains, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing results, 251 (76%) were VS strains, 10 (3%) were pyogenic streptococcal strains, 54 (16%) were E. faecalis strains and 15 (5%) strains belonged to a group of miscellaneous catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci. Among VS strains, respectively, 220 (87,6%) and 31 (12,3%) obtained agreeing and non-agreeing identifications with the two methods with respect to allocation to the same VS group. Non-agreeing species identification mostly occurred among strains in the contaminant group, while for endocarditis strains notably fewer disagreeing results were observed.Only 67 of 150 strains in the mitis group strains obtained identical species identifications by the two methods. Most VS strains belonging to the groups of salivarius, anginosus, and mutans obtained agreeing species identifications with the two methods, while this only was the case for 13 of the 21 bovis strains. Pyogenic strains (n=10), Enterococcus faecalis strains (n=54) and a miscellaneous group of catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci (n=15) seemed well identified by both methods, except that disagreements in identifications in the miscellaneous group of strains occurred for 6 of 15 strains. PMID:21673976

Abdul-Redha, Rawaa Jalil; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette M; Arpi, Magnus; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

2010-12-31

80

Endocarditis caused by Rochalimaea quintana in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rochalimaea quintana and Rochalimaea henselae are closely related, fastidious, gram-negative rickettsiae. Thus far, the spectrum of human Rochalimaea sp. infections has not included endocarditis. We describe a 50-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man who developed endocarditis caused by R. quintana. DNA relatedness studies, which compared our patient's blood culture isolate with known Rochalimaea species, identified the organism as R. quintana. Our report expands the spectrum of Rochalimaea sp. infections and identifies a new infectious cause of endocarditis.

Spach DH; Callis KP; Paauw DS; Houze YB; Schoenknecht FD; Welch DF; Rosen H; Brenner DJ

1993-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

Aortic valve replacement for late infective endocarditis after heart-lung transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infective endocarditis is a rare but life-threatening complication of heart and heart-lung transplantation. We describe a 32-year-old woman who developed aortic valvular endocarditis following heart-lung transplantation. Enterococcus was the infective organism. The patient's condition was successfully managed using prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy and aortic valve replacement.

Sayeed R; Drain AJ; Sivasothy PS; Large SR; Wallwork J

2005-12-01

82

Aortic valve replacement for late infective endocarditis after heart-lung transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infective endocarditis is a rare but life-threatening complication of heart and heart-lung transplantation. We describe a 32-year-old woman who developed aortic valvular endocarditis following heart-lung transplantation. Enterococcus was the infective organism. The patient's condition was successfully managed using prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy and aortic valve replacement. PMID:16387164

Sayeed, R; Drain, A J; Sivasothy, P S; Large, S R; Wallwork, J

2005-12-01

83

Mean platelet volume is increased in infective endocarditis and decreases after treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the mean platelet volume (MPV), an indicator of platelet activation in patients with infective endocarditis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with infective endocarditis and 29 healthy subjects were studied. Plasma MPV values in patients and control subjects were measured on admission and after 2 weeks of specific treatment of infective endocarditis. RESULTS: The MPV was significantly higher among patients with infective endocarditis when compared with the control group (9.86 ± 1.1 vs. 8.0 ± 1.0 fl, respectively; p < 0.01). The MPV values of patients with infective endocarditis decreased significantly after treatment from 9.86 ± 1.1 to 7.86 ± 1.0 fl (p < 0.01). Total platelet counts increased significantly after treatment from 193.4 ± 96.5 × 10(9) to 243.7 ± 92.4 × 10(9) (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: MPV values were higher in patients with infective endocarditis and decreased significantly after treatment. Elevated MPV values indicate that patients with infective endocarditis have increased platelet activation and infective endocarditis treatment decreases this platelet activation by decreasing MPV.

Icli A; Tayyar S; Varol E; Aksoy F; Arslan A; Ersoy I; Akcay S

2013-01-01

84

[Profile of infective endocarditis at Brazzaville University Hospital].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The goal of this retrospective study was to analyze the current profile of all 35 consecutive patients with infectious endocarditis seen at Brazzaville University Hospital's department of cardiology and internal medicine from January, 2001, through December, 2009. Infectious endocarditis was diagnosed most often when a heart murmur was associated with septicemia and typical vegetations on echocardiography. During this period, 24 women and 11 men were admitted for infectious endocarditis, accounting for 0.9% of admissions. Their median age was 30.6?±?12.8 years (range: 15 to 66 years), and 69% were women. The preexisting lesions included rheumatic valvulopathy (9 cases), congenital heart disease (3 cases), and heart disease already treated surgically (3 cases). Among the valvular lesions, mitral regurgitation predominated (24 cases), isolated in 17 cases and associated with aortic regurgitation in 7. There were three cases of pure tricuspid regurgitation. A principal portal of infection was found in 24 patients (69%): oral (11 cases), urinary (7 cases), genital (5 cases), and cutaneous (1 case). A blood culture was performed for 14 patients (40%): seven were positive, four of them for streptococci. Vegetations were observed in 32 cases (91.4%) and mutilating valve lesions in 8 (22.8%). The complications included heart failure in 30 cases (86%) and an embolism in 8 (23%). One relapse was noted. Cardiac surgery was indicated for 13 patients (37%) but could not be performed. The hospital lethality rate was 29%. Infectious endocarditis is a rare disorder that can be life-threatening, especialy in the absence of cardiac surgery. Its prevention, although complex, constitutes the key to management in our setting.

Ikama MS; Nkalla-Lambi M; Kimbally-Kaky G; Loumouamou ML; Nkoua JL

2013-01-01

85

[Profile of infective endocarditis at Brazzaville University Hospital].  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this retrospective study was to analyze the current profile of all 35 consecutive patients with infectious endocarditis seen at Brazzaville University Hospital's department of cardiology and internal medicine from January, 2001, through December, 2009. Infectious endocarditis was diagnosed most often when a heart murmur was associated with septicemia and typical vegetations on echocardiography. During this period, 24 women and 11 men were admitted for infectious endocarditis, accounting for 0.9% of admissions. Their median age was 30.6?±?12.8 years (range: 15 to 66 years), and 69% were women. The preexisting lesions included rheumatic valvulopathy (9 cases), congenital heart disease (3 cases), and heart disease already treated surgically (3 cases). Among the valvular lesions, mitral regurgitation predominated (24 cases), isolated in 17 cases and associated with aortic regurgitation in 7. There were three cases of pure tricuspid regurgitation. A principal portal of infection was found in 24 patients (69%): oral (11 cases), urinary (7 cases), genital (5 cases), and cutaneous (1 case). A blood culture was performed for 14 patients (40%): seven were positive, four of them for streptococci. Vegetations were observed in 32 cases (91.4%) and mutilating valve lesions in 8 (22.8%). The complications included heart failure in 30 cases (86%) and an embolism in 8 (23%). One relapse was noted. Cardiac surgery was indicated for 13 patients (37%) but could not be performed. The hospital lethality rate was 29%. Infectious endocarditis is a rare disorder that can be life-threatening, especialy in the absence of cardiac surgery. Its prevention, although complex, constitutes the key to management in our setting. PMID:23692990

Ikama, M S; Nkalla-Lambi, M; Kimbally-Kaky, G; Loumouamou, M L; Nkoua, J L

86

Endocardite infecciosa causada por Eikenella corrodens Eikenella corrodens infective endocarditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os microorganismos do grupo HACEK (Haemophilus spp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens e Kingella kingae) são responsáveis por 3% dos casos de endocardites. Eles apresentam propriedades clínicas e microbiológicas semelhantes entre si: são bacilos gram-negativos, isolados mais facilmente em meios aeróbicos, suas culturas necessitam de tempo prolongado de incubação para crescimento (média 3,3 dias) e podem ser considerados como parte da flora normal do trato respiratório superior e da orofaringe1,2. Algumas características foram identificadas nas endocardites por esses agentes, como o quadro clínico insidioso¹, diagnóstico difícil pela natureza fastidiosa e culturas negativas3,4. A endocardite por Eikenella corrodens foi descrita pela primeira vez em 1972(5) e continua sendo um agente etiológico raro. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com valva nativa que apresentou endocardite infecciosa causada por Eikenella corrodens.The HACEK microorganisms (Haemophilus spp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) account for 3% of the cases of endocarditis. They have the following similar clinical and microbiological properties: are Gram-negative bacilli, more easily isolated in aerobic media; their cultures require prolonged incubation time for growing (mean, 3.3 days); and may be considered part of normal flora of upper respiratory tract and oropharynx1,2. The following characteristics have been identified in endocarditis caused by the HACEK microorganisms: insidious clinical findings¹; difficult diagnosis due to the fastidious nature of the microorganisms; and negative cultures3,4. The Eikenella corrodens endocarditis was first described in 1972(5). That microorganism continues to be a rare etiological agent. We report the case of a female patient with native valve, who had Eikenella corrodens infective endocarditis.

Juliano Novaes Cardoso; Marcelo Eidi Ochiai; Múcio T. Oliveira Jr.; Paulo Morgado; Robinson Munhoz; Fernanda E. Andretto; Alfredo José Mansur; Antonio Carlos Pereira Barretto

2005-01-01

87

Endocardite infecciosa causada por Eikenella corrodens/ Eikenella corrodens infective endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os microorganismos do grupo HACEK (Haemophilus spp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens e Kingella kingae) são responsáveis por 3% dos casos de endocardites. Eles apresentam propriedades clínicas e microbiológicas semelhantes entre si: são bacilos gram-negativos, isolados mais facilmente em meios aeróbicos, suas culturas necessitam de tempo prolongado de incubação para crescimento (média 3,3 dias) e podem ser conside (more) rados como parte da flora normal do trato respiratório superior e da orofaringe1,2. Algumas características foram identificadas nas endocardites por esses agentes, como o quadro clínico insidioso¹, diagnóstico difícil pela natureza fastidiosa e culturas negativas3,4. A endocardite por Eikenella corrodens foi descrita pela primeira vez em 1972(5) e continua sendo um agente etiológico raro. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com valva nativa que apresentou endocardite infecciosa causada por Eikenella corrodens. Abstract in english The HACEK microorganisms (Haemophilus spp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) account for 3% of the cases of endocarditis. They have the following similar clinical and microbiological properties: are Gram-negative bacilli, more easily isolated in aerobic media; their cultures require prolonged incubation time for growing (mean, 3.3 days); and may be considered part of normal flora of upper respiratory t (more) ract and oropharynx1,2. The following characteristics have been identified in endocarditis caused by the HACEK microorganisms: insidious clinical findings¹; difficult diagnosis due to the fastidious nature of the microorganisms; and negative cultures3,4. The Eikenella corrodens endocarditis was first described in 1972(5). That microorganism continues to be a rare etiological agent. We report the case of a female patient with native valve, who had Eikenella corrodens infective endocarditis.

Cardoso, Juliano Novaes; Ochiai, Marcelo Eidi; Oliveira Jr., Múcio T.; Morgado, Paulo; Munhoz, Robinson; Andretto, Fernanda E.; Mansur, Alfredo José; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

2005-07-01

88

Case report: Infective endocarditis caused by Brevundimonas vesicularis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reports in the literature of invasive infection caused by Brevundimonas vesicularis in patients without immunosuppression or other predisposing factors. The choice of antimicrobial therapy for bacteremia caused by the pathogen requires more case experience to be determined. Case presentation The case of a 40-year-old previously healthy man with subacute endocarditis proposed to be contributed from an occult dental abscess is described. The infection was found to be caused by B. vesicularis on blood culture results. The patient recovered without sequelae after treatment with ceftriaxone followed by subsequent ciprofloxacin therapy owing to an allergic reaction to ceftriaxone and treatment failure with ampicillin/sulbactam. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. vesicularis as a cause of infective endocarditis. According to an overview of the literature and our experience, we suggest that third-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin/tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin are effective in treating invasive B. vesicularis infections, while the efficacy of ampicillin-sulbactam needs further evaluation.

Yang Mei-Li; Chen Yen-Hsu; Chen Tun-Chieh; Lin Wei-Ru; Lin Chun-Yu; Lu Po-Liang

2006-01-01

89

[Central nervous system embolism in the course of infective endocarditis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the progress made in diagnosis and treatment of heart valve diseases, the incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) remains constant. It is still associated with high mortality and high rate of embolic complications, including most dangerous one, i.e. stroke. It has a significant impact on further treatment and qualifications for cardiac surgery. In this paper, the authors discuss the epidemiology, mechanisms of stroke and its impact on the qualifications for cardiac surgery. The authors discuss the problem of clinically silent central nervous system embolism in the course of IE and the usefulness of neuroimaging and markers of central nervous system damage in diagnosis of cerebral embolism.

Grabowski M; Jaworska-Wilczy?ska M; Ablewska U; Czerwi?ska-Jelonkiewicz K; Abramczuk E; Mi?kowska M; Hryniewiecki T

2013-01-01

90

Superior vena cava and right atrium wall infective endocarditis in patients receiving hemodialysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infective endocarditis is significantly more common and causes greater morbidity and mortality in patients receiving hemodialysis than in the general population. Episodes of bacteremia during hemodialysis are primarily the result of frequent vascular access through an arteriovenous fistula, a vascular graft, or an indwelling vascular catheter. This leads to dialysis access infection and secondary bacteremia. We describe 4 cases of patients receiving hemodialysis, with an indwelling intravascular dialysis catheter, who developed right-sided endocarditis with vegetations located exclusively on the superior vena cava and right atrium wall. All patients had persistent bacteremia with Staphylococcus, secondary to an indwelling intravascular hemodialysis catheter, which led to seeding of the right-sided cardiac wall, causing infective endocarditis. The rates of acceptance for hemodialysis are increasing, along with improved survival in this group of patients. This will probably lead to an increase in the incidence of infective endocarditis, with atypical presentations such as superior vena cava and right-sided cardiac wall endocarditis.

Thakar S; Janga KC; Tolchinsky T; Greenberg S; Sharma K; Sadiq A; Lichstein E; Shani J

2012-05-01

91

Infective endocarditis with multiple mycotic aneurysms mimicking vasculitis: A case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The manifestation of infective endocarditis often resembles vasculitis. Approximately one in five infective endocarditis cases are referred initially to a nephrologist because of abnormal renal function or abnormal urinalysis; therefore, infection should be ruled out before diagnosing vasculitis. A case involving a patient with infective endocarditis who presented with migrating skin lesions, renal infarction and multiple pseudoaneurysms is reported. Echocardiography revealed mitral valve vegetation and viridans streptococci were identified in peripheral blood cultures. Although mitral valve annuloplasty and an aneurysm ligation operation were performed with proper antibiotic treatment, the remaining mycotic aneurysm progressed and caused neurological complications. The patient was cured completely after reoperation.

Park JH; Jang HR; Lee JE; Huh W; Kim DJ; Oh HY; Kim YG

2012-01-01

92

Clinical characteristics and outcome of infective endocarditis involving implantable cardiac devices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Infection of implantable cardiac devices is an emerging disease with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of cardiac device infective endocarditis (CDIE) with attention to its health care association and to evaluate the association between device removal during index hospitalization and outcome. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Prospective cohort study using data from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS), conducted June 2000 through August 2006 in 61 centers in 28 countries. Patients were hospitalized adults with definite endocarditis as defined by modified Duke endocarditis criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In-hospital and 1-year mortality. RESULTS: CDIE was diagnosed in 177 (6.4% [95% CI, 5.5%-7.4%]) of a total cohort of 2760 patients with definite infective endocarditis. The clinical profile of CDIE included advanced patient age (median, 71.2 years [interquartile range, 59.8-77.6]); causation by staphylococci (62 [35.0% {95% CI, 28.0%-42.5%}] Staphylococcus aureus and 56 [31.6% {95% CI, 24.9%-39.0%}] coagulase-negative staphylococci); and a high prevalence of health care-associated infection (81 [45.8% {95% CI, 38.3%-53.4%}]). There was coexisting valve involvement in 66 (37.3% [95% CI, 30.2%-44.9%]) patients, predominantly tricuspid valve infection (43/177 [24.3%]), with associated higher mortality. In-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were 14.7% (26/177 [95% CI, 9.8%-20.8%]) and 23.2% (41/177 [95% CI, 17.2%-30.1%]), respectively. Proportional hazards regression analysis showed a survival benefit at 1 year for device removal during the initial hospitalization (28/141 patients [19.9%] who underwent device removal during the index hospitalization had died at 1 year, vs 13/34 [38.2%] who did not undergo device removal; hazard ratio, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.22-0.82]). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with CDIE, the rate of concomitant valve infection is high, as is mortality, particularly if there is valve involvement. Early device removal is associated with improved survival at 1 year.

Athan E; Chu VH; Tattevin P; Selton-Suty C; Jones P; Naber C; Miró JM; Ninot S; Fernández-Hidalgo N; Durante-Mangoni E; Spelman D; Hoen B; Lejko-Zupanc T; Cecchi E; Thuny F; Hannan MM; Pappas P; Henry M; Fowler VG Jr; Crowley AL; Wang A

2012-04-01

93

[Infective endocarditis by Rhizobium radiobacter. A case report].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobium radiobacter is a Gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, which is found mainly on the ground. It rarely causes infections in humans. It has been associated with bacteremia, secondary to colonization of intravascular catheters, in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this paper was to report the case of an infective endocarditis caused by R. radiobacter, in a 47-year-old male, diagnosed with chronic kidney disease stage 5, on replacement therapy with hemodialysis and who attended the medical center with fever of two weeks duration. The patient was hospitalized and samples of peripheral blood were taken for culture. Empirical antibiotic therapy was started with cefotaxime plus vancomycin. The transthoracic echocardiogram revealed fusiform vegetation on the tricuspid valve, with grade III-IV/IV regurgitation. On the seventh day after the start of antibiotic therapy, the patient had a clinical and paraclinical improvement. The bacterium identified by blood culture was Rhizobium radiobacter, ceftriaxone-resistant and sensitive to imipenem, amikacin, ampicillin and ampicillin/sulbactam. Because of the clinical improvement, it was decided to continue treatment with vancomycin and additionally, with imipenem. At 14 days after the start of antibiotic therapy, the patient was discharged with outpatient treatment with imipenem up to six weeks of treatment. The control echocardiogram showed the absence of vegetation on the tricuspid valve. This case suggests that R. radiobacter can cause endocarditis in patients with intravascular catheters.

Piñerúa Gonsálvez JF; Zambrano Infantinot Rdel C; Calcaño C; Montaño C; Fuenmayor Z; Rodney H; Rodney M

2013-03-01

94

Endocarditis infecciosa izquierda por Pseudomonas aeruginosa tratada médicamente/ Left-sided infective endocarditis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated medically  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La endocarditis infecciosa por Pseudomonas aeruginosa es una entidad poco frecuente, de difícil diagnóstico y alta mortalidad. Se presenta a continuación el caso de un hombre de 51 años, sin antecedentes de uso de drogas intravenosas ni enfermedad valvular, con antecedentes de colecistectomía en el mes anterior, quien se presentó a urgencias con un cuadro febril asociado a síntomas gastrointestinales, y, posteriormente mostró signos de embolismo a distancia, hemoc (more) ultivos positivos para P. aeruginosa y desarrollo de múltiples complicaciones propias de la enfermedad. La presentación clínica de la endocarditis infecciosa es inespecífica, lo cual genera diagnósticos tardíos que impiden la instauración de un tratamiento precoz y eficaz, como el reemplazo valvular, indicado en endocarditis por hongos o por gérmenes como P. aeruginosa. Este caso es fortuito por su resolución solamente con tratamiento médico combinado, con amikacina y meropenem, ya que tuvo varias complicaciones que contraindicaron el manejo quirúrgico. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare clinical condition, difficult to diagnose and associated with high mortality. Herein we present a case of a 51 years old male without history of intravenous drug use or valvular disease, with past medical history of cholecystectomy in the previous month, who presented to the emergency department with fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, and subsequent signs of distant embolization, positive blood cultures for P. (more) aeruginosa and development of multiple complications of the disease. The clinical presentation of infective endocarditis is nonspecific, leading to delayed diagnosis, and preventing early and effective treatment. Valvular replacement is indicated in fungal or P. aeruginosa endocarditis. This case is notable because of the resolution with amikacin combined with meropenem, in a patient with several complications that contraindicated surgery.

Ordóñez, Karen Melissa; Hernández, Odismar Andrea; Cortés, Jorge Alberto; López, María José; Alfonso, Gladys; Junca, Alejandro

2010-06-01

95

Successful Treatment of Infective Endocarditis in Four Kidney Transplant Recipients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious complication in kidney transplantation, leading to graft loss and a high mortality rate. We report 4 successfully managed cases of IE in kidney transplant recipients. Blood culture revealed Enterococcus in 2 patients, group D Streptococcus in 1, and no bacteria in 1. All of the patients were diagnosed based on at least 2 major Duke criteria for diagnosis of IE. Although a mild increase in the serum creatinine level was observed in 3 out of 4 patients, no graft rejection occurred during the follow-up. Early diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, particularly intensive antibiotic therapy and surgical management can preserve the patient and the kidney allograft. Studies on previous recurrent infections and simultaneous diseases such as cytomegalovirus in these patients are warranted.

Fatemeh Pour-Reza-Gholi; Farhat Farrokhi; Behzad Einollahi; Eghlim Nemati

2009-01-01

96

Infective endocarditis caused by Enterococcus faecalis treated with continuous infusion of ampicillin without adjunctive aminoglycosides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aminoglycosides are useful antimicrobial agents for treating infective endocarditis; however, they occasionally cause troublesome side effects, such as nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. We herein report a case of infective endocarditis caused by Enterococcus faecalis that was treated successfully with continuous infusion of ampicillin without adjunctive aminoglycosides. The serum ampicillin concentrations were higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration for the target strain. Although the use of ampicillin monotherapy is currently avoided because double ?-lactam therapy is reportedly more effective, continuous penicillin administration remains an effective therapeutic choice for treating infective endocarditis. PMID:23676604

Ogawa, Taku; Sato, Masatoshi; Yonekawa, Shinsuke; Nakagawa, Chiyo; Uno, Kenji; Kasahara, Kei; Maeda, Koichi; Konishi, Mitsuru; Mikasa, Keiichi

2013-05-15

97

Thrombolysis for stroke caused by infective endocarditis: an illustrative case and review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infective endocarditis represents a classical contra-indication to thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke due to a potential increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage. However, some case reports have suggested safety and potential efficacy of intravenous or intra-arterial thrombolysis in stroke related to infective endocarditis. We present a case of ischemic stroke related to infective endocarditis who was treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator within the first 3 h of symptoms onset and subsequently developed symptomatic multifocal intracerebral hemorrhages, and summarize currently available data on this issue.

Ong E; Mechtouff L; Bernard E; Cho TH; Diallo LL; Nighoghossian N; Derex L

2013-05-01

98

[Infective endocarditis with para-aortic abscess in mechanical aortic prosthesis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infective endocarditis (the infection of heart valves or, in generally, of endocardium) is a serious disease that requires a fast diagnosis, an aggressive and appropriate therapy and, if necessary, a collaboration between internist and surgeon. In this article we report a clinical case of an infective endocarditis in an old female patient, yet treated for aortic valve stenosis with replacement with mechanical prosthesis complicated by paravalvular abscess.

Torre R; Bonacci R; Gigliotti A; Artioli S; Perlangeli S; Pantaleo P; Speziale G

2005-07-01

99

[Infective endocarditis with para-aortic abscess in mechanical aortic prosthesis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Infective endocarditis (the infection of heart valves or, in generally, of endocardium) is a serious disease that requires a fast diagnosis, an aggressive and appropriate therapy and, if necessary, a collaboration between internist and surgeon. In this article we report a clinical case of an infective endocarditis in an old female patient, yet treated for aortic valve stenosis with replacement with mechanical prosthesis complicated by paravalvular abscess. PMID:16209117

Torre, Roberto; Bonacci, Rosanna; Gigliotti, Agostino; Artioli, Stefania; Perlangeli, Silvia; Pantaleo, Paolo; Speziale, Giuseppe

100

Endocarditis  

Science.gov (United States)

... good care of your teeth through brushing and flossing. There is some concern that infections in your ... entering your bloodstream. In addition to brushing and flossing, regular dental exams — at least yearly — are an ...

 
 
 
 
101

Infective endocarditis: a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case report of a 26 years old female who presented in emergency with sudden onset of chest heaviness and dyspnoea. She had suffered a stroke in the past and was treated with anti-tuberculous medication. Her ECG revealed STelevation myocardial infarction and thrombolysis was performed but was unsuccessful. Further workup during in-hospital stay revealed evidence of infective endocarditis and Streptococcus species were isolated. She was started on penicillin and gentamycin with good recovery. This case presented a management problem during initial presentation as there was insufficient data on thrombolysis during such situation. It is also a diagnostic problem as the initial picture was dominated by acute coronary syndrome. There is need to develop consensus based on expert opinion about management in such situations. PMID:22482383

Khan, Javaid Arif; Panwar, Ziauddin; Mujtaba, Fayyaz; Shah, Kashif

2012-04-01

102

Infective endocarditis: a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is a case report of a 26 years old female who presented in emergency with sudden onset of chest heaviness and dyspnoea. She had suffered a stroke in the past and was treated with anti-tuberculous medication. Her ECG revealed STelevation myocardial infarction and thrombolysis was performed but was unsuccessful. Further workup during in-hospital stay revealed evidence of infective endocarditis and Streptococcus species were isolated. She was started on penicillin and gentamycin with good recovery. This case presented a management problem during initial presentation as there was insufficient data on thrombolysis during such situation. It is also a diagnostic problem as the initial picture was dominated by acute coronary syndrome. There is need to develop consensus based on expert opinion about management in such situations.

Khan JA; Panwar Z; Mujtaba F; Shah K

2012-04-01

103

[Clinical guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article sets out the recommendations for the prevention of infective endocarditis (IE), contained in the guidelines developed by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), from which the recommendations of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease have been agreed. In recent years, there has been a considerable change in the recommendations for the prevention of IE, mainly due to the lack of evidence on the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in prevention, and the risk of the development of antibiotic resistance. The main change is a reduction of the indications for antibiotic prophylaxis, both in terms of patients and procedures considered at risk. Clinical practice guidelines and recommendations should assist health professionals in making clinical decisions in their daily practice. However, the ultimate judgment regarding the care of a particular patient must be taken by the physician responsible.

Pérez-Lescure Picarzo J; Crespo Marcos D; Centeno Malfaz F

2013-04-01

104

The Infective endocarditis (prevention, diagnosis criteria and treatment): key points 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Key positions of Guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infective endocarditis issued by the Task Force of ESC in 2009 are explained in the comments. Recent opinions on these items are presented.

A.A. Demin

2010-01-01

105

Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: the value of screening with echocardiography  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population.

Rasmussen, Rasmus Vinther; HØst, Ulla

2011-01-01

106

Endocarditis caused by Rochalimaea quintana in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rochalimaea quintana and Rochalimaea henselae are closely related, fastidious, gram-negative rickettsiae. Thus far, the spectrum of human Rochalimaea sp. infections has not included endocarditis. We describe a 50-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man who developed endocarditis caused by R. quintana. DNA relatedness studies, which compared our patient's blood culture isolate with known Rochalimaea species, identified the organism as R. quintana. Our report expands the spectrum of Rochalimaea sp. infections and identifies a new infectious cause of endocarditis. PMID:8458964

Spach, D H; Callis, K P; Paauw, D S; Houze, Y B; Schoenknecht, F D; Welch, D F; Rosen, H; Brenner, D J

1993-03-01

107

Relative value of clinical and transesophageal echocardiographic variables for risk stratification in patients with infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis remains a life-threatening disease, and its optimal management is of paramount importance. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is useful for the diagnosis of endocarditis-induced lesions, but the prognostic significance of the method remains controversial. HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to relate clinical and TEE characteristics to the occurrence of mortality and/or systemic embolization in a consecutive series of 45 patients with a diagnosis of infective endocarditis. METHODS: All patients underwent at least one monoplane TEE. Clinical data, episodes of embolization, and echocardiographic characteristics were prospectively recorded. Stepwise logistic discriminant analysis was performed to identify the independent variables that best predicted three binary outcomes: systemic embolization, death, and systemic embolization and/or death. RESULTS: Twelve of the 45 patients (27%) died from the endocarditis. Significant univariate predictors of death were the presence of paravalvular abscess (p = 0.025), number of vegetations (p = 0.021), Staphylococcus aureus isolated in blood cultures (p = 0.002), medical treatment alone (p < 0.002), and systemic embolism (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, systemic embolism (chi 2 = 29.3; p < 0.01), echocardiographic evidence of paravalvular abscess (chi 2 = 5.6; p = 0.018), Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis (chi 2 = 5.5; p = 0.016), and medical treatment alone (chi 2 = 5.11; p = 0.024) emerged as optimal predictors of death. Systemic embolization occurred in 12 patients. Independent variables predicting systemic embolization were a total length of vegetations > 14 mm (p = 0.01), greater age (p = 0.02), and medical treatment alone (p = 0.03). When two or more vegetations were observed, the total length is the sum of the individual sizes. Independent risk factors for the development of systemic emboli and/or death as a combined end point were total length of vegetations on TEE (chi 2 = 6.4; p = 0.003) and medical treatment alone (chi 2 = 4.1; p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: High-risk patients may be identified by the combination of clinical variables and TEE characteristics.

Lancellotti P; Galiuto L; Albert A; Soyeur D; Piérard LA

1998-08-01

108

Infective endocarditis due to Neisseria sicca and associated with intravenous drug abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intravenous drug abusers are subject to infective endocarditis from unusual pathogens, including the saprophytic species of Neisseria, sometimes transmitted by needles contaminated with oral secretions. We have recently encountered such a case, in which a 37-year-old man with vegetations on the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve had blood cultures positive for N sicca. A history of intravenous drug abuse using needles contaminated with oral secretions should alert clinicians to the possibility of infective endocarditis due to saprophytic Neisseria species.

Valenzuela GA; Davis TD; Pizzani E; McGroarty D

1992-09-01

109

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: role of current recommendations by the american heart association for infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the past decade, there has been evolution in the diagnosis, management, and long-term care of patients with infective endocarditis and its complications. This includes the relatively new but contentious prophylactic antibiotic regimen. However, these cases still continue to pose a challenge in the adult and pediatric populations. We present a case of a teenager with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that had an atypical presentation of infective endocarditis.

Noel N; Naheed Z

2013-03-01

110

[Infective endocarditis: a complication of idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS) is thought to be infrequently complicated by infective endocarditis. Because IHSS is a disorder of the myocardium and not endocardium is not generally considered to have increased risk of infective endocarditis. Some Authors found, however, that approximately 5% of patients with IHSS develop bacterial endocarditis, because hemodynamically IHSS is like to valvular diseases. Therefore the incidence of endocarditis in IHSS is the same of valvular diseases. The vegetations can be found on anterior mitral valve leaflet, aortic cusps and subaortic endocardium. Some patients have dental surgery prior to the onset of endocarditis and others are infected with oral streptococci. For these reasons prophylactic antibiotics should be administered to patients with IHSS undergoing dental manipulation and in other settings where the risk of developing bacteremia is high. We describe one case of IHSS complicated with streptococcus viridans endocarditis. Vegetations, determined with echocardiography, were present on anterior mitral valve leaflet, aortic right coronary cusp and interventricular septum. In a review of literature we are been able to find twenty-seven cases of IHSS complicated with endocarditis.

Mazzoli M; Tafani O; Vergassola R

1980-01-01

111

Infective endocarditis, 1983-1988: echocardiographic findings and factors influencing morbidity and mortality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The echocardiograms and clinical records of 70 patients with infective endocarditis seen between 1983 and 1988 were examined to evaluate the role of two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis and identify risk factors for morbidity and mortality. A blinded observer reviewed the echocardiograms for the presence and size of vegetations and the severity of the valvular regurgitation. Vegetations were identified in 54 (78%) of 69 technically satisfactory echocardiograms. In 38 patients whose heart was examined at surgery or autopsy, all vegetations diagnosed by echocardiography were confirmed, but six additional vegetations were found. Abnormal (greater than or equal to 2+) valvular regurgitation was present in 88% of patients. No patient with less than or equal to 1+ regurgitation (n = 8) died or required valve surgery for heart failure, but three of the eight patients did undergo surgery for mycotic aneurysm, recurrent embolism or paravalvular abscess. In patients without embolism before echocardiography, there was a trend toward a greater incidence of subsequent embolism in those with vegetations greater than 10 mm in size (26% [8 of 31] compared with 11% [2 of 18] with vegetations less than or equal to 10 mm) (p = 0.19). By multivariate analysis, risk factors for in-hospital death (n = 7) were an infected prosthetic valve (p less than 0.007), systemic embolism (p less than 0.02) and infection with Staphylococcus aureus (p = 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Jaffe WM; Morgan DE; Pearlman AS; Otto CM

1990-05-01

112

Infective endocarditis, 1983-1988: echocardiographic findings and factors influencing morbidity and mortality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The echocardiograms and clinical records of 70 patients with infective endocarditis seen between 1983 and 1988 were examined to evaluate the role of two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis and identify risk factors for morbidity and mortality. A blinded observer reviewed the echocardiograms for the presence and size of vegetations and the severity of the valvular regurgitation. Vegetations were identified in 54 (78%) of 69 technically satisfactory echocardiograms. In 38 patients whose heart was examined at surgery or autopsy, all vegetations diagnosed by echocardiography were confirmed, but six additional vegetations were found. Abnormal (greater than or equal to 2+) valvular regurgitation was present in 88% of patients. No patient with less than or equal to 1+ regurgitation (n = 8) died or required valve surgery for heart failure, but three of the eight patients did undergo surgery for mycotic aneurysm, recurrent embolism or paravalvular abscess. In patients without embolism before echocardiography, there was a trend toward a greater incidence of subsequent embolism in those with vegetations greater than 10 mm in size (26% [8 of 31] compared with 11% [2 of 18] with vegetations less than or equal to 10 mm) (p = 0.19). By multivariate analysis, risk factors for in-hospital death (n = 7) were an infected prosthetic valve (p less than 0.007), systemic embolism (p less than 0.02) and infection with Staphylococcus aureus (p = 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2184183

Jaffe, W M; Morgan, D E; Pearlman, A S; Otto, C M

1990-05-01

113

[Toll-like receptor 2 R753Q polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of infective endocarditis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability to respond to the ligands of toll-like receptors (TLR) could be affected by single nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR codifying genes. The influence of the polymorphisms TLR2 (R753Q, R677W), TLR4 (D299G, T399I) and CD14 (C-159T) was consecutively studied in 65 patients with infective endocarditis. The control group (n=66) consisted of healthy volunteers. All the polymorphisms were genotyped by means of restriction analysis after their amplification. An association between endocarditis and variants of TLR2 R753Q (P <.001) was observed, but no association with other polymorphisms was found. The TLR2 R753Q co-dominant (odds ratio=13.33), recessive (odds ratio=9.12) and dominant (odds ratio=3.65) genotypes showed a positive association with the infective endocarditis phenotype. The polymorphism TLR2 R753Q was associated with a greater susceptibility towards the development of infective endocarditis. Further studies are required to validate these results and identify other genetic risk factors.

Bustamante J; Tamayo E; Flórez S; Telleria JJ; Bustamante E; López J; San Román JA; Alvarez FJ

2011-11-01

114

Infective endocarditis complicated by aortic graft infection and osteomyelitis: case report and review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elie Zouein,1 Robert Wetz,1 Neville Mobarakai,1 Samer Hassan,1 Iris Tong21Department of Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, New York, NY USA; 2Department of Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Primary aortic graft infection early after aortic graft insertion is well described in the literature. Here, we present a unique case of late aortic graft infection 5 years after insertion secondary to mitral valve endocarditis, resulting from cellulitis in a patient with severe venous varicosities. A 63-year-old male presented for severe low back pain, constipation, and low-grade fever. An abdominal computed tomography scan with oral and intravenous contrast showed a normal spine and urinary tract. Blood and urine cultures, done at the same time, grew Staphylococcus aureus. A transesophageal echocardiogram confirmed the diagnosis of endocarditis. Subsequently, a gallium scan showed increased uptake in the vertebral bodies, aortic graft, left patella, and left ankle. After 3 months of antibiotic therapy, the patient's low back pain resolved with normalization of his laboratory values. He remained free of infection at a 2-year follow-up. We reviewed the literature concerning the atypical presentation of infective endocarditis, with a focus on distant metastases at initial presentation, such as osteomyelitis and aortic graft infection, as well as the different treatment modalities. This report describes successful medical treatment with intravenous followed by oral antibiotics for an infected endovascular graft without any surgical intervention.Keywords: endocarditis, osteomyelitis, aortic graft infection, septic emboli, endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR)

Zouein E; Wetz R; Mobarakai N; Hassan S; Tong I

2012-01-01

115

Clinical Practice Guidelines Infective Endocarditis Treatment. Guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento de la endocarditis infecciosa.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Infective Endocarditis Treatment. Infectious disease affecting the endocardium produces vegetations and could also affect the septum, the chordae tendinae or mural endocardium. It includes concept, risk factors, classification (and special groups) and an update and review of the main clinical aspects, complications and treatment stressing the antibiotic therapy. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.Guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento de la endocarditis infecciosa. Enfermedad de origen infeccioso que afecta al endocardio, cursa con vegetaciones y también lo puede hacer a los septos, las cuerdas tendinosas o el endocardio mural. Incluye concepto, factores de riesgo, clasificación y dentro de esta grupos especiales; revisa y actualiza los aspectos clínicos fundamentales, complicaciones y tratamiento, con énfasis en la antibioticoterapia. Concluye con su guía de evaluación, enfocada en los aspectos más importantes a cumplir.

Lázaro de la Cruz Avilés; Francisco de Jesús Valladares Carvajal; Brandy Viera Valdés; Pablo Rodríguez Díaz

2009-01-01

116

Are new recommendations on the prevention of infective endocarditis applicable in our environment?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Over half a century ago the process of prevention of infective endocarditis in patients with predisposed cardiac diseases was started. The application of prevention has been based on the fact that infective endocarditis is preceded by bacteraemia, which can be caused by some invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and whose development can be prevented by applying antibiotics before an intervention. According to the latest guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology published this year, prevention is recommended only in high risk patients with previous infective endocarditis, prosthetic valves, cyanotic congenital heart diseases without surgical repair or with residual defects, palliative shunts or conduits, congenital heart diseases with complete repair with prosthetic material up to six months after the procedure (surgery or percutaneous intervention), and when the residual defect persists at the site of implantation of a prosthetic material. In addition, antibiotic prophylaxis is limited to dental procedures with the manipulation of gingival or periapical region of the teeth or perforation of the oral mucosa. Objective. The aim of this testing was to confirm whether these novelties in recommendations were applicable in our environment. Methods. Fifty-seven patients (44 men and 13 women) with infective endocarditis were included in the testing. Infective endocarditis was diagnosed in 68% of patients based on two major criteria and in 32% based on one major and three minor criteria. Results. In 54.4% of patients the entry site of infection could be determined. Twenty-one percent of patients developed infection after a dental intervention, 17.5% of patients the infection occurred after a skin/soft tissue lesion, whereas urinary infection preceded infective endocarditis in 14% of patients and bowel diverticulosis was a possible cause in of 1.75% of patients. In all cases with infective endocarditis preceded by the dental intervention, antibiotic prophylaxis was not applied due to absent data of heart disease or negligence. Conclusion. In our country a high incidence of infective endocarditis following dental procedures has been observed. One of possible reasons is poor oral hygiene. Its improvement and a regular dental control, as well as the individual risk assessment of intervention and conditions under which the intervention is performed could determine risk reduction for the development of infective endocarditis.

Ivanovi? Branislava; Mati? Snežana; Pavlovi? Milorad; Tadi? Marijana; Simi? Dragan

2010-01-01

117

[Surgical intervention in infective endocarditis: indications and timing].  

Science.gov (United States)

A major advance has occurred over recent decades in the treatment strategies for infective endocarditis (IE). A significant part of this progress is due to a clearer knowledge of IE insult patterns; especially those concerning valvular damage and resultant heart failure. Furthermore, the existence of IE unique vegetations ensuring a suitable platform for organism growth and partial antibiotic resistance, has led to an understanding of the limited capacity of antibiotics to treat IE. Accordingly, an increased emphasis on surgical intervention has emerged. Indeed, the last decades were characterized by increased attempts to explore the feasibility and efficacy of surgical approach in IE. The present review is a result of these attempts, summarizing the major indications for surgical intervention in IE, as was recently published by the American Heart Association. Generally, such intervention is warranted in IE complications including: hemodynamically significant valvular damage, paravalvular abscess, continuous infection despite optimal treatment, recurrent emboli and antibiotic-resistant organisms. Recognition of the prognostic influence of pre-treatment heart failure degree has led to the development of early surgical intervention, namely, surgical intervention during the active period of IE. Application of such early intervention has led to survival rates which are significantly higher than achieved by antibiotic treatment per se. PMID:15999562

Rav-Acha, Moshe; Sassa, David; Ilan, Yaron; Milgalter, Eli; Lotan, Chaim

2005-06-01

118

[Surgical intervention in infective endocarditis: indications and timing].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A major advance has occurred over recent decades in the treatment strategies for infective endocarditis (IE). A significant part of this progress is due to a clearer knowledge of IE insult patterns; especially those concerning valvular damage and resultant heart failure. Furthermore, the existence of IE unique vegetations ensuring a suitable platform for organism growth and partial antibiotic resistance, has led to an understanding of the limited capacity of antibiotics to treat IE. Accordingly, an increased emphasis on surgical intervention has emerged. Indeed, the last decades were characterized by increased attempts to explore the feasibility and efficacy of surgical approach in IE. The present review is a result of these attempts, summarizing the major indications for surgical intervention in IE, as was recently published by the American Heart Association. Generally, such intervention is warranted in IE complications including: hemodynamically significant valvular damage, paravalvular abscess, continuous infection despite optimal treatment, recurrent emboli and antibiotic-resistant organisms. Recognition of the prognostic influence of pre-treatment heart failure degree has led to the development of early surgical intervention, namely, surgical intervention during the active period of IE. Application of such early intervention has led to survival rates which are significantly higher than achieved by antibiotic treatment per se.

Rav-Acha M; Sassa D; Ilan Y; Milgalter E; Lotan C

2005-06-01

119

Do not snog the dog: infective endocarditis due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis and paravalvular abscess caused by the canine bacteria Capnocytophaga canimorsus in a 63-year-old man, who made a habit of snogging his pet dog. Capnocytophaga canimorsus can cause culture-negative endocarditis, therefore a high level of clinical awareness and the appropriate isolation techniques are important for making the diagnosis. Antibiotic therapy and properly timed excision of the infected focus are recommended.

