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Sample records for infective endocarditis analysis

  1. Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... article/001098.htm Endocarditis American Heart Association www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/ TheImpactofCongenitalHeartDefects/Infective-Endocarditis_UCM_307108_Article.jsp Infective Endocarditis

  2. Orthodontics and infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, M; Martin, M V

    1999-12-01

    Infective endocarditis associated with orthodontics is a rare occurrence. Unfortunately, many orthodontic practitioners do not treat patients potentially at risk of developing endocarditis due to the lack of practical guidelines and fear of precipitating the infection. Additionally, many patients that undergo orthodontic treatment are inappropriately prescribed antibiotic cover for procedures that have a minimal bacteraemic risk. In this paper the literature linking orthodontic treatment and infective endocarditis is examined. Recommendations are made for the appropriate management of patients at risk of infective endocarditis for orthodontic procedures. Refereed Paper PMID:10592157

  3. Bacterial Zoonoses and Infective Endocarditis, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Benslimani, Akila; Fenollar, Florence; Lepidi, Hubert; Raoult, Didier

    2005-01-01

    Blood culture–negative endocarditis is common in Algeria. We describe the etiology of infective endocarditis in this country. Samples from 110 cases in 108 patients were collected in Algiers. Blood cultures were performed in Algeria. Serologic and molecular analysis of valves was performed in France. Infective endocarditis was classified as definite in 77 cases and possible in 33. Causative agents were detected by blood cultures in 48 cases. All 62 blood culture–negative endocarditis case...

  4. Endocarditis infecciosa. Análisis retrospectivo de tres años (1995-1997. Infective endocarditis: a 3-year retrospective analysis (1995-97

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    Juana María Zulueta Fuentes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fueron analizadas retrospectivamente las historias clínicas de 24 pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa en el período comprendido entre enero de 1995 y diciembre de 1997, con el objetivo de conocer las características de este grupo. La mitad de los pacientes tenían implantados marcapasos permanentes y la tercera parte eran portadores de cardiopatías valvulares primitivas. La puerta de entrada se identificó en el 45,8 % de los pacientes y en casi las dos terceras partes de ellos fue la sepsis del bolsillo del marcapasos el inicio de la infección. Los microorganismos causales se determinaron en el 79,2 % y los gérmenes más frecuentes fueron el estafilococo coagulasa positivo, el estafilococo coagulasa negativo y el estreptococo viridans. La forma de resolución fue quirúrgica en 14 enfermos y médica en 2. Fallecieron 8 pacientes como consecuencia de complicaciones cardíacas y sépticas. Concluimos que debe realizarse una rigurosa profilaxis antibiótica a los pacientes con prótesis valvular cardíaca o con marcapasos permanentes ante cualquier instrumentación quirúrgica por el alto riesgo de que se presente la endocarditis infecciosa. A retrospective analysis of the medical histories of 24 patients suffering from infective endocarditis from January 1995 to December 1997 was made, with a view to finding out the characteristics of this group of patients. Half of the patients had permanent pacemakers and one third were carriers of native valve cardiopathies. Access route for the disease was detected in 45.8 % of them whereas pacemaker pocket sepsis was the origin of the infection in almost two-thirds of them. Microorganisms causing the sepsis were determined in 79.2 % of cases and the most commom were positive staphylococcus coagulase, negative staphylococcus coagulase and streptococcus viridans. 14 patients were treated with surgical therapy and 2 with medical treatment. Eight patients died from heart septic complications. We concluded that a strict antibiotic prophylaxis should be followed in patients having heart valve protheses or permanent pacemakers in the face of any surgical intervention because of the risks posed by infective endocarditis.

  5. What Is Infective Endocarditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for IE include: • artificial (prosthetic) heart valves or heart valves repaired with artificial material • a history of endocarditis • some kinds of congenital heart defects • abnormality of the heart valves after a ...

  6. Controversias en endocarditis infecciosas / Controversies in infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R. de la, Fuente Cid; R., López Rodríguez; M. J., Ferreiro Regueiro; F.L., Lado Lado.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa se define como la infección de la superficie interna del corazón que afecta principalmente a las válvulas cardíacas aunque también lo puede hacer a los septos, las cuerdas tendinosas o el endocardio mural. Se ha producido una gran controversia entorno a la etiología, diagn [...] óstico y tratamiento de la enfermedad. En este sentido, existen criterios básicos que definen a la endocarditis infecciosa; sin embargo aparecen situaciones particulares en las que resulta imprescindible un estudio minucioso, haciendo especial referencia a los agentes etiológicos y más concretamente a la endocarditis fúngica. Abstract in english The infective endocarditis is defined mainly as the infection of the internal surface of the heart, affecting to the cardiac valves although it can also do it to the septos, the tendinosas cords or endocardio mural. Around the origin, the diagnosis and the treatment of the disease, a considerable co [...] ntroversy has taken place. In this sense, basic criteria exist that they define to the infective endocarditis; however, particular situations are appraised in which the meticulous study is essential from the patient, doing special reference to the origin agents and, more in particular, to the fungal endocarditis.

  7. Endocarditis infecciosa: Una enfermedad cambiante / Infective endocarditis: A changing disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Horacio, Casabé.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances en el diagnóstico y en el tratamiento antibiótico y quirúrgico, la endocarditis infecciosa sigue siendo una enfermedad con una mortalidad elevada. Los estudios llevados a cabo en nuestro país y en otros países demostraron que el perfil clínico del paciente ha cambiado. Existe [...] mayor prevalencia de pacientes añosos con enfermedad degenerativa valvular, las endocarditis protésicas y nosocomiales son más frecuentes y aumentó la presencia del Staphylococcus aureus. Estos cambios podrían justificar la ausencia de disminución en la mortalidad de esta enfermedad y plantean la necesidad de encarar enfoques más agresivos de tratamiento mediante la confección de estudios prospectivos bien diseñados y controlados. Abstract in english In spite of the advance in diagnosis and antibiotic and surgical treatment, mortality of infective endocarditis remains high. Recent studies in various countries and in Argentina have shown that the clinical profile of infective endocarditis has changed. Currently the patients are older with higher [...] frequency of degenerative valve disease and prosthetic valve and nosocomial endocarditis. The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus as etiological agent has increased. These changes may justify the absence of decrease in mortality and suggests that more aggressive measures are needed based on prospective, well designed and controlled trials.

  8. Antibiotic Therapy for Infective Endocarditis in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Calza, Leonardo; Manfredi, Roberto; Chiodo, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is relatively uncommon in childhood, but its epidemiology has changed in the past three to four decades and its incidence has been increasing in recent years. With the improved survival rates of children with congenital heart diseases and the overall decreased frequency of rheumatic valvular heart disease in developed countries, congenital cardiac abnormalities now represent the predominant underlying condition for infective endocarditis in children over the age of two ...

  9. Tratamiento quirúrgico de la endocarditis infecciosa / Surgical treatment of infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milvio, Ramírez López; Fidel Manuel, Cáceres Lóriga; Horacio, Pérez López.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La cirugía constituye un ataque vigoroso a la incompetencia valvular que ocasiona las graves complicaciones hemodinámicas que se observan en la endocarditis infecciosa. Se presenta una breve revisión de las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas que se emplean para el tratamiento de la endocarditis infecci [...] osa de la válvula mitral nativa, utilización de homoinjertos mitrales, tratamiento quirúrgico de la endocarditis infecciosa de la válvula aórtica y de la endocarditis infecciosa de prótesis valvular aórtica, homoinjertos criopreservados, prótesis sin soporte valvular y otros tipos de prótesis, así como de otras técnicas que se pueden emplear en caso de no contar con homoinjertos. Se revisan las técnicas que se utilizan en la endocarditis infecciosa de la válvula tricúspide y la conducta quirúrgica en la endocarditis por cables de marcapasos o desfibriladores automáticos implantables. Abstract in english Surgery is a strong attack to valvular incompetence causing the severe hemodynamic complications seen in infective endocarditis. This is a brief review of the different surgical techniques used in the treatment of infective endocarditis of native mitral valve, utilization of mitral homografts, surgi [...] cal treatment of the infective endocarditis of the aortic valve and the infective endocarditis of the aortic valvular prosthesis, cryopreservation of the homografts, prosthesis without valvular support and other types of prostheses, as well as of other techniques that could be used if the homografts are not available. Techniques used in the infective endocarditis of tricuspid valve are reviewed and the surgical behavior in the endocarditis provoked by the pacemakers cables or implanted automated defibrillators.

  10. Hairy Cell Leukemia Masquerading as Infective Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasamy, Chandramohan; Dubashi, Biswajit; Rekha, J. Sree; Basu, Debdatta; Jain, Ankit; Dutta, Tarun Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder affecting middle-aged adults, with the median age of 50–55 years. We report a case of hairy cell leukemia who presented with fever, splinter haemorrhages and moderate splenomegaly, simulating infective endocarditis. There was bicytopenia at presentation and hairy cells were seen in the peripheral blood.

  11. Complete genome and comparative analysis of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, an emerging pathogen of infective endocarditis

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    Dreier Jens

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an important causative agent of infectious endocarditis, while the pathogenicity of this species is widely unclear. To gain insight into the pathomechanisms and the underlying genetic elements for lateral gene transfer, we sequenced the entire genome of this pathogen. Results We sequenced the whole genome of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain ATCC BAA-2069, consisting of a 2,356,444 bp circular DNA molecule with a G+C-content of 37.65% and a novel 20,765 bp plasmid designated as pSGG1. Bioinformatic analysis predicted 2,309 ORFs and the presence of 80 tRNAs and 21 rRNAs in the chromosome. Furthermore, 21 ORFs were detected on the plasmid pSGG1, including tetracycline resistance genes telL and tet(O/W/32/O. Screening of 41 S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates revealed one plasmid (pSGG2 homologous to pSGG1. We further predicted 21 surface proteins containing the cell wall-sorting motif LPxTG, which were shown to play a functional role in the adhesion of bacteria to host cells. In addition, we performed a whole genome comparison to the recently sequenced S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain UCN34, revealing significant differences. Conclusions The analysis of the whole genome sequence of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus promotes understanding of genetic factors concerning the pathogenesis and adhesion to ECM of this pathogen. For the first time we detected the presence of the mobilizable pSGG1 plasmid, which may play a functional role in lateral gene transfer and promote a selective advantage due to a tetracycline resistance.

  12. Endocarditis infecciosa activa: 152 casos / Active infective endocarditis: 152 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucía R., Kazelian; Luis A., Vidal; Roberto, Neme; Juan A., Gagliardi.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa es una enfermedad de baja incidencia que en las últimas décadas mostró modificaciones respecto de su presentación, posibilidad diagnóstica y tratamiento. A pesar de estos avances, la mortalidad hospitalaria sigue siendo muy elevada. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las caract [...] erísticas de los pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa activa y su relación con la mortalidad hospitalaria a lo largo de 16 años. Se realizó un registro prospectivo entre 1994 y 2010 de pacientes ingresados con endocarditis. Se analizaron características clínicas, evolución y tratamiento y se registraron los eventos intrahospitalarios. Ingresaron 152 pacientes, 64.5% varones, edad 45 ± 16 años, las causas más frecuentes de cardiopatía de base fueron: congénita 32 (21%) y reumática 20 (13.2%). Los motivos de internación fueron síndrome febril 116 (76.3%) e insuficiencia cardíaca 61 (40.1%). Se identificó el agente infeccioso en 106 (69.7%) de los casos, el más frecuente fue Streptococcus viridans. El ecocardiograma mostró vegetaciones en 123 (80.9%) de los pacientes y 88 (57.8%) presentaron complicaciones durante su internación, siendo la más frecuente la insuficiencia cardíaca. Se indicó tratamiento quirúrgico en 96 (63.1%) de los casos, fundamentalmente por insuficiencia cardíaca en 66. La mortalidad hospitalaria global fue 46 (30.2%). El desarrollo de complicaciones en la internación, la indicación de cirugía y la presencia de insuficiencia cardíaca refractaria al tratamiento fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad hospitalaria, mientras que la presencia de vegetaciones resultó un predictor independiente de mejor supervivencia. La identificación temprana de estos predictores descriptos podría ayudar a mejorar los resultados. Abstract in english Active infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of low incidence that has showed changes in presentation, diagnosis and treatment options during the past decades. Despite these advances, mortality remains very high. Our goal was to analyze the characteristics of patients with active IE and their rel [...] ationship with in-hospital mortality over 16 years. Between 1994 and 2010 we performed a prospective registry of 152 consecutive patients (64.5% male, age 45 ± 16 years) admitted with IE. Clinical characteristics, treatment and inpatient outcomes were analyzed. The most common causes of underlying heart disease were: congenital (21%) and rheumatic fever (13.2%). The reasons for hospitalization were fever (76.3%) and heart failure (40.1%). The infectious agent was identified in 69.7% of cases, and the most frequent was Streptococcus viridans. The echocardiogram showed vegetations in 80.9% of patients and 57.8% of them presented complications (the most frequent was heart failure) during hospitalization. Surgical treatment was indicated in 63.2% of cases, mainly due to heart failure. The overall hospital mortality was 30.2%. The presence of complications, requirement of surgical treatment and refractory heart failure were independent predictors of mortality whereas the single presence of vegetation showed better survival rate. The identification of these predictors could help to improve the outcomes in IE.

  13. Infective endocarditis and the pacemaker: cardiac implantable electronic device infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, K L

    2012-12-01

    We are seeing more implantation of cardiac device such as pacemakers and defibrillators and also cardiac implantable electronic device infection. The infection may affect just the pocket site or progress to deeper infection and bacteraemia. Inadequately treated infection may lead to right sided endocarditis, cardiotomy for pacemaker explantation and increased cost and length of stay in the hospital. We report a Staphylococcal infection of a pacemaker system, its successful medical and surgical management. PMID:23770958

  14. Endocarditis infecciosa en el anciano / Infective endocarditis in the elderly

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. M., Cruz; R., Martínez; M., García; J. M., Zarzalejos; F. de la, Peña.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La influencia de la edad sobre la presentación clínica y el pronóstico de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es desconocida. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y bacteriológicas de la EI en pacientes ancianos y compararlas con las de adultos m [...] ás jóvenes. Pacientes y método: Estudio retrospectivo de todos los casos de EI en pacientes no usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral diagnosticados en nuestro hospital durante el periodo de 1990 a 2000. Se utilizaron los criterios de Duke para comparar las características de 46 episodios de EI definitiva en pacientes ancianos (>65 años) y de 46 episodios en adultos jóvenes (20-64 años). Resultados: No encontramos diferencias significativas entre los dos grupos con respecto al retraso en el diagnóstico, a la posible fuente de infección, frecuencia de hemocultívos positivos y tipo de microorganismos, presentación clínica y evolución de la EI. Los ancianos tienen más a menudo un factor de riesgo predisponente (lesiones valvulares degenerativas, válvulas protésicas y marcapasos), que disminuye la sensibilidad de la ecocardiografía transtorácica hasta el 46,5% comparada con el 64,4% en los enfermos más jóvenes. La ecocardiografía transesofágica incrementó el diagnóstico de EI en un 37,2% en los ancianos. Los pacientes de ambos grupos fueron operados con igual frecuencia (el 36,9% de ancianos y el 39,1% de los adultos jóvenes), y la tasa de mortalidad no fue significativamente mayor en los ancianos (19,5%) que en los pacientes adultos jóvenes (10,8%). Conclusiones: La edad en si misma no es un factor de peor pronóstico, y no debería utilizarse como criterio fundamental para denegar un tratamiento temprano y agresivo a los pacientes con EI. Abstract in english Background: The influence of age on the clinical presentation and on the prognosis of infective endocarditis (IE) is unclear. Our aim was to analyse the epidemiologic, clinical and bacteriological characteristics of IE in the elderly compared with younger adult patients. Patients and method: A retro [...] spective study of all patients with IE non intravenous drug users diagnosed in our hospital during the period from 1990 to 2000. We used the Duke criteria to compare the characteristics of 46 episodes of definitive IE in elderly patients ( >65 years old ) and of 46 episodes in younger adult patients ( 20-64 years of age ). Results: No significant differences were observed among the two groups with respect to the delay in diagnosed, possible source of infection, the frecuency of positive blood cultures and the type of infective organism, clinical presentation and evolution of the IE. Elderly patients more often had risk factors predisposing ( degenerative valvular disease, prosthetic valve and pacemaker ), which decreased the sensitivity of transtoracic echocardiography to 46.5% compared with 64.4% in the younger patients. Transesophageal echocardiography improved the diagnostic of IE in the 37.2% in elderly patients. The patients in the both groups underwent surgical therapy with similar frecuency (36.9% in the elderly and the 39.1% in the younger adult patient ) and the mortality rate not was significantly higher in the elderly (19.5%) than in the younger adult patients (10.8%). Conclusions: The age itself is not a poor prognostic, and should not be used prejudicially in denying a early and aggressive treatment of the patients with IE.

  15. Bacterial calcification in infective endocarditis.

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    Poller, D N; Curry, A; Ganguli, L. A.; Routledge, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    The present report is the first description to our knowledge of a clinical case of bacterial calcification in human infective endocarditic vegetations. Partial calcification of bacteria within vegetations may be a further mechanism of bacterial protection from host defences and antibiotics. Similar calcification has recently been reported in vegetations formed on porcine valvular prostheses implanted experimentally in sheep.

  16. A severe infective endocarditis successfully treated with linezolid

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    Graziano Antonio Minafra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in surgical and medical therapy, prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and is often associated with a severe prognosis. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman, with  PVE and bacterial endocarditis (Streptococcus bovis successfully treated with linezolid. Linezolid is a bacteriostatic oxazolidinone antibiotic that has been proven to be effective for the treatment of patients with pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections, and infections due to Gram-positive cocci. Linezolid is not yet recognised as a standard therapy for infective endocarditis, but its use becomes a necessity when infection is due to multidrug-resistant microorganisms.

  17. Candida endocarditis. A treatable form of pacemaker infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H A; Downes, T R; Julian, J S; White, W L; Haponik, E F

    1993-01-01

    Fungal endocarditis is a rare complication of permanent pacemaker implantation. In all reports we have identified, this infection has been fatal, diagnosed postmortem. We present a patient in whom early echocardiographic diagnosis resulted in curative surgical and antimicrobial therapy. Fungal endocarditis is an unusual, but treatable complication of permanent pacemakers. PMID:8417900

  18. Infective endocarditis in chronic hemodialysis patients: Experience from Morocco

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    Montasser Dina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, regular hemodialysis (HD was recognized as a risk factor for the development of infective endocarditis (IE, particularly at vascular access sites. The present report describes our experience at the Etat Major General Agadir, Morocco, of taking care of IE in patients on regular dialysis. A retrospective analysis was made of five cases of IE in patients receiving re-gular HD having arteriovenous fistula as vascular access. They were sent from four private centers and admitted in our formation between January 2004 and March 2009. Infective endocarditis was detected after 34.5 months following initiation of dialysis. The causative organisms included Sta-phylococcus and Enterococcus in two cases each and negative blood culture in one case. A recent history of infection (<3 months of the vascular access was found in three cases. Peripheric embolic phenomena were noted in two cases. A pre-existing heart disease was common and contributed to heart failure. Mortality was frequent due to valvular perforations and congestive heart failure, making the medical treatment alone unsatisfactory. Two patients survived and three of our patients received a prosthetic valve replacement, with a median survival after surgery of 10.3 months/person. The clinical diagnosis of infective endocarditis in regularly dialyzed patients remains difficult, with the presence of vascular calcification as a common risk factor. The vascular catheter infections are the cardinal gateway of pathogenic organisms, which are mainly Staphlococcus. The prognosis is bad and the mortality is significant, whereas medical and surgical treatments are often established in these patients who have many factors of comorbidity.

  19. Takayasu Arteritis Initially Mimicking Infective Endocarditis

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    Busra Akin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Takayasu’s arteritis (TA is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects large vessels, predominantly the aorta and main branches, leading to vessel wall thickening, fibrosis and stenosis. Cardiac and vascular symptoms are also commonly present at disease onset. In TA with thoracic or abdominal involvement, although murmur can be present as a physical examination finding, the pulse difference may be absent. Here, we mention a case of TA who initially looked like infective endocarditis and had widespread thoracic murmur.

  20. Endocarditis infecciosa por Paecilomyces variotii Endocarditis due to infection by Paecilomyces variotii

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    Clara Saldarriaga

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa por hongos es una complicación cada vez más frecuente en el mundo. Presentamos un caso de endocarditis infecciosa por Paecilomyces variotii en un paciente de sexo masculino con bioprótesis mitral, que respondió satisfactoriamente al tratamiento con cirugía de reemplazo valvular mitral y anfotericina B (dosis total de 3.670 mg. Hasta la fecha, sólo se han reportado seis casos similares en el mundo, con una mortalidad del 100%.Fungal endocarditis is a cardiac complication that has been increasing throughout the world. We present a case of infective endocarditis by Paecilomyces variotii in a male patient with a prosthetic mitral valve. Successful treatment consisted of administration of amphotericin B (total dose 3,670 mg and mitral valve replacement. Only six cases have been reported previously, with a 100% mortality rate.

  1. Superantigens Are Critical for Staphylococcus aureus Infective Endocarditis, Sepsis, and Acute Kidney Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Breshears, Laura; Spaulding, Adam R.; Merriman, Joseph A.; Stach, Christopher S.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Peterson, Marnie L; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Infective endocarditis and kidney infections are serious complications of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. We investigated the role of superantigens (SAgs) in the development of lethal sepsis, infective endocarditis, and kidney infections. SAgs cause toxic shock syndrome, but it is unclear if SAgs contribute to infective endocarditis and kidney infections secondary to sepsis. We show in the methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain MW2 that lethal sepsis, infective endocarditis, and kidney infecti...

  2. Surgical Treatment of Isolated Right-Sided Infective Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Sheng-li; Li, Bo-jun; Zhang, Tao; Ren, Chong-lei; Wang, Yao; Chen, Ting-ting; Gao, Chang-qing

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed our department's experience with the perioperative features and surgical treatment of isolated right-sided infective endocarditis. From January 2000 through July 2010, 35 patients underwent surgery for isolated right-sided infective endocarditis in our department. The mean pathologic course was 3.6 months. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography had revealed intracardiac vegetations in all 35 patients: the tricuspid valve was involved in 28, and preoperative cultures were posi...

  3. Infective endocarditis with multiple mycotic aneurysms mimicking vasculitis: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji Hyeon; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Lee, Jung Eun; Huh, Wooseong; Kim, Dae Joong; Oh, Ha Young; Kim, Yoon-goo

    2012-01-01

    The manifestation of infective endocarditis often resembles vasculitis. Approximately one in five infective endocarditis cases are referred initially to a nephrologist because of abnormal renal function or abnormal urinalysis; therefore, infection should be ruled out before diagnosing vasculitis.

  4. Diagnostic value of echocardiography in infective endocarditis: a probabilistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, E; Chinaglia, A; Parrini, I; Pomari, F; Brusca, A; Trinchero, R

    1997-12-01

    The high sensitivity and specificity of echocardiography in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis have been well established for a number of years. However, little is known yet about the incremental value of this technique over the clinical and serological findings already available in subsets of patients presenting different initial probabilities in infective endocarditis. In this report, sensitivity and specificity of echocardiography were calculated in 173 consecutive patients with suspected infective endocarditis who underwent echocardiography within 5 days following admission. The echocardiogram was considered positive when Duke major criteria were fulfilled. Infective endocarditis was diagnosed in 88 patients, while other illnesses in the remaining 85. The diagnoses were confirmed retrospectively with a follow-up done after at least 3 months, at surgery or during autopsy. Sensitivity and specificity of the echocardiography in this population were 85 and 97% respectively. The initial probabilities of infective endocarditis in patients with different clinical presentations were taken from a thorough review of the literature available in English and from personal research. The positive predictive value of echocardiography is already high or very high even at low or very low levels of initial probability, and this has a strong impact on clinical decisions. In these situations and with intermediate probabilities, a negative echocardiogram would theoretically rule out the disease. However, this result, if considered alone, calls for a careful reassessment of the entire clinical context. As with any other test, when the initial probabilities of infective endocarditis are highest, the incremental value of echocardiography is poor. PMID:9470057

  5. Infective Endocarditis : aspects of pathophysiology, epidemiology, management and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ekdahl, Christer

    2008-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare but complex disease that is fatal if untreated. With a modern combination of antimicrobial therapy and heart valve surgery, mortality is still 10-20 %. The structure of the endocarditis vegetation impedes the penetration of phagocytic cells such as monocytes and granulocytes. This leads to high bacterial counts inside the vegetation and the need for long treatment courses with a combination of intravenously administered bactericidal antibiotics. The aim o...

  6. Prevention of infective endocarditis in developing countries - justifiable caution?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andy, Parrish; Breminand, Maharaj.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The internationally accepted practice of prescribing prophylactic antibiotics to individuals at risk of infective endocarditis has come under scrutiny. There are no published high-quality randomised controlled trials of the intervention, but new insights have emerged. Bacteraemic episodes are common [...] following simple activities such as brushing teeth. Endocarditis following procedures is extremely rare, and systematic reviews of the evidence for prophylactic antibiotics have failed to demonstrate efficacy.

  7. Candida infective endocarditis: an observational cohort study with a focus on therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Christopher J; Johnson, Melissa; Bayer, Arnold S; Bradley, Suzanne; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Miró, José M; Tornos, Pilar; Tattevin, Pierre; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Spelman, Denis; Athan, Eugene; Nacinovich, Francisco; Fortes, Claudio Q; Lamas, Cristiane; Barsic, Bruno; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Muñoz, Patricia; Chu, Vivian H

    2015-04-01

    Candida infective endocarditis is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. Our understanding of this infection is derived from case series, case reports, and small prospective cohorts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and use of different antifungal treatment regimens for Candida infective endocarditis. This prospective cohort study was based on 70 cases of Candida infective endocarditis from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE)-Prospective Cohort Study and ICE-Plus databases collected between 2000 and 2010. The majority of infections were acquired nosocomially (67%). Congestive heart failure (24%), prosthetic heart valve (46%), and previous infective endocarditis (26%) were common comorbidities. Overall mortality was high, with 36% mortality in the hospital and 59% at 1 year. On univariate analysis, older age, heart failure at baseline, persistent candidemia, nosocomial acquisition, heart failure as a complication, and intracardiac abscess were associated with higher mortality. Mortality was not affected by use of surgical therapy or choice of antifungal agent. A subgroup analysis was performed on 33 patients for whom specific antifungal therapy information was available. In this subgroup, 11 patients received amphotericin B-based therapy and 14 received echinocandin-based therapy. Despite a higher percentage of older patients and nosocomial infection in the echinocandin group, mortality rates were similar between the two groups. In conclusion, Candida infective endocarditis is associated with a high mortality rate that was not impacted by choice of antifungal therapy or by adjunctive surgical intervention. Additionally, echinocandin therapy was as effective as amphotericin B-based therapy in the small subgroup analysis. PMID:25645855

  8. Brain magnetic resonance findings in infective endocarditis with neurological complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosing infective endocarditis and its complications can be difficult because of the nonspecific symptoms. We reviewed findings of intracranial abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 14 patients with neurological complications and herein discuss the overall intracranial MRI findings. We retrospectively reviewed patients with infective endocarditis from August 2004 to August 2006. Brain MRI, the causative bacteria, and abnormal neurological symptoms were reviewed for 14 patients with neurological complications. Of the 14 patients, 13 showed intracranial abnormalities on MRI. Embolization was seen in 10 patients, hemorrhage in 3, abscess formation in 3, and encephalitis in 2. Hyperintense lesions with a central hypointense area on T2-weighted and/or T2*-weighted imaging (Bull's-eye-like lesion) were seen in four patients. A combination of these intracranial abnormalities was observed in 6 patients. The MRI findings associated with infective endocarditis are wide-ranging: embolization, hemorrhage, meningitis, cerebritis, abscess, the bull's-eye-like lesion. Clinicians should consider the possibility of infective endocarditis in patients with unknown fever and neurological abnormality. Brain MRI should be promptly performed for those patients, and T2*-weighted imaging is recommended for an early diagnosis of infective endocarditis. (author)

  9. Infective endocarditis presents as isolated splenomegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Rohani, Atoosheh; Akbari, Vahid; Homayoon, Kianoosh

    2011-01-01

    Sub acute left-sided bacterial endocarditis is a serious condition that may be overlooked due to highly variable clinical manifestations. We present the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with complaints of fullness in his abdomen and splenomegaly that referred to the surgery clinic. He underwent diagnostic splenectomy. 3 month after splenectomy endocarditis was diagnosed. We recommend echocardiography in the work up of isolated splenomegaly.

  10. Surgical Management of Active Infective Endocarditis During 1996-06 in Tabriz, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Alizadehasl1,

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Surgical treatment of active infective endocarditis (IE requires not only homodynamic repair, but also, special emphasis on the eradiation of the infection to prevent recurrence. This study was undertaken to examine the outcome of surgery for active infective endocarditis in a cohort of patients.Patients and Methods: One hundred and sixty-four consecutive patients underwent valve surgery for active IE in Madani heart centre (Tabriz, Iran from 1996 to 2006. The patients with diagnosis of IE (according to Duke Criteria were eligible for the study.Results: The mean age of patients was 36.3 ± 16 years, with 34.6±17.5 yrs for native valve endocarditis and 38.6±15.2 yrs for prosthetic valve endocarditis (p= 0.169. Ninety-one (55.5% of patients were males. The infected valve was native in 112 (68.3% of patients and prosthetic in 52 (31.7%. There was no predisposing heart disease in 61 (37% of patients. The aortic valve was infected in 78(47.6%, the mitral valve in 69 (42.1%, and multiple valves in 17 (10.3% of patients. Active culture-positive endocarditis was present in 81 (49.4% whereas 83(50.6% patients had culture-negative endocarditis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated microorganism. Ninety patients (54.8% were in NYHA classes III and IV. Mechanical valves were implantedin 69 patients (42.1% and bioprostheses in 95 (57.9%, including homograft in 19 (11.5% cases. There were 16 (9% operation-related deaths, but only 1 death in patients undergoing aortic homograft replacement. Reoperation was required in 18 (10.9% cases.Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, Staphylococcus aureus infection (p= 0.008, prosthetic valve endocarditis (p=0.01, paravalvular abscess (p=0.001 and left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40% (p=0.04 were independent predictors of hospital mortality.Conclusions: Surgery for infective endocarditis continues to be challenging and associated with high operation-related mortality and morbidity. Prosthetic valve endocarditis, impaired ventricular function, paravalvular abscess and Staphylococcus aureus infection associated with hospital mortality. Also we found that aortic valve replacement with an aortic homograft could be performed with acceptable hospital mortality and provided satisfactory results.

  11. Endocarditis infecciosa por enterococo: descripción de 12 casos / Enterococcal infective endocarditis: description of 12 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Martínez Odriozola; J., Muñoz Sánchez; P., Arriola Martínez; E., Lizarralde Palacios; J. M., Santamaría Jáuregui; J., Zuazo Meabe; R., Cisterna Cáncer; F. M. de, La Villa.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de identificar a los pacientes diagnosticados en nuestro hospital de endocarditis infecciosa por enterococo se ha realizado un estudio retrospectivo durante un período de 12 años (1994-2005), analizando sus características clínicas y microbiológicas, así como el tratamiento y la evol [...] ución de la enfermedad. Se encontraron 12 casos de endocarditis por enterococo, lo que representó el 6% del total de endocarditis y el 7% de las bacteriemias por enterococo. Se trataba de 8 hombres y 4 mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre los 37 y los 94 años. El microorganismo causante fue E. faecalis en 10 casos y E. faecium en 2 casos. Dos de los E. faecalis eran resistentes a aminoglucósidos. La válvula afectada con mayor frecuencia fue la aórtica, con 9 casos, seguida de la mitral, con 2 y de la tricúspide, 1 caso. En 10 pacientes la endocarditis se instaló sobre una válvula nativa y sólo en 2 casos sobre válvula protésica. Únicamente 5 pacientes tenían antecedentes de enfermedad valvular cardiaca. El tratamiento antimicrobiano más utilizado fue la combinación de ampicilina y gentamicina, que se empleó en 8 pacientes. Cuatro casos fueron tratados con monoterapia; 2 de ellos con ampicilina y 2 con vancomicina. Siete pacientes se complicaron con insuficiencia cardíaca, cinco de los cuales precisaron tratamiento quirúrgico de sustitución valvular aórtica. Los 4 enfermos tratados con monoterapia presentaron complicaciones graves, que provocaron la muerte de 2 pacientes. Abstract in english We have performed a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis due to Enterococcus in our hospital for a period of 12 years (1994-2005). We review clinical and microbiological aspects, therapy, and outcome. We found 12 cases that were 6 % of total endocarditis, and 7% of e [...] nterococcal bacteremia. Eight cases were male, and 4 were female, aged between 37 and 94 years. The causative organism of endocarditis was E. faecalis in 10 patients and E. faecium in 2. Two E. faecalis were resistant to aminoglycosides. Aortic valve was the most frequently affected with 9 cases, followed by mitral valve (2 cases), and tricuspid valve (1 case). In 10 cases endocarditis affected a native valve, and only in 2 cases a prosthetic valve. Only 5 patients had underlying valve disease. The most frequently used antimicrobial therapy was the combination of ampicillin plus gentamicin (8 patients). Four cases were treated with monotherapy, 2 with ampicillin, and 2 with vancomycin. Seven patients suffered heart failure, and five of them required surgical therapy with aortic valve replacement. All the patients treated with monotherapy had severe complications, that led to death in 2 of them.

  12. Aneurismas micóticos popliteos bilaterales asociados con endocarditis bacteriana / Bilateral Mycotic Popliteal Aneurysms Associated with Infective Endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gianina, Faliva Mai; Carlos A., Medina; Diego, Navarrete; Luis, Pizzini; Federico, Zabala; Luis, Medesani.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En la era posantibiótica, los aneurismas micóticos en arterias periféricas son una complicación poco frecuente de endocarditis infecciosa. El compromiso de la arteria poplítea es excepcional y más frecuente en hombres. El diagnóstico temprano, utilizando los métodos de imágenes ante una elevada sosp [...] echa clínica, tiene implicaciones pronósticas. El tamaño del aneurisma, la presencia de trombosis y el estado general del paciente son factores importantes para decidir un tratamiento oportuno. En esta presentación se describe el caso de un paciente de 48 años con aneurismas poplíteos bilaterales con punto de partida en una endocarditis mitroaórtica por Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistente, con embolias sépticas múltiples. Abstract in english Mycotic aneurysms are a rare complication of infective endocarditis in the post-antibiotic era. The involvement of the popliteal artery is an exception and is more common in men. When the clinical suspicion is high, early diagnosis using image tests has prognostic implications. The aneurysm size, th [...] e presence of thrombosis and the patient's general condition are important factors to decide the adequate treatment. We describe the case of a 48-year old male patient with bilateral aneurysms of the popliteal arteries originating from endocarditis of the mitral and aortic valves caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with multiple septic emboli.

  13. Cardiobacterium valvarum infective endocarditis and phenotypic/molecular characterization of 11 Cardiobacterium species strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Kemp, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Cardiobacterium valvarum is a newly recognized human pathogen related to infective endocarditis. Cardiobacterium species are, however, only rarely the aetiology of infective endocarditis. An infective endocarditis case is presented and, additionally, phenotypic and phylogenetic comparison of a further 10 collection strains, representing the two species within the genus, was performed. C. valvarum was isolated from the blood and DNA was present in valvular tissue (partial 16S rRNA gene analysis) from a 64-year-old man with infective endocarditis of the mitral valve, rupture of chordae and prolapse of pulmonary valves in addition to a fluttering excrescence. A mechanical mitral valve and neochordae were inserted successfully. Phenotypically, the two species within the genus Cardiobacterium resemble each other greatly. When using the Vitek 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus identification card, the reaction for phenylphosphonate was positive for all Cardiobacterium hominis strains, but negative for all C. valvarum strains,thereby separating the two species. The two species made up two separate clusters by phylogenetic examination using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

  14. Surgical management for active infective endocarditis: a single hospital 10 years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the outcome of surgery for active infective endocarditis (IE) in a cohort of patients. One hundred sixty-four consecutive patients who underwent valve surgery for active IE (diagnosis according to Duke criteria) in Madani Heart Center, Tabriz, Iran from 1996 to 2006 were studied. The mean age of patients was 36.3+-16 years overall: 34.6+-17.5 years for native valve endocarditis and 38.6+-15.2 yrs for prosthetic valve endocarditis (p=0.169). Ninety one (55.5%) patients were men. The infected valve was native in 112 (68.7%) of patients and prosthetic in 52(31.3%). In 61 (37%) patients, no predisposing heart disease was found. The aortic valve was infected in 78 (47.6%), mitral valve in 69 (42.1%), and multiple valves in 17 (10.3%) of patients. Active culture positive endocarditis was present in 81 (49.4%) whereas 83 (50.6%) patients had culture-negative endocarditis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated microorganism. Ninety patients (54.8%) were in NYHA classes III and IV. Mechanical valves were implanted in 69 patients (42.1%) and bioprostheses in 95 (57.9%), including a homograft in 19 (11.5%). There were 16 (9%) operative deaths, but there was only 1 death in patients that underwent aortic homograft replacement. Reoperation was required in 18 (10.9%) of cases. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, Staphylococcus aureus infection (p=0.008), prosthetic valve endocarditis (p=0.01), paravalvular abscess (p=0.001) and left ventricular ejeabscess (p=0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40% (p=0.04) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Surgery for infective endocarditis continues to be challenging and associated with high operative mortality and morbidity. Prosthetic valve endocarditis, impaired ventricular function, paravalvular abscess and Staphylococcus aureus infection adversely affect in-hospital mortality. Also we found that aortic valve replacement with an aortic homograft can be performed with acceptable in hospital mortality and provides satisfactory results. (author)

  15. Variables predictoras de embolias en endocarditis infecciosa / Embolism predictors of infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto R., Cremona; Santiago J., Ramírez Borga; Juan F., Losinno; Luis R., Cartasegna; Eduardo M., Escudero; José L., Fernández; Gustavo E., Cremona; Miriam E., Blanco.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available El evento embólico (EE) aumenta la morbi-mortalidad de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI). La prevalencia de EE oscila entre 22% y 50%, pudiendo ocasionar hasta el 25% de las muertes de los pacientes que lo presentan. El EE puede ocurrir previamente al diagnóstico, durante el tratamiento o bien posteri [...] ormente al mismo. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las características demográficas, clínicas, microbiológicas, ecocardiográficas y terapeúticas, de pacientes con EI (con y sin embolias) para tratar de establecer variables predictoras del EE. Se realizó en el Hospital Italiano de La Plata, desde marzo de 1996 hasta diciembre de 2004, un estudio descriptivo observacional de una cohorte de pacientes con diagnóstico de EI. Se analizaron en forma retrospectiva 53 pacientes con EI (35 sin EE y 18 con EE). La presencia de vegetación (en el ecocardiograma transtorácico (ETT) y/o en el transesofágico (ETE) al momento del diagnóstico, el tamaño ³ 10 mm y el compromiso de la válvula mitral nativa, fueron las variables en las que existió una asociación estadísticamente significativa con el EE para ser consideradas como predictoras. El tamaño ³ 10 mm fue la única variable asociada a EE en el análisis de regresión logística. Durante el tratamiento antibiótico electivo hubo una reducción de EE, no observándose a partir de la segunda semana. Abstract in english The embolic event (EE) increases the morbidity and mortality of infective endocarditis (IE). Prevalence of EE ranges between 22% and 50%, death rates being up to 25% of patients. EE may occur prior to diagnosis, during treatment or afterwards. The objective of this study was to evaluate the demograp [...] hic, clinical, microbiological, echocardiographic and therapeutic characteristics in patients suffering from IE (with or without emboli) in order to determine predictors for EE. A descriptive study based on observations of patient population diagnosed with IE was conducted at the Hospital Italiano of La Plata during the period March 1996 - December 2004. Fifty-three patients with IE were analyzed (35 without EE and 18 with EE) in retrospect. We found that the presence of vegetations in the transthoracic (TTE) and/or transesophagic (TEE) echocardiographies at the time of diagnosis, the size ³ 10 mm and the compromise of the native mitral valve were the variables that showed significant statistical association with EE to be considered as predictors. The size ³ 10 mm was the only variable associated with EE in the logistic regression analysis. During the elective antibiotic treatment, there was a reduction in EE, without their being present from the second week onwards.

  16. Endocardite infecciosa em adolescentes. Análise dos fatores de risco de mortalidade intra-hospitalar Infective endocarditis in adolescents. analysis of risk factors for in-hospital mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Barreto Tenório Aoun

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, terapêuticos e evolutivos da endocardite infecciosa (EI em grupo de pacientes com idade entre 12 e 20 (média de 15,5 anos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 33 pacientes consecutivos (14 do sexo masculino e 19 do feminino, admitidos com diagnóstico de EI. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade da EI foi de 42%. A cardiopatia reumática predominou como condição predisponente (63% dos casos, seguida das cardiopatias congênitas (24% e próteses cardíacas (12%. A maioria dos pacientes (78% encontrava-se na admissão em CF III e IV e apresentava mortalidade significativamente maior do que os que se encontravam na CF I e II (p=0,01. Complicações embólicas foram detectadas em 51% e determinaram maior mortalidade (p=0,05. O agente etiológico mais isolado foi o Staphylococcus aureus (em 42% das hemoculturas positivas, seguido do Staphylococcus viridans (em 21%. A análise multivariada mostrou que a contagem global de leucócitos acima de 10.000/mm ³, e a CF referidos na admissão (p=0,01 e p=0,04, e a ocorrência de embolias (p=0,03 eram preditores independentes de mortalidade intra-hospitalar. CONCLUSÃO: A cardiopatia reumática permanece, semelhante à população adulta, como principal fator predisponente da EI nos adolescentes, tendo como principal agente etiológico o S.aureus, semelhante à população pediátrica. A mortalidade é elevada e representam preditores de mortalidade intra-hospitalar a CF na admissão, a ocorrência da fenômenos embólicos e a leucocitose.PURPOSE: To study the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutive aspects of endocarditis in a group of patients aging 12 to 20 years-old ( mean 15.5. METHODS: Thirty-three consecutive patients (14 males, 19 females admitted with infective endocarditis were retrospectively studied. RESULTS: Infective endocarditismortality was 42%. Rheumatic heart disease was the predominant underlying condition in 63% of patients. Congenital heart disease (24% and cardiac prosthesis (12% were the other affections involved. The majority of patients (78% were in functional class III and IV, with more deaths than the 22% who were in functional class I and II (p=0.01. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated agent (42% of the positive blood cultures, followed by Staphylococcus viridans, 21%. Multivariate analysis identified total leukocyte count above 10,000/mm³ and functional class, both at admission (p=0.01 and p=0.004, respectively, and the occurrence of embolic complications (p=0.03 as independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Rheumatic heart disease remains, as in adults, the main predisposing factor for infective endocarditis in adolescents, and S.aureus is, like in children, the leading agent. Mortality is high and functional class at hospital admission, embolic complications and leukocytosis are independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.

  17. Endocardite infecciosa em adolescentes. Análise dos fatores de risco de mortalidade intra-hospitalar / Infective endocarditis in adolescents. analysis of risk factors for in-hospital mortality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nádia Barreto Tenório, Aoun; Francisco Manes, Albanesi Fº; Maurício Bastos de Freitas, Rachid; Luíz André Vieira, Fernandes; José Augusto da Silva, Messias.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, terapêuticos e evolutivos da endocardite infecciosa (EI) em grupo de pacientes com idade entre 12 e 20 (média de 15,5) anos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 33 pacientes consecutivos (14 do sexo masculino e 19 do feminino), admit [...] idos com diagnóstico de EI. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade da EI foi de 42%. A cardiopatia reumática predominou como condição predisponente (63% dos casos), seguida das cardiopatias congênitas (24%) e próteses cardíacas (12%). A maioria dos pacientes (78%) encontrava-se na admissão em CF III e IV e apresentava mortalidade significativamente maior do que os que se encontravam na CF I e II (p=0,01). Complicações embólicas foram detectadas em 51% e determinaram maior mortalidade (p=0,05). O agente etiológico mais isolado foi o Staphylococcus aureus (em 42% das hemoculturas positivas), seguido do Staphylococcus viridans (em 21%). A análise multivariada mostrou que a contagem global de leucócitos acima de 10.000/mm ³, e a CF referidos na admissão (p=0,01 e p=0,04), e a ocorrência de embolias (p=0,03) eram preditores independentes de mortalidade intra-hospitalar. CONCLUSÃO: A cardiopatia reumática permanece, semelhante à população adulta, como principal fator predisponente da EI nos adolescentes, tendo como principal agente etiológico o S.aureus, semelhante à população pediátrica. A mortalidade é elevada e representam preditores de mortalidade intra-hospitalar a CF na admissão, a ocorrência da fenômenos embólicos e a leucocitose. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To study the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutive aspects of endocarditis in a group of patients aging 12 to 20 years-old ( mean 15.5). METHODS: Thirty-three consecutive patients (14 males, 19 females) admitted with infective endocarditis were retrospectively studied. RESULT [...] S: Infective endocarditismortality was 42%. Rheumatic heart disease was the predominant underlying condition in 63% of patients. Congenital heart disease (24%) and cardiac prosthesis (12%) were the other affections involved. The majority of patients (78%) were in functional class III and IV, with more deaths than the 22% who were in functional class I and II (p=0.01). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated agent (42% of the positive blood cultures, followed by Staphylococcus viridans, 21%). Multivariate analysis identified total leukocyte count above 10,000/mm³ and functional class, both at admission (p=0.01 and p=0.004, respectively), and the occurrence of embolic complications (p=0.03) as independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Rheumatic heart disease remains, as in adults, the main predisposing factor for infective endocarditis in adolescents, and S.aureus is, like in children, the leading agent. Mortality is high and functional class at hospital admission, embolic complications and leukocytosis are independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.

  18. Healthcare-associated infective endocarditis of the pulmonary valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Marie Louise; Gill, Sabine; Moller, Jacob Eifer; Gustavsen, Pia Hass

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 66-year-old man with known ischaemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus and stage 4 kidney disease who was admitted to our tertiary centre with shortness of breath and atrial flutter. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) was without suspicion of endocarditis. During hospitalisation, the patient suffered a nosocomial infection in a peripheral vascular catheter caused by Staphylococcus aureus. TOE after positive blood cultures revealed a new vegetation on the pulmonary valve that resolved after antibiotic treatment. PMID:25820109

  19. Infective Endocarditis Complicated by Large Aortic Pseudoaneurysm after Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Pelicano, Nj; Branco, Lm; Agapito, Af; Saloma?o, S.; Figueiredo, L.; Cunha, J.; Gomes Da Cruz, A.; Gouveia, Jl; Roquette, J.; Quininha, J.

    2006-01-01

    A 66-year-old female with Streptococcus viridans aortic and tricuspid infective endocarditis develops, during the course of antibiotic therapy, rupture of a right coronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm to the right ventricle. An urgent cardiac surgery is preformed with implantation of a mechanical aortic prosthesis and a right coronary sinus plasty. Six months later a huge aortic pseudoaneurysm is diagnosed and she is submitted to a second uneventful surgery. A review is done for the significant...

  20. Infective Endocarditis Caused by Neisseria elongata on a Native Tricuspid Valve and Confirmed by DNA Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Yeon Pyo; Kang, Ki-Woon; Yoon, Hyeon Soo; Yoo, Seungmin; Lee, Myung-Shin

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria elongata, a common oral bacterium, has been recognized as a cause of infections such as infective endocarditis, septicemia, and osteomyelitis. Neisseria-induced infective endocarditis, although infrequently reported, typically arises after dental procedures. Without antibiotic therapy, its complications can be severe.

  1. Infective Endocarditis in Children Hospitalized During 10 Years in Imam Reza Hospital- Mashhad

    OpenAIRE

    H Mottaghi Moghadam; M Horri; Elmi, S.; N Motevalli Haghi; R Erfani Sayyar; Sh Rahmani; Sam Elmi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Infective endocarditis is a rare, fatal ,with high morbidity in children, Since infective endocarditis in children was not assessed in our conditions so our study was attempted.   Material and Methods: This cross-sectional  study  include 19 patients less than 18 years old  with endocarditis   were hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Cardiology( University of Mashhad Medical Sciences) between 1381 to1391.Clinical symptoms, risk factors, underlying  heart di...

  2. Tratamiento quirúrgico de la endocarditis infecciosa / Surgical treatment of infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alain, Eusse; Mauricio, Atehortúa; Luis, Vélez; Víctor, Bucheli; Carlos, Dallos; Gerardo, Flores; Ana M, Herrera; Sergio, Franco.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir las características epidemiológicas y los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico temprano de los pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa intervenidos en el Departamento de Cirugía Cardiovascular de la Clínica Medellín, Colombia. Métodos: estudio observacional, descrip [...] tivo, retrospectivo, de todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa tratados mediante cirugía en la Clínica Medellín, entre enero de 2003 y enero de 2010. Resultados: se incluyeron en total 54 pacientes, 37 (68,5%) de ellos de género masculino. La mediana de la edad fue 57,5 años (9 - 76 años). El 77,7% tenía algún factor de riesgo para desarrollar endocarditis infecciosa; entre los más destacados insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC) en hemodiálisis (18,5%) y prótesis valvulares cardiacas (18,5%). El 66,7% de los hemocultivos fue positivo. Staphylococcus aureus fue el principal germen aislado en el 40,7% del total de pacientes. El 81,4% de las válvulas comprometidas eran nativas con predominio de la válvula mitral (44,5%) y el 7,5% presentaba compromiso de dos válvulas. En el 68,5% el motivo de consulta fue falla cardiaca y 35,3% presentaron fenómenos embólicos como manifestación inicial o asociada (cerebral 16,7%, pulmonar 13%, esplénica 5,6%). En el 83,3% de los casos se realizó cirugía temprana; 66% recibieron válvulas mecánicas. La mortalidad total a tres meses fue del 13% (muerte intraoperatoria 3,7%, mortalidad a 30 días, 9%). La mediana en el tiempo de estancia hospitalaria fue de 36 días (7 a 130 días). En este estudio se reporta una mortalidad total que se encuentra en el límite inferior de lo reportado en el mundo. Una de las razones atribuibles a este hallazgo es el manejo quirúrgico temprano que se protocoliza en el servicio. Abstract in english Objective: to describe the epidemiological characteristics and the results of early surgical treatment of patients diagnosed with infectious endocarditis who underwent surgery in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery in the Medellin Clinic, Colombia. Methods: observational, descriptive, retrospec [...] tive study of all the patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis treated by surgery in the Medellin Clinic between January 2003 and January 2010. Results: a total of 54 patients were included. 37 (68.5%) were male. Mean age was 57.5 years (9-76 years). 77.7% had a risk factor for developing infective endocarditis; among the most prominent risk factors were chronic renal failure (CRF), patients on hemodialysis (18.5%) and heart valve prostheses (18.5%). 66.7% of the blood cultures were positive. Staphylococcus aureus was the main germ isolated in 40.7% of patients. 81.4% of the involved valves were native, with mitral valve predominance (44.5%) and 7.5% had involvement of two valves. In 68.5% the reason for the consultation was heart failure and 35.3% had embolic phenomena as the initial manifestation or associated (16.7% cerebral, pulmonary 13%, spleen 5.6%). In 83.3 % of cases early surgery was performed: 66% received mechanical valves. The three-month total mortality was 13% (3.7% intraoperative death, mortality at 30 days 9%). The median length of hospital stay was 36 days (7-130 days). In this study the total mortality reported is at the lower limit of the reported in the world. One of the reasons attributed to this finding is the early surgical management that is the protocol in the service.

  3. Embolic Events And Neurological Complications In Infective Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Suknjaja

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is an infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. The intracardiac effects of this infection include severe valvular insuffi ciency, which may lead to congestive heart failure and many complications. Valvular infections have entered the era of IE caused by increased usage of intravascular devices and medical procedures. Typically, the diagnosis is made relatively late, compared to the onset of valvular infection. Complications of infective endocarditis result from embolization, slowly progressive valvular destruction and various immunological mechanisms. Complications are very frequent in IE, complicating 20–60% of cases of IE. Th e risk of embolism is the highest during the first 2 weeks of antibiotic therapy and is clearly related to the size and mobility of the vegetation. Risk is increased with large vegetations (>10 mm and particularly high with very mobile and even larger vegetations (>15 mm. Neurological complications develop in 20–40% of all patients with IE and are mainly the consequence of embolization. Rapid diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy especially antibiotics are of major importance to prevent a first or recurrent neurological complication.

  4. The Need for a Specific Risk Prediction System in Native Valve Infective Endocarditis Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa De Feo; Maurizio Cotrufo; Antonio Carozza; Luca S. De Santo; Francesco Amendolara; Salvatore Giordano; Ester E. Della Ratta; Gianantonio Nappi; Alessandro Della Corte

    2012-01-01

    The need for a specific risk score system for infective endocarditis (IE) surgery has been previously claimed. In a single-center pilot study, preliminary to future multicentric development and validation, bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analysis of early postoperative mortality predictors in 440 native valve IE patients were performed. Mathematical procedures assigned scores to the independent predictors emerged (AUC of the ROC curve: 0.88). Overall mortality was 9.1%. Six p...

  5. Infective Endocarditis: Identification of Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci from Blood Cultures by Partial 16S rRNA Gene Analysis and by Vitek 2 Examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Redha, Rawaa Jalil; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Streptococci, enterococci and Streptococcus-like bacteria are frequent etiologic agents of infective endocarditis and correct species identification can be a laboratory challenge. Viridans streptococci (VS) not seldomly cause contamination of blood cultures. Vitek 2 and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were applied in order to compare the results of both methods. STRAINS ORIGINATED FROM TWO GROUPS OF PATIENTS: 149 strains from patients with infective endocarditis and 181 strains assessed as blood culture contaminants. Of the 330 strains, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing results, 251 (76%) were VS strains, 10 (3%) were pyogenic streptococcal strains, 54 (16%) were E. faecalis strains and 15 (5%) strains belonged to a group of miscellaneous catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci. Among VS strains, respectively, 220 (87,6%) and 31 (12,3%) obtained agreeing and non-agreeing identifications with the two methods with respect to allocation to the same VS group. Non-agreeing species identification mostly occurred among strains in the contaminant group, while for endocarditis strains notably fewer disagreeing results were observed.Only 67 of 150 strains in the mitis group strains obtained identical species identifications by the two methods. Most VS strains belonging to the groups of salivarius, anginosus, and mutans obtained agreeing species identifications with the two methods, while this only was the case for 13 of the 21 bovis strains. Pyogenic strains (n=10), Enterococcus faecalis strains (n=54) and a miscellaneous group of catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci (n=15) seemed well identified by both methods, except that disagreements in identifications in the miscellaneous group of strains occurred for 6 of 15 strains.

  6. Endocardite infecciosa causada por Eikenella corrodens / Eikenella corrodens infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliano Novaes, Cardoso; Marcelo Eidi, Ochiai; Múcio T., Oliveira Jr.; Paulo, Morgado; Robinson, Munhoz; Fernanda E., Andretto; Alfredo José, Mansur; Antonio Carlos Pereira, Barretto.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Os microorganismos do grupo HACEK (Haemophilus spp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens e Kingella kingae) são responsáveis por 3% dos casos de endocardites. Eles apresentam propriedades clínicas e microbiológicas semelhantes entre si: são bacilos gram- [...] negativos, isolados mais facilmente em meios aeróbicos, suas culturas necessitam de tempo prolongado de incubação para crescimento (média 3,3 dias) e podem ser considerados como parte da flora normal do trato respiratório superior e da orofaringe1,2. Algumas características foram identificadas nas endocardites por esses agentes, como o quadro clínico insidioso¹, diagnóstico difícil pela natureza fastidiosa e culturas negativas3,4. A endocardite por Eikenella corrodens foi descrita pela primeira vez em 1972(5) e continua sendo um agente etiológico raro. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com valva nativa que apresentou endocardite infecciosa causada por Eikenella corrodens. Abstract in english The HACEK microorganisms (Haemophilus spp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) account for 3% of the cases of endocarditis. They have the following similar clinical and microbiological properties: are Gram-negative bacilli, more ea [...] sily isolated in aerobic media; their cultures require prolonged incubation time for growing (mean, 3.3 days); and may be considered part of normal flora of upper respiratory tract and oropharynx1,2. The following characteristics have been identified in endocarditis caused by the HACEK microorganisms: insidious clinical findings¹; difficult diagnosis due to the fastidious nature of the microorganisms; and negative cultures3,4. The Eikenella corrodens endocarditis was first described in 1972(5). That microorganism continues to be a rare etiological agent. We report the case of a female patient with native valve, who had Eikenella corrodens infective endocarditis.

  7. Case report: Infective endocarditis caused by Brevundimonas vesicularis

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    Chen Tun-Chieh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reports in the literature of invasive infection caused by Brevundimonas vesicularis in patients without immunosuppression or other predisposing factors. The choice of antimicrobial therapy for bacteremia caused by the pathogen requires more case experience to be determined. Case presentation The case of a 40-year-old previously healthy man with subacute endocarditis proposed to be contributed from an occult dental abscess is described. The infection was found to be caused by B. vesicularis on blood culture results. The patient recovered without sequelae after treatment with ceftriaxone followed by subsequent ciprofloxacin therapy owing to an allergic reaction to ceftriaxone and treatment failure with ampicillin/sulbactam. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. vesicularis as a cause of infective endocarditis. According to an overview of the literature and our experience, we suggest that third-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin/tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin are effective in treating invasive B. vesicularis infections, while the efficacy of ampicillin-sulbactam needs further evaluation.

  8. Embolic occlusion of arteriovenous fistula due to infective endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, R.; Swarnalatha, G.; Mahapatra, S.; Dakshinamurty, K. V.

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old male on maintenance hemodialysis through right radio cephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) also had mitral regurgitation. He presented with fever and chills of 2 days duration along with pain and swelling at median cubital fossa of right upper limb. Local examination revealed warmth, redness, and tenderness at median cubital fossa. AVF thrill was absent. Echocardiography revealed vegetations on the mitral valve. An extensive search of literature did not reveal an instance of embolic occlusion of AVF due to vegetations of infective endocarditis. PMID:25484539

  9. Prophylaxis for infective endocarditis. Who needs it? How effective is it?

    OpenAIRE

    Press, N.; Montessori, V.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review guidelines for using antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infective endocarditis, and to present recent changes and controversies regarding these guidelines. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Data are from physiologic and in vitro studies, as well as studies of animal models, and from retrospective analyses of human endocarditis cases. Systematic reviews and guidelines are also examined. As no randomized clinical trials have examined prophylaxis for bacterial endocarditis, many recommend...

  10. Man’s best friend? Infective endocarditis due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus

    OpenAIRE

    Hayani, Omar; Higginson, Lyall AJ; Toye, Baldwin; Burwash, Ian G

    2009-01-01

    Infective endocarditis caused by zoonotic microorganisms is an uncommon clinical entity. A 55-year-old man was diagnosed with endocarditis due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus, a commensal bacterium contained in the saliva of dogs, that involved the aortic and tricuspid valves and was complicated by a para-aortic valve abscess and aorta-to-right atrial fistula. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention. C canimorsus endocarditis should be considered in...

  11. Insufficient Living : Experiences of Recovery After Infective Endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a traumatic health event, and recovery is often associated with massive physical deconditioning and reduced quality of life. Patients also report reduced cognitive functioning and are at risk of developing anxiety and depression as well as posttraumatic stress disorder. Although studies have found that survivors of IE have impaired physical functioning and mental health, little is known about patient experiences contributing to these findings. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to describe patient experiences of recovery after IE. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:: Within a phenomenological-hermeneutical framework, a qualitative interview study was conducted that included 6 men and 5 women (aged 29-86 years). Patients were interviewed 3 to 6 months after discharge. Analysis consisted of 3 levels: naive reading, structured analysis, and critical interpretation and discussion. FINDINGS:: The overall concept that emerged was "Insufficient Living." Patients all experienced a life after illness, which was perceived as insufficient. The overall concept can be interpreted in terms of the following 3 themes. The first was "an altered life," where participants described a phase of adaptation to a new life situation, which some perceived as manageable and temporary, whereas others found extremely distressing and prolonged. "Shocking weakness" was experienced physically, cognitively, and emotionally, and although it subsided quickly for a few, most experienced a persisting weakness and felt frustrated about the prolonged recovery phase. In "the road to recovery," support from relatives and healthcare professionals, as well as one's own actions, was emphasized as important in facilitating recovery. CONCLUSIONS:: Recovery after IE is perceived as "Insufficient Living." Patients experience an altered life and shocking weakness, and on the road to recovery, support is needed. Research in follow-up care, supporting patients' ability to cope with potential physical and psycho-emotional consequences of IE, is encouraged as a result of these findings.

  12. Endocardite infecciosa valvar submetida a tratamento cirúrgico: análise de 64 casos Infective valve endocarditis treated by surgery: analysis of 64 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demóstenes G. Lima Ribeiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar aspectos clínico-laboratoriais da endocardite infecciosa valvar, tratada com cirurgia, no Hospital de Messejana, Fortaleza, CE, no período de 1988 a 2003. MÉTODO: Estudo observacional, retrospectivo, da fase hospitalar, de 64 pacientes portadores de endocardite infecciosa, submetidos à substituição valvar aórtica e/ou mitral, vegectomia e plastia da tricúspide e excisão da valva pulmonar, como parte do tratamento. Analisados o sexo, a idade, o tempo decorrido entre a internação e a cirurgia e entre a internação e a alta hospitalar, a valva acometida, o resultado da hemocultura, o procedimento cirúrgico efetuado e a mortalidade. RESULTADOS: A endocardite infecciosa valvar, tratada com cirurgia, preponderou na terceira década, 81,2% dos pacientes eram masculinos. O tempo decorrido entre a internamento e a cirurgia foi menor nos pacientes que faleceram. A valva aórtica, de modo isolado ou associado, foi acometida em 65% dos casos. Hemoculturas foram positivas em 42%; em 52,4% delas, isolou-se Estafilolococo aureus. Necessitaram de substituição valvar 93,7% dos pacientes. Houve mortalidade de 14,1%, não influenciada pela idade nem pelo resultado da hemocultura. CONCLUSÃO: Endocardite infecciosa valvar, submetida ao tratamento cirúrgico, foi mais freqüente em homens e na terceira década. Acometeu preferencialmente a valva aórtica. Estafilolococo aureus foi o patógeno mais comum. Na quase totalidade dos casos, procedeu-se substituição valvar e a mortalidade hospitalar foi de 14,1%.OBJECTIVE: To identify some aspects of the infective valve endocarditis treated by heart surgery, as well as antibiotic therapy, in a public hospital, in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil, from1988 to 2003. METHOD: A retrospective and observational study of 64 patients with Infective Valve Endocarditis who required aortic and/or mitral valve replacement, tricuspid vegectomy and repair or pulmonary valve valvulectomy, as well as antibiotic therapy, during their in-hospital stay. They were analyzed in respect to gender, age, time elapsed from hospital admission to the surgery, time elapsed from hospital admission to hospital discharge, valve lesion, blood culture result, surgical treatment and mortality. RESULTS: Infective valve endocarditis treated with heart surgery was more frequent in the third decade of life. Most of patients (81.2% were males. The patients who died spent a shorter time from hospital admission to the surgery than the patients who survived. The aortic valve was affected in 65% of cases. Positivity blood culture were seen in 42% and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 52.4% of these cases. Valve replacement was necessary in 93.7% of cases. The in-hospital mortality rate was 14.1% which was not influenced by the age of the patient or the blood culture result. CONCLUSION: Infective valve endocarditis treated by heart surgery was more frequent in men and in the third decade of life. It mostly affected the aortic valve. Staphylococcus aureus was the more common pathogen found. Almost all the patients needed replacement of the infected valve and the in-hospital mortality rate was 14.1%.

  13. Catheter-related bacteraemia and infective endocarditis caused by Kocuria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C C; Wang, J Y; Lin, S H; Tan, C K; Wang, C Y; Liao, C H; Chou, C H; Huang, Y T; Lin, H I; Hsueh, P R

    2011-02-01

    We describe five patients with positive blood culture for Kocuria species. Three patients had catheter-related bacteraemia and one had infective endocarditis caused by Kocuria kristinae, and one had a K. marina isolate, which was considered to be a contaminant. Identification of the isolates was further confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In conclusion, Kocuria species are an unusual cause of infection in immunocompromised patients. Accurate identification with molecular methods is imperative for the diagnosis of these unusual pathogens. PMID:20218989

  14. Endocarditis infecciosa izquierda por Pseudomonas aeruginosa tratada médicamente / Left-sided infective endocarditis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated medically

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karen Melissa, Ordóñez; Odismar Andrea, Hernández; Jorge Alberto, Cortés; María José, López; Gladys, Alfonso; Alejandro, Junca.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa por Pseudomonas aeruginosa es una entidad poco frecuente, de difícil diagnóstico y alta mortalidad. Se presenta a continuación el caso de un hombre de 51 años, sin antecedentes de uso de drogas intravenosas ni enfermedad valvular, con antecedentes de colecistectomía en el [...] mes anterior, quien se presentó a urgencias con un cuadro febril asociado a síntomas gastrointestinales, y, posteriormente mostró signos de embolismo a distancia, hemocultivos positivos para P. aeruginosa y desarrollo de múltiples complicaciones propias de la enfermedad. La presentación clínica de la endocarditis infecciosa es inespecífica, lo cual genera diagnósticos tardíos que impiden la instauración de un tratamiento precoz y eficaz, como el reemplazo valvular, indicado en endocarditis por hongos o por gérmenes como P. aeruginosa. Este caso es fortuito por su resolución solamente con tratamiento médico combinado, con amikacina y meropenem, ya que tuvo varias complicaciones que contraindicaron el manejo quirúrgico. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare clinical condition, difficult to diagnose and associated with high mortality. Herein we present a case of a 51 years old male without history of intravenous drug use or valvular disease, with past medical history of cholecystectomy in th [...] e previous month, who presented to the emergency department with fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, and subsequent signs of distant embolization, positive blood cultures for P. aeruginosa and development of multiple complications of the disease. The clinical presentation of infective endocarditis is nonspecific, leading to delayed diagnosis, and preventing early and effective treatment. Valvular replacement is indicated in fungal or P. aeruginosa endocarditis. This case is notable because of the resolution with amikacin combined with meropenem, in a patient with several complications that contraindicated surgery.

  15. Kocuria kristinae endocarditis related to diabetic foot infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citro, Rodolfo; Prota, Costantina; Greco, Luigi; Mirra, Marco; Masullo, Alfonso; Silverio, Angelo; Bossone, Eduardo; Piscione, Federico

    2013-06-01

    We report an unusual case of endocarditis occurring in a 74-year-old man with a history of systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus and minor amputation for left forefoot ulcer. The patient was hospitalized for vacuum-assisted closure therapy to aid in wound healing. After the first treatment session, the patient reported abdominal pain with haematemesis and fever (40 °C). Owing to persistent fever, three blood cultures were performed, all positive for Kocuria kristinae. The identification was based on biochemical tests and automated systems. The speciation of the micro-organism was achieved with MALDI-TOF and then confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Transthoracic echocardiographic examination showed the presence of a large vegetation (38×20 mm) on the posterior mitral leaflet and moderate mitral regurgitation. Since there are no current guidelines for the treatment of K. kristinae endocarditis, empiric antibiotic therapy with intravenous sulbactam/ampicillin (1.5 g twice daily) and gentamicin (6 mg kg(-1) per day) was started. After 7 days of hospitalization, the patient's condition suddenly worsened because of the occurrence of haemorrhagic stroke. Despite inotropic support and rifampicin infusion, the haemodynamic status progressively deteriorated. After an initial improvement, he worsened again, becoming stuporous, hypotensive and dyspnoeic. In the following days, the patient developed compartment syndrome resulting in right foot ischaemia. Unfortunately, 25 days after hospitalization, the patient died of multiple organ failure from overwhelming sepsis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of K. kristinae endocarditis on a native valve that is not related to a central venous catheter but associated with diabetic foot infection. PMID:23518651

  16. Successful Treatment of Infective Endocarditis in Four Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pour-Reza-Gholi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is a serious complication in kidney transplantation, leading to graft loss and a high mortality rate. We report 4 successfully managed cases of IE in kidney transplant recipients. Blood culture revealed Enterococcus in 2 patients, group D Streptococcus in 1, and no bacteria in 1. All of the patients were diagnosed based on at least 2 major Duke criteria for diagnosis of IE. Although a mild increase in the serum creatinine level was observed in 3 out of 4 patients, no graft rejection occurred during the follow-up. Early diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, particularly intensive antibiotic therapy and surgical management can preserve the patient and the kidney allograft. Studies on previous recurrent infections and simultaneous diseases such as cytomegalovirus in these patients are warranted.

  17. Infective endocarditis due to Enterobacter cloacae resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Yusuke; Okugawa, Shu; Kimura, Satoshi; Makita, Eiko; Seo, Kazunori; Koga, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Naohisa; Kitazawa, Takatoshi; Ota, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    We report the case of using a long-term combination of meropenem and amikacin to treat infective endocarditis caused by Enterobacter cloacae resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli, such as the E. cloacae in our study, may become possible pathogens of infective endocarditis. Our experience with this case indicates that long-term use of a combination of ?-lactam and aminoglycosides might represent a suitable management option for future infective endocarditis cases due to non-Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella spp. (HACEK group) Gram-negative bacilli such as ours. PMID:23017689

  18. Surgical Management of Active Infective Endocarditis During 1996-06 in Tabriz, Northwestern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azin Alizadehasl; Rasoul Azarfarin2,; Rezayat Parvizi1,; Farnaz Sepasi3,; Shamsi Ghaffari1

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Surgical treatment of active infective endocarditis (IE) requires not only homodynamic repair, but also, special emphasis on the eradiation of the infection to prevent recurrence. This study was undertaken to examine the outcome of surgery for active infective endocarditis in a cohort of patients.Patients and Methods: One hundred and sixty-four consecutive patients underwent valve surgery for active IE in Madani heart centre (Tabriz, Iran) from 1996 to 2006. The patients with diagn...

  19. Infective endocarditis in Turkey: aetiology, clinical features, and analysis of risk factors for mortality in 325 cases

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    Serap ?im?ek-Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In Turkey, IE occurs in relatively young patients and Brucella spp should always be taken into consideration as a cause of this infection. We should first consider streptococci as the causative agents of IE in young patients, those with CRHD or congenital heart valve disease, and cases of community-acquired IE. Staphylococci should be considered first in the case of pacemaker lead IE, when there are high levels of creatinine, and in cases of healthcare-associated IE. Enterococci could be the most probable causative agent of IE particularly in patients aged >50 years, those on dialysis, those with late prosthetic valve IE, and those with a perivalvular abscess. The early diagnosis and treatment of IE before complications develop is crucial because the mortality rate is high among cases with serious complications. The prevention of bacteraemia with the measures available among chronic haemodialysis patients should be a priority because of the higher mortality rate of subsequent IE among this group of patients.

  20. Infective endocarditis following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement : diagnostic challenges and application of intra-cardiac echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Gary; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult.

  1. Prognostic criteria for the development of infective endocarditis in children with heart pathology

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    Porokhnya N.G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the most informative prognostic signs of infectious endocarditis development in children with heart pathology on the background of bacterial infections clinical course of 15 cases of infective endocarditis in children aged from 1 month to 17 years was performed. The comparison group consisted of 40 children aged 5 - 17 years with mitral valve prolapse. Of 19 analyzed clinical-anamnestic predictive diagnostic features for the development of infective endocarditis in children, presence of febrile fever during infusion therapy, the operated congenital heart disease, treatment in an intensive therapy unit with mechanical ventilation, intravenous infusions through a catheter lasting more than three days, a positive blood culture during the disease course, diagnostic catheterization of large vessels were of high informative value. In a positive prognosis of infective endocarditis development with a probability of 95% and more, children underwent complex of therapeutic measures with the following observation of pediatric cardio-rheumatologist.

  2. Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: the value of screening with echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vinther; HØst, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population.