Ngaage DL; Kotidis KN; Sandoe JA; Unnikrishnan Nair R

1999-09-01

120

Do not snog the dog: infective endocarditis due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis and paravalvular abscess caused by the canine bacteria Capnocytophaga canimorsus in a 63-year-old man, who made a habit of snogging his pet dog. Capnocytophaga canimorsus can cause culture-negative endocarditis, therefore a high level of clinical awareness and the appropriate isolation techniques are important for making the diagnosis. Antibiotic therapy and properly timed excision of the infected focus are recommended. PMID:10554860

Ngaage, D L; Kotidis, K N; Sandoe, J A; Unnikrishnan Nair, R

1999-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Successful treatment of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus pacemaker lead infective endocarditis with telavancin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging infections caused by vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) isolates are more likely to be associated with treatment failures than infections caused by other types of S. aureus. We present a case of pacemaker lead infective endocarditis caused by a non-daptomycin-susceptible strain of VISA. After 8 weeks of parenteral telavancin therapy, the patient achieved microbiological and clinical cure. PMID:20876369

Marcos, Luis A; Camins, Bernard C

2010-09-27

122

Successful treatment of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus pacemaker lead infective endocarditis with telavancin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Emerging infections caused by vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) isolates are more likely to be associated with treatment failures than infections caused by other types of S. aureus. We present a case of pacemaker lead infective endocarditis caused by a non-daptomycin-susceptible strain of VISA. After 8 weeks of parenteral telavancin therapy, the patient achieved microbiological and clinical cure.

Marcos LA; Camins BC

2010-12-01

123

[Active infective endocarditis complicated by paravalvular abscess. Review of 40 cases].  

Science.gov (United States)

We have performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical, echocardiographic, surgical and necropsy data in 40 patients affected by infective endocarditis complicated by paravalvular abscess. The abscess developed on prosthetic valve in 13 cases, and on native valve in 27. Aortic valve was the most affected (85%). The clinical course was considered to be acute in 52% of the patients. Fever persisted despite of adequate antibiotic therapy in 57%. In 90%, overt heart failure were present. Staphylococcus were the most frequent causative microorganism (S. aureus, 22.5%; S. epidermidis, 20%). Bundle branch or atrioventricular block were detected in 18 patients (sensibility, 45%; specificity, 88%). Bidimensional echocardiography, along with Doppler techniques when necessary, detected an abscess in 81% of patients (sensibility, 80%; specificity, 84%). Thirty patients were operated. Eight of them (26%) died, two intraoperatively. Ten patients were not operated and nine died (90%). The difference was significant (p less than 0.001). Only age and surgical treatment were related to early survival. Over the follow-up of the operated patients, five presented prosthetic dehiscence, but only two required a new operation 3 months after the first intervention, and none died. In conclusion, the detection of a paravalvular abscess complicating an infective endocarditis is an indication for surgical treatment. Both surgical mortality and postoperative prosthetic dehiscence are acceptable. Bidimensional echocardiography is the most reliable tool for the diagnosis of this complication. PMID:1852959

González Vílchez, F J; Martín Durán, R; Delgado Ramis, C; Vázquez de Prada Tiffe, J A; Ochoteco Azcárate, A; Zarauza Navarro, J; Sánchez González, A

1991-05-01

124

[Active infective endocarditis complicated by paravalvular abscess. Review of 40 cases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical, echocardiographic, surgical and necropsy data in 40 patients affected by infective endocarditis complicated by paravalvular abscess. The abscess developed on prosthetic valve in 13 cases, and on native valve in 27. Aortic valve was the most affected (85%). The clinical course was considered to be acute in 52% of the patients. Fever persisted despite of adequate antibiotic therapy in 57%. In 90%, overt heart failure were present. Staphylococcus were the most frequent causative microorganism (S. aureus, 22.5%; S. epidermidis, 20%). Bundle branch or atrioventricular block were detected in 18 patients (sensibility, 45%; specificity, 88%). Bidimensional echocardiography, along with Doppler techniques when necessary, detected an abscess in 81% of patients (sensibility, 80%; specificity, 84%). Thirty patients were operated. Eight of them (26%) died, two intraoperatively. Ten patients were not operated and nine died (90%). The difference was significant (p less than 0.001). Only age and surgical treatment were related to early survival. Over the follow-up of the operated patients, five presented prosthetic dehiscence, but only two required a new operation 3 months after the first intervention, and none died. In conclusion, the detection of a paravalvular abscess complicating an infective endocarditis is an indication for surgical treatment. Both surgical mortality and postoperative prosthetic dehiscence are acceptable. Bidimensional echocardiography is the most reliable tool for the diagnosis of this complication.

González Vílchez FJ; Martín Durán R; Delgado Ramis C; Vázquez de Prada Tiffe JA; Ochoteco Azcárate A; Zarauza Navarro J; Sánchez González A

1991-05-01

125

Swedish guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Swedish guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) by consensus of experts are based on clinical experience and reports from the literature. Recommendations are evidence based. For diagnosis 3 blood cultures should be drawn; chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, and echocardiography preferably transoesophageal should be carried out. Blood cultures should be kept for 5 d and precede intravenous antibiotic therapy. In patients with native valves and suspicion of staphylococcal aetiology, cloxacillin and gentamicin should be given as empirical treatment. If non-staphylococcal etiology is most probable, penicillin G and gentamicin treatment should be started. In patients with prosthetic valves treatment with vancomycin, gentamicin and rifampicin is recommended. Patients with blood culture negative IE are recommended penicillin G (changed to cefuroxime in treatment failure) and gentamicin for native valve IE and vancomycin, gentamicin and rifampicin for prosthetic valve IE, respectively. Isolates of viridans group streptococci and enterococci should be subtyped and MIC should be determined for penicillin G and aminoglycosides. Antibiotic treatment should be chosen according to sensitivity pattern given 2-6 weeks intravenously. Cardiac valve surgery should be considered early, especially in patients with left-sided IE and/or prosthetic heart valves. Absolute indications for surgery are severe heart failure, paravalvular abscess, lack of response to antibiotic therapy, unstable prosthesis and multiple embolies. Follow-up echocardiography should be performed on clinical indications.

Westling K; Aufwerber E; Ekdahl C; Friman G; Gårdlund B; Julander I; Olaison L; Olesund C; Rundström H; Snygg-Martin U; Thalme A; Werner M; Hogevik H

2007-01-01

126

Swedish guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Swedish guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) by consensus of experts are based on clinical experience and reports from the literature. Recommendations are evidence based. For diagnosis 3 blood cultures should be drawn; chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, and echocardiography preferably transoesophageal should be carried out. Blood cultures should be kept for 5 d and precede intravenous antibiotic therapy. In patients with native valves and suspicion of staphylococcal aetiology, cloxacillin and gentamicin should be given as empirical treatment. If non-staphylococcal etiology is most probable, penicillin G and gentamicin treatment should be started. In patients with prosthetic valves treatment with vancomycin, gentamicin and rifampicin is recommended. Patients with blood culture negative IE are recommended penicillin G (changed to cefuroxime in treatment failure) and gentamicin for native valve IE and vancomycin, gentamicin and rifampicin for prosthetic valve IE, respectively. Isolates of viridans group streptococci and enterococci should be subtyped and MIC should be determined for penicillin G and aminoglycosides. Antibiotic treatment should be chosen according to sensitivity pattern given 2-6 weeks intravenously. Cardiac valve surgery should be considered early, especially in patients with left-sided IE and/or prosthetic heart valves. Absolute indications for surgery are severe heart failure, paravalvular abscess, lack of response to antibiotic therapy, unstable prosthesis and multiple embolies. Follow-up echocardiography should be performed on clinical indications. PMID:18027277

Westling, Katarina; Aufwerber, Ewa; Ekdahl, Christer; Friman, Göran; Gårdlund, Bengt; Julander, Inger; Olaison, Lars; Olesund, Christina; Rundström, Hanna; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Thalme, Anders; Werner, Maria; Hogevik, Harriet

2007-01-01

127

[Novel clinical and epidemiologic trends in elderly infective endocarditis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The age of peak incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) has shifted from 45 years in the 50's to 70 years at the present time. Elderly persons carry a five times higher risk of IE than the general adult population. Factors accounting for this phenomenon include increased use of invasive procedures and implanted medical devices as well as a higher prevalence of degenerative valve disease. In the elderly, IE onset may be insidious, often masked by one or more underlying conditions such as cancer, diabetes and chronic organ failure, hence the diagnosis may be delayed. The leading pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus, more frequently methicillin-resistant, although Streptococcus bovis and enterococci are gaining prevalence. Vascular phenomena and embolic events are less common in the elderly, probably due to a lessened acute phase response and a larger use of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs. Because of diminished renal clearance, antibiotics should be carefully titrated in aged IE patients. Cardiac surgery is performed less often in elderly IE due to poor preoperative conditions. Indeed, both these factors may account for the higher mortality rate, that is twice that of younger IE patients. Notwithstanding, age > or = 65 years has been found to be an independent predictor of mortality. Prophylactic measures residing mostly on the prevention of health-care associated acquisition need to be more widely implemented in this growing subgroup of IE patients. PMID:19708302

Durante Mangoni, Emanuele; Utili, Riccardo

2009-06-01

128

[Novel clinical and epidemiologic trends in elderly infective endocarditis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The age of peak incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) has shifted from 45 years in the 50's to 70 years at the present time. Elderly persons carry a five times higher risk of IE than the general adult population. Factors accounting for this phenomenon include increased use of invasive procedures and implanted medical devices as well as a higher prevalence of degenerative valve disease. In the elderly, IE onset may be insidious, often masked by one or more underlying conditions such as cancer, diabetes and chronic organ failure, hence the diagnosis may be delayed. The leading pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus, more frequently methicillin-resistant, although Streptococcus bovis and enterococci are gaining prevalence. Vascular phenomena and embolic events are less common in the elderly, probably due to a lessened acute phase response and a larger use of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs. Because of diminished renal clearance, antibiotics should be carefully titrated in aged IE patients. Cardiac surgery is performed less often in elderly IE due to poor preoperative conditions. Indeed, both these factors may account for the higher mortality rate, that is twice that of younger IE patients. Notwithstanding, age > or = 65 years has been found to be an independent predictor of mortality. Prophylactic measures residing mostly on the prevention of health-care associated acquisition need to be more widely implemented in this growing subgroup of IE patients.

Durante Mangoni E; Utili R

2009-06-01

129

[Infective endocarditis--maybe yes, maybe no: case report].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare disease which manifests in different ways. CASE OUTLINE: We are presenting a female patient who was suspected of IE based on the presence of fever, accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, increased levels of C-reactive protein and echocardiographic findings of filamentous structures on the aortic valve which were assumed to be vegetation. Because of the well-known fact that in the pre-antibiotic era IE was almost always a fatal disease, empirical antibiotic therapy was conducted despite the absence of clear criteria for IE and it resulted in a satisfactory outcome. The course of the disease and the persistence of echocardiographic findings with a completely competent aortic valve, suggested us to consider the diagnosis of Lambl's excrescences. There was no indication for surgical treatment in our patient; so that in the absence of pathological confirmation our diagnostic dilemma was left unresolved. CONCLUSION: In patients with typical clinical features of IE and filamentous structures on the cardiac valves that are completely competent, Lambl's excrescences should be kept in mind as a possible differential diagnosis.

Ivanovi? B; Tadi? M; Orbovi? B; Petrovi? M

2013-01-01

130

Risk factors for failure of outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) in infective endocarditis  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To identify risk factors for failure of outpatient antibiotic therapy (OPAT) in infective endocarditis (IE). Patients and methods We identified IE cases managed at a single centre over 12 years from a prospectively maintained database. ‘OPAT failure’ was defined as unplanned readmission or antibiotic switch due to adverse drug reaction or antibiotic resistance. We analysed patient and disease-related risk factors for OPAT failure by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. We also retrospectively collected follow-up data on adverse disease outcome (defined as IE-related death or relapse) and performed Kaplan–Meier survival analysis up to 36 months following OPAT. Results We identified 80 episodes of OPAT in IE. Failure occurred in 25/80 episodes (31.3%). On multivariate analysis, cardiac or renal failure [pooled OR 7.39 (95% CI 1.84–29.66), P?=?0.005] and teicoplanin therapy [OR 8.69 (95% CI 2.01–37.47), P?=?0.004] were independently associated with increased OPAT failure. OPAT failure with teicoplanin occurred despite therapeutic plasma levels. OPAT failure predicted adverse disease outcome up to 36 months (P?=?0.016 log-rank test). Conclusions These data caution against selecting patients with endocarditis for OPAT in the presence of cardiac or renal failure and suggest teicoplanin therapy may be associated with suboptimal OPAT outcomes. Alternative regimens to teicoplanin in the OPAT setting should be further investigated.

Duncan, Christopher J. A.; Barr, David A.; Ho, Antonia; Sharp, Emma; Semple, Lindsay; Seaton, R. Andrew

2013-01-01

131

Infective endocarditis in children without underlying heart disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Although pre-existing heart disease is the main predisposing factor for pediatric infective endocarditis (IE), cases of IE in children without underlying heart disease have been increasingly reported. This study reviews the clinical and laboratory characteristics of pediatric IE patients with and without underlying heart disease, and presents the unique features of patients with no apparent pre-existing heart disease. METHODS: Children who were admitted to our hospital from January 1991 to April 2011 and met the Modified Duke criteria for definite or possible IE were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical characteristics and laboratory data were collected by chart review. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients with a total of 48 episodes of IE were enrolled. Of these patients, 31 children (64.6%) had congenital heart disease (CHD), six (12.5%) had non-CHD chronic disease, and eleven (22.9%) were previously healthy adolescents. Five patients with non-CHD chronic conditions acquired infection from central catheter: two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), two Candida albicans and one coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS). The microbial pathogens in 11 previously healthy individuals were Streptococcus viridans (n = 3), methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA, n = 2), Haemophilus parainfluenzae (n = 2), Staphylococcus lugdunensis (n = 1), Enterococcus (n = 1), and Diphtheroid (n = 1). In total, five of 17 non-CHD patients were infected with S. aureus (two MRSA and three MSSA) and the vegetations in these five patients were detected in the right side of the heart (tricuspid valve or right atrium). The average interval between onset of symptoms and diagnosis of IE in the CHD and previously healthy groups was 18 and 31 days, respectively. Patients in the previously healthy group were older and more often required surgical interventions for removal of vegetation. CONCLUSION: Over one-third (35.4%) of cases of IE in children occurred in patients without pre-existing cardiac disease. Early identification of these patients is critical and requires a high index of suspicion. The pathogenesis of IE in previously healthy individuals is still uncertain, but previous skin infection or dental problems may contribute to potential risk.

Lin YT; Hsieh KS; Chen YS; Huang IF; Cheng MF

2013-04-01

132

Conservative surgical treatment for active infective tricuspid valve endocarditis according to the "clover technique".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: This prospective study was undertaken to analyze the outcomes of conservative surgery with the "clover technique" for active infective tricuspid valve endocarditis. METHODS: Five consecutive patients underwent surgery for active infective tricuspid valve endocarditis. The mean age was 36.6 years. Four of the patients were men. In all patients, the tricuspid valve had become mutilated and infected. One patient had associated mitral endocarditis, and one had aortic endocarditis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterial species. Conservative surgery was indicated in all patients with infection limited to the leaflets and/or subvalvular apparatus of the tricuspid valve. Total resection of infected tissues was achieved in all cases. The tricuspid valve was then reconstructed according to the clover technique. A tricuspid annular ring was used in 2 patients. RESULTS: All 5 patients survived surgery. Intraoperative transesophageal and predischarge transthoracic echocardiographic evaluations showed good results in all patients. The mean follow-up time was 26.4 +/- 12.5 months. No recurrent bacterial tricuspid endocarditis occurred during follow-up. All patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I. A transthoracic echocardiography evaluation at the latest control examination showed trivial leakage (3 patients) or no residual regurgitation (2 patients); no transvalvular gradient was found in any of the patients. No tricuspid valve calcification has been detected to date. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging analyses showed no postoperative void flow and confirmed the preservation of right ventricular function and thus the reliability of this technique. CONCLUSIONS: This novel technique is indicated for tricuspid valve endocarditis and should be considered as an adequate approach in cases of uncontrollable infection involving the tricuspid valve that is responsible for extended valve destruction.

Fayad G; Modine T; Lions C; Polge AS; Azzaoui R; Larrue B; Decoene C; Leroy O; Senneville E; Beregi JP; Warembourg H

2008-01-01

133

Myocardial oxidative stress in patients with active infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) induces the rise of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Some of them can stimulate oxidants production in myocardium with subsequent peroxidative damage to various biomolecules. We compared indices of oxidative stress: H2O2, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs), thiols in myocardium specimens between patients with active IE and those with valvular heart disease (VHD) of rheumatic etiology who underwent surgical valve replacement. METHODS: 17 left ventricle papillary muscle specimens and 28 specimens of auricle of the right heart were collected from 45IE patients, and 16 papillary muscle and 12 auricle specimens from 28 VHD patients, respectively. Patients groups had similar NYHA functional class and majority of echocardiographic indices of heart morphology. H2O2 and TBARs were determined fluorometrically in myocardium homogenates whereas thiols with photometric method. Between and within groups comparisons and mutual correlations between variables were analyzed. RESULTS: H2O2 generation from all myocardium specimens and auricles was 2.14- and 2.59- times higher (p<0.001) in IE patients than in VHD group. Auricles had the highest H2O2 levels within IE group. TBARs were 10-times higher (p<0.05) in IE when compared to VHD group in auricles and papillary muscles. Thiols did not differ between groups. H2O2 positively correlated with TBARs and negatively with thiols in all IE myocardium specimens (r=0.31 and r=-0.46, p<0.05) and auricles (r=0.58 and r=-0.67, p<0.05), respectively. No such associations were noted in VHD specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Active IE induces enhanced myocardial production of H2O2 and formation of TBARs which proves occurrence of oxidative stress in the heart.

Ostrowski S; Kasielski M; Kordiak J; Zwolinska A; Wlodarczyk A; Nowak D

2013-07-01

134

Neuropsychiatric manifestations of infective endocarditis: a study of 95 patients at Ibadan, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-eight percent of patients with infective endocarditis (36 of 95) had neuropsychiatric manifestations. In 75% (27 of 36), these features were the major presenting picture. Fifteen patients (42%) presented with cerebrovascular lesions and seven (19%) with meningitis. Toxic encephalopathy (12.5%) was not uncommon. Other neurological syndromes seen included psychosis and spinal cord lesions. The mortality was high especially when the infective endocarditis was acute in onset. It is essential to search diligently for an underlying cardiac cause in patients who present with neuropsychiatric symptoms because treatment of the underlying pathology improves prognosis. PMID:932750

Bademosi, O; Falase, A O; Jaiyesimi, F; Bademosi, A

1976-04-01

135

Neuropsychiatric manifestations of infective endocarditis: a study of 95 patients at Ibadan, Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirty-eight percent of patients with infective endocarditis (36 of 95) had neuropsychiatric manifestations. In 75% (27 of 36), these features were the major presenting picture. Fifteen patients (42%) presented with cerebrovascular lesions and seven (19%) with meningitis. Toxic encephalopathy (12.5%) was not uncommon. Other neurological syndromes seen included psychosis and spinal cord lesions. The mortality was high especially when the infective endocarditis was acute in onset. It is essential to search diligently for an underlying cardiac cause in patients who present with neuropsychiatric symptoms because treatment of the underlying pathology improves prognosis.

Bademosi O; Falase AO; Jaiyesimi F; Bademosi A

1976-04-01

136

Infective endocarditis caused by Cellulomonas spp. in an intravenous drug user: case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cellulomonas spp. are often believed to be of low virulence. There are only a few reports of human infections. We report the first case of endocarditis caused by Cellulomonas in an intravenous drug abuser. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) in this case was definite using the Duke criteria. The course of the disease was complicated with a heart failure and possible mycotic aneurysm in the left leg. After the end of antimicrobial therapy aortic valve replacement was done because of severe heart failure.

Logar M; Lejko-Zupanc T

2013-06-01

137

Tetralogy of Fallot with infective endocarditis: an echocardiographic explanation of misleading clinical signs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Echocardiography has a known key role in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, the diagnosis of complications, follow-up evaluation after therapy, and prognostic assessment Habib (Eur J Echocardiogr 11:202-219, 3). This report describes a boy with tetralogy of Fallot who presented with infective endocarditis and large vegetation occluding the ventricular septal defect, thus resulting in a hemodynamically restrictive ventriculoseptal defect with misleading clinical signs. This case illustrates the role of echocardiography in both explaining clinical signs and providing hemodynamic data.

Goel PK; Moorthy N; Bhatia T

2012-04-01

138

Infective endocarditis caused by Cellulomonas spp. in an intravenous drug user: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulomonas spp. are often believed to be of low virulence. There are only a few reports of human infections. We report the first case of endocarditis caused by Cellulomonas in an intravenous drug abuser. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) in this case was definite using the Duke criteria. The course of the disease was complicated with a heart failure and possible mycotic aneurysm in the left leg. After the end of antimicrobial therapy aortic valve replacement was done because of severe heart failure. PMID:23653152

Logar, Mateja; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana

2013-05-08

139

Infective endocarditis and osteomyelitis caused by Cellulomonas: a case report and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulomonas spp. are often believed to be of low virulence and have never been reported as a pathogen causing human disease before. We report the first case of endocarditis caused by Cellulomonas and complicated with osteomyelitis of the lumbar spine in a 78-year-old woman. General weakness and aggravated lower back pain followed by sudden-onset of fever and chills were the major presentation. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis in this case was definitely using the Duke criteria. The magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine revealed infective spondylodisciitis at an early stage. After a full course of antibiotics treatment, the patient's fever subsided but her lower back pain persisted. A slow clinical response to appropriate antimicrobial agents was characteristic of Gram-positive bacillary endocarditis. PMID:19748430

Lai, Ping-Chang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung

2009-10-01

140

Infective endocarditis and osteomyelitis caused by Cellulomonas: a case report and review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cellulomonas spp. are often believed to be of low virulence and have never been reported as a pathogen causing human disease before. We report the first case of endocarditis caused by Cellulomonas and complicated with osteomyelitis of the lumbar spine in a 78-year-old woman. General weakness and aggravated lower back pain followed by sudden-onset of fever and chills were the major presentation. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis in this case was definitely using the Duke criteria. The magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine revealed infective spondylodisciitis at an early stage. After a full course of antibiotics treatment, the patient's fever subsided but her lower back pain persisted. A slow clinical response to appropriate antimicrobial agents was characteristic of Gram-positive bacillary endocarditis.

Lai PC; Chen YS; Lee SS

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Modifiers of Symptomatic Embolic Risk in Infective Endocarditis  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the impact of prior antiplatelet and statin therapy on symptomatic embolic events in native valve infective endocarditis (IE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied a retrospective cohort of adult patients with a diagnosis of IE who presented to Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2006. Patients were grouped into those who received treatment before infection or controls who did not receive treatment for both antiplatelet therapy and, separately, statin therapy. Because of the retrospective study design and thus the nonrandomized treatment groups, a propensity score approach was used to account for the confounding factors that may have influenced treatment allocation. Antiplatelet therapy included aspirin, dipyridamole, clopidogrel, ticlopidine or any combination of these agents. Statin therapy included atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin, rosuvastatin, or fluvastatin. The primary end point was a symptomatic embolic event that occurred before or during hospitalization. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the propensity-adjusted effects of continuous daily therapy with antiplatelet and statin agents on risk of symptomatic emboli. Likewise, Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for an independent association with 6-month mortality for each of the treatments. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 283 patients with native valve IE. Twenty-eight patients (24.1%) who received prior continuous antiplatelet therapy developed a symptomatic embolic event compared with 66 (39.5%) who did not receive such treatment. After adjusting for propensity to treat, the effect of antiplatelet therapy on embolic risk was not statistically significant (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-1.36; P=.30). Only 14 patients (18.2%) who received prior continuous statin therapy developed a symptomatic embolic event compared with 80 (39.4%) of the 203 patients who did not. After adjusting for propensity to treat with statin therapy, the benefit attributable to statins was significant (odds ratio, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.14-0.62; P=.001). The 6-month mortality rate of the entire cohort was 28% (95% CI, 23%-34%). No significant difference was found in the propensity-adjusted rate of 6-month mortality between patients who had and had not undergone prior antiplatelet therapy (P=.91) or those who had and had not undergone prior statin therapy (P=.87). CONCLUSION: The rate of symptomatic emboli associated with IE was reduced in patients who received continuous daily statin therapy before onset of IE. Despite fewer embolic events observed in patients who received antiplatelet agents, a significant association was not found after adjusting for propensity factors. A continued evaluation of these drugs and their potential impact on subsequent embolism among IE patients is warranted.

Anavekar, Nandan S.; Schultz, Jason C.; De Sa, Daniel D. Correa; Thomas, Justin M.; Lahr, Brian D.; Tleyjeh, Imad M.; Steckelberg, James M.; Wilson, Walter R.; Baddour, Larry M.

2011-01-01

142

Surgical treatment of active infective aortic valve endocarditis with associated periannular abscess--11 year results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term results of allograft and prosthetic valve replacement in the treatment of infective aortic valve endocarditis with periannular abscess. METHODS: Between March 1988 and March 1996, 65 patients underwent surgery for active aortic valve endocarditis and paravalvular abscess. The indications for surgery were congestive heart failure, systemic emboli and atrioventricular block III. The pre-operative evaluation was performed with transoesophageal echocardiography. Aortic valve replacement was performed with allografts in 47 cases, with mechanical valves in 15, and bioprosthetic valves in three cases. All patients with total ventricular-aortic dehiscence and prosthetic valve endocarditis were treated with allografts. RESULTS: The 30-day mortality rate was 23.5% in the prosthetic group, when compared with 8.5% in the patients treated with allografts. The rate of recurrent valve infections during the 11-year follow-up period was 27.1% in the prosthetic group and 3.2% in the allograft group. The actuarial 11-year survival rate was 82.1% in the allograft group and 64.7% in the prosthetic group. CONCLUSION: Aortic allografts are an effective treatment for infective aortic valve endocarditis with associated periannular abscess. The operative mortality and recurrent infection rates are lower than in the prosthetic group, resulting in a significantly higher survival rate. Diagnosis and surgical management of these cases should be based on pre-operative transoesophageal echocardiography.

Knosalla C; Weng Y; Yankah AC; Siniawski H; Hofmeister J; Hammerschmidt R; Loebe M; Hetzer R

2000-03-01

143

Perivalvular Abscess of Tricuspid Valve: A Rare Complication of Infective Endocarditis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Infective endocarditis is a serious complication of intravenous (IV) drug abuse, with a reported mortality of 5 to 10%. A 21-year-old man, who was an intravenous drug abuser, presented with fever and dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a highly mobile, large vegetation on the anterior lea...

Ali Reza Moaref; Yadallah Mahmoody; Khallil Zarrabie

144

Prophylaxis for infective endocarditis. Who needs it? How effective is it?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To review guidelines for using antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infective endocarditis, and to present recent changes and controversies regarding these guidelines. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Data are from physiologic and in vitro studies, as well as studies of animal models, and from retrospec...

Press, N.; Montessori, V.

145

Infective endocarditis, thoracic aortitis, and mycotic aneurysm formation complicating balloon angioplasty of aortic coarctation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coarctation of the aorta is a rare congenital anomaly usually accompanying bicuspid aortic valve. Adult patients with aortic coarctation can be managed either with surgery or percutaneously. Here we present a case of percutaneously treated aortic coarctation complicated with infective endocarditis of the aortic valve, thoracic aortitis, and thoracic mycotic aneurysm.

Aykan AÇ; Y?ld?z M; Özkan M

2013-02-01

146

What is the effect of penicillin dosing interval on outcomes in streptococcal infective endocarditis?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Penicillin is an important treatment option for streptococcal infective endocarditis (IE), but its short half-life requires frequent re-dosing (4- or 6-hourly). There is a variation between the dosing regimens in different guidelines and consequent differences in the dosing interval. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the penicillin dosing interval and outcomes in streptococcal IE. METHODS: A retrospective study of cases of streptococcal IE was undertaken using the Leeds Endocarditis Service database. Cases were included if the first-line therapy had been penicillin and excluded if patients had received less than 72 h of therapy. Details of antimicrobial therapy and outcomes were collated using strict definitions. Various parameters were considered as independent variables in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Univariate analysis of categorical data was carried out using a ?(2) test, and analysis of continuous data using an unpaired t-test. RESULTS: Two hundred and twelve cases were included in the final analysis. Of the parameters considered, a 4-hourly dosing interval [unadjusted OR?=?2.79 (95% CI 1.43-5.62)] and initial echocardiographic evidence of abscess or severe valve regurgitation [unadjusted OR?=?0.30 (95% CI 0.13-0.66)] were the only statistically significant factors associated with the success or failure of penicillin therapy. The odds of a successful outcome were almost three times greater with a 4-hourly regimen than with a 6-hourly regimen. Failure of penicillin therapy had no correlation with the MIC of penicillin or the concurrent administration of gentamicin. CONCLUSIONS: Penicillin continues to be an effective therapy for IE. This study suggests that a 4-hourly dosing interval may be relevant in predicting the success of initial medical therapy. Further prospective studies are warranted to evaluate relationships in more detail.

Sandoe JA; Patel PA; Baig MW; West R

2013-06-01

147

Culture-negative endocarditis: contribution of bartonella infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two cases of bartonella endocarditis are described: one in a 55 year old homeless alcoholic man, caused by Bartonella quintana; the other in a 41 year old male with a history of exposure to cat fleas, caused by B henselae. Serological testing and polymerase chain reaction of the excised valves were used to identify the organisms. False positive serology for chlamydia was detected in one case.

Breathnach AS; Hoare JM; Eykyn SJ

1997-05-01

148

Cardiobacterium valvarum infective endocarditis and phenotypic/molecular characterization of 11 Cardiobacterium species strains  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cardiobacterium valvarum is a newly recognized human pathogen related to infective endocarditis. Cardiobacterium species are, however, only rarely the aetiology of infective endocarditis. An infective endocarditis case is presented and, additionally, phenotypic and phylogenetic comparison of a further 10 collection strains, representing the two species within the genus, was performed. C. valvarum was isolated from the blood and DNA was present in valvular tissue (partial 16S rRNA gene analysis) from a 64-year-old man with infective endocarditis of the mitral valve, rupture of chordae and prolapse of pulmonary valves in addition to a fluttering excrescence. A mechanical mitral valve and neochordae were inserted successfully. Phenotypically, the two species within the genus Cardiobacterium resemble each other greatly. When using the Vitek 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus identification card, the reaction for phenylphosphonate was positive for all Cardiobacterium hominis strains, but negative for all C. valvarum strains,thereby separating the two species. The two species made up two separate clusters by phylogenetic examination using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

Chen, Ming; Kemp, Michael

2011-01-01

149

Review of patients with infective endocarditis of native valves over a five-year period.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical characteristics, echocardiographic features, bacteriologic data, morbidity and mortality of patients who were admitted to our hospital with infective endocarditis of their native valves over a five-year period were reviewed. There were 32 patients with a mean age of 38.2 +/- 16.2 years (range: 17 to 71 years) in our study population; 24 patients had underlying valvular abnormalities, six patients had congenital heart disease and two patients had no structural cardiac abnormality. Echocardiography was performed for all patients. Vegetations were absent in three (9.4%) patients, single in 19 (59.4%) patients and multiple in ten (31.3%) patients. Of the 24 (75%) patients who had left-sided endocarditis, mitral valve disease was the commonest valvular abnormality (16 patients). Ventricular septal defect was the commonest underlying abnormality in patients with right-sided endocarditis. Blood cultures were positive in 26 (81.3%) patients; the commonest organism was streptococcal (16 or 50% patients). Complications were present in 13 (40.6%) patients, of which eight patients had evidence of embolism, four patients had cardiac failure and one patient had a paravalvular abscess. Four (12.5%) patients died, two as a result of refractory heart failure and two as a consequence of septic embolism. Advances in medicine have resulted in a better outcome for patients with infective endocarditis, however, it remains an important disease with significant morbidity and mortality. PMID:8373107

Lim, M C; Tan, T Z; Choo, M; Lim, Y T; Soo, C S; Ling, L H

1993-05-01

150

Review of patients with infective endocarditis of native valves over a five-year period.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The clinical characteristics, echocardiographic features, bacteriologic data, morbidity and mortality of patients who were admitted to our hospital with infective endocarditis of their native valves over a five-year period were reviewed. There were 32 patients with a mean age of 38.2 +/- 16.2 years (range: 17 to 71 years) in our study population; 24 patients had underlying valvular abnormalities, six patients had congenital heart disease and two patients had no structural cardiac abnormality. Echocardiography was performed for all patients. Vegetations were absent in three (9.4%) patients, single in 19 (59.4%) patients and multiple in ten (31.3%) patients. Of the 24 (75%) patients who had left-sided endocarditis, mitral valve disease was the commonest valvular abnormality (16 patients). Ventricular septal defect was the commonest underlying abnormality in patients with right-sided endocarditis. Blood cultures were positive in 26 (81.3%) patients; the commonest organism was streptococcal (16 or 50% patients). Complications were present in 13 (40.6%) patients, of which eight patients had evidence of embolism, four patients had cardiac failure and one patient had a paravalvular abscess. Four (12.5%) patients died, two as a result of refractory heart failure and two as a consequence of septic embolism. Advances in medicine have resulted in a better outcome for patients with infective endocarditis, however, it remains an important disease with significant morbidity and mortality.

Lim MC; Tan TZ; Choo M; Lim YT; Soo CS; Ling LH

1993-05-01

151

[Infective endocarditis as a form of late presentation of congenital heart disease].  

Science.gov (United States)

A diagnosis of congenital heart disease is usually established at an early age, so infective endocarditis is a rare form of presentation. The authors describe the case of a male adolescent with a week-long history of intermittent fever and unquantified weight loss. Physical examination detected pansystolic and diastolic murmurs, and an associated precordial thrill. Laboratory tests showed evidence of an active infection. Etiological investigation revealed a perimembranous ventricular septal defect, aortic regurgitation, and aortic and mitral valve vegetations. A diagnosis of mitral-aortic infective endocarditis was made and he was started on intravenous antibiotics and anticongestive therapy. After initial clinical improvement, he developed symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure. Repeat echocardiography showed an extensive mitral-aortic paravalvular abscess. The antibiotics were changed and anticongestive therapy was intensified, and he subsequently underwent surgery. The outcome has been generally favorable, and at present he is asymptomatic under anticongestive therapy. PMID:23347824

Vaz Silva, Patrícia; Castro Marinho, Joana; Martins, Paula; Santos, Isabel; Pires, António; Sousa, Graça; Castela, Eduardo

2013-01-22

152

Mitral valve repair for Staphylococcus lugdunensis infective endocarditis: report of a case.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 55-year-old male with an intermittent high-grade fever was diagnosed with infective endocarditis. He was indicated for surgery because periodic echocardiography revealed worsening mitral regurgitation and growing vegetation despite medication. An aneurysm of the P2 portion and all vegetations were removed via quadrangular resection of the P2 leaflet, and then the defect was repaired. An intraoperative assessment identified Staphylococcus lugdunensis as the causative bacterium. After postoperative antibiotic therapy for 5 weeks, the patient was discharged without either mitral regurgitation or signs of infection. Infective endocarditis caused by aggressive and destructive S. lugdunensis should be promptly and accurately treated via a surgical approach that prevents progressive tissue destruction and simplifies the surgical procedure for repair, rather than replacement.

Ishida N; Shimabukuro K; Matsuno Y; Higashi T; Takemura H

2013-06-01

153

Mitral valve repair for Staphylococcus lugdunensis infective endocarditis: report of a case.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 55-year-old male with an intermittent high-grade fever was diagnosed with infective endocarditis. He was indicated for surgery because periodic echocardiography revealed worsening mitral regurgitation and growing vegetation despite medication. An aneurysm of the P2 portion and all vegetations were removed via quadrangular resection of the P2 leaflet, and then the defect was repaired. An intraoperative assessment identified Staphylococcus lugdunensis as the causative bacterium. After postoperative antibiotic therapy for 5 weeks, the patient was discharged without either mitral regurgitation or signs of infection. Infective endocarditis caused by aggressive and destructive S. lugdunensis should be promptly and accurately treated via a surgical approach that prevents progressive tissue destruction and simplifies the surgical procedure for repair, rather than replacement. PMID:23744242

Ishida, Narihiro; Shimabukuro, Katsuya; Matsuno, Yukihiro; Higashi, Toshiya; Takemura, Hirofumi

2013-06-01

154

Infective endocarditis in the U.S., 1998-2009: a nationwide study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies based on local case series estimated the annual incidence of endocarditis in the U.S. at about 4 per 100,000 population. Small-scale studies elsewhere have reported similar incidence rates. However, no nationally-representative population-based studies have verified these estimates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using the 1998-2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, which provides diagnoses from about 8 million U.S. hospitalizations annually, we examined endocarditis hospitalizations, bacteriology, co-morbidities, outcomes and costs. Hospital admissions for endocarditis rose from 25,511 in 1998 to 38, 976 in 2009 (12.7 per 100,000 population in 2009). The age-adjusted endocarditis admission rate increased 2.4% annually. The proportion of patients with intra-cardiac devices rose from 13.3% to 18.9%, while the share with drug use and/or HIV fell. Mortality remained stable at about 14.5%, as did cardiac valve replacement (9.6%). Other serious complications increased; 13.3% of patients in 2009 suffered a stroke or CNS infection, and 5.5% suffered myocardial infarction. Amongst cases with identified pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus was the most common, increasing from 37.6% in 1998 to 49.3% in 2009, 53.3% of which were MRSA. Streptococci were mentioned in 24.7% of cases, gram-negatives in 5.6% and Candida species in 1.0%. We detected no inflection in hospitalization rates after changes in prophylaxis recommendations in 2007. Mean age rose from 58.6 to 60.8 years; elderly patients suffered higher rates of myocardial infarction and death, but slightly lower rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections and neurologic complications. Our study relied on clinically diagnosed cases of endocarditis that may not meet strict criteria. Moreover, since some patients are discharged and readmitted during a single episode of endocarditis, our hospitalization figures probably slightly overstate the true incidence of this illness. CONCLUSIONS: Endocarditis is more common in the U.S. than previously believed, and is steadily increasing. Preventive efforts should focus on device-associated and health-care-associated infections.

Bor DH; Woolhandler S; Nardin R; Brusch J; Himmelstein DU

2013-01-01

155

Duration of symptoms and the effects of a more aggressive surgical policy: two factors affecting prognosis of infective endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and six patients were analysed in order to assess the effect of a more aggressive surgical policy in relation to the delays in diagnosis of infective endocarditis. The average duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 9.7 weeks, even though the patients had sought medical advice at a relatively early stage of their illness (2.2 weeks). Three of the 29 (10.3%) patients who were treated surgically died and all three were operated upon five weeks or later after diagnosis. Seventy-seven patients did not have surgery and 15 died (19.5%). The outcome of surgical treatment for prosthetic valve endocarditis was no worse than for native valve endocarditis. The mortality of prosthetic valve endocarditis including early infections was 32% with medical but only 10% with surgical management compared with 14.5% and 10.5% in native valve endocarditis. Endocarditis cannot always be prevented but earlier diagnosis would reduce mortality and prevent complications. When medical treatment is failing then surgery should be considered early and urgently particularly in staphylococcal infection or when large mobile vegetations are recognized; surgery is mandatory in fungal endocarditis. Earlier diagnosis would greatly reduce the current high incidence of surgery, but that depends on a much heightened index of suspicion amongst both general practitioners and hospital physicians. PMID:4043095

Nihoyannopoulos, P; Oakley, C M; Exadactylos, N; Ribeiro, P; Westaby, S; Foale, R A

1985-05-01

156

Duration of symptoms and the effects of a more aggressive surgical policy: two factors affecting prognosis of infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One hundred and six patients were analysed in order to assess the effect of a more aggressive surgical policy in relation to the delays in diagnosis of infective endocarditis. The average duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 9.7 weeks, even though the patients had sought medical advice at a relatively early stage of their illness (2.2 weeks). Three of the 29 (10.3%) patients who were treated surgically died and all three were operated upon five weeks or later after diagnosis. Seventy-seven patients did not have surgery and 15 died (19.5%). The outcome of surgical treatment for prosthetic valve endocarditis was no worse than for native valve endocarditis. The mortality of prosthetic valve endocarditis including early infections was 32% with medical but only 10% with surgical management compared with 14.5% and 10.5% in native valve endocarditis. Endocarditis cannot always be prevented but earlier diagnosis would reduce mortality and prevent complications. When medical treatment is failing then surgery should be considered early and urgently particularly in staphylococcal infection or when large mobile vegetations are recognized; surgery is mandatory in fungal endocarditis. Earlier diagnosis would greatly reduce the current high incidence of surgery, but that depends on a much heightened index of suspicion amongst both general practitioners and hospital physicians.

Nihoyannopoulos P; Oakley CM; Exadactylos N; Ribeiro P; Westaby S; Foale RA

1985-05-01

157

Usefulness of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio to Predict In-hospital Outcomes in Infective Endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an independent predictor of worse prognosis in both infectious and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that an increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio at admission would predict in-hospital unfavourable outcomes in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic data in a total of 121 consecutive adult patients (64 men; mean age, 54.7 ± 14.2 years) with definite IE. RESULTS: Among all patients, the prespecified clinical outcomes were experienced in 46 patients (38%). In-hospital mortality and central nervous system (CNS) events occurred in 29 (24%) and 21 patients (17%), respectively. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio at admission was found to be significantly higher for either composite end point. On using multiple Cox regression analysis, vegetation size ? 10 mm, end-stage renal disease, Staphylococcus aureus infection, low hemoglobin level, increased C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio at admission emerged as independent predictors of in-hospital unfavourable outcomes. In the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, a neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio > 7.1 had 80% sensitivity and 83% specificity in predicting adverse outcomes. CONCLUSION: High neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio at admission is an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality and CNS events in patients with IE. However, prospective validation of these findings is required.

Turak O; Ozcan F; I?leyen A; Ba?ar FN; Gül M; Yilmaz S; Sökmen E; Yüzgeçer H; Lafçi G; Topalo?lu S; Aydo?du S

2013-08-01

158

Treatment of Gram-positive left-sided infective endocarditis with daptomycin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of daptomycin in left-sided infective endocarditis (IE) patients. Fourteen patients with left heart endocarditis, monitored with a diagnosis of IE based on modified Duke criteria between July 2010 and May 2011, and receiving daptomycin as monotherapy, were enrolled. The success of daptomycin in these patients was revealed with improvements in microbiological, biochemical, and radiologic findings, as well as physical examination findings. Patient average age was 63.5 ± 14.2 years (36-80 years); 8 (57 %) were men and 6 (43 %) women. The pathogens methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (71.5 %), Streptococcus mutans (21.5 %), and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (7 %) were isolated from our patients. Daptomycin was used in initial treatment in 5 (36 %) patients; treatment was subsequently modified to daptomycin in 9 (64 %) patients as a consequence of drug serum level insufficiency, agent sensitivity to the drug administered, or drug side effects. Thirteen patients were discharged in a healthy condition, with successful surgical treatment in 5 (36 %). Only 1, an 80-year-old IE patient, was lost from advanced cardiac failure. No significant side effects were seen in any patient receiving daptomycin. The most frequent side effects were minimal rises in serum CPK levels during treatment; these values returned to normal after treatment. Daptomycin can be used successfully in left heart endocarditis with no significant side effects. Studies involving a wider patient series are now needed to support the use of daptomycin in left heart endocarditis.

Kaya S; Yilmaz G; Kalkan A; Ertunç B; Köksal I

2013-08-01

159

Surgical treatment of infective valve endocarditis in children with congenital heart disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study assesses surgical procedures, operative outcome, and early and intermediate-term results of infective valve endocarditis in children with congenital heart disease. METHODS: Seven consecutive children (five females, two males; mean age, 10.8 years) who underwent surgery for infective valve endocarditis between 2006 and 2010 were included in the study. The aortic and mitral valves were affected in two and tricuspid in five patients. Indications for operation included cardiac failure due to atrioventricular septal rupture, severe tricuspid valve insufficiency, and septic embolization in one, moderate valvular dysfunction with vegetations in three (two tricuspid, one mitral), and severe valvular dysfunction with vegetations in the other three patients (two tricuspid, one mitral). The pathological microorganism was identified in five patients. Tricuspid valve repair was performed with ventricular septal defect (VSD) closure in five patients. Two patients required mitral valve repair including one with additional aortic valve replacement. RESULTS: There were no operative deaths. Actuarial freedom from recurrent infection at one and three years was 100%. Early echocardiographic follow-up showed four patients to have mild atrioventricular valve regurgitation (three tricuspid and one mitral) and three had no valvular regurgitation. No leakage from the VSD closure or any valvular stenosis was detected postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Mitral and tricuspid valve repairs can be performed with low morbidity/mortality rates and satisfactory intermediate-term results in children with infective valve endocarditis.

Karaci AR; Aydemir NA; Harmandar B; Sasmazel A; Saritas T; Tuncel Z; Yekeler I

2012-01-01

160

Recurrent Prosthetic Mitral Valve Dehiscence due to Infective Endocarditis: Discussion of Possible Causes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prosthetic valves are being widely used in the treatment of heart valve disease. Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is one of the most catastrophic complications seen in these patients. In particular, prosthetic valve dehiscence can lead to acute decompensation, pulmonary edema, and cardiogenic shock. Here, we discuss the medical management of late PVE in a patient with a prior history of late and redo early PVE and recurrent dehiscence. According to the present case, we can summarize the learning points as follows. A prior history of infective endocarditis increases the risk of relapse or recurrence, and these patients should be evaluated very cautiously to prevent late complications. Adequate debridement of infected material is of paramount importance to prevent relapse. A history of dehiscence is associated with increased risk of relapse and recurrent dehiscence.

Ercan S; Altunbas G; Deniz H; Gokaslan G; Bosnak V; Kaplan M; Davutoglu V

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
161

Infective endocarditis complicated by paravalvular abscess: a surgical challenge. An 11-year single center experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To evaluate the impact of paravalvular abscess in the surgical management and outcome of infective endocarditis. METHODS: Retrospective review of 35 patients with paravalvular abscess due to active endocarditis operated on at 1 institution from September 1996-August 2007. Patients' mean age was 59.4 +/- 12.1 years; 80% were men. 31 patients suffered from native- and 4 from prosthetic valve endocarditis. In 23 cases the affected valve was the aortic, in 7 cases the mitral, in 4 cases both (mitral and aortic), and in 1 patient the tricuspid; no abscess presence was noticed by pulmonal annuluses. Surgical procedures included radical lesion-resection as well as reconstruction of the annulus with pericardial patches. Most of the patients were preoperatively in New York Heart Association (NYHA)-class III-IV. Follow-up was 100% complete with a maximum of 11.25 years. RESULTS: Early mortality (30 days) was 11.4% (n = 4). The 11-year overall survival rate was 68.7 +/- 9% (76.1% for aortic valve patients and 26.9% for mitral valve patients (P = .15). With regard to the type of prosthetic devices, the survival rates at 11.25 years were 74.2% for mechanical, 80% for biological, and 45.6% for other/reconstructive (P = .6). There were no episodes of recurrent endocarditis; hence freedom of recurrent endocarditis at 11 years was 100%. Causative microorganisms were approximately 30% Staphylococci, and MRSA seems to induce more frequent destructive lesions like paravalvular abscess. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the severity of the onset, a radical surgical treatment delivers acceptable long-term results by acceptable operative mortality. The choice of the prosthetic device seems not to be influential in long-term survival and morbidity.

Spiliopoulos K; Haschemi A; Fink G; Kemkes BM

2010-04-01

162

[First report of infective endocarditis in Cuba as a result of brucellosis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: the clinical manifestations of brucellosis have been poorly researched on and the symptoms and possible complications have not been deeply studied either. OBJECTIVE: to report a case of infective endocarditis caused by brucellosis for the first time in Cuba. METHODS: a Caucasian male farmer aged 57 years was referred from Vertientes municipality to be admitted at "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" provincial hospital in Camaguey province in December, 2009. He had been presumptively diagnosed with infectious endocarditis caused by Brucella and with moderate aortic failure since he presented with fever, general malaise, fatigue, muscle and joint pains, arthritis, marked asthenia, anorexia, neurological signs, sweating and strong chest pain. In his previous hospitalization, he had been treated with antimicrobials after indication of supplementary tests such as slow serology for brucellosis; however, specific reagents were not available,so these tests were not performed until January 2010.The epidemiological history of this case included his direct contact with cows and pigs as well as wounds and minor traumas inflicted on his hands and feet resulting from his type of work. His farm is next to another farm where the cattle is also affected with brucellosis. RESULTS: the lab tests were positive with high serological titres, and although it was not possible to isolate the etiologic agent through culturing, the disease and the infective endocarditis were serologically confirmed as additional complication; this required antimicrobial treatment and drugs for the heart disease. These complications from brucellosis are barely diagnosed in the international literature, and in Cuba, this is the first report of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: the description of this case is an alert to diagnosis of infective endocarditis that may be associated with epidemiological history of brucellosis.

García González GS; Saborido Pérez IM; Ramírez Lana L; Ponce de León Avila I

2012-01-01

163

Endocarditis infecciosa en pacientes con daño hepático crónico: Serie de 4 casos clínicos/ Infective endocarditis in patients with chronic hepatic failure: A four cases series  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La asociación entre daño hepático y endocarditis infecciosa es infrecuente. Para analizar los factores predisponentes de esta asociación, la etiología microbiana y evolución clínica, se efectuó un análisis retrospectivo de los egresos por endocarditis infecciosa en pacientes con cirrosis hepática desde 1995 a junio de 2008. Se identificaron cuatro casos, asociados a categoría Child A en tres y en todos había una cardiopatía predisponente. Las manifestaciones (more) clínicas fueron clásicas excepto en un caso que se presentó como descompensación hepática. Sólo un caso se asoció a un agente típico, otros a un agente nosocomial y Corynebacterium diphtheriae. En un caso no se identificó la etiología. Uno de los pacientes requirió cirugía de reemplazo valvular. Tres pacientes se recuperaron (Child A) y el paciente en categoría Child C falleció. Aunque infrecuente, la asociación cirrosis y endocarditis ocurre en la práctica clínica, se puede asociar a agentes inhabituales y tener manifestaciones encubiertas. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis and liver cirrhosis is an infrequent association. A retrospective study was performed in order to characterize predisposing factors, microbial causes and evolution. Medical records between 1995 and 2008 (June) were searched. Four cases were identified. In three cases liver cirrhosis was in stage Child A, and in all 4 there was a predisposing cardiac disease. Clinical manifestations were classical in 3 cases and in one presented as hepatic failure. O (more) nly in one case a typical agent was recovered. Other cases were associated to a nosocomial agent or Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and in one no agent was identified. One patient required valve replacement. Three patients recovered satisfactorily, all of them in Child A stage. One died of non-infectious causes (Child C). Infective endocarditis and liver cirrhosis is an infrequent association in clinical practice, it can be associated to unusual agents or clinical manifestations.

Oksenberg R, Dan; Castelli T, Anna; Fica C, Alberto

2009-06-01

164

Pulmonary Stenosis as a Predisposing Factor for Infective Endocarditis in a Patient with Noonan Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant dysmorphic syndrome. Pulmonary stenosis is the most common cardiac anomaly in Noonan patients, with an incidence of 60%. A 9-year-old girl was referred to our institution with pericardial effusion. Transthoracic echocardiography indeed confirmed massive pericardial effusion and revealed, further, valvular and arterial pulmonary vegetations that accompanied a dysplastic tricuspid pulmonary valve. We decided to perform emergency pericardial tube drainage and to continue the anti-biotic regimen for 2 more weeks before undertaking open-heart surgery. After 2 weeks, the patient underwent an operation wherein the valvular vegetations were excised and a pulmonary valve commissurotomy was performed, yielding a competent pulmonary valve with 3 distinct but moderately dysplastic cusps. In addition to the pulmonary valve, the main, left, and right pulmonary arteries were filled with mobile vegetations, which were removed during the procedure. In this patient, a dysplastic and stenotic pulmonary valve may have contributed to the progression of endocarditis and to the growth of vegetations that occupied the pulmonary arteries. In conclusion, we hypothesize that although pulmonary stenosis is not considered a common predisposing factor for infective endocarditis, it can contribute to the progression of infective endocarditis in Noonan patients.

Hatemi, Ali Can; Gursoy, Mete; Tongut, Aybala; Bicakhan, Burcu; Guzeltas, Alper; Cetin, Gurkan; Kansiz, Erhan

2010-01-01

165

[Circulating immuns complexes and infections endocarditis. 64 cases (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An immunological study, with examination for circulating immune complexes (CIC) by precipitation by polyethylene-glycol (PEG) and by fixation of labelled C1q, was carried out in 64 patients with infectious endocarditis (IE). One or more complementary studies during the course of the illness were possible in 23. CIC were found in 84 p. 100 of cases (66 p. 100 of acute IE and 89 p. 100 of subacute IE), during the active phase of the disease. High levels of PEG precipitate were correlated with typical cutaneous signs (including Osler's nodes), with the presence of cryoglobulins. With effective antibiotic treatment, the level of PEG precipitate (17 patients) returned to normal within one month, in parallel with a fall in rheumatoid factor and in cryoglobulins. By contrast, ineffective treatment was invariably reflected (6 patients) by a rise in levels of PEG precipitate. The estimation of CIC using the PEG technique during IE would already appear to be a value aid in cases of difficult diagnosis, and a research area worthy of further exploration within the context of IE.

Herreman G; Godeau P; Cabane J; Acar JF; Digeon M; Bach JF

1978-06-01

166

Clinicopathologic findings and outcome in dogs with infective endocarditis: 71 cases (1992-2005).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical, laboratory, and necropsy findings in dogs with infective endocarditis (IE). DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: 71 dogs with possible or definite IE. PROCEDURES: Medical records were reviewed for signalment, clinical features, and results of clinicopathologic testing and diagnostic imaging. Yearly incidence and the effect of variables on survival were determined by use of survival curve analysis. RESULTS: The overall incidence of IE was 0.05%. Most affected dogs were of large breeds, and > 75% were older than 5 years. The aortic valve was affected in 36 of the 71 (51%) dogs, and the mitral valve was affected in 59%. Lameness caused by immune-mediated polyarthritis, septic arthritis, or peripheral arterial thromboembolism was observed in 53% of the dogs. Neurologic complications were diagnosed in 17 of 71 (24%) dogs. Thromboembolic disease was suspected in 31 of 71 (44%) of dogs. The mortality rate associated with IE was 56%, and median survival time was 54 days. Factors negatively associated with survival included thrombocytopenia, high serum creatinine concentration, renal complications, and thromboembolic complications. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A diagnosis of IE should be suspected in dogs with fever, systolic or diastolic murmur, and locomotor problems. Dogs with thrombocytopenia, high serum creatinine concentration, thromboembolism, or renal complications may have a shorter survival time.

Sykes JE; Kittleson MD; Chomel BB; Macdonald KA; Pesavento PA

2006-06-01

167

The Need for a Specific Risk Prediction System in Native Valve Infective Endocarditis Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

The need for a specific risk score system for infective endocarditis (IE) surgery has been previously claimed. In a single-center pilot study, preliminary to future multicentric development and validation, bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analysis of early postoperative mortality predictors in 440 native valve IE patients were performed. Mathematical procedures assigned scores to the independent predictors emerged (AUC of the ROC curve: 0.88). Overall mortality was 9.1%. Six predictors were identified and assigned scores, including age (5–13 points), renal failure (5), NYHA class IV (9), critical preoperative state (11), lack of preoperative attainment of blood culture negativity (5), perivalvular involvement (5). Four risk classes were drawn ranging from “very low risk” (?5 points, mean predicted mortality 1%), and to “very high risk” (?20 points, 43% mortality). IE-specific risk stratification models are both needed, as disease-specific factors (e.g., cultures, abscess), beside the generic ones (e.g., age, renal impairment) affect mortality, and feasible.

De Feo, Marisa; Cotrufo, Maurizio; Carozza, Antonio; De Santo, Luca S.; Amendolara, Francesco; Giordano, Salvatore; Della Ratta, Ester E.; Nappi, Gianantonio; Della Corte, Alessandro

2012-01-01

168

Reproduction of sepsis and endocarditis by experimental infection of chickens with Streptococcus gallinaceus and Enterococcus hirae.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes experimental infections in 4-week-old chickens inoculated intravenously with approximately 10(8) colony-forming units Streptococcus gallinaceus strain CCUG 42692T (C13156) or Enterococcus hirae strain DSM 20160 (C17410). Birds were necropsied following death and obvious clinical signs of disease or were euthanized weekly after infection for up to 4 weeks. At necropsy, lesions included splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, valvular and/or mural endocarditis. Cardiac lesions included focal necrotizing myocarditis and/or yellow-white vegetative valvular endocarditis or greyish proliferations associated with the mitral valves in 35% (6/20) and 79% (19/24) of birds infected with S. gallinaceus and in 20% (4/20) and 55% (12/22) of birds infected with E. hirae via the brachial and jugular veins, respectively. S. gallinaceus was reisolated from heart valves in 45% (9/20) and 75% (18/24) and E. hirae in 35% (7/20) and 73% (16/22) after inoculation via brachial and jugular veins, respectively. Both challenge strains were also isolated from liver, spleen, bone marrow and hock joints. A significant difference between the infections with the two strains was seen only with reisolation of E. hirae from hock joints (P experimentally infected chickens. PMID:16191708

Chadfield, M S; Bojesen, A M; Christensen, J P; Juul-Hansen, J; Nielsen, S Saxmose; Bisgaard, M

2005-06-01

169

Unusually virulent coagulase-negative Staphylococcus lugdunensis is frequently associated with infective endocarditis: a Waikato series of patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a species of coagulase-negative staphylococci is associated with a wide variety of infections ranging from mild skin and soft tissue infections to serious infections which include brain abscess, chronic osteomyelitis and infective endocarditis. The aim of this study was to review cases of S. lugdunensis bacteraemia isolated from a New Zealand tertiary institution and describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the patients. METHODS: All blood cultures reported positive for S. lugdunensis from the Microbiology Laboratory, Waikato Hospital, New Zealand between March 2006 to April 2011 were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 11 cases of S. lugdunensis bacteraemia were identified during the 5-year period. Three (27%) cases were due to infective endocarditis with one delayed diagnosis due to the failure of recognize the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Transthoracic or transoesophageal echocardiography was performed in 6 (55%) of the patients. One patient with endocarditis required early surgery and the other two were managed successfully with intravenous antibiotics. There was no in hospital mortality in the patients with endocarditis. The remaining 8 cases included 1 (9%) necrotizing fasciitis, 1 (9%) immunocompromised nosocomial multiple organism sepsis, 1 (9%) deep tissue infection requiring 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics, 2 (18.5%) superficial skin infection, 1 (9%) nosocomial post-pacemaker insertion infection and 2 (18.5%) had fever of unknown origin. All isolates were sensitive to Flucloxacillin and Vancomycin. Overall the survival rate of the acute presentation and treatment was 91% (10/11). CONCLUSION: Three of our 11 patients (27%) with S. lugdunensis bacteraemia were diagnosed with infective endocarditis. Evaluation for endocarditis is therefore advised in patients who have positive blood culture for this organism.

Liang M; Mansell C; Wade C; Fisher R; Devlin G

2012-05-01

170

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae infective endocarditis in a renal transplant recipient: compromised host or virulent strain?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) rarely cause endocarditis. Of the limited reports of H influenzae endocarditis, most have been due to encapsulated organisms or have had limited bacterial characterisation. We encountered a transplant recipient with native valve NTHI endocarditis and were intrigued to find no previous descriptions of this entity. Although it was tempting to ascribe this infection to our patient's immunocompromised status, we investigated his pathogen further and found that it displayed features common to invasive NTHI strains including gene expression for two IgA proteases and serum resistance. Multilocus sequence typing grouped our NTHI strain with MLST 159, a group associated with invasive NTHI infections. Our strain shared identical outer membrane protein P2 sequences and protein patterns with MLST 159 strains. Aside from providing the first characterisation of native valve NTHI infection, our investigation reveals features of epidemiologically unrelated, clonal NTHI strains that have a predilection for invasive infections.

Bertelle-Ibrahim LA; Murphy TF; Kirkham C; Parameswaran GI; Berenson CS

2013-01-01

171

An outbreak of Phialemonium infective endocarditis linked to intracavernous penile injections for the treatment of impotence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In March 2002, a patient in Tel Aviv, Israel, died of endocarditis caused by Phialemonium curvatum. As part of his therapy for erectile dysfunction, the patient had been trained to self-inject a compound of vasoactive drugs provided by an impotence clinic into his penile corpus cavernosous. METHODS: We identified the used prefilled syringes as the source of his infection. Similar cases were investigated as a putative outbreak of P. curvatum invasive disease among customers of this impotence clinic. P. curvatum isolates, cultured from samples obtained from the patients and from prefilled syringes, were compared by DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer. RESULTS: We identified 2 additional customers at the impotence clinic who had P. curvatum endocarditis. In addition, cultures of unused, prefilled syringes and bottles provided by the same clinic to 5 asymptomatic customers tested positive for pathogenic molds (P. curvatum in 4 cases and Paecilomyces lilacinus in 1). All P. curvatum isolates were of a single genetic type that is known only from this outbreak but is closely related to 3 other P. curvatum genotypes associated with pathogenicity in humans. CONCLUSIONS: P. curvatum is an emerging pathogen that can be readily isolated from blood. We identified an outbreak of P. curvatum endocarditis among men who had erectile dysfunction treated by intracavernous penile injections from contaminated prefilled syringes.

Strahilevitz J; Rahav G; Schroers HJ; Summerbell RC; Amitai Z; Goldschmied-Reouven A; Rubinstein E; Schwammenthal Y; Feinberg MS; Siegman-Igra Y; Bash E; Polacheck I; Zelazny A; Howard SJ; Cibotaro P; Shovman O; Keller N

2005-03-01

172

Treatment of Gram-positive left-sided infective endocarditis with daptomycin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of daptomycin in left-sided infective endocarditis (IE) patients. Fourteen patients with left heart endocarditis, monitored with a diagnosis of IE based on modified Duke criteria between July 2010 and May 2011, and receiving daptomycin as monotherapy, were enrolled. The success of daptomycin in these patients was revealed with improvements in microbiological, biochemical, and radiologic findings, as well as physical examination findings. Patient average age was 63.5 ± 14.2 years (36-80 years); 8 (57 %) were men and 6 (43 %) women. The pathogens methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (71.5 %), Streptococcus mutans (21.5 %), and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (7 %) were isolated from our patients. Daptomycin was used in initial treatment in 5 (36 %) patients; treatment was subsequently modified to daptomycin in 9 (64 %) patients as a consequence of drug serum level insufficiency, agent sensitivity to the drug administered, or drug side effects. Thirteen patients were discharged in a healthy condition, with successful surgical treatment in 5 (36 %). Only 1, an 80-year-old IE patient, was lost from advanced cardiac failure. No significant side effects were seen in any patient receiving daptomycin. The most frequent side effects were minimal rises in serum CPK levels during treatment; these values returned to normal after treatment. Daptomycin can be used successfully in left heart endocarditis with no significant side effects. Studies involving a wider patient series are now needed to support the use of daptomycin in left heart endocarditis. PMID:23299359

Kaya, Selçuk; Yilmaz, Gürdal; Kalkan, Ahmet; Ertunç, Bar??; Köksal, Iftihar

2013-01-09

173

Clinical profile, prognosis and treatment of patients with infective endocarditis--a 14-year follow-up study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Poor prognosis of infective endocarditis (IE) is not only attributable to high morbidity and mortality during an active phase of the disease, but also to late complications and relapses occurring after eradication of the infection. Identification of unfavorable prognostic factors allows to optimize therapeutic modalities in patients with particularly poor prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To determine clinical features and long-term prognosis among patients with IE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 69 IE patients hospitalized in our center between 1992 and 2005. The diagnosis of IE was based on the Duke University criteria. The mean age was 52 +/- 12 years. Surgical treatment was performed in 48 (70%) cases. RESULTS: The etiology of IE was Staphylococcus sp. in 32% of patients, Streptococcus sp. in 16% of patients, in 41% of cases blood cultures were negative. The infection was located on the aortic (43%), mitral (26%), tricuspid (8%) and multiple valves (20%). During 1-14 years of follow-up, 27 patients died (39%). Prognostic factors included NYHA class of heart failure (p = 0.031), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.017), kidney failure (p = 0.012), atrial fibrillation (p = 0.006), a history of rheumatic valve disease (p = 0.046). In multivariate logistic analysis the only significant parameter related to poor prognosis after IE was atrial fibrillation. The analysis of receiver operating characteristic curve showed that patients with atrial fibrillation were significantly associated with higher mortality (HR 5.35, 95% CI 1.47-19.56, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the mode of treatment (medical or combined medical-surgical), the mortality of patients with infective endocarditis remains relatively high. In this study atrial fibrillation seems to be the most important risk factor of death.

Krecki R; Drozdz J; Ibata G; Lipiec P; Ostrowski S; Kasprzak J; Krzeminska-Pakula M

2007-11-01

174

Cool seasons are related to poor prognosis in patients with infective endocarditis  

Science.gov (United States)

Many cardiac diseases demonstrate seasonal variations in the incidence and mortality. This study was designed to investigate whether the mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) was higher in cool seasons and to evaluate the effects of cool climate for IE. We enrolled 100 IE patients with vegetations in our hospital. The temperatures of the IE episodes were defined as the monthly average temperatures of the admission days. The average temperatures in the cool (fall/winter) and warm seasons (spring/summer) were 19.2°C and 27.6°C, respectively. In addition, patients admitted with the diagnosis of IE were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) and the in-hospital mortality rates in cool and warm seasons were compared to validate the findings derived from the data of our hospital. The mortality rate for IE was significantly higher in fall/winter than in spring/summer which presents consistently in the patient population of our hospital (32.7% versus 12.5%, p = 0.017) and from NHIRD (10.4% versus 4.6%, p = 0.019). IE episodes which occurred during cool seasons presented with a higher rate of heart failure (44.2% versus 22.9%, p = 0.025) and D-dimer level (5.5 ± 3.8 versus 2.4 ± 1.8 ?g/ml, p = 0.017) at admission than that of warm seasons. These results may reflect the impact of temperatures during the pre-hospitalized period on the disease process. In the multivariate analysis, Staphylococcal infection, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic dysfunction and temperature were the independent predictors of mortalities in IE patients.

Chen, Su-Jung; Chao, Tze-Fan; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Hsu, Tsui-Lieh; Yu, Wen-Chung; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Chen, Shih-Ann

2012-09-01

175

Cirurgia conservadora de próteses aórtica e mitral na endocardite infecciosa Conservative surgery for aortic and mitral prosthesis in infective endocarditis  

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Full Text Available A endocardite infecciosa (EI) acometendo próteses valvares é uma complicação freqüente, sendo tratada geralmente com cirurgia, devido ao seu difícil controle clínico e má resposta à antibioticoterapia. Este relato descreve o caso de uma paciente com EI, acometendo simultaneamente as biopróteses aórtica (Ao) e mitral (Mi) após vinte e quatro meses de cirurgia de implantes valvares, submetida a tratamento cirúrgico conservador, e com resultado favorável. Discutem-se as vantagens deste procedimento em situações específicas.Infective endocarditis is a frequent complication for valvar prosthesis currently treated with surgery, orving to its difficult control and poor response to therapy with antibiotics. Although conservative surgery for infective endocarditis of prosthesis is not a procedure of choice, this report shows a case of infective endocarditis of aortic and mitral prosthesis, after 24 months of implantation, treated by conservative surgery with favorable outcome.

Kanim Kalil KASSAB; José Antônio Garcia MENEGOLI; Vera Lúcia A. M. PICARDI; Marcos Cesar V. de ALMEIDA; Emil SABINO; Edgard SAN JUAN; Ricardo Gomes CAMACHO; César Morioki OGIDO; Enoch Brandão de Souza MEIRA

2001-01-01

176

Double valve replacement and reconstruction of the intervalvular fibrous body in patients with active infective endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVES: Destruction of the intervalvular fibrous body, though uncommon, occurs due to paravalvular abscess formation following active infective endocarditis. This warrants a highly complex operation involving radical surgical debridement of the intervalvular fibrous body, followed by double valve (aortic and mitral) replacement with patch reconstruction of the anterior mitral annulus, the left ventricular outflow tract and the left atrial roof. The objective of this study was to review the early and mid-term outcomes in patients undergoing this operation. METHODS: A total of 25 patients underwent double valve replacement with reconstruction of the intervalvular fibrous body for extensive infective endocarditis between January 1999 and March 2012. The mean age was 64.3 ± 10.5 years. Most of the patients (60%) were in New York Heart Association Class III-IV, 12% and in cardiogenic shock. Associated comorbidities like acute renal insufficiency and cerebrovascular accidents were observed in 40 and 20% of patients, respectively. Twenty patients had previous heart valve surgeries. The logistic EuroSCORE predicted risk of mortality was 55.1 ± 22.9%. RESULTS: Overall, 30-day mortality was 32%. Postoperative complications like low cardiac output, stroke and acute renal failure developed in 16, 28 and 56%, respectively. Thirty-two percent of patients required re-exploration for bleeding. Nine patients were alive at a mean follow-up of 406 days (0-8 years). The 2- and 5-year survivals were 37.0 ± 11.1 and 24.6 ± 12.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Double valve replacement with reconstruction of the intervalvular fibrous body for infective endocarditis is a complex, technically challenging operation associated with high perioperative morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, being the only option available for such complex disease, it should be performed in these patients who, otherwise, face 100% mortality. PMID:23644706

Davierwala, Piroze M; Binner, Christian; Subramanian, Sreekumar; Luehr, Maximilian; Pfannmueller, Bettina; Etz, Christian; Dohmen, Pascal; Misfeld, Martin; Borger, Michael A; Mohr, Friedrich W

2013-06-12

177

Double valve replacement and reconstruction of the intervalvular fibrous body in patients with active infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Destruction of the intervalvular fibrous body, though uncommon, occurs due to paravalvular abscess formation following active infective endocarditis. This warrants a highly complex operation involving radical surgical debridement of the intervalvular fibrous body, followed by double valve (aortic and mitral) replacement with patch reconstruction of the anterior mitral annulus, the left ventricular outflow tract and the left atrial roof. The objective of this study was to review the early and mid-term outcomes in patients undergoing this operation. METHODS: A total of 25 patients underwent double valve replacement with reconstruction of the intervalvular fibrous body for extensive infective endocarditis between January 1999 and March 2012. The mean age was 64.3 ± 10.5 years. Most of the patients (60%) were in New York Heart Association Class III-IV, 12% and in cardiogenic shock. Associated comorbidities like acute renal insufficiency and cerebrovascular accidents were observed in 40 and 20% of patients, respectively. Twenty patients had previous heart valve surgeries. The logistic EuroSCORE predicted risk of mortality was 55.1 ± 22.9%. RESULTS: Overall, 30-day mortality was 32%. Postoperative complications like low cardiac output, stroke and acute renal failure developed in 16, 28 and 56%, respectively. Thirty-two percent of patients required re-exploration for bleeding. Nine patients were alive at a mean follow-up of 406 days (0-8 years). The 2- and 5-year survivals were 37.0 ± 11.1 and 24.6 ± 12.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Double valve replacement with reconstruction of the intervalvular fibrous body for infective endocarditis is a complex, technically challenging operation associated with high perioperative morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, being the only option available for such complex disease, it should be performed in these patients who, otherwise, face 100% mortality.

Davierwala PM; Binner C; Subramanian K; Luehr M; Pfannmueller B; Etz C; Dohmen P; Misfeld M; Borger MA; Mohr FW

2013-05-01

178

Timing for surgical treatment in native infective endocarditis. A seven-year experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Early surgical intervention in infective endocarditis is performed only when there is persistence of sepsis, hemodynamic instability or when arterial embolism has occurred, otherwise a 4-week antibiotic therapy before surgery is considered necessary. Our 7-year experience in the surgical treatment of native endocarditis in 28 patients, is here revised focusing on the timing of surgery. METHODS: Patients were retrospectively divided into group A (n. 16) with blood cultures that became negative before surgery and group B (n. 11) with blood cultures positive at the time of urgent surgery. One patient with constantly negative blood cultures was not assigned to any group. In group A antibiotic therapy was administered until 3 consecutive blood cultures became negative and the patients were then operated on the basis of echocardiographic findings after a mean duration of antibiotic therapy of 17.4 +/- 6.3 days. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients out of 28 underwent replacement of the infected valve (mechanical bileaflets in 16 patients, porcine stented in 7 and porcine stentless in 3). Valve repair was performed in 2 patients. Overall operative mortality was) 7.1% (2/28); death occurred in 2 patients of group B, operated on for cardiogenic shock. Two/26 patients died (1 acute renal failure and 1 stroke) at a mean follow-up of 32.5 +/- 24.8 (range 3-95) months. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who underwent surgery for infective endocarditis after blood culture negativization showed no mortality and no recurrence of disease even if a 4 weeks antibiotic course was not completed. This experience suggests that earlier operations can be performed safely, lowering the incidence of hemodynamic impairment and arterial embolism.

Triggiani M; D'Ancona G; Nascimbene S; Benussi S; Villa E; Donatelli F; Grossi A

1997-10-01

179

Assessment of knowledge of guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis amongst clinicians in a teaching hospital.  

Science.gov (United States)

A significant minority of instances of endocarditis appear to be the result of invasive procedures performed in susceptible patients with underlying cardiac conditions. Absence, or inappropriate administration, of antimicrobial prophylaxis could expose the patient to the development of a potentially lethal infection. This study was formulated, therefore, to assess the knowledge of guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis among hospital-based physicians and surgeons. A multiple choice test was developed, including: (1) cardiac conditions at increased risk for development of infection; (2) procedures more likely to be associated with bacteraemia and endocarditis; and (3) type and route of antimicrobials prescribed when endocarditis prophylaxis is indicated. The quality of the test was determined in several ways. Success was defined as a pass rate of 11 of 18 questions (61%). The test was taken by 153 of 251 (60%) physicians employed by the hospital; 95 (62%) passed the test. No significant difference in success rates was found according to sex, professional status or medical school. Internists performed substantially better (with a pass rate of 41 of 53, 77%) than both paediatricians (13 of 26, 50%, Pinfectious disease physicians (P<0.001). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the need for improved education of hospital-based clinicians regarding endocarditis prophylaxis recommendations. PMID:10973749

Solomon, M; Raveh, D; Schlesinger, Y; Yinnon, A M

2000-08-01

180

[High risk infective endocarditis embolism during pregnancy: Medical or surgical management?].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 22-year-old pregnant woman was seen at 14 weeks of pregnancy for infective endocarditis with a vegetation of 15mm and wide mobility, which affected the native mitral valve accompanied by severe valvular insufficiency. Antibiotic treatment was given for 4 weeks despite the embolism risk. Due to persistence of vegetation size and after considering the fetal and maternal risk, the surgical procedure was favored. We decided to perform valvuloplasty and removal of lesion at 18 weeks of pregnancy. Fetal protection techniques were used and a bioprosthesis was placed before attempting a repair. The postoperative follow-up was satisfactory, achieving a successful birth by cesarean section at 30 weeks.

Echeverría LE; Figueredo A; Gómez JC; Salazar LA; Rodriguez JA; Pizarro CE; Riaño CE; Perroni A; Cuadros AL; Villamizar MC; Suárez EU

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Mycotic left main coronary artery aneurysm following double-valve replacement for active infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 68-year-old man underwent double-valve replacement (DVR) for active infective endocarditis caused by Enterococcus faecalis. Postoperative coronary angiography (CAG) revealed a saccular aneurysm originating from the distal portion of LMCA with severe stenosis at the ostium of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery and left circumflex artery (LCx). Emergent surgical resection with concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting were performed.Mycotic coronary artery aneurysms have a great tendency to rupture, and this may result in cardiac tamponade and sudden death. Early recognition and prompt surgical intervention is mandatory to minimize those fatal complications.

Matsuno Y; Fukumoto Y; Ishida N; Shimabukuro K; Takemura H

2013-02-01

182

Mycotic left main coronary artery aneurysm following double-valve replacement for active infective endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 68-year-old man underwent double-valve replacement (DVR) for active infective endocarditis caused by Enterococcus faecalis. Postoperative coronary angiography (CAG) revealed a saccular aneurysm originating from the distal portion of LMCA with severe stenosis at the ostium of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery and left circumflex artery (LCx). Emergent surgical resection with concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting were performed.Mycotic coronary artery aneurysms have a great tendency to rupture, and this may result in cardiac tamponade and sudden death. Early recognition and prompt surgical intervention is mandatory to minimize those fatal complications. PMID:22673548

Matsuno, Yukihiro; Fukumoto, Yukiomi; Ishida, Narihiro; Shimabukuro, Katsuya; Takemura, Hirofumi

2012-05-15

183

Is there an advantage in using homografts in patients with acute infective endocarditis of the aortic valve?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Acute infective endocarditis is a surgical challenge, particularly when paravalvular abscesses and annular destruction are present. The choice of a homograft or mechanical valve prosthesis is an important issue in these patients. The study aim was to compare the outcome with homografts and mechanical valves in patients with acute infective endocarditis. METHODS: A total of 77 patients (mean age 49+/-9 years) operated on for acute endocarditis of the aortic valve was included in the study and analyzed retrospectively. The causative bacterium was isolated from blood cultures in 71 cases. Preoperatively, 21 patients required artificial ventilation and 24 had inotropic support due to hemodynamic instability. Aortic homografts were implanted in 43 patients, and mechanical valve prostheses in 34. The two patient groups were similar in terms of gender, age and preoperative inotropic support. In total, 31 patients (44%) had paravalvular abscesses, and a homograft was used significantly more often (77%, p <0.05) in these cases. Follow up examinations (clinical examination, ECG and transthoracic echocardiography) were performed six months postoperatively and continued on an annual basis. Endocarditis relapse was defined as persisting infection, whereas re-endocarditis indicated a new infection after an interval of at least six months. RESULTS: Perioperative mortality was 11.5% (5/43) in homograft patients. In the 38 survivors, follow up was complete and averaged 5.0+/-1.2 years. One patient had an endocarditis relapse three months after surgery. Re-endocarditis occurred in three patients after two or three years. One other patient had pseudoaneurysm formation without a need for intervention, and one had repeat aortic valve replacement due to dysfunction of the graft after four years. The other 33 patients had an uneventful follow up. Echocardiography revealed aortic insufficiency grade 1 in 12 cases (36%), with no progression during follow up. Perioperative mortality in mechanicat valve patients was 20.5% (n = 7) (p <0.05 versus homograft), and in those with paravalvular abscess, perioperative mortality was even higher than in homograft patients (4/7, 57.1% versus 3/24, 12.5%; p <0.05). When considering only patients without paravalvular abscess, there was no significant difference between groups (10.5% versus 12.5%). Three relapses occurred in mechanical valve patients (10.3%), but no endocarditis recurred during follow up. One late death (3.7%) occurred due to bleeding complicating long-term anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: The study results do not permit a general recommendation to be made for homograft use in patients with acute endocarditis. In cases with paravalvular abscesses, however, there was a trend towards improved outcome in the homograft group.

Gulbins H; Kilian E; Roth S; Uhlig A; Kreuzer E; Reichart B

2002-07-01

184

Active infective endocarditis due to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae: zoonosis caused by vancomycin-resistant gram-positive rod.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 42-year-old female who was a voluntary worker in a school for handicapped children was referred to us for surgery for active infective endocarditis. Trans-esophageal echocardiography showed 2 large mobile vegetations on the aortic valve and severe aortic regurgitation. Aortic valve replacement was performed to prevent septic embolism and deterioration of congestive heart failure. The empiric therapy with vancomycin, ampicillin, and gentamycin was initiated because a pathogen was not identified. But Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (gram-positive rod) was isolated on the 4th day after surgery. The target therapy with penicillin G and clindamycin was started and continued for 4 weeks after surgery. The inflammatory parameters improved steadily and the patient was discharged on the 36th day after surgery. Infective endocarditis due to gram-positive rods can be easily mistaken for streptococci or dismissed as a skin contamination. But, E. rhusiopathiae endocarditis should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

Miura T; Hashizume K; Ariyoshi T; Miwa T; Furumoto A; Izumida M; Yanagihara K; Eishi K

2013-02-01

185

Achromobacter species endocarditis: A case report and literature review  

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Endocarditis due to Achromobacter species is a rare, yet serious, endovascular infection. Achromobacter species infective endocarditis is associated with underlying immunodeficiencies or prosthetic heart valves and devices. A case of prosthetic pulmonary valve endocarditis secondary to Achromobacter...

Derber, Catherine; Elam, Kara; Forbes, Betty A; Bearman, Gonzalo

186

Preeminence of Staphylococcus aureus in infective endocarditis: a 1-year population-based survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Observational studies showed that the profile of infective endocarditis (IE) significantly changed over the past decades. However, most studies involved referral centers. We conducted a population-based study to control for this referral bias. The objective was to update the description of characteristics of IE in France and to compare the profile of community-acquired versus healthcare-associated IE. METHODS: A prospective population-based observational study conducted in all medical facilities from 7 French regions (32% of French individuals aged ?18 years) identified 497 adults with Duke-Li-definite IE who were first admitted to the hospital in 2008. Main measures included age-standardized and sex-standardized incidence of IE and multivariate Cox regression analysis for risk factors of in-hospital death. RESULTS: The age-standardized and sex-standardized annual incidence of IE was 33.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.8-36.9) cases per million inhabitants. The incidence was highest in men aged 75-79 years. A majority of patients had no previously known heart disease. Staphylococci were the most common causal agents, accounting for 36.2% of cases (Staphylococcus aureus, 26.6%; coagulase-negative staphylococci, 9.7%). Healthcare-associated IE represented 26.7% of all cases and exhibited a clinical pattern significantly different from that of community-acquired IE. S. aureus as the causal agent of IE was the most important factor associated with in-hospital death in community-acquired IE (hazard ratio [HR], 2.82 [95% CI, 1.72-4.61]) and the single factor in healthcare-associated IE (HR, 2.54 [95% CI, 1.33-4.85]). CONCLUSIONS: S. aureus became both the leading cause and the most important prognostic factor of IE, and healthcare-associated IE appeared as a major subgroup of the disease.

Selton-Suty C; Célard M; Le Moing V; Doco-Lecompte T; Chirouze C; Iung B; Strady C; Revest M; Vandenesch F; Bouvet A; Delahaye F; Alla F; Duval X; Hoen B

2012-05-01

187

sup 67 Ga imaging in the patients with infective endocarditis after surgery for congenital heart disease  

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{sup 67}Ga imaging was performed in sixteen patients (age: 8 m.-18 y.) who had persistent fever and positive acute phase reactants after surgery for congenital heart disease. Abnormal uptake of {sup 67}Ga over the heart and the lungs was evaluated with a computer. Abnormal uptake of {sup 67}Ga was observed in seven patients. Of them, three showed it in the area of peripheral pulmonary artery and the other four showed it in the area of artificial vessels for pulmonary artery reconstruction. In six patients with positive blood cultures, five showed abnormal uptake of {sup 67}Ga and in ten patients with negative blood cultures, two showed it. Vegetation was detected with 2D-echocardiography in four patients and all of them showed abnormal uptake of {sup 67}Ga, while in 12 patients without vegetation three showed it. In conclusion, {sup 67}Ga imaging was useful to detect the foci of infective endocarditis or pulmonary embolism caused by the vegetation in infective endocarditis in the patients after surgery for congenital heart disease, especially in the peripheral pulmonary arteries and artificial vessels which could not be detected with 2D-echo. (author).

Kohata, Tohru; Ono, Yasuo; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Takamiya, Makoto; Yagihara, Toshikatsu (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

1991-11-01

188

A multicenter study on experience of 13 tertiary hospitals in Turkey in patients with infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to investigate the clinical manifestations, microbiological profile, echocardiographic findings and management strategies of infective endocarditis (IE) in Turkey. METHODS: The study population consisted of 248 Turkish patients with IE treated at 13 major hospitals in Turkey from 2005 to 2012 retrospectively. All hospitals are tertiary referral centers, which receive patients from surrounding hospitals. Data were collected from the medical files of all patients hospitalized with IE diagnosed according to modified Duke Criteria. RESULTS: One hundred thirty seven of the patients were males. Native valves were involved in 158 patients while in 75 participants there was prosthetic valve endocarditis. Vegetations were detected in 223 patients (89%) and 52 patients had multiple vegetations. Mitral valve was the most common site of vegetation (43%). The most common valvular pathology was mitral regurgitation. The most common predisposing factor was rheumatic valvular disease (28%). Positive culture rate was 65%. Staphylococci were the most frequent causative microorganisms isolated (29%) followed by enterococci (11%). In-hospital mortality rate was 33%. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to IE in developed countries younger age, higher prevalence of rheumatic heart disease, more frequent enterococci infection and higher rates of culture negativity were other important aspects of IE epidemiology in Turkey.

Elbey MA; Akda? S; Kalkan ME; Kaya MG; Say?n MR; Karap?nar H; Bulur S; Ulus T; Ak?l MA; Elbey HK; Akyüz A

2013-07-01

189

Effect of the hematological and biochemical parameters on outcomes of the patients with infective endocarditis  

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Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to examine haematological changes in infective endocarditis (IE) and the association between laboratory findings and mortality or complications including events in IE.Materials and methods: Forty-four patients who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of IE at the Department of Cardiology, Dicle University, Ataturk University and Harran University, from June 2007 to June 2011, were retrospectively evaluated. The diagnosis of IE was made clinically and was confi rmed with Duke’s criteria. The haematological and biochemical parameters were recorded.Results: Age, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, mean platelet volume and complication rate (p <0.004, p <0.05, p <0.03, p <0.05, p <0.01, p <0.004, respectively) were elevated in patients who died due to infective endocarditis compared with patients who survived. However, platelet count were lower in patients died (p <0.05). Additionally, patients who developed complications were no difference laboratory findings compared with patients without complications.Conclusion: Age, MPV and presence of complications can be used as risk factors for mortality in IE. In addition, S.aureus is associated with complications.