  3. Endocarditis infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis asociada a instrumentación gastrointestinal / Infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Pila Pérez; Victor Adolfo, Holguín Prieto; Ever, Cetina Lozada; Rafael, Pila Peláez; Leandro, Segura Pujal.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis por Streptococcus bovis representa el 10% de los casos de endocarditis bacteriana, siendo frecuente su asociación con enfermedades intestinales y hepáticas. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 36 años con antecedentes de fiebre reumática en la niñez, quien hace un año comenzó con sin [...] tomatología digestiva, para la cual fue sometida a estudios clínicos invasivos como endoscopia y colonoscopia, desarrollando posteriormente una endocarditis con aislamiento microbiológico de Streptococcus bovis. Se detalla la fisiopatología, clínica, diagnóstico y los aspectos terapéuticos de esta entidad. Además se discuten las posibles relaciones de las enfermedades intestinales, las instrumentaciones del tubo digestivo y las hepatopatías con la bacteriemia por Streptococcus bovis biotipo I. Esta asociación sugiere un posible mecanismo de adherencia biotipo-específica que aún no ha sido fehacientemente demostrado. Por último se resalta la conveniencia de someter a exploración digestiva y ecocardiografía a todo paciente con hemocultivos positivos a este tipo de germen. (MÉD.UIS. 2012;25(3):251-8). Abstract in english Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis represents 10% of the cases of bacterial endocarditis and is frequently associated with intestinal and liver diseases. We present the case of a 36-year old female patient with a history of rheumatic fever in childhood. The gastrointestinal symptomatology be [...] gan one year before the bacterial endocarditis. Several invasive clinical investigations as endoscopy and colonoscopy, were performed and subsequently she developed endocarditis. Streptococcus bovis was isolated in microbiological studies. Pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment are detailed. The association between bacteremia from Streptococcus bovis biotype I and intestinal diseases, instrumentation of the digestive tract, and hepatopathy is reviewed. This association suggests a possible mechanism of bacteremia and endocarditis associated with biotype I but this has not been definitely confirmed. We have highlighted the importance of performing echocardiography in all patients with blood cultures positive for Streptococcus bovis who have had invasive studies of the gastrointestinal tract.(MÉD.UIS. 2012;25(3)251-8).

  4. Vegetations in infective endocarditis. Clinical relevance and diagnosis by cross sectional echocardiography.

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, W J; Petch, J; Radford, D J

    1985-01-01

    Cross sectional echocardiography identified vegetations in 45 of 62 (73%) patients who had clinical evidence of active infective endocarditis. The sensitivity of this technique in diagnosing vegetations in infective endocarditis was 93% and the specificity 89%. The predictive value of a positive test was 96% and that of a negative test 80%. Vegetations were detected with a similar frequency on the aortic and mitral valves. The incidence of valvar incompetence, congestive heart failure, and th...

  5. Candidial Endocarditis: A Single-Institute Pathological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaideeswar, Pradeep

    2015-08-01

    Infective endocarditis is increasingly perceived as a byproduct of aggressive medications and/or invasive medical procedures. Some of the organisms are fungi, and in this situation, Candida species account for nearly half of all fungal IE. We report a single-institute pathological experience of 14 cases of candidial endocarditis among surgically excised cardiac tissues and autopsied cases in a 14-year period. Twelve of the 14 cases were seen as healthcare-associated invasive infections, and only five had been diagnosed antemortem. Candidial endocarditis was predominantly right-sided and valvular. The risk factors included underlying heart diseases, central venous catheterization and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Mortality among the autopsied patients was related to septicemia and/or embolic complications. PMID:25702078

  6. Enhanced morphological diagnosis in infective endocarditis by transoesophageal echocardiography.

    OpenAIRE

    Taams, M. A.; Gussenhoven, E. J.; Bos, E.; Jaegere, P.; Roelandt, J. R.; Sutherland, G. R.; Bom, N.

    1990-01-01

    Thirty three consecutive patients with clinically suspected endocarditis were studied by both precordial cross sectional echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography. The diagnostic value of both techniques was assessed. The data were compared with findings at operation in 25 patients. In 21 patients with native valve endocarditis precordial echocardiography showed evidence of vegetations in six patients and suggested their presence in nine. Transoesophageal echocardiography identif...

  7. Endocarditis infecciosa actinomicótica de la válvula mitral: Caso de autopsia y revisión de la literatura / Actinomycotic infective endocarditis of the mitral valve: Anatomoclinical case and review of literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    David, Oddó B; Fernanda, Ayala R.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La infección actinomicótica del corazón es una enfermedad poco común, especialmente cuando el compromiso endocárdico valvular es primario. Sólo unos pocos casos han sido publicados. Comunicamos un caso de endocarditis primaria por Actinomyces sp de la válvula mitral, diagnosticada en la necropsia de [...] un hombre de 34 años con antecedentes de valvulopatía reumática crónica, que falleció con una endocarditis infecciosa Abstract in english Actinomycotic infections of the heart is an uncommon disease, especially if the infection affects the valvular endocardium as primary focus. Just a few cases have been reported previously. We report a case of primary endocarditis of the mitral valve caused by Actinomyces sp diagnosed at necropsy in [...] a 34 year-old man with history of chronic rheumatic disease presenting as a usual case of infective endocarditis

  8. Impact of Empirical-Therapy Selection on Outcomes of Intravenous Drug Users with Infective Endocarditis Caused by Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus?

    OpenAIRE

    Lodise, Thomas P.; McKinnon, Peggy S.; Levine, Donald P.; Rybak, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    This study compares beta-lactam and vancomycin among intravenous drug users with infective endocarditis caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Patients who received vancomycin had higher infection-related mortality, even if they were switched to beta-lactam once culture results became available; this relationship persisted after logistic regression analysis controlling for clinical characteristics.

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis in adult and child patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fouzan, Afnan F.; Al-Shinaiber, Rafif M.; Al-Baijan, Refal S.; Al-Balawi, Mohammed M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate dentists’ knowledge regarding the prevention of infective endocarditis in Saudi Arabia and their implementation of the 2007 American Heart Association guidelines. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, in March 2014, 801 dentists who practice in different regions of Saudi Arabia completed a questionnaire regarding the need for antibiotic prophylaxis for specific cardiac conditions and specific dental procedures, prophylaxis regimens in adults and children, and recommendations for patients on chronic antibiotics, and in dental emergencies. The data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and independent t-tests, and a p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The total knowledge level regarding antibiotic prophylaxis among all participants was 52.2%, with a significant difference between dentists who graduated before and after 2007. Comparing the level of knowledge among different dental specialists, surgeons and periodontists had the highest level of knowledge regarding the use of antibiotic prophylaxis. Amoxicillin was prescribed as the drug of choice by 63.9% of the participants. Conclusion: This study emphasized the need for continuous education and for formal inclusion of the guidelines in the students’ curriculum, as well as for strategic placement of the guidelines in locations throughout dental clinics. PMID:25935175

  10. Infective endocarditis of a rare etiology: Serratia marcescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?oki? Milomir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is a unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is a severe disease, fatal before penicillin discovery. Atypical presentations frequently led to delayed diagnosis and poor outcome. There was little information about the natural history of the vegetations during medical treatment or the relation of morphologic changes in vegetation to late complications. Application of a new diagnostic criteria and echocardiography, increased the number of definite diagnosis. Trans-thoracic and trans-esophageal echocardiography had an established role in the management of patients with IE. The evolution of vegetation size, its mobility, and consistency, the extent of the disease, and the severity of valvular regurgutation were related to late complications. With therapeutic options including modern antibiotic treatment and early surgical intervention IE turned out to be a curable disease. Reduction in mortality also depended on prevention. Antibiotic prophylaxis of IE was important, but low mortality was also the result of early treatment, especially in the event of early recognition of symptoms and signs of the disease.

  11. Aortic Valve Replacement for Infective Endocarditis in a Renal Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masmoudi Sayda

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplant recipients are more prone to developing infections. We report a 37-year old renal transplant recipient who developed infective endocarditis of the aortic valve, heart failure and renal allograft dysfunction. He underwent aortic valve replacement which was followed by improvement in cardiac as well as allograft function.

  12. Quadricuspid aortic valve complicated with infective endocarditis: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroki; Sakaki, Masayuki; Inoue, Kazushige; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Iwata, Takashi; Suehiro, Yasuo; Miura, Takuya

    2014-12-01

    Congenital quadricuspid aortic valve is a rare cardiac malformation with an unknown risk of infective endocarditis. We report a case of quadricuspid aortic valve complicated with infective endocarditis. A 53-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized with leg edema and a fever of unknown origin. Corynebacterium striatum was detected in the blood culture. Echocardiography demonstrated a quadricuspid aortic valve with vegetation and severe functional regurgitation. The condition was diagnosed as a quadricuspid aortic valve with infective endocarditis, for which surgery was performed. The quadricuspid aortic valve had three equal-sized cusps and one smaller cusp (type B according to Hurwitz classification). We dissected the vegetation and infectious focus and implanted a mechanical valve. Following the case report, we review the literature. PMID:24496979

  13. [Cerebellum abscess: first demonstration of undiagnosed infective endocarditis in an adult with corrected transposition arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudghiri, N; Faroudy, M; Mosadik, A; Sbihi, S; Ababou, A; Lazreq, C; Sbihi, A

    2006-01-01

    Neurological complications occur in approximately 30% of all patients with infective endocarditis and represent a major factor associated with an increased mortality rate. Third of these complications is represented by cerebral embolism, followed by mycotic aneurysm, meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Brain abscesses are rare; their localization to the cerebellum is exceptional. A case of cerebellum abscess occurring in a 34-year-old patient with non-operated corrected transposition of the great arteries is reported. Occurrence of this abscess was the first demonstration of undiagnosed infective endocarditis. PMID:16271445

  14. Infective endocarditis involving an apparently structurally normal valve: new epidemiological trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) has been increasingly diagnosed in patients without previously detected predisposing heart disease, but its clinical features have yet to be fully determined. A recent single-center study including echocardiographic images and surgical findings investigated the incidence of undiagnosed, clinically silent valvular or congenital heart diseases and healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HAIE). The study confirmed that a large proportion of patients with IE have no previous history of heart disease. Analysis of underlying disease in these patients showed that undetected mitral valve prolapse was the most common disease, followed by an apparently structurally normal valve. The patients who developed IE of apparently structurally normal valves had different clinical characteristics and worse outcomes. IE involving a structurally normal valve was associated with both nosocomial and non-nosocomial HAIE, whereas community-acquired IE was more frequent than HAIE. The pathophysiologic mechanism involving the development of non-HAIE or community-acquired IE due to predominantly staphylococcal infection in an apparently structurally normal valve is not yet clearly understood. Structurally normal valves are not necessarily free of regurgitation or abnormal turbulence and, given the dynamic nature and fluctuating hemodynamic effects of conditions such as poorly controlled hypertension, end-stage renal disease, and sleep apnea, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the potential role of these diseases in the development of IE. An apparently normal-looking valve is associated with IE development in patients without previously recognized predisposing heart disease, warranting repartition of at-risk groups to achieve better clinical outcomes.

  15. Infective endocarditis (IE) first diagnosed at autopsy: analysis of 31 cases in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil Endocardite infecciosa (EI) com diagnóstico feito apenas à necrópsia: análise de 31 casos ocorridos entre 1992 e 1997, em Ribeirão Preto, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Tadeu M Figueiredo; RUIZ-JUNIOR Everaldo; SCHIRMBECK Tarciso

    2001-01-01

    Thirty one infective endocarditis (IE) fatal cases whose diagnosis was first obtained at autopsy were studied. The clinical data of these patients (Group 1) showed significant differences compared to other 141 IE cases (Group 2). The average age of 53 years in Group 1 patients was 18 years higher than that of Group 2. The Group 1 patients had a low frequency of IE predisposing heart disease. Both patient groups presented fever (about 87%), but a significant low frequency of cardiac murmur (25...

  16. Un brote epidémico de endocarditis por Pseudomonas aeruginosa secundario a angiografía coronaria / An outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infective endocarditis subsequent to coronary angiography

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Derya, Seyman; Dilara, Inan; Nevgun, Sepin Ozen; Dilara, Ogunc.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir un brote de endocarditis por Pseudomonas aeruginosa que afectó a tres pacientes tras habérseles efectuado una coronariografía en el Centro Médico de Cardiología y de Cirugía Cardiovascular (CMC-CCV) de un hospital privado. Métodos: Después de reconocer la aparición de un brote e [...] n un periodo de un mes, este hecho fue comunicado al Departamento de Salud de Antalya, iniciándose una exhaustiva investigación para precisar la más probable causa y/o fuente de las endocarditis nosocomiales. Se extrajo de los registros médicos los datos clínicos de los pacientes y se efectuaron entrevistas a los pacientes o sus familiares. Se extrajo 36 muestras medioambientales de vigilancia en busca de P. aeruginosa de diversos sitios dentro de la unidad de coronariografía. Un team que investigó el brote revisó los procedimientos en uso para la prevención de infecciones en el CMC-CCV. Se estudió la epidemiología de la P. aeruginosa mediante análisis de su fenotipos, incluyendo el perfil de susceptibilidad in vitro a antimicrobianos. Resultados: La auditoria comprobó el quiebre de diversas normas de control de infecciones. Sólo 1/36 de las muestras ambientales arrojó el cultivo de P. aeruginosa, a partir de una solución de medio radio-opaco dentro de una bomba inyectora empleada en las angiografías. Los aislados de P. aeruginosa desde la solución del medio radio-opaco tenían idéntico patrón de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana que las cepas recuperadas de los pacientes. Ambos tipos de muestras eran susceptibles a todos los antimicrobianos con actividad anti-pseudomonas. El brote pudo evitarse si se hubieran instaurado una serie de medidas de control de infecciones. Conclusiones: Este brote enfatiza la importancia de adherir a los estándares y prácticas de control de infecciones para la cateterización cardiaca, así como la necesidad de una estrecha colaboración entre el Comité de Control de Infecciones y el personal involucrado en el procedimiento de coronariografía. Abstract in english Objectives: To describe an endocarditis outbreak affecting three patients due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection post coronary angiography performed in the Cardiovascular Surgery and Cardiology Medical Center of a private hospital. Methods: After recognition of an infection cluster within a onemont [...] h period, the outbreak was reported to Antalya Department of Health and a broad investigation was initiated in order to determine the most probable cause and/or source of nosocomial pseudomonal endocarditis. Patient data were obtained by medical record review as well as interviews with patients or their next of kin. Thirty-six surveillance samples for P. aeruginosa were collected from various locations within the coronary angiography unit. The outbreak research team reviewed the private hospital's Cardiovascular Surgery and Cardiology Medical Center's infection control procedures. The epidemiology of P. aeruginosa was studied through analysis of phenotypic markers, including antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. Results: The infection control audit revealed multiple breaches of infection control procedures. Only 1/36 environmental samples yielded, which was isolated from a radio-opaque solution within an angiography injector pump. P. aeruginosa from the radio-opaque solution had an identical antimicrobial susceptibility pattern to the strain isolated from patients. Both samples were susceptible to all antipseudomonal agents. This outbreak could have been successfully controlled by instituting combined infection control measures. Conclusions: This outbreak emphasizes the important of adherence to infection control standards and practices for cardiac catheterization, as well as the need for closer collaboration between the Infection Control Committee and coronary angiography personnel.

  17. Awareness of infective endocarditis prophylaxis in parents of children with congenital heart disease: A prospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath Parrimala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective survey of parents of the children with congenital heart disesease was conducted to determine their awareness as regards the importance of oral hygiene and prophylaxis against infective endocarditis (IE. The results of this study demonstrated that only 8% of the parents were aware of the importance of good oro-dental hygiene and need for IE prophylaxis.

  18. Awareness of infective endocarditis prophylaxis in parents of children with congenital heart disease: A prospective survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nath Parrimala; Kiran V; Maheshwari Sunita

    2008-01-01

    A prospective survey of parents of the children with congenital heart disesease was conducted to determine their awareness as regards the importance of oral hygiene and prophylaxis against infective endocarditis (IE). The results of this study demonstrated that only 8% of the parents were aware of the importance of good oro-dental hygiene and need for IE prophylaxis.

  19. Awareness of infective endocarditis prophylaxis in parents of children with congenital heart disease: A prospective survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective survey of parents of the children with congenital heart disesease was conducted to determine their awareness as regards the importance of oral hygiene and prophylaxis against infective endocarditis (IE). The results of this study demonstrated that only 8% of the parents were aware of the importance of good oro-dental hygiene and need for IE prophylaxis

  20. Takayasu Arteritis with Rheumatic Heart Disease with Congestive Cardiac Failure mimicking as having Infective Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyay, Piyush

    2013-01-01

    Takayasu Arteritis (TA) is a chronic, idiopathic and granulomatous vasculitis of the large arteries. It involves primarily the aorta, especially aortic proximal branches, and occasionally the pulmonary arteries. We report a 10 year old boy with Takayasu arteritis with Rheumatic heart disease who developed congestive heart failure with valvular heart disease mimicking as having infective endocarditis. Complete aortogram revealed narrowing of abdominal aorta, superior ...

  1. What is the optimal timing for surgery in infective endocarditis with cerebrovascular complications?

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Michele; Gallo, Alina; Joseph De Silva, Ravi; Sayeed, Rana

    2011-01-01

    Neurologic dysfunction complicates the course of 10–40% of left-side infective endocarditis (IE). In right-sided IE, instead, when systemic emboli occur, paradoxical embolism should be considered. The spectrum of neurologic events includes embolic cerebrovascular complication (CVC), intracranial haemorrhage, ruptured mycotic aneurysm, transient ischaemic attack (TIA), meningitis, encephalopathy and brain abscess. Cardiopulmonary bypass might exacerbate neurological deficits due to: hepariniza...

  2. Culture-negative endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... endocarditis-causing germs can be found on a blood culture . This is because certain germs do not grow ... growing. Endocarditis is usually a result of a blood infection. ... to the heart, where they can settle on damaged heart valves.

  3. Cardiobacterium valvarum infective endocarditis and phenotypic/molecular characterization of 11 Cardiobacterium species strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Kemp, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Cardiobacterium valvarum is a newly recognized human pathogen related to infective endocarditis. Cardiobacterium species are, however, only rarely the aetiology of infective endocarditis. An infective endocarditis case is presented and, additionally, phenotypic and phylogenetic comparison of a further 10 collection strains, representing the two species within the genus, was performed. C. valvarum was isolated from the blood and DNA was present in valvular tissue (partial 16S rRNA gene analysis) from a 64-year-old man with infective endocarditis of the mitral valve, rupture of chordae and prolapse of pulmonary valves in addition to a fluttering excrescence. A mechanical mitral valve and neochordae were inserted successfully. Phenotypically, the two species within the genus Cardiobacterium resemble each other greatly. When using the Vitek 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus identification card, the reaction for phenylphosphonate was positive for all Cardiobacterium hominis strains, but negative for all C. valvarum strains,thereby separating the two species. The two species made up two separate clusters by phylogenetic examination using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

  4. NICE guideline on antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: attitudes to the guideline and implications for dental practice in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-03-28

    To investigate attitudes of Irish dental practitioners, cardiologists and patients with cardiac lesions to the new NICE guideline for antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis and to determine the implications of this guideline for dental practice in Ireland.

  5. Endocarditis infecciosa por Rhizobium radiobacter: Reporte de un caso / Infective endocarditis by Rhizobium radiobacter: A case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jean Félix, Piñerúa Gonsálvez; Rosanna del Carmen, Zambrano Infantino; Carlos, Calcaño; César, Montaño; Zaida, Fuenmayor; Henry, Rodney; Marianela, Rodney.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobium radiobacter es una bacteria Gram-negativa, fijadora de nitrógeno que se encuentra principalmente en el suelo. Rara vez causa infecciones en humanos. Ha sido asociada a bacteriemia secundaria a colonización de catéteres intravasculares en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. El objetivo de este t [...] rabajo es informar un caso de endocarditis infecciosa por R. radiobacter. Se trata de paciente masculino, de 47 años de edad, con diagnóstico de enfermedad renal crónica estadio 5 en tratamiento sustitutivo con hemodiálisis, quien acude a centro asistencial por presentar fiebre de dos semanas de evolución. Es hospitalizado, se toman muestras de sangre periférica para hemocultivo y se inicia antibioticoterapia empírica con cefotaxime más vancomicina. El ecocardiograma transtorácico revelo vegetación fusiforme en válvula tricúspide con regurgitación grado III-IV/IV. Al séptimo día del inicio de la antibioterapia el paciente presenta mejoría clínica y paraclínica. La bacteria identificada por hemocultivo es Rhizobium radiobacter resistente a ceftriaxona y sensible a imipenem, amikacina, ampicilina y ampicilina/sulbactam. Debido a la mejoría clínica se decide continuar tratamiento con vancomicina y se anexa imipenem. A los 14 días de iniciada la antibioterapia el paciente es dado de alta con tratamiento ambulatorio con imipenen hasta cumplir seis semanas de tratamiento. En el ecocardiograma control se evidencio ausencia de la vegetación en la válvula tricúspide. Este caso sugiere que R. radiobacter puede ser una causa de endocarditis en pacientes portadores de catéteres intravasculares. Abstract in english Rhizobium radiobacter is a Gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, which is found mainly on the ground. It rarely causes infections in humans. It has been associated with bacteremia, secondary to colonization of intravascular catheters, in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this paper was to r [...] eport the case of an infective endocarditis caused by R. radiobacter, in a 47-year-old male, diagnosed with chronic kidney disease stage 5, on replacement therapy with hemodialysis and who attended the medical center with fever of two weeks duration. The patient was hospitalized and samples of peripheral blood were taken for culture. Empirical antibiotic therapy was started with cefotaxime plus vancomycin. The transthoracic echocardiogram revealed fusiform vegetation on the tricuspid valve, with grade III-IV/IV regurgitation. On the seventh day after the start of antibiotic therapy, the patient had a clinical and paraclinical improvement. The bacterium identified by blood culture was Rhizobium radiobacter, ceftriaxone-resistant and sensitive to imipenem, amikacin, ampicillin and ampicillin/ sulbactam. Because of the clinical improvement, it was decided to continue treatment with vancomycin and additionally, with imipenem. At 14 days after the start of antibiotic therapy, the patient was discharged with outpatient treatment with imipenem up to six weeks of treatment. The control echocardiogram showed the absence of vegetation on the tricuspid valve. This case suggests that R. radiobacter can cause endocarditis in patients with intravascular catheters.

  6. Multiple Embolism in a Female Patient with Infective Endocarditis: Low Back Pain and Hematuria as the Initial Clinical Manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira Marcelo Luiz Campos; Schmidt Mônica Luisa Rappi; Resende Marcos Valério Coimbra de; André Júnior Luis Sérgio Afonso de

    2002-01-01

    A 59-year-old female patient with mitral valve prolapse and a previous history of lumbosacral spondyloarthrosis and lumbar disk hernia had an episode of infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus viridans, which evolved with peripheral embolism to the left kidney, spleen, and left iliac artery, and intraventricular cerebral hemorrhage. Her clinical manifestations were low back pain and hematuria, which were initially attributed to an osteoarticular condition. Infective endocarditis is a seve...

  7. Infective endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a young woman after ear piercing: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Mijeong; Durey Areum; Park Jae; Chung Moon-Hyun; Nah So-Yun; Lee Jin-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Ear piercing is a common practice among Korean adolescents and young women and usually is performed by nonmedical personnel, sometimes under suboptimal hygienic conditions. Consequently, ear piercing has been associated with various infectious complications, including fatal infective endocarditis. We report a case of infective endocarditis that was caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after ear piercing and that was accompanied by a ...

  8. Recurrent infective endocarditis due to Aggregatibacter aphrophilus and Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-García, L; Hurtado-Mingo, A; Olbrich, P; Moruno-Tirado, A; Neth, O; Obando, I

    2015-03-01

    Uncommon microorganisms are increasingly being recognized as causative agents of paediatric infectious endocarditis (IE). We report a 4-year old girl with congenital heart disease, who suffered from 2 IE episodes secondary to Aggregatibacter aphrophilus (formerly Haemophilus aphrophilus) and Staphylococcus lugdunensis, both rarely reported pathogens in this age group. The patient was initially successfully treated with prolonged intravenous antibiotic courses, however removal of the Contegra valved conduit during the second episode was required due to recurrence of fever and development of pulmonary embolism despite completion of antibiotic therapy. A. aphrohilus is a member of the fastidious gram negative microorganisms of the HACEK group (Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter spp, Cardiobaterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae), that colonize the oropharynx and are a recognised cause of IE. Prognosis of children with IE due to HACEK group members varies, half of them suffering from complications and mortality rates of 10-12.5%. Although S. lugdunensis belongs to coagulase negative staphylococci (CONS), it behaves more like S. aureus species rather than CONS. This microorganism is a well-described cause of endocarditis in adult patients, associated with high requirements of surgical procedures and mortality (42-78%). In conclusion, paediatric IE can be caused by uncommon microorganisms associated with severe complications and potential fatality. The isolation of S. lugdunensis or A. aphrophilus in febrile patients should be considered clinically relevant and cardiac involvement must be ruled out. Those patients with proved IE will require prolonged intravenous antibiotic courses and in complicated cases surgical intervention. PMID:25751682

  9. Isolated Pulmonary Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hatamizadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is one of the most severe complications of parenteral drug abuse. The outstanding clinical feature of infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers is the high incidence of right-sided valve infection, and the tricuspid valve is involved in 60% to 70% of the cases. We herein report a case of isolated pulmonic valve infective endocarditis with a native pulmonary valve.

  10. Heart failure associated with infective endocarditis. A review of 40 cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, M. P.; Mccluskey, D. R.; Khan, M. M.; Cleland, J.; O Kane, H. O.; Adgey, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty one (78%) of 40 consecutive patients (aged 13-79, mean 44 years) with infective endocarditis had congestive heart failure at presentation. Twenty six (65%) had had rheumatic heart disease and 17 (43%) patients had prosthetic valves. Eight (20%) patients had undergone dental procedures within three months of presentation. Blood cultures were positive in only 22 (55%) of the patients. In nine (41%) of them streptococci of the viridans group were isolated and in seven (32%) patients endoc...

  11. Epidemiology and prevention of valvular heart diseases and infective endocarditis in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nkomo, Vuyisile T

    2007-01-01

    Valvular heart diseases in Africa affect mainly children and young adults and are a result of rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever is a preventable disease, but in Africa the combination of a lack of resources, lack of infrastructure, political, social and economic instability, poverty, overcrowding, malnutrition and lack of political will contributes to the persistence of a high burden of rheumatic fever, rheumatic valvular heart diseases and infective endocarditis. Combating and eradicating rhe...

  12. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio: A novel and simple prognostic marker for infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozbay, Mehmet; Uyarel, Huseyin

    2015-08-01

    Infective endocarditis is a life-threatining infectious disease characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Leukocytes play a main role in infectious diseases. Neutrophils and lymphocytes are subgroup of leukocytes, and they are routinely measured as a part of automated complete blood count test. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an independent predictor of unfavorable clinical outcomes in infectious and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25979271

  13. Mitral valve replacement in a patient with infective endocarditis and aneurysm of the cerebral artery: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senka Mesihovi?-Dinarevi?

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Endocarditis can have profound and devastating neurological consequences, with the vast majority of these complications in patients with left-sided valvular disease. The approach to the acute management of stroke in children with infective endocarditis is limited by the inadequacy of published data on their clinical course and outcome. Case report. This case report presents a 12 year old girl with diagnosed endocarditis, complicated with intracranial hemorrhage, due to the rupture of an aneurysm of the peripheral branch medial cerebral artery and gradient therapeutic approach, with an excellent final result. Conclusion. Congestive heart failure resulting from valvular insufficiency required mitral valve replacement, after cerebral aneurysm clipping.

  14. Surgical Management of Infective Endocarditis in Patients with Non-Valvular Congenital Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Chistyakov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to develop the surgical management of infective endocarditis in patients with non-valvular congenital heart diseases. Materials and Methods. 31 patients with non-valvular congenital heart diseases complicated by infective endocartitis were operated in Nizhny Novgorod Specialized Cardiological Clinical Hospital from 1993 till 2011. The patients’ age varied from 4 months to 37 years. Among non-valvular defects there were vegetations of mural endocardium and endothelium of major arteries, infected erosions, thrombi; and most frequently they developed in patients with ventricular septal defect (19 patients, valvular and infundibular pulmonary artery stenosis (3 patients, coronaro-right-ventricular fistula (3 patients, Fallot’s tetrad (2 patients, a patent arterial duct (2 patients. In two cases infection developed in patients with the previous plasty of septal defects and was accompanied by their recanalization.Results. Four patients died in early postoperative period. The mortality rate was 12.9%. Three patients died of progressive acute heart failure, and one — of major postoperative bleeding. 19 patients managed to avoid heart valve replacement due to a timely surgery performed before gross destructive cardiac valve damage developed. In 12 patients one of cardiac valves was replaced due to a late operation and a highly active infectious process. Conclusion. Early surgery enables to improve treatment results and save the cardiac valvular apparatus. Recanalization of septal defect against the background of the developed infective endocarditis is to be considered an indication for surgical sanitation of cardiac chambers and repeated plasty of congenital heart disease. Surgical approach to different types of congenital malformations against the background of infective endocarditis is patient-centered, though the general principle is the maximum correction of turbulent blood flows contributing to endocardial damage and persistent infection, with minimal use of synthetic materials and conduits.

  15. Tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite infecciosa / Surgical treatment of infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Roberto, Hoppen; Iselso Paulo, Sartori; Luís Sérgio, Fragomeni.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available RAvaliaram-se as indicações, as alterações e os resultados cirúrgicos de 28 pacientes, operados por endocardite infecciosa (EI) no período de 1983 a 1994. O diagnóstico clínico foi confirmado pela ecocardiografia e pela cineangiocardiografia. Dos pacientes, 65% eram do sexo masculino e 25% do femini [...] no, com média de idades de 35,21 (14 a 67) anos. Noventa e três por cento dos pacientes estavam em classe funcional III e IV (NYHA). O tempo decorrido entre o diagnóstico e a cirurgia foi em média de quatro semanas e meia (1 a 363 dias). A hemocultura foi positiva em 25% dos casos e os germes mais freqüentemente encontrados foram estreptococos e estafilococos. A valva aórtica foi a mais acometida e as vegetações foram as lesões mais comumente encontradas. O tratamento cirúrgico utilizado foi a plastia valvar em 2 casos e a substituição valvar por prótese em 26.Complicações ocorreram em 39,28% dos casos, com 5(18%) mortes. Conclui-se que, embora rara, a EI é doença grave e, se não prevenida com adequada antibiótico-profilaxia ou tratada em tempo hábil, o paciente terá conseqüências graves, podendo, até mesmo, falecer. Abstract in english The indication, surgical pathology and the results of surgical treatment of 28 patients operated on for infectious endocarditis between 1983 and 1994 are here evaluated. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by echocardiography and cineangiography. Seventy-five percent of the patients were male and 2 [...] 5% female, with the mean age of 35.2 (14 to 67) years old. Ninety three percent were in functional class III or IV (N Y H A). Elapsed time between diagnosis and surgery was around 4 weeks (1-363 days). A positive hemoculture was present in 25% of the cases and the commonest bacteria found were streptococcus and staphilococcus. The aortic valve was the one usualy affected and vegetations was the usual finding. Surgical treatment consisted of valvuloplasty in 2 cases and valve replacement in 26. Complications were present in 39.28% of the cases, which resulted in the death of five of them (18%). We conclude that, although rare, the infectious endocarditis is a serious disease; if not prevented with adequate antibiotic prophilaxis or treated in due time, serious complications or even death might occur.

  16. Splenic abscess as a potential initial manifestation of quiescent infective endocarditis in a patient with bronchopneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwat, Lindsay; Wong, Kah Fai; Varughese, George I; Nayak, Ananth U

    2015-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman presented to the acute medical unit with a productive cough, dyspnoea and decreased appetite of 4?days duration. Initial assessment supported a diagnosis of right-sided community-acquired pneumonia and she was started on antibiotics. In view of the clinical finding of splenomegaly, she had an ultrasound and, subsequently, a CT of the abdomen, which revealed a large splenic abscess. Pending cultures from a sample obtained from percutaneous drainage of the abscess, she was started on intravenous meropenem. The initial echocardiogram did not suggest any evidence of endocarditis. The pus drained from the abscess on cultures was subsequently positive for Staphylococcus aureus. An MRI of the spine excluded discitis as a source of infection. Owing to a high index of clinical suspicion a repeat echocardiogram was undertaken after 1-week, which confirmed acute endocarditis. The patient was treated with intravenous antibiotics for 6?weeks with improvement in clinical, radiological and biochemical parameters. PMID:25564586

  17. Infective endocarditis related to a coronary artery fistula with an unusual localization and ectatic coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerede, Demet Menekse; Acibuca, Aynur; Uzun, Caglar; Goksuluk, Huseyin; Ongun, Aydan; Kilickap, Mustafa; Erol, Cetin

    2015-04-01

    Coronary artery fistulas (CAF) are a rare cardiac anomaly that can be either congenital or acquired. CAFs have clinical significance because of complications such as dyspnea on exertion, congestive heart failure, and cardiac tamponade. The literature also contains case reports of CAF presenting as bacterial endocarditis. We describe a 31-year-old man who presented with native valve infective endocarditis related to an unusual form of a CAF between the circumflex coronary artery and left ventricle. He also had giant coronary arteries, which were imaged with computed tomography angiography and transesophageal echocardiography. The diameter of the circumflex coronary artery and left main coronary artery was measured as 19 mm. Surgical intervention for heart valves was performed because of vegetations resistant to continued antibiotic treatment. At the same time, the CAF was treated with surgery. PMID:25362867

  18. From cat scratch disease to endocarditis, the possible natural history of Bartonella henselae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoult Didier

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients with infectious endocarditis (IE due to Bartonella henselae have a history of exposure to cats and pre-existing heart valve lesions. To date, none of the reported patients have had a history of typical cat scratch disease (CSD which is also a manifestation of infection with B. henselae. Case presentation Here we report the case of a patient who had CSD and six months later developed IE of the mitral valve caused by B. henselae. Conclusion Based on this unique case, we speculate that CSD represents the primary-infection of B. henselae and that IE follows in patients with heart valve lesions.

  19. Long-term oral ciprofloxacin: experience in the treatment of incurable infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikos, G L; Kathpalia, S B; Lolans, V T; Jackson, G G; Fosslien, E

    1988-04-01

    Acute septic infective endocarditis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in two patients with conditions that made it incurable, was treated with long-term orally administered ciprofloxacin. Bacteremia and symptoms cleared, resulting in subjective well-being without cure for three and one half and 22 months, respectively. Large amounts of ciprofloxacin, 150 and 1,440 g, respectively, were given continuously without apparent adverse reactions. Blood isolates of P. aeruginosa after treatment had limited progression of resistance to ciprofloxacin. Use of orally administered ciprofloxacin provides new opportunities for the long-term treatment of serious infections with restricted risk of bacterial drug resistance and no appreciable side effects. PMID:3135746

  20. Niveles de péptido natriurético tipo B y su asociación con la morbimortalidad en endocarditis infecciosa / Association Levels of brain natriuretic peptide with morbidity and mortality in infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oddir, Jáuregui Ruiz; Eduardo, Galván García; Cyntia Zulema, Machain Leyva.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una infección con alta morbimortalidad. Identificar a los pacientes con mayor riesgo de presentar complicaciones proporciona la oportunidad de establecer una terapéutica agresiva. El péptido natriurético tipo B es un estudio rápido y disponible, y se ha relacionado [...] a los niveles elevados con una mala evolución en la EI. Objetivos: Determinar la asociación entre los niveles de péptido natriurético tipo B y la morbimortalidad en pacientes con EI. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes ?15 años, durante el periodo de julio de 2010 a julio de 2012. Se dividieron en distintos grupos con base en los niveles de péptido natriurético tipo B: grupo 1, péptido natriurético tipo B Abstract in english Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection with high morbidity and mortality. Identify patients with increased risk for complications, provides the opportunity to establish an aggressive therapeutic. B-type natriuretic peptide is a quick, available and high levels has been linked with poor outcome [...] in IE. Objectives: To determine the association between B-type natriuretic peptide levels and morbidity and mortality in patients with infective endocarditis. Material and methods: We included patients ? 15 years, during the period July 2010 to July 2012. They were divided into groups based on the levels of B-type natriuretic peptide, group 1 B-type natriuretic peptide

  1. Severe infective endocarditis with systemic embolism due to community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST630

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Beiwen, Zheng; Saiping, Jiang; Zemin, Xu; Yonghong, Xiao; Lanjuan, Li.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are increasingly causing infective endocarditis over the past decade. Here we report a healthy man who developed a severe acute infective endocarditis with systemic embolism caused by CA- MRSA. The strain was recovered from r [...] epeated blood cultures and was characterized using molecular detection and genotyping. The S. aureus isolate was typed as ST630 SCCmecV with spa-type t4549, agrI/IV and was PVL-negative. This is the only case report, to our knowledge, of CA-MRSA infective endocarditis in China. This case highlights the emergence and geographical spread of life-threatening CA-MRSA infection within China.