Yahya ?slamo?lu; Eyüp Büyükkaya; Zekeriya Kaya; Enbiya Aksakal; Kamuran Kalkan; Necdet Özaydo?du; Sümen Sümbül; Serdar Soydinç

2011-01-01

190

67Ga imaging in the patients with infective endocarditis after surgery for congenital heart disease  

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67Ga imaging was performed in sixteen patients (age: 8 m.-18 y.) who had persistent fever and positive acute phase reactants after surgery for congenital heart disease. Abnormal uptake of 67Ga over the heart and the lungs was evaluated with a computer. Abnormal uptake of 67Ga was observed in seven patients. Of them, three showed it in the area of peripheral pulmonary artery and the other four showed it in the area of artificial vessels for pulmonary artery reconstruction. In six patients with positive blood cultures, five showed abnormal uptake of 67Ga and in ten patients with negative blood cultures, two showed it. Vegetation was detected with 2D-echocardiography in four patients and all of them showed abnormal uptake of 67Ga, while in 12 patients without vegetation three showed it. In conclusion, 67Ga imaging was useful to detect the foci of infective endocarditis or pulmonary embolism caused by the vegetation in infective endocarditis in the patients after surgery for congenital heart disease, especially in the peripheral pulmonary arteries and artificial vessels which could not be detected with 2D-echo. (author)

1991-01-01

191

Infective endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a young woman after ear piercing: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ear piercing is a common practice among Korean adolescents and young women and usually is performed by nonmedical personnel, sometimes under suboptimal hygienic conditions. Consequently, ear piercing has been associated with various infectious complications, including fatal infective endocarditis. We report a case of infective endocarditis that was caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after ear piercing and that was accompanied by a noticeable facial rash. Case presentation A 29-year-old Korean woman underwent ear piercing six days before hospitalization. On admission, she had fever, erythematous maculopapular rashes on her face, signs of generalized emboli, vegetation in her mitral valve, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. On the basis of the blood culture results, she was treated with vancomycin in combination with gentamicin. On day six of hospitalization, a rupture of the papillary muscle of her mitral valve developed, and emergency cardiac surgery replacing her mitral valve with a prosthetic valve was performed. After eight weeks of antibiotic therapy, she was treated successfully and discharged without significant sequelae. Conclusions Numerable cases of body piercing-related infective endocarditis have been reported, and since ear piercing is commonplace nowadays, the importance of risk recognition cannot be overemphasized. In our report, a patient developed infective endocarditis that was caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus after ear piercing and that was accompanied by an interesting feature, namely facial rash.

Nah So-Yun; Chung Moon-Hyun; Park Jae; Durey Areum; Kim Mijeong; Lee Jin-Soo

2011-01-01

192

Role of echocardiography in guiding the optimal timing of surgery in infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a complex cardiovascular infection with the potential for multiorgan complications. While early surgery can be life saving in IE patients with acute heart failure and acute valve regurgitation, the appropriate timing of surgery for embolic complications is less certain. The ongoing debate concerns the ideal timing of surgical therapy and stems primarily from a scarcity of therapeutic randomized controlled trials in this population. Based largely on the evidence from observational studies and expert consensus, the European Society of Cardiology has issued guidelines on the optimal surgical timing in IE. Nonetheless, selection bias in published studies and the clinical complexity of this disease entity continue to pose management challenges in the individual patient. In this review, we focus on the cardinal role of echocardiography as a diagnostic tool in patients with complicated IE and discuss the available evidence pertaining to the ideal timing of surgical intervention.

Reddy SM; Panaich S; Afonso L

2013-08-01

193

Endocarditis due to a co-infection of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis in a drug abuser.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent decades the incidence of Candida endocarditis has increased dramatically. Despite the application of surgery and antifungal therapy, Candida endocarditis remains a life-threatening infection with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a 37-year-old male drug abuser presenting with high fever, chest pain, loss of appetite and cardiac failure. His echocardiography revealed mobile large tricuspid valve vegetations. Fungal endocarditis was confirmed by culturing of the resected vegetation showing mixed growth of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, although three consecutive blood cultures were negative for Candida species. Phenotypic identification was reconfirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA) region. The patient was initially treated with intravenous fluconazole (6 mg kg(-1) per day), followed by 2 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 mg kg(-1) per day). Although MICs were low for both drugs, the patient's antifungal therapy combined with valve replacement failed, and he died due to respiratory failure. PMID:23973985

Fesharaki, Shirinsadat Hashemi; Haghani, Iman; Mousavi, Bita; Kargar, Melika Laal; Boroumand, Mohammadali; Anvari, Maryam Sotoudeh; Abbasi, Kyomars; Meis, Jacques F; Badali, Hamid

2013-08-23

194

Endocarditis due to a co-infection of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis in a drug abuser.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent decades the incidence of Candida endocarditis has increased dramatically. Despite the application of surgery and antifungal therapy, Candida endocarditis remains a life-threatening infection with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a 37-year-old male drug abuser presenting with high fever, chest pain, loss of appetite and cardiac failure. His echocardiography revealed mobile large tricuspid valve vegetations. Fungal endocarditis was confirmed by culturing of the resected vegetation showing mixed growth of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, although three consecutive blood cultures were negative for Candida species. Phenotypic identification was reconfirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA) region. The patient was initially treated with intravenous fluconazole (6 mg kg(-1) per day), followed by 2 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 mg kg(-1) per day). Although MICs were low for both drugs, the patient's antifungal therapy combined with valve replacement failed, and he died due to respiratory failure.

Fesharaki SH; Haghani I; Mousavi B; Kargar ML; Boroumand M; Anvari MS; Abbasi K; Meis JF; Badali H

2013-11-01

195

Late Streptococcus bovis infection of total knee replacement complicated by infective endocarditis and associated with colonic ulcers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus bovis is rare cause of late infections after total knee replacement (TKR). This report presents a case of confirmed late septic arthritis following TKR caused by S bovis that was further complicated with infective endocarditis resulting in aortic valve insufficiency in an immunecompetent patient. As an association between S bovis and gastrointestinal malignancies is suggested, a workup for such malignancies was performed that revealed non-malignant ulcers in patient's ascending colon. The patient is currently recovering from his aortic valve replacement surgery and is scheduled to have annual colonoscopies. His knee joint has improved; however, he developed constant pain because of underlying chronic infection in the affected joint and has difficulties mobilising. Therefore, a revision TKR is considered but postponed until he fully recovers from his heart valve surgery.

Nagy MT; Hla SM; Keys GW

2013-01-01

196

Infective Endocarditis  

Science.gov (United States)

... a heart murmur antibiotics before a dental or surgical procedure. (Such procedures may cause bacteria to enter the ... need to take antibiotics before a dental or surgical procedure. If you are unsure about whether you should ...

197

From Recussitation to Birth: Double Valve Replacement Due to Infective Endocarditis in Pregnant Woman  

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Full Text Available Pregnancy carries an increased risk for mother and the fetus in patients with cardiac disease. In this case we represent a woman with gestational age of 16 weeks, who was resuscitated and underwent double valve replacement with longer cardiopulmonary bypass times (112 minutes of cross clamping and 133 minutes of perfusion time) due to infective endocarditis and decompensed heart failure. After the surgery at 38th gestational weeks, she gave birth uneventfully to a healthy child whose Apgar score was 9 at first and fifth minutes of the delivery. Heart surgery during pregnancy can be performed with acceptable maternal and fetal mortality rates. These rates may even be lower if strict protocols performed during every step of surgery and after.

Salih Cinar; Suat Doganci; Vedat Y?ld?r?m; Ahmet Cosar; Ercan Kurt

2012-01-01

198

Perivalvular Abscess of Tricuspid Valve: A Rare Complication of Infective Endocarditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is a serious complication of intravenous (IV) drug abuse, with a reported mortality of 5 to 10%. A 21-year-old man, who was an intravenous drug abuser, presented with fever and dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a highly mobile, large vegetation on the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve. Despite antibiotic therapy for ten days, the patient remained febrile. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed severe aortic regurgitation and an echo-lucent space between the tricuspid and aortic valves. Color Doppler demonstrated a flow within the echo-lucent space and a connection between that and the left ventricle, suggesting a perivalvular abscess of the tricuspid valve opening in the left ventricle. The patient was transferred to the operating room, where he unfortunately expired.

Ali Reza Moaref; Yadallah Mahmoody; Khallil Zarrabie

2010-01-01

199

A rare case of infective endocarditis complicated by Trichosporon asahii fungemia treated by surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The patient was a 58-year-old male. He consulted our hospital because of weight loss and fever. Computed tomography (CT) revealed renal infarction. Nine days after admission, CT showed hemorrhagic cerebral infarction in the right frontal lobe. A blood culture revealed streptococcus oralis, and echocardiography revealed vegetation in the mitral and aortic valves, suggesting infective endocarditis (IE). Fever (39 degrees C or higher) was noted 23 days after admission. A blood culture revealed Trichosporon asahii (T. asahii), suggesting T. asahii fungemia. An intravenous drip of fluconazole at 400 mg/day was initiated, and two-valve replacement was performed 34 days after admission. Following surgery, the patient became negative for beta-D glucan and was discharged 85 days after admission. We report the present case of IE complicated by T. asahii fungemia, which is rare in patients other than malignant blood disease or tumor patients, showing a poor prognosis in which survival was achieved by surgery.

Izumi K; Hisata Y; Hazama S

2009-10-01

200

A rare case of infective endocarditis complicated by Trichosporon asahii fungemia treated by surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The patient was a 58-year-old male. He consulted our hospital because of weight loss and fever. Computed tomography (CT) revealed renal infarction. Nine days after admission, CT showed hemorrhagic cerebral infarction in the right frontal lobe. A blood culture revealed streptococcus oralis, and echocardiography revealed vegetation in the mitral and aortic valves, suggesting infective endocarditis (IE). Fever (39 degrees C or higher) was noted 23 days after admission. A blood culture revealed Trichosporon asahii (T. asahii), suggesting T. asahii fungemia. An intravenous drip of fluconazole at 400 mg/day was initiated, and two-valve replacement was performed 34 days after admission. Following surgery, the patient became negative for beta-D glucan and was discharged 85 days after admission. We report the present case of IE complicated by T. asahii fungemia, which is rare in patients other than malignant blood disease or tumor patients, showing a poor prognosis in which survival was achieved by surgery. PMID:19901894

Izumi, Kenta; Hisata, Yoichi; Hazama, Shiro

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

[Gram negative bacilli endocarditis ].  

Science.gov (United States)

Gram negative bacilli endocarditis are unfrequent. Nevertheless we encountered 28 cases of them (8.8%) among 320 endocarditis of which 10 were primitive and 7 cases (10.9%) among 65 prosthetic endocarditis. Bacterial species were 12 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2 Ps, stutzeri, 1 Ps. maltophilia, 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 Escherichia coli, 3 Serratia marcescans, 1 Enterobacter cloacae, 1 Brucella, 1 Hemophilus aphrophilus, 1 Fusobacterium funduliformis, 18 cases were hospital acquired infections related to cardiac surgery (4 cases), intracardiac catheterization (5 cases), intravenous catheter (4 cases). Uncontrolled infection or cardiac insufficiency underwent respectively in 14 and 18 cases. The overall mortality was 50 p. cent. The death occurred more frequently in primitive endocarditis (70%) than in secondary native endocarditis (45%) or prosthetic endocarditis (29%). It was also more frequent in Pseudomonas endocarditis (59%) than with other species (36%) and more frequent when cardiac sufficiency was present (50%). 15 patients underwent surgical procedure of which 6 died (40%). The results were better if the infection was cured before surgical procedures: 5 deaths occurred when the culture of the valves remained positive (9 cases) but none when it was negative. The 5 most recent cases of prosthetic endocarditis were cured. Since 1979, no death occurred among treated patients. we concluded that surgery is usually necessary but after an effective antibiotic therapy over a 4 or 6 week period. PMID:6750526

Witchitz, S; Regnier, B; Witchitz, J; Schlemmer, B; Bouvet, E; Vachon, F

1982-06-01

202

[Gram negative bacilli endocarditis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gram negative bacilli endocarditis are unfrequent. Nevertheless we encountered 28 cases of them (8.8%) among 320 endocarditis of which 10 were primitive and 7 cases (10.9%) among 65 prosthetic endocarditis. Bacterial species were 12 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2 Ps, stutzeri, 1 Ps. maltophilia, 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 Escherichia coli, 3 Serratia marcescans, 1 Enterobacter cloacae, 1 Brucella, 1 Hemophilus aphrophilus, 1 Fusobacterium funduliformis, 18 cases were hospital acquired infections related to cardiac surgery (4 cases), intracardiac catheterization (5 cases), intravenous catheter (4 cases). Uncontrolled infection or cardiac insufficiency underwent respectively in 14 and 18 cases. The overall mortality was 50 p. cent. The death occurred more frequently in primitive endocarditis (70%) than in secondary native endocarditis (45%) or prosthetic endocarditis (29%). It was also more frequent in Pseudomonas endocarditis (59%) than with other species (36%) and more frequent when cardiac sufficiency was present (50%). 15 patients underwent surgical procedure of which 6 died (40%). The results were better if the infection was cured before surgical procedures: 5 deaths occurred when the culture of the valves remained positive (9 cases) but none when it was negative. The 5 most recent cases of prosthetic endocarditis were cured. Since 1979, no death occurred among treated patients. we concluded that surgery is usually necessary but after an effective antibiotic therapy over a 4 or 6 week period.

Witchitz S; Regnier B; Witchitz J; Schlemmer B; Bouvet E; Vachon F

1982-06-01

203

Circumferential disruption of the ventriculo-aortic junction due to infective endocarditis: surgical repair with custom-made, accurately sized, pericardial tube.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Repair of circumferential ventriculo-aortic annular disruption following infective endocarditis is technically challenging. We present an approach for systematic repair and describe a technique for preparation of an accurately sized pericardial tube graft.

Sanders LH; Sanders FB; van der Heide S; Soliman Hamad MA; Joost ter Woorst F

2011-07-01

204

Circumferential disruption of the ventriculo-aortic junction due to infective endocarditis: surgical repair with custom-made, accurately sized, pericardial tube.  

Science.gov (United States)

Repair of circumferential ventriculo-aortic annular disruption following infective endocarditis is technically challenging. We present an approach for systematic repair and describe a technique for preparation of an accurately sized pericardial tube graft. PMID:21333596

Sanders, Lucas H A; Sanders, Floris B M; van der Heide, Stefan; Soliman Hamad, Mohammed A; Joost ter Woorst, F

2011-02-17

205

Assessment of knowledge of guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis amongst clinicians in a teaching hospital.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A significant minority of instances of endocarditis appear to be the result of invasive procedures performed in susceptible patients with underlying cardiac conditions. Absence, or inappropriate administration, of antimicrobial prophylaxis could expose the patient to the development of a potentially lethal infection. This study was formulated, therefore, to assess the knowledge of guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis among hospital-based physicians and surgeons. A multiple choice test was developed, including: (1) cardiac conditions at increased risk for development of infection; (2) procedures more likely to be associated with bacteraemia and endocarditis; and (3) type and route of antimicrobials prescribed when endocarditis prophylaxis is indicated. The quality of the test was determined in several ways. Success was defined as a pass rate of 11 of 18 questions (61%). The test was taken by 153 of 251 (60%) physicians employed by the hospital; 95 (62%) passed the test. No significant difference in success rates was found according to sex, professional status or medical school. Internists performed substantially better (with a pass rate of 41 of 53, 77%) than both paediatricians (13 of 26, 50%, P<0.05) and surgeons (41 of 74, 55%, P<0.01). The range of success varied from 100% to 36% according to specialty (P<0.001). The mean score was 69+/-21 in the study group and 94+/-10 in a control group of 20 infectious disease physicians (P<0.001). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the need for improved education of hospital-based clinicians regarding endocarditis prophylaxis recommendations.

Solomon M; Raveh D; Schlesinger Y; Yinnon AM

2000-08-01

206

Infective endocarditis and motivation to an oral health check-up  

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Full Text Available Aim: The Rhône-Alpes Union régionale des caisses d’Assurance maladie (URCAM) sent information about oral health to patients at risk of infective endocarditis (IE) and information with audit-feedback to general practitioners. Our objective was to assess the effectivenessof this action.Methods: In 2004, 5 to 70 year-old chronic patients at risk of infective endocarditis were included. We randomized 25 geographical clusters in two groups: a control and an intervention group. Several documents were sent to patients and physicians of the interventiongroup. We studied for one year the dental treatments performed to analyse the oral health check-ups (OHCU).Results: The biannual OHCU was 13,6% in the intervention group versus 14,1% in the control group (p unilateral = 0,44). With adjusted logistic regression models, we found no association between the intervention and a biannual OHCU (OR = 0,95; CI 95% = [0,55; 1,65]).For the annual OHCU, there was no statistical association between the intervention and annual OHCU (OR = 1,22; CI 95% = [0,90; 1,65]) with logistic regression models. When the physicians had mentioned the OHCU on the medical claim, we observed a statistical associationwith the annual OHCU (OR = 4,30; CI 95% = [1,36 ; 13,54]). High risk patients were less often cared than patients at lower risk (OR = 0,70 ; CI 95% = [0,53; 0,94]).Conclusion: Prevention should encourage general practitioners to prescribe regular OHCU, especially for high risk patients.

Guillaud M; Blatier J-F; Chabert R; Nakache P

2010-01-01

207

Staphylococcus lugdunensis endocarditis with isolated tricuspid valve involvement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Staphylococcus lugdunensis is often misidentified as S aureus and as a rare cause of infective endocarditis. The clinical course of S lugdunensis endocarditis is aggressive and the mortality rate is high in contrast to S epidermidis endocarditis. Most reported cases of S lugdunensis endocarditis have involved mitral or aortic valves. Herein, we present a case with isolated tricuspid endocarditis due to S lugdunensis.

Chung KP; Chang HT; Liao CH; Chu FY; Hsueh PR

2012-06-01

208

Current best practices and guidelines. Assessment and management of complications in infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most important complications of endocarditis are congestive heart failure, paravalvular abscess formation, and embolism, especially stroke. In addition, endocarditis may be complicated by septic arthritis, vertebral osteomyelitis, pericarditis, metastatic abscesses and an array of renal problems ranging from immune-complex glomerulonephritis to renal abscesses. Adverse reactions associated with medical treatment of endocarditis can also result in significant complications such as ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity, skin rashes, and serum sickness. This review focuses on the cardiac, embolic, neurologic and renal complications of endocarditis and discusses how these complications influence the clinical management of individual cases in daily practice.

Sexton DJ; Spelman D

2003-05-01

209

Current best practices and guidelines. Assessment and management of complications in infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most important complications of endocarditis are congestive heart failure, paravalvular abscess formation, and embolism, especially stroke. In addition, endocarditis may be complicated by septic arthritis, vertebral osteomyelitis, pericarditis, metastatic abscesses and an array of renal problems ranging from immune-complex glomerulonephritis to renal abscesses. Adverse reactions associated with medical treatment of endocarditis can also result in significant complications such as ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity, skin rashes, and serum sickness. This review focuses on the cardiac, embolic, neurologic and renal complications of endocarditis and discusses how these complications influence the clinical management of individual cases in daily practice.

Sexton DJ; Spelman D

2002-06-01

210

Current best practices and guidelines. Assessment and management of complications in infective endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most important complications of endocarditis are congestive heart failure, paravalvular abscess formation, and embolism, especially stroke. In addition, endocarditis may be complicated by septic arthritis, vertebral osteomyelitis, pericarditis, metastatic abscesses and an array of renal problems ranging from immune-complex glomerulonephritis to renal abscesses. Adverse reactions associated with medical treatment of endocarditis can also result in significant complications such as ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity, skin rashes, and serum sickness. This review focuses on the cardiac, embolic, neurologic and renal complications of endocarditis and discusses how these complications influence the clinical management of individual cases in daily practice. PMID:12874898

Sexton, Daniel J; Spelman, Denis

2003-05-01

211

First reported case of infective endocarditis caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus not associated with healthcare contact in Brazil  

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Full Text Available We report here the first case of endocarditis due to CA-MRSA not associated with healthcare contact in Brazil in Brazil. A previously healthy patient presented with history of endocarditis following a traumatic wound infection. Patient had multiple positive blood cultures within 72 h of admission and met modified Duke's criterion for infective endocarditis. The isolate was typed as Staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec type IV and was positive for presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Increased incidence of CA-MRSA endocarditis is a challenge for the internist to choose the best empirical therapy. Several authors have suggested an empirical therapy with both a beta-lactam and an anti-MRSA agent for serious S. aureus infections. Our patient was treated with Vancomycin and made complete recovery in 3 months.

Claudio Querido Fortes; Claudia Adelino Espanha; Flavio Pedreira Bustorff; Bruno Cordeiro Zappa; Adriana Lucia Pires Ferreira; Regina Barbosa Moreira; Nelson Gonçalves Pereira; Vance G. Fowler Jr.; Hitesh Deshmukh

2008-01-01

212

First reported case of infective endocarditis caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus not associated with healthcare contact in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english We report here the first case of endocarditis due to CA-MRSA not associated with healthcare contact in Brazil in Brazil. A previously healthy patient presented with history of endocarditis following a traumatic wound infection. Patient had multiple positive blood cultures within 72 h of admission and met modified Duke's criterion for infective endocarditis. The isolate was typed as Staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec type IV and was positive for presence of Panto (more) n-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Increased incidence of CA-MRSA endocarditis is a challenge for the internist to choose the best empirical therapy. Several authors have suggested an empirical therapy with both a beta-lactam and an anti-MRSA agent for serious S. aureus infections. Our patient was treated with Vancomycin and made complete recovery in 3 months.

Fortes, Claudio Querido; Espanha, Claudia Adelino; Bustorff, Flavio Pedreira; Zappa, Bruno Cordeiro; Ferreira, Adriana Lucia Pires; Moreira, Regina Barbosa; Pereira, Nelson Gonçalves; Fowler Jr., Vance G.; Deshmukh, Hitesh

2008-12-01

213

Endocarditis due to a co-infection of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis in a drug abuser.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the last decades the incidence of Candida endocarditis has increased dramatically. Despite the application of surgery and antifungal therapy Candida endocarditis remains a life-threatening infection with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a 37-year-old male drug abuser presenting with high fever, chest pain, loss of appetite and cardiac failure. His echocardiography revealed, mobile large tricuspid valve vegetations. Fungal endocarditis was confirmed by culturing of the resected vegetation showing mixed growth of C. albicans and C. tropicalis, although three consecutive blood cultures were negative for Candida species. Phenotypic identification was reconfirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA) region. The patient was initially treated with intravenous fluconazole (6 mg/kg/day) followed by two weeks of intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 mg/kg/day). Although MICs were low for both drugs the patient failed antifungal therapy combined with valve replacement and died due to respiratory failure.Keywords: Fungal Endocarditis, Candida species, ITS rDNA sequencing, in vitro susceptibility.

Hashemi Fesharaki S; Haghani I; Mousavi B; Laal Kargar M; Bromand MA; Sotoudeh Anvari M; Abbasi K; F Meis J; Badali H

2013-08-01

214

[Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Streptococcus constellatus infection complicated with perivalvular abscess: serial observation by transesophageal echocardiography: a case report].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 61-year-old man was admitted to an associated hospital because of fever. He had undergone aortic valve and mitral valve replacement 6 years ago, because of rheumatic aortic valve stenosis, and mitral valve stenosis and regurgitation. He had prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a rare Streptococcus constellatus infection complicated by multiple organ failure and systemic embolism. We considered that surgical treatment was difficult, and continued antibiotic treatment. The inflammatory reaction and fever improved. Prosthetic valve endocarditis is often difficult to identify and treat. Streptococcus constellatus infection is characterized by destruction and formation of abscess. We followed up the patient by transesophageal echocardiography, and observed the course of change of the paravalvular abscess around the aortic valve from echogenic to echolucent.

Ejima K; Ishizuka N; Tanaka H; Tanimoto K; Shoda M; Kasanuki H

2003-09-01

215

[Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Streptococcus constellatus infection complicated with perivalvular abscess: serial observation by transesophageal echocardiography: a case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 61-year-old man was admitted to an associated hospital because of fever. He had undergone aortic valve and mitral valve replacement 6 years ago, because of rheumatic aortic valve stenosis, and mitral valve stenosis and regurgitation. He had prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a rare Streptococcus constellatus infection complicated by multiple organ failure and systemic embolism. We considered that surgical treatment was difficult, and continued antibiotic treatment. The inflammatory reaction and fever improved. Prosthetic valve endocarditis is often difficult to identify and treat. Streptococcus constellatus infection is characterized by destruction and formation of abscess. We followed up the patient by transesophageal echocardiography, and observed the course of change of the paravalvular abscess around the aortic valve from echogenic to echolucent. PMID:14526662

Ejima, Koichiro; Ishizuka, Naoko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Tanimoto, Kyomi; Shoda, Morio; Kasanuki, Hiroshi

2003-09-01

216

Successful surgical intervention for active infective endocarditis on a hemodialysis patient with cerebral infarction and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 48-year-old woman on hemodialysis developed congestive heart failure, neurologic deficits and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis. Echocardiography showed large vegetation attached to the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve, severe mitral and aortic regurgitation, and poor left ventricular function. Computed tomography findings revealed recurrent embolic events including cerebral and splenic infarction, but no evidence of intracranial bleeding. Abnormal laboratory findings included DIC in addition to the administration of the daily dose of ticlopidine hydrochloride. Aortic and mitral valves were urgently replaced with bioprosthetic valves after the transfusion of fresh frozen plasma and platelet. During the follow-up period of one year, she was free from any cardiac events and infectious signs. Even though this report is limited to a case and its follow-up, it is sensible to conclude that only aggressive and timely surgical intervention can be the only lifesaving action for patients with highly infective endocarditis. PMID:14997986

Sakaki, Masayuki; Takahashi, Toshiki; Miyamoto, Yuji; Sawa, Yoshiki; Matsuda, Hikaru

2004-02-01

217

Successful surgical intervention for active infective endocarditis on a hemodialysis patient with cerebral infarction and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 48-year-old woman on hemodialysis developed congestive heart failure, neurologic deficits and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis. Echocardiography showed large vegetation attached to the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve, severe mitral and aortic regurgitation, and poor left ventricular function. Computed tomography findings revealed recurrent embolic events including cerebral and splenic infarction, but no evidence of intracranial bleeding. Abnormal laboratory findings included DIC in addition to the administration of the daily dose of ticlopidine hydrochloride. Aortic and mitral valves were urgently replaced with bioprosthetic valves after the transfusion of fresh frozen plasma and platelet. During the follow-up period of one year, she was free from any cardiac events and infectious signs. Even though this report is limited to a case and its follow-up, it is sensible to conclude that only aggressive and timely surgical intervention can be the only lifesaving action for patients with highly infective endocarditis.

Sakaki M; Takahashi T; Miyamoto Y; Sawa Y; Matsuda H

2004-02-01

218

[Infective endocarditis in sub-Saharan african children, cross-sectional study about 19 cases in Ouagadougou at Burkina Faso.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Infective endocarditis is a transplant of a microorganism on a most often injured endocardium. It is rare in children. This work aimed to determine the frequency of endocarditis of the child, to describe clinical presentation, data from echocardiography, microbiological profile and clinical course. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From May 1 2010 to April 30 2011, we consecutively included children received for infective endocarditis in two medical centers in the city of Ouagadougou: Saint-Camille medical center and teaching hospital Yalgado-Ouedraogo. We investigated the functional and general signs and treatment already received. The physical examination looking for an infectious syndrome, pneumonia, heart failure and entrance doors. Blood cultures, blood count, creatinine, blood chemistry, HIV status, electrocardiogram, chest radiography and cardiac Doppler ultrasound were systematic. The diagnosis of the disease was based on Duke criteria. RESULTS: Nineteen endocarditis in children were reported, that is 1.7% of admissions. The average age was 4.7±2.6 years (extremes: 1 and 14). The sex ratio was 1.7 for girls. The clinical presentation was a common infectious syndrome. Impaired general condition and congestive heart failure were present on admission in six cases, respectively. The front door was dental in nine cases (47.4%), skin in four cases (21%) and ENT in three cases (15.8%). A peripheral vein was implicated in one case. In the two other cases, no front door had been found. HIV serology was positive in four cases. As for the blood cultures, they were positive in 13 cases. The germs found were Streptococcus in 10 cases and staphylococcus in three cases. Echocardiography had revealed vegetations in 18 cases. These vegetations were localized on the mitral in nine cases. Multiple locations were found in four cases. Underlying heart disease was dominated by rheumatic valve disease (68.4%), healthy heart forms were found in two cases. Treatment consisted of antibiotics, antipyretic treatment and that of heart failure as appropriate. The evolution was marked by five deaths (26.3%) in an array of septic shock. Death was more important in congenital heart disease. CONCLUSION: Infective endocarditis of the child is common in our practice. The clinical syndrome is common infectious. Streptococcus and Staphylococcus are the two germs found. The main door is dental. Hence, dental care should be promoted for better prevention of infective endocarditis in our context.

Yameogo NV; Kologo KJ; Yameogo AA; Yonaba C; Millogo GR; Kissou SA; Toguyeni BJ; Samadoulougou AK; Pignatelli S; Simpore J; Zabsonre P

2013-03-01

219

Activity of glycopeptides against Staphylococcus aureus infection in a rabbit endocarditis model: MICs do not predict in vivo efficacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The in vivo efficacy of vancomycin and teicoplanin against five Staphylococcus aureus strains with different susceptibilities to them and methicillin was studied. Rabbits were allocated at random to groups for endocarditis induction with one of these five strains and then treated for 2 days with vancomycin or teicoplanin. Each treated group was compared with a control group infected with the same strain. Vancomycin and teicoplanin showed similar activities. Low MICs did not predict better in vivo results. PMID:15673789

Asseray, Nathalie; Jacqueline, Cedric; Le Mabecque, Virginie; Batard, Eric; Bugnon, Denis; Potel, Gilles; Caillon, Jocelyne

2005-02-01

220

Successful recovery of infective endocarditis-induced rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis by steroid therapy combined with antibiotics: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The mortality rate among patients with infective endocarditis, especially associated with the presence of complications or coexisting conditions such as renal failure and the use of combined medical and surgical therapy remains still high. Prolonged parenteral administration of a bactericidal antimicrobial agent or combination of agents is usually recommended, however, the optimal therapy for infective endocarditis associated with renal injury is not adequately defined. Case presentation Patient was a 24-years old man who presented to our hospital with fever, fatigue, and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. He had a history of ventricular septum defect (VSD). A renal biopsy specimen revealed crescentic glomerulonephritis and echocardiogram revealed VSD with vegetation on the tricuspid valve. Specimens of blood demonstrated Propionibacterium Acnes. The intensive antibiotic therapy with penicillin G was started without clinical improvement of renal function or resolution of fever over the next 7 days. After the short-term treatment of low dose of corticosteroid combined with continuous antibiotics, high fever and renal insufficiency were dramatically improved. Conclusion Although renal function in our case worsened despite therapy with antibiotics, a short-term and low dose of corticosteroid therapy with antibiotics was able to recover renal function and the patient finally underwent tricuspid valve-plasty and VSD closure. We suggest that the patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis associated with infective endocarditis might be treated with a short-term and low dose of corticosteroid successfully.

Koya Daisuke; Shibuya Kazuyuki; Kikkawa Ryuichi; Haneda Masakazu

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Native aortic valve fungal endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infective endocarditis is the most common and dangerous form of endovascular infection. Fungal endocarditis especially of native valve is rare with Candida albicans being the causative organism in one-fourth of such cases. Diagnosis of such cases is further complicated if blood cultures are sterile, vegetations are not initially seen on echocardiogram and patient presents with non-specific symptoms. We hereby report a patient with native valve fungal endocarditis, treated successfully with voriconazole.

Chaudhary SC; Sawlani KK; Arora R; Kumar V

2013-01-01

222

Endocarditis due to Corynebacterium amycolatum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Corynebacterium amycolatum, a normal inhabitant of human skin, is a Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, mycolic acid-free, aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacillus. Since its description in 1988, it has only rarely been associated with infective endocarditis. This paper describes a case of infective endocarditis successfully treated by combination therapy with daptomycin and rifampicin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of C. amycolatum endocarditis from the USA successfully treated with these agents. PMID:18809563

Dalal, Aman; Urban, Carl; Segal-Maurer, Sorana

2008-10-01

223

Endocarditis due to Corynebacterium amycolatum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Corynebacterium amycolatum, a normal inhabitant of human skin, is a Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, mycolic acid-free, aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacillus. Since its description in 1988, it has only rarely been associated with infective endocarditis. This paper describes a case of infective endocarditis successfully treated by combination therapy with daptomycin and rifampicin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of C. amycolatum endocarditis from the USA successfully treated with these agents.

Dalal A; Urban C; Segal-Maurer S

2008-10-01

224

[Short- and long-term prognosis of infective endocarditis in non-injection drug users: improved results over 15 years (1987-2001)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The treatment of infective endocarditis has undergone significant change within the last few years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and prognosis of infective endocarditis over both the short and long term in patients who are not intravenous drug users. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We carried out a prospective study of 222 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with infective endocarditis between 1987 and June 2001 at two centers. RESULTS: Their mean age was 48 (19) years, with 145 (65%) being male. Overall, 154 (69%) had native valve endocarditis and 68 (31%) had prosthetic valve endocarditis. In 61 patients (27%), no predisposing heart disease was found. Staphylococci were the causal microorganisms in 37% of cases (81 patients), and streptococci, in 35% (78 patients). Some 48% of patients underwent surgery during the active disease phase. Overall, inpatient mortality was 17% (39 cases); a significant decrease had occurred in recent years, from 25% in 1989-1995 to 12% in 1996-2001 (P<.01). In addition, the percentage undergoing early elective surgery had increased between the two periods, from 22% to 32% (P<.05). During a follow-up of 60 (48) months, 15 patients (8%) needed late cardiac surgery and 18 (10% of the whole series) died. The 6-year survival rate was 72% overall, and 80% in those who survived the active disease phase. CONCLUSIONS: Short- and long-term prognoses for patients with infective endocarditis appear to have improved over recent years at our hospitals.

Anguita Sánchez M; Torres Calvo F; Castillo Domínguez JC; Delgado Ortega M; Mesa Rubio D; Ruiz Ortiz M; Romo Peña E; Arizón del Prado JM; Suárez de Lezo J

2005-10-01

225

[Propionibacterium acnes infective endocarditis. Study of 11 cases and review of literature  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Propionibacterium acnes, a gram positive, anaerobic, skin commensal bacillus, is too often considered a biologic fluid contaminant, of blood cultures in particular. Its implication has been shown in various infections, including brain abscess, ocular infections, osteitis, and acne. It is also the cause of infective endocarditis (IE). METHODS: Retrospective, observational study of 11 patients with P. acnes IE, hospitalised between 1993 and 2001 at the Louis Pradel Hospital, Lyon-Bron, and review of 20 published cases. RESULTS: P. acnes IE is rare, though its prevalence is probably underestimated. It is most likely to affect men (71%), and affects all ages (children 4/31 cases). An entry point, probably cutaneous, is rarely confirmed. P. acnes IE often develops on valve prosthesis (42%), and embolisms are common (61%). The infective site is usually aortic (55%). The often-subtle symptoms and slow growth of the organism in vitro complicate the diagnosis, which is often made at a late stage, when valvular and peri-valvular destruction has become major. Despite the high sensitivity of P. acnes to most antimicrobials, a surgical intervention is very often needed (81%). The mortality is relatively high (15% to 27%). Examination of pathologic specimens by polymerase chain reaction increases the sensitivity and speed of its detection. The identification of P. acnes in a biologic specimen, valvular tissue in particular, requires a thorough knowledge of the clinical context before concluding to contamination, and mandates close surveillance of the patient. P. acnes can be the cause of IE long before it has been detected.

Delahaye F; Fol S; Célard M; Vandenesch F; Beaune J; Bozio A; de Gevigney G

2005-12-01

226

Yersinia enterocolitica endocarditis on a prosthetic valve.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Yersinia entercolitica endocarditis has rarely been described before. This is the first report of prosthetic valve Yersinia enterocolitis endocarditis, complicated by infected brain embolization. The patient, however, completely recovered after 6 weeks of combined therapy with ceftriaxone and gentam...

Pras, E.; Arber, N.; Pinkhas, J.; Sidi, Y.

227

Outcome of aortic homograft implantation in 24 cases of severe infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the study was to evaluate the results of treatment of severe aortic endocarditis with an aortic homograft (an aortic valve and root from a donor) in combination with antibiotic therapy. 24 patients with either aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis (n=16) or severe aortic native valve endocarditis (n=8) with destruction of 1 or more cusps, paravalvular abscess formation and/or cardiac fistulas caused by aggressive bacteria, underwent surgery in 1997-2006. Staphylococcal species were the most common pathogens followed by streptococci. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was started before surgery and continued for at least 4-6 weeks. Three patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis died within the first 24 h after surgery from heart failure. Two of these patients required an additional implantation of a mitral valve prosthesis. Five patients died from non-cardiac causes within 1-7 y of surgery. Within the follow-up period no patients had relapse of endocarditis, and only 1 episode of recurrent endocarditis in an intravenous drug abuser was registered. In conclusion, an aortic homograft in combination with intravenous antibiotics is an excellent option for treatment of severe aortic endocarditis.

Foghsgaard S; Bruun N; Kjaergard H

2008-01-01

228

Outcome of aortic homograft implantation in 24 cases of severe infective endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to evaluate the results of treatment of severe aortic endocarditis with an aortic homograft (an aortic valve and root from a donor) in combination with antibiotic therapy. 24 patients with either aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis (n=16) or severe aortic native valve endocarditis (n=8) with destruction of 1 or more cusps, paravalvular abscess formation and/or cardiac fistulas caused by aggressive bacteria, underwent surgery in 1997-2006. Staphylococcal species were the most common pathogens followed by streptococci. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was started before surgery and continued for at least 4-6 weeks. Three patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis died within the first 24 h after surgery from heart failure. Two of these patients required an additional implantation of a mitral valve prosthesis. Five patients died from non-cardiac causes within 1-7 y of surgery. Within the follow-up period no patients had relapse of endocarditis, and only 1 episode of recurrent endocarditis in an intravenous drug abuser was registered. In conclusion, an aortic homograft in combination with intravenous antibiotics is an excellent option for treatment of severe aortic endocarditis. PMID:17852908

Foghsgaard, Signe; Bruun, Niels; Kjaergard, Henrik

2007-09-06

229

Incidence of Infective Endocarditis due to Viridans Group Streptococci Before and After Publication of the 2007 American Heart Association's Endocarditis Prevention Guidelines  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The American Heart Association (AHA) published updated guidelines for infective endocarditis (IE) prevention in 2007 that markedly restricted the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in certain at-risk patients undergoing dental and other invasive procedures. The incidence of IE due to viridans group streptococci (VGS) in the United States following publication of the 2007 AHA guidelines has not been reported. Methods and Results We performed a population-based review of all definite or possible cases of VGS-IE using the Rochester Epidemiology Project of Olmsted County, Minnesota. Patient demographics and microbiologic data were collected for all VGS-IE cases diagnosed from January 1, 1999 through December 31, 2010. We also examined the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) hospital discharge database to determine the number of VGS-IE cases included between 1999 and 2009. We identified 22 cases with VGS-IE in Olmsted County over the 12-year study period. Rates of incidence (per 100,000 person-years) during time intervals of 1999–2002, 2003–2006, and 2007–2010, were 3.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–5.17), 2.48 (95% CI, 0.85–4.10), and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.00–1.64), respectively (p-value=0.061 from Poisson regression). The number of hospital discharges with a VGS-IE diagnosis in the NIS database during 1999–2002, 2003–2006, and 2007–2009 ranged between 15,318–15,938, 16,214–17,433, and 14,728–15,479, respectively. Conclusions Based on data complete through 2010, there has been no perceivable increase in incidence of VGS-IE in Olmsted County, MN following publication of the 2007 AHA Endocarditis prevention guidelines.

DeSimone, Daniel C.; Tleyjeh, Imad M.; Correa de Sa, Daniel D.; Anavekar, Nandan S.; Lahr, Brian D.; Sohail, Muhammad R.; Steckelberg, James M.; Wilson, Walter R.; Baddour, Larry M.

2013-01-01

230

HIGH-DOSE DAPTOMYCIN THERAPY FOR LEFT-SIDED INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM THE INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON ENDOCARDITIS (ICE).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND. The use of daptomycin in Gram-positive left-sided infective endocarditis (IE) has significantly increased. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of high-dose daptomycin on the outcome of left-sided IE due to Gram-positive pathogens.METHODS. Prospective cohort study based on 1,112 cases from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE)-Plus database and the ICE-Daptomycin Substudy database from 2008 to 2010. Among patients with left-sided IE due to Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Enterococcus faecalis, we compared those treated with daptomycin (Cohort A) to those treated with standard-of-care (SOC) antibiotics (Cohort B). Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Time-to-clearance of bacteremia, 6-month mortality, and adverse events (AEs) ascribable to daptomycin were also assessed.RESULTS. There were 29 and 149 patients included in Cohort A and Cohort B, respectively. Baseline comorbidities did not differ between the two cohorts, except for a significantly higher prevalence of diabetes and previous episodes of IE among patients treated with daptomycin. The median daptomycin dose was 9.2 mg/kg/day. Two-thirds of the patients treated with daptomycin had failed a previous antibiotic regimen. In-hospital and 6-month mortalities were similar in the two cohorts. In Cohort A, median time-to-clearance of MRSA bacteremia was 1.0 d, irrespective of daptomycin dose, representing a significantly faster bacteremia clearance as compared to SOC (1.0 vs. 5.0 d; p <0.01). Higher daptomycin dose-regimens were not associated with increased incidence of AEs.CONCLUSIONS. Higher-dose daptomycin may be an effective and safe alternative to SOC in the treatment of left-sided IE due to common Gram-positive pathogens.

Carugati M; Bayer AS; Miró JM; Park LP; Guimarães AC; Skoutelis A; Fortes CQ; Durante-Mangoni E; Hannan MM; Nacinovich F; Fernández-Hidalgo N; Grossi P; Tan RS; Holland T; Fowler VG Jr; Corey RG; Chu VH

2013-09-01

231

Infective endocarditis caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans: a case report and review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An 86-year-old woman who underwent placement of a prosthetic aortic valve for regurgitation 5 years previously was admitted because of spiking fever. The blood culture results were positive for gram-negative rods, which were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Approximately 4 months after being sent to the hospital, transthoracic echocardiography revealed vegetation at the prosthetic aortic valve. Ultimately, a diagnosis of A. xylosoxidans endocarditis of the prosthetic aortic valve was made. We report an extremely rare case of bacteremia associated by prosthetic valve endocarditis with A. xylosoxidans. In addition, we review 10 previously reported cases of endocarditis caused by A. xylosoxidans.

Tokuyasu H; Fukushima T; Nakazaki H; Shimizu E

2012-01-01

232

Gram-negative bacteria causing infective endocarditis: Rare cardiac complication after liver transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial endocarditis is a rare complication amongst solid organ transplant recipients and is often linked to bacteremia. Majority of these recipients do not have underlying valvular heart disease or congenital valvular abnormalities. Staphylococoocusaureus and Enterococcus species are the most commonly isolated organisms. There are very few reports of gram-negative bacteria causing endocarditis in liver transplant recipients. We report a 51-year-old male, a liver transplant recipient, who developed bacterial endocarditis of the mitral valve due to extended spectrum of betalactamase producing strain of Escherichia coli and was managed successfully with antibiotics. PMID:23717742

George, Susan; Varghese, Joy; Chandrasekhar, Sujatha; Perumalla, Rajasekar; Reddy, Mettu Srinivas; Jayanthi, Venkataraman; Rela, Mohamed

2013-05-27

233

Gram-negative bacteria causing infective endocarditis: Rare cardiac complication after liver transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacterial endocarditis is a rare complication amongst solid organ transplant recipients and is often linked to bacteremia. Majority of these recipients do not have underlying valvular heart disease or congenital valvular abnormalities. Staphylococoocusaureus and Enterococcus species are the most commonly isolated organisms. There are very few reports of gram-negative bacteria causing endocarditis in liver transplant recipients. We report a 51-year-old male, a liver transplant recipient, who developed bacterial endocarditis of the mitral valve due to extended spectrum of betalactamase producing strain of Escherichia coli and was managed successfully with antibiotics.

George S; Varghese J; Chandrasekhar S; Perumalla R; Reddy MS; Jayanthi V; Rela M

2013-05-01

234

Gram-negative bacteria causing infective endocarditis: Rare cardiac complication after liver transplantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacterial endocarditis is a rare complication amongst solid organ transplant recipients and is often linked to bacteremia. Majority of these recipients do not have underlying valvular heart disease or congenital valvular abnormalities. Staphylococoocusaureus and Enterococcus species are the most commonly isolated organisms. There are very few reports of gram-negative bacteria causing endocarditis in liver transplant recipients. We report a 51-year-old male, a liver transplant recipient, who developed bacterial endocarditis of the mitral valve due to extended spectrum of betalactamase producing strain of Escherichia coli and was managed successfully with antibiotics.

Susan George; Joy Varghese; Sujatha Chandrasekhar; Rajasekar Perumalla; Mettu Srinivas Reddy; Venkataraman Jayanthi; Mohamed Rela

2013-01-01

235

Long-term outcomes and cardiac surgery in critically ill patients with infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To assess long-term outcomes and the management of critical left-sided infective endocarditis (IE) and evaluate the impact of surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among the 198 patients included prospectively for IE across 33 adult intensive care units (ICU) in France from 1 April 2007 to 1 October 2008, 137 (69%) were dead at a median follow-up time of 59.5 months. Characteristics significantly associated with mortality were: Sepsis-related Organ-Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at ICU admission [Hazard ratio (HR), 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of 1.43 (0.79-2.59) for SOFA 5-9; 2.01 (1.05-3.85) for SOFA 10-14; 3.53 (1.75-7.11) for SOFA 15-20; reference category SOFA 0-4; P = 0.003]; prosthetic mechanical valve IE [HR 2.01; 95% CI 1.09-3.69, P = 0.025]; vegetation size ?15 mm [HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.03-2.63, P = 0.038]; and cardiac surgery [HR (95%CI), 0.33 (0.16-0.67) for surgery ?1 day after IE diagnosis; 0.61 (0.29-1.26) for surgery 2-7 days after IE diagnosis; 0.42 (0.21-0.83) for surgery >7 days after IE diagnosis; reference category no surgery; P = 0.005]. One hundred and three (52%) patients underwent cardiac surgery after a median time of 6 (16) days. Independent predictors of surgical intervention on multivariate analysis were: age ?60 years [Odds ratio (OR) 5.30; 95% CI (2.46-11.41), P < 0.01], heart failure [OR 3.27; 95% CI (1.03-10.35), P = 0.04], cardiogenic shock [OR 3.31; 95% CI (1.47-7.46), P = 0.004], septic shock [OR 0.25; 95% CI (0.11-0.59), P = 0.002], immunosuppression [OR 0.15; 95% CI (0.04-0.55), P = 0.004], and diagnosis before or within 24 h of ICU admission [OR 2.81; 95% CI (1.14-6.95), P = 0.025]. SOFA score calculated the day of surgery was the only independently associated factor with long-term mortality [HR (95% CI) 1.59 (0.77-3.28) for SOFA 5-9; 3.56 (1.71-7.38) for SOFA 10-14; 11.58 (4.02-33.35) for SOFA 15-20; reference category SOFA 0-4; P < 0.0001]. Surgical timing was not associated with post-operative outcomes. Of the 158 patients with a theoretical indication for surgery, the 58 deemed not fit had a 95% mortality rate. CONCLUSION: Mortality in patients with critical IE remains unacceptably high. Factors associated with long-term outcomes are the severity of multiorgan failure, prosthetic mechanical valve IE, vegetation size ?15 mm, and surgical treatment. Up to one-third of potential candidates do not undergo surgery and these patients experience extremely high mortality rates. The strongest independent predictor of post-operative mortality is the pre-operative multiorgan failure score while surgical timing does not seem to impact on outcomes.

Mirabel M; Sonneville R; Hajage D; Novy E; Tubach F; Vignon P; Perez P; Lavoué S; Kouatchet A; Pajot O; Mekontso-Dessap A; Tonnelier JM; Bollaert PE; Frat JP; Navellou JC; Hyvernat H; Hssain AA; Timsit JF; Megarbane B; Wolff M; Trouillet JL

2013-08-01

236

Achados ecocardiográficos em pacientes com suspeita diagnóstica de endocardite infecciosa/ Echocardiographic findings in patients with suspected infective endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar os achados ecocardiográficos em pacientes com suspeita diagnóstica de endocardite infecciosa. MÉTODOS: Foram submetidos à investigação ecocardiográfica transtorácica e transesofágica 262 pacientes com suspeita diagnóstica de endocardite infecciosa. Analisadas imagens de vegetações, abscessos valvares e insuficiência periprotética aguda e avaliada a correlação com dados clínicos, laboratoriais, categoria diagnóstica e a evolução hospit (more) alar. RESULTADOS: O diagnóstico de endocardite foi categorizado como definido em 127 (47,8%) episódios, possível em 81 (30,4%) e rejeitado em 58 (21,8%). Nos pacientes com o diagnóstico definido, foram identificadas 135 imagens de vegetações, 37 de abscesso e 6 de insuficiência periprotética. Vegetações foram mais freqüentes em pacientes com endocardite por estreptococos do grupo viridans e enterococos (p=0,02) e com duração dos sintomas Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the echocardiographic findings in patients with suspected infective endocarditis. METHODS: Two hundred sixty-two patients with suspected infective endocarditis underwent transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiographic investigation. Images of vegetations, valvular abscesses, and acute periprosthetic insufficiency were analyzed, and the correlation with clinical and laboratory data, diagnostic category, and hospital evolution was assessed. RESULTS: (more) The diagnosis of endocarditis was categorized as defined in 127 (47.8%) episodes, possible in 81 (30.4%), and rejected in 58 (21.8%). In patients with the defined diagnosis, the following images were identified: 135 vegetations, 37 abscesses, and 6 periprosthetic insufficiencies. Vegetations were more frequent in patients with endocarditis due to streptococci of the viridans group and enterococci (P=0.02), and with symptom duration

Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Grinberg, Max; Pomerantzeff, Pablo M. A.; Andrade, José L. de; Mansur, Alfredo J.

2004-09-01

237

Value of PCR in surgically treated patients with staphylococcal infective endocarditis: a 4-year retrospective study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the study was to establish a diagnostic value for broad-range polymerase chain reaction (br-PCR) and staphylococci-specific multiplex PCR (ssm-PCR) performed on surgical material from patients with staphylococcal infective endocarditis (IE). Data were analysed retrospectively from 60 patients with suspected staphylococcal IE and 59 controls who were surgically treated at three cardiosurgery centres over 4 years. Both PCR tests showed high agreement and could be aggregated. In patients with definite and rejected IE, the clinical sensitivity and specificity of PCR reached 89 and 95%, respectively. Tissue culture (TC) and PCR agreed with blood culture (BC) in 29% and 67% of IE cases. TC helped to determine aetiology in five BC negative cases while PCR aided in nine cases. Out of 52 patients with conclusive staphylococcal IE, 40 were diagnosed with S. aureus and 12 with coagulase-negative staphylococci. PCR was shown to be highly superior to TC in confirming preoperative diagnosis of IE. In addition to aid in culture negative patients, PCR helped to establish or refine aetiology in inconclusive cases. We suggest that simultaneous br-PCR and ssm-PCR performed on surgical material together with histopathology could significantly increase the performance of current Duke criteria.

Zaloudíková B; N?mcová E; Pol J; Sorm Z; Wurmová S; Novotná K; Van?rková M; Holá V; R?ži?ka F; Dušek L; N?mec P; Freiberger T

2012-06-01

238

Potential involvement of collagen-binding proteins of Streptococcus mutans in infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of dental caries, is considered to be one of the causative agents of infective endocarditis (IE). Two types of cell surface collagen-binding proteins, Cnm and Cbm, have been identified in the organism. The aim of the present study was to analyze these proteins as possible etiologic factors for IE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The binding activities of S. mutans strains to collagen types I, III, and IV were analyzed relative to the presence of Cnm and Cbm, as were their adhesion and invasion properties with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). In addition, distributions of the genes encoding Cnm and Cbm in S. mutans-positive heart valve specimens extirpated from IE and non-IE patients were analyzed by PCR. RESULTS: Most of the Cbm-positive strains showed higher levels of binding to type I collagen as well as higher rates of adhesion and invasion with HUVEC as compared to the Cnm-positive strains. Furthermore, the gene encoding Cbm was detected significantly more frequently in heart valve specimens from IE patients than from non-IE patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the collagen-binding protein Cbm of S. mutans may be one of the potential important factor associated with the pathogenesis of IE.

Nomura R; Naka S; Nemoto H; Inagaki S; Taniguchi K; Ooshima T; Nakano K

2013-05-01

239

Poor oral hygiene as a risk factor for infective endocarditis-related bacteremia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) often is caused by bacteria that colonize teeth. The authors conducted a study to determine if poor oral hygiene or dental disease are risk factors for developing bacteremia after toothbrushing or single-tooth extraction. METHODS: One hundred ninety-four participants in a study were in either a toothbrushing group or a single-tooth extraction with placebo group. The authors assessed the participants' oral hygiene, gingivitis and periodontitis statuses. They assayed blood samples obtained before, during and after the toothbrushing or extraction interventions for IE-associated bacteria. RESULTS: The authors found that oral hygiene and gingival disease indexes were associated significantly with IE-related bacteremia after toothbrushing. Participants with mean plaque and calculus scores of 2 or greater were at a 3.78- and 4.43-fold increased risk of developing bacteremia, respectively. The presence of generalized bleeding after toothbrushing was associated with an almost eightfold increase in risk of developing bacteremia. There was no significant association between any of the measures of periodontal disease and the incidence of bacteremia after toothbrushing. The oral hygiene or disease status of a tooth was not significantly associated with bacteremia after its extraction. CONCLUSION: Bacteremia after toothbrushing is associated with poor oral hygiene and gingival bleeding after toothbrushing. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Improvements in oral hygiene may reduce the risk of developing IE.

Lockhart PB; Brennan MT; Thornhill M; Michalowicz BS; Noll J; Bahrani-Mougeot FK; Sasser HC

2009-10-01

240

[Modern aspects of the clinicomorphological picture of acute and subacute infective endocarditis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to determine peculiarities of the clinico-morphological picture of modern infective endocarditis (IE). The authors generalize the results of 100 morphological studies of acute and subacute IE (AIE and SAIE) within the last 20 years (1985--2005). AIE and SAIE had developed in 52% and 35% of cases, respectively, after operations, medical manipulations and examinations. The development of secondary AIE was favored by congenital heart defects and mitral valvular (MV) prolapse, while secondary SAIE developed in patients with congenital heart defects as well as atherosclerotic and rheumatic heart defects. The feature of contemporary IE is the prevalence of primary clinico-morphological form with isolated aortal valvular (A V) lesion. Morphological changes in organs formed as a result of multiple septic embolism, immunocomplex lesion, panarteritis, and cardiac insufficiency. The occurrence and progress of the latter was caused by prominent AV and MV insufficiency (during several weeks in patients with AIE and several months in SAIE), myocarditis, pericarditis, myocardial dystrophy, and cardiosclerosis. PMID:17564033

Nikolaevski?, E N; Khubulava, G G; Avraam, G Kh; Detochenko, V P

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

ENDOCARDITIS WITH AN UNCOMMON GERM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Enterococci are normal inhabitants of gastrointestinal tract, being responsible for 5 to 18% of infective endocarditis and the incidence appears to be increasing. Eleven patients with enterococcal endocarditis were studied. In a case series group, 10 men (average 57 years) and one woman (37 years) were studied. Two patients had rheumatic heart disease, 5 patients arteriosclerotic disease and one patient chronic renal failure on hemodialysis. Ten patients were treated with ampicillin and gentamycin. Valve replacement was performed in 3 patients with aortic valve endocarditis, one on 8th day and two at the end of the treatment. Overall clinical cure was achieved in 9 patients. Two relapses occurred and 2 patients died as a result of refractory congestive heart failure and cerebral emboli. All of the enterococcal endocarditis cases were community acquired. In conclusion, infective endocarditis in patients with preexistent valvular heart disease, community acquisition and non specific symptoms with bacteriuria should be considered as enterococcal endocarditis.

M. Gharouni; S. Moradm M. J. Mahmoodi

2006-01-01

242

Significado de la fiebre persistente o recurrente durante el tratamiento de la endocarditis infecciosa/ Clinical significance of persistent or recurrent fever during the treatment of infective endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se evaluaron 81 pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa con el objeto de establecer la significación clínica de la presencia de fiebre persistente (FP) y/o fiebre recurrente (FR) durante el tratamiento. Un total de 46 pacientes (56.8%) (Grupo 1) tuvieron FP y/o FR durante el tratamiento: 35 FP y 16 FR, que se compararon con 35 sin FP/FR (Grupo 2). No hubo diferencias en la edad, sexo, permanencia hospitalaria, origen nosocomial, demora diagnóstica y comorbilidad asociada (more) . El compromiso aórtico (47.8 vs 34.2%) y tricuspídeo (21.7 vs 11.4%) y la infección por Staphylococcus aureus (55.5 vs 28%) fueron más frecuentes en el Grupo 1, aunque no significativamente. El S. aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR) (22.2 vs 4%), las complicaciones (95.6 vs 65.7%), la disfunción renal (58.6 vs 31.4%), el embolismo mayor (60.8 vs 34%), los fenómenos microvasculares (43.4 vs 17.1%) y la cirugía valvular (34.7 vs 11.4%) ocurrieron significativamente en el Grupo 1 (p Abstract in english Patients with infective endocarditis (IE) were studied to assess incidence, clinical features and mortality in a population with either persistent (PF) or recurrent fever (RF) during treatment. A sample of 81 patients was evaluated. Of these, 46 patients (56.8%) had fever during treatment: 35 had PF and 16 had RF (Group 1). This group was compared with 35 patients with IE without fever (Group 2). Age, sex, in-hospital days, nosocomial acquisition, delay in diagnosis, and (more) co-morbidities were similar among each group. The aortic and tricuspid valve compromise, and Staphylococcus aureus as etiologic agent were more frequent in Group 1 (although not significantly). However, the development of complications (95.6 vs. 65.7%), renal dysfunction (58.6 vs. 31.4%), major vessel embolization (60.8 vs. 34%), microvascular phenomena (43.4 vs. 17.1%), infections with MRSA (22.2 vs. 4%) and valvular surgery (34.7 vs. 11.4%) were significantly higher in Group 1(p

Carena, José; Marucci, Guillermo; Salomón, Susana

2004-06-01

243

Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia : the value of screening with echocardiography  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population. Methods and results From 1 January 2009 to 31 August 2010, a total of 244 patients with SAB at six Danish hospitals underwent screening echocardiography. The inclusion rate was 73% of all eligible patients (n= 336), and 53 of the 244 included patients (22%; 95% CI: 17–27%) were diagnosed with definite IE. In patients with native heart valves the prevalence was 19% (95% CI: 14–25%) compared with 38% (95% CI: 20–55%) in patients with prosthetic heart valves and/or cardiac rhythm management devices (P= 0.02). No difference was found between Main Regional Hospitals and Tertiary Cardiac Hospitals, 20 vs. 23%, respectively (NS). The prevalence of IE in high-risk patients with one or more predisposing condition or clinical evidence of IE were significantly higher compared with low-risk patients with no additional risk factors (38 vs. 5%; P < 0.001). IE was associated with a higher 6 months mortality, 14(26%) vs. 28(15%) in SAB patients without IE, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion SAB patients carry a high risk for development of IE, which is associated with a worse prognosis compared with uncomplicated SAB. The presenting symptoms and clinical findings associated with IE are often non-specific and echocardiography should always be considered as part of the initial evaluation of SAB patients.

Rasmussen, Rasmus V; HØst, Ulla

2011-01-01

244

Comparison of outcomes in patients with active infective endocarditis with versus without paravalvular abscess and with and without valve replacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 82 patients with infective endocarditis, including 11 with a perivalvular abscess detected by transesophageal echocardiography, age was a significant predictor of in-hospital mortality (p <0.001). At 3.8-year follow-up, 5 of 7 patients with an abscess who had valve replacement and 2 of 4 patients with an abscess who did not have surgery survived (p = NS); 13 of 22 patients (59%) with no abscess who had valve replacement and 20 of 49 patients (41%) with no abscess who did not have surgery survived (p = NS). PMID:15219527

Langiulli, Michael; Salomon, Pierre; Aronow, Wilbert S; McClung, John A; Belkin, Robert N

2004-07-01

245

Comparison of outcomes in patients with active infective endocarditis with versus without paravalvular abscess and with and without valve replacement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 82 patients with infective endocarditis, including 11 with a perivalvular abscess detected by transesophageal echocardiography, age was a significant predictor of in-hospital mortality (p <0.001). At 3.8-year follow-up, 5 of 7 patients with an abscess who had valve replacement and 2 of 4 patients with an abscess who did not have surgery survived (p = NS); 13 of 22 patients (59%) with no abscess who had valve replacement and 20 of 49 patients (41%) with no abscess who did not have surgery survived (p = NS).

Langiulli M; Salomon P; Aronow WS; McClung JA; Belkin RN

2004-07-01

246

Significado de la fiebre persistente o recurrente durante el tratamiento de la endocarditis infecciosa Clinical significance of persistent or recurrent fever during the treatment of infective endocarditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluaron 81 pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa con el objeto de establecer la significación clínica de la presencia de fiebre persistente (FP) y/o fiebre recurrente (FR) durante el tratamiento. Un total de 46 pacientes (56.8%) (Grupo 1) tuvieron FP y/o FR durante el tratamiento: 35 FP y 16 FR, que se compararon con 35 sin FP/FR (Grupo 2). No hubo diferencias en la edad, sexo, permanencia hospitalaria, origen nosocomial, demora diagnóstica y comorbilidad asociada. El compromiso aórtico (47.8 vs 34.2%) y tricuspídeo (21.7 vs 11.4%) y la infección por Staphylococcus aureus (55.5 vs 28%) fueron más frecuentes en el Grupo 1, aunque no significativamente. El S. aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR) (22.2 vs 4%), las complicaciones (95.6 vs 65.7%), la disfunción renal (58.6 vs 31.4%), el embolismo mayor (60.8 vs 34%), los fenómenos microvasculares (43.4 vs 17.1%) y la cirugía valvular (34.7 vs 11.4%) ocurrieron significativamente en el Grupo 1 (pPatients with infective endocarditis (IE) were studied to assess incidence, clinical features and mortality in a population with either persistent (PF) or recurrent fever (RF) during treatment. A sample of 81 patients was evaluated. Of these, 46 patients (56.8%) had fever during treatment: 35 had PF and 16 had RF (Group 1). This group was compared with 35 patients with IE without fever (Group 2). Age, sex, in-hospital days, nosocomial acquisition, delay in diagnosis, and co-morbidities were similar among each group. The aortic and tricuspid valve compromise, and Staphylococcus aureus as etiologic agent were more frequent in Group 1 (although not significantly). However, the development of complications (95.6 vs. 65.7%), renal dysfunction (58.6 vs. 31.4%), major vessel embolization (60.8 vs. 34%), microvascular phenomena (43.4 vs. 17.1%), infections with MRSA (22.2 vs. 4%) and valvular surgery (34.7 vs. 11.4%) were significantly higher in Group 1(p<0.05). The most common causes of PF were microvascular phenomena (14/32 patients), systemic and pulmonary embolization (10), valvular abscesses (5), persistent bacteremia (4) and mycotic aneurysm (2). On the other hand, phlebitis (6/16), drug hypersensitivity (3) and nosocomial infections (3) were related with RF. The overall mortality was 39.5%, distributed as follows: 52.2% of Group 1 and in 22.9% of Group 2 (p=0.007). The presence of comorbidities, major vessel embolization, heart failure, MRSA infection and inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy were significantly associated with the increased mortality in Group 1(p<0.05). We propose an evaluation method during the treatment of patients affected by this type of fever.

José Carena; Guillermo Marucci; Susana Salomón

2004-01-01

247

Enterococcal endocarditis in the beginning of the 21st century: analysis from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enterococci are reportedly the third most common group of endocarditis-causing pathogens but data on enterococcal infective endocarditis (IE) are limited. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics and prognostic factors of enterococcal IE within the International Collaboration on Endocarditis. In this multicentre, prospective observational cohort study of 4974 adults with definite IE recorded from June 2000 to September 2006, 500 patients had enterococcal IE. Their characteristics were described and compared with those of oral and group D streptococcal IE. Prognostic factors for enterococcal IE were analysed using multivariable Cox regression models. The patients' mean age was 65 years and 361/500 were male. Twenty-three per cent (117/500) of cases were healthcare related. Enterococcal IE were more frequent than oral and group D streptococcal IE in North America. The 1-year mortality rate was 28.9% (144/500). E. faecalis accounted for 90% (453/500) of enterococcal IE. Resistance to vancomycin was observed in 12 strains, eight of which were observed in North America, where they accounted for 10% (8/79) of enterococcal strains, and was more frequent in E. faecium than in E. faecalis (3/16 vs. 7/364 , p 0.01). Variables significantly associated with 1-year mortality were heart failure (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.7-3.5, p <0.0001), stroke (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.8, p 0.001) and age (HR 1.02 per 1-year increment, 95% CI 1.01-1.04, p 0.002). Surgery was not associated with better outcome. Enterococci are an important cause of IE, with a high mortality rate. Healthcare association and vancomycin resistance are common in particular in North America.

Chirouze C; Athan E; Alla F; Chu VH; Ralph Corey G; Selton-Suty C; Erpelding ML; Miro JM; Olaison L; Hoen B

2013-02-01

248

Infective endocarditis after body art: a review of the literature and concerns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare but dangerous complication of tattooing and body piercing in adolescents and young adults 15-30 years of age, with and without congenital heart disease (CHD). Because body art, including tattooing and piercing, is increasing and IE cases continue to be reported in the literature, a longitudinal assessment of IE and body art cases is important to examine for trends. METHODS: A 22-year (1985-2007) longitudinal electronic Medline and Scopus review of all published cases of IE and body art was conducted. RESULTS: In all, 22 specific cases of IE spanning 1991-2007 have been reported that were associated with piercing the tongue (seven), ear lobes (six), navel (five), lip (one), nose (one), and nipple (one), and reported in one heavily tattooed person; other general IE cases have also been mentioned. Twelve cases were in females, and one patient died; nine of these individuals had CHD. Twenty-one cases have been published in the 10 years from 1997-2007. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is no denominator to assess the real risk, this review provides more evidence of IE and body art concerns, and should stimulate further discussion regarding IE antibiotic prophylaxis. It is believed that IE is triggered by normal flora at the body art site, microorganism colonization around the jewelry, or by a localized site infection that stimulates episodes of transient bacteremia (commonly caused by staphylococi) and then seeds various areas of the heart. Frequently in such cases the mitral or aortic valves need to be replaced. For individuals with CHD who want body art, prophylactic antibiotic regimens have been suggested since 1999. Millions of tattoos and body piercings are done yearly, and more IE cases are therefore suspected. An international electronic repository of body art complications would provide better documentation. Body art procurement for many persons in this age group is a matter of "when, not if"; thus proactive, frequent, targeted educational strategies for adolescents and artists practicing body art are suggested.

Armstrong ML; DeBoer S; Cetta F

2008-09-01

249

Infective endocarditis caused by multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mitis in a combined immunocompromised patient: an autopsy case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

An autopsy case of infective endocarditis caused by multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mitis was described in a patient with a combination of factors that compromised immune status, including autoimmune hemolytic anemia, post-splenectomy state, prolonged steroid treatment, and IgA deficiency. The isolated S. mitis strain from blood culture was broadly resistant to penicillin, cephalosporins, carbapenem, macrolides, and fluoroquinolone. Recurrent episodes of bacterial infections and therapeutic use of several antibiotics may underlie the development of multidrug resistance for S. mitis. Because clinically isolated S. mitis strains from chronically immunocompromised patients have become resistant to a wide spectrum of antibiotics, appropriate antibiotic regimens should be selected when treating invasive S. mitis infections in these compromised patients. PMID:22965841

Matsui, Natsuko; Ito, Makoto; Kuramae, Hitoshi; Inukai, Tomomi; Sakai, Akiyoshi; Okugawa, Masaru

2012-09-12

250

Infective endocarditis caused by multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mitis in a combined immunocompromised patient: an autopsy case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An autopsy case of infective endocarditis caused by multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mitis was described in a patient with a combination of factors that compromised immune status, including autoimmune hemolytic anemia, post-splenectomy state, prolonged steroid treatment, and IgA deficiency. The isolated S. mitis strain from blood culture was broadly resistant to penicillin, cephalosporins, carbapenem, macrolides, and fluoroquinolone. Recurrent episodes of bacterial infections and therapeutic use of several antibiotics may underlie the development of multidrug resistance for S. mitis. Because clinically isolated S. mitis strains from chronically immunocompromised patients have become resistant to a wide spectrum of antibiotics, appropriate antibiotic regimens should be selected when treating invasive S. mitis infections in these compromised patients.

Matsui N; Ito M; Kuramae H; Inukai T; Sakai A; Okugawa M

2013-04-01

251

Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound Evaluation of Splenic Embolization in Patients with Definite Left-Sided Infective Endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the study described here was to prospectively evaluate the significance of embolization of the spleen in patients with definite left-sided infective endocarditis (IE) using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). From March through October 2012, 6 consecutive patients (4 females and 2 males, aged 27 to 83 years) with definite left-sided IE according to the revised Duke criteria were enrolled. All patients gave informed written consent, and the study was performed in conformity with the ethical guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. All patients underwent CEUS of the spleen within 1 week of the definite diagnosis of IE. A blood pool second-generation contrast agent and an ultrasound machine with contrast harmonic imaging technology were used for CEUS. Fifteen consecutive patients (7 females and 8 males, aged 39 to 88 years) who underwent CEUS from October through November 2012 for the study of focal liver lesions constituted the control group. The number of patients did not permit statistical analysis. Splenic CEUS revealed infarctions in 5 patients and an infarcted area in the only patient with negative echocardiography. All splenic CEUS procedures in the control group were negative. In this study, CEUS of the spleen, a repeatable and low-cost imaging technique, easily allowed bedside detection of asymptomatic and even tiny infarctions, and revealed a high rate of embolization in patients with definite left-sided IE. Indeed, splenic CEUS, if applied to the workup of patients with suspect IE, has the potential to accelerate or upgrade the diagnosis itself.

Menozzi G; Maccabruni V; Gabbi E; Leone N; Calzolari M

2013-11-01

252

Achromobacter species endocarditis: A case report and literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endocarditis due to Achromobacter species is a rare, yet serious, endovascular infection. Achromobacter species infective endocarditis is associated with underlying immunodeficiencies or prosthetic heart valves and devices. A case of prosthetic pulmonary valve endocarditis secondary to Achromobacter xylosoxidans subspecies denitrificans is described in the present report. This life-threatening infection was successfully treated with combined valve replacement and prolonged antibiotic therapy. A Medline/PubMed literature review of Achromobacter endocarditis was also performed. Achromobacter species are an uncommon, yet important, cause of nosocomial endocarditis. Given the significant associated morbidity and mortality, along with a high degree of intrinsic antibiotic resistance, Achromobacter species infective endocarditis remains a clinical treatment challenge.

Derber C; Elam K; Forbes BA; Bearman G

2011-01-01

253

Native-valve endocarditis caused by Mycobacterium chelonae, misidentified as polymicrobial gram-positive bacillus infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mycobacterium chelonae, a species of rapidly growing mycobacteria, may grow in routine blood culture media and stain as gram-positive bacilli, which may cause diagnostic confusion. A patient with native-valve endocarditis caused by M. chelonae, which was misidentified as various gram-positive bacilli, is presented.

Takekoshi D; Al-Heeti O; Belvitch P; Schraufnagel DE

2013-08-01

254

Bartonella infective endocarditis of a prosthetic aortic valve with a subvalvular abscess.  

Science.gov (United States)

A patient with a prosthetic aortic valve, and culture negative endocarditis caused by Bartonella henselae presented with nonspecific constitutional symptoms, skin rash, and then later developed acute renal failure. The patient underwent redo sternotomy, aortic root, and ascending aorta replacement with a homograft, which resolved his symptoms and the renal failure.? PMID:21848606

Idrees, Jahanzaib; Albacker, Turki B; Gordon, Steven M; Shin, Joyce; Menon, Venugopal; Roselli, Eric E

2011-08-17

255

Small Colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis: a case report and review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Staphylococcus aureus produces a particular morphological variant called small colony variant (SCV) which is responsible for persistent subclinical infections in predisposed individuals and is usually resistant to aminoglycosides and cell wall active antibiotics. Infections by SCV of S. aureus are an upcoming problem due to difficulty in laboratory diagnosis and resistance to antimicrobial chemotherapy. We here report a case of infective endocarditis caused by SCV of Staphylococcus aureus in a pediatric patient.

Bhattacharyya S; Roy S; Mukhopadhyay P; Rit K; Dey J; Ganguly U; Ray R

2012-06-01

256

Infective endocarditis with symptomatic cerebral complications: contribution of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cerebral complications are well-identified causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). Few studies have analysed the impact of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in IE patients with neurological manifestations. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess the MRI contribution to the management of patients with IE neurological manifestations and to compare cerebral CT and MRI findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with definite or probable IE and neurological manifestations were prospectively enrolled from 2005 to 2008, in a university hospital (Bichat Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris). Clinical and radiological characteristics and echocardiographic findings were systematically recorded. Brain MRI with angiography was performed and compared to available CT scans. The contribution of MRI results to cerebral involvement staging and to therapeutic plans was evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty patients, 37-89 years old, were included. Nineteen suffered from pre-existing heart disease. Blood cultures were positive in 29 cases and the main micro-organisms were streptococci (n = 14) and staphylococci (n = 13). The IE was mainly located on mitral (n = 15) and aortic valves (n = 13). Neurological events were strokes (n = 12), meningitis (n = 5), seizures (n = 1), impaired consciousness (n = 11) and severe headache (n = 1). MRI findings included ischaemic lesions (n = 25), haemorrhagic lesions (n = 2), subarachnoid haemorrhage (n = 5), brain abscess (n = 6), mycotic aneurysm (n = 7), vascular occlusion (n = 3) and cerebral microbleeds (n = 17). In 19/30 cases, neurological manifestations were observed before the diagnosis of IE. MRI was more sensitive than CT scan in detecting both clinically symptomatic cerebral lesions (100 and 81%, respectively) and additional asymptomatic lesions (50 and 23%, respectively). Therapeutic plans were modified according to MRI results in 27% of patients: antibiotherapy regimen modifications in 7% (switch for molecules with high cerebral diffusion) and surgical plan modifications in 20% (indication of valvular replacement due to the embolic nature of the vegetations revealed by MRI or postponement of surgery due to haemorrhagic lesions). None of the 16/30 (51%) operated-on patients experienced postoperative neurological worsening. In-hospital death occurred in 4 patients. CONCLUSION: In patients with IE neurological manifestations, MRI revealed a broader involvement of the brain (type and number of lesions) than indicated by clinical signs and/or CT scan. With a better disease staging of neurological manifestations, MRI brain imaging may help in patient management and the decision-making process especially for cardiac surgery indication and timing of valve replacement.

Goulenok T; Klein I; Mazighi M; Messika-Zeitoun D; Alexandra JF; Mourvillier B; Laissy JP; Leport C; Iung B; Duval X

2013-01-01

257

The first case report of non-nosocomial healthcare-associated infective endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA400 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Staphylococcus aureus is the main causal pathogen of infective endocarditis (IE), which may have distinct origins, namely, community, nosocomial, or non-nosocomial healthcare-associated (NNHCA). We report the first case of NNHCA-IE caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain USA400/SCCmec IV in which the combination therapy of rifampin and vancomycin had a favorable outcome for the patient.

Damasco PV; Cavalcante FS; Chamon RC; Ferreira DC; Rioja SS; Potsch MV; Pastura MP; Marques VD; Castier MB; Marques EA; Santos KR

2013-08-01

258

Staphylococcus lugdunensis endocarditis with isolated tricuspid valve involvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Staphylococcus lugdunensis is often misidentified as S aureus and as a rare cause of infective endocarditis. The clinical course of S lugdunensis endocarditis is aggressive and the mortality rate is high in contrast to S epidermidis endocarditis. Most reported cases of S lugdunensis endocarditis have involved mitral or aortic valves. Herein, we present a case with isolated tricuspid endocarditis due to S lugdunensis. PMID:22041168

Chung, Kuei-Pin; Chang, Hou-Tai; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Chu, Fang-Yeh; Hsueh, Po-Ren

2011-10-29

259

Surgical treatment for infective endocarditis and hospital mortality in a Brazilian single-center Tratamento cirúrgico para endocardite infecciosa e mortalidade hospitalar em centro único brasileiro  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patients underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis in an attempt to identify independent predictors of 30-day mortality. METHODS: We evaluated 837 consecutive patients underwent cardiac valve surgery from January 2003 to May 2010 in a tertiary hospital in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The study group comprised patients who underwent intervention in the presence of infective endocarditis and was compared to the control group (without infective endocarditis), evaluating perioperative clinical outcomes and 30-day all cause mortality. RESULTS: In our series, 64 patients (8%) underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis, and 37.5% of them had surgical intervention in multiple valves. The study group had prolonged ICU length of stay (16%), greater need for dialysis (9%) and higher 30-day mortality (17%) compared to the control group (7%, P=0.020; 2%, P=0.002 and 9%, P=0.038; respectively). In a Cox regression analysis, age (P = 0.007), acute kidney injury (P = 0.004), dialysis (P = 0.026), redo surgery (P = 0.026), re-exploration for bleeding (P = 0.013), tracheal reintubation (P OBJETIVO: Avaliamos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia valvar em vigência de endocardite infecciosa na tentativa de identificar preditores independentes de mortalidade intrahospitalar em 30 dias. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 837 pacientes consecutivamente submetidos à cirurgia valvar, no período de janeiro de 2003 a maio de 2010, em um hospital terciário de São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brasil. O Grupo de Estudo compreendeu indivíduos submetidos à intervenção em vigência de endocardite infecciosa e foi comparado ao Grupo Controle, considerando complicações clínicas perioperatórias e óbito por todas as causas em 30 dias. RESULTADOS: Em nossa casuística, 64 (8%) pacientes foram submetidos à cirurgia valvar em vigência de endocardite infecciosa, sendo 37,5% deles com indicação de intervenção cirúrgica em múltiplas valvas. O Grupo de Estudo apresentou maior permanência em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (16%), necessidade de diálise (9%) e maior mortalidade em 30 dias (17%) comparado ao Grupo Controle (7%, P=0,020; 2%, P=0,002 e 9%, P=0,038; respectivamente). A análise de regressão de Cox confirmou idade (P=0,007), lesão renal aguda (P=0,004), diálise (P=0,026), reoperação (P=0,026), reintervenção por sangramento (P=0,013), reintubação orotraqueal (P<0,001) e lesão neurológica tipo I (P<0,001) como preditores independentes para óbito. Embora a manifestação de endocardite infecciosa influencie na mortalidade na análise univariada, a regressão de Cox não confirmou tal variável como preditor independente de óbito em nossa casuística. CONCLUSÃO: Idade e complicações perioperatórias destacam-se como preditores de mortalidade hospitalar em população brasileira. Cirurgia valvar em vigência de infecção ativa não se confirma como preditor independente de óbito nesta casuística.

Maurício Nassau Machado; Marcelo Arruda Nakazone; Jamil Ali Murad-Júnior; Lilia Nigro Maia

2013-01-01

260

Right-sided infective endocarditis as a consequence of flow-directed pulmonary-artery catheterization. A clinicopathological study of 55 autopsied patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied 142 consecutively autopsied patients prospectively to determine the frequency and clinical importance of right-sided endocardial lesions in patients who had undergone flow-directed pulmonary-artery catheterization within one month of death. Of the 55 catheterized patients, 29 (53 per cent) had one or more right-sided endocardial lesions: 12 (22 per cent) had subendocardial hemorrhage, 11 (20 per cent) sterile thrombus, 2 (4 per cent) hemorrhage and thrombus, and 4 (7 per cent) infective endocarditis. Of 41 lesions seen in the 29 patients, 23 (56 per cent) were located on the pulmonic valve, 6 (15 per cent) on the tricuspid valve, 6 (15 per cent) in the right atrium, 4 (10 per cent) in the right ventricle, and 2 (5 per cent) in the main pulmonary artery. All four patients with infective endocarditis had had positive antemortem blood cultures while the catheter was in place, but in only one had the diagnosis of endocarditis been suspected clinically. The unusual locations of the infected vegetations (on the pulmonic valve in three and in the right atrium in one) and the similar location of the uninfected lesions suggest that the infective endocarditis was a consequence of catheter-induced endocardial damage with concurrent or subsequent bacteremia. Among the 87 non-catheterized patients, there were two subendocardial hemorrhages and one resolving right atrial thrombus. We conclude that endocardial damage from flow-directed pulmonary-artery catheterization is common and that right-sided infective endocarditis should be suspected in bacteremic catheterized patients.

Rowley KM; Clubb KS; Smith GJ; Cabin HS

1984-11-01

 
 
 
 
261

Meningite como complicação de endocardite infecciosa/ Meningitis as a complication of infective endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As complicações neurológicas estão presentes em aproximadamente 30% dos pacientes com endocardite infecciosa; no entanto, a meningite apresenta-se como uma complicação rara. Apresenta-se aqui o caso de paciente do gênero feminino com quadro de meningite decorrente de endocardite em valva mitral, que necessitou de procedimento cirúrgico em razão de quadro agudo de insuficiência cardíaca por ruptura de cordoalha valvar. Abstract in english Although approximately 30% of patients with endocarditis present with neurological complications, the development of meningitis in these patients is rare. This case report describes a female patient who developed meningitis as a complication of mitral valve endocarditis, and surgery was required for this patient due to acute heart failure resulting from the rupture of the chordae tendineae.

Veiga, Viviane Cordeiro; Carvalho, Júlio César de; Amaya, Luis Enrique Campodonico; Martins, Marcos Sérgio; Rojas, Salomón Soriano Ordinola

2012-09-01

262

Awareness of Iranian’s General Dentists Regarding the Latest Prophylaxis Guideline for Prevention of Infective Endocarditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Dental procedures leading to oral tissue injuries may provoke bacterial release to the blood stream causing infective endocarditis (IE) in vulnerable patients. The guideline which was proposed by AHA has been updated 9 times having the last update published in 2007. This study was endeavored to uncover the level of knowledge of general dental practitioners in Shiraz, concerning the 2007 AHA guidelines for endocarditis prophylaxis in patients with cardiac problems receiving dental treatments.Materials and Method: This cross- sectional and descriptive analytical study included 150 dentists as participants. All practitioners were given a self –report questionnaire which consisted of three sections. Questions were designed to assess their knowledge of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with cardiac disease. Results: Almost all participants (93%) were aware of antibiotic prophylaxis to be essential for tooth extraction. Most participants did not believe in prophylaxis for noninvasive procedures (such as shedding of primary teeth, impression, intraoral radiography). From all of the respondents, 75% considered Amoxicillin to be the anti-biotic of choice and 57% were acquainted with the correct dose of Amoxicillin for high risk patients.Conclusion: The study identified a potential for under/over prescription of antibiotic prophylaxis under the current guideline. Burden of IE necessitates more accurate knowledge of antibiotic prophylaxis in the undergraduate curriculum and continuing education programs of dentistry.

Ghaderi F.; Oshagh M.; Dehghani R.; Hasanshahi R.c

2013-01-01

263

Aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial após endocardite infecciosa de valva mitral Infected aneurysm of brachial artery after mitral valve infective endocarditis  

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Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial em paciente com endocardite infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis. Homem de 49 anos de idade se apresentou com febre, dispnéia e sopro regurgitativo em foco mitral com irradiação para axila. O ecocardiograma demonstrou vegetação em valva mitral nativa. Após troca valvar mitral com implante de prótese biológica, observou-se massa pulsátil de cinco centímetros de diâmetro em fossa antecubital direita. Foi feito o diagnóstico de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial, e o tratamento cirúrgico foi realizado com sucesso. O objetivo desse relato de caso é apresentar uma complicação pouco comum após endocardite infecciosa.We present a case of brachial artery infected aneurysm in a patient with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis. A 49-year-old man presented with fever dyspnea and a pansystolic murmur with irradiation to axilla. The echocardiogram revealed vegetation in native mitral valve. After mitral valve replacement with bioprosthesis, it was observed pulsatile mass of five centimeters in diameter at antecubital fossa of right upper limb. It was made the diagnosis of infected aneurysm of the brachial artery, and the surgery was performed successfully. The aim of this case report is to show a rare complication after infective endocarditis.