  2. Cool seasons are related to poor prognosis in patients with infective endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Jung; Chao, Tze-Fan; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Hsu, Tsui-Lieh; Yu, Wen-Chung; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2012-09-01

    Many cardiac diseases demonstrate seasonal variations in the incidence and mortality. This study was designed to investigate whether the mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) was higher in cool seasons and to evaluate the effects of cool climate for IE. We enrolled 100 IE patients with vegetations in our hospital. The temperatures of the IE episodes were defined as the monthly average temperatures of the admission days. The average temperatures in the cool (fall/winter) and warm seasons (spring/summer) were 19.2°C and 27.6°C, respectively. In addition, patients admitted with the diagnosis of IE were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) and the in-hospital mortality rates in cool and warm seasons were compared to validate the findings derived from the data of our hospital. The mortality rate for IE was significantly higher in fall/winter than in spring/summer which presents consistently in the patient population of our hospital (32.7% versus 12.5%, p = 0.017) and from NHIRD (10.4% versus 4.6%, p = 0.019). IE episodes which occurred during cool seasons presented with a higher rate of heart failure (44.2% versus 22.9%, p = 0.025) and D-dimer level (5.5 ± 3.8 versus 2.4 ± 1.8 ?g/ml, p = 0.017) at admission than that of warm seasons. These results may reflect the impact of temperatures during the pre-hospitalized period on the disease process. In the multivariate analysis, Staphylococcal infection, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic dysfunction and temperature were the independent predictors of mortalities in IE patients.

  3. The transcriptional programme of human heart valves reveals the natural history of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Marie; Thuny, Franck; Le Priol, Yannick; Lepidi, Hubert; Bastonero, Sonia; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Collart, Frédéric; Capo, Christian; Raoult, Didier; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infectious disease that is mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. It usually leads to valvular destruction and vegetation formation. Its pathophysiology is badly understood and likely involves immune and coagulation systems with close interactions with the microorganism. Our objective was to evaluate host response by comparing transcriptional profiles of cardiac valves from IE patients with controls. Hierarchical clustering revealed a signature of IE consisting of 146 genes. Among the 89 up-regulated genes, we identified two genes strongly associated with IE: metalloproteinase 12 (MMP-12) and aquaporin-9, a member of the aquaglyceroporin membrane channel family. The up-regulation of MMP-12 gene is strengthened by the down-modulation of the gene encoding its inhibitor TIMP3. In addition, MMP-12 was expressed in macrophages infiltrating EI valves. We also found that aquaporin-9 was expressed in endothelial cells lining neo-vessel lumen, suggesting that aquaporin-9 might be associated with neovascularization of infected valves leading to tissue oedema secondary to the inflammatory process. The Gene Ontology annotation and the resulting functional classification showed that most up-regulated genes account for recruitment of inflammatory cells in vegetations, angiogenesis and remodelling of endocardium tissue. A network analysis confirmed the involvement of molecules related to the remodelling of endocardium tissue and angiogenesis in IE. It also evidenced the role of caspases, especially that of caspase-9 and intrinsic apoptotic pathway in IE. Based on this study we propose a scenario for the natural history of IE in humans. Some parameters identified in this work could become tools for measuring the disease activity and should be tested as biomarkers for diagnosis or prognosis assessment in future studies. PMID:20126625

  4. Infective endocarditis caused by Scedosporium prolificans infection in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing induction chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Yotaro; Hiramoto, Nobuhiro; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Yonetani, Noboru; Doi, Asako; Ichikawa, Chihiro; Imai, Yukihiro; Ishikawa, Takayuki

    2015-06-01

    Disseminated Scedosporium prolificans infection occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. The mortality rate is high, as the fungus is resistant to most antifungal agents. Here, we present the case of a 66-year-old female with acute myeloid leukemia who developed infective endocarditis caused by S. prolificans infection during induction chemotherapy. Her 1,3-?-D-glucan levels were elevated and computed tomography revealed bilateral sinusitis and disseminated small nodular masses within the lungs and spleen; it nonetheless took 6 days to identify S. prolificans by blood culture. The patient died of multi-organ failure despite the combined use of voriconazole and terbinafine. Autopsy revealed numerous mycotic emboli within multiple organs (caused by mitral valve vegetation) and endocarditis (caused by S. prolificans). The geographic distribution of this infection is limited to Australia, the United States, and southern Europe, particularly Spain. The first Japanese case was reported in 2011, and four cases have been reported to date, including this one. Recently, the incidence of S. prolificans-disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients has increased in Japan. Therefore, clinicians should consider S. prolificans infection as a differential diagnosis when immunocompromised patients suffer disseminated infections with elevated 1,3-?-D-glucan levels. PMID:25630434

  5. Primer reporte en Cuba de endocarditis infecciosa a consecuencia de brucelosis First report of infective endocarditis in Cuba as a result of brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Sofía García González

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las manifestaciones clínicas por brucelosis han sido muy poco investigadas y no se profundiza en los síntomas y las posibles complicaciones que puede causar. Objetivo: reportar por primera vez en Cuba un caso de endocarditis infecciosa a consecuencia de brucelosis. Métodos: hombre blanco, de 57 años, campesino, remitido desde Vertientes, que ingresó en diciembre de 2009 en el Hospital Provincial "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" de Camagüey, con diagnóstico presuntivo de endocarditis infecciosa por Brucella e insuficiencia aórtica moderada, que refirió presentar fiebre, malestar general, decaimiento, dolores musculares, articulares, artritis, astenia marcada, anorexia, signos neurológicos, sudoración y fuerte dolor en el pecho. En anteriores ingresos fue tratado con antimicrobianos, indicándole entre los complementarios, serología lenta en busca de brucelosis, pero por no disponibilidad de reactivos no se realizaron estas pruebas hasta enero de 2010. Se precisaron como antecedentes epidemiológicos el contacto directo con ganado vacuno y porcino y la presencia de heridas y microtraumatismos en manos y pies, propios de su labor. Su finca colinda con otra donde hay ganado afectado de brucelosis. Resultados: los exámenes de laboratorio resultaron positivos con elevados títulos serológicos, y aunque no fue posible el aislamiento del agente etiológico mediante el cultivo, se confirmó serológicamente la enfermedad y la endocarditis infecciosa como complicación sobreañadida; esto llevó tratamiento con antimicrobianos y medicamentos para la afección cardíaca. Se diagnostican muy poco estas complicaciones a consecuencia de brucelosis en la literatura internacional, este es el primer reporte para Cuba. Conclusiones: la descripción de este caso, constituye una alerta en el diagnóstico de las endocarditis infecciosas quizá asociadas a antecedentes epidemiológicos de brucelosis.Introduction: the clinical manifestations of brucellosis have been poorly researched on and the symptoms and possible complications have not been deeply studied either. Objective: to report a case of infective endocarditis caused by brucellosis for the first time in Cuba. Methods: a Caucasian male farmer aged 57 years was referred from Vertientes municipality to be admitted at "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" provincial hospital in Camaguey province in December,2009. He had been presumptively diagnosed with infectious endocarditis caused by Brucella and with moderate aortic failure since he presented with fever, general malaise, fatigue, muscle and joint pains, arthritis, marked asthenia, anorexia, neurological signs, sweating and strong chest pain. In his previous hospitalization, he had been treated with antimicrobials after indication of supplementary tests such as slow serology for brucellosis; however, specific reagents were not available,so these tests were not performed until January 2010.The epidemiological history of this case included his direct contact with cows and pigs as well as wounds and minor traumas inflicted on his hands and feet resulting from his type of work. His farm is next to another farm where the cattle is also affected with brucellosis. Results: the lab tests were positive with high serological titres, and although it was not possible to isolate the etiologic agent through culturing, the disease and the infective endocarditis were serologically confirmed as additional complication; this required antimicrobial treatment and drugs for the heart disease. These complications from brucellosis are barely diagnosed in the international literature, and in Cuba, this is the first report of the disease. Conclusions: the description of this case is an alert to diagnosis of infective endocarditis that may be associated with epidemiological history of brucellosis.

  6. Primer reporte en Cuba de endocarditis infecciosa a consecuencia de brucelosis / First report of infective endocarditis in Cuba as a result of brucellosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gloria Sofía, García González; Iraida María, Saborido Pérez; Lázaro, Ramírez Lana; Isabel, Ponce de León Ávila.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las manifestaciones clínicas por brucelosis han sido muy poco investigadas y no se profundiza en los síntomas y las posibles complicaciones que puede causar. Objetivo: reportar por primera vez en Cuba un caso de endocarditis infecciosa a consecuencia de brucelosis. Métodos: hombre blan [...] co, de 57 años, campesino, remitido desde Vertientes, que ingresó en diciembre de 2009 en el Hospital Provincial "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" de Camagüey, con diagnóstico presuntivo de endocarditis infecciosa por Brucella e insuficiencia aórtica moderada, que refirió presentar fiebre, malestar general, decaimiento, dolores musculares, articulares, artritis, astenia marcada, anorexia, signos neurológicos, sudoración y fuerte dolor en el pecho. En anteriores ingresos fue tratado con antimicrobianos, indicándole entre los complementarios, serología lenta en busca de brucelosis, pero por no disponibilidad de reactivos no se realizaron estas pruebas hasta enero de 2010. Se precisaron como antecedentes epidemiológicos el contacto directo con ganado vacuno y porcino y la presencia de heridas y microtraumatismos en manos y pies, propios de su labor. Su finca colinda con otra donde hay ganado afectado de brucelosis. Resultados: los exámenes de laboratorio resultaron positivos con elevados títulos serológicos, y aunque no fue posible el aislamiento del agente etiológico mediante el cultivo, se confirmó serológicamente la enfermedad y la endocarditis infecciosa como complicación sobreañadida; esto llevó tratamiento con antimicrobianos y medicamentos para la afección cardíaca. Se diagnostican muy poco estas complicaciones a consecuencia de brucelosis en la literatura internacional, este es el primer reporte para Cuba. Conclusiones: la descripción de este caso, constituye una alerta en el diagnóstico de las endocarditis infecciosas quizá asociadas a antecedentes epidemiológicos de brucelosis. Abstract in english Introduction: the clinical manifestations of brucellosis have been poorly researched on and the symptoms and possible complications have not been deeply studied either. Objective: to report a case of infective endocarditis caused by brucellosis for the first time in Cuba. Methods: a Caucasian male f [...] armer aged 57 years was referred from Vertientes municipality to be admitted at "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" provincial hospital in Camaguey province in December,2009. He had been presumptively diagnosed with infectious endocarditis caused by Brucella and with moderate aortic failure since he presented with fever, general malaise, fatigue, muscle and joint pains, arthritis, marked asthenia, anorexia, neurological signs, sweating and strong chest pain. In his previous hospitalization, he had been treated with antimicrobials after indication of supplementary tests such as slow serology for brucellosis; however, specific reagents were not available,so these tests were not performed until January 2010.The epidemiological history of this case included his direct contact with cows and pigs as well as wounds and minor traumas inflicted on his hands and feet resulting from his type of work. His farm is next to another farm where the cattle is also affected with brucellosis. Results: the lab tests were positive with high serological titres, and although it was not possible to isolate the etiologic agent through culturing, the disease and the infective endocarditis were serologically confirmed as additional complication; this required antimicrobial treatment and drugs for the heart disease. These complications from brucellosis are barely diagnosed in the international literature, and in Cuba, this is the first report of the disease. Conclusions: the description of this case is an alert to diagnosis of infective endocarditis that may be associated with epidemiological history of brucellosis.

  7. Complex tricuspid valve repair for infective endocarditis: leaflet augmentation, chordae and annular reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarola, Christopher L; Losenno, Katie L; Chu, Michael W A

    2015-01-01

    Surgical treatment of tricuspid valve (TV) endocarditis remains a challenge because of extensive valve destruction, high risk of reinfection, poor outcomes with valve replacement and complex patient compliance issues. Reconstruction of the TV is certainly favoured over replacement; however, diffuse, multifocal vegetations and complete debridement often leave insufficient building materials necessary for repair. We describe our surgical reconstructive technique that relies upon extensive autologous pericardial patch augmentation of the destroyed TV leaflets to establish leaflet coaptation, supplemented with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene neo-chordae and annular reconstruction. We report our outcomes in a series of patients with grossly infected TVs with more than 50% of valvular destruction. PMID:25989809

  8. Infective endocarditis in children with congenital heart disease: comparison of selected features in patients with surgical correction or palliation and those without.

    OpenAIRE

    Karl, T.; Wensley, D; Stark, J.; de Leval, M; Rees, P.; Taylor, J. F.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnostic and prognostic features of 44 episodes of infective endocarditis in 42 children with congenital heart disease were reviewed. Endocarditis occurred in 18 patients who had not had surgical correction or palliation of the defect (non-operated group). There were 26 episodes in 24 patients who had been treated surgically (operated group) (16 open and eight closed cardiac operations). Endocarditis occurred soon after open heart surgery in eight patients and as a late complication in ...

  9. Multiple Embolism in a Female Patient with Infective Endocarditis: Low Back Pain and Hematuria as the Initial Clinical Manifestations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Luiz Campos, Vieira; Mônica Luisa Rappi, Schmidt; Marcos Valério Coimbra de, Resende; Luis Sérgio Afonso de, André Júnior.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old female patient with mitral valve prolapse and a previous history of lumbosacral spondyloarthrosis and lumbar disk hernia had an episode of infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus viridans, which evolved with peripheral embolism to the left kidney, spleen, and left iliac artery, and [...] intraventricular cerebral hemorrhage. Her clinical manifestations were low back pain and hematuria, which were initially attributed to an osteoarticular condition. Infective endocarditis is a severe polymorphic disease with multiple clinical manifestations and it should always be included in the differential diagnosis by clinicians.

  10. Multiple Embolism in a Female Patient with Infective Endocarditis: Low Back Pain and Hematuria as the Initial Clinical Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Marcelo Luiz Campos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old female patient with mitral valve prolapse and a previous history of lumbosacral spondyloarthrosis and lumbar disk hernia had an episode of infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus viridans, which evolved with peripheral embolism to the left kidney, spleen, and left iliac artery, and intraventricular cerebral hemorrhage. Her clinical manifestations were low back pain and hematuria, which were initially attributed to an osteoarticular condition. Infective endocarditis is a severe polymorphic disease with multiple clinical manifestations and it should always be included in the differential diagnosis by clinicians.

  11. Bartonella henselae Endocarditis in Laos – ‘The Unsought Will Go Undetected’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Chu, Vang; Frichitthavong, Khamthavy; Kesone, Pany; Mayxay, Mayfong; Mirabel, Mariana; Newton, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Both endocarditis and Bartonella infections are neglected public health problems, especially in rural Asia. Bartonella endocarditis has been described from wealthier countries in Asia, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India but there are no reports from poorer countries, such as the Lao PDR (Laos), probably because people have neglected to look. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a retrospective (2006–2012), and subsequent prospective study (2012–2013), at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos, through liaison between the microbiology laboratory and the wards. Patients aged >1 year admitted with definite or possible endocarditis according to modified Duke criteria were included. In view of the strong suspicion of infective endocarditis, acute and convalescent sera from 30 patients with culture negative endocarditis were tested for antibodies to Brucella melitensis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Bartonella quintana, B. henselae, Coxiella burnetii and Legionella pneumophila. Western blot analysis using Bartonella species antigens enabled us to describe the first two Lao patients with known Bartonella henselae endocarditis. Conclusions/Significance We argue that it is likely that Bartonella endocarditis is neglected and more widespread than appreciated, as there are few laboratories in Asia able to make the diagnosis. Considering the high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in Asia, there is remarkably little evidence on the bacterial etiology of endocarditis. Most evidence is derived from wealthy countries and investigation of the aetiology and optimal management of endocarditis in low income countries has been neglected. Interest in Bartonella as neglected pathogens is emerging, and improved methods for the rapid diagnosis of Bartonella endocarditis are needed, as it is likely that proven Bartonella endocarditis can be treated with simpler and less expensive regimens than “conventional” endocarditis and multicenter trials to optimize treatment are required. More understanding is needed on the risk factors for Bartonella endocarditis and the importance of vectors and vector control. PMID:25503777

  12. Complicaciones posoperatorias y mortalidad en pacientes operados por endocarditis infecciosa / Postoperative complications and mortality observed in patients operated on from infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joaquín, Gómez Armando Gonga; Milvio B, Ramírez López; Horacio E, Pérez López; Fidel Manuel, Cáceres Loriga; José R, Llanes.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir las causas de morbilidad y mortalidad perioperatorias en los pacientes afectos de endocarditis infecciosa activa y significar cómo pueden ser disminuidas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de las complicaciones posoperatorias y mortalidad en 139 pacientes operados por [...] presentar endocarditis infecciosa en un período de 16 años. Se efectuaron 147 operaciones a los 139 pacientes de las cuales 83 (57,1 %) fueron electivas y 64 (42,9 %) fueron de urgencia. El 24 % de los pacientes fueron remitidos de otros centros en los que habían sido sometidos a tratamiento médico no exitoso por más de 4 semanas. Resultados: las operaciones efectuadas fueron: Sustituciones valvulares aórticas,mitrales y tricuspídeas 75 (41,1 %), extracción de electrodos de marcapasos o desfibriladores automáticos implantables del ventrículo derecho 57 (41 %) , otras operaciones en número de 7 (4,9 %)y 8 reintervenciones. La complicación más frecuente fue la sepsis generalizada (10,07 % p Abstract in english Objective: To describe the causes of perioperative morbidity and mortality of patients suffering active infectious endocarditis and to explain how both aspects can be reduced. Methods: A retrospective study of postoperative complications and mortality observed in 139 patients operated on from infect [...] ious endocarditis in 16 years. One hundred forty seven surgeries were performed, of which 83 (57.1 %) were elective and 64 (42.9 %) were emergency surgeries. In this group, 24 % had been referred from other medical centers where they had been unsuccessfully treated for 4 weeks. Results: The performed surgeries comprised 15 aortic, mitral and tricuspid valve replacements, 57 (41 %) removals of pacemaker electrodes or of implanted automatic defibrillators in the right ventricle, seven other types of surgeries and 8 reoperations. The most frequent complication was generalized sepsis ((10.07 % p

  13. Endocarditis infecciosa por S. aureus en la Argentina: EIRA 2. Análisis comparativo luego de 10 años de los estudios EIRA 1 y 2 / S. aureus Infective Endocarditis in Argentina: A Comparative Analysis after 10 Years of EIRA-1 and EIRA-2 Surveys

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernesto R., Ferreirós; José H., Casabé; Francisco, Nacinovich; Sandra, Swieszkowski; Hernán, Cohen Arazi; Claudia, Cortés; Juan Carlos, Modenesi; Sergio, Varini.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Comparar el perfil y la evolución de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI) en nuestro país a lo largo de 10 años, a través de los registros EIRA-1 y EIRA-2. Determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas y la evolución hospitalaria de la EI por Staphylococcus aureus (EISA) en la Argent [...] ina. Métodos El estudio EIRA-2 fue un registro prospectivo multicéntrico conducido en 82 hospitales de 16 provincias de la Argentina. En el presente análisis se incluyeron pacientes con EI definidas (clasificación de Duke) relevados en un período de 18 meses. Resultados Se registraron 390 episodios de EI definidas (108 EISA y 282 no EISA); edad media 58,5 ± 17,3 años, sexo masculino 70%. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las 108 EISA y las 282 no EISA con respecto a edad, sexo, endocarditis de válvula protésica, enfermedad valvular degenerativa, presencia de insuficiencia cardíaca y frecuencia de tratamiento quirúrgico. La comparación de los registros EIRA-2 y EIRA-1 demostró cambios importantes en el perfil de la enfermedad en la última década, actualmente caracterizada por pacientes de mayor edad (58 versus 51 años), mayor prevalencia de cardiopatía subyacente 67% versus 55% (en particular prótesis valvulares 19,2% versus 8,5%, enfermedades valvulares degenerativas 12,4% versus 4,8% y cardiopatías congénitas 9,5% versus 4,2%), mayor frecuencia de infección causada por S. aureus (30% versus 26%) y menor por Streptococcus viridans (30,8% versus 26,8%), con una reducción del tiempo hasta el diagnóstico definitivo (21,5 versus 33 días). No se encontraron modificaciones en la tasa de mortalidad de la enfermedad. Se observó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p Abstract in english Work Objective To analyze the evolution and profile of infective endocarditis (IE) in Argentina during the last 10 years through the comparison of EIRA-1 and EIRA-2 surveys. To determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, and in-hospital evolution of S. aureus IE (SAIE) in Argentina. [...] Research Design and Methods The EIRA-2 survey was a prospective, multicentric study performed in 82 hospitals belonging to 16 of the 24 Argentinean provinces. Patients with definitive diagnosis of IE (Duke criteria) were followed-up during an 18-month period. Results Three hundred and ninety episodes of definitive IE were reported (108 SAIE and 282 non-SAIE); mean age was 58.5±17.3 years, male sex 70%. No statistically significant differences were observed between SAIE and non-SAIE regarding mean age, sex, prosthetic valve IE, degenerative valve IE, prevalence of heart failure and surgical treatment. The comparison of the EIRA-2 and EIRA-1 surveys showed that IE profile has changed in the last decade in Argentina. Currently, patients are older (58 vs. 51 years), and have a higher prevalence of underlying heart disease (67% vs. 55%) particularly prosthetic valve (19.2% vs. 8.5%), degenerative valve disease (12.4% vs. 4.8%), and congenital heart disease (9.5% vs. 4.2%); infections were more frequently caused by S. aureus (30% vs. 26%) and less by S. viridans (30.8% vs. 26.8%) with a decreased time until final diagnosis (21.5 vs. 33 days). No significant changes were observed in the overall mortality rate. Patients with SAIE showed a significantly (p

  14. Effect of the hematological and biochemical parameters on outcomes of the patients with infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya ?slamo?lu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to examine haematological changes in infective endocarditis (IE and the association between laboratory findings and mortality or complications including events in IE.Materials and methods: Forty-four patients who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of IE at the Department of Cardiology, Dicle University, Ataturk University and Harran University, from June 2007 to June 2011, were retrospectively evaluated. The diagnosis of IE was made clinically and was confi rmed with Duke’s criteria. The haematological and biochemical parameters were recorded.Results: Age, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, mean platelet volume and complication rate (p <0.004, p <0.05, p <0.03, p <0.05, p <0.01, p <0.004, respectively were elevated in patients who died due to infective endocarditis compared with patients who survived. However, platelet count were lower in patients died (p <0.05. Additionally, patients who developed complications were no difference laboratory findings compared with patients without complications.Conclusion: Age, MPV and presence of complications can be used as risk factors for mortality in IE. In addition, S.aureus is associated with complications.

  15. 67Ga imaging in the patients with infective endocarditis after surgery for congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    67Ga imaging was performed in sixteen patients (age: 8 m.-18 y.) who had persistent fever and positive acute phase reactants after surgery for congenital heart disease. Abnormal uptake of 67Ga over the heart and the lungs was evaluated with a computer. Abnormal uptake of 67Ga was observed in seven patients. Of them, three showed it in the area of peripheral pulmonary artery and the other four showed it in the area of artificial vessels for pulmonary artery reconstruction. In six patients with positive blood cultures, five showed abnormal uptake of 67Ga and in ten patients with negative blood cultures, two showed it. Vegetation was detected with 2D-echocardiography in four patients and all of them showed abnormal uptake of 67Ga, while in 12 patients without vegetation three showed it. In conclusion, 67Ga imaging was useful to detect the foci of infective endocarditis or pulmonary embolism caused by the vegetation in infective endocarditis in the patients after surgery for congenital heart disease, especially in the peripheral pulmonary arteries and artificial vessels which could not be detected with 2D-echo. (author)

  16. [Multiple pulmonary emboli complicating infective endocarditis in a child with congenital heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdakar, S; Elbouderkaoui, M; Rada, N; Drais, G; Bouskraoui, M

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary embolism in children is a rare condition, associated with high mortality. Clinical presentation is nonspecific. Pulmonary embolism may present initially similar to bacterial endocarditis of the right heart, septic thrombophlebitis, or osteomyelitis. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who had dyspnea over the four months before consultation, complicated three months later by hemoptysis. She was diagnosed with subacute bacterial endocarditis secondary to group D Streptococcus, developed upon a ventricular septal defect. Two weeks later, the child had sudden chest pain and tachypnea. Lung scintigraphy showed multiple pulmonary embolisms. The therapeutic approach was to continue antibiotics without anticoagulant treatment. The outcome was favorable with apyrexia and stabilization on the respiratory level. Pulmonary embolism is a rare disease in children with an incidence of 3.7%. Classically, it presents with fever, hemoptysis, and nonspecific infiltrates on chest X-ray. These signs were noted in our patient, although the infiltrates on the chest X-ray were hidden by the pulmonary edema associated with heart failure. The persistence of these left basal opacities after antidiuretic treatment suggested an infectious origin. Subsequently, lung scintigraphy showed that it was a pulmonary infarct. The therapy of septic pulmonary embolism is the same as that for infective endocarditis. Antibiotic treatment alone was maintained without anticoagulants because of the high risk of bleeding at the seat of the pulmonary embolism and the insubstantial significant benefit of this therapy. Pulmonary embolism in children is a rare disease, but its incidence is underestimated. Better knowledge on its actual impact and etiologies in children is necessary. Multicenter studies are needed to establish recommendations. PMID:25725970

  17. Cases of active infective endocarditis in a university hospital during a 10-year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the features of patients with active infective endocarditis, and to identify causative microorganisms in blood and/or valve cultures. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Surgical Intensive Care Unit of Istanbul University Cardiology Institute, Istanbul, Turkey, and comprised 22 patients with clinical evidence of the affliction who underwent operation between January 2001 and December 2010. Modified Duke Criteria was used for the diagnosis of the condition. Frequencies and percentages were calculated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 46.68+-18 years, and 12 (54.5%) were male. Native valve endocarditis was present in 13 (59.1%) cases and prosthetic valve endocarditis was present in 9 (40.9%). Rheumatic heart disease was the commonest underlying heart disease (n=12; 54.5%). None of patient was intravenous drug abuser and positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Operative mortality was 18% (n=4). Vegetation and abscess formation were detected in 19 (86.3%) cases. Blood culture positivity was 50% (n=11). Staphylococci was the most common causative micro-organism (n=4; 36.3%), followed by Streptococci (n=3; 27.3%), and 1 (9.1%) each for Enterococci, Brucella species, Candida albicans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Positive cultures from vegetations and tissue retrieved at the operation was not detected. Conclusion: Active IE remains a severe disease affecting the young population in our study and rheumatic heart diseason in our study and rheumatic heart disease continues to be the most underlying heart disease. Culture negativity was found to be very high and prior antibiotic therapy may be the prime reason. (author)

  18. Infective endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a young woman after ear piercing: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Mijeong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ear piercing is a common practice among Korean adolescents and young women and usually is performed by nonmedical personnel, sometimes under suboptimal hygienic conditions. Consequently, ear piercing has been associated with various infectious complications, including fatal infective endocarditis. We report a case of infective endocarditis that was caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after ear piercing and that was accompanied by a noticeable facial rash. Case presentation A 29-year-old Korean woman underwent ear piercing six days before hospitalization. On admission, she had fever, erythematous maculopapular rashes on her face, signs of generalized emboli, vegetation in her mitral valve, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. On the basis of the blood culture results, she was treated with vancomycin in combination with gentamicin. On day six of hospitalization, a rupture of the papillary muscle of her mitral valve developed, and emergency cardiac surgery replacing her mitral valve with a prosthetic valve was performed. After eight weeks of antibiotic therapy, she was treated successfully and discharged without significant sequelae. Conclusions Numerable cases of body piercing-related infective endocarditis have been reported, and since ear piercing is commonplace nowadays, the importance of risk recognition cannot be overemphasized. In our report, a patient developed infective endocarditis that was caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus after ear piercing and that was accompanied by an interesting feature, namely facial rash.

  19. What is the optimal timing for surgery in infective endocarditis with cerebrovascular complications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Michele; Gallo, Alina; De Silva, Ravi Joseph; Sayeed, Rana

    2012-01-01

    Neurologic dysfunction complicates the course of 10-40% of left-side infective endocarditis (IE). In right-sided IE, instead, when systemic emboli occur, paradoxical embolism should be considered. The spectrum of neurologic events includes embolic cerebrovascular complication (CVC), intracranial haemorrhage, ruptured mycotic aneurysm, transient ischaemic attack (TIA), meningitis, encephalopathy and brain abscess. Cardiopulmonary bypass might exacerbate neurological deficits due to: heparinization and secondary cerebral haemorrhage; hypotension and cerebral oedema in areas of the disrupted blood brain barrier. A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was, whether there is an optimal timing for surgery in IE with CVCs. One hundred papers were found using the reported search criteria, and out of these 20 papers, provided the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results were tabulated. We found that evidence is conflicting because of lack of controlled studies. The optimal timing for the valve replacement depends on the type of neurological complication and the urgency of the operation. The new 2009 Guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) recommend a multidisciplinary approach and to wait for 1-2 weeks of antibiotics treatment before performing cardiac surgery. However, early surgery is indicated in: heart failure (class 1 B), uncontrolled infection (class 1 B) and prevention of embolic events (class 1B/C). After a stroke, surgery should not be delayed as long as coma is absent and cerebral haemorrhage has been excluded by cranial CT (class IIa level B). After a TIA or a silent cerebral embolism, surgery is recommended without delay (class 1 level B). In intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), surgery must be postponed for at least 1 month (class 1 level C). Surgery for prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) follows the general principles outlined for native valve IE. Every patient should have a repeated head CT scan immediately before the operation to rule out a preoperative haemorrhagic transformation of a brain infarction. The presence of a haematoma warrants neurosurgical consultation and consideration of cerebral angiography to rule out a mycotic aneurysm. PMID:22108925

  20. Active infective endocarditis observed in an Indian hospital 1981-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, R; Grover, A; Varma, J; Khattri, H N; Anand, I S; Bidwai, P S; Wahi, P L; Sapru, R P

    1992-12-01

    Clinical data from 186 patients (133 males and 53 females) with 190 episodes of infective endocarditis (IE) occurring between January 1981 and July 1991 were studied retrospectively at a large referral hospital in Northern India with the intention of highlighting certain essential differences from those reported in the West. The mean age was much lower (25 +/- SD 12 years, range 2 to 75 years). Rheumatic heart disease was the most frequent underlying heart lesion accounting for 79 patients (42%). This was followed by congenital heart disease in 62 (33%) and normal valve endocarditis in 17 (9%). Twenty-four patients had either aortic regurgitation (n = 15) or mitral regurgitation (n = 9) of uncertain etiology. Prosthetic valve infection and mitral valve prolapse were present in only 2 patients each. A definite predisposing factor could be identified in only 28 patients (15%). Postabortal sepsis and sepsis related to childbirth accounted for 6 and 5 cases, respectively. Only 1 patient had history of intravenous drug abuse. Two-dimensional echocardiography showed vegetations in 121 patients (64%). Blood cultures were positive in only 87 (47%), with a total of 90 microbial isolates. Commonest infecting organisms were staphylococci (37 cases) and streptococci (34 cases). Except for a significantly higher number of patients with neurologic complications in the culture-negative group, there were no differences between patients with culture-positive and culture-negative IE. Of the 190 episodes of IE, the patients had received antibiotics before admission in 110 (58%) instances. A significantly greater number of culture-negative patients had received antibiotics than did culture-positive patients (87 vs 23, p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1442618

  1. Endocarditis infecciosa por Listeria monocytogenes: revisión de la literatura a partir de un caso clínico / Infective endocarditis caused by Listeria monocytogenes: review of the literature and a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arnaldo, Marín; Nicole, Lustig; Ricardo, Cruz; Samuel, Córdova.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa por Listeria monocytogenes es una enfermedad extremadamente infrecuente, pero usualmente agresiva. Se ha observado en los últimos años un aumento en la edad de presentación y una predilección por pacientes con enfermedad valvular, especialmente válvula protésica. El tratam [...] iento de elección es ampicilina combinada con un aminoglucósido para obtener sinergismo. Aun con un tratamiento adecuado, la mortalidad es elevada y mayor que en otros tipos de endocarditis bacteriana. Con una terapia óptima, incluyendo la resolución quirúrgica, la mortalidad ha disminuido significativamente en los últimos años. Se presenta una revisión de la literatura científica a partir de un caso clínico de un paciente con un síndrome febril en el que se diagnosticó una endocarditis por L. monocytogenesque fue tratada en forma médica con un resultado exitoso. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis caused by Listeria monocytogenesis an extremely rare but usually aggressive disease. We have seen in recent years an increase in age of onset of this disease and a predilection for patients with valvular disease, especially prosthetic valve. The treatment of choice is ampicill [...] in, which is combined with gentamicin for synergy. It is known that even with treatment the mortality is very high and higher than in other types of bacterial endocarditis. With optimal therapy, that is medical-surgical, mortality has declined significantly in recent years. We presents a review of the literature and a clinical case of a patient with a febrile syndrome diagnosed as a infective endocarditis caused by L. monocytogenestreated medically with successful outcome to date.

  2. Endocardite infecciosa: 12 anos de tratamento cirúrgico Infective endocarditis: 12 years of surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoninho Sanfins ARNONI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A endocardite é uma doença de tratamento difícil e que freqüentemente necessita da participação cirúrgica. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro de 1987 e janeiro de 1999, 159 pacientes foram operados em nosso Serviço, sendo 64,7% do sexo masculino. Este grupo apresentou idade média de 39,2 anos (2 a 78 anos, com peso médio de 57,1 kg. O acometimento valvar aórtico foi o mais freqüente (66 pacientes, sendo na valva nativa em 47 casos e em próteses em 19 (8 metálicas e 11 biológicas: a lesão mitral verificou-se em 53 pacientes, sendo mais comum em portadores de prótese (28 biológicas e 2 metálicas. O comprometimento das duas valvas esteve presente em 28 casos. Os demais pacientes eram portadores de defeitos congênitos ou de marcapasso definitivo. A operação foi indicada por refratariedade ao tratamento clínico, insuficiência cardíaca, quadro infeccioso levando a disfunção valvar ou de prótese, vazamento periprotético, ou ainda por arritmia. RESULTADOS: O estudo microbiológico evidenciou maior prevalência de infecção por Streptococcus viridans e Staphilococcus aureus. A operação realizada nos portadores de endocardite infecciosa em valva nativa propiciou a conservação da valva em 3 pacientes do grupo mitral e em 1 do grupo aórtico; nos demais pacientes empregaram-se próteses (a maioria metálica em aórticos e biológica em mitrais. As reoperações foram freqüentes, tendo pacientes com até quarta operação. A lesão congênita responsável pela maioria dos casos foi a comunicação interventricular (3 casos e 4 pacientes apresentavam a endocardite em eletrodo de marcapasso. A mortalidade global foi de 16,3%, com maior incidência em portadores de prótese mitral e aórtica submetidos a reoperação. A presença de abscesso como complicação da endocardite infecciosa verificou-se em 18,2% dos pacientes, utilizando-se pericárdio bovino na reconstrução da maioria, com mortalidade de 17,2%. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que o tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite infecciosa representa um desafio para o cirurgião, apesar de todo o progresso adicionado ao arsenal diagnóstico e terapêutico desta patologia.BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis is a disease of difficult and multidisciplinar treatment that frequently needs the surgical participation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 1987 and January 1999, 159 patients were operated on in our Service for infective endocarditis. Male group represented 64.7%. The mean age was 39.2 yr. (2 to 78 yr. and the mean weight 57.1 kg. The aortic valve was affected most frequently (66 patients, the native valve was affected in 47 cases and the prostheses in 19 (11 bioprostheses and 8 mechanic valves. The mitral valve was affected in 53 patients, most commonly in prostheses (28 bioprostheses and 2 mechanical. Aortic and mitral valves were together affected in 28 cases. The other patients had congenital defects or definitive pacemaker. Surgical treatment was indicated in cases of heart failure, refractory to medical treatment, valvar or prosthesis dysfunction secondary to infection, leak or arrhythmia. RESULTS: Cultures revealed that Streptococcus viridans and Staphilococcus aureus were the most prevalent microorganisms. Valve repair was possible in 3 patients of mitral group and one of aortic group. For the others, prostheses were used (mechanical for aortic valve and bioprostetic for mitral valve in the majority of the cases. Reoperation was frequent. Ventricular septal defect was the most common congenital pathology (3 cases and 4 patients presented infective endocarditis in pacemaker wire. The global mortality was 16.3%. Abscess as a complication was presented in 18.2% of the patients. We used bovine pericardium for reconstruction with a surgical mortality of 17.2%. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the treatment for infective endocarditis represents a surgical challenge, in spite of the progress added to the diagnostic and therapeutic armamentarium of this pathology.