Heraldo Guedis Lobo Filho; Eduardo Rebouças Carvalho; José Glauco Lobo Filho; Patrícia Leal Dantas Lobo

2011-01-01

264

Predictores de mortalidad intrahospitalaria de la endocarditis infecciosa en la República Argentina: resultados del EIRA-II/ Predictors of In-hospital Mortality due to Infective Endocarditis in the Argentine Republic: Results of EIRA II Study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo Determinar la mortalidad hospitalaria y los marcadores clínicos relacionados con la mortalidad de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI) en la República Argentina. Métodos Registro prospectivo, multicéntrico (82 centros de 16 provincias de la Argentina) de EI definidas o posibles según los criterios Duke, entre junio de 2001 y noviembre de 2002. Resultados Se evaluaron 470 episodios de EI en 452 pacientes (edad media: 58,1 ± 17,6 años; sexo masculino 69,7%; EI de (more) finida 83% y posible 17%). Bacteriología: Staphylococcus 38% (S. aureus 30%, Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo 8%), Streptococcus 39,4% (S. viridans 36,8%), Enterococcus 10,8%, HACEK 6,6%, hemocultivos negativos 17,7%. Existía cardiopatía subyacente en el 66,4% y EI de válvula protésica en el 19,2%. Se indicó tratamiento quirúrgico en el 33,3% de los pacientes. La mortalidad fue del 24,3%. En el análisis de regresión logística fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad: edad > 65 años (OR 2,1; IC 95%, 1,1- 3,96; p = 0,024); insuficiencia cardíaca en la evolución (OR 5,9; IC 95%, 3,1-10,9; p Abstract in english Work objective To determine the in-hospital mortality rate and the predictors of mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) in Argentina. Research Design and Methods Prospective, multicentric survey carried out in 82 hospitals all over the country (16 provinces). Patients were enrolled according to Duke criteria (definite or possible IE) during an 18-month period (June 2001-November 2002). Results Four hundred and seventy episodes in 452 patients were included (mean age 58. (more) 1±17.6 years, 69.7% male, 83% definite and 17% possible IE). Blood cultures were negative in 17.7%. The most frequent causative microorganisms were: Staphylococcus 38% (S. aureus 30%, S. coagulase-negative 8%), Streptococcus 39.4% (S. viridans 26.8%), Enterococcus 10,8%, S. coagulase-negative 8%, HACEK group 6,6% and S. bovis 5,5%. Underlying heart disease was present in 66.4% and prosthetic-valve IE was diagnosed in 19.2%. Surgical treatment was indicated in 33.3% and in-hospital mortality was 24.3%. In a logistic regression analysis the following variables were independent predictors of increased mortality: age > 65 years (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-3.96; p = 0.024); heart failure (OR 5.9; 95% CI 3.1-10.9; p

Modenesi, Juan C.; Ferreirós, Ernesto R.; Swieskowski, Sandra; Nacinovich, Francisco M.; Cortés, Claudia; Cohen Arazi, Hernán; Kazelián, Lucía; Varini, Sergio; Ciruzzi, Mario; Casabé, José Horacio; Sociedad Argentina de Cardiología

2005-08-01

265

Chest pain with ST segment elevation in a patient with prosthetic aortic valve infective endocarditis: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction secondary to atherosclerotic plaque rupture is a common medical emergency. This condition is effectively managed with percutaneous coronary intervention or thrombolysis. We report a rare case of acute myocardial infarction secondary to coronary embolisation of valvular vegetation in a patient with infective endocarditis, and we highlight how the management of this phenomenon may not be the same. Case presentation A 73-year-old British Caucasian man with previous tissue aortic valve replacement was diagnosed with and treated for infective endocarditis of his native mitral valve. His condition deteriorated in hospital and repeat echocardiography revealed migration of vegetation to his aortic valve. Whilst waiting for surgery, our patient developed severe central crushing chest pain with associated anterior ST segment elevation on his electrocardiogram. Our patient had no history or risk factors for ischaemic heart disease. It was likely that coronary embolisation of part of the vegetation had occurred. Thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention treatments were not performed in this setting and a plan was made for urgent surgical intervention. However, our patient deteriorated rapidly and unfortunately died. Conclusion Clinicians need to be aware that atherosclerotic plaque rupture is not the only cause of acute myocardial infarction. In the case of septic vegetation embolisation, case report evidence reveals that adopting the current strategies used in the treatment of myocardial infarction can be dangerous. Thrombolysis risks intra-cerebral hemorrhage from mycotic aneurysm rupture. Percutaneous coronary intervention risks coronary mycotic aneurysm formation, stent infections as well as distal septic embolisation. As yet, there remains no defined treatment modality and we feel all cases should be referred to specialist cardiac centers to consider how best to proceed.

Luther Vishal; Showkathali Refai; Gamma Reto

2011-01-01

266

Septal endocarditis, bone infection and severe leg ischemia detected in Tc-99m labelled monoclonal anti granulocyte scan  

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Full Text Available Patient 28 years old has continued to have a persistent fever (39.2°C), despite ten days treatment by specific antibiotics for bacterial endocarditis associated to a recent claudication of the right lower leg. The persistent fever has motivated a 99mTc-labelled monoclonal anti granulocyte scan which has showed an important uptake in the myocardial septum, and other infection locations in temporal bone and in right tibial arteries. Two days after, a nanocolloids-99mTc WBS showed no uptake in the heart area, a total absence of uptake of the nanocolloids in the bone marrow of right tibia b and cranial SPECT views confirmed the infectious site in the right temporal bone. New antibiotic strategy was adopted successfully associated with surgical amputation of the right lower leg.

Bechelaghem, A.I. MD.; Habbeche, M. MD.; Benlabgaa, R. MD.; Ghedbane, IE. MD.; Hanzal, A. MD.; Khelifa, A. MD.; Mechcken, F. MD.; Bourezak, SE. MD.; Bouyoucef, SE. MD.

2006-01-01

267

In vitro activity of macrolides and lincosamides against oral streptococci: a therapeutic alternative in prophylaxis for infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Susceptibility to macrolides and lincosamides was tested in a total of 446 strains of oral streptococci belonging to eleven species, all isolated from dental plaque and/or saliva in 1991. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by the double serial dilutions method in agar. Clindamycin was the most effective antibiotic against all species tested. The results of nearly all parameters (range, mean, MIC(50), MIC(90)) in all species showed erythromycin to be less effective than josamycin, making the latter antibiotic a possible alternative to erythromycin in prophylaxis for infective endocarditis caused by oral streptococci, not only in patients allergic to penicillin, but also in all patients with low-risk lesions, who will be treated with low-risk dental procedures. In these latter patients, antibiotic prophylaxis may be indicated if, after careful evaluation of the individual's situation, no other alternatives are available.

Liebana J; Parejo E; Castillo A; Gutierrez J; Garcia-Mendoza A; Piedrola G

1993-01-01

268

Corynebacterium endocarditis species-specific risk factors and outcomes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium species are recognized as uncommon agents of endocarditis, but little is known regarding species-specific risk factors and outcomes in Corynebacterium endocarditis. Methods Case report and Medline search of English language journals for cases of Corynebacterium endocarditis. Inclusion criteria required that cases be identified as endocarditis, having persistent Corynebacterium bacteremia, murmurs described by the authors as identifying the affected valve, or vegetations found by echocardiography or in surgical or autopsy specimens. Cases also required patient-specific information on risk factors and outcomes (age, gender, prior prosthetic valve, other prior nosocomial risk factors (infected valve, involvement of native versus prosthetic valve, need for valve replacement, and death) to be included in the analysis. Publications of Corynebacterium endocarditis which reported aggregate data were excluded. Univariate analysis was conducted with chi-square and t-tests, as appropriate, with p = 0.05 considered significant. Results 129 cases of Corynebacterium endocarditis involving nine species met inclusion criteria. Corynebacterium endocarditis typically infects the left heart of adult males and nearly one third of patients have underlying valvular disease. One quarter of patients required valve replacement and one half of patients died. Toxigenic C. diphtheriae is associated with pediatric infections (p C. amycolatum has a predilection for women (p = 0.024), while C. pseudodiphtheriticum infections are most frequent in men (p = 0.023). C. striatum, C. jeikeium and C. hemolyticum are associated with nosocomial risk factors (p C. pseudodiphtheriticum is associated with a previous prosthetic valve replacement (p = 0.004). C. jeikeium infections are more likely to require valve replacement (p = 0.026). Infections involving toxigenic C. diphtheriae and C. pseudodiphtheriticum are associated with decreased survival (p = 0.001 and 0.032, respectively). Conclusion We report the first analysis of species-specific risk factors and outcomes in Corynebacterium endocarditis. In addition to species-specific associations with age, gender, prior valvular diseases, and other nosocomial risk factors, we found differences in rates of need for valve replacement and death. This review highlights the seriousness of these infections, as up to 28% of patients required valve replacement and 43.5% died.

Belmares Jaime; Detterline Stephanie; Pak Janet B; Parada Jorge P

2007-01-01

269

Complicaciones posoperatorias y mortalidad en pacientes operados por endocarditis infecciosa/ Postoperative complications and mortality observed in patients operated on from infective endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo: describir las causas de morbilidad y mortalidad perioperatorias en los pacientes afectos de endocarditis infecciosa activa y significar cómo pueden ser disminuidas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de las complicaciones posoperatorias y mortalidad en 139 pacientes operados por presentar endocarditis infecciosa en un período de 16 años. Se efectuaron 147 operaciones a los 139 pacientes de las cuales 83 (57,1 %) fueron electivas y 64 (42,9 %) fuer (more) on de urgencia. El 24 % de los pacientes fueron remitidos de otros centros en los que habían sido sometidos a tratamiento médico no exitoso por más de 4 semanas. Resultados: las operaciones efectuadas fueron: Sustituciones valvulares aórticas,mitrales y tricuspídeas 75 (41,1 %), extracción de electrodos de marcapasos o desfibriladores automáticos implantables del ventrículo derecho 57 (41 %) , otras operaciones en número de 7 (4,9 %)y 8 reintervenciones. La complicación más frecuente fue la sepsis generalizada (10,07 % p Abstract in english Objective: To describe the causes of perioperative morbidity and mortality of patients suffering active infectious endocarditis and to explain how both aspects can be reduced. Methods: A retrospective study of postoperative complications and mortality observed in 139 patients operated on from infectious endocarditis in 16 years. One hundred forty seven surgeries were performed, of which 83 (57.1 %) were elective and 64 (42.9 %) were emergency surgeries. In this group, 24 (more) % had been referred from other medical centers where they had been unsuccessfully treated for 4 weeks. Results: The performed surgeries comprised 15 aortic, mitral and tricuspid valve replacements, 57 (41 %) removals of pacemaker electrodes or of implanted automatic defibrillators in the right ventricle, seven other types of surgeries and 8 reoperations. The most frequent complication was generalized sepsis ((10.07 % p

Gómez Armando Gonga, Joaquín; Ramírez López, Milvio B; Pérez López, Horacio E; Cáceres Loriga, Fidel Manuel; Llanes, José R

2013-03-01

270

Efficacy of cardiac surgery in endocarditis  

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Full Text Available 2 factors changed the clinical course of infective endocarditis dramatically: 1) The discovery and evolution of techniques for identifying and treating its microbiologic causes and 2) Valvular surgery. We retrospectively evaluated 43 (33.5%) patients (8 female, 35 male) from 4 to 65 years old of 128 patients with infective endocarditis who underwent surgical intervention. Indication for surgery were: Refractory congestive heart failure 14 (32.5%), prosthetic valves 10 (23.2%), large vegetation 6 (13.9%), recurrent endocarditis 4 (9.3%), ring abscess 4 (9.3%), brucella endocarditis 2 (4.6%), staph aureus endocarditis 3 (6.9%) and recurrent emboli 2 (4.6%). 30 to 50% of patients with infective endocarditis are operated during the active phase of the disease, this percentage is higher in case of aortic valve endocarditis, prosthetic valve endocarditis, some microorganisms such as staph aureus, gram negative bacilli, fungus and brucella. We suggest that internists refer patients for surgical intervention with infective endocarditis as early as possible in the active stage of infection.

Moradmand S; Rasooli Nezhad M

2000-01-01

271

Intracardiac lead endocarditis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Staphylococcus Lugdunensis is a rare but potentially aggressive pathogen in the family of coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS). It can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial skin to fulminant infections like endocarditis. Both native and prosthetic valve endocarditis due to S. lugdunensis have been documented in the English literature. Eight cases of pacemaker lead endocarditis due to S. lugdunensis have been described so far. We present the ninth case of pacemaker lead and first case of automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) lead endocarditis due to S. lugdunensis.

Chopra A; Gulati D; Woldenberg N; Singh M

2010-09-01

272

Intracardiac lead endocarditis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Staphylococcus Lugdunensis is a rare but potentially aggressive pathogen in the family of coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS). It can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial skin to fulminant infections like endocarditis. Both native and prosthetic valve endocarditis due to S. lugdunensis have been documented in the English literature. Eight cases of pacemaker lead endocarditis due to S. lugdunensis have been described so far. We present the ninth case of pacemaker lead and first case of automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) lead endocarditis due to S. lugdunensis. PMID:20434383

Chopra, Anish; Gulati, Dhiraj; Woldenberg, Nina; Singh, Mamta

2010-09-01

273

Endocardite infecciosa por Haemophilus aphrophilus: relato de caso Infective endocarditis due to Haemophilus aphrophilus: a case report  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o caso de uma criança com endocardite infecciosa causada por Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIÇÃO: Menino com febre e calafrios há 20 dias. À internação, apresentava-se febril, descorado e sem sinais de instabilidade hemodinâmica; à ausculta cardíaca, tinha sopro holosistólico em foco mitral. Os exames laboratoriais identificaram anemia (hemoglobina = 9,14 g/dL), leucócitos totais de 11.920 mm³, plaquetas de 250.000 mm³, velocidade de sedimentação das hemácias e proteína C reativa elevadas. O ecocardiograma revelou imagem em válvula mitral, sugestiva de vegetação. Com a hipótese de endocardite, foi iniciada antibioticoterapia com penicilina cristalina (200.000 UI/kg/dia) associada à gentamicina (4 mg/kg/dia). No terceiro dia de tratamento, foi identificado Haemophilus aphrophilus em hemoculturas, sendo então trocado o esquema antibiótico para ceftriaxona (100 mg/kg/dia). No 20º dia de internação, encontrava-se pálido, mas sem febre e sem outras queixas. Os exames mostravam hemoglobina = 7,0 g/dL, leucócitos = 2.190 mm³, plaquetas = 98.000 mm³, razão normatizada internacional = 1,95 e R = 1,89. Foi feita hipótese de reação adversa ao ceftriaxona, que foi substituído por ciprofloxacina, 20 mg/kg/dia, até completar 6 semanas de tratamento. Após 72 horas da troca, houve normalização dos exames. Durante seguimento ambulatorial, apresentou insuficiência mitral grave, sendo submetido a troca de válvula por prótese metálica 9 meses após quadro agudo. Há 3 anos encontra-se bem, em acompanhamento ambulatorial. COMENTÁRIOS: É rara a identificação de agentes do grupo HACEK (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens e Kingella kingae) em crianças com endocardite infecciosa. O caso apresentado, sem fatores de risco relacionados a esses agentes, reafirma a necessidade de tentar sempre identificar o agente etiológico das endocardites para adequação do tratamento.OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a child with infective endocarditis caused by Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIPTION: Boy with 20 days of fever and chills. On admission, he was febrile, pale and with no signs of hemodynamic instability; on cardiac auscultation, a mitral-related holosystolic murmur was observed. Laboratory examination identified anemia (hemoglobin = 9.14 g/dL), total leukocytes of 11,920 mm³, platelets of 250,000 mm³, elevated sedimentation velocity of red cells and elevated C-reactive protein. The echocardiogram revealed image on mitral valve, resembling vegetation. Considering endocarditis, antibiotic therapy was started with crystalline penicillin (200,000 UI/kg/day) in association with gentamicin (4 mg/kg/day). On the third day of treatment, Haemophilus aphrophilus was identified in the blood cultures and the antibiotic scheme was replaced with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day). On the 20th day of evolution, the patient was pale but with no fever or other complaints. Examinations showed hemoglobin = 7.0 g/dL, leukocytes = 2,190 mm³, platelets = 98,000 mm³, international normalized ratio = 1.95 and R = 1.89. Considering the hypothesis of adverse reaction to ceftriaxone, a 6-week replacement treatment with ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg/day) was started. Examination results normalized after 72 hours of the replacement therapy. During ambulatory follow-up, patient presented with severe mitral regurgitation, undergoing a valve replacement with a metallic prosthetic valve 9 months after acute event. Patient has done well throughout the 3-year ambulatory follow-up. COMMENTS: Identification of agents of the HACEK group (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae) in children with infective endocarditis is rare. This case report, with no HACEK agent-related risk factors, reinforces the need for identification of the etiological agent of endocarditis to ensure adequate treatment.

Ricardo M. Pereira; Fabio Bucaretchi; Antonia T. Tresoldi

2008-01-01

274

Endocardite infecciosa por Haemophilus aphrophilus: relato de caso/ Infective endocarditis due to Haemophilus aphrophilus: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Descrever o caso de uma criança com endocardite infecciosa causada por Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIÇÃO: Menino com febre e calafrios há 20 dias. À internação, apresentava-se febril, descorado e sem sinais de instabilidade hemodinâmica; à ausculta cardíaca, tinha sopro holosistólico em foco mitral. Os exames laboratoriais identificaram anemia (hemoglobina = 9,14 g/dL), leucócitos totais de 11.920 mm³, plaquetas de 250.000 mm³, velocidade de sedim (more) entação das hemácias e proteína C reativa elevadas. O ecocardiograma revelou imagem em válvula mitral, sugestiva de vegetação. Com a hipótese de endocardite, foi iniciada antibioticoterapia com penicilina cristalina (200.000 UI/kg/dia) associada à gentamicina (4 mg/kg/dia). No terceiro dia de tratamento, foi identificado Haemophilus aphrophilus em hemoculturas, sendo então trocado o esquema antibiótico para ceftriaxona (100 mg/kg/dia). No 20º dia de internação, encontrava-se pálido, mas sem febre e sem outras queixas. Os exames mostravam hemoglobina = 7,0 g/dL, leucócitos = 2.190 mm³, plaquetas = 98.000 mm³, razão normatizada internacional = 1,95 e R = 1,89. Foi feita hipótese de reação adversa ao ceftriaxona, que foi substituído por ciprofloxacina, 20 mg/kg/dia, até completar 6 semanas de tratamento. Após 72 horas da troca, houve normalização dos exames. Durante seguimento ambulatorial, apresentou insuficiência mitral grave, sendo submetido a troca de válvula por prótese metálica 9 meses após quadro agudo. Há 3 anos encontra-se bem, em acompanhamento ambulatorial. COMENTÁRIOS: É rara a identificação de agentes do grupo HACEK (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens e Kingella kingae) em crianças com endocardite infecciosa. O caso apresentado, sem fatores de risco relacionados a esses agentes, reafirma a necessidade de tentar sempre identificar o agente etiológico das endocardites para adequação do tratamento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a child with infective endocarditis caused by Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIPTION: Boy with 20 days of fever and chills. On admission, he was febrile, pale and with no signs of hemodynamic instability; on cardiac auscultation, a mitral-related holosystolic murmur was observed. Laboratory examination identified anemia (hemoglobin = 9.14 g/dL), total leukocytes of 11,920 mm³, platelets of 250,000 mm³, elevated sedimentation velocity of re (more) d cells and elevated C-reactive protein. The echocardiogram revealed image on mitral valve, resembling vegetation. Considering endocarditis, antibiotic therapy was started with crystalline penicillin (200,000 UI/kg/day) in association with gentamicin (4 mg/kg/day). On the third day of treatment, Haemophilus aphrophilus was identified in the blood cultures and the antibiotic scheme was replaced with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day). On the 20th day of evolution, the patient was pale but with no fever or other complaints. Examinations showed hemoglobin = 7.0 g/dL, leukocytes = 2,190 mm³, platelets = 98,000 mm³, international normalized ratio = 1.95 and R = 1.89. Considering the hypothesis of adverse reaction to ceftriaxone, a 6-week replacement treatment with ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg/day) was started. Examination results normalized after 72 hours of the replacement therapy. During ambulatory follow-up, patient presented with severe mitral regurgitation, undergoing a valve replacement with a metallic prosthetic valve 9 months after acute event. Patient has done well throughout the 3-year ambulatory follow-up. COMMENTS: Identification of agents of the HACEK group (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae) in children with infective endocarditis is rare. This case report, with no HACEK agent-related risk factors, reinforces the need for identification of the etiological agent of endocarditis to ensure adequate treatment.

Pereira, Ricardo M.; Bucaretchi, Fabio; Tresoldi, Antonia T.

2008-04-01

275

A pilot study to develop a prediction instrument for endocarditis in injection drug users admitted with fever.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Seeking to evaluate the feasibility of a prediction instrument for endocarditis in febrile injection drug users (IDUs), we determined (1) the frequency percentage of IDUs admitted with fever diagnosed with endocarditis and (2) whether individual or combinations of emergency department (ED) clinical criteria (patient history, physical examination findings, and laboratory tests) are associated with endocarditis in IDUs admitted to rule out endocarditis. METHODS: The ED and inpatient charts of all IDUs with a diagnosis of rule out endocarditis admitted at 3 urban hospitals in 2006 were reviewed. Screening performance of individual criteria was determined, and the most sensitive combination of criteria was derived by classification tree analysis. RESULTS: Of 236 IDUs admitted with fever, 20 (8.5%) were diagnosed with endocarditis. Lack of skin infection, tachycardia, hyponatremia, pneumonia on chest radiograph, history of endocarditis, thrombocytopenia, and heart murmur had the best screening performance. The classification tree-derived best criteria combination of tachycardia, lack of skin infection, and cardiac murmur had a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval, 84%-100%) and negative predictive value of 100% (95% confidence interval, 88%-100%). CONCLUSIONS: Using ED clinical criteria, a multicenter prospective study to develop an instrument for endocarditis prediction in febrile IDUs is feasible, with an estimated target enrollment of 588 patients.

Rodriguez R; Alter H; Romero KL; Kea B; Chiang W; Fortman J; Marks C; Cheung P; Conti S

2011-10-01

276

The first case report of non-nosocomial healthcare-associated infective endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA400 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Staphylococcus aureus is the main causal pathogen of infective endocarditis (IE), which may have distinct origins, namely, community, nosocomial, or non-nosocomial healthcare-associated (NNHCA). We report the first case of NNHCA-IE caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain USA400/SCCmec IV in which the combination therapy of rifampin and vancomycin had a favorable outcome for the patient. PMID:23456477

Damasco, P V; Cavalcante, F S; Chamon, R C; Ferreira, D C; Rioja, S S; Potsch, M V; Pastura, M P; Marques, V D; Castier, M B; Marques, E A; Santos, K R N

2013-03-02

277

Índice de risco de mortalidade por endocardite infecciosa: um modelo logístico multivariado/ Risk index for death by infective endocarditis: a multivariate logistic model  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram identificar variáveis preditivas de mortalidade hospitalar em endocardite infecciosa e criar fórmula matemática para cálculo do risco de óbito e um escore de risco, comparando os dois métodos com a curva ROC. MÉTODO: Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 186 casos consecutivos de endocardite infecciosa (EI) confirmados, divididos em dois grupos: alta (137) e óbito hospitalar (49). A partir das razões das chances ob (more) tidas em análise multivariada, foram criados: uma fórmula para cálculo do risco de óbito e um escore de risco. RESULTADOS: Fatores preditivos de maior mortalidade (análise multivariada) e o escore de risco com seus respectivos pesos foram: idade > 40 anos (RC = 4.16-95%I.C. [1.63,10.80] - 4 pontos), insuficiência cardíaca classe IV ou choque cardiovascular (RC = 4.93 - 95%I.C. [1.86,13.05] - 5 pontos), sepsis não-controlada (RC =5.97 - 95%I.C. [1.95,18.35] - 6 pontos), distúrbio de condução (RC = 5.07-95%I.C. [1.67,15.35] - 5 pontos), arritmia (RC = 8.17 - 95%I.C. [2.60,25.71] - 8 pontos), valva com grande destruição ou abscesso ou prótese (RC = 4.77-95%I.C. [1.44,15.76] - 5 pontos), e vegetação grande e móvel (RC = 4.36-95%I.C. [1.55,12.90] - 4 pontos). Pacientes com escore entre 0 e 10 tiveram 5,26% de MT e maior que 20: 78,9%. CONCLUSÕES: Quanto maior o escore, maior é a mortalidade, complemente-se, ainda, que a estimativa de mortalidade obtida por cálculo ou pelo escore é semelhante. É possível utilizar software para facilitar a aplicação do escore e calcular risco de mortalidade por endocardite infecciosa. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at identifying predictive variables for in-hospital mortality, calculating the probability of death and creating a risk index for death by infective endocarditis by comparing two methods using a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of 186 consecutive cases of confirmed infective endocarditis divided into two groups: discharged (137) and in-hospital death (49). Based on the odds ratios obtai (more) ned by multivariate analysis, the probability of death was calculated and a mortality risk index created. RESULTS: Factors predictive of higher mortality (multivariate analysis) and the risk index, with their repective weights were: age > 40 years (OR = 4.16; 95%CI [1.63-10.80] - 4 points), class IV heart failure or cardiovascular shock (OR = 4.93; 95%CI [1.86-13.05] - 5 points), uncontrolled sepsis (OR = 5.97; 95%CI [1.95-18.35] - 6 points), conduction disorder (OR = 5.07; 95%CI [1.67-15.35] - 5 points), arrhythmia (OR = 8.17; 95%CI [2.60-25.71] - 8 points), valve with extensive damage or abscess or prosthesis (OR = 4.77; 95%CI [1.44-15.76] - 5 points) and large and mobile vegetation (OR = 4.36; 95%CI [1.55-12.90] - 4 points). Patients with scores between 0 and 10 had a mortality of 5.26% and scores over 20 of 78.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The higher the score, the higher the mortality rate. The mortality risk index may be used to estimate mortality in Infective Endocarditis.

Costa, Mário Augusto Cray da; Wollmann Jr, Darley Rugery; Campos, Antonio Carlos Ligoski; Cunha, Cláudio Leinig Pereira da; Carvalho, Roberto Gomes de; Andrade, Dalton Francisco de; Loures, Danton Richilin Rocha

2007-06-01

278

Endocarditis infecciosa: características clínicas, complicaciones y mortalidad en 506 pacientes y factores pronósticos de sobrevida a 10 años (1998-2008). Estudio cooperativo nacional en endocarditis infecciosa en Chile (ECNEI-2)/ Clinical characteristics, complications and mortality in 506 patients with infective endocarditis and determinants of survival rate at 10 years  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background: Rates ofmorbidity and mortality in Infective Endocarditis (IE) remain high and prognosis in this disease is still difficult and uncertain. Aim: To study IE in Chile in its active phase during inpatient hospital stay and long term survival rates. Material and Methods: Observational prospective national cohort study of 506 consecutive patients included between June 1,1998 and July 31, 2008, from 37 Chilean hospitals (secondary and tertiary centers) nationwide. R (more) esults: The main findings were the presence of Rheumatic valve disease in 22.1 % of patients, a history of intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) only in 0.7%, the presence of Staphylo-coccus aureus in 29.2% of blood cultures, negative blood cultures in 33.2%, heart failure in 51.7% and native valve involvement in 86% ofpatients. Echocardiographic diagnosis was achieved in 94% of patients. Hospital mortality was 26.1% and its prognostics factors were persisting infection (Odds ratio (OR) 6.43, Confidence Interval (CI) 1.45-28.33%), failure of medical treatment and no surgical intervention (OR 48.8; CI 6.67-349.9). Five and 10 years survival rates were 75.6 and 48.6%, respectively. The significant prognostic factors for long term mortality, determined by multivariate analysis were the presence of diabetes, Staphylococcus aureus infection, sepsis, heart failure, renal failure and lack of surgical treatment during the IE episode. Conclusions: The microbiologic diagnosis of IE must be urgently improved in Chile. Mortality rates are still high (26.1%) partly because of a high incidence of negative blood cultures and the need for more surgical valve interventions during in-hospital period. Long term prognostic factors for mortality should be identified early to improve outcome.

Oyonarte, Miguel; Montagna, Rodrigo; Braun, Sandra; Rojo, Pamela; Jara, José L; Cereceda, Mauricio; Morales, Marcelo; Nazal, Carolina; Alonso, Faustino

2012-12-01

279

Candida endocarditis with saddle embolism: a successful surgical intervention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 43-year-old woman who had Candida endocarditis with saddle embolism underwent mitral valve replacement and resection of infected aorta. Only 7 persons with fungal endocarditis with saddle embolism have been reported in the literature, and all of them died. We report a case of successful treatment of this lethal complication of Candida endocarditis.

Kawamoto T; Nakano S; Matsuda H; Hirose H; Kawashima Y

1989-11-01

280

Management of Gram-negative and fungal endocarditis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Infective endocarditis is infrequently caused by Gram-negative bacteria or fungi. Gram-negative organisms are responsible for <4% of cases, while fungal endocarditis accounts for <1.5% of culture-positive cases worldwide. Endocarditis due to Gram-negative organisms or fungi is a rar...

 
 
 
 
281

[Bacterial endocarditis on prosthetic valves  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacterial endocarditis is a rare, but often lethal, complication of cardiac valve replacement. The endocarditis is called "early" when it occurs within 2 months of the operation, and "late" when it develops after that period. Contamination of the prosthesis with bacteria may occur intra-operatively or post-operatively. The clinical diagnosis is often difficult in early endocarditis when another focus of infection is present and in late endocarditis in the absence of fever and positive blood cultures. Isolation of the pathogen from blood cultures is essential to the diagnosis and treatment. Therapeutic surgery now has wider indications than formerly. The incidence of this dangerous complication can only be reduced by well-planned and well executed prophylactic measures.

Chapelon C; Raguin G; Ziza JM; Piette JC; Godeau P

1987-09-01

282

Fístula aorto pulmonar: endocarditis izquierda en paciente VIH y ADVP: Revisión de la literatura/ Aorto pulmonary fistula: left-sided infective endocarditis in HIV and intravenous drugs abuser patient: Review of literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una de las complicaciones más severas en la población adicta a drogas por vía parenteral (ADVP). La infección por el VIH incrementa el riesgo de aparición en los pacientes que además son ADVP. La EI en ambas poblaciones posee una especial tendencia a infectar las válvulas del hemicardio derecho, siendo infrecuente la afectación aórtica. Se expone el caso un paciente VIH y ADVP, que ingresa por síndrome febril, con Rx de tórax (more) inicial normal y hemocultivos negativos. CD4 90 mm³. Imposible realizar ecocardiograma transesofágico (ETE), revelando el transtorácico (ETT) una insuficiencia aórtica moderada con función sistólica conservada. A pesar de antibioterpia de amplio espectro, antifúngico y tratamiento antirretroviral (TAR) presentó SDRA por lo que es intubado. Se realizó ETT apreciando una gran desestructuración aórtica y una fístula aorto-pulmonar secundaria a una EI izquierda. Posteriormente solo un hemocultivo fue positivo para S. aureus. Fue desestimado el tratamiento quirúrgico. El paciente falleció tras 3 semanas de evolución. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis (IE) is the most severe complication in intravenous drug abusers (IVDAs). HIV infection increases the risk of IE in IVDAs too. IE in both population are special tendency to infect the rigth-sided heart, but unusual infective aortic valve. We report a case of HIV and IVDA patient admitted in hospital due to fever syndrome, with X-ray test normal and the first blood cultures negatives. CD4 count cell 90 mm³. It was impossible doing a transesophageal (more) echocardiography (TEE) and transtoracic echocardiogramma (TTE) only showed a moderate aortic insufficiency with conserved systolic function. Despite using antibiotics, antifungals and highly active antirretroviral therapy, he developed ARDS, and mechanical ventilation should be performed. At that moment, TEE showed an aorto pulmonary fistula due to left-sided IE. Further cultures was undergone and only one blood culture was positive to Staphylococcus aureus. Cardiac surgery was not indicated. The patient died 3 weeks later.

Obón Azuara, B.; Zalba Etayo, B.; Gutiérrez Cía, I.; Villanueva Anadón, B.

2007-11-01

283

Native double-valve endocarditis by Mycobacterium fortuitum following percutaneous coronary intervention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infective endocarditis caused by atypical mycobacteria, especially Mycobacterium fortuitum, is rare. Most reported cases involve diseased valves or prosthetic heart valves. Only four cases of native valve endocarditis caused by this organism have been previously reported. Herein is reported a case of native valve endocarditis caused by M. fortuitum; the epidemiology and management of this rare cause of culture-negative endocarditis is discussed.

Collison SP; Trehan N

2006-11-01

284

[Modern aspects of diagnostics of bacterial endocarditis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern approaches to diagnostics of infective endocarditis (IE) are considered in the article. Possibilities for detection of the disease provided by various diagnostic criteria are analyzed. The authors demonstrate the advantages of improved criteria and present the diagnostic signs of subacute endocarditis in congenital heart diseases, artificial valve IE, and IE in drug addicts. Differential diagnostics issues are covered as well. PMID:17882801

Nikolaevski?, E N; Avram, G Kh; Soldatenko, M V; Pichko, G A

2007-01-01

285

Infective endocarditis: long-term reversibility of kidney function impairment. A 1-y post-discharge follow-up study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to quantify the long-term reversibility of kidney function decrease occurring during hospitalization and treatment for infective endocarditis (IE). A prospective observational cohort study was performed at a tertiary university hospital in Copenhagen from October 2002 through May 2008; 223 consecutive IE patients were included. Forty patients died in hospital and 38 within 1 y of discharge. Of the 145 patients called in for the 1-y follow-up, 111 accepted. Kidney function was assessed by estimated endogenous creatinine clearance (EECC). Statistical correlation between EECC at admission, discharge and follow-up, as well as correlations between gentamicin and EECC changes, were analyzed. In the 111 follow-up patients, the bacteriological aetiologies were: Streptococcus species (47.7%), Enterococcus (16.2%) and Staphylococcus aureus (11.7%). The mean EECC decrease from admission to discharge was 8.4% (95% confidence interval 1.6-15.2; p 22%. In conclusion, kidney function impairment occurring during hospitalization for IE is potentially reversible within the first y post-discharge.

Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten T

2010-01-01

286

Prosthetic aortic valvular endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infective endocarditis (IE) continues to be one of the most serious complications following cardiovascular surgery, particularly that for replacement of valves. In order to define more clearly the clinical course and the role of surgical therapy, clinical and necropsy data were reviewed in 16 adult patients with prosthetic aortic valvular endocarditis (PAVE) and compared with the experience cited in the literature. Positive blood cultures were obtained in each of the patients with bacterial endocarditis. Gram positive bacteria predominate and the onset of infection is usually later than 25 days postoperatively. In 11 of 16 patients, aortic insufficiency was recognized. Autopsy material demonstrated large perivalvular abscesses which loosened the attachment of the prosthetic valve in each case and which made successful operation unlikely. Aortic insufficiency appears to be of prognostic importance, since patients who developed aortic insufficiency early in the course of PAVE died. Survivors included patients who made an excellent response to medical therapy and who either did not develop aortic insufficiency or developed aortic insufficiency either late in the course or even after cure of PAVE, Poor response to medical therapy and progressive aortic insufficiency even in the absence of left ventricular failure appear to be indications for prompt surgical replacement of the prosthetic aortic valve.

Madison J; Wang K; Gobel FL; Edwards JE

1975-05-01

287

Prosthetic aortic valvular endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infective endocarditis (IE) continues to be one of the most serious complications following cardiovascular surgery, particularly that for replacement of valves. In order to define more clearly the clinical course and the role of surgical therapy, clinical and necropsy data were reviewed in 16 adult patients with prosthetic aortic valvular endocarditis (PAVE) and compared with the experience cited in the literature. Positive blood cultures were obtained in each of the patients with bacterial endocarditis. Gram positive bacteria predominate and the onset of infection is usually later than 25 days postoperatively. In 11 of 16 patients, aortic insufficiency was recognized. Autopsy material demonstrated large perivalvular abscesses which loosened the attachment of the prosthetic valve in each case and which made successful operation unlikely. Aortic insufficiency appears to be of prognostic importance, since patients who developed aortic insufficiency early in the course of PAVE died. Survivors included patients who made an excellent response to medical therapy and who either did not develop aortic insufficiency or developed aortic insufficiency either late in the course or even after cure of PAVE, Poor response to medical therapy and progressive aortic insufficiency even in the absence of left ventricular failure appear to be indications for prompt surgical replacement of the prosthetic aortic valve. PMID:1122597

Madison, J; Wang, K; Gobel, F L; Edwards, J E

1975-05-01

288

[Native valve endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci. A comparative study  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To know the validity and current prognosis of clinical prototypes assigned to streptococcal endocarditis (STREPEND) and Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis (SAE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients with SAE were compared with 43 patients with STREPEND diagnosed from 1984 to 1994 following a retrospective cohort study model. RESULTS: The incidence of SAE and STREPEND was 0.21 and 0.17, respectively, per 1,000 hospital admissions. The acquisition of community endocarditis (non drug abusers vs. drug abusers) and nosocomial endocarditis was 74% (31% vs. 43%) and 26% for SAE; the corresponding values for STREPEND: 89% (70% vs. 19%) and 11%, respectively. The overall mortality rate for STREPEND/SAE was 9%/26% (among drug abusers there were no fatalities recorded), whereas in non drug abusers the mortality rate reached 41% and for nosocomial forms 36%. SAE was independently associated with drug abuse habits, right-sided heart infection, development of embolism and a high mortality rate. In contrast, by means of the multivariant analysis, STREPEND was independently associated with a subacute onset form, left-sided heart infection, cardiac surgery, and a low mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional stereotypes of the two main etiologies for endocarditis are still valid, although at present it is important to differentiate nosocomial endocarditis and in non drug abusers. Chemoprophylaxis compliance is low for STREPEND: Given the poor prognosis of SAE at the left heart side a more aggressive surgical attitude would be warranted.

Cartón JA; Maradona JA; Asensi Alvarez V

1995-11-01

289

[Cutaneous microcirculation in infectious endocarditis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nailfold capillary microscopy was used to study the microcirculation patterns in 26 adult patients with infective endocarditis. Abnormal patterns were found in 13 patients (50%). Enlargement of capillary loops was never observed. Significant correlations were found between the number of capillary abnormalities and both systemic involvement (cutaneous vasculitis, arthritis, splenomegaly and/or glomerulonephritis) and immunological disturbances (circulating immune complexes, rheumatoid factor and/or hypocomplementemia) (p = 0.02 and 0.003, respectively). Capillary abnormalities were significantly reduced in 14 patients studied 4 to 48 months after endocarditis was cured. However, due to the lack of specificity, nailfold capillary microscopy cannot be regarded as a useful tool for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. Connective tissue disorders are not the sole diagnosis to be considered in patients with abnormal nailfold capillary microcirculation patterns.

Piette JC; Mouthon JM; Delon MC; Chapelon C; Ziza JM; Wechsler B; Herson S; Godeau P

1989-01-01

290

Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex fecal carriage, colorectal carcinoma, and infective endocarditis: a new appraisal of a complex connection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The proportion of group D streptococcal infective endocarditis (IE) (predominantly due to Streptococcus gallolyticus) and the incidence of colorectal cancer are higher in France than in most European countries. We assumed that this could be explained by a high group D streptococci (GDS) fecal carriage rate. The aims of this study were to re-assess the GDS fecal carriage rate in France and its relationship with colorectal cancer. Consecutive adult subjects who were to undergo a complete colonoscopy were invited to participate. GDS were searched in subjects' stools before their colonoscopy using biomolecular techniques. Colonoscopic findings were sorted into four subgroups: normal colonoscopy, non-tumoral lesions, benign tumors, and premalignant/malignant tumors. GDS fecal carriages were calculated overall and in each subgroup and compared. The data from 259 subjects were analyzed. GDS were identified in the feces of 12 subjects, with the following distribution: S. lutetiensis (n?=?9), S. pasteurianus (n?=?2), and S. gallolyticus (n?=?1). This accounted for an overall GDS fecal carriage rate of 4.6 %. The GDS fecal carriage rate was 6 % in case of normal colonoscopy, 1.3 % in case of non-tumoral lesions, 3.2 % in case of benign tumors, and 11 % in case of premalignant/malignant tumors. These four percentages were not statistically different. The GDS fecal carriage rate was lower than expected, which did not confirm our working hypothesis. Most strains belonged to S. bovis biotype II, while S. gallolyticus was found only once. These findings suggest that different GDS play different roles in the etiopathogenesis of IE and colorectal cancer.

Chirouze C; Patry I; Duval X; Baty V; Tattevin P; Aparicio T; Pagenault M; Carbonnel F; Couetdic G; Hoen B

2013-09-01

291

Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex fecal carriage, colorectal carcinoma, and infective endocarditis: a new appraisal of a complex connection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proportion of group D streptococcal infective endocarditis (IE) (predominantly due to Streptococcus gallolyticus) and the incidence of colorectal cancer are higher in France than in most European countries. We assumed that this could be explained by a high group D streptococci (GDS) fecal carriage rate. The aims of this study were to re-assess the GDS fecal carriage rate in France and its relationship with colorectal cancer. Consecutive adult subjects who were to undergo a complete colonoscopy were invited to participate. GDS were searched in subjects' stools before their colonoscopy using biomolecular techniques. Colonoscopic findings were sorted into four subgroups: normal colonoscopy, non-tumoral lesions, benign tumors, and premalignant/malignant tumors. GDS fecal carriages were calculated overall and in each subgroup and compared. The data from 259 subjects were analyzed. GDS were identified in the feces of 12 subjects, with the following distribution: S. lutetiensis (n?=?9), S. pasteurianus (n?=?2), and S. gallolyticus (n?=?1). This accounted for an overall GDS fecal carriage rate of 4.6 %. The GDS fecal carriage rate was 6 % in case of normal colonoscopy, 1.3 % in case of non-tumoral lesions, 3.2 % in case of benign tumors, and 11 % in case of premalignant/malignant tumors. These four percentages were not statistically different. The GDS fecal carriage rate was lower than expected, which did not confirm our working hypothesis. Most strains belonged to S. bovis biotype II, while S. gallolyticus was found only once. These findings suggest that different GDS play different roles in the etiopathogenesis of IE and colorectal cancer. PMID:23558362

Chirouze, C; Patry, I; Duval, X; Baty, V; Tattevin, P; Aparicio, T; Pagenault, M; Carbonnel, F; Couetdic, G; Hoen, B

2013-04-06

292

A Nationwide Cohort Study of Mortality Risk and Long-Term Prognosis in Infective Endocarditis in Sweden  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a serious disease with substantial mortality. In this study we investigated the incidence of IE, as well as its associated short and long term mortality rates. Methods The IE cases were identified in the Swedish national inpatient register using ICD-10 codes, and then linked to the population register in order to identify deaths in the cohort. Crude mortality rates among IE patients were obtained for different time intervals. These rates were directly standardized using sex- and age-matched mortality in the general population. Results The cohort consisted of 7603 individuals and 7817 episodes of IE during 1997–2007. The 30 days all-cause crude mortality rate was 10.4% and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 33.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 31.0–36.6). Excluding the first year of follow-up, the long term mortality (1–5 years) showed an increased SMR of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.0–2.3) compared to the general population. Significantly higher SMR was found for cases of IE younger than 65 years of age with a 1–5 year SMR of 6.3, and intravenous drug-users with a SMR of 19.1. Native valve IE cases, in which surgery was performed had lower crude mortality rates and Mantel-Haenzel odds ratios of less than one compared to those with medical therapy alone during 30-day and 5-years follow-up. Conclusions The 30-days crude mortality rate for IE was 10.4% and long-term relative mortality risk remains increased even up to 5 years of follow-up, therefore a close monitoring of these patients would be of value.