  3. Endocardite infecciosa: 12 anos de tratamento cirúrgico / Infective endocarditis: 12 years of surgical treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antoninho Sanfins, ARNONI; Josué de, CASTRO NETO; Renato Tambellini, ARNONI; Antonio Flávio Sanches de, ALMEIDA; Camilo, ABDULMASSIH NETO; Jarbas J., DINKHUYSEN; Mario, ISSA; Paulo, CHACCUR; Paulo P., PAULISTA.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A endocardite é uma doença de tratamento difícil e que freqüentemente necessita da participação cirúrgica. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro de 1987 e janeiro de 1999, 159 pacientes foram operados em nosso Serviço, sendo 64,7% do sexo masculino. Este grupo apresentou idade média de 39, [...] 2 anos (2 a 78 anos), com peso médio de 57,1 kg. O acometimento valvar aórtico foi o mais freqüente (66 pacientes), sendo na valva nativa em 47 casos e em próteses em 19 (8 metálicas e 11 biológicas): a lesão mitral verificou-se em 53 pacientes, sendo mais comum em portadores de prótese (28 biológicas e 2 metálicas). O comprometimento das duas valvas esteve presente em 28 casos. Os demais pacientes eram portadores de defeitos congênitos ou de marcapasso definitivo. A operação foi indicada por refratariedade ao tratamento clínico, insuficiência cardíaca, quadro infeccioso levando a disfunção valvar ou de prótese, vazamento periprotético, ou ainda por arritmia. RESULTADOS: O estudo microbiológico evidenciou maior prevalência de infecção por Streptococcus viridans e Staphilococcus aureus. A operação realizada nos portadores de endocardite infecciosa em valva nativa propiciou a conservação da valva em 3 pacientes do grupo mitral e em 1 do grupo aórtico; nos demais pacientes empregaram-se próteses (a maioria metálica em aórticos e biológica em mitrais). As reoperações foram freqüentes, tendo pacientes com até quarta operação. A lesão congênita responsável pela maioria dos casos foi a comunicação interventricular (3 casos) e 4 pacientes apresentavam a endocardite em eletrodo de marcapasso. A mortalidade global foi de 16,3%, com maior incidência em portadores de prótese mitral e aórtica submetidos a reoperação. A presença de abscesso como complicação da endocardite infecciosa verificou-se em 18,2% dos pacientes, utilizando-se pericárdio bovino na reconstrução da maioria, com mortalidade de 17,2%. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que o tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite infecciosa representa um desafio para o cirurgião, apesar de todo o progresso adicionado ao arsenal diagnóstico e terapêutico desta patologia. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis is a disease of difficult and multidisciplinar treatment that frequently needs the surgical participation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 1987 and January 1999, 159 patients were operated on in our Service for infective endocarditis. Male group represented 6 [...] 4.7%. The mean age was 39.2 yr. (2 to 78 yr.) and the mean weight 57.1 kg. The aortic valve was affected most frequently (66 patients), the native valve was affected in 47 cases and the prostheses in 19 (11 bioprostheses and 8 mechanic valves). The mitral valve was affected in 53 patients, most commonly in prostheses (28 bioprostheses and 2 mechanical). Aortic and mitral valves were together affected in 28 cases. The other patients had congenital defects or definitive pacemaker. Surgical treatment was indicated in cases of heart failure, refractory to medical treatment, valvar or prosthesis dysfunction secondary to infection, leak or arrhythmia. RESULTS: Cultures revealed that Streptococcus viridans and Staphilococcus aureus were the most prevalent microorganisms. Valve repair was possible in 3 patients of mitral group and one of aortic group. For the others, prostheses were used (mechanical for aortic valve and bioprostetic for mitral valve in the majority of the cases). Reoperation was frequent. Ventricular septal defect was the most common congenital pathology (3 cases) and 4 patients presented infective endocarditis in pacemaker wire. The global mortality was 16.3%. Abscess as a complication was presented in 18.2% of the patients. We used bovine pericardium for reconstruction with a surgical mortality of 17.2%. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the treatment for infective endocarditis represents a surgical challenge, in spite of the progress added to the diagnostic and therapeutic armamentarium of this pathology.

  4. Addition of Rifampin to Standard Therapy for Treatment of Native Valve Infective Endocarditis Caused by Staphylococcus aureus?

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, David J.; Weekes, Elizabeth; Forrest, Graeme N

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of native valve infective endocarditis (IE). Rifampin is often added to traditional therapy for the management of serious S. aureus infections. There are no large, prospective studies documenting the safety and efficacy of adjunctive therapy with rifampin for treatment of native valve S. aureus IE. We reviewed all cases of definite native valve S. aureus IE confirmed by modified Duke criteria in a large urban hospital between 1 January 2004 and 31 Decem...

  5. Acute mesenteric ischaemia with infective endocarditis: is there a role for anticoagulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Muhammad; Waheed, Shahan; Haider, Zishan; Shariff, Amir Hafeez

    2013-01-01

    A case of a 30-year-old woman with an end-stage renal disease and recently diagnosed with infective endocarditis, who presented with acute abdominal pain. An initial assessment of acute appendicitis was made. A CT scan of the abdomen showed a partially occluded superior mesenteric artery with radiographic evidence of ischaemia in an ileal loop. Intraoperatively, a 5-6 cm segment of the distal ileum was found to be non-viable. The segment was resected with the creation of a double-barrel ileostomy. This case report draws attention to the question of a need for anticoagulation for a septic embolus in the superior mesenteric artery. We could not find evidence on the use of postoperative anticoagulation in this scenario. In this case, the patient was started on oral anticoagulation. PMID:23774707

  6. Transesophageal imaging of a left main coronary artery ostium occlusion in infective endocarditis: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Kim, Hyae-Jin; Ri, Hyun-Su; Lee, Sun-Jae

    2015-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman was admitted due to fever, chills, and headache for several days and was diagnosed as infective endocarditis. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examination confirmed severe aortic stenosis and showed relatively fresh 1.5 cm vegetation on the left coronary cusp of the aortic valve (AV) with frequent diastolic prolapse into the aortic root. This mobile vegetation partially occluded left coronary ostium, but it did not cause cardiac failure. TEE showed the vegetation to be in good position across the AV. The AV replacement with removal of vegetation and mitral valvuloplasty were performed. The patient was weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass without any hemodynamic instability or changes in ST segment on electrocardiography. She was discharged on the 28th postoperative day without any complication.

  7. Infective endocarditis of the aortic valve in a Border collie dog with patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takuma; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Ito, Tetsuro; Kanai, Eiichi; Fujii, Yoko

    2015-04-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) in dogs with cardiac shunts has not been reported previously. However, we encountered a dog with concurrent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and IE. The dog was a 1-year-old, 13.9-kg female Border collie and presented with anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia (40.4°C) and lameness. A continuous murmur with maximal intensity over the left heart base (Levine 5/6) was detected on auscultation. Echocardiography revealed a PDA and severe aortic stenosis (AS) caused by aortic-valve vegetative lesions. Corynebacterium spp. and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from blood cultures. The dog responded to aggressive antibiotic therapy, and the PDA was subsequently surgically corrected. After a series of treatments, the dog showed long-term improvement in clinical status. PMID:25391395

  8. Endocardite infecciosa num recém-nascido pré-termo / Infective endocarditis in a preterm newborn

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiana, Ribeiro; Marta, Rios; Luísa, Lopes; Sílvia, Álvares; Elisa, Proença; Ana, Guedes.

    Full Text Available Introdução: A endocardite infecciosa é uma situação rara mas grave no período neonatal. Caso clínico: Os autores descrevem o caso clínico de um recém-nascido, pré-termo de 31 semanas que ao 15º dia de vida apresentou quadro séptico pelo que iniciou antibioticoterapia. Nas hemoculturas efectuadas iso [...] lou-se Staphylococus aureus, sensível aos antibióticos prescritos e o cateter epicutâneo-cava introduzido no sexto dia de vida foi nesta altura substituído. Ao 25º dia detectou-se sopro sistólico grau II/VI, tendo o ecocardiograma mostrado imagem sugestiva de vegetação na válvula tricúspide (dimensões-8,5x4mm). Por suspeita de endocardite bacteriana, efectuou tratamento com vancomicina, gentamicina e rifampicina. As hemoculturas posteriores foram estéreis e não se verificou aumento do tamanho da vegetação. Em ambulatório manteve-se clinicamente bem e actualmente, com nove meses de idade corrigida apresenta vegetação de 3x3mm. Conclusão: A suspeita de endocardite bacteriana deve ser considerada nos recém-nascidos com sépsis hospitalar, internados numa Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos, com colocação de cateter venoso central, sobretudo se os agentes envolvidos são o Staphylococcus aureus ou fungos. A base do tratamento é um curso prolongado de antibioticoterapia com um regime bactericida apropriado. Contudo a mortalidade permanece elevada. Abstract in english Background: Infective endocarditis is a rare but serious illness in neonatal period. Case report: The authors describe the case of a preterm newborn, 31 weeks of gestation who presented at 15th day of life a condition consistent with neonatal sepsis and antibiotic therapy was administered. Staphyloc [...] ocus aureus, sensitive to antibiotics that were prescribed, were detected in blood cultures and the central venous line introduced at 6th day of life was replaced at this point. At 25th day an II/VI grade blowing systolic murmur was heard and the echocardiography showed a suggestive image of vegetation (size-8,5x4mm) in the tricuspid valve. Bacterial endocarditis was suspected and the newborn was treated with vancomycin, gentamicin and rifampicin. The subsequent blood cultures were negative and no increase on vegetation size was observed. In ambulatory, he remained clinically well and actually, with nine months of corrected age, the size of vegetation is 3x3mm. Conclusion: Suspicion of infective endocarditis must be considered in newborns with hospital sepsis in an intensive care setting, with an indwelling catheter, especially if the agents involved are Staphylococcus aureus or fungi. The cornerstone of treatment is a prolonged course of antibiotic treatment with an appropriate bactericidal regimen. However mortality remains high.

  9. Infective endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a young woman after ear piercing: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Mijeong; Durey Areum; Park Jae; Chung Moon-Hyun; Nah So-Yun; Lee Jin-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Ear piercing is a common practice among Korean adolescents and young women and usually is performed by nonmedical personnel, sometimes under suboptimal hygienic conditions. Consequently, ear piercing has been associated with various infectious complications, including fatal infective endocarditis. We report a case of infective endocarditis that was caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after ear piercing and that was accompanied by a ...

  10. DISTINGUISHED CHARACTERISTICS OF INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS IN HIV/AIDS AMONG INTRAVENOUS DRUGS ABUSED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Ponomareva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim – definition of distinguished characteristics of the right-sided infective endocarditis (IE inintravenous drugs abused with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS.Materials and methods. The study included 10 patients with right-sided IE in conjunction with HIV/AIDS. All patients were male, age – from 28to 36 years.Results. Course of the IE in HIV/AIDS among intravenous drugs abused in general corresponds to features specific to IE in intravenous drug users without HIV infection. Distinctive features of IE in these patients are a large burden of lung disease, its disseminated character, more tissue oxygenation disorders and marked pulmonary hypertension and haematological disorders (lymphopenia, anemia, and late diagnosis of IE.Conclusion. Features of the current right-sided IE in intravenous drugs abused with HIV/AIDS are distinguished . Difficulties in diagnosis of IE inHIV infection are due to variety of causes of prolonged fever, which should guide doctors to more frequent use of transthoracic echocardiography during prolonged fever in HIV-infected patients.

  11. Apuntes sobre la fisiopatología, etiología, diagnóstico, tratamiento y profilaxis de la endocarditis infecciosa / Notes on the physiopathology, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hiram, Tápanes Daumy; Elsa, Fleitas Ruisanchez; Eliobert, Díaz Bertot; Andrés, Savío Benavides; Maylin, Peña Fernández.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa es una afección de difícil diagnóstico en Cardiología, con características clínicas muy variadas y una epidemiología cambiante en los últimos años. En la presente revisión se tratan aspectos novedosos sobre su clasificación, etiología y fisiopatología; además, se presentan [...] las herramientas fundamentales para su diagnóstico, punto de partida para su tratamiento médico basado primordialmente en la terapia antimicrobiana, así como los criterios quirúrgicos y la conducta actual en la profilaxis antimicrobiana de esta compleja entidad. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis is a disease of difficult diagnosis in cardiology, with highly variable clinical characteristics and changing epidemiology in the last few years. The present review dealt with novel aspects on classification, etiology and physiopathology of the disease in addition to the prese [...] ntation of the fundamental tools for diagnosis, which is the starting point for the medical treatment basically supported on the antimicrobial therapy. It also set forth the surgical criteria and the present performance in the antimicrobial prophylaxis of this complex disease.

  12. Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus catheter-related infection and infective endocarditis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the experimental rabbit model.

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, U; Chambers, H. F.

    1996-01-01

    The role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor with and without antibiotics in the treatment of catheter-related infection and infective endocarditis caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was assessed in the experimental rabbit model. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor stimulated leukocytosis in infected animals but did not increase the clearance of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus from peripheral blood, subcutaneous port catheters, intravascular cardiac catheters, or...

  13. Factores asociados a aumento de la sensibilidad del ecocardiograma transtorácico en el diagnóstico de la endocarditis infecciosa / Associated factors to increased sensivity in the transthoracic echocardiogram for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorenzo, Hernando; José Luis, Zamorano; Leopoldo, Pérez de Isla; Carlos, Almería; José Luis, Rodrigo; Ada Lia, Aubele; Luis, Mataix; Dionisio, Herrera; Carlos, Macaya.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos: Actualmente se considera que los hallazgos ecocardiográficos son un componente esencial en el diagnóstico de la endocarditis infecciosa. La ecocardiografía transesofágica es más sensible que el estudio transtorácico para el diagnóstico de la endocarditis infecciosa y sus co [...] mplicaciones. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar qué factores estaban asociados a una mayor sensibilidad del ecocardiograma transtorácico en el diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa. La presencia de dichos factores en un paciente con ecocardiograma transtorácico normal haría poco necesaria la realización de un estudio transesofágico y orientaría al clínico a buscar localidades infecciosas alternativas en localizaciones diferentes al corazón. Métodos: 127 pacientes consecutivos ingresados en el hospital con el diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa fueron evaluados, analizándose variables clínicas, microbiológicas, factores de riesgo, datos evolutivos, complicaciones y ventana acústica del ecocardiograma transtorácico. Resultados: En el análisis univariado, la existencia de ventana acústica adecuada, la presencia de un soplo, valvulopatía degenerativa y hemocultivos positivos se asociaban de forma estadísticamente significativa a una mayor incidencia de ecocardiograma transtorácico positivo.Sin embargo, en el análisis multivariado sólo la presencia de soplo (RR 2.724; IC95% 1.071-6.926; p 0.035) y la existencia de una ventana acústica adecuada (RR 5.538; IC95% 2.75- 11.15; p Abstract in english Introduction and objectives: Echocardiography is considered a basic tool in the diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis. Transesophageal echocardiography is more sensitive than transthoracic echocardiography. Our aim was to describe which factors are related to the ability of transthoraci [...] c echocardiography to establish the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.The presence of this factors in a patient with a normal transthoracic echocardiography would make unnecessary to perform a transesophageal echocardiography and would suggest to seek for other diagnostic possibilities. Methods:127 consecutive patients admitted to our hospital with the diagnosis of infective endocarditis and a complete transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography comprised our study group. Predisposing factors and clinical, echocardiographic and microbiological variables were studied. Results: The presence of a cardiac murmur, the presence of an optimal acoustic window, degenerative valvular disease as the predisposing factor for infective endocarditis and positive blood cultures were related to the ability of transthoracic echocardiography to diagnose the existence of signs of infective endocarditis on its own. Nevertheless,only the presence of a cardiac murmur (RR 2.724; 95% CI 1.071-6.926; p 0,035) and the presence of an optimal acoustic window (RR 5.538; 95%IC 2.75-11.15; p

  14. First reported case of infective endocarditis caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus not associated with healthcare contact in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudio Querido, Fortes; Claudia Adelino, Espanha; Flavio Pedreira, Bustorff; Bruno Cordeiro, Zappa; Adriana Lucia Pires, Ferreira; Regina Barbosa, Moreira; Nelson Gonçalves, Pereira; Vance G., Fowler Jr.; Hitesh, Deshmukh.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first case of endocarditis due to CA-MRSA not associated with healthcare contact in Brazil in Brazil. A previously healthy patient presented with history of endocarditis following a traumatic wound infection. Patient had multiple positive blood cultures within 72 h of admission an [...] d met modified Duke's criterion for infective endocarditis. The isolate was typed as Staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec type IV and was positive for presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Increased incidence of CA-MRSA endocarditis is a challenge for the internist to choose the best empirical therapy. Several authors have suggested an empirical therapy with both a beta-lactam and an anti-MRSA agent for serious S. aureus infections. Our patient was treated with Vancomycin and made complete recovery in 3 months.

  15. First reported case of infective endocarditis caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus not associated with healthcare contact in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Querido Fortes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first case of endocarditis due to CA-MRSA not associated with healthcare contact in Brazil in Brazil. A previously healthy patient presented with history of endocarditis following a traumatic wound infection. Patient had multiple positive blood cultures within 72 h of admission and met modified Duke's criterion for infective endocarditis. The isolate was typed as Staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC mec type IV and was positive for presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL. Increased incidence of CA-MRSA endocarditis is a challenge for the internist to choose the best empirical therapy. Several authors have suggested an empirical therapy with both a beta-lactam and an anti-MRSA agent for serious S. aureus infections. Our patient was treated with Vancomycin and made complete recovery in 3 months.

  16. Fatores determinantes da letalidade após cirurgia para endocardite infecciosa Postoperative mortality in infective endocarditis: determinant factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles André

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos a influência de dados demográficos, fatores predisponentes, aspectos clínicos, variáveis operatórias sobre a evolução em 39 pacientes operados por endocardite infecciosa (EI. Utilizamos os testes t de Student, X²ou exato de Fisher em análises univariadas, regressão logística para determinação de fatores adversos independentes. O impacto do número destes fatores sobre a evolução foi estudado pelo teste exato de Fisher. Valvas mais afetadas: aórtica (20 e mitral (16; germes mais comuns: Staphylococcus aureus (12 e Streptococcus sp (10. Cirurgia de emergência e a presença de coma seis horas após a operação elevaram a letalidade (p=0,001 e p=0,0015, bem como infecção pelo S.aureus (p=0,023 e presença de complicações neurológicas (p=0,097. A concomitância de dois ou três destes fatores elevou particularmente a letalidade (>76,9%. Pacientes com EI devem receber cuidadosa avaliação quanto a indicação cirúrgica nas fases iniciais da doença, já que a concomitância de variáveis adversas e cirurgias em caráter de emergência elevam fortemente a letalidade por EI.The factors leading to high postoperative mortality in active infectious endocarditis (IE are poorly defined. We studied patients operated at an University Hospital between March 1978 and April 1992. We hipothesized that the summation of potential adverse factors would strongly increase mortality after surgery. We studied 39 patients (28 men, age range 13-70 years (mean±SD =32±16 operated during active IE (time from onset 52+48 days. Predisposing factor: rheumatic valvar disease in 14 cases, intravenous drug use in 5. Affected valves: aortic in 14, mitral in 10, tricuspid in 8, multiple structures in 7. In most cases, S aureus (12 or Streptoccocus sp (10 was isolated in blood cultures. Surgery was indicated in most patients because of heart failure (30, multiple embolic complications (17 or treatment failure (14. The possible adverse influence of specific demographic characteristics, clinical features and surgical variables was assessed by the Student t test or the %² test. Also, multple regression analysis was performed in order to identify independent adverse factors for increased mortality. Positive correlations were further investigated with the X² test to assess whether an increasing number of adverse factors could identify a special subset of patients with markedly elevated death risk. Fourteen patients (36% died after surgery. Emergency surgery (p = 0.001, the presence of coma 6 hours after surgery (p = 0.0015 and S. aureus infection (p = 0.023 were all associated with increased mortality. The presence of neurological complications was correlated with a high mortality (54% vs. 27%. However this increase was of dubious statistical significance (p = 0.097. Multiple regression analysis confirmed S. aureus and emergency surgery as independent adverse factors for increased mortality. When put together, an increasing number of adverse factors was highly predictive of a fatal outcome, even after exclusion of that evaluated after surgery (level of consciousness. Patients with two or three adverse factors had a very high mortality rate (>76.9%. Mortality following surgery for active IE is increased in patients operated on an emergency basis especially if the infection is caused by S. aureus. The presence of neurological complications may also be associated with worse outcome. Early consideration of surgery should reduce the high mortality in patients with active IE.

  17. Fatores determinantes da letalidade após cirurgia para endocardite infecciosa / Postoperative mortality in infective endocarditis: determinant factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Charles, André; Marcos Martins da, Silva; Eduardo Jorge Custodio da, Silva; Márcia Araújo, Souza; Eduardo Sérgio, Bastos; Sérgio Augusto Pereira, Novis.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos a influência de dados demográficos, fatores predisponentes, aspectos clínicos, variáveis operatórias sobre a evolução em 39 pacientes operados por endocardite infecciosa (EI). Utilizamos os testes t de Student, X²ou exato de Fisher em análises univariadas, regressão logística para determin [...] ação de fatores adversos independentes. O impacto do número destes fatores sobre a evolução foi estudado pelo teste exato de Fisher. Valvas mais afetadas: aórtica (20) e mitral (16); germes mais comuns: Staphylococcus aureus (12) e Streptococcus sp (10). Cirurgia de emergência e a presença de coma seis horas após a operação elevaram a letalidade (p=0,001 e p=0,0015), bem como infecção pelo S.aureus (p=0,023) e presença de complicações neurológicas (p=0,097). A concomitância de dois ou três destes fatores elevou particularmente a letalidade (>76,9%). Pacientes com EI devem receber cuidadosa avaliação quanto a indicação cirúrgica nas fases iniciais da doença, já que a concomitância de variáveis adversas e cirurgias em caráter de emergência elevam fortemente a letalidade por EI. Abstract in english The factors leading to high postoperative mortality in active infectious endocarditis (IE) are poorly defined. We studied patients operated at an University Hospital between March 1978 and April 1992. We hipothesized that the summation of potential adverse factors would strongly increase mortality a [...] fter surgery. We studied 39 patients (28 men), age range 13-70 years (mean±SD =32±16) operated during active IE (time from onset 52+48 days). Predisposing factor: rheumatic valvar disease in 14 cases, intravenous drug use in 5. Affected valves: aortic in 14, mitral in 10, tricuspid in 8, multiple structures in 7. In most cases, S aureus (12) or Streptoccocus sp (10) was isolated in blood cultures. Surgery was indicated in most patients because of heart failure (30), multiple embolic complications (17) or treatment failure (14). The possible adverse influence of specific demographic characteristics, clinical features and surgical variables was assessed by the Student t test or the %² test. Also, multple regression analysis was performed in order to identify independent adverse factors for increased mortality. Positive correlations were further investigated with the X² test to assess whether an increasing number of adverse factors could identify a special subset of patients with markedly elevated death risk. Fourteen patients (36%) died after surgery. Emergency surgery (p = 0.001), the presence of coma 6 hours after surgery (p = 0.0015) and S. aureus infection (p = 0.023) were all associated with increased mortality. The presence of neurological complications was correlated with a high mortality (54% vs. 27%). However this increase was of dubious statistical significance (p = 0.097). Multiple regression analysis confirmed S. aureus and emergency surgery as independent adverse factors for increased mortality. When put together, an increasing number of adverse factors was highly predictive of a fatal outcome, even after exclusion of that evaluated after surgery (level of consciousness). Patients with two or three adverse factors had a very high mortality rate (>76.9%). Mortality following surgery for active IE is increased in patients operated on an emergency basis especially if the infection is caused by S. aureus. The presence of neurological complications may also be associated with worse outcome. Early consideration of surgery should reduce the high mortality in patients with active IE.

  18. The Clinical Impacts of Apparent Embolic Event and the Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with Infective Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Su Jin; Jeon, Doosoo; Cho, Woo Hyun; Kim, Yun Seong

    2014-01-01

    Embolic event is a common and important complication of infective endocarditis (IE). The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical impacts of embolic event in patients with IE and the predictors of in-hospital mortality. Data was collected in Pusan National University Hospital and Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital between January 2009 and December 2010. One hundred ten patients were included. Embolic events occur in 39 of 110 patients (35.5%). Brain (n = 18, 38.5%) was ...

  19. Outcome of Patients with Infective Endocarditis who were Treated with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Santhosh G.; William, Preethi; Murugapandian, Sangeetha; Thajudeen, Bijin

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a potentially life threatening condition. It is associated with high mortality and morbidity resulting mostly due to cardiorespiratory failure. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a modality of treatment used to support hypoxic respiratory failure especially in patients who are already on mechanical ventilation. Continuous renal replacement therapy is added mainly for maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance. Here we report a case series of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis who were treated with combined extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and continuous renal replacement therapy. Three patients in the age group 20-60 years were admitted with clinical features suggestive of infective endocarditis. During the course of hospital stay they developed cardiorespiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for refractory hypoxia. It was complicated by heart failure, renal failure and fluid overload which required initiation of continuous renal replacement therapy. All the three patients succumbed in spite of the aggressive treatment. In addition to the role played by each complication, delayed start of continuous renal replacement therapy might have also contributed to the high mortality. Early initiation of continuous renal replacement therapy for management of fluid overload needs to be considered in the management of these critically ill patients. PMID:25568769

  20. Infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus involving three cardiac valves. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglioni, E; Garosi, M; Marchetti, L; Galluzzi, P; Marri, D; Biagioli, B

    2003-06-01

    A 20-year-old woman, diagnosed with coarctation of the aorta, situs viscerum inversus, and bicuspid aortic valve, underwent corrective surgery for the coarctation. After a postoperative neurological state that suggested a spinal lesion, corticosteroid therapy was initiated and the patient was discharged early from the unit to begin a motor rehabilitation program. Following the dehiscence of the thoracotomy surgical wound, a severe infective clinical picture, sustained by methicillin-resistant S. Aureus (MRSA), became evident with a diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis involving the aortic, mitral and tricuspid valves and caused the patient's death due to septic shock complicated by ARDS. According to the authors, the early discharge of the patients after such a complex operation, the eccessive lengthening of the steroid therapy that would have contribuited to delay the diagnosis, causing the lack of preventing identification of the first signs of infection and the impossibility for the patient to have another operation (involving 3 valves) are conclusive elements that led to the above mentioned complications. PMID:14564255

  1. Multiresistant-MRSA tricuspid valve infective endocarditis with ancient osteomyelitis locus

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    Gambarati Gianpaolo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA with low susceptibility to glycopeptides is uncommon. Case presentation The case of a 50-year-old non-drug addict patient presenting with tricuspid valve infective endocarditis (IE by MRSA resistant to vancomycin and linezolid is presented. There was response only to quinupristin/dalfopristin. He had a motorcycling accident four years before undergoing right above-the-knee amputation and orthopaedic fixation of the left limb. There were multiple episodes of left MRSA-osteomyelitis controlled after surgery and vancomycin therapy. MRSA isolated from the blood at the time of IE presented with the same profile than the isolated four years earlier. Sequential treatment with teicoplanin-cotrimoxazole and Linezolid associated to vancomycin – rifampicin – cotrimoxazole had no improvement. Infection was controlled after 28 days of therapy with quinupristin/dalfopristin. Conclusion The literature presents only a few cases of MRSA IE not susceptible to glycopeptides in not drug addicted patients. This case shows the comparison of a highly-resistant MRSA after previous S. aureus osteomyelitis treated with glycopeptides. This is the first description of successful treatment of resistant-MRSA IE of the tricuspid valve complicated by multiple pulmonary septic infarction with quinupristin/dalfopristin

  2. Endocarditis due to Corynebacterium amycolatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Aman; Urban, Carl; Segal-Maurer, Sorana

    2008-10-01

    Corynebacterium amycolatum, a normal inhabitant of human skin, is a Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, mycolic acid-free, aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacillus. Since its description in 1988, it has only rarely been associated with infective endocarditis. This paper describes a case of infective endocarditis successfully treated by combination therapy with daptomycin and rifampicin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of C. amycolatum endocarditis from the USA successfully treated with these agents. PMID:18809563

  3. Streptococcus bovis endocarditis: analysis of cases between 2005 and 2014

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato, Mello; Marisa da Silva, Santos; Wilma, Golebiosvki; Clara, Weksler; Cristiane, Lamas.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus bovis is a classical etiology of endocarditis and is associated with colonic lesions. No series of cases from Brazil has been described. Objectives: To describe aspects of S. bovis endocarditis. Methods: This is a case series of patients admitted to a cardiac surgery refer [...] ral center, during the years 2005-2014. Clinical, laboratory, echochardiographic, colonoscopic, treatment, surgical and outcome variables were studied. Results: Nine patients with S. bovis endocarditis were included; all cases ful?lled the modi?ed Duke criteria. Incidence was 8/220 (4%) in years 2006-2014. There were seven male and two female patients; mean age was 56.7 years, standard deviation 13.4. All patients had native aortic valve involvement. Presentation was subacute in 7/9 (71%). Fever was present in 7/9 (77.7%), embolic lesions to solid organs occurred in three, and perivalvular abscess in two patients. All echocardiograms showed moderate to severe valvular regurgitation and vegetations. Microcytic anemia was seen in 7/7 patients. Colonoscopy showed abnormal ?ndings in 7/9 (77.7%). Surgery was indicated for 6/9 patients due to acute aortic regurgitation and left ventricular failure. All patients were discharged home. Conclusions: S. bovis most frequently affected the aortic valve of male patients. Colon disease was frequent. Surgery was indicated frequently due to hemodynamic compromise.

  4. Infective endocarditis (IE) first diagnosed at autopsy: analysis of 31 cases in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil / Endocardite infecciosa (EI) com diagnóstico feito apenas à necrópsia: análise de 31 casos ocorridos entre 1992 e 1997, em Ribeirão Preto, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Tadeu M., FIGUEIREDO; Everaldo, RUIZ-JUNIOR; Tarciso, SCHIRMBECK.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Trinta e um casos fatais de EI, que tiveram este diagnóstico apenas à necrópsia, foram analisados. Os dados clínicos destes pacientes (Grupo 1) mostrou diferenças significantes quando comparados aos de outros 141 casos de EI (Grupo 2). A idade média de 53 anos nos pacientes do Grupo 1 foi 18 anos ma [...] is alta que nos do Grupo 2. Os pacientes do Grupo 1 tiveram uma baixa freqüência de cardiopatias predisponentes à EI. Ambos os grupos de pacientes apresentaram febre (aproximadamente 87%), mas uma significante baixa freqüência de sopro cardíaco (25,8%) foi observado no Grupo 1, provavelmente, em conseqüência disto, o ecocardiograma foi efetuado em apenas 16,1% dos casos, não sendo, portanto, suspeitada EI. Os pacientes do Grupo 1, embora tivessem grave enfermidade aguda, não apresentaram apresentação clínica compatível com EI clássica. Hemoculturas foram feitas em apenas 64,5% dos pacientes do Grupo 1, porém, isolou-se bactérias em 70% e dentre os isolados, predominou o Staphylococcus aureus (71,4%). Foram predominantemente acometidas as válvulas mitral e aórtica. Complicações como embolização e insuficiência cardíaca ocorreram em quase metade dos casos e eles também apresentaram infecções pulmonares, urinárias e do sistema nervoso central. Praticamente todos os casos fatais de EI, que tiveram este diagnóstico apenas à necrópsia, foram submetidos a procedimentos médicos. Sepse aconteceu em aproximadamente metade dos pacientes e mostrou-se acompanhada de choque em mais de 25%. Esta forma de EI deve ser suspeitada em pacientes de idade madura ou idosos, hospitalizados, com doenças que predispõem a infecções, com embolização e que sofreram procedimentos médicos. Abstract in english Thirty one infective endocarditis (IE) fatal cases whose diagnosis was first obtained at autopsy were studied. The clinical data of these patients (Group 1) showed significant differences compared to other 141 IE cases (Group 2). The average age of 53 years in Group 1 patients was 18 years higher th [...] an that of Group 2. The Group 1 patients had a low frequency of IE predisposing heart disease. Both patient groups presented fever (about 87%), but a significant low frequency of cardiac murmur (25.8%) was observed in Group 1 patients and echocardiography tests were performed in only 16.1%, suggesting that IE diagnosis was not suspected. Likewise, although most Group 1 patients appeared with severe acute illness, they did not present the classic IE clinical presentation. Blood cultures were performed in only 64.5% of the Group 1 patients. However, bacteria were isolated in 70% of these blood cultures and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 71.4%. The bacteria attacked mitral and aortic valves. Complications such as embolizations and cardiac failure occurred in almost half of the cases and they also presented with infections of the lungs, urinary tract, and central nervous system. Medical procedures were performed in practically all fatal cases whose diagnosis was first obtained at autopsy. Sepsis occurred in about half of the patients and it was followed by shock in more than 25%. This form of IE must be suspected in mature and in old febrile hospitalized patients having infection predisposing diseases, embolization, and suffering medical procedures.

  5. Gram-negative bacteria causing infective endocarditis: Rare cardiac complication after liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan George

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endocarditis is a rare complication amongst solid organ transplant recipients and is often linked to bacteremia. Majority of these recipients do not have underlying valvular heart disease or congenital valvular abnormalities. Staphylococoocusaureus and Enterococcus species are the most commonly isolated organisms. There are very few reports of gram-negative bacteria causing endocarditis in liver transplant recipients. We report a 51-year-old male, a liver transplant recipient, who developed bacterial endocarditis of the mitral valve due to extended spectrum of betalactamase producing strain of Escherichia coli and was managed successfully with antibiotics.

  6. Activated human valvular interstitial cells sustain interleukin-17 production to recruit neutrophils in infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Shun, Chia-Tung; Kuo, Yu-Min; Jung, Chiau-Jing; Hsieh, Song-Chou; Chiu, Yen-Ling; Chen, Jeng-Wei; Hsu, Ron-Bin; Yang, Chia-Ju; Chia, Jean-San

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms that underlie valvular inflammation in streptococcus-induced infective endocarditis (IE) remain unclear. We previously demonstrated that streptococcal glucosyltransferases (GTFs) can activate human heart valvular interstitial cells (VIC) to secrete interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine involved in T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that activated VIC can enhance neutrophil infiltration through sustained IL-17 production, leading to valvular damage. To monitor cytokine and chemokine production, leukocyte recruitment, and the induction or expansion of CD4(+) CD45RA(-) CD25(-) CCR6(+) Th17 cells, primary human VIC were cultured in vitro and activated by GTFs. Serum cytokine levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and neutrophils and Th17 cells were detected by immunohistochemistry in infected valves from patients with IE. The expression of IL-21, IL-23, IL-17, and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor C (Rorc) was upregulated in GTF-activated VIC, which may enhance the proliferation of memory Th17 cells in an IL-6-dependent manner. Many chemokines, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), were upregulated in GTF-activated VIC, which might recruit neutrophils and CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, CXCL1 production in VIC was induced in a dose-dependent manner by IL-17 to enhance neutrophil chemotaxis. CXCL1-expressing VIC and infiltrating neutrophils could be detected in infected valves, and serum concentrations of IL-17, IL-21, and IL-23 were increased in patients with IE compared to healthy donors. Furthermore, elevated serum IL-21 levels have been significantly associated with severe valvular damage, including rupture of chordae tendineae, in IE patients. Our findings suggest that VIC are activated by bacterial modulins to recruit neutrophils and that such activities might be further enhanced by the production of Th17-associated cytokines. Together, these factors can amplify the release of neutrophilic contents in situ, which might lead to severe valvular damage. PMID:25776751

  7. Achados ecocardiográficos em pacientes com suspeita diagnóstica de endocardite infecciosa / Echocardiographic findings in patients with suspected infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Luiz Campos, Vieira; Max, Grinberg; Pablo M. A., Pomerantzeff; José L. de, Andrade; Alfredo J., Mansur.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os achados ecocardiográficos em pacientes com suspeita diagnóstica de endocardite infecciosa. MÉTODOS: Foram submetidos à investigação ecocardiográfica transtorácica e transesofágica 262 pacientes com suspeita diagnóstica de endocardite infecciosa. Analisadas imagens de vegetações, [...] abscessos valvares e insuficiência periprotética aguda e avaliada a correlação com dados clínicos, laboratoriais, categoria diagnóstica e a evolução hospitalar. RESULTADOS: O diagnóstico de endocardite foi categorizado como definido em 127 (47,8%) episódios, possível em 81 (30,4%) e rejeitado em 58 (21,8%). Nos pacientes com o diagnóstico definido, foram identificadas 135 imagens de vegetações, 37 de abscesso e 6 de insuficiência periprotética. Vegetações foram mais freqüentes em pacientes com endocardite por estreptococos do grupo viridans e enterococos (p=0,02) e com duração dos sintomas Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the echocardiographic findings in patients with suspected infective endocarditis. METHODS: Two hundred sixty-two patients with suspected infective endocarditis underwent transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiographic investigation. Images of vegetations, valvular abscesses, [...] and acute periprosthetic insufficiency were analyzed, and the correlation with clinical and laboratory data, diagnostic category, and hospital evolution was assessed. RESULTS: The diagnosis of endocarditis was categorized as defined in 127 (47.8%) episodes, possible in 81 (30.4%), and rejected in 58 (21.8%). In patients with the defined diagnosis, the following images were identified: 135 vegetations, 37 abscesses, and 6 periprosthetic insufficiencies. Vegetations were more frequent in patients with endocarditis due to streptococci of the viridans group and enterococci (P=0.02), and with symptom duration

  8. The importance of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging in valve surgery for active infective endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valve surgery for active infective endocarditis (IE) can cause fatal brain hemorrhage. Our current study aimed to evaluate the incidence of septic cerebral lesions in active IE patients by performing preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2*-weighted sequences and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) before urgent valve surgery, and to investigate whether such preoperative evaluation affects postoperative outcomes. Eighteen patients were referred to our department for native valve IE during 2006-2010. Urgent surgery was indicated in cases of hemodynamic failure resulting from valve destruction, refractory sepsis, and mobile vegetations measuring >10 mm. For these patients, we performed preoperative MRI and MRA. Males comprised 67% of the subjects, with average age 53±15 years. No clinical evidence of acute stroke was noted. Of the 18 patients, urgent surgery was indicated in 15; of these, 10 (67%) showed a brain lesion related to IE: 6 patients had acute or subacute brain infarctions, 2 patients had brain infarction with brain abscess, and 2 patients had hemorrhagic brain infarction and so did not undergo urgent surgery. Thus, 13 patients underwent urgent valve surgery. Among the 5 patients who did not undergo urgent surgery, 4 patients later underwent valve surgery for healed IE. No hospital deaths or neurological complications occurred. MRI of patients with active IE revealed a high incidence of cerebral lesions caused by IE. The use ofcerebral lesions caused by IE. The use of MRI to detect septic embolism and intracerebral hemorrhage may provide important information for better surgical outcomes. (author)

  9. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty in pregnancy with severe aortic stenosis and infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinotha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven year old lady, previously diagnosed to have aortic stenosis, presented to the obstetric outpatient department at 19 weeks of gestation with fever and breathlessness, NYHA class 4, for one week. Two D Echo revealed left ventricular hypertrophy, a severely stenosed, calcified bicuspid aortic valve, with vegetations on aortic and mitral valves and severe mitral regurgitation. Blood cultures grew nutrionally variant streptococci and she was treated with crystalline penicillin and gentamicin. She stabilised clinically by 21 weeks, by which time, the risk of termination of pregnancy was comparable to continuing the pregnancy. She underwent balloon aortic valvuloplasty. Post balloon aortic valvuloplasty, she was stable. At 34+2 weeks, she underwent emergency LSCS, the indication being intrauterine growth restriction with fetal compromise and breech presentation. She delivered a baby girl, 1.6 kg, Apgar 9 & 10. Our case report highlights the fact that a timely, balloon aortic valvuloplasty can be life saving for patients with pregnancy complicated by severe aortic stenosis and infective endocarditis. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2012; 1(1.000: 69-71

  10. ENDOCARDITIS WITH AN UNCOMMON GERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gharouni

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are normal inhabitants of gastrointestinal tract, being responsible for 5 to 18% of infective endocarditis and the incidence appears to be increasing. Eleven patients with enterococcal endocarditis were studied. In a case series group, 10 men (average 57 years and one woman (37 years were studied. Two patients had rheumatic heart disease, 5 patients arteriosclerotic disease and one patient chronic renal failure on hemodialysis. Ten patients were treated with ampicillin and gentamycin. Valve replacement was performed in 3 patients with aortic valve endocarditis, one on 8th day and two at the end of the treatment. Overall clinical cure was achieved in 9 patients. Two relapses occurred and 2 patients died as a result of refractory congestive heart failure and cerebral emboli. All of the enterococcal endocarditis cases were community acquired. In conclusion, infective endocarditis in patients with preexistent valvular heart disease, community acquisition and non specific symptoms with bacteriuria should be considered as enterococcal endocarditis.

  11. Infective endocarditis in the Pacific: clinical characteristics, treatment and long-term outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabel, Mariana; André, Romain; Barsoum Mikhaïl, Paul; Colboc, Hester; Lacassin, Flore; Noël, Baptiste; Robert, Jacques; Nadra, Marie; Braunstein, Corinne; Gervolino, Shirley; Marijon, Eloi; Iung, Bernard; Jouven, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Data on clinical characteristics and outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) in the Pacific are scarce. Methods Retrospective hospital-based study in New Caledonia, a high-income country, on patients aged over 18?years with definite IE according to the modified Duke criteria (2005–2010). Results 51 patients were included: 31 (60.8%) men; median age of 52.4?years (IQR 33.0–70.0). Left-sided IE accounted for 47 (92.2%) patients: native valve IE in 34 (66.7%) and prosthetic valve IE in 13 (25.5%). The main underlying heart disease included: rheumatic valve disease in 19 (37.3%), degenerative heart valve disease in 12 (23.5%) and congenital heart disease in 6 (11.8%). Significant comorbidities (Charlson's score >3) were observed in 20 (38.7%) patients. Infection was community acquired in 43 (84.3%) patients. Leading pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus in 16 (31.4%) and Streptococcus spp in 15 (29.4%) patients. Complications were noted in 33 patients (64.7%) and 24 (47.1%) were admitted to the intensive care unit. Cardiac surgery was eventually performed in 22 of 40 (55.0%) patients with a theoretical indication. None underwent emergent cardiac surgery (ie, first 24?h); 2 (3.9%) were operated within 7?days; and 20 (39.2%) beyond 7?days. 11 (21.6%) patients died in hospital and 21 (42.9%) were dead after a median follow-up of 28.8?months (IQR 4.6–51.2). Two (3.9%) were lost to follow-up. Conclusions In New Caledonia, IE afflicts relatively young patients with rheumatic heart disease, and carries high complication and mortality rates. Access to heart surgery remains relatively limited in this remote archipelago. PMID:25973211

  12. Staphylococcus lugdunensis endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Farrag, N; Lee, P. (Pei-Chun); Gunney, R; Viagappan, G

    2001-01-01

    A case of Staphylococcus lugdunensis endocarditis is presented with low back pain suggesting a secondary bone focus of infection. An umbilical skin lesion may have been an additional embolic phenomenon. The case highlights the aggressive nature of S lugdenensis endocarditis compared with other coagulase negative staphylococci and its association with native heart valves. In addition the importance of full identification of coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from patient samples in a ca...

  13. Gemella morbillorum Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Ural, Serap; Gul Yurtsever, Sureyya; Ormen, Bahar; Turker, Nesrin; Kaptan, Figen; El, Sibel; Akyildiz, Zehra Ilke; Coskun, Nejat Ali

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis caused by Gemella morbillorum is a rare disease. In this report 67-year-old male patient with G. morbillorum endocarditis was presented. The patient was hospitalized as he had a fever of unknown origin and in the two of the three sets of blood cultures taken at the first day of hospitalization G. morbillorum was identified. The transthoracic echogram revealed 14 × 10?mm vegetation on the aortic noncoronary cuspis. After 4 weeks of antibiotic therapy, the case was ref...

  14. Association between Vancomycin Day 1 Exposure Profile and Outcomes among Patients with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapao, Anthony M; Lodise, Thomas P; Davis, Susan L; Claeys, Kimberly C; Kullar, Ravina; Levine, Donald P; Rybak, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Given the critical importance of early appropriate therapy, a retrospective cohort (2002 to 2013) was performed at the Detroit Medical Center to evaluate the association between the day 1 vancomycin exposure profile and outcomes among patients with MRSA infective endocarditis (IE). The day 1 vancomycin area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) and the minimum concentration at 24 h (Cmin 24) was estimated for each patient using the Bayesian procedure in ADAPT 5, an approach shown to accurately predict the vancomycin exposure with low bias and high precision with limited pharmacokinetic sampling. Initial MRSA isolates were collected and vancomycin MIC was determined by broth microdilution (BMD) and Etest. The primary outcome was failure, defined as persistent bacteremia (?7 days) or 30-day attributable mortality. Classification and regression tree analysis (CART) was used to determine the vancomycin exposure variables associated with an increased probability of failure. In total, 139 patients met study criteria; 76.3% had right-sided IE, 16.5% had left-sided IE, and 7.2% had both left and right-sided IE. A total of 89/139 (64%) experienced failure by composite definition. In the CART analysis, failure was more pronounced in patients with an AUC0-24/MIC as determined by BMD of ?600 relative to those with AUC0-24/MIC as determined by BMD of >600 (69.8% versus 54.7%, respectively, P = 0.073). In the logistic regression analysis, an AUC/MIC as determined by BMD of ?600 (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 5.37; P = 0.047) was independently associated with failure. Given the retrospective nature of the present study, further prospective studies are required but these data suggest that patients with an AUC0-24/MIC as determined by BMD of ?600 present an increased risk of failure. PMID:25753631

  15. Enterococcal endocarditis complicated with ruptured infected-intracranial aneurysm: with pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic documentation in proof of the successful antimicrobial treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakami, Tosiharu; Hamada, Yohei; Magarihuchi, Hiroki; Yamakuchi, Hiroki; Aoki, Yosuke

    2014-12-01

    A 74-year-old man presented with sudden onset of aphasia and apraxia. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the brain disclosed a left frontal hemorrhage. The concomitant low grade fever suggestive of infection was unresponsive to cefazolin 1 g q12h, and refractory to piperacillin (PIPC) 2 g q8h. Blood culture grew enterococci, establishing together with echocardiography the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. The angiography revealed cerebral hemorrhage to have resulted from the rupture of the infected intracranial aneurysm. The antimicrobial therapy was switched to ampicillin (ABPC) 2 g q4h plus gentamicin (GM) 60 mg q8h. The positive blood culture was subsequently identified Enterococcus faecium to which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PIPC, and ABPC was 16 mcg/mL, and 4 mcg/mL, respectively. The peak concentration of serum ABPC was 83.1, median 50.8, and trough 25.8 mcg/mL. Thus, the percent time > MIC for ABPC was 100%, and the time > minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) as well. On the other hand, time > MIC for PIPC, was found nearly 30% in retrospective analysis using population pharmacokinetics. The neurological deficit of the patient was completely restored to the normal status after 4-weeks' antimicrobial therapy with ABPC plus GM, then he underwent cardiac surgery for valvular replacement, where microbiological culture of the resected valve was negative. The constellation of the clinical, pharmacological and microbiological outcome in our case provides scientific evidence that the antibiotic therapy given to our case is the best available strategy as an antimicrobial treatment of severe enterococcal endocarditis complicated by disseminated lesion as infected intracranial aneurysm. PMID:25153621

  16. Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia : the value of screening with echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; HØst, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Aims Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population. Methods and results From 1 January 2009 to 31 August 2010, a total of 244 patients with SAB at six Danish hospitals underwent screening echocardiography. The inclusion rate was 73% of all eligible patients (n= 336), and 53 of the 244 included patients (22%; 95% CI: 17–27%) were diagnosed with definite IE. In patients with native heart valves the prevalence was 19% (95% CI: 14–25%) compared with 38% (95% CI: 20–55%) in patients with prosthetic heart valves and/or cardiac rhythm management devices (P= 0.02). No difference was found between Main Regional Hospitals and Tertiary Cardiac Hospitals, 20 vs. 23%, respectively (NS). The prevalence of IE in high-risk patients with one or more predisposing condition or clinical evidence of IE were significantly higher compared with low-risk patients with no additional risk factors (38 vs. 5%; P < 0.001). IE was associated with a higher 6 months mortality, 14(26%) vs. 28(15%) in SAB patients without IE, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion SAB patients carry a high risk for development of IE, which is associated with a worse prognosis compared with uncomplicated SAB. The presenting symptoms and clinical findings associated with IE are often non-specific and echocardiography should always be considered as part of the initial evaluation of SAB patients.

  17. Contribution of the Interaction of Streptococcus mutans Serotype k Strains with Fibrinogen to the Pathogenicity of Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ryota; Otsugu, Masatoshi; Naka, Shuhei; Teramoto, Noboru; Kojima, Ayuchi; Muranaka, Yoshinori; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo; Ooshima, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen responsible for dental caries, is occasionally isolated from the blood of patients with bacteremia and infective endocarditis (IE). Our previous study demonstrated that serotype k-specific bacterial DNA is frequently detected in S. mutans-positive heart valve specimens extirpated from IE patients. However, the reason for this frequent detection remains unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the virulence of IE from S. mutans strains, focusing on the characterization of serotype k strains, most of which are positive for the 120-kDa cell surface collagen-binding protein Cbm and negative for the 190-kDa protein antigen (PA) known as SpaP, P1, antigen I/II, and other designations. Fibrinogen-binding assays were performed with 85 clinical strains classified by Cbm and PA expression levels. The Cbm+/PA? group strains had significantly higher fibrinogen-binding rates than the other groups. Analysis of platelet aggregation revealed that SA31, a Cbm+/PA? strain, induced an increased level of aggregation in the presence of fibrinogen, while negligible aggregation was induced by the Cbm-defective isogenic mutant SA31CBD. A rat IE model with an artificial impairment of the aortic valve created using a catheter showed that extirpated heart valves in the SA31 group displayed a prominent vegetation mass not seen in those in the SA31CBD group. These findings could explain why Cbm+/PA? strains are highly virulent and are related to the development of IE, and the findings could also explain the frequent detection of serotype k DNA in S. mutans-positive heart valve clinical specimens. PMID:25287921

  18. Small Colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Bhattacharyya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus produces a particular morphological variant called small colony variant(SCV which is responsible for persistent subclinical infections in predisposed individuals and is usually resistant to aminoglycosides and cell wall active antibiotics. Infections by SCV of S. aureus is an upcoming problem due to difficulty in laboratory diagnosis and resistance to antimicrobial chemotherapy. We here report a case of infective endocarditis caused by SCV of Staphylococcus aureus in a pediatric patient.

  19. Echocardiographic findings suggestive of infective endocarditis in asymptomatic Danish injection drug users attending urban injection facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna; SØholm, Helle

    2014-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) account for a considerable number of the hospitalizations for infective endocarditis (IE), but the prevalence of diagnosed and unrecognized IE in IDUs is unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of valvular abnormalities suggestive of IE in IDUs attending a supervised injection facility. We performed transthoracic echocardiographic examinations on-site in the injection facilities. A total of 206 IDUs (mean age 43 ± 9 years, 23% women) with a median injection drug abuse of 18 years (interquartile range 10 to 26) were included. Fourteen IDUs (14 of 206, 7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4% to 11%) had a previous history of IE. IDUs with a history of IE were significantly older than IDUs without a history of IE (48 ± 8 vs 42 ± 9 years, respectively, p = 0.03) and had a longer duration of injection drug use (27 [18 to 36] vs 17 years [10 to 25], p = 0.008). In the subgroup of IDUs with a history of IE, 4 subjects (4 of 14, 29%, 95% CI 11% to 55%) had persistentor relapse vegetations. Of the remaining 10 IDUs with a history of IE, 5 (5 of 10, 50%, 95% CI 24% to 76%) had moderate-to-severe regurgitation. In the subgroup of IDUs without a history of IE, vegetations were seen in 9 subjects (9 of 192, 5%, 95% CI 2% to 9%). This group of IDUs with possibly unrecognized IE was older than IDUs without vegetations (48 ± 12 vs 42 ± 9, respectively, p = 0.04). Among the IDUs without a history of IE who did not have vegetations, 30 IDUs (30 of 183, 16%, 95% CI 11% to 22%) had moderate-to-severe regurgitation with or without concomitant thickening of leaflets. Thus, in IDUs without a history of IE, some extent of valvular abnormalities was seen in 20% (39 of 192, 95% CI 15% to 27%) of subjects. None of the IDUs with valvular vegetations had current symptoms consistent with active IE. In conclusion, valvular abnormalities assessed by echocardiography were prevalent in asymptomatic IDUs without a medical history of IE, and vegetations were seen in 5% of subjects.

  20. Echocardiographic Findings Suggestive of Infective Endocarditis in Asymptomatic Danish Injection Drug Users Attending Urban Injection Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna; SØholm, Helle

    2014-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) account for a considerable number of the hospitalizations for infective endocarditis (IE), but the prevalence of diagnosed and unrecognized IE in IDUs is unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of valvular abnormalities suggestive of IE in IDUs attending a supervised injection facility. We performed transthoracic echocardiographic examinations on-site in the injection facilities. A total of 206 IDUs (mean age 43 ± 9 years, 23% women) with a median injection drug abuse of 18 years (interquartile range 10 to 26) were included. Fourteen IDUs (14 of 206, 7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4% to 11%) had a previous history of IE. IDUs with a history of IE were significantly older than IDUs without a history of IE (48 ± 8 vs 42 ± 9 years, respectively, p = 0.03) and had a longer duration of injection drug use (27 [18 to 36] vs 17 years [10 to 25], p = 0.008). In the subgroup of IDUs with a history of IE, 4 subjects (4 of 14, 29%, 95% CI 11% to 55%) had persistentor relapse vegetations. Of the remaining 10 IDUs with a history of IE, 5 (5 of 10, 50%, 95% CI 24% to 76%) had moderate-to-severe regurgitation. In the subgroup of IDUs without a history of IE, vegetations were seen in 9 subjects (9 of 192, 5%, 95% CI 2% to 9%). This group of IDUs with possibly unrecognized IE was older than IDUs without vegetations (48 ± 12 vs 42 ± 9, respectively, p = 0.04). Among the IDUs without a history of IE who did not have vegetations, 30 IDUs (30 of 183, 16%, 95% CI 11% to 22%) had moderate-to-severe regurgitation with or without concomitant thickening of leaflets. Thus, in IDUs without a history of IE, some extent of valvular abnormalities was seen in 20% (39 of 192, 95% CI 15% to 27%) of subjects. None of the IDUs with valvular vegetations had current symptoms consistent with active IE. In conclusion, valvular abnormalities assessed by echocardiography were prevalent in asymptomatic IDUs without a medical history of IE, and vegetations were seen in 5% of subjects.

  1. Fulminant endocarditis and disseminated infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a renal-pancreas transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, G; Perez, F; Hujer, A M; Rudin, S D; Augustine, J J; Jacobs, G H; Jacobs, M R; Bonomo, R A

    2015-04-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections, and is particularly problematic among patients who undergo organ transplantation. We describe a case of fulminant sepsis caused by carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii harboring the blaOXA-23 carbapenemase gene and belonging to international clone II. This isolate led to the death of a patient 6 days after simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation. Autopsy findings revealed acute mitral valve endocarditis, myocarditis, splenic and renal emboli, peritonitis, and pneumonia. This case highlights the severe nature of certain A. baumannii infections and the vulnerability of transplanted patients to the increasingly intractable "high-risk" clones of multidrug-resistant organisms. PMID:25661804

  2. Cirurgia conservadora da valva tricúspide na endocardite infecciosa Conservative operation of tricuspide valve for the treatment of infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M. A Pomerantzeff

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available O comprometimento valvar direto do coração pela endocardite infecciosa, com indicação cirúrgica, tem sido classicamente tratada por excisão da valva e tecidos adjacentes comprometidos, associada ou não a implante de prótese. Dois casos de operação conservadora em endocardite infecciosa da valva tricúspide com 42 e 3 meses de evolução são descritos. Os autores discutem as vantagens de, quando possível, não retirar toda a valva tricúspide na endocardite bacteriana.Valve replacement and excision without using a prosthesis are the two mostfrequently used surgical techniques for the treatment of infective endocarditis of the tricuspid valve. Conservative operation with preservation of the native valve and resection of the infected tissue is a more recent approach, which is becoming the procedure of choice whenever feasible, specialy in intravenous drug abusers. Two cases of tricuspid valve reconstruction with good results are reported. One of the patients has also been aorto coronary bypassed at the same operation time.

  3. Fungal endocarditis: current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattevin, Pierre; Revest, Matthieu; Lefort, Agnès; Michelet, Christian; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Whilst it used to affect mostly intravenous drug users and patients who underwent valvular surgery with suboptimal infection control procedures, fungal endocarditis is now mostly observed in patients with severe immunodeficiency (onco-haematology), in association with chronic central venous access and broad-spectrum antibiotic use. The incidence of fungal endocarditis has probably decreased in most developed countries with access to harm-reduction policies (i.e. needle exchange programmes) and with improved infection control procedures during cardiac surgery. Use of specific blood culture bottles for diagnosis of fungal endocarditis has decreased due to optimisation of media and automated culture systems. Meanwhile, the advent of rapid techniques, including fungal antigen detection (galactomannan, mannan/anti-mannan antibodies and ?-1,3-d-glucans) and PCR (e.g. universal fungal PCR targeting 18S rRNA genes), shall improve sensitivity and reduce diagnostics delays, although limited data are available on their use for the diagnosis of fungal endocarditis. New antifungal agents available since the early 2000s may represent dramatic improvement for fungal endocarditis: (i) a new class, the echinocandins, has the potential to improve the management of Candida endocarditis owing to its fungicidal effect on yeasts as well as tolerability of increased dosages; and (ii) improved survival in patients with invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole compared with amphotericin B, and this may apply to Aspergillus sp. endocarditis as well, although its prognosis remains dismal. These achievements may allow selected patients to be cured with prolonged medical treatment alone when surgery is considered too risky. PMID:25178919

  4. Morbimortalidad de la endocarditis infecciosa asociada a dispositivos electrónicos implantables permanentes / Morbimortality of infective endocarditis associated with permanent cardiovascular implantable electronic devices

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel, Pérez-Baztarrica; Flavio, Salvaggio; Norberto, Blanco; Héctor, Mazzetti; Ricardo, Levin; Alejandro, Botbol; Rafael, Porcile.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) asociada a dispositivos electrónicos implantables permanentes (DEIP) es una complicación de baja frecuencia pero alta mortalidad sin el tratamiento adecuado. El avance sobre el conocimiento de esta patología y el desarrollo de estrategias terapéuticas como el diagnóst [...] ico precoz, manejo de antibióticos, técnicas de extracción, entre otras, han mejorado el pronóstico de estos pacientes. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar la morbimortalidad intrahospitalaria y alejada y analizar algunos factores que justifican las diferencias con los datos de la mortalidad publicada. Se estudiaron en forma retrospectiva pacientes entre marzo/2002 y marzo/2011 con diagnóstico de EI asociada a DEIP. Se analizaron características basales, diagnósticas, terapéuticas, evolución intrahospitalaria y alejada. Se incluyeron 26 casos atendidos en nuestro hospital, 23 de los cuales fueron remitidos desde otros centros para su diagnóstico y tratamiento. La edad promedio fue de 67,5 años. Todos los pacientes recibieron antibióticos durante seis semanas y se les retiró el sistema en forma completa; en el 95% de los pacientes por vía percutánea y en 2 pacientes se requirió estereotomía mediana, atriotomía y colocación de marcapasos epicardíaco. La mortalidad fue del 4% y en el seguimiento fue nula. La morbilidad intrahospitalaria fue del 31%. En el seguimiento alejado no hubo reinfecciones u otra complicación. Como conclusión la EI es un cuadro grave que presenta una morbilidad elevada con estadías hospitalarias prolongadas, pero la mortalidad es baja. La explicación podría estar en las técnicas percutáneas, experiencia, extracción completa, el tiempo del reimplante del nuevo dispositivo y el tratamiento precoz, entre otros factores. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis (IE) associated with permanent cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is a complication of low frequency, but high mortality without adequate treatment. Progress on the knowledge of this disease and the development of therapeutic strategies such as early diagnos [...] is, antibiotic management and better extraction techniques, among others, have improved the prognosis of these patients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in-hospital and out-of-hospital morbidity, and analyze some factors that explain the differences among the published mortality data. Patients diagnosed with IE associated with CIEDs were studied, retrospectively, between March/2002 and March/2011. We analyzed baseline, diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics, and in-hospital and out-of-hospital courses of the disease. We included 26 cases treated in our hospital, 23 of whom were referred from other centers for diagnosis and treatment. The average age of the patients was 67.5 years. All patients received antibiotics for six weeks and underwent complete removal of the device system, in 95% of patients by percutaneous extraction and 2 patients required a median sternotomy, atriotomy and epicardial pacemaker placement. Mortality was 4% and the follow up mortality was zero. The in-hospital morbidity was 31%. In the follow-ups there were no reinfections or other complications. In conclusion, IE is a serious condition that has a high morbidity with prolonged hospital stays, but with a low mortality. The explanation may lie in the use percutaneous extraction techniques, experience, complete extraction of the device system, the time of reimplantation of the new device and early treatment, among other factors.

  5. Aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial após endocardite infecciosa de valva mitral / Infected aneurysm of brachial artery after mitral valve infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heraldo Guedis, Lobo Filho; Eduardo Rebouças, Carvalho; José Glauco, Lobo Filho; Patrícia Leal Dantas, Lobo.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial em paciente com endocardite infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis. Homem de 49 anos de idade se apresentou com febre, dispnéia e sopro regurgitativo em foco mitral com irradiação para axila. O ecocardiograma demonstrou vegetação em valva m [...] itral nativa. Após troca valvar mitral com implante de prótese biológica, observou-se massa pulsátil de cinco centímetros de diâmetro em fossa antecubital direita. Foi feito o diagnóstico de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial, e o tratamento cirúrgico foi realizado com sucesso. O objetivo desse relato de caso é apresentar uma complicação pouco comum após endocardite infecciosa. Abstract in english We present a case of brachial artery infected aneurysm in a patient with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis. A 49-year-old man presented with fever dyspnea and a pansystolic murmur with irradiation to axilla. The echocardiogram revealed vegetation in native mitral valve. After mitr [...] al valve replacement with bioprosthesis, it was observed pulsatile mass of five centimeters in diameter at antecubital fossa of right upper limb. It was made the diagnosis of infected aneurysm of the brachial artery, and the surgery was performed successfully. The aim of this case report is to show a rare complication after infective endocarditis.

  6. Aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial após endocardite infecciosa de valva mitral Infected aneurysm of brachial artery after mitral valve infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo Guedis Lobo Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial em paciente com endocardite infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis. Homem de 49 anos de idade se apresentou com febre, dispnéia e sopro regurgitativo em foco mitral com irradiação para axila. O ecocardiograma demonstrou vegetação em valva mitral nativa. Após troca valvar mitral com implante de prótese biológica, observou-se massa pulsátil de cinco centímetros de diâmetro em fossa antecubital direita. Foi feito o diagnóstico de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial, e o tratamento cirúrgico foi realizado com sucesso. O objetivo desse relato de caso é apresentar uma complicação pouco comum após endocardite infecciosa.We present a case of brachial artery infected aneurysm in a patient with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis. A 49-year-old man presented with fever dyspnea and a pansystolic murmur with irradiation to axilla. The echocardiogram revealed vegetation in native mitral valve. After mitral valve replacement with bioprosthesis, it was observed pulsatile mass of five centimeters in diameter at antecubital fossa of right upper limb. It was made the diagnosis of infected aneurysm of the brachial artery, and the surgery was performed successfully. The aim of this case report is to show a rare complication after infective endocarditis.

  7. Awareness of Iranian’s General Dentists Regarding the Latest Prophylaxis Guideline for Prevention of Infective Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaderi F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Dental procedures leading to oral tissue injuries may provoke bacterial release to the blood stream causing infective endocarditis (IE in vulnerable patients. The guideline which was proposed by AHA has been updated 9 times having the last update published in 2007. This study was endeavored to uncover the level of knowledge of general dental practitioners in Shiraz, concerning the 2007 AHA guidelines for endocarditis prophylaxis in patients with cardiac problems receiving dental treatments.Materials and Method: This cross- sectional and descriptive analytical study included 150 dentists as participants. All practitioners were given a self –report questionnaire which consisted of three sections. Questions were designed to assess their knowledge of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with cardiac disease. Results: Almost all participants (93% were aware of antibiotic prophylaxis to be essential for tooth extraction. Most participants did not believe in prophylaxis for noninvasive procedures (such as shedding of primary teeth, impression, intraoral radiography. From all of the respondents, 75% considered Amoxicillin to be the anti-biotic of choice and 57% were acquainted with the correct dose of Amoxicillin for high risk patients.Conclusion: The study identified a potential for under/over prescription of antibiotic prophylaxis under the current guideline. Burden of IE necessitates more accurate knowledge of antibiotic prophylaxis in the undergraduate curriculum and continuing education programs of dentistry.

  8. Update on blood culture-negative endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattevin, P; Watt, G; Revest, M; Arvieux, C; Fournier, P-E

    2015-01-01

    Blood culture-negative endocarditis is often severe, and difficult to diagnose. The rate of non-documented infective endocarditis has decreased with the advent of molecular biology - improved performance for the diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis with blood cultures sterilized by previous antibacterial treatment - and cardiac surgery - access to the main infected focus, the endocardium, for half of the patients. Blood culture-negative endocarditis are classified in 3 main categories: (i) bacterial endocarditis with blood cultures sterilized by previous antibacterial treatment (usually due to usual endocarditis-causing bacteria, i.e. streptococci, more rarely staphylococci, or enterococci); (ii) endocarditis related to fastidious microorganisms (e.g. HACEK bacteria; defective streptococci - Gemella, Granulicatella, and Abiotrophia sp. - Propionibacterium acnes, Candida sp.): in these cases, prolonged incubation will allow identifying the causative pathogen in a few days; (iii) and the "true" blood culture-negative endocarditis, due to intra-cellular bacteria that cannot be routinely cultured in blood with currently available techniques: in France, these are most frequently Bartonella sp., Coxiella burnetti (both easily diagnosed by ad hoc serological tests), and Tropheryma whipplei (usually diagnosed by PCR on excised cardiac valve tissue). Non-infective endocarditis is rare, mostly limited to marantic endocarditis, and the rare endocarditis related to systemic diseases (lupus, Behçet). PMID:25480453

  9. Meningite como complicação de endocardite infecciosa / Meningitis as a complication of infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viviane Cordeiro, Veiga; Júlio César de, Carvalho; Luis Enrique Campodonico, Amaya; Marcos Sérgio, Martins; Salomón Soriano Ordinola, Rojas.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As complicações neurológicas estão presentes em aproximadamente 30% dos pacientes com endocardite infecciosa; no entanto, a meningite apresenta-se como uma complicação rara. Apresenta-se aqui o caso de paciente do gênero feminino com quadro de meningite decorrente de endocardite em valva mitral, que [...] necessitou de procedimento cirúrgico em razão de quadro agudo de insuficiência cardíaca por ruptura de cordoalha valvar. Abstract in english Although approximately 30% of patients with endocarditis present with neurological complications, the development of meningitis in these patients is rare. This case report describes a female patient who developed meningitis as a complication of mitral valve endocarditis, and surgery was required for [...] this patient due to acute heart failure resulting from the rupture of the chordae tendineae.

  10. Infective endocarditis following transcatheter aortic valve replacement- : Diagnostic and management challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poay Huan; Bundgaard, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) can improve the symptoms and prognosis of patients with severe aortic stenosis who, due to a high expected operative risk, would not have otherwise been treated surgically. If these patients develop prosthetic valve endocarditis, their presentations may be atypical causing a delay in the diagnosis and treatment. The management is also complicated by their comorbidities, and surgical treatment may not be feasible leading to a significant morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of an 85-year-old man with TAVI prosthetic valve endocarditis successfully treated medically, discuss the challenges in the diagnosis and management of such patients, and review available literature on the incidence and outcome of the condition. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Molecular technique identifies the pathogen responsible for culture negative infective endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, G. Y.; Manuel, R. J.; Ghori, S.; Brecker, S.; Breathnach, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    A case of culture negative endocarditis complicated by immune complex glomerulonephritis and severe aortic regurgitation necessitated aortic valve replacement. Empirical treatment with penicillin and gentamicin according to UK guidelines was started. The pathogen, Streptococcus sanguis, was later identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA. This molecular technique is likely to be of increasing importance in determining the aetiology of ...

  12. Chest pain with ST segment elevation in a patient with prosthetic aortic valve infective endocarditis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamma Reto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction secondary to atherosclerotic plaque rupture is a common medical emergency. This condition is effectively managed with percutaneous coronary intervention or thrombolysis. We report a rare case of acute myocardial infarction secondary to coronary embolisation of valvular vegetation in a patient with infective endocarditis, and we highlight how the management of this phenomenon may not be the same. Case presentation A 73-year-old British Caucasian man with previous tissue aortic valve replacement was diagnosed with and treated for infective endocarditis of his native mitral valve. His condition deteriorated in hospital and repeat echocardiography revealed migration of vegetation to his aortic valve. Whilst waiting for surgery, our patient developed severe central crushing chest pain with associated anterior ST segment elevation on his electrocardiogram. Our patient had no history or risk factors for ischaemic heart disease. It was likely that coronary embolisation of part of the vegetation had occurred. Thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention treatments were not performed in this setting and a plan was made for urgent surgical intervention. However, our patient deteriorated rapidly and unfortunately died. Conclusion Clinicians need to be aware that atherosclerotic plaque rupture is not the only cause of acute myocardial infarction. In the case of septic vegetation embolisation, case report evidence reveals that adopting the current strategies used in the treatment of myocardial infarction can be dangerous. Thrombolysis risks intra-cerebral hemorrhage from mycotic aneurysm rupture. Percutaneous coronary intervention risks coronary mycotic aneurysm formation, stent infections as well as distal septic embolisation. As yet, there remains no defined treatment modality and we feel all cases should be referred to specialist cardiac centers to consider how best to proceed.