Ternhag, Anders; Cederstrom, Agneta; Torner, Anna; Westling, Katarina

2013-01-01

293

Increasing incidence and mortality of infective endocarditis: a population-based study through a record-linkage system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Few population-based studies provide epidemiological data on infective endocarditis (IE). Aim of the study is to analyze incidence and outcomes of IE in the Veneto Region (North-Eastern Italy). Methods Residents with a first hospitalization for IE in 2000-2008 were extracted from discharge data and linked to mortality records to estimate 365-days survival. Etiology was retrieved in subsets of this cohort by discharge codes and by linkage to a microbiological database. Risk factors for mortality were assessed through logistic regression. Results 1,863 subjects were hospitalized for IE, with a corresponding crude rate of 4.4 per 100,000 person-years, increasing from 4.1 in 2000-2002 to 4.9 in 2006-2008 (p = 0.003). Median age was 68 years; 39% of subjects were hospitalized in the three preceding months. 23% of patients underwent a cardiac valve procedure in the index admission or in the following year. Inhospital mortality was 14% (19% including hospital transfers); 90-days and 365-days mortality rose through the study years. Mortality increased with age and the Charlson comorbidity index, in subjects with previous hospitalizations for heart failure, and (in the subcohort with microbiological data) in IE due to Staphylococci (40% of IE). Conclusions The study demonstrates an increasing incidence and mortality for IE over the last decade. Analyses of electronic archives provide a region-wide picture of IE, overcoming referral biases affecting single clinic or multicentric studies, and therefore represent a first fundamental step to detect critical issues related to IE.

Fedeli Ugo; Schievano Elena; Buonfrate Dora; Pellizzer Giampietro; Spolaore Paolo

2011-01-01

294

A nationwide cohort study of mortality risk and long-term prognosis in infective endocarditis in Sweden.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a serious disease with substantial mortality. In this study we investigated the incidence of IE, as well as its associated short and long term mortality rates. METHODS: The IE cases were identified in the Swedish national inpatient register using ICD-10 codes, and then linked to the population register in order to identify deaths in the cohort. Crude mortality rates among IE patients were obtained for different time intervals. These rates were directly standardized using sex- and age-matched mortality in the general population. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 7603 individuals and 7817 episodes of IE during 1997-2007. The 30 days all-cause crude mortality rate was 10.4% and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 33.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 31.0-36.6). Excluding the first year of follow-up, the long term mortality (1-5 years) showed an increased SMR of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.0-2.3) compared to the general population. Significantly higher SMR was found for cases of IE younger than 65 years of age with a 1-5 year SMR of 6.3, and intravenous drug-users with a SMR of 19.1. Native valve IE cases, in which surgery was performed had lower crude mortality rates and Mantel-Haenzel odds ratios of less than one compared to those with medical therapy alone during 30-day and 5-years follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The 30-days crude mortality rate for IE was 10.4% and long-term relative mortality risk remains increased even up to 5 years of follow-up, therefore a close monitoring of these patients would be of value.

Ternhag A; Cederström A; Törner A; Westling K

2013-01-01

295

Reconstruction of mitral valve chordae and leaflets with one piece of autologous pericardium in extensively destructed mitral valve due to active infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 20-year-old female patient underwent urgent surgery for extensive mitral valve endocarditis. All marginal chordae and rough zone of A3 leaflet, posterior commissure leaflet, and P3 leaflet down to the annulus became defective after complete debridement of infected tissues. After annular plication, defective leaflets and chordae were reconstructed with a piece of triangular shaped autologous pericardium. Top of the pericardium was directly attached to the posterior papillary muscle, side edges to remnant leaflets, and the base to the annulus, thus substituting for chordae and leaflets at once. No mitral regurgitation was observed during 3 years of follow-up after the operation.

Ito T; Maekawa A; Sawaki S; Fujii G; Hoshino S; Hayashi Y

2013-10-01

296

Reconstruction of mitral valve chordae and leaflets with one piece of autologous pericardium in extensively destructed mitral valve due to active infective endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 20-year-old female patient underwent urgent surgery for extensive mitral valve endocarditis. All marginal chordae and rough zone of A3 leaflet, posterior commissure leaflet, and P3 leaflet down to the annulus became defective after complete debridement of infected tissues. After annular plication, defective leaflets and chordae were reconstructed with a piece of triangular shaped autologous pericardium. Top of the pericardium was directly attached to the posterior papillary muscle, side edges to remnant leaflets, and the base to the annulus, thus substituting for chordae and leaflets at once. No mitral regurgitation was observed during 3 years of follow-up after the operation. PMID:23292687

Ito, Toshiaki; Maekawa, Atsuo; Sawaki, Sadanari; Fujii, Genyo; Hoshino, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yasunari

2013-01-05

297

[Prognostic factors of prosthetic valve endocarditis. Apropos of 122 cases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prognostic factors of 122 patients suffering from prosthetic valve endocarditis between 1978 and 1992 were studied by univariate and multivariate analysis. The principal causative organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (33%), streptococci (20%), coagular-negative staphylococci (12%), enterococci (10%) and gram-negative bacilli (9%). The 4 month survival rate was 66% (42 deaths). The main predictive factor for death was infection with S. aureus (75% vs 15% with other organisms). In S. aureus infection, multivariate analysis identified the following predictive factors for death: a prothrombin ratio less than 30% (RR = 8.3), mediastinitis (RR = 4.9), cardiac failure (RR = 4.4) and septic shock (RR = 2.6). In cases of infection with other organisms, the following factors were predictive of death: a prothrombin ratio of less than 30% (RR = 32.26), renal failure (RR = 7.31) and cardiac failure (RR = 6.07). In patients with S. aureus infection, survival was better after than without surgery: 9/20 (45%) versus 0/20 (p < 0.001). In infection with other organisms, there was no difference in a survival after surgical (89%) or medical therapy (81%). Chronic endocarditis relapses over 1 to 5 years was observed in 9 cases. All patients were reoperated a total number of 18 times with 5 deaths. Very prolonged antibiotic therapy is recommended in these patients. The authors conclude that endocarditis not due to S. aureus and without complications may be treated medically. Rapid reoperation is necessary in all other cases.

Witchitz S; Wolff M; Chastang C; Regnier B; Vachon F

1996-06-01

298

Importance of the Endocarditis and Biofilm-associated Pilus (ebp) Locus in the Pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecalis Ascending Urinary Tract Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

Background We recently showed that the ubiquitous Enterococcus faecalis ebp (endocarditis and biofilm-associated pilus) operon was important for biofilm and experimental endocarditis. Here we assess its role in murine urinary tract infection using wild type E. faecalis OG1RF and its nonpiliated ebpA allelic replacement mutant (TX5475). Methods OG1RF and TX5475 were administered transurethrally in a 1:1 ratio (competition assay) or individually (monoinfection). Kidneys and bladders were cultured 48 h postinfection. These strains were also tested in a peritonitis model. Results No differences were observed in the peritonitis model. In mixed urinary infection, OG1RF significantly outnumbered TX5475 in kidneys (P=0.0033) and bladders (P=<0.0001). More OG1RF CFU were also recovered from kidneys of monoinfected mice at the four inocula tested (P=0.015 to 0.049) and ID50s of OG1RF for kidney and bladder (9.1 × 101 and 3.5 × 103 CFU, respectively) were two-three log10 lower than with TX5475. Increased tropism for the kidney relative to the bladder was observed by both OG1RF and TX5475. Conclusion The ebp locus, part of the core genome of E. faecalis, contributes to infection in an ascending UTI model and is the first such enterococcal locus shown to be important in this site.

Singh, Kavindra V.; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Murray, Barbara E.

2009-01-01

299

Risk factors for mediastinitis and endocarditis after cardiac surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A prospective open-cohort study was performed in 838 adults undergoing coronary revascularization or valve surgery to define the risk factors for development of surgical site infections. Patients diagnosed with mediastinitis or endocarditis during follow-up were compared with patients with no such infection. After 1 year of follow-up, 22 (2.6%) patients had developed mediastinitis or endocarditis. No preoperative or intraoperative variables were identified as risk factors. By multivariate analysis of postoperative variables, respiratory insufficiency, microorganisms in blood cultures, and intensive care unit stay were independent risk factors for the development of these complications. The type of antibiotic prophylaxis had no influence on the incidence of organ or space infections after cardiac surgery.

Gualis J; Flórez S; Tamayo E; Alvarez FJ; Castrodeza J; Castaño M

2009-12-01

300

[Bacteria cleaving small-colony variants as causative agents of infective endocarditis and other severe diseases].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Small-colony variants (SCV) associated with specific biochemical features were described in many bacterial species. Bacteria with SCV phenotype have knocked out metabolic pathways for aerobic respiration, thus they behave like strict anaerobes. They are handicapped in competition for nutrients with other microbes but on the other hand they are able to resist some antibiotics and survive inside eucaryotic cells. Therefore they use to cause chronic and/or recurrent infections. Recovery of these infections is not possible without surgery. SCV phenotype seems to be a common life strategy for many bacteria. Its occurrence and clinical importance is similar to that of biofilm formation.

Beneš J; Džupová O

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate susceptibility in a community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemic clone, in a case of Infective Endocarditis in Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has traditionally been related to skin and soft tissue infections in healthy young patients. However, it has now emerged as responsible for severe infections worldwide, for which vancomycin is one of the mainstays of treatment. Infective endocarditis (IE) due to CA-MRSA with heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate susceptibility-(h-VISA) has been recently reported, associated to an epidemic USA 300 CA-MRSA clone. Case Presentation We describe the occurrence of h-VISA phenotype in a case of IE caused by a strain belonging to an epidemic CA-MRSA clone, distinct from USA300, for the first time in Argentina. The isolate h-VISA (SaB2) was recovered from a patient with persistent bacteraemia after a 7-day therapy with vancomycin, which evolved to fatal case of IE complicated with brain abscesses. The initial isolate-(SaB1) was fully vancomycin susceptible (VSSA). Although MRSA SaB2 was vancomycin susceptible (?2 ?g/ml) by MIC (agar and broth dilution, E-test and VITEK 2), a slight increase of MIC values between SaB1 and SaB2 isolates was detected by the four MIC methods, particularly for teicoplanin. Moreover, Sab2 was classified as h-VISA by three different screening methods [MHA5T-screening agar, Macromethod-E-test-(MET) and by GRD E-test] and confirmed by population analysis profile-(PAP). In addition, a significant increase in cell-wall thickness was revealed for SaB2 by electron microscopy. Molecular typing showed that both strains, SaB1 and SaB2, belonged to ST5 lineage, carried SCCmecIV, lacked Panton-Valentine leukocidin-(PVL) genes and had indistinguishable PFGE patterns (subtype I2), thereby confirming their isogenic nature. In addition, they were clonally related to the epidemic CA-MRSA clone (pulsotype I) detected in our country. Conclusions This report demonstrates the ability of this epidemic CA-MRSA clone, disseminated in some regions of Argentina, to produce severe and rapidly fatal infections such as IE, in addition to its ability to acquire low-level vancomycin resistance; for these reasons, it constitutes a new challenge for the Healthcare System of this country.

Sola Claudia; Lamberghini Ricardo O; Ciarlantini Marcos; Egea Ana L; Gonzalez Patricia; Diaz Elda G; Huerta Vanina; Gonzalez Jose; Corso Alejandra; Vilaro Mario; Petiti Juan P; Torres Alicia; Vindel Ana; Bocco Jose L

2011-01-01

302

Infectious endocarditis due to Yersinia enterocolitica.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Yersinia enterocolitica is a gram-negative coccobacillus. Y. enterocolitica infection is acquired by humans via the oral route. Infection due to Y. enterocolitica was first observed in 1933 in New York. Y. enterocolitica septicemia has been increasingly recognized in recent years, whereas endocarditis due to Y. enterocolitica is a rare manifestation. We herein describe a patient who developed Y. enterocolitica endocarditis and was successfully treated with a combination of drugs consisting of a quinolone (ofloxacin) and an aminoglycoside (netilmicin).

Karachalios G; Bablekos G; Karachaliou G; Charalabopoulos AK; Charalabopoulos K

2002-07-01

303

Infectious endocarditis due to Yersinia enterocolitica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yersinia enterocolitica is a gram-negative coccobacillus. Y. enterocolitica infection is acquired by humans via the oral route. Infection due to Y. enterocolitica was first observed in 1933 in New York. Y. enterocolitica septicemia has been increasingly recognized in recent years, whereas endocarditis due to Y. enterocolitica is a rare manifestation. We herein describe a patient who developed Y. enterocolitica endocarditis and was successfully treated with a combination of drugs consisting of a quinolone (ofloxacin) and an aminoglycoside (netilmicin). PMID:12138334

Karachalios, G; Bablekos, G; Karachaliou, G; Charalabopoulos, A K; Charalabopoulos, K

2002-07-01

304

Endocarditis associated with Comamonas acidovorans.  

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A case of endocarditis caused by Comamonas acidovorans (Pseudomonas acidovorans) in a 42-year-old intravenous-drug abuser is described. This article appears to be the first detailed report of the isolation of this organism from a systemic clinical infection and its identification as a pathogen.

Horowitz, H; Gilroy, S; Feinstein, S; Gilardi, G

305

Eosinophilic endocarditis and Strongyloides stercoralis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 40-year-old woman from El Salvador presented with 3 months of abdominal pain and diarrhea followed by 2 weeks of atypical chest pain and exertional dyspnea and was diagnosed with eosinophilic endocarditis secondary to Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed apical masses in the left and right ventricles and a thickened posterior mitral valve leaflet and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a left ventricular apical mass with diffuse subendocardial delayed enhancement consistent with endocardial fibrosis. In conclusion, eosinophilic endocarditis is a rare cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy characterized by endomyocardial fibrosis and apical thrombosis and fibrosis with frequent involvement of the posterior mitral valve leaflet. PMID:23672985

Thaden, Jeremy; Cassar, Andrew; Vaa, Brianna; Phillips, Sabrina; Burkhart, Harold; Aubry, Marie; Nishimura, Rick

2013-05-11

306

Eosinophilic endocarditis and Strongyloides stercoralis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 40-year-old woman from El Salvador presented with 3 months of abdominal pain and diarrhea followed by 2 weeks of atypical chest pain and exertional dyspnea and was diagnosed with eosinophilic endocarditis secondary to Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed apical masses in the left and right ventricles and a thickened posterior mitral valve leaflet and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a left ventricular apical mass with diffuse subendocardial delayed enhancement consistent with endocardial fibrosis. In conclusion, eosinophilic endocarditis is a rare cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy characterized by endomyocardial fibrosis and apical thrombosis and fibrosis with frequent involvement of the posterior mitral valve leaflet.

Thaden J; Cassar A; Vaa B; Phillips S; Burkhart H; Aubry M; Nishimura R

2013-08-01

307

Vancomycin AUC24/MIC ratio in patients with complicated bacteremia and infective endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its association with attributable mortality during hospitalization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of complicated bacteremia (CB) and infective endocarditis (IE). The gold standard treatment for these infections is vancomycin. A vancomycin area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(24))/MIC ratio of >400 has been suggested as a target to achieve clinical effectiveness, and yet to date no study has quantitatively investigated the AUC(24)/MIC ratio and its association with attributable mortality (AM). We performed a review of patients treated for MRSA CB and IE from 1 July 2006 to 30 June 2008. AM was defined as deaths where CB or IE was documented as the main cause or was mentioned as the main diagnosis. Classification and regression tree analysis (CART) was used to identify the AUC(24)/MIC ratio associated with AM. Mann-Whitney and Fisher exact tests were used for univariate analysis, and logistic regression was used for multivariate modeling. The MICs were determined by Etest, and the AUC(24) was determined using a maximum a posteriori probability-Bayesian estimator. A total of 32 CB and 18 IE patients were enrolled. The overall crude mortality and AM were 24 and 16%, respectively. The CART-derived partition for the AUC(24)/MIC ratio and AM was <211. Patients with an AUC(24)/MIC ratio of <211 had a >4-fold increase in AM than patients who received vancomycin doses that achieved an AUC(24)/MIC ratio of ?211 (38 and 8%, respectively; P = 0.02). In bivariate analysis the APACHE-II score and an AUC(24)/MIC ratio of <211 were significantly associated with AM. In the multivariate model, the APACHE-II score (odds ratio, 1.24; P = 0.04) and a vancomycin AUC/MIC ratio of <211 (odds ratio, 10.4; P = 0.01) were independent predictors of AM. In our analysis, independent predictors of AM were the APACHE-II score and an AUC(24)/MIC ratio of <211. We believe further investigations are warranted.

Brown J; Brown K; Forrest A

2012-02-01

308

A case of Mycobacterium goodii prosthetic valve endocarditis in a non-immunocompromised patient: use of 16S rDNA analysis for rapid diagnosis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium goodii is a rare cause of significant infection. M. goodii has mainly been associated with lymphadenitis, cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and wound infection. Case presentation A case of a 76-year-old Caucasian female is presented. The patient developed a prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by M. goodii. She had also suffered from severe neurological symptoms related to a septic emboli that could be demonstrated as an ischemic lesion found on CT of the brain. Transesophageal echocardiography verified a large vegetation attached to the prosthetic valve. Commonly used blood culture bottles showed growth of the bacteria after 3?days. Conclusions Although M. goodii is rarely involved in these kinds of severe infections, rapidly growing mycobacteria should be recognized during conventional bacterial investigations and identified by molecular tools such as analysis of 16S rDNA. Species identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria is demanding and is preferably done in collaboration with a mycobacterial laboratory. An early diagnosis provides the opportunity for adequate treatment. In the present case, prolonged antimicrobial treatment and surgery with replacement of the prosthetic valve was successful.

Jönsson Göran; Rydberg Johan; Sturegård Erik; Christensson Bertil

2012-01-01

309

Activity of Glycopeptides against Staphylococcus aureus Infection in a Rabbit Endocarditis Model: MICs Do Not Predict In Vivo Efficacy  

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The in vivo efficacy of vancomycin and teicoplanin against five Staphylococcus aureus strains with different susceptibilities to them and methicillin was studied. Rabbits were allocated at random to groups for endocarditis induction with one of these five strains and then treated for 2 days with van...

Asseray, Nathalie; Jacqueline, Cedric; Le Mabecque, Virginie; Batard, Eric; Bugnon, Denis; Potel, Gilles; Caillon, Jocelyne

310

Comparison of outcomes in patients with active infective endocarditis and a paravalvular abscess on a prosthetic valve versus a native valve.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated in-hospital and long-term mortality in 16 patients with infective endocarditis and paravalvular abscess on a prosthetic valve (6 of whom underwent surgery) and in 12 patients with infective endocarditis and paravalvular abscess on a native valve (8 of whom underwent surgery). The only significant risk factor for in-hospital mortality in patients with prosthetic or native value paravalvular abscess was age (P paravalvular abscess undergoing surgery and 33% in patients treated medically (P = not significant). In-hospital mortality was 25% in patients with native valve paravalvular abscess undergoing surgery and 25% in patients treated medically (P = not significant). At 4.8-year follow up, survival of patients with prosthetic valve paravalvular abscess was 67% for patients treated surgically versus 40% for patients treated medically (P = not significant). At 4.8-year follow up, survival of patients with native valve paravalvular abscess was 75% for patients treated surgically versus 50% for patients treated medically (P = not significant). PMID:16230883

Langiulli, Michael; Salomon, Pierre; Aronow, Wilbert S; McClung, John A; Belkin, Robert N

311

Comparison of outcomes in patients with active infective endocarditis and a paravalvular abscess on a prosthetic valve versus a native valve.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated in-hospital and long-term mortality in 16 patients with infective endocarditis and paravalvular abscess on a prosthetic valve (6 of whom underwent surgery) and in 12 patients with infective endocarditis and paravalvular abscess on a native valve (8 of whom underwent surgery). The only significant risk factor for in-hospital mortality in patients with prosthetic or native value paravalvular abscess was age (P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality was 33% in patients with prosthetic valve paravalvular abscess undergoing surgery and 33% in patients treated medically (P = not significant). In-hospital mortality was 25% in patients with native valve paravalvular abscess undergoing surgery and 25% in patients treated medically (P = not significant). At 4.8-year follow up, survival of patients with prosthetic valve paravalvular abscess was 67% for patients treated surgically versus 40% for patients treated medically (P = not significant). At 4.8-year follow up, survival of patients with native valve paravalvular abscess was 75% for patients treated surgically versus 50% for patients treated medically (P = not significant).

Langiulli M; Salomon P; Aronow WS; McClung JA; Belkin RN

2005-11-01

312

Challenge in the management of infective endocarditis with multiple valvular involvement Desafio no manejo clínico da endocardite infecciosa com acometimento multivalvar  

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Full Text Available We describe the case of a 41-year-old man with congenital heart disease and infective endocarditis (IE), who presented multiple vegetations attached to the pulmonary, mitral, and aortic valves. Three valve replacements were performed, but the patient developed an abscess at the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa and died due to sepsis. We briefly discuss the indications for surgery in IE, emphasizing its role in the treatment of uncontrolled infection.Paciente do sexo masculino, 41 anos, portador de cardiopatia congênita apresentando-se com endocardite infecciosa (EI) e vegetações nas valvas pulmonar, aórtica e mitral. Três trocas valvares foram realizadas, mas o paciente evoluiu com recidiva da infecção, desenvolvendo abscesso na região da fibrosa intervalvar mitro-aórtica progredindo para sépsis e óbito. Nesse relato, discutimos brevemente as indicações para a cirurgia na EI, destacando sua indicação no tratamento da infecção não controlada.

Izabella Rodrigues de Araújo; Maria do Carmo Pereira Nunes; Claudio Leo Gelape; Vinicius Tostes Carvalho; Benone Evaristo Rezende Araújo Lacerda; Gustavo Brandão de Oliveira; Luiza Caldeira Brant; Teresa Cristina Abreu Ferrari

2012-01-01

313

Challenge in the management of infective endocarditis with multiple valvular involvement/ Desafio no manejo clínico da endocardite infecciosa com acometimento multivalvar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Paciente do sexo masculino, 41 anos, portador de cardiopatia congênita apresentando-se com endocardite infecciosa (EI) e vegetações nas valvas pulmonar, aórtica e mitral. Três trocas valvares foram realizadas, mas o paciente evoluiu com recidiva da infecção, desenvolvendo abscesso na região da fibrosa intervalvar mitro-aórtica progredindo para sépsis e óbito. Nesse relato, discutimos brevemente as indicações para a cirurgia na EI, destacando sua indicação no tratamento da infecção não controlada. Abstract in english We describe the case of a 41-year-old man with congenital heart disease and infective endocarditis (IE), who presented multiple vegetations attached to the pulmonary, mitral, and aortic valves. Three valve replacements were performed, but the patient developed an abscess at the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa and died due to sepsis. We briefly discuss the indications for surgery in IE, emphasizing its role in the treatment of uncontrolled infection.

Araújo, Izabella Rodrigues de; Nunes, Maria do Carmo Pereira; Gelape, Claudio Leo; Carvalho, Vinicius Tostes; Lacerda, Benone Evaristo Rezende Araújo; Oliveira, Gustavo Brandão de; Brant, Luiza Caldeira; Ferrari, Teresa Cristina Abreu

2012-04-01

314

Meningite e endocardite infecciosa causada por Rhodotorula mucilaginosa em paciente imunocompetente/ Meningitis and infective endocarditis caused by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in an immunocompetent patient  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os autores relatam o caso de um homem imunocompetente admitido com comprometimento agudo do sistema nervoso, crise hipertensiva e insuficiência renal, vindo a receber diagnóstico de meningite e endocardite infecciosa por Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Até onde sabemos, esta é a primeira descrição de infecção simultânea das meninges e do endotélio causada por Rhodotorula em um paciente sem comprometimento imunológico. Abstract in english The authors report the case of an immunocompetent man who presented with acute impairment of the neurological system, hypertensive crisis and renal failure. The patient was eventually diagnosed with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa meningitis and infective endocarditis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of simultaneous infection of the meninges and endothelium caused by Rhodotorula in a non-immunocompromised patient.

Loss, Sergio Henrique; Antonio, Ana Carolina Peçanha; Roehrig, Cíntia; Castro, Priscylla Souza; Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto

2011-12-01

315

Aortic valve endocarditis from Staphylococcus lugdunensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is a case of aortic valve endocarditis and leaflet perforation caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis successfully treated with aortic valve replacement and antibiotics. We believe that the patient's endocarditis may be related to the vasectomy he underwent two months prior to presentation, as S. lugdunensis is an integral component of normal skin flora of the lower abdomen and groin. We also suggest that whenever this organism is found in patients with endocarditis, early surgical treatment of the infected valve should be considered, as S. lugdunensis is an aggressive and virulent coagulase-negative staphylococcus.

Cevasco M; Haime M

2012-05-01

316

Aortic valve endocarditis from Staphylococcus lugdunensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case of aortic valve endocarditis and leaflet perforation caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis successfully treated with aortic valve replacement and antibiotics. We believe that the patient's endocarditis may be related to the vasectomy he underwent two months prior to presentation, as S. lugdunensis is an integral component of normal skin flora of the lower abdomen and groin. We also suggest that whenever this organism is found in patients with endocarditis, early surgical treatment of the infected valve should be considered, as S. lugdunensis is an aggressive and virulent coagulase-negative staphylococcus. PMID:21810116

Cevasco, Marisa; Haime, Miguel

2011-08-02

317

Fungal endocarditis after cardiac valve replacement  

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Full Text Available Fungal endocarditis developed in 15 cases out of 205 in whom cardiac valves were replaced during the years 1969-75. Bacterial and fungal infections co-existed in 3 cases. Pure bacterial endo-carditis was seen only in one case during this period. Fungal endo-carditis was not observed following any other type of open or closed heart surgery. Clinicopathologic features of these cases are briefly described. Paucity of clinical signs and symptoms make early diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis of fungal infection was essentially histological. It was corroborated by culture in 3 cases. In 6 cases candida was responsible while in others either Aspergillus or Penicillium was responsible. In 11 out of 15 cases, endocarditis supervened in the early post-operative period stressing the need for vigilance.

Kinare Suman; Chaukar A; Panday S; Parulkar G

1978-01-01

318

[Cardiac complications of infectious endocarditis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Factors predisposing to cardiac complications and influencing hospital survival, were analysed in a retrospective study of 101 cases of infective endocarditis. Heart failure occurred in 52 p. 100 of our patients. A significantly greater incidence of heart failure was observed in endocarditis with no preexisting heart disease (p less than 0.01), aortic and mitral valve involvement (p less than 0.01), staphylococcus aureus infections (p less than 0.05), arrhythmias (p less than 0.001), and conduction disturbances (p less than 0.01). Significantly more patients with congestive cardiac failure died in hospital (51 p. 100) than those without congestive cardiac failure (17 p. 100) (p less than 0.001). Severe heart failure before treatment (p less than 0.05), streptococcus D endocarditis (p = 0.05), supraventricular arrhythmias (p less than 0.05), and intracardiac conduction disturbances (p less than 0.05), significantly increased the hospital mortality in patients with congestive heart failure. Electrocardiographic findings revealed arrhythmias in 34 p. 100 of cases, more commonly with mitral valve involvement (71 p. 100) and 52 p. 100 died in hospital. The development of intracardiac conduction disturbance during the course of 18 cases of endocarditis (aortic valve in 11 cases) was associated with a hospital mortality rate of 60 p. 100. The incidence of pericarditis and pulmonary embolism was 4 and 7 p. 100 respectively, and all patients died in hospital. Acute inferior myocardial infarction compatible with coronary embolism was suspected in one patient. Early cardiac valve replacement improved the hospital survival in patients with cardiac complications of infective endocarditis.

Petitalot JP; Allal J; Thomas P; Poupet JY; Rossi F; Barraine R; Becq Giraudon B; Sudre Y

1985-01-01

319

[Neurologic manifestations of infectious endocarditis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirty out of 287 patients (10.4%) admitted to hospital for infective endocarditis between December 1970 and January 1990 had neurological complications. Twenty-three patients had native valve infectious endocarditis and 7 had prosthetic valve endocarditis. The clinical features were characterized by the frequency of aortic valve involvement (23 out of 30) and other complications, especially cardiac failure (16 cases) and peripheral vascular manifestations (7 cases). The commonest organism was the staphylococcus (53% of identified organisms) but the number of negative blood cultures was high (50% of cases). The neurological complication was often the presenting symptom of the endocarditis (19 cases) but it occurred after bacteriological cure in 4 cases. The complications observed were cerebral ischemia (16 cases), cerebral haemorrhage (11 cases), coma (2 cases), and one peripheral neuropathy causing a Claude Bernard Horner syndrome. These complications presented with hemiplegia in 17 cases, a meningeal syndrome in 8 cases, a convulsion in 1 case, a Von Wallenberg syndrome in 1 case, and a Claude Bernard Horner syndrome in 1 case. Twelve patients had a transient or permanent neurological coma. Cerebral CT scan showed ischemic lesions in 7 cases and haemorrhagic lesions in 10 cases. Carotid angiography demonstrated mycotic aneurysms in 6 patients. Twelve patients died: the cause of death was neurological coma (7 cases), low cardiac output (4 cases) and haemorrhagic shock (1 case). Four patients underwent neurosurgery: 3 for clipping a mycotic aneurysm and 1 for drainage of an intracerebral haematoma. Poor prognostic factors were: coma, cardiac failure, cardiac valve prosthesis and, above all, the extent and multiplicity of the neurological lesions. The authors propose the following measures to improve the prognosis: early surgery in cases of large and/or mobile vegetations especially when the infecting organism is a staphylococcus and when a systemic embolism has occurred; routine CT scanning and/or digitised cerebral angiography in all patients with infective endocarditis to detect surgically accessible mycotic aneurysms.

Hannachi N; Béard T; Ben Ismail M

1991-01-01

320

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis and presumed osteomyelitis  

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Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is known to cause infections in humans following exposure to decaying organic matter or animals colonized with the organism, such as swine and fish. Invasive infections with this organism are unusual and are manifested primarily as infective endocarditis. The present rep...

Romney, Marc; Cheung, Stephen; Montessori, Valentina

 
 
 
 
321

[Candida albicans endocarditis after pulmonary artery banding].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endocarditis is uncommon in infants and is exceptionally related to Candida albicans on pulmonary banding. We report on a case in a 7-month-old infant who had pulmonary artery banding for a ventricular septal defect and who presented with candidal endocarditis. Banding was chosen because of the patient's poor trophic and unstable status, which could be risky for surgery involving extracorporeal circulation. A few weeks after the banding, the patient developed systemic Candida infection, which was treated successfully. At 7 months, cardiac failure appeared without fever or inflammatory signs. Cardiac echography showed that the banding was not protective as well as a hyperechogenic image on the pulmonary bifurcation. The angioscan showed a hypodense thrombus. Emergency surgery was performed consisting of pulmonary artery exploration, thrombectomy, and ventricular septal defect closure. The exploration showed a pulmonary artery perforation caused by the infected pseudoaneurysm and the migration of the banding into the pulmonary artery. The anatomopathologic analysis of the vegetation identified multisensitive Candida albicans. After surgery and prolonged antifungal treatment, progression was satisfactory.

Talvard M; Paranon S; Dulac Y; Mansir T; Kreitmann B; Acar P

2009-08-01

322

Aspergillus endocarditis in lung transplant recipient: successful surgical treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Solid organ transplantation can be followed by Aspergillus infection, implying high mortality rates. The highest infection rates are registered among lung transplant recipients. We present a recent case of an Aspergillus endocarditis in a young lung transplant recipient.

Regueiro F; Gutiérrez F; Mons R; Riancho G; Revuelta JM

2013-07-01

323

Outcomes and costs associated with a history of vancomycin exposure in patients with MRSA-related complicated bacteremia and infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the primary cause of complicated bacteremia (CB) and infective endocarditis (IE). Studies have compared the costs of treatment with vancomycin to those of other agents, as well as the efficacy and tolerability of these treatments. However, a literature search found no published studies of the effects of vancomycin exposure on outcomes and hospital costs in patients with CB or IE due to MRSA. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a quantitative relationship between the duration of vancomycin treatment or cumulative vancomycin exposure and outcomes or costs in patient with CB or IE due to MRSA. METHODS: Electronic medical records of confirmed cases of MRSA-related CB or IE from July 1, 2006, to June 30, 2008, were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with a history of vancomycin exposure or no vancomycin exposure. Those who received vancomycin were stratified by the amount of drug administered or the duration of treatment to determine the relationship between treatment and outcomes. Data collected included demographic information, treatment information, attributable mortality, MIC data, and hospital costs. Classification and regression tree analysis (CART) was used to determine whether a history of vancomycin exposure was associated with treatment failure, attributable mortality, or both. The Mann-Whitney U test and the Fisher exact test were used for univariate analyses, and logistic regression was used for multivariate modeling. RESULTS: Data from 50 patients were evaluated (CB, 32; IE, 18). Overall rates of failure and attributable mortality were 32% and 16%, respectively. No significant differences were observed between the variables and costs. The CART break points for failure were ?18.75 g and ?14 days of vancomycin treatment in the previous 3 years; for attributable mortality, the CART break points were ?45 g and ?31 days. In the final multivariate model for failure, ?18.75 g and ?14 days of vancomycin treatment in the previous 3 years were predictors of failure (both, P = 0.002). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (P = 0.04), ?45 g (P = 0.002), and ?31 days of treatment (P = 0.002) in the previous 3 years were predictors of attributable mortality after adjustment for all covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Using the present model, cumulative vancomycin amount and duration were associated with attributable mortality and clinical failure but not with costs.

Brown J; Brown KA; Forrest A

2011-10-01

324

Abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis presenting with hemiplegia  

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Full Text Available Abiotrophia defectiva was previously known as a member of the nutritionally variant streptococcus (NVS). This microorganism is a member of the normal flora of mouth, urogenital and intestinal tracts. It causes various infections such as bacteriemia, brain abscess, septic arthritis and rarely infective endocarditis. Only < 1% of all cases of endocarditis are caused by A. defectiva.A 23 year old previously healthy female was admitted to emergency department for left hemiplegia. On physical examination, petechial rashes were detected on her palmar and plantar regions. Magnetic resonance image of brain revealed acute enfarctus in the striatocapsuler area, and total occlusion was detected in right median common arterial segment M1 with magnetic resonance imaging angiography. Urgent thrombectomy was performed. Echocardiography demonstrated a mobile vegetation on mitral valve leaflet.Infective endocarditis was diagnosed and ceftriaxone at 2gr/day and vancomycin at 2 gr/day doses were started. A. defectiva was isolated in blood cultures. Antibiotics were changed to ampicillin/sulbactam at 8 gr/day and vancomycin at 2 gr /day doses. Infective endocarditis caused by A. defectiva and other nutritionally variant streptococci are reported to have a higher mortality, morbidity and complication rates. In the current communication we report this rather rare case of infective endocarditis.

Yasemin Akkoyunlu; Meryem Iraz; Gulsen Kocaman; Bahadir Ceylan; Cemalettin Aydin; Turan Aslan

2013-01-01

325

Tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite infecciosa na fase aguda: experiência de três anos Surgical treatment of infective endocarditis in the acute phase: a three-year experience  

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Full Text Available O tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite na fase aguda vem-se impondo como o mais efetivo, em muitas circunstâncias clínicas. As contínuas modificações nos aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e bacteriológicos desta afecção tornam necessária permanente avaliação dos resultados, nas situações concretas de atuação dos diversos grupos clínico-cirúrgicos. A definição de normas de conduta ante esta grave afecção tem-nos preocupado, ultimamente, por sua crescente participação em nossa prática clínica-cirúrgica. De novembro de 1983 a novembro de 1986, 6,7% das substituições valvares por nosso grupo cirúrgico deveram-se a endocardite (32 de 4,77 pacientes). A sede do processo infeccioso teve a seguinte distribuição: mitral 6 casos, aórtica 12 casos (um óbito), mitral e aórtica 6 casos (dois óbitos) prótese aórtica 4 casos (três óbitos), prótese mitral 2 casos (um óbito) mitral, aórtica e tricúspide 1 caso (um óbito) e parede do ventrículo esquerdo 1 caso. A idade variou entre 10 e 56 anos. Sete pacientes eram do sexo feminino e 24 do masculino. Todos os pacientes eram brancos. A análise dos achados anátomo-patológicos permitiu determinação de três grupos: no Grupo A, tivemos 11 operações por lesões valvares simples, consistentes basicamente de vegetações infectadas. Todos os pacientes sobreviveram e obtiveram alta hospitalar. Nos 15 pacientes do Grupo B, havia acometimento multivalvar, ou lesões complicadas por mutilações valvares extensas e/ou comunicações entre câmaras cardíacas; 5 pacientes faleceram. No Grupo C, houve 5 operações por infecções em próteses, ocorrendo 4 óbitos. O prognóstico favorável dos pacientes operados com lesões simples e o alto risco daqueles em que havia destruição tissular mais extensa e daqueles em que a endocardite se instalou em próteses, nos levam a defender o tratamento cirúrgico precoce das infecções valvares, em todos os casos em que não haja rápida resposta ao tratamento antibiótico.Surgical treatment is becoming accepted as the best means of dealing with acute bacterial endocarditis in many clinical settings. The continuing changes in diagnosis, bacteriology and clinical picture of this disease must be accounted for by the surgical teams. Definition of the rules for management of this severe condition has been a matter of concern for us in the last years. From November 1983 to November 1986, 6.7% of the valvar substitutions in our Service were due to active infection (32 of 477 patients). The site of infection was the mitral valve in six patients, aortic valve in 12 patients (one death) mitral and aortic valves in six patients (two deaths), mitral prostheses in two patients (one death) aortic prostheses (three deaths), mitral, aortic and tricuspid valves in one patient (one death) and the wall of the left ventricle in one patient. Age varied from 10 to 56 years (m=29.2 years). Seven patients were females and 24 males. All patients were white. Analysis of the pathologic findings allowed us to define three subgroups: In subgroup A, 11 operations were done for simple valvar lesions. All patients left the hospital. Fifteen patients were in the subgroup of extensive valvar or perivalvar lesions, five of which died. Among the six prosthetic infections there were four deaths. The favorable outcome of the patients operated on for simple valvar lesions and the high risk of those who presented extensive tissue destruction or prosthetic infection makes us to prefer immediate surgical treatment if there is no clear response to antibiotics within 24 to 48 hours.

Iseu Affonso da Costa; Djalma Luiz Faraco; Fábio Sallum; Aldo Pesarini; Elson C Oliveira; Francisco Diniz Affonso da Costa; Álvaro B Soeiro

1987-01-01

326

Tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite infecciosa na fase aguda: experiência de três anos/ Surgical treatment of infective endocarditis in the acute phase: a three-year experience  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite na fase aguda vem-se impondo como o mais efetivo, em muitas circunstâncias clínicas. As contínuas modificações nos aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e bacteriológicos desta afecção tornam necessária permanente avaliação dos resultados, nas situações concretas de atuação dos diversos grupos clínico-cirúrgicos. A definição de normas de conduta ante esta grave afecção tem-nos preocupado, ultimamente, por sua crescen (more) te participação em nossa prática clínica-cirúrgica. De novembro de 1983 a novembro de 1986, 6,7% das substituições valvares por nosso grupo cirúrgico deveram-se a endocardite (32 de 4,77 pacientes). A sede do processo infeccioso teve a seguinte distribuição: mitral 6 casos, aórtica 12 casos (um óbito), mitral e aórtica 6 casos (dois óbitos) prótese aórtica 4 casos (três óbitos), prótese mitral 2 casos (um óbito) mitral, aórtica e tricúspide 1 caso (um óbito) e parede do ventrículo esquerdo 1 caso. A idade variou entre 10 e 56 anos. Sete pacientes eram do sexo feminino e 24 do masculino. Todos os pacientes eram brancos. A análise dos achados anátomo-patológicos permitiu determinação de três grupos: no Grupo A, tivemos 11 operações por lesões valvares simples, consistentes basicamente de vegetações infectadas. Todos os pacientes sobreviveram e obtiveram alta hospitalar. Nos 15 pacientes do Grupo B, havia acometimento multivalvar, ou lesões complicadas por mutilações valvares extensas e/ou comunicações entre câmaras cardíacas; 5 pacientes faleceram. No Grupo C, houve 5 operações por infecções em próteses, ocorrendo 4 óbitos. O prognóstico favorável dos pacientes operados com lesões simples e o alto risco daqueles em que havia destruição tissular mais extensa e daqueles em que a endocardite se instalou em próteses, nos levam a defender o tratamento cirúrgico precoce das infecções valvares, em todos os casos em que não haja rápida resposta ao tratamento antibiótico. Abstract in english Surgical treatment is becoming accepted as the best means of dealing with acute bacterial endocarditis in many clinical settings. The continuing changes in diagnosis, bacteriology and clinical picture of this disease must be accounted for by the surgical teams. Definition of the rules for management of this severe condition has been a matter of concern for us in the last years. From November 1983 to November 1986, 6.7% of the valvar substitutions in our Service were due t (more) o active infection (32 of 477 patients). The site of infection was the mitral valve in six patients, aortic valve in 12 patients (one death) mitral and aortic valves in six patients (two deaths), mitral prostheses in two patients (one death) aortic prostheses (three deaths), mitral, aortic and tricuspid valves in one patient (one death) and the wall of the left ventricle in one patient. Age varied from 10 to 56 years (m=29.2 years). Seven patients were females and 24 males. All patients were white. Analysis of the pathologic findings allowed us to define three subgroups: In subgroup A, 11 operations were done for simple valvar lesions. All patients left the hospital. Fifteen patients were in the subgroup of extensive valvar or perivalvar lesions, five of which died. Among the six prosthetic infections there were four deaths. The favorable outcome of the patients operated on for simple valvar lesions and the high risk of those who presented extensive tissue destruction or prosthetic infection makes us to prefer immediate surgical treatment if there is no clear response to antibiotics within 24 to 48 hours.