  13. Predictores de mortalidad intrahospitalaria de la endocarditis infecciosa en la República Argentina: resultados del EIRA-II / Predictors of In-hospital Mortality due to Infective Endocarditis in the Argentine Republic: Results of EIRA II Study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan C., Modenesi; Ernesto R., Ferreirós; Sandra, Swieskowski; Francisco M., Nacinovich; Claudia, Cortés; Hernán, Cohen Arazi; Lucía, Kazelián; Sergio, Varini; Mario, Ciruzzi; José Horacio, Casabé.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Determinar la mortalidad hospitalaria y los marcadores clínicos relacionados con la mortalidad de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI) en la República Argentina. Métodos Registro prospectivo, multicéntrico (82 centros de 16 provincias de la Argentina) de EI definidas o posibles según los criteri [...] os Duke, entre junio de 2001 y noviembre de 2002. Resultados Se evaluaron 470 episodios de EI en 452 pacientes (edad media: 58,1 ± 17,6 años; sexo masculino 69,7%; EI definida 83% y posible 17%). Bacteriología: Staphylococcus 38% (S. aureus 30%, Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo 8%), Streptococcus 39,4% (S. viridans 36,8%), Enterococcus 10,8%, HACEK 6,6%, hemocultivos negativos 17,7%. Existía cardiopatía subyacente en el 66,4% y EI de válvula protésica en el 19,2%. Se indicó tratamiento quirúrgico en el 33,3% de los pacientes. La mortalidad fue del 24,3%. En el análisis de regresión logística fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad: edad > 65 años (OR 2,1; IC 95%, 1,1- 3,96; p = 0,024); insuficiencia cardíaca en la evolución (OR 5,9; IC 95%, 3,1-10,9; p Abstract in english Work objective To determine the in-hospital mortality rate and the predictors of mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) in Argentina. Research Design and Methods Prospective, multicentric survey carried out in 82 hospitals all over the country (16 provinces). Patients were enrolled according to Du [...] ke criteria (definite or possible IE) during an 18-month period (June 2001-November 2002). Results Four hundred and seventy episodes in 452 patients were included (mean age 58.1±17.6 years, 69.7% male, 83% definite and 17% possible IE). Blood cultures were negative in 17.7%. The most frequent causative microorganisms were: Staphylococcus 38% (S. aureus 30%, S. coagulase-negative 8%), Streptococcus 39.4% (S. viridans 26.8%), Enterococcus 10,8%, S. coagulase-negative 8%, HACEK group 6,6% and S. bovis 5,5%. Underlying heart disease was present in 66.4% and prosthetic-valve IE was diagnosed in 19.2%. Surgical treatment was indicated in 33.3% and in-hospital mortality was 24.3%. In a logistic regression analysis the following variables were independent predictors of increased mortality: age > 65 years (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-3.96; p = 0.024); heart failure (OR 5.9; 95% CI 3.1-10.9; p

  14. Bacillus cereus prosthetic valve endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castedo, E; Castro, A; Martin, P; Roda, J; Montero, C G

    1999-12-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous organism that often contaminates microbiological cultures but rarely causes serious infections. Reports of B. cereus endocarditis are infrequent. Infection in patients with valvular heart disease is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. We describe a case of B. cereus endocarditis involving a mechanical mitral prosthesis that resolved after replacement of the prosthetic valve. We also review the previous cases reported in the literature. PMID:10617040

  15. Infective endocarditis caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a previously healthy preschool child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Yi; Chang, Tung-Ming; Lin, Chao-Jen; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2014-06-01

    Community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been increasingly reported recently and has become an emerging pathogen of infective endocarditis (IE) in adults, but still rarely reported in children. A previously healthy preschool child without any heart anomaly developed IE and pneumonia with pleural effusion. Blood cultures repeatedly yielded MRSA and did not become negative until 13 days after a teicoplanin-containing regimen was administered. In total, a 4-week intravenous antibiotic therapy and an additional 8-week oral antibiotic therapy were given. The patient recovered uneventfully. All five MRSA blood isolates were molecularly characterized and shared common characteristics, which were consistent with those of the endemic CA-MRSA clone in Taiwan. This case highlights that physicians should be aware of the growing role of CA-MRSA in childhood IE and should meticulously choose an appropriate empiric antibiotic regimen for such a severe disease. PMID:22575428

  16. Gemella morbillorum Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Serap; Gul Yurtsever, Sureyya; Ormen, Bahar; Turker, Nesrin; Kaptan, Figen; El, Sibel; Akyildiz, Zehra Ilke; Coskun, Nejat Ali

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis caused by Gemella morbillorum is a rare disease. In this report 67-year-old male patient with G. morbillorum endocarditis was presented. The patient was hospitalized as he had a fever of unknown origin and in the two of the three sets of blood cultures taken at the first day of hospitalization G. morbillorum was identified. The transthoracic echogram revealed 14 × 10?mm vegetation on the aortic noncoronary cuspis. After 4 weeks of antibiotic therapy, the case was referred to the clinic of cardiovascular surgery for valve surgery. PMID:25544914

  17. Complicaciones posoperatorias y mortalidad en pacientes operados por endocarditis infecciosa Postoperative complications and mortality observed in patients operated on from infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Gómez Armando Gonga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir las causas de morbilidad y mortalidad perioperatorias en los pacientes afectos de endocarditis infecciosa activa y significar cómo pueden ser disminuidas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de las complicaciones posoperatorias y mortalidad en 139 pacientes operados por presentar endocarditis infecciosa en un período de 16 años. Se efectuaron 147 operaciones a los 139 pacientes de las cuales 83 (57,1 % fueron electivas y 64 (42,9 % fueron de urgencia. El 24 % de los pacientes fueron remitidos de otros centros en los que habían sido sometidos a tratamiento médico no exitoso por más de 4 semanas. Resultados: las operaciones efectuadas fueron: Sustituciones valvulares aórticas,mitrales y tricuspídeas 75 (41,1 %, extracción de electrodos de marcapasos o desfibriladores automáticos implantables del ventrículo derecho 57 (41 % , otras operaciones en número de 7 (4,9 %y 8 reintervenciones. La complicación más frecuente fue la sepsis generalizada (10,07 % pObjective: To describe the causes of perioperative morbidity and mortality of patients suffering active infectious endocarditis and to explain how both aspects can be reduced. Methods: A retrospective study of postoperative complications and mortality observed in 139 patients operated on from infectious endocarditis in 16 years. One hundred forty seven surgeries were performed, of which 83 (57.1 % were elective and 64 (42.9 % were emergency surgeries. In this group, 24 % had been referred from other medical centers where they had been unsuccessfully treated for 4 weeks. Results: The performed surgeries comprised 15 aortic, mitral and tricuspid valve replacements, 57 (41 % removals of pacemaker electrodes or of implanted automatic defibrillators in the right ventricle, seven other types of surgeries and 8 reoperations. The most frequent complication was generalized sepsis ((10.07 % p< 0.01, followed by the low heart output and postoperative bleeding. The main causes of death were congestive heart failure in 13 patients (9.3 %, p< 0. 02 and generalized sepsis in 5 patients (3.6 %. The mortality rates presented in this study (16.4 % were associated to several factors such as functional class, since 12.2 % of patients were classified into the functional class III-IV of the New York Heart Association. The mortality rate was higher in those patients who had been unsuccessfully treated for over 4 years (n= 13, 56.5 %. Low mortality is noticeable (2.1 % in patients with infectious endocarditis as a result of pacemaker electrodes or cables, or of implanted automatic defibrillators. Conclusions: Early diagnosis, implementation of an intensive antibiotic treatment, early performance of surgery together with rigorous homeostasis results in a stagger reduction of mortality and morbidity in infectious endocarditis surgeries.

  18. A randomised clinical trial of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients treated for infective endocarditis--the CopenHeartIE trial protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Infective endocarditis (IE) is among the most serious infectious diseases in the western world. Treatment requires lengthy hospitalisation, high-dosage antibiotic therapy and possible valve replacement surgery. Despite advances in treatment, the 1-year mortality remains at 20-40%. Studies indicate that patients experience persisting physical symptoms, diminished quality of life and difficulties returning to work up to a year postdischarge. No studies investigating the effects of rehabilitation have been published. We present the rationale and design of the CopenHeart(IE) trial, which investigates the effect of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients treated for IE. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a randomised clinical trial to investigate the effects of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care on the physical and psychosocial functioning of patients treated for IE. The trial is a multicentre, parallel design trial with 1?:?1 individual randomisation to either the intervention or control group. The intervention consists of five psychoeducational consultations provided by specialised nurses and a 12-week exercise training programme. The primary outcome is mental health (MH) measured by the standardised Short Form 36 (SF-36). The secondary outcome is peak oxygen uptake measured by the bicycle ergospirometry test. Furthermore, a number of exploratory analyses will be performed. Based on sample size calculation, 150 patients treated for left-sided (native or prosthetic valve) or cardiac device endocarditis will be included in the trial. A qualitative and a survey-based complementary study will be undertaken, to investigate postdischarge experiences of the patients. A qualitative postintervention study will explore rehabilitation participation experiences. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the regional research ethics committee (no H-1-2011-129) and the Danish Data Protection Agency (no 2007-58-0015). Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01512615.

  19. Prosthetic Mitral Valve Endocarditis Due to Ochrobactrum anthropi: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Go?mez, M. P. Romero; Esteban, A. M. Peinado; Daza, J. A. Sobrino; Nieto, J. A. Sa?ez; Alvarez, D.; Garci?a, P. Pen?a

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of infective endocarditis in a prosthetic mitral valve due to Ochrobactrum anthropi. Although O. anthropi is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients, infections with the bacterium have very rarely been documented in healthy hosts, and endocarditis is rare. To our knowledge, only two cases of O. anthropi endocarditis have been reported in the medical literature.

  20. Corynebacterium endocarditis species-specific risk factors and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak Janet B

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium species are recognized as uncommon agents of endocarditis, but little is known regarding species-specific risk factors and outcomes in Corynebacterium endocarditis. Methods Case report and Medline search of English language journals for cases of Corynebacterium endocarditis. Inclusion criteria required that cases be identified as endocarditis, having persistent Corynebacterium bacteremia, murmurs described by the authors as identifying the affected valve, or vegetations found by echocardiography or in surgical or autopsy specimens. Cases also required patient-specific information on risk factors and outcomes (age, gender, prior prosthetic valve, other prior nosocomial risk factors (infected valve, involvement of native versus prosthetic valve, need for valve replacement, and death to be included in the analysis. Publications of Corynebacterium endocarditis which reported aggregate data were excluded. Univariate analysis was conducted with chi-square and t-tests, as appropriate, with p = 0.05 considered significant. Results 129 cases of Corynebacterium endocarditis involving nine species met inclusion criteria. Corynebacterium endocarditis typically infects the left heart of adult males and nearly one third of patients have underlying valvular disease. One quarter of patients required valve replacement and one half of patients died. Toxigenic C. diphtheriae is associated with pediatric infections (p C. amycolatum has a predilection for women (p = 0.024, while C. pseudodiphtheriticum infections are most frequent in men (p = 0.023. C. striatum, C. jeikeium and C. hemolyticum are associated with nosocomial risk factors (p C. pseudodiphtheriticum is associated with a previous prosthetic valve replacement (p = 0.004. C. jeikeium infections are more likely to require valve replacement (p = 0.026. Infections involving toxigenic C. diphtheriae and C. pseudodiphtheriticum are associated with decreased survival (p = 0.001 and 0.032, respectively. Conclusion We report the first analysis of species-specific risk factors and outcomes in Corynebacterium endocarditis. In addition to species-specific associations with age, gender, prior valvular diseases, and other nosocomial risk factors, we found differences in rates of need for valve replacement and death. This review highlights the seriousness of these infections, as up to 28% of patients required valve replacement and 43.5% died.

  1. Efficacy of cardiac surgery in endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradmand S

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available 2 factors changed the clinical course of infective endocarditis dramatically: 1 The discovery and evolution of techniques for identifying and treating its microbiologic causes and 2 Valvular surgery. We retrospectively evaluated 43 (33.5% patients (8 female, 35 male from 4 to 65 years old of 128 patients with infective endocarditis who underwent surgical intervention. Indication for surgery were: Refractory congestive heart failure 14 (32.5%, prosthetic valves 10 (23.2%, large vegetation 6 (13.9%, recurrent endocarditis 4 (9.3%, ring abscess 4 (9.3%, brucella endocarditis 2 (4.6%, staph aureus endocarditis 3 (6.9% and recurrent emboli 2 (4.6%. 30 to 50% of patients with infective endocarditis are operated during the active phase of the disease, this percentage is higher in case of aortic valve endocarditis, prosthetic valve endocarditis, some microorganisms such as staph aureus, gram negative bacilli, fungus and brucella. We suggest that internists refer patients for surgical intervention with infective endocarditis as early as possible in the active stage of infection.

  2. A case of culture-negative endocarditis due to Streptococcus tigurinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Hajime; Kakuta, Risako; Yano, Hisakazu; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Gu, Yoshiaki; Oe, Chihiro; Inomata, Shinya; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Hatta, Masumitsu; Endo, Shiro; Tokuda, Koichi; Weber, David J; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2015-02-01

    Culture-negative endocarditis remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge despite recent medical advances. Streptococcus tigurinus, a novel member of the Streptococcus mitis group, was first identified in Zurich. S. tigurinus possesses virulence determinants and causes invasive infections. We report a case of culture-negative endocarditis with serious complications due to S. tigurinus, which was identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis of excised valve tissue specimens. This technique is useful for identification of the causative microorganism in patients with culture-negative endocarditis and may facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial treatment. PMID:25240269

  3. Endocardite infecciosa por Haemophilus aphrophilus: relato de caso Infective endocarditis due to Haemophilus aphrophilus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo M. Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o caso de uma criança com endocardite infecciosa causada por Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIÇÃO: Menino com febre e calafrios há 20 dias. À internação, apresentava-se febril, descorado e sem sinais de instabilidade hemodinâmica; à ausculta cardíaca, tinha sopro holosistólico em foco mitral. Os exames laboratoriais identificaram anemia (hemoglobina = 9,14 g/dL, leucócitos totais de 11.920 mm³, plaquetas de 250.000 mm³, velocidade de sedimentação das hemácias e proteína C reativa elevadas. O ecocardiograma revelou imagem em válvula mitral, sugestiva de vegetação. Com a hipótese de endocardite, foi iniciada antibioticoterapia com penicilina cristalina (200.000 UI/kg/dia associada à gentamicina (4 mg/kg/dia. No terceiro dia de tratamento, foi identificado Haemophilus aphrophilus em hemoculturas, sendo então trocado o esquema antibiótico para ceftriaxona (100 mg/kg/dia. No 20º dia de internação, encontrava-se pálido, mas sem febre e sem outras queixas. Os exames mostravam hemoglobina = 7,0 g/dL, leucócitos = 2.190 mm³, plaquetas = 98.000 mm³, razão normatizada internacional = 1,95 e R = 1,89. Foi feita hipótese de reação adversa ao ceftriaxona, que foi substituído por ciprofloxacina, 20 mg/kg/dia, até completar 6 semanas de tratamento. Após 72 horas da troca, houve normalização dos exames. Durante seguimento ambulatorial, apresentou insuficiência mitral grave, sendo submetido a troca de válvula por prótese metálica 9 meses após quadro agudo. Há 3 anos encontra-se bem, em acompanhamento ambulatorial. COMENTÁRIOS: É rara a identificação de agentes do grupo HACEK (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens e Kingella kingae em crianças com endocardite infecciosa. O caso apresentado, sem fatores de risco relacionados a esses agentes, reafirma a necessidade de tentar sempre identificar o agente etiológico das endocardites para adequação do tratamento.OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a child with infective endocarditis caused by Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIPTION: Boy with 20 days of fever and chills. On admission, he was febrile, pale and with no signs of hemodynamic instability; on cardiac auscultation, a mitral-related holosystolic murmur was observed. Laboratory examination identified anemia (hemoglobin = 9.14 g/dL, total leukocytes of 11,920 mm³, platelets of 250,000 mm³, elevated sedimentation velocity of red cells and elevated C-reactive protein. The echocardiogram revealed image on mitral valve, resembling vegetation. Considering endocarditis, antibiotic therapy was started with crystalline penicillin (200,000 UI/kg/day in association with gentamicin (4 mg/kg/day. On the third day of treatment, Haemophilus aphrophilus was identified in the blood cultures and the antibiotic scheme was replaced with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day. On the 20th day of evolution, the patient was pale but with no fever or other complaints. Examinations showed hemoglobin = 7.0 g/dL, leukocytes = 2,190 mm³, platelets = 98,000 mm³, international normalized ratio = 1.95 and R = 1.89. Considering the hypothesis of adverse reaction to ceftriaxone, a 6-week replacement treatment with ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg/day was started. Examination results normalized after 72 hours of the replacement therapy. During ambulatory follow-up, patient presented with severe mitral regurgitation, undergoing a valve replacement with a metallic prosthetic valve 9 months after acute event. Patient has done well throughout the 3-year ambulatory follow-up. COMMENTS: Identification of agents of the HACEK group (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae in children with infective endocarditis is rare. This case report, with no HACEK agent-related risk factors, reinforces the need for identification of the etiological agent of endocarditis to ensure adequate treatment.

  4. Endocardite infecciosa por Haemophilus aphrophilus: relato de caso / Infective endocarditis due to Haemophilus aphrophilus: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo M., Pereira; Fabio, Bucaretchi; Antonia T., Tresoldi.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o caso de uma criança com endocardite infecciosa causada por Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIÇÃO: Menino com febre e calafrios há 20 dias. À internação, apresentava-se febril, descorado e sem sinais de instabilidade hemodinâmica; à ausculta cardíaca, tinha sopro holosistólico em f [...] oco mitral. Os exames laboratoriais identificaram anemia (hemoglobina = 9,14 g/dL), leucócitos totais de 11.920 mm³, plaquetas de 250.000 mm³, velocidade de sedimentação das hemácias e proteína C reativa elevadas. O ecocardiograma revelou imagem em válvula mitral, sugestiva de vegetação. Com a hipótese de endocardite, foi iniciada antibioticoterapia com penicilina cristalina (200.000 UI/kg/dia) associada à gentamicina (4 mg/kg/dia). No terceiro dia de tratamento, foi identificado Haemophilus aphrophilus em hemoculturas, sendo então trocado o esquema antibiótico para ceftriaxona (100 mg/kg/dia). No 20º dia de internação, encontrava-se pálido, mas sem febre e sem outras queixas. Os exames mostravam hemoglobina = 7,0 g/dL, leucócitos = 2.190 mm³, plaquetas = 98.000 mm³, razão normatizada internacional = 1,95 e R = 1,89. Foi feita hipótese de reação adversa ao ceftriaxona, que foi substituído por ciprofloxacina, 20 mg/kg/dia, até completar 6 semanas de tratamento. Após 72 horas da troca, houve normalização dos exames. Durante seguimento ambulatorial, apresentou insuficiência mitral grave, sendo submetido a troca de válvula por prótese metálica 9 meses após quadro agudo. Há 3 anos encontra-se bem, em acompanhamento ambulatorial. COMENTÁRIOS: É rara a identificação de agentes do grupo HACEK (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens e Kingella kingae) em crianças com endocardite infecciosa. O caso apresentado, sem fatores de risco relacionados a esses agentes, reafirma a necessidade de tentar sempre identificar o agente etiológico das endocardites para adequação do tratamento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a child with infective endocarditis caused by Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIPTION: Boy with 20 days of fever and chills. On admission, he was febrile, pale and with no signs of hemodynamic instability; on cardiac auscultation, a mitral-related holosystolic murmur wa [...] s observed. Laboratory examination identified anemia (hemoglobin = 9.14 g/dL), total leukocytes of 11,920 mm³, platelets of 250,000 mm³, elevated sedimentation velocity of red cells and elevated C-reactive protein. The echocardiogram revealed image on mitral valve, resembling vegetation. Considering endocarditis, antibiotic therapy was started with crystalline penicillin (200,000 UI/kg/day) in association with gentamicin (4 mg/kg/day). On the third day of treatment, Haemophilus aphrophilus was identified in the blood cultures and the antibiotic scheme was replaced with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day). On the 20th day of evolution, the patient was pale but with no fever or other complaints. Examinations showed hemoglobin = 7.0 g/dL, leukocytes = 2,190 mm³, platelets = 98,000 mm³, international normalized ratio = 1.95 and R = 1.89. Considering the hypothesis of adverse reaction to ceftriaxone, a 6-week replacement treatment with ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg/day) was started. Examination results normalized after 72 hours of the replacement therapy. During ambulatory follow-up, patient presented with severe mitral regurgitation, undergoing a valve replacement with a metallic prosthetic valve 9 months after acute event. Patient has done well throughout the 3-year ambulatory follow-up. COMMENTS: Identification of agents of the HACEK group (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae) in children with infective endocarditis is rare. This case report, with no HACEK agent-related risk factors, reinforces the need for identification of the etiological agent of endocarditis to ensure adequate treatment.

  5. Utilidad diagnóstica de los nódulos de Osler en la endocarditis infecciosa en usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral (UDVP) / Diagnostic utility of Osler´s nodes in the infective endocarditis in intravenous drug users

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F. J., Espinosa Parra; J. M., Ramos Rincón; F., Herrero Huerta; L., Pretel Serrano; A. A., Lorenzo.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Se describen los datos clínicos, microbiológicos e histológicos de cinco episodios de endocarditis infecciosa (EI) con nódulos de Osler en usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral (UDVP). Pacientes y métodos: Se han estudiado de forma prospectiva 43 casos de EI en UDVP. En 4 pacientes se re [...] alizó punción aspiración y en otro biopsia de un nódulo de Osler, con tinción de Gram y cultivo de la muestra. Resultados: De los 43 episodios de EI 33 fueron derechas, 9 izquierdas y 1 mixta. Cinco de los 10 (50%) pacientes con endocarditis izquierda o mixta presentaron nódulos de Osler, pero no se encontraron en ninguno de los pacientes con EI derecha. En todas las muestras tomadas por punción aspiración se observaron cocos grampositivos en racimos en la tinción de Gram y se obtuvo crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus con el mismo antibiotipo que los aislados en los hemocultivos. En el único caso en el que se realizo biopsia del nódulo se apreciaba trombos sépticos en la microcirculación. Conclusiones: La tinción de Gram y el cultivo del material aspirado de los nódulos de Osler tiene una alta rentabilidad en el diagnóstico etiológico de la EI en los usuarios a drogras por vía parenteral. La presencia de nódulos de Osler en un paciente con EI nos debe sugerir que la localización es izquierda. Estos datos sugieren que los nódulos de Osler, en la EI por S. aureus en los UDVP se origina como consecuencia de embolismos sépticos microvasculares. Abstract in english Background: The objective of study is to describe of clinic, microbiological and histological data of five cases of infective endocarditis (IE) with Osler's nodes in intravenous drug users . Patients y methods: Prospectively, 43 cases of IE in intravenous drugs users was revised. In 4 patients, a as [...] pirate puncture of Osler's node was performed and in one patient a biopsy of Osler's node was done with Gram's stain and culture of specimen. Results: From 43 episodes of IE, 33 were right-side IE, 9 left-side y 1 right and left side. No patients with right-side IE presented Osler's nodes, however five of 10 (50%) patients with left-side endocarditis. In all of cases grampositive cocci were observed in Gram's strain and Staphylococcus aureus growth on culture of lesion with the same antibiotype than isolated from blood culture. One case a cutaneous biopsy was performed, and inflammatory infiltrate with necrosis was found. Conclusions: The Gram's strain and culture of specimen aspirated from Osler's nodes were of high utility in the diagnosis of IE in intravenous drugs users. The presence of Osler's nodes in a patient with infective endocarditis must be suggest that the location in left-side. These data suggest that Osler's nodes in infective endocarditis by S. aureus in intravenous drugs users was originated by microvascular septic emboli.

  6. Endocarditis del marcapasos / Pacemaker endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., López Rodríguez; M., Rodríguez Framil; A., Hermida Ameijeiras; F. L., Lado Lado.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha producido un incremento en las indicaciones de marcapasos y desfibriladores autoimplantables que tendrá como consecuencia un aumento de la prevalencia de la endocarditis asociada a dispositivos intravasculares, por lo que adquiere especial relevancia para el clínico conocer [...] esta entidad e incluirla en sus diagnósticos diferenciales. El objetivo de este articulo es describir la epidemiología, características clínicas, diagnóstico, tratamiento y pronóstico de la endocarditis asociada al marcapasos. Abstract in english In the last years an increment has taken place in the pacemaker and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator indications that will have as consequence an increase of the prevalencia of the endocarditis associated to intravascular devices, for what acquires special relevance for the clinical one to kno [...] w this entity and to include it in his differential diagnoses. The objetive of this article is to describe the epidemiology, clinic characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of the pacemaker endocarditis.

  7. High rates of complications following Kingella kingae infective endocarditis in children: a case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Monique A; Walls, Tony

    2014-07-01

    Kingella kingae is part of the Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter spp., Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella spp. organisms that are known to cause bacterial endocarditis. Evidence suggests it is also a common pharyngeal colonizer in children endocarditis in children. PMID:24921624

  8. Fístula aorto pulmonar: endocarditis izquierda en paciente VIH y ADVP: Revisión de la literatura / Aorto pulmonary fistula: left-sided infective endocarditis in HIV and intravenous drugs abuser patient: Review of literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Obón Azuara; B., Zalba Etayo; I., Gutiérrez Cía; B., Villanueva Anadón.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una de las complicaciones más severas en la población adicta a drogas por vía parenteral (ADVP). La infección por el VIH incrementa el riesgo de aparición en los pacientes que además son ADVP. La EI en ambas poblaciones posee una especial tendencia a infectar las v [...] álvulas del hemicardio derecho, siendo infrecuente la afectación aórtica. Se expone el caso un paciente VIH y ADVP, que ingresa por síndrome febril, con Rx de tórax inicial normal y hemocultivos negativos. CD4 90 mm³. Imposible realizar ecocardiograma transesofágico (ETE), revelando el transtorácico (ETT) una insuficiencia aórtica moderada con función sistólica conservada. A pesar de antibioterpia de amplio espectro, antifúngico y tratamiento antirretroviral (TAR) presentó SDRA por lo que es intubado. Se realizó ETT apreciando una gran desestructuración aórtica y una fístula aorto-pulmonar secundaria a una EI izquierda. Posteriormente solo un hemocultivo fue positivo para S. aureus. Fue desestimado el tratamiento quirúrgico. El paciente falleció tras 3 semanas de evolución. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis (IE) is the most severe complication in intravenous drug abusers (IVDAs). HIV infection increases the risk of IE in IVDAs too. IE in both population are special tendency to infect the rigth-sided heart, but unusual infective aortic valve. We report a case of HIV and IVDA patie [...] nt admitted in hospital due to fever syndrome, with X-ray test normal and the first blood cultures negatives. CD4 count cell 90 mm³. It was impossible doing a transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and transtoracic echocardiogramma (TTE) only showed a moderate aortic insufficiency with conserved systolic function. Despite using antibiotics, antifungals and highly active antirretroviral therapy, he developed ARDS, and mechanical ventilation should be performed. At that moment, TEE showed an aorto pulmonary fistula due to left-sided IE. Further cultures was undergone and only one blood culture was positive to Staphylococcus aureus. Cardiac surgery was not indicated. The patient died 3 weeks later.

  9. Molecular Identification of Gemella Species from Three Patients with Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    1998-01-01

    Gemella morbillorum and Gemella haemolysans are opportunistic pathogens which cause endocarditis and other severe infections. We report on three patients with endocarditis, one with endocarditis caused by G. haemolysans and two with endocarditis caused by G. morbillorum. The paucity of reports concerning these bacteria is probably related to the difficulties associated with their identification. For example, one of the strains reported in this study was originally sent to our laboratory with ...

  10. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis and presumed osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Romney, Marc; Cheung, Stephen; Montessori, Valentina

    2001-01-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is known to cause infections in humans following exposure to decaying organic matter or animals colonized with the organism, such as swine and fish. Invasive infections with this organism are unusual and are manifested primarily as infective endocarditis. The present report is believed to be the first to report a case of E rhusiopathiae endocarditis and presumptive osteomyelitis. E rhusiopathiae appears to have intrinsic resistance to vancomycin. Because vancomyci...

  11. Comparison between transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography in screening for infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D; Keynan, Y; Rubinstein, E

    2014-11-01

    Echocardiography is an important diagnostic tool in evaluating a patient with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) for diagnosing infective endocarditis (IE). We sought to compare the utility of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in screening for IE in patients with SAB. We performed a retrospective chart review of 285 adult patients from two tertiary care hospitals with at least one positive blood culture for S. aureus between 2010 and 2012. Patients who underwent echocardiography were divided into two groups: TTE (screened with TTE only) and TEE (screened with both TTE and TEE). The demographic factors and clinical outcomes were compared between the groups. Of the 285 charts reviewed, 213 (74.7 %) patients were screened with echocardiography: 183 (85.9 %) were screened with TTE alone and 30 (14.1 %) were screened with both TTE and TEE. TEE disclosed more cases of definite IE than TTE (8 [26.7 %] vs. 22 [12.0 %], p?=?0.046). The TEE group had higher mortality than the TTE group (15 [50.0 %] vs. 43 [23.5 %], p?=?0.004). In patients with definite IE, mortality was higher in the TEE group than in the TTE group (6 [75.0 %] vs. 6 [27.3 %], p?=?0.034). TEE discovered additional findings that were missed by TTE in 36.7 % of cases and refuted the findings of TTE in 13.3 % of cases. We do not support the routine use of TEE in patients with uncomplicated SAB. High-risk patients in which IE is a serious consideration should undergo investigation with TEE. PMID:24930043

  12. Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex fecal carriage, colorectal carcinoma, and infective endocarditis: a new appraisal of a complex connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirouze, C; Patry, I; Duval, X; Baty, V; Tattevin, P; Aparicio, T; Pagenault, M; Carbonnel, F; Couetdic, G; Hoen, B

    2013-09-01

    The proportion of group D streptococcal infective endocarditis (IE) (predominantly due to Streptococcus gallolyticus) and the incidence of colorectal cancer are higher in France than in most European countries. We assumed that this could be explained by a high group D streptococci (GDS) fecal carriage rate. The aims of this study were to re-assess the GDS fecal carriage rate in France and its relationship with colorectal cancer. Consecutive adult subjects who were to undergo a complete colonoscopy were invited to participate. GDS were searched in subjects' stools before their colonoscopy using biomolecular techniques. Colonoscopic findings were sorted into four subgroups: normal colonoscopy, non-tumoral lesions, benign tumors, and premalignant/malignant tumors. GDS fecal carriages were calculated overall and in each subgroup and compared. The data from 259 subjects were analyzed. GDS were identified in the feces of 12 subjects, with the following distribution: S. lutetiensis (n?=?9), S. pasteurianus (n?=?2), and S. gallolyticus (n?=?1). This accounted for an overall GDS fecal carriage rate of 4.6 %. The GDS fecal carriage rate was 6 % in case of normal colonoscopy, 1.3 % in case of non-tumoral lesions, 3.2 % in case of benign tumors, and 11 % in case of premalignant/malignant tumors. These four percentages were not statistically different. The GDS fecal carriage rate was lower than expected, which did not confirm our working hypothesis. Most strains belonged to S. bovis biotype II, while S. gallolyticus was found only once. These findings suggest that different GDS play different roles in the etiopathogenesis of IE and colorectal cancer. PMID:23558362

  13. Endocarditis del marcapasos / Pacemaker endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., López Rodríguez; M., Rodríguez Framil; A., Hermida Ameijeiras; F. L., Lado Lado.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis del marcapasos es una complicación poco frecuente pero grave. La forma más frecuente de presentación es como síndrome febril y/o bacteriemia por gérmenes gram positivos. Dos elementos claves para el diagnóstico son los hemocultivos y el ecocardiograma. Se realiza un análisis retrospe [...] ctivo de los pacientes con endocarditis del marcapasos ingresados en el Servicio de Medicina Interna de nuestro hospital entre 1989-2003. Se incluyeron 6 pacientes. En este estudio la manipulación repetida del sistema y la diabetes mellitus fueron los factores de riesgo más frecuentes. Los microorganismos más frecuentemente implicados fueron los Staphylococcus spp. A pesar de la menor sensibilidad del ecocardiograma transtorácico, en manos expertas puede mejorar su rendimiento, en esta serie se sitúa en el 66%. Se realizó extracción mediante cirugía extracorpórea e implantación de un nuevo sistema en la misma intervención en todos, sin ningún caso de recidiva y con una mortalidad del 17%. Abstract in english Pacemaker endocarditis is a rare but serious complication of permanent transvenous pacing. The most common presentation is fever syndrom or gram positive bacteremia. For the diagnostic it is important to performed blood cultures and an echocardiography. A retrospective study included the cases of pa [...] cemaker endocarditis diagnosed in the Internal Medicine Department of our Hospital between 1989-2003. Six patients were included. Repeated manipulation of the system and diabetes were the most frequent risk factors. The most frequently detected causative microorganisms were Staphylococci. In spite of the low sensitivity of the transthoracic echocardiography in expert hands it can improve, in this series it places in 66 %. Surgical treatment with cardiopulmonar bypass and implantation of a new system was performed in the same intervention in all patients. None relapsed and the overall mortality was 17%.

  14. Endocardite infecciosa em câmaras direitas: discrepância entre evolução clínica e ecocardiográfica: relato de caso / Right-side infective endocarditis: discrepancy between clinical and echocardiographic evolution: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Ramos, Nascimento; Thaíssa Oliveira de Almeida A., Coelho; Lucas Rocha da, Costa Filho; Marcelo Martins, Pinto Filho; Vitor Emanuel Serafim, Cota; Renata de Carvalho, Bicalho; Antonio Luiz Pinho, Ribeiro; Maria do Carmo Pereira, Nunes.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A endocardite infecciosa é uma patologia relativamente rara na prática clínica, e, apesar dos avanços em seu diagnóstico e tratamento, sua morbi-mortalidade ainda é significativa. Muitas vezes é difícil a identificação de suas complicações e a conduta frente a elas, ocorrendo com freqüência a dissoc [...] iação entre a evolução clínica e os achados de exames complementares - principalmente ecocardiográficos. A decisão clínica torna-se ainda mais difícil frente às manifestações atípicas da doença, como a endocardite de câmaras direitas. Este é o relato de um caso raro de endocardite de câmaras direitas em uma paciente renal crônica, cuja piora dos achados ecocardiográficos se opunha à evolução clínica favorável. Esta situação pode suscitar dificuldade quanto aos critérios para indicação cirúrgica e a segurança do tratamento conservador. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis is a relatively rare disease in clinical practice, with significant morbidity and mortality despite the improvements on its diagnosis and treatment. It is often difficult to identify its complications and define strategies for them. Dissociation between the clinical evolution [...] and the findings from complementary tests (especially echocardiographic tests) is common. Clinical decisions become even more difficult when there are atypical manifestations of the disease, such as right-side endocarditis. This report is about a rare case of right-side endocarditis in a patient with chronic renal disease, in which there was a contradiction between worsening of the echocardiographic findings and clinical improvement. This situation may lead to difficulties regarding the criteria for indicating surgery and the safety of conservative clinical treatment.

  15. Challenge in the management of infective endocarditis with multiple valvular involvement Desafio no manejo clínico da endocardite infecciosa com acometimento multivalvar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Rodrigues de Araújo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 41-year-old man with congenital heart disease and infective endocarditis (IE, who presented multiple vegetations attached to the pulmonary, mitral, and aortic valves. Three valve replacements were performed, but the patient developed an abscess at the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa and died due to sepsis. We briefly discuss the indications for surgery in IE, emphasizing its role in the treatment of uncontrolled infection.Paciente do sexo masculino, 41 anos, portador de cardiopatia congênita apresentando-se com endocardite infecciosa (EI e vegetações nas valvas pulmonar, aórtica e mitral. Três trocas valvares foram realizadas, mas o paciente evoluiu com recidiva da infecção, desenvolvendo abscesso na região da fibrosa intervalvar mitro-aórtica progredindo para sépsis e óbito. Nesse relato, discutimos brevemente as indicações para a cirurgia na EI, destacando sua indicação no tratamento da infecção não controlada.

  16. Challenge in the management of infective endocarditis with multiple valvular involvement / Desafio no manejo clínico da endocardite infecciosa com acometimento multivalvar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Izabella Rodrigues de, Araújo; Maria do Carmo Pereira, Nunes; Claudio Leo, Gelape; Vinicius Tostes, Carvalho; Benone Evaristo Rezende Araújo, Lacerda; Gustavo Brandão de, Oliveira; Luiza Caldeira, Brant; Teresa Cristina Abreu, Ferrari.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paciente do sexo masculino, 41 anos, portador de cardiopatia congênita apresentando-se com endocardite infecciosa (EI) e vegetações nas valvas pulmonar, aórtica e mitral. Três trocas valvares foram realizadas, mas o paciente evoluiu com recidiva da infecção, desenvolvendo abscesso na região da fibro [...] sa intervalvar mitro-aórtica progredindo para sépsis e óbito. Nesse relato, discutimos brevemente as indicações para a cirurgia na EI, destacando sua indicação no tratamento da infecção não controlada. Abstract in english We describe the case of a 41-year-old man with congenital heart disease and infective endocarditis (IE), who presented multiple vegetations attached to the pulmonary, mitral, and aortic valves. Three valve replacements were performed, but the patient developed an abscess at the mitral-aortic interva [...] lvular fibrosa and died due to sepsis. We briefly discuss the indications for surgery in IE, emphasizing its role in the treatment of uncontrolled infection.

  17. Meningite e endocardite infecciosa causada por Rhodotorula mucilaginosa em paciente imunocompetente / Meningitis and infective endocarditis caused by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in an immunocompetent patient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergio Henrique, Loss; Ana Carolina Peçanha, Antonio; Cíntia, Roehrig; Priscylla Souza, Castro; Juçara Gasparetto, Maccari.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de um homem imunocompetente admitido com comprometimento agudo do sistema nervoso, crise hipertensiva e insuficiência renal, vindo a receber diagnóstico de meningite e endocardite infecciosa por Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Até onde sabemos, esta é a primeira descrição de infe [...] cção simultânea das meninges e do endotélio causada por Rhodotorula em um paciente sem comprometimento imunológico. Abstract in english The authors report the case of an immunocompetent man who presented with acute impairment of the neurological system, hypertensive crisis and renal failure. The patient was eventually diagnosed with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa meningitis and infective endocarditis. To the best of our knowledge, this is [...] the first description of simultaneous infection of the meninges and endothelium caused by Rhodotorula in a non-immunocompromised patient.