Costa, Iseu Affonso da; Faraco, Djalma Luiz; Sallum, Fábio; Pesarini, Aldo; Oliveira, Elson C; Costa, Francisco Diniz Affonso da; Soeiro, Álvaro B

1987-08-01

327

Aortic root abscess resulting from endocarditis: spectrum of angiographic findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abscesses in the aortic root are a serious complication of infective endocarditis and require accurate diagnosis for antibiotic and surgical management. Nineteen cases of endocarditis of a native valve or prosthetic valve and adjacent abscess cavities were identified with angiography. Of 6 patients with endocarditis of a native valve, 5 had bicuspid aortic valves and all had severe aortic regurgitation. Of 13 patients with endocarditis of a prosthetic aortic valve, all had paravalvular regurgitation. Fistulas were detected into the mitral anulus in 8 patients, and into the right ventricle in 3 patients. No complications from the catheterization were recorded during the 48-hour follow-up.

Miller, S.W.; Dinsmore, R.E.

1984-11-01

328

[Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of Stapylococcus bacteriaemia is increasing worldwide, because of the increasing use of invasive procedures leading to nosocomial infections, but also of a changing way of life (increasing fashion for tattoos or piercing, use of intravenous drugs). Infective endocarditis develops in 10-30% of the cases of staphylococcus bacteriaemia. Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis must be suspected when it develops in the year following heart surgery or implantation of permanent devices. In drug users, it usually involves the tricuspid valve. According to the resistance of the germ to meticillin, antibiotic therapy uses a combination of intravenous penicillin or glycopeptide and an aminoside. Other antibiotics such as fosfomycin, rifampicin, fusidic acid, or clindamycin can be used when aminosides are contra-indicated. The role of newer antibiotic agents, such as daptomycin or linezolide, remains to be established.

Lagier JC; Letranchant L; Selton-Suty C; Nloga J; Aissa N; Alauzet C; Carteaux JP; May T; Doco-Lecompte T

2008-04-01

329

Perfil clínico-epidemiológico de pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa, período 2003-2010 en el hospital de Temuco, Chile/ Profile of patients with infective endocarditis admitted to a Chilean regional hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background: Mortality due to infective endocarditis (IE) in Chile is close to 30%. Aim: To report the experience with patients admitted with the diagnosis of IE in a regional tertiary hospital. Material and Methods: Retrospective study of 107 patients aged 50 ± 16years (75% males) discharged with a definitive diagnosis of IE according to modified DUKE criteria, between years 2003 and 2010. Demographic variables, severity scores, clinical characteristics, bacteriology and (more) hospital evolution were recorded. Results: Fifty nine percent of patients had concomitant cardiovascular problems. APACHE II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores on admission were 8.4 ± 4.7 and 2.7 ± 2.8 respectively. Native valves were affected in 91% of cases (aortic and mitral valves in 62% and 50% of cases respectively). Prosthetic valves were affected in 9.3% of cases. Rheumatic heart disease was the predominant primary lesion in 10% of patients. Antibiotics were used in 45.1% before blood cultures were performed. In 68% of patients blood cultures were positive. S. viridans (30.8%), S.aureus (18.6%) and coagulase negative Streptocicci (5.6%) were the identified microorganisms. Intensive care unit admission was required in 48% of patients. Renal, heart and neurological deterioration was observed in 53, 34 and 14% of patients, respectively. Twenty percent of patients developed systemic embolism and 37% required heart surgery. Mean hospital stay was 28.3 ± 19.1 days and 27% of patients died. Conclusions: In this series of patients, IE has a high mortality. Most patients studied were admitted in bad conditions.

Stockins, Benjamín; Neira, Víctor; Paredes, Alejandro; Castillo, Carlos; Troncoso, Andrés

2012-10-01

330

Partial oral treatment of endocarditis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Guidelines for the treatment of left-sided infective endocarditis (IE) recommend 4 to 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. Conversion from intravenous to oral antibiotics in clinically stabilized patients could reduce the side effects associated with intravenous treatment and shorten the length of hospital stay. Evidence supporting partial oral therapy as an alternative to the routinely recommended continued parenteral therapy is scarce, although observational data suggest that this strategy may be safe and effective.

Iversen, Kasper; HØst, Nis

2013-01-01

331

Infective endocarditis after transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement using the Melody valve: combined results of 3 prospective North American and European studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter (percutaneous) pulmonary valve (TPV) replacement has emerged as a viable therapy for right ventricular outflow tract conduit dysfunction. Little is known about the incidence, clinical course, and outcome of infective endocarditis (IE) after TPV implant. We reviewed combined data from 3 ongoing prospective multicenter trials to evaluate the experience with IE among patients undergoing TPV replacement using the Melody valve. METHODS AND RESULTS: Any clinical episode reported by investigators as IE with documented positive blood cultures and fever, regardless of TPV involvement, was considered IE. Cases were classified as TPV-related if there was evidence of vegetations on or new dysfunction of the TPV. The 3 trials included 311 patients followed for 687.1 patient-years (median, 2.5 years). Sixteen patients were diagnosed with IE 50 days to 4.7 years after TPV implant (median, 1.3 years), including 6 who met criteria for TPV-related IE: 3 with vegetations, 2 with TPV dysfunction, and 1 with both. The annualized rate of a first episode of IE was 2.4% per patient-year and of TPV-related IE was 0.88% per patient-year. Freedom from TPV-related IE was 97±1% 4 years after implant. All patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics, 4 had the valve explanted, and 2 received a second TPV. There was 1 sepsis-related death, 1 patient died of sudden hemoptysis, and 2 patients developed recurrent IE. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial endocarditis has occurred in all 3 prospective multicenter studies of the Melody valve in North America and Europe. Most cases did not involve the TPV and responded to antibiotics. More data are necessary to understand risk factors in this population.

McElhinney DB; Benson LN; Eicken A; Kreutzer J; Padera RF; Zahn EM

2013-06-01

332

Streptococcus dysgalactiae endocarditis presenting as acute endophthalmitis  

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Full Text Available Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare ocular infection affecting the vitreous and/or aqueous humours. It is associated with poor visual prognosis and its commonest endogenous aetiology is infective endocarditis. The causative organisms of endogenous endophthalmitis complicating endocarditis are mainly Group A or B streptococci. The identification of Group C and G streptococci such as Streptococcus dysgalactiae is comparatively uncommon and has only been reported in a few case reports or series. We therefore report a case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae first presenting with endogenous endophthalmitis, the most likely source being bilateral feet osteomyelitis in a patient with type I diabetes. The patient was treated with a course of intravenous benzylpenicillin, intravitreal antibiotics, bilateral below knee amputations and mitral valve replacement. She survived all surgical procedures and regained partial visual acuity in the affected eye.

Angelina Su-Min Yong; Su Yin Lau; Tsung Han Woo; Jordan Yuanzhi Li; Tuck Yean Yong

2012-01-01

333

[Hospital infectious endocarditis and endocarditis in drug addicts  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To specify etiology and clinical course of nosocomial infectious endocarditis (IE) and IE of drug addicts (AIE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 8 cases of AIE and 27 IE cases after various invasive interventions (nosocomial endocarditis). RESULTS: Among causing agents of IE and AIE were Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, anaerobic microflora, pathogenic fungi. AIE is characterized by affection of the tricuspid valve, pulmonary artery thromboembolism. Among nosocomial endocarditides are frequent IE of the replaced valve, caused by infection of venous catheters, dental manipulations, chronic hemodialysis. IE and AIE are most frequently treated with the following antibiotics: ampicilin, gentamycin, augmentin, unasin, cephalosporins, rifadin, ciprofloxin, tienam. CONCLUSION: Nosocomial IE and AIE have drawn much attention in the last decade because of development of new complex invasive treatments and expansion of narcomania.

Butkevich OM; Vinogradova TL

1998-01-01

334

Endocarditis due to Neisseria sicca: report of one case.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many species of the Neisseria, which are respiratory commensals in humans, have been regarded as being nonpathogenic or as causing disease in only immunocompromised hosts. We report a case in which Neisseria sicca was the cause of infective endocarditis in a child with a ventricular septal defect and review the literature on endocarditis due to N. sicca infection. Most of these patients had an underlying heart disease. Dental caries and poor oral hygiene may be two factors that predispose patients to the infection. N. sicca endocarditis usually results in a subacute onset of symptoms and, if not diagnosed early and treated, is associated with a high rate of embolic complications. PMID:9230543

Chao, H C; Chiu, C H; Huang, Y C; Lin, T Y; Su, W J

335

Endocarditis due to Neisseria sicca: report of one case.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many species of the Neisseria, which are respiratory commensals in humans, have been regarded as being nonpathogenic or as causing disease in only immunocompromised hosts. We report a case in which Neisseria sicca was the cause of infective endocarditis in a child with a ventricular septal defect and review the literature on endocarditis due to N. sicca infection. Most of these patients had an underlying heart disease. Dental caries and poor oral hygiene may be two factors that predispose patients to the infection. N. sicca endocarditis usually results in a subacute onset of symptoms and, if not diagnosed early and treated, is associated with a high rate of embolic complications.

Chao HC; Chiu CH; Huang YC; Lin TY; Su WJ

1997-05-01

336

Endocarditis por Abiotrophia defectiva en paciente adulto/ Endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva in an adult patient  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Abiotrophia defectiva es una cocácea grampositiva considerada anteriormente como parte del grupo de los estreptococos nutricionalmente variables. Es parte de la microbiota oral y puede ser causante de endocarditis bacteriana con cultivo negativo. Se reporta el caso de un paciente varón de 37 años de edad, alérgico a penicilina, con endocarditis infecciosa causada por A. defectiva y se realiza revisión de la literatura sobre las alternativas terapéuticas y el estado actual del diagnóstico microbiológico de este agente Abstract in english Abiotrophia defectiva, formerly designated as a member of nutritionally variant streptococci, is part of normal oral flora and may be a cause of culture-negative endocarditis. We report a case of infective endocarditis caused by A. defectiva in a 37-year-old man, allergic to penicillin. We also review the literature for antibiotic treatment alternatives and the microbiological diagnostic possibilities at present

Porte T., Lorena; Zamorano R., Juanita; Pavéz A., Daniela; Monckeberg F., Gustavo; Varela A., Carmen; González A., Patricia; Ulloa F., M. Teresa; Sepúlveda R., Carolina

2004-06-01

337

Endocarditis por Abiotrophia defectiva en paciente adulto Endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva in an adult patient  

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Full Text Available Abiotrophia defectiva es una cocácea grampositiva considerada anteriormente como parte del grupo de los estreptococos nutricionalmente variables. Es parte de la microbiota oral y puede ser causante de endocarditis bacteriana con cultivo negativo. Se reporta el caso de un paciente varón de 37 años de edad, alérgico a penicilina, con endocarditis infecciosa causada por A. defectiva y se realiza revisión de la literatura sobre las alternativas terapéuticas y el estado actual del diagnóstico microbiológico de este agenteAbiotrophia defectiva, formerly designated as a member of nutritionally variant streptococci, is part of normal oral flora and may be a cause of culture-negative endocarditis. We report a case of infective endocarditis caused by A. defectiva in a 37-year-old man, allergic to penicillin. We also review the literature for antibiotic treatment alternatives and the microbiological diagnostic possibilities at present

Lorena Porte T.; Juanita Zamorano R.; Daniela Pavéz A.; Gustavo Monckeberg F.; Carmen Varela A.; Patricia González A.; M. Teresa Ulloa F.; Carolina Sepúlveda R.

2004-01-01

338

[Endocarditis caused by rare Gram-positive bacteria: investigate for gastrointestinal disorders].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gemella haemolysans, Streptococcus equinus and Tropheryma whipplei are rare Gram-positive bacteria which may cause endocarditis and are associated with gastrointestinal disorders. We report on three patients with infective endocarditis caused by these microorganisms. G. haemolysans and S. equinus (Streptococcus bovis group) were isolated from blood cultures, and T. whipplei was diagnosed by molecular typing of an excised heart valve. The association between endocarditis caused by these microorganisms and gastrointestinal disorders warranted further examination. Endoscopic examination revealed a colonic carcinoma in the patient with G. haemolysans endocarditis and diverticulosis in the patient with S. equinus endocarditis. No gastrointestinal tract disorders were found in the patient with T. whipplei endocarditis, but this does not exclude Whipple's disease. Examination of the gastrointestinal tract for a focus of infection should be considered in patients with endocarditis caused by G. haemolysans, S. equinus and T. whipplei if no other source of bacteraemia is apparent.

Kovaleva J; Gerhards LG; Möller AV

2012-01-01

339

Candida albicans isolated from human fungaemia induces apoptosis in an experimental endocarditis model  

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Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen known to cause endovascular infections, such as vascular catheter sepsis, infections of vascular prostheses and infective endocarditis. A C. albicans isolate was used to determine the apoptotic potential of the fungus in a rat endocarditis model. This study confirms the ability of C. albicans to induce apoptosis in myocardial tissue.

Iván Hernández-Cañaveral; Gerardo Becerra; Alberto Jiménez-Cordero; Jean-Baptiste Michel; Arturo Plascencia; Miguel Domínguez-Hernández

2009-01-01

340

[Proceedings: Microbiology of endocarditis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The classical paper published by Schottmüller in 1903 has shown beyond doubt that blood cultures are a crucial diagnostic procedure for the diagnosis of endocarditis. Positive blood cultures also make it possible to distinguish between bacteremia and endocarditis: in the latter condition the number of organisms per ml of blood is relatively constant and all blood cultures are usually positive. Gram positive cocci are still the commonest organisms found in classical endocarditis. Gram negative organisms, yeasts and fungi are cultured with increasing frequency in cases of endocarditis secondary to valve replacement. Sensitivity testing by the disc diffusion method determines the minimal inhibitory concentration of the antibiotic towards the isolated organism. However, minimal bactericidal concentrations are of much greater prognostic value in endocarditis and should be performed routinely on the isolated organism.

Waldvogel FA

1975-11-01

 
 
 
 
341

Infectious endocarditis in pediatric patients: analysis of 19 cases presenting at a medical center.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Infectious endocarditis (IE) is a rare, but potentially fatal disease in pediatric patients. In this study, we reviewed the symptoms and signs, etiology, laboratory findings and outcomes of IE patients over the past 10 years. METHODS: Patients (< 18 years old) with definite IE according to the modified Duke criteria, or patients with positive pathological findings, between September 1998 and September 2008 were included in the study. The etiology, symptoms and signs, laboratory findings and outcomes were collected via chart review. RESULTS: Nineteen cases (13 boys and 6 girls) ranging in age from 2.5 months to 18 years (mean = 7.98 years; median = 5 years) were included. Nine out of 17 cases (52.9%) had microscopic hematuria and two out of three (66.7%) cases showed elevated rheumatoid factor levels. Seventeen (89.5%) had fever and seven (36.8%) had major vessel embolic events. Blood cultures yielded Staphylococcus aureus in seven cases, and viridans Streptococci in two cases. The other three cases had Pneumococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Two patients died and one was discharged in a critical condition. Two of the seven (28.6%) patients with a positive blood culture for S. aureus died, three (42.9%) had an embolic event and one (14.3%) had central nervous system complications (intracranial hemorrhage). The initial C-reactive protein levels in the blood culture-positive group were significantly higher than those in the blood culture-negative group (p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: S. aureus is one of the most common etiologies in IE patients, while viridans Streptococcus accounts for fewer cases than suggested by previous studies. IE caused by S. aureus seems to carry a higher risk of mortality, and embolic events are associated with increased mortality.

Wei HH; Wu KG; Sy LB; Chen CJ; Tang RB

2010-10-01

342

Epidural abscess and Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis - a rare association.  

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Full Text Available Epidural abscess is a relatively uncommon disorder. Although the surgical management is the mainstay of treatment, there are case reports of it being managed conservatively in selected patients. We report a patient who presented with quadreparesis due to epidural abscess and had infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus septicemia. Both epidural abscess and infective endocarditis were managed conservatively with intravenous antibiotics given for four weeks, with complete recovery of patient.

Malhotra P; Jain S; Kumari S; Paramjeet; Varma S

2002-01-01

343

Phialemonium curvatum prosthetic valve endocarditis with an unusual echocardiographic presentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phialemonium species, an opportunistic fungal pathogen rarely causes invasive disease, have been described as opportunistic infection agents in humans, mainly as a result of immunosuppression and very rarely involves the heart. We present a case of a patient with Phialemonium curvatum prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis with an unusual initial transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) presentation, illustrating the important role of repeat TEE for the proper diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis.

Osherov A; Schwammenthal E; Kuperstein R; Strahilevitz J; Feinberg MS

2006-07-01

344

Phialemonium curvatum prosthetic valve endocarditis with an unusual echocardiographic presentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phialemonium species, an opportunistic fungal pathogen rarely causes invasive disease, have been described as opportunistic infection agents in humans, mainly as a result of immunosuppression and very rarely involves the heart. We present a case of a patient with Phialemonium curvatum prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis with an unusual initial transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) presentation, illustrating the important role of repeat TEE for the proper diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis. PMID:16839390

Osherov, Azriel; Schwammenthal, Ehud; Kuperstein, Raphael; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Feinberg, Micha S

2006-07-01

345

Self-reported knowledge and practice of American Heart Association 2007 guidelines for prevention of infective endocarditis: a survey among dentists in Hyperabad City, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the knowledge and practice of the American Heart Association (AHA) 2007 guidelines among dentists in Hyderabad city, India, for the prevention of infective endocarditis (IE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey questionnaire was mailed to the dentists to assess their knowledge with regard to the antibiotic prophylaxis needed for specific cardiac conditions and the prophylaxis reasonable before various dental procedures in high-risk patients and the first-line and second-line antibiotic regimen prescribed. RESULTS: Of the 190 registered dentists, 169 (88.94%) completed the questionnaire. The mean age of the population was 39.17 ± 8.23 years. The majority of the respondents correctly identified that having prosthetic cardiac valves, a previous history of IE illness and cardiac transplantation with subsequent cardiac valvulopathy are cardiac conditions requiring antibiotic prophylaxis. Prescription of first-line antibiotic drugs and second-line drug regimens corresponding to the current guidelines was correctly answered by only 56.21% dentists and 60.95% dentists, respectively. CONCLUSION: A relatively low level of knowledge of the new guidelines was reported among dentists, reflecting the need for more continuing dental education programmes.

Doshi D; Baldava P; Reddy S; Singh R

2011-01-01

346

Effect of a single bolus of methylene blue prophylaxis on vasopressor and transfusion requirement in infective endocarditis patients undergoing cardiac surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The accentuated nitric oxide (NO) release that is induced by the systemic inflammatory response associated with infective endocarditis (IE) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may result in catecholamine refractory hypotension (vasoplegia) and increased transfusion requirement due to platelet inhibition. Methylene blue (MB) is an inhibitory drug of inducible NO. We aimed to evaluate the effect of prophylactic MB administration before CPB on vasopressor and transfusion requirements in patients with IE undergoing valvular heart surgery (VHS). METHODS: Forty-two adult patients were randomly assigned to receive 2 mg/kg of MB (MB group, n = 21) or saline (control group, n = 21) for 20 min before the initiation of CPB. The primary end points were comparisons of vasopressor requirements serially assessed after weaning from CPB and hemodynamic parameters serially recorded before and after CPB. The secondary endpoint was the comparison of transfusion requirements. RESULTS: Two patients in the control group received MB after weaning from CPB due to norepinephrine and vasopressin refractory vasoplegia and were thus excluded. There were no significant differences in vasopressor requirements and hemodynamic parameters between the two groups. The mean number of units of packed erythrocytes transfused per transfused patient was significantly less in the MB group. The numbers of patients transfused with fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrates were less in the MB group. CONCLUSIONS: In IE patients undergoing VHS, prophylactic MB administration before CPB did not confer significant benefits in terms of vasopressor requirements and hemodynamic parameters, but it was associated with a significant reduction in transfusion requirement.

Cho JS; Song JW; Na S; Moon JH; Kwak YL

2012-08-01

347

Native valve Escherichia coli endocarditis following urosepsis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gram-negative organisms are a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Escherichia coli, the most common cause of urinary tract infection and gram-negative septicemia involves endocardium rarely. In this case report, we describe infection of native mitral valve by E. coli following septicemia of urinary tract origin in a diabetic male; subsequently, he required prosthetic tissue valve replacement indicated by persistent sepsis and congestive cardiac failure.

Rangarajan D; Ramakrishnan S; Patro KC; Devaraj S; Krishnamurthy V; Kothari Y; Satyaki N

2013-05-01

348

Achados clínico-laboratoriais de uma série de casos com endocardite infecciosa Clinical and laboratory findings in a series of cases of infective endocarditis  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os achados clínico-laboratoriais da endocardite infecciosa (EI) em 28 crianças, em Vitória/ES. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de 28 crianças, com idade abaixo de 18 anos e diagnóstico de endocardite infecciosa, internadas no serviço de infectologia do Hospital Infantil Nossa Senhora da Glória, em Vitória - Espírito Santo, no período de janeiro de 1993 a dezembro de 2001. Os critérios para diagnóstico de endocardite infecciosa foram os do Duke Endocarditis Service (Duke University, Durham, North Carolina - USA): critérios maiores (hemoculturas e ecocardiograma positivos) e critérios menores (febre, doença cardíaca prévia, sopro cardíaco recente, fenômenos vasculares e imunológicos). Através de protocolo específico, preenchido pelos médicos-residentes e acadêmicos do serviço de infectologia, e revisados pelos médicos da equipe, foram anotadas as idades, sexo, achados clínicos e laboratoriais, e os resultados da ecocardiografia transtorácica das 28 crianças que preenchiam os critérios clínicos e laboratoriais. Em todos os casos, as hemoculturas foram realizadas com coleta do sangue (três amostras), sob condições assépticas e com inoculação em meios aeróbicos e anaeróbicos, incubados a uma temperatura de 37ºC e testados com sistema automatizado Vitec System® (Biolab). RESULTADOS: Das 28 crianças, 16 eram do sexo masculino, com idade entre 3 e 180 meses (média 70,6±59,2 m), e a maioria (68%) era procedente da região metropolitana de Vitória. Metade apresentava cardiopatia prévia. Os achados clínicos mais freqüentes que levaram à suspeita de EI foram: febre prolongada (100%), sopro cardíaco (67,9%), dispnéia (57,1%), hepatomegalia (57,1%), fenômenos vasculares (32,2%), esplenomegalia (28,6%) e nódulos de Osler (7,1%). Foram colhidas hemoculturas dos 28 casos, sendo 16 (57,1%) positivas. O S. aureus adquirido na comunidade foi o germe mais freqüentemente isolado (9/16-56,6%). Houve persistência da febre, apesar do tratamento, duração da febre de 2,5 a 30 dias, mediana de 18,0 dias. O valor médio de leucócitos à internação foi de 11.657±7.085mm³. O ecocardiograma transtorácico, realizado em todos os pacientes, evidenciou vegetações, principalmente nas válvulas tricúspide (25,0%), mitral (25,0%) e na borda de CIV (28,6%). Treze (46,4%) crianças apresentaram sepse concomitante, e três (10,7%) infecção hospitalar. Houve um óbito (3,6%). CONCLUSÕES: A endocardite infecciosa em nosso meio é freqüente em crianças abaixo de dois anos de idade e com uma cardiopatia congênita. O S. aureus de origem comunitária foi o microorganismo isolado mais freqüentemente, e em crianças sem lesão cardíaca prévia. Endocardite infecciosa aguda, endocardite bacteriana, Staphylococcus aureus, ecocardiografia transtorácica.OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and laboratory data of infective endocarditis (IE) in 28 children from Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 28 children aged 18 years and under admitted to the Infectious Diseases Unit of Nossa Senhora da Glória Children's Hospital with a diagnosis of IE from January 1993 to December 2001. The diagnosis of IE was based on the criteria established by the Duke Endocarditis Service (Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA): positive blood cultures and echocardiogram (primary criteria); and fever, history of heart disease, recent heart murmur, and vascular and immunological phenomena (secondary criteria). A specific protocol was filled out by interns and medical students and revised by physicians from the hospital medical team to obtain the following data: age, sex, clinical and laboratory findings, and results of transthoracic echocardiography. In all cases, three blood samples were collected under aseptic conditions and inoculated in aerobic and anaerobic environments. The samples were then incubated at 37º C and tested with the VITEC SYSTEM® automatized system (BIOLAB). RESULTS: Among 28 p

Carla A.Z. Pereira; Scheila C.G.P. Rocio; Maria-Fátima R. Ceolin; Ana-Paula N.B. Lima; Felippe Borlot; Roberto S.T. Pereira; Sandra F. Moreira-Silva

2003-01-01

349

Streptococcus sinensis endocarditis outside Hong Kong.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus sinensis has been described as a causative organism for infective endocarditis in 3 Chinese patients from Hong Kong. We describe a closely related strain in an Italian patient with chronic rheumatic heart disease. The case illustrates that S. sinensis is a worldwide emerging pathogen. PMID:17953105

Uçkay, Ilker; Rohner, Peter; Bolivar, Ignacio; Ninet, Béatrice; Djordjevic, Marina; Nobre, Vandack; Garzoni, Christian; Schrenzel, Jacques

2007-08-01

350

Spondylodiscitis and endocarditis caused by S. vestibularis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Streptococcus vestibularis is a recently described member of the viridans group that was first isolated from the vestibular mucosa of the human oral cavity and described as a new species in 1988. It has been rarely associated with human infections. In few papers, it has been reported as a causal agent of systemic infection in immunosupressed adults and in those with other severe underlying diseases, like coronary valve diseases. A 65-year-old woman was admitted to the hos (more) pital with complaints of fever for three months, general malaise, effort dyspnea, weight loss, back pain and myalgia. Both native aortic valve endocarditis and spondylodiscitis due to Streptococcus vestibularis were detected. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous potassium penicillin G and gentamicin for six weeks, followed by oral amoxicillin for three months, in addition to aortic valve replacement. In all patients with spondylodiscitis, infective endocarditis should be considered, particularly in patients with heart valve disease history, since spondylodiscitis may be the presenting sign of an infective endocarditis. Cardiac valve replacement surgery should be performed if the course of fever and inflammatory syndrome is unfavorable after appropriate antibiotic treatment. We report the first case with both native aortic valve endocarditis and spondylodiscitis due to Streptococcus vestibularis.

Tufan, Muge Aydin; Hamide, Kart-Koseoglu; Duygu, Ersozlu-Bozkirli; Ozlem, Azap; Kadir, Tufan; Eftal, Yucel Ahmet

2010-08-01

351

Subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient with Abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia accounts for 5% of all cases of infective endocarditis (Roberts et al, Rev Infect Dis. 1979;1:955-66) and 5% to 6% of all cases of streptococcal endocarditis (Bouvet, Eur Heart J. 1995;16(suppl B):24-7; Brouqui et al, Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001;14:177-207). This endocarditis is associated with a high rate of embolization and treatment failure (Bouvet, Eur Heart J. 1995;16(suppl B):24-7). Neurological complications occur in 20% to 40% of all cases of infective endocarditis (Ossorio et al, Hosp Physician. 2003;39:21-4). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a rare but devastating neurological complication. The authors presented a case of massive fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient with Abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis. To our knowledge, there are only 2 reported cases of mycotic aneurysms in Abiotrophia endocarditis, 1 of which was associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (Leonard et al, N Engl J Med. 2001;344:233-4; Yang et al, Am J Med Sci. 2010;339:190-1).

Kohok DD; Parashar A; Punnam V; Tandar A

2011-02-01

352

Antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing radiological procedures who are at risk of infective endocarditis--do radiologists know what they are doing?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy has published guidelines recommending that all patients with prosthetic heart valves, or those with a previous history of bacterial endocarditis, should receive prophylactic antibiotics before procedures likely to cause a bacteraemia, due to the potential risk of bacterial endocarditis. The guidelines are widely available, notably in the British National Formulary. Two separate and independent surveys of radiologists in this Region showed that there was poor awareness of these guidelines and their implications for radiology departments.

Chakraverty S; Baker EM; D'Souza R; Hide IG; Chippindale AJ

1996-01-01

353

Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis and prosthetic valve endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study of twenty-five cases of prosthetic valve endocarditis suggests that the antibiotics used for perioperative prophylaxis may alter the type and antibiotic sensitivity of organisms which subsequently infect the artificial valves. Based on the results of this study, the authors have been able to modify their prophylactic regime to encompass these organisms and to predict the antibiotics most likely to be effective in the treatment of prosthetic valve endocarditis in their unit. No single prophylactic or therapeutic regime will be equally effective in all centres, but by examining the different types and sensitivities of bacteria which cause prosthetic valve endocarditis in a locality, antibiotic regimes can be chosen which best suit the local situation.

Ward C; Jephcott AE; Hardisty CA

1977-07-01

354

Successful management of multiple permanent pacemaker complications--infection, 13 year old silent lead perforation and exteriorisation following failed percutaneous extraction, superior vena cava obstruction, tricuspid valve endocarditis, pulmonary embolism and prosthetic tricuspid valve thrombosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 59 year old man underwent mechanical tricuspid valve replacement and removal of pacemaker generator along with 4 pacemaker leads for pacemaker endocarditis and superior vena cava obstruction after an earlier percutaneous extraction had to be abandoned, 13 years ago, due to cardiac arrest, accompanied by silent, unsuspected right atrial perforation and exteriorisation of lead. Postoperative course was complicated by tricuspid valve thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism requiring TPA thrombolysis which was instantly successful. A review of literature of pacemaker endocarditis and tricuspid thrombosis along with the relevant management strategies is presented. We believe this case report is unusual on account of non operative management of right atrial lead perforation following an unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous removal of right sided infected pacemaker leads and the incidental discovery of the perforated lead 13 years later at sternotomy, presentation of pacemaker endocarditis with a massive load of vegetations along the entire pacemaker lead tract in superior vena cava, right atrial endocardium, tricuspid valve and right ventricular endocardium, leading to a functional and structural SVC obstruction, requirement of an unusually large dose of warfarin postoperatively occasioned, in all probability, by antibiotic drug interactions, presentation of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis uniquely as vasovagal syncope and isolated hypoxia and near instantaneous resolution of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis with Alteplase thrombolysis.

Kaul P; Adluri K; Javangula K; Baig W

2009-01-01

355

Successful management of multiple permanent pacemaker complications - infection, 13 year old silent lead perforation and exteriorisation following failed percutaneous extraction, superior vena cava obstruction, tricuspid valve endocarditis, pulmonary embolism and prosthetic tricuspid valve thrombosis  

Science.gov (United States)

A 59 year old man underwent mechanical tricuspid valve replacement and removal of pacemaker generator along with 4 pacemaker leads for pacemaker endocarditis and superior vena cava obstruction after an earlier percutaneous extraction had to be abandoned, 13 years ago, due to cardiac arrest, accompanied by silent, unsuspected right atrial perforation and exteriorisation of lead. Postoperative course was complicated by tricuspid valve thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism requiring TPA thrombolysis which was instantly successful. A review of literature of pacemaker endocarditis and tricuspid thrombosis along with the relevant management strategies is presented. We believe this case report is unusual on account of non operative management of right atrial lead perforation following an unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous removal of right sided infected pacemaker leads and the incidental discovery of the perforated lead 13 years later at sternotomy, presentation of pacemaker endocarditis with a massive load of vegetations along the entire pacemaker lead tract in superior vena cava, right atrial endocardium, tricuspid valve and right ventricular endocardium, leading to a functional and structural SVC obstruction, requirement of an unusually large dose of warfarin postoperatively occasioned, in all probability, by antibiotic drug interactions, presentation of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis uniquely as vasovagal syncope and isolated hypoxia and near instantaneous resolution of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis with Alteplase thrombolysis.

Kaul, Pankaj; Adluri, Krishna; Javangula, Kalyana; Baig, Wasir

2009-01-01

356

Successful management of multiple permanent pacemaker complications – infection, 13 year old silent lead perforation and exteriorisation following failed percutaneous extraction, superior vena cava obstruction, tricuspid valve endocarditis, pulmonary embolism and prosthetic tricuspid valve thrombosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract A 59 year old man underwent mechanical tricuspid valve replacement and removal of pacemaker generator along with 4 pacemaker leads for pacemaker endocarditis and superior vena cava obstruction after an earlier percutaneous extraction had to be abandoned, 13 years ago, due to cardiac arrest, accompanied by silent, unsuspected right atrial perforation and exteriorisation of lead. Postoperative course was complicated by tricuspid valve thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism requiring TPA thrombolysis which was instantly successful. A review of literature of pacemaker endocarditis and tricuspid thrombosis along with the relevant management strategies is presented. We believe this case report is unusual on account of non operative management of right atrial lead perforation following an unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous removal of right sided infected pacemaker leads and the incidental discovery of the perforated lead 13 years later at sternotomy, presentation of pacemaker endocarditis with a massive load of vegetations along the entire pacemaker lead tract in superior vena cava, right atrial endocardium, tricuspid valve and right ventricular endocardium, leading to a functional and structural SVC obstruction, requirement of an unusually large dose of warfarin postoperatively occasioned, in all probability, by antibiotic drug interactions, presentation of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis uniquely as vasovagal syncope and isolated hypoxia and near instantaneous resolution of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis with Alteplase thrombolysis.

Kaul Pankaj; Adluri Krishna; Javangula Kalyana; Baig Wasir

2009-01-01

357

Streptococcus endocarditis after tongue piercing.  

Science.gov (United States)

While body piercing has been practiced for many centuries, the popularity of this body art has increased vastly in recent years. It is estimated that up to 51% of college-age individuals in the United States have ear piercing or other forms of piercing or tattoo. Although perceived as a relatively safe practice, medical complications, mostly resulting from bleeding and infections, occur in 17% of all cases after piercing. The case is reported of a patient with native mitral valve endocarditis after tongue piercing, resulting in acute mitral valve insufficiency that required valve replacement. PMID:17578056

Kloppenburg, Geoffrey; Maessen, Jos G

2007-05-01

358

Streptococcus endocarditis after tongue piercing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While body piercing has been practiced for many centuries, the popularity of this body art has increased vastly in recent years. It is estimated that up to 51% of college-age individuals in the United States have ear piercing or other forms of piercing or tattoo. Although perceived as a relatively safe practice, medical complications, mostly resulting from bleeding and infections, occur in 17% of all cases after piercing. The case is reported of a patient with native mitral valve endocarditis after tongue piercing, resulting in acute mitral valve insufficiency that required valve replacement.

Kloppenburg G; Maessen JG

2007-05-01

359

Fusobacterium necrophorum causing infective endocarditis and liver and splenic abscesses Fusobacterium necrophorum causando endocardite infecciosa e abscesso hepático e esplênico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 25-year-old male without prior co-morbidities was admitted to hospital with Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteremia, where he was found to have liver and splenic abscesses. Further evaluation with echocardiography revealed a bicuspid aortic valve with severe insufficiency and a 1.68 x 0.86 cm vegetation. The patient required abscess drainage, intravenous antimicrobial therapy and aortic valve replacement. Complete resolution of the infection was achieved after valve replacement and a prolonged course of intravenous antimicrobial therapy. A brief analysis of the patient's clinical course and review of the literature is presented.Homem de 25 anos de idade, sem antecedentes mórbidos foi admitido ao hospital com bacteremia por Fusobacterium necrophorum e abscessos no fígado e no baço. Avaliação posterior com ecografia revelou válvula aórtica bicúspide com insuficiência severa e vegetação de 1,68 x 0,86 cm. Foi feita drenagem dos abscessos, terapia antimicrobiana intravenosa e substituição da válvula aórtica. Resolução completa da infecção foi conseguida após substituição valvular e curso prolongado de terapêutica intravenosa antimicrobiana. É apresentada breve análise do curso clínico do paciente e revisão da literatura.

Marc Zac Handler; Benjamin Miriovsky; Howard E. Gendelman; Uriel Sandkovsky

2011-01-01

360

Fusobacterium necrophorum causing infective endocarditis and liver and splenic abscesses/ Fusobacterium necrophorum causando endocardite infecciosa e abscesso hepático e esplênico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Homem de 25 anos de idade, sem antecedentes mórbidos foi admitido ao hospital com bacteremia por Fusobacterium necrophorum e abscessos no fígado e no baço. Avaliação posterior com ecografia revelou válvula aórtica bicúspide com insuficiência severa e vegetação de 1,68 x 0,86 cm. Foi feita drenagem dos abscessos, terapia antimicrobiana intravenosa e substituição da válvula aórtica. Resolução completa da infecção foi conseguida após substituição valvul (more) ar e curso prolongado de terapêutica intravenosa antimicrobiana. É apresentada breve análise do curso clínico do paciente e revisão da literatura. Abstract in english A 25-year-old male without prior co-morbidities was admitted to hospital with Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteremia, where he was found to have liver and splenic abscesses. Further evaluation with echocardiography revealed a bicuspid aortic valve with severe insufficiency and a 1.68 x 0.86 cm vegetation. The patient required abscess drainage, intravenous antimicrobial therapy and aortic valve replacement. Complete resolution of the infection was achieved after valve replac (more) ement and a prolonged course of intravenous antimicrobial therapy. A brief analysis of the patient's clinical course and review of the literature is presented.

Handler, Marc Zac; Miriovsky, Benjamin; Gendelman, Howard E.; Sandkovsky, Uriel

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

A case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Streptococcus constellatus as a rare agent of endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis, which was caused by a rare etiological agent, Streptococcus constellatus. In our case, transesophageal echocardiography showed a large and broad abscess formation throughout the patient's aortic prosthetic valve ring and left atrium. Despite specific intravenous antibiotic therapy, the infection was uncontrollable, and the patient underwent surgical treatment. The pathogen rarely causes endocarditis, but it is known to have a strong potential to form abscess, and therefore its infection may be more serious than other Streptococcus species. Our case seems to be the first report of surgical treatment of PVE caused by S. constellatus. As in our case, transesophageal echocardiography is useful for the detection of vegetation and abscess, and early cardiac surgery may be a more appropriate therapeutic approach for endocarditis caused by S. constellatus. PMID:23831301

Ko, Toshiyuki; Mahara, Keitaro; Ota, Mitsuhiko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Tobaru, Tetsuya; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Kikuchi, Ken; Umemura, Jun; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Tomoike, Hitonobu

2013-07-05

362

Marantic endocarditis and adenocarcinoma of unknown primary site.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is a disease characterized by deposition of thrombi and fibrin on normal or degenerated cardiac valves in the absence of microorganisms. This condition is more commonly seen in chronic inflammatory states, and is associated with higher incidence of thromboembolic events than infective endocarditis. We report the case of a 63-year old male patient with adenocarcinoma of unknown primary site and systemic embolism. PMID:21552651

Schlittler, Luis Alberto; Dallagasperina, Viviane Weiller; Schavinski, Claudia; Baggio, Ana Paula; Lazaretti, Nícolas Silva; Villaroel, Rodrigo Ughini

2011-04-01

363

Relapsing endocarditis caused by Enterococcus faecalis forming small colony variants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Small colony variants (SCVs) are subpopulations of a bacterial strain that differ in morphology, growth rate, metabolism, and antibiotic sensitivity from the parent line. They are associated with chronic and difficult-to-treat infections. SCV endocarditis is very rare and usually associated with intracardiac devices. Herein, we report a case of endocarditis caused by SCV-forming Enterococcus faecalis that affected the native heart without any known predisposition.

Benes J; Dzupova O; Setina M; Feuereisl R; Svec P; Pantucek R

2013-10-01

364

Endocarditis Caused by Candida dubliniensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

: Endocarditis caused by Candida dubliniensis is a rare event and limited to few case reports. In this report, the authors present a patient with a history of intravenous drug use and hepatitis C and endocarditis involving a prosthetic aortic valve. Also reviewed are the treatment guidelines for Candida sp. endocarditis.

Garcia J; Soch K; Matthew E; Surani S; Horseman MA

2013-09-01

365

[Endocarditis caused by Propionibacterium acnes -- a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

HISTORY AND ADMISSION FINDINGS: A 77-year-old man suffered from recurrent peripheral cerebral embolisms five months after aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis (SJM Epic 25 mm). INVESTIGATIONS: MRT scanning of the brain revealed multiple ischemic areas in different vascular territories. Clinical signs of infective endocarditis were missing and markers of infection were only modestly increased. However, transthoracic echocardiography showed elevated pressure gradients across the bioprosthesis. Transesophageal echocardiography detected multiple vegetations suggestive of infective endocarditis. Several anaerobic blood cultures grew Propionibacterium acnes. DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND COURSE: Infective endocarditis affecting the aortic bioprosthesis and aortic root abscess due to Propionibacterium acnes was diagnosed. During parenteral antibiotic treatment with Amicillin/Sulbactam and Gentamicin full remission developed. Four months later a follow-up transesophageal echocardiography showed a relapse. This time the patient was treated intravenously with penicillin and gentamicin and underwent surgical treatment. CONCLUSION: Cardioembolic events should raise suspicion of infective endocarditis, even if typical clinical signs are absent. Propionibacterium acnes is often grown from blood cultures as a contaminant. Nonetheless, Propionibacterium acnes was the cause of the infective endocarditis. In case of conservative management, close intervals of follow-up transesphageal echocardiography are of importance.

Drosch T; Egle M; Zabel L

2013-03-01

366

Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy of endocarditis vegetation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this work were to compare the infrared spectra of bacterial endocarditis vegetation with those of native valvular tissue and the infrared spectra of vegetation bacterial masses with those of surrounding vegetation tissue. Streptococcal aortic endocarditis was induced in three rabbits. Vegetation slices were cryo-sectioned for study by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy. Valvular apparatus, vegetation, and bacterial masses within the vegetation were localized on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained contiguous slices. Infrared images of whole vegetations and images of bacterial masses were acquired with apertures set to 80 x 80 and 20 x 20 microm, respectively. Valvular apparatus and vegetation showed different infrared spectra, mainly in the amide I and amide II bands (1674-1518 cm(-1)), and at about 1450, 1400, 1340, 1280, 1240, 1200, 1080, and 1030 cm(-1). Valvular collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans may explain these differences. Bacterial masses and surrounding vegetation showed different infrared patterns, mainly in the amide I and amide II bands and in the 1142-991 cm(-1) carbohydrate spectral range. Bacterial nucleic acids and polysaccharides may partly explain these differences. Study of experimental endocarditis vegetation using FT-IR microspectroscopy distinguishes (1) the vegetation from the valvular tissue, and (2) the bacterial masses from the surrounding tissue. This study demonstrates for the first time that FT-IR microspectroscopy is able to detect bacterial growth in infected tissue. FT-IR microspectroscopy appears to be a useful tool for investigation of the biochemical structure of endocarditis vegetation.

Batard E; Jamme F; Boutoille D; Jacqueline C; Caillon J; Potel G; Dumas P

2010-08-01

367

A case of Kingella kingae endocarditis complicated by native mitral valve rupture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a case of Kingella kingae endocarditis in a patient with a history of recent respiratory tract infection and dental extraction. This case is remarkable for embolic and vasculitic phenomena in association with a large valve vegetation and valve perforation. Kingella kingae is an organism known to cause endocarditis, however early major complications are uncommon. Our case of Kingella endocarditis behaved in a virulent fashion necessitating a combined approach of intravenous antibiotic therapy and a valve replacement. It highlights the importance of expedited investigation for endocarditis in patients with Kingella bacteraemia.