  18. Mycotic aneurysm of the tibioperoneal trunk: a first manifestation of an infected endocarditis / Aneurisma micótico de tronco tíbio-fibular: a primeira manifestação de uma endocardite infecciosa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergio Quilici, Belczak; Igor Rafael, Sincos; Marcelo Passos, Teivelis; Carlos Alberto Sian de, Oliveira; Hélio, Fragoso; Ricardo, Aun.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aneurisma micótico infra-poplíteo resultante de endocardite infecciosa é raro, com apenas alguns casos relatados. Descrevemos o caso de um paciente de 28 anos do sexo masculino que apresentou dor e edema na perna direita. A ultrassonografia demonstrou um aneurisma do tronco tíbio-fibular e trombose [...] venosa profunda do membro inferior direito. O paciente foi internado e desenvolveu falência cardíaca aguda, sendo diagnosticado de endocardite bacteriana. Um pseudo-aneurisma foi evidenciado na arteriografia. Antibioticoterapia agressiva foi iniciada e cirurgia aberta confirmou um pseudo-aneurisma micótico do tronco tibio-fibular. Para o nosso conhecimento, este é o oitavo caso relatado de aneurisma infectado localizado especificamente nesta região. Abstract in english Infrapopliteal mycotic aneurysm resulting from endocarditis is rare, with only a few reported cases. We describe the case of a 28-year-old male patient who was suffering with pain and edema in the right leg. The ultrasound revealed an aneurysm of the right tibioperoneal trunk and a deep vein thrombo [...] sis (DVT). The patient was admitted and developed acute congestive heart failure, being diagnosed with possible endocarditis. A pseudo-aneurysm was revealed by arteriography. Aggressive antibiotic treatment was initiated, and open surgery confirmed a mycotic pseudo-aneurysm of the tibioperoneal trunk. To our knowledge, this is the 8th case reported of an infected aneurysm in this particular location.

  19. Mycotic aneurysm of the tibioperoneal trunk: a first manifestation of an infected endocarditis Aneurisma micótico de tronco tíbio-fibular: a primeira manifestação de uma endocardite infecciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Quilici Belczak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Infrapopliteal mycotic aneurysm resulting from endocarditis is rare, with only a few reported cases. We describe the case of a 28-year-old male patient who was suffering with pain and edema in the right leg. The ultrasound revealed an aneurysm of the right tibioperoneal trunk and a deep vein thrombosis (DVT. The patient was admitted and developed acute congestive heart failure, being diagnosed with possible endocarditis. A pseudo-aneurysm was revealed by arteriography. Aggressive antibiotic treatment was initiated, and open surgery confirmed a mycotic pseudo-aneurysm of the tibioperoneal trunk. To our knowledge, this is the 8th case reported of an infected aneurysm in this particular location.Aneurisma micótico infra-poplíteo resultante de endocardite infecciosa é raro, com apenas alguns casos relatados. Descrevemos o caso de um paciente de 28 anos do sexo masculino que apresentou dor e edema na perna direita. A ultrassonografia demonstrou um aneurisma do tronco tíbio-fibular e trombose venosa profunda do membro inferior direito. O paciente foi internado e desenvolveu falência cardíaca aguda, sendo diagnosticado de endocardite bacteriana. Um pseudo-aneurisma foi evidenciado na arteriografia. Antibioticoterapia agressiva foi iniciada e cirurgia aberta confirmou um pseudo-aneurisma micótico do tronco tibio-fibular. Para o nosso conhecimento, este é o oitavo caso relatado de aneurisma infectado localizado especificamente nesta região.

  20. Endocarditis bacteriana: reporte de caso / Bacterial endocarditis: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto, Dávila F; Miguel, Marroquín A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis bacteriana es una inflamación del endocardio donde hay colonización bacteriana que genera vegetaciones en alguna válvula del corazón, las cuales alteran la función cardiaca generando regurgitaciones y alteraciones hemodinámicas. Además, puede producir cuadros propios de la infección [...] como tromboembolismo séptico y alteraciones inflamatorias como complejos inmunes. En el presente estudio se describe el caso de un canino hembra de 2.5 años, que presentó fiebre, decaimiento, anorexia y un soplomarcado(IV/VI) en elladoizquierdodeltórax.Losexámenesdelaboratorioevidenciaron leucocitosis con desviación a la izquierda e insuficiencia renal aguda. Además, la ecocardiografía mostró un crecimiento a nivel de la válvula aórtica que alteraba el flujo sanguíneo produciendo un jet regurgitante diastólico. Se concluye que la lesión era compatible con una endocarditis bacteriana Abstract in english Bacterial endocarditis is an inflammation of the endocardium, where a bacterial colonization produces vegetation in the cardiac valve, which can alter its normal function causing regurgitations and hemodynamic alterations. Also, this infection can cause septic thromboembolism or inflammatory alterat [...] ions like immune complexes. The present study describes the case of a female canine of 2.5 years of age that presented fever, depression, anorexia and a severe murmur (IV/VI) on the left side of the thorax. Laboratory exams revealed leukocytosis with left shift and renal failure. Besides, the echocardiography showed vegetation at the aortic valve that altered the hemodynamics producing a diastolic regurgitation jet. It was concluded that the lesion was compatible with bacterial endocarditis

  1. Listeria monocytogenes endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinman, B D; Evans, T; Sage, R

    1985-01-01

    A fatal case of endocarditis due to Listeria monocytogenes is reported. Case reports of endocarditis due to this organism are rare but indicate a higher mortality than with many other causes of bacterial endocarditis. The size of the problem may be underestimated because the organism has a "diphtheroid' appearance and may be incorrectly dismissed as a contaminant. PMID:3991406

  2. Plasmid pattern analysis of Staphylococcal epidermidis isolates from patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, G. L.; Vishniavsky, N.; Stiver, H. G.

    1982-01-01

    The electrophoretic pattern formed by individual bacterial plasmid DNA molecules of differing molecular size was evaluated as an epidemiological marker among isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis from patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). Purified covalently closed circular plasmid DNA was obtained from selected isolates, and 79% of the plasmids were found to be less than 10 megadaltons in size; only these small plasmids were sought in subsequent screening gels. Crude cell lysat...

  3. Changes in the treatment of Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis in Spain in the last 15 years: from ampicillin plus gentamicin to ampicillin plus ceftriaxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericas, J M; Cervera, C; del Rio, A; Moreno, A; Garcia de la Maria, C; Almela, M; Falces, C; Ninot, S; Castañeda, X; Armero, Y; Soy, D; Gatell, J M; Marco, F; Mestres, C A; Miro, J M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in antibiotic resistance, epidemiology and outcome among patients with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (EFIE) and to compare the efficacy and safety of the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin (A+G) with that of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone (A+C). The study was a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort of EFIE patients treated in our centre from 1997 to 2011. Thirty patients were initially treated with A+G (ampicillin 2 g/4 h and gentamicin 3 mg/kg/day) and 39 with A+C (ampicillin 2 g/4 h and ceftriaxone 2 g/12 h) for 4-6 weeks. Increased rates of high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR; gentamicin MIC ?512 mg/L, streptomycin MIC ?1024 mg/L or both) were observed in recent years (24% in 1997-2006 and 49% in 2007-2011; p 0.03). The use of A+C increased over time: 1997-2001, 4/18 (22%); 2002-2006, 5/16 (31%); 2007-2011, 30/35 (86%) (p <0.001). Renal failure developed in 65% of the A+G group and in 34% of the A+C group (p 0.014). Thirteen patients (43%) in the A+G group had to discontinue treatment, whereas only one patient (3%) treated with A+C had to discontinue treatment (p <0.001). Only development of heart failure and previous chronic renal failure were independently associated with 1-year mortality, while the individual antibiotic regimen (A+C vs. A+G) did not affect outcome (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.2-2.2; p 0.549). Our study shows that the prevalence of HLAR EFIE has increased significantly in recent years and that alternative treatment with A+C is safer than A+G, with similar clinical outcomes, although the sample size is too small to draw firm conclusions. Randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25040215

  4. Tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite infecciosa na fase aguda: experiência de três anos Surgical treatment of infective endocarditis in the acute phase: a three-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iseu Affonso da Costa

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite na fase aguda vem-se impondo como o mais efetivo, em muitas circunstâncias clínicas. As contínuas modificações nos aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e bacteriológicos desta afecção tornam necessária permanente avaliação dos resultados, nas situações concretas de atuação dos diversos grupos clínico-cirúrgicos. A definição de normas de conduta ante esta grave afecção tem-nos preocupado, ultimamente, por sua crescente participação em nossa prática clínica-cirúrgica. De novembro de 1983 a novembro de 1986, 6,7% das substituições valvares por nosso grupo cirúrgico deveram-se a endocardite (32 de 4,77 pacientes. A sede do processo infeccioso teve a seguinte distribuição: mitral 6 casos, aórtica 12 casos (um óbito, mitral e aórtica 6 casos (dois óbitos prótese aórtica 4 casos (três óbitos, prótese mitral 2 casos (um óbito mitral, aórtica e tricúspide 1 caso (um óbito e parede do ventrículo esquerdo 1 caso. A idade variou entre 10 e 56 anos. Sete pacientes eram do sexo feminino e 24 do masculino. Todos os pacientes eram brancos. A análise dos achados anátomo-patológicos permitiu determinação de três grupos: no Grupo A, tivemos 11 operações por lesões valvares simples, consistentes basicamente de vegetações infectadas. Todos os pacientes sobreviveram e obtiveram alta hospitalar. Nos 15 pacientes do Grupo B, havia acometimento multivalvar, ou lesões complicadas por mutilações valvares extensas e/ou comunicações entre câmaras cardíacas; 5 pacientes faleceram. No Grupo C, houve 5 operações por infecções em próteses, ocorrendo 4 óbitos. O prognóstico favorável dos pacientes operados com lesões simples e o alto risco daqueles em que havia destruição tissular mais extensa e daqueles em que a endocardite se instalou em próteses, nos levam a defender o tratamento cirúrgico precoce das infecções valvares, em todos os casos em que não haja rápida resposta ao tratamento antibiótico.Surgical treatment is becoming accepted as the best means of dealing with acute bacterial endocarditis in many clinical settings. The continuing changes in diagnosis, bacteriology and clinical picture of this disease must be accounted for by the surgical teams. Definition of the rules for management of this severe condition has been a matter of concern for us in the last years. From November 1983 to November 1986, 6.7% of the valvar substitutions in our Service were due to active infection (32 of 477 patients. The site of infection was the mitral valve in six patients, aortic valve in 12 patients (one death mitral and aortic valves in six patients (two deaths, mitral prostheses in two patients (one death aortic prostheses (three deaths, mitral, aortic and tricuspid valves in one patient (one death and the wall of the left ventricle in one patient. Age varied from 10 to 56 years (m=29.2 years. Seven patients were females and 24 males. All patients were white. Analysis of the pathologic findings allowed us to define three subgroups: In subgroup A, 11 operations were done for simple valvar lesions. All patients left the hospital. Fifteen patients were in the subgroup of extensive valvar or perivalvar lesions, five of which died. Among the six prosthetic infections there were four deaths. The favorable outcome of the patients operated on for simple valvar lesions and the high risk of those who presented extensive tissue destruction or prosthetic infection makes us to prefer immediate surgical treatment if there is no clear response to antibiotics within 24 to 48 hours.

  5. Abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis presenting with hemiplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Akkoyunlu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abiotrophia defectiva was previously known as a member of the nutritionally variant streptococcus (NVS. This microorganism is a member of the normal flora of mouth, urogenital and intestinal tracts. It causes various infections such as bacteriemia, brain abscess, septic arthritis and rarely infective endocarditis. Only < 1% of all cases of endocarditis are caused by A. defectiva.A 23 year old previously healthy female was admitted to emergency department for left hemiplegia. On physical examination, petechial rashes were detected on her palmar and plantar regions. Magnetic resonance image of brain revealed acute enfarctus in the striatocapsuler area, and total occlusion was detected in right median common arterial segment M1 with magnetic resonance imaging angiography. Urgent thrombectomy was performed. Echocardiography demonstrated a mobile vegetation on mitral valve leaflet.Infective endocarditis was diagnosed and ceftriaxone at 2gr/day and vancomycin at 2 gr/day doses were started. A. defectiva was isolated in blood cultures. Antibiotics were changed to ampicillin/sulbactam at 8 gr/day and vancomycin at 2 gr /day doses. Infective endocarditis caused by A. defectiva and other nutritionally variant streptococci are reported to have a higher mortality, morbidity and complication rates. In the current communication we report this rather rare case of infective endocarditis.

  6. Perfil clínico-epidemiológico de pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa, período 2003-2010 en el hospital de Temuco, Chile / Profile of patients with infective endocarditis admitted to a Chilean regional hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Benjamín, Stockins; Víctor, Neira; Alejandro, Paredes; Carlos, Castillo; Andrés, Troncoso.

    1304-13-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Mortality due to infective endocarditis (IE) in Chile is close to 30%. Aim: To report the experience with patients admitted with the diagnosis of IE in a regional tertiary hospital. Material and Methods: Retrospective study of 107 patients aged 50 ± 16years (75% males) discharged with a [...] definitive diagnosis of IE according to modified DUKE criteria, between years 2003 and 2010. Demographic variables, severity scores, clinical characteristics, bacteriology and hospital evolution were recorded. Results: Fifty nine percent of patients had concomitant cardiovascular problems. APACHE II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores on admission were 8.4 ± 4.7 and 2.7 ± 2.8 respectively. Native valves were affected in 91% of cases (aortic and mitral valves in 62% and 50% of cases respectively). Prosthetic valves were affected in 9.3% of cases. Rheumatic heart disease was the predominant primary lesion in 10% of patients. Antibiotics were used in 45.1% before blood cultures were performed. In 68% of patients blood cultures were positive. S. viridans (30.8%), S.aureus (18.6%) and coagulase negative Streptocicci (5.6%) were the identified microorganisms. Intensive care unit admission was required in 48% of patients. Renal, heart and neurological deterioration was observed in 53, 34 and 14% of patients, respectively. Twenty percent of patients developed systemic embolism and 37% required heart surgery. Mean hospital stay was 28.3 ± 19.1 days and 27% of patients died. Conclusions: In this series of patients, IE has a high mortality. Most patients studied were admitted in bad conditions.

  7. Endocarditis infecciosa: análisis de 261 casos y resultados del tratamiento con un enfoque multidisciplinario / Infective endocarditis: short and long term results in 261 cases managed by a multidiciplinary approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Braun J; Alex, Escalona P; Gastón, Chamorro S; Ramón, Corbalán H; Carlos, Pérez C; Jaime, Labarca L; Manuel José, Irarrázaval L; Ricardo, Zalaquett S; José Antonio, Rodríguez V; Pablo, Casanegra P.

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Early diagnosis, an effective treatment and prompt recognition of complications are essential to improve the prognosis of infective endocarditis (IE) Aim: To report the results of a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and management of patients with IE at the Universidad Católica de [...] Chile Hospital. Patients and methods: The clinical history, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of 261 episodes (Duke criteria) of IE admitted between January 1980 and January 1999 were analyzed. These included 185 episodes of native, 73 of prosthetic valve and 3 of nonvalvular IE. Results: Sixty nine percent of patients were men and the mean age was 49 ± 16 years. Seventy five percent had a definite diagnosis of IE (Duke). S. viridans, staphylococci and enterococci together constituted 85% of the isolated bacterial strains. Twenty seven had culture-negative IE, related to a high incidence of antibiotic therapy prior to diagnosis. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed in 102 cases and it detected vegetations in 91% of aortic and 96% of mitral IE, rupture or prosthesis dehiscence in 67% of aortic and 52% of mitral IE and abscesses in 51% of aortic and 15% of mitral IE. Fifty one percent developed heart failure and 34% had embolic events. S. aureus IE was associated to a higher incidence of embolic events, complications which contraindicated surgery and increased mortality rate (27%). Of all patients, 40% were treated exclusively with antibiotics, 52% were operated on and 8% had surgical indication but were nonoperable because of serious complications. The overall mortality was 16.3%: 13% in the medical, 9% in the surgical and 81% in the non-operable groups. The type of treatment and mortality rates did not differ between IE of native valves and prosthetic valves. Long term follow up showed survival rates of 73% at 5 years and 66% at 10 years. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach may be very helpful to improve the prognosis of IE. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 708-20).

  8. Perfil clínico-epidemiológico de pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa, período 2003-2010 en el hospital de Temuco, Chile Profile of patients with infective endocarditis admitted to a Chilean regional hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Stockins

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality due to infective endocarditis (IE in Chile is close to 30%. Aim: To report the experience with patients admitted with the diagnosis of IE in a regional tertiary hospital. Material and Methods: Retrospective study of 107 patients aged 50 ± 16years (75% males discharged with a definitive diagnosis of IE according to modified DUKE criteria, between years 2003 and 2010. Demographic variables, severity scores, clinical characteristics, bacteriology and hospital evolution were recorded. Results: Fifty nine percent of patients had concomitant cardiovascular problems. APACHE II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA scores on admission were 8.4 ± 4.7 and 2.7 ± 2.8 respectively. Native valves were affected in 91% of cases (aortic and mitral valves in 62% and 50% of cases respectively. Prosthetic valves were affected in 9.3% of cases. Rheumatic heart disease was the predominant primary lesion in 10% of patients. Antibiotics were used in 45.1% before blood cultures were performed. In 68% of patients blood cultures were positive. S. viridans (30.8%, S.aureus (18.6% and coagulase negative Streptocicci (5.6% were the identified microorganisms. Intensive care unit admission was required in 48% of patients. Renal, heart and neurological deterioration was observed in 53, 34 and 14% of patients, respectively. Twenty percent of patients developed systemic embolism and 37% required heart surgery. Mean hospital stay was 28.3 ± 19.1 days and 27% of patients died. Conclusions: In this series of patients, IE has a high mortality. Most patients studied were admitted in bad conditions.

  9. Endocarditis infecciosa: análisis de 261 casos y resultados del tratamiento con un enfoque multidisciplinario Infective endocarditis: short and long term results in 261 cases managed by a multidiciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Braun J

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early diagnosis, an effective treatment and prompt recognition of complications are essential to improve the prognosis of infective endocarditis (IE Aim: To report the results of a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and management of patients with IE at the Universidad Católica de Chile Hospital. Patients and methods: The clinical history, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of 261 episodes (Duke criteria of IE admitted between January 1980 and January 1999 were analyzed. These included 185 episodes of native, 73 of prosthetic valve and 3 of nonvalvular IE. Results: Sixty nine percent of patients were men and the mean age was 49 ± 16 years. Seventy five percent had a definite diagnosis of IE (Duke. S. viridans, staphylococci and enterococci together constituted 85% of the isolated bacterial strains. Twenty seven had culture-negative IE, related to a high incidence of antibiotic therapy prior to diagnosis. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed in 102 cases and it detected vegetations in 91% of aortic and 96% of mitral IE, rupture or prosthesis dehiscence in 67% of aortic and 52% of mitral IE and abscesses in 51% of aortic and 15% of mitral IE. Fifty one percent developed heart failure and 34% had embolic events. S. aureus IE was associated to a higher incidence of embolic events, complications which contraindicated surgery and increased mortality rate (27%. Of all patients, 40% were treated exclusively with antibiotics, 52% were operated on and 8% had surgical indication but were nonoperable because of serious complications. The overall mortality was 16.3%: 13% in the medical, 9% in the surgical and 81% in the non-operable groups. The type of treatment and mortality rates did not differ between IE of native valves and prosthetic valves. Long term follow up showed survival rates of 73% at 5 years and 66% at 10 years. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach may be very helpful to improve the prognosis of IE. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 708-20.

  10. Endocarditis Prophylaxis in Cardiac Patients: Knowledge among General Dental Practitioners in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Lafzi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Dental procedures injuring oral tissues may induce bacterial release to blood stream that can cause infective endocarditis in susceptible patients. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of general dental practitioners (GDPs in Tabriz, Northwest of Iran, regarding endocarditis prophylaxis in cardiac patients receiving dental treatments.

    Materials and methods. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study that included 150 GDPs. All practitioners were given a self-administered questionnaire which consisted of three parts assessing their knowledge of cardiac diseases requiring prophylaxis, dental procedures requiring prophylaxis, and antibiotic regimen for endocarditis prophylaxis. Statistical analysis of data was carried out using independent t-test, one-way ANOVA and chi-square test.

    Results. The level of knowledge among GDPs in three areas of cardiac diseases requiring prophylaxis, dental procedures requiring prophylaxis, and antibiotic regimen for endocarditis prophylaxis were 63.7%, 66.8% and 47.7%, respectively. Their overall level of knowledge regarding endocarditis prophylaxis was 59%. Association of the level of knowledge with age and practice period was statistically significant (P < 0.05. However, the level of knowledge was not significantly associated with gender or university of graduation in either of three areas evaluated (P > 0.05.

    Conclusion. According to our results, the knowledge of endocarditis prophylaxis among GDPs in Tabriz was in a moderate level. Regarding the importance of endocarditis prophylaxis in susceptible patients, it should be more emphasized in the curriculum of dental schools and continuing dental education programs.

  11. Bacterial Endocarditis: A Short Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Kilmartin, C.

    1988-01-01

    Bacterial (infective) endocarditis is a potentially fatal illness which may follow transient bacteremia induced by certain dental procedures. It is the purpose of this article to discuss the rationale behind the American Heart Association's current guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis for this disease, to consider the dentist's role in implementing these recommendations, and to identify how the physician and dentist can act in the patient's best interests to prevent this illness.

  12. Partial oral treatment of endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper; HØst, Nis Baun

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines for the treatment of left-sided infective endocarditis (IE) recommend 4 to 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. Conversion from intravenous to oral antibiotics in clinically stabilized patients could reduce the side effects associated with intravenous treatment and shorten the length of hospital stay. Evidence supporting partial oral therapy as an alternative to the routinely recommended continued parenteral therapy is scarce, although observational data suggest that this strategy may be safe and effective.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and endocarditis : epidemiology, short- and long-term mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Asgeirsson, Hilmir

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of bloodstream infections and endocarditis. S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, and endocarditis is a severe complication. Population-based studies on S. aureus bacteraemia have been sparse, and few large studies exist on S. aureus endocarditis (SAE). The objective of this thesis was to study the epidemiology, characteristics, and short- and long-term outcome of S. aureus bacteraemia and endocarditis...

  14. Fatal myocarditis-associated Bartonella quintana endocarditis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montcriol Ambroise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bartonella spp. infection is not rare and must be considered with great care in patients with suspected infective endocarditis, particularly if regular blood cultures remain sterile. Management of these infections requires knowledge of the identification and treatment of these bacteria. Case presentation A 50-year-old Senegalese man was admitted to our Department of Cardiac Surgery with a culture-negative endocarditis. Despite valvular surgery and adequate antibiotic treatment, recurrence of the endocarditis was observed on the prosthetic mitral valve. Heart failure required circulatory support. Weaning off the circulatory support could not be attempted owing to the absence of heart recovery. Bacteriological diagnosis of Bartonella quintana endocarditis was performed by molecular methods retrospectively after the death of the patient. Conclusions This case report underlines the severity and difficulty of the diagnosis of Bartonella quintana endocarditis. The clinical picture suggested possible Bartonella quintana associated myocarditis, a feature that should be considered in new cases.

  15. Winning the Battle Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Endocarditis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asl?nur Özkaya Parlakay

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is a major risk for patients with congenital heart disease and has high mortality and morbidity rates, even though there have been many advances in antimicrobial therapy and surgical intervention techniques. Gram positive microorganisms, such as staphylococcus and streptococcus species, are the most commonly isolated organisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare causative organism for infective endocarditis. It usually affects the right side of the heart, which is usually seen in intravenous drug users. Incidence of pseudomonas endocarditis has increased due to a higher frequency of drug abuse, heart surgery and bacteremia. Mortality from pseudomonas infective endocarditis remains high despite optimal use of available antibacterial agents and also the treatment plan is very challenging as there is no consensus to date. We report a patient with tetralogy of Fallot and recurrent P. aeruginosa endocarditis after corrective cardiac surgery. We wish to emphasize the importance of surgical intervention and also recall the significance of lenghtening the antipseudomonal combination therapy.

  16. Guinea pig model for Staphylococcus aureus native valve endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Maurin, M.; Lepidi, H.; La Scola, B.; Feuerstein, M.; Andre, M.; Pellissier, J. F.; Raoult, D.

    1997-01-01

    We present a new experimental model of Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis in guinea pigs. Permanent aortic valve damage was produced by electrocoagulation after catheterization of the right carotid artery, which allowed avoidance of the intracardiac catheter to produce cardiac vegetations. Our model closely mimics pathological mechanisms of native valve endocarditis.

  17. Mitral and Aortic Valve Endocarditis Due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis

    OpenAIRE

    Renzulli, Attilio; Corte, Alessandro Della; Torella, Michele; Dialetto, Giovanni; Cotrufo, Maurizio

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a recently described coagulase negative staphylococcal species involved in human infections. Endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis has been reported rarely: fewer than 50 cases have been described so far. The infection is frequently complicated by embolic events and carries a high mortality rate. We report a case of endocarditis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis in which the native mitral and aortic valves were infected. The bacterium was isolated on ...

  18. Infective Endocarditis in a Dog and the Phylogenetic Relationship of the Associated “Bartonella rochalimae” Strain with Isolates from Dogs, Gray Foxes, and a Human?

    OpenAIRE

    Henn, Jennifer B.; Gabriel, Mourad W.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Brown, Richard N.; Koehler, Jane E.; Macdonald, Kristin A.; Kittleson, Mark D.; Thomas, William P.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2008-01-01

    The first case of canine endocarditis caused by “Bartonella rochalimae” is reported. By PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, sequence, and phylogenetic analyses, Bartonella isolates from a dog with endocarditis, 22 gray foxes, and three dogs, described as B. clarridgeiae like, were confirmed to belong to the new species “B. rochalimae,” suggesting canids as the natural reservoir.

  19. Musculoskeletal manifestations of bacterial endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Érika Bevilaqua, Rangel; Álvaro Nagib, Atallah.

    2000-09-07

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A incidência da Infecção estafilocócica vem aumentando durante os últimos 20 anos. OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de infecção estafilocócica precedida por sintomas músculo-esqueléticos, o que é uma forma rara de apresentação clínica. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Relado de caso. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente de 4 [...] 5 anos, sexo masculino, sem co-morbidades, não usuário de drogas endovenosas e com diagnóstico de endocardite bacteriana estafilocócica em válvula mitral, adquirida na comunidade e sem foco primário aparente. O diagnóstico foi precedido por dor lombar em cerca de 20 dias e complicada com eventos vasculares e petéquias, além de insuficiência mitral abordada apenas clinicamente. Abstract in english CONTEXT: The incidence of staphylococcal infection has been increasing during the last 20 years. OBJECTIVE: Report a case of staphylococcal endocarditis preceded by musculoskeletal manifestations, which is a rare form of clinical presentation. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old-man, wit [...] hout addictions and without known previous cardiopathy, was diagnosed as having definitive acute bacterial endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus. Its etiology was community-acquired, arising from a non-apparent primary focus. In addition, the musculoskeletal symptoms preceded the infective endocarditis (IE) by about 1 month, which occurred together with other symptoms, e.g. mycotic aneurysms and petechiae. Later, the patient showed perforation of the mitral valve and moderate mitral insufficiency with clinical control.

  20. Actinobacillus endocarditis associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Vanda Cristina; Araújo, Ana Carolina; Grilo, Ana; Noronha, Carla; Panarra, António; Riso, Nuno; Vaz Riscado, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Infective endocarditis can be associated with complex clinical presentations, sometimes with a difficult multi-disciplinary management. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans belongs to the Haemophilus species, Actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella species group, responsible for 5% to 10% of infective endocarditis in native heart valves. These organisms have slow fastidious growth pattern, often associated with negative cultures, and cause systemic embolism with abscess formation. The authors present the case of a 59-year-old man, admitted due to fever of unknown origin, with a personal history of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and recent dental manipulation. The diagnosis of mitral valve's endocarditis was established after a transoesophageal ecocardiography, with a late isolation of A actinomycetemcomitans in blood culture. Despite the institution of antibiotic therapy, the patient suffered from multiple episodes of septic embolism: skin, mucosae, cerebral abscesses, spondylodiscitis and uveitis. He was submitted to heart surgery with miectomy and replacement of the native mitral valve by a mechanical prosthesis, while on antibiotics. PMID:22891010

  1. Endocarditis por Abiotrophia defectiva en paciente adulto / Endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva in an adult patient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena, Porte T.; Juanita, Zamorano R.; Daniela, Pavéz A.; Gustavo, Monckeberg F.; Carmen, Varela A.; Patricia, González A.; M. Teresa, Ulloa F.; Carolina, Sepúlveda R..

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abiotrophia defectiva es una cocácea grampositiva considerada anteriormente como parte del grupo de los estreptococos nutricionalmente variables. Es parte de la microbiota oral y puede ser causante de endocarditis bacteriana con cultivo negativo. Se reporta el caso de un paciente varón de 37 años de [...] edad, alérgico a penicilina, con endocarditis infecciosa causada por A. defectiva y se realiza revisión de la literatura sobre las alternativas terapéuticas y el estado actual del diagnóstico microbiológico de este agente Abstract in english Abiotrophia defectiva, formerly designated as a member of nutritionally variant streptococci, is part of normal oral flora and may be a cause of culture-negative endocarditis. We report a case of infective endocarditis caused by A. defectiva in a 37-year-old man, allergic to penicillin. We also revi [...] ew the literature for antibiotic treatment alternatives and the microbiological diagnostic possibilities at present

  2. The impact of cardiac surgery in native valve infective endocarditis: Can euroSCORE guide patient selection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bruun, Louise E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decision making regarding surgical intervention in native valve endocarditis (NVE) is often complex and surgery is withheld in a number of patients either because medical treatment is considered the best treatment or because the risk of operation is considered too high. The objective of this study was to investigate the outcome of surgical treatment and to validate the ability of euroSCORE to predict operative mortality in NVE patients. METHODS: Prospective cohort study including 323 consecutive NVE patients. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on treatment strategy and indication/contraindication for surgery. The additive and logistic euroSCORE was calculated and the observed and predicted mortality was compared. RESULTS: Cardiac surgery was associated with a good prognosis, in-hospital and after 12months, compared to conservative treatment. After adjustment for confounders surgery was associated with a survival benefit (hazard ratio (HR) 0.45, 95% CI: 0.27-0.76%; p=0.003). When propensity score was used in regression adjustment, cardiac surgery was still associated with a better outcome after 12months (HR 0.41, 95% CI: 0.25-0.68; p

  3. An Unusual Presentation of Endocarditis Caused by Staphylococcus warneri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Ganesh D; Patel, Ketan; Parris, Addison R; Tang, Jane S

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus warneri does not generally cause serious infections in humans. We report a case of endocarditis in a healthy individual with no known past medical history. S. warneri was identified in her blood cultures and echocardiographic evidence confirmed the diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis. There was no apparent cause for her infection, and risk factors such as invasive treatment or medical implant were not present. This rare clinical presentation illustrates the importance of not overlooking low virulence species of Staphylococcus, as they can potentially serve as opportunistic etiological agents for endocarditis, especially among the elderly population. PMID:21258573

  4. Infective endocarditis with left to right intracardiac fistula due to Streptococcus anginosus - a rare complication caused by an even rarer bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Forster

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although infective endocarditis (IE has been described in reports dating from the Renaissance, the diagnosis still challenges and the outcome often surprises. In the course of time, diagnostic criteria have been updated and validated to reduce misdiagnosis. Some risk factors and epidemiology have shown dynamic changes since degenerative valvular disease became more predominant in developed countries, and the mean age of the affected population increased. Despite streptococci have been being well known as etiologic agents, some groups, although rare, have been increasingly reported (e.g., Streptococcus milleri. Intracardiac complications of IE are common and have a worse prognosis, frequently requiring surgical treatment. We report a case of a middle-aged diabetic man who presented with prolonged fever, weight loss, and ultimately severe dyspnea. IE was diagnosed based on a new valvular regurgitation murmur, a positive blood culture for Streptococcus anginosus, an echocardiographic finding of an aortic valve vegetation, fever, and pulmonary thromboembolism. Despite an appropriate antibiotic regimen, the patient died. Autopsy findings showed vegetation attached to a bicuspid aortic valve with an associated septal abscess and left ventricle and aortic root fistula connecting with the pulmonary artery. A large thrombus was adherent to the pulmonary artery trunk and a pulmonary septic thromboemboli were also identified.

  5. Infective endocarditis and antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental/oral procedures: latest revision to the guidelines by the American Heart Association published April 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbod, F; Kanaan, H; Farbod, J

    2009-06-01

    This article reviews and analyzes the recently updated guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis (IE) through antibiotic prophylaxis established by the American Heart Association (AHA). Various articles studying methods of preventing IE were reviewed, primarily the AHA's revised guidelines published in April 2007. Lists of reference articles were examined to cross reference relevant information regarding antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of IE. A major influence for revisions to the guidelines is that studies show a very small fraction of IE cases are preventable with prophylaxis with antibiotic therapy prior to dental procedures. IE is more likely to result from daily activities, such as brushing and flossing teeth, than from bacteremia caused by dental procedures. Patients with underlying cardiac conditions, who are associated with the most detrimental outcome if IE develops, should receive prophylaxis prior to dental procedures. Maintenance of oral health is more effective in reducing the risk of IE than prophylactic antibiotics for dental procedures. An increased lifetime risk of developing IE alone is not a basis for prophylaxis, especially considering that adverse events stemming from antibiotic use exceed the benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:19467847

  6. Achados clínico-laboratoriais de uma série de casos com endocardite infecciosa Clinical and laboratory findings in a series of cases of infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A.Z. Pereira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os achados clínico-laboratoriais da endocardite infecciosa (EI em 28 crianças, em Vitória/ES. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de 28 crianças, com idade abaixo de 18 anos e diagnóstico de endocardite infecciosa, internadas no serviço de infectologia do Hospital Infantil Nossa Senhora da Glória, em Vitória - Espírito Santo, no período de janeiro de 1993 a dezembro de 2001. Os critérios para diagnóstico de endocardite infecciosa foram os do Duke Endocarditis Service (Duke University, Durham, North Carolina - USA: critérios maiores (hemoculturas e ecocardiograma positivos e critérios menores (febre, doença cardíaca prévia, sopro cardíaco recente, fenômenos vasculares e imunológicos. Através de protocolo específico, preenchido pelos médicos-residentes e acadêmicos do serviço de infectologia, e revisados pelos médicos da equipe, foram anotadas as idades, sexo, achados clínicos e laboratoriais, e os resultados da ecocardiografia transtorácica das 28 crianças que preenchiam os critérios clínicos e laboratoriais. Em todos os casos, as hemoculturas foram realizadas com coleta do sangue (três amostras, sob condições assépticas e com inoculação em meios aeróbicos e anaeróbicos, incubados a uma temperatura de 37ºC e testados com sistema automatizado Vitec System® (Biolab. RESULTADOS: Das 28 crianças, 16 eram do sexo masculino, com idade entre 3 e 180 meses (média 70,6±59,2 m, e a maioria (68% era procedente da região metropolitana de Vitória. Metade apresentava cardiopatia prévia. Os achados clínicos mais freqüentes que levaram à suspeita de EI foram: febre prolongada (100%, sopro cardíaco (67,9%, dispnéia (57,1%, hepatomegalia (57,1%, fenômenos vasculares (32,2%, esplenomegalia (28,6% e nódulos de Osler (7,1%. Foram colhidas hemoculturas dos 28 casos, sendo 16 (57,1% positivas. O S. aureus adquirido na comunidade foi o germe mais freqüentemente isolado (9/16-56,6%. Houve persistência da febre, apesar do tratamento, duração da febre de 2,5 a 30 dias, mediana de 18,0 dias. O valor médio de leucócitos à internação foi de 11.657±7.085mm³. O ecocardiograma transtorácico, realizado em todos os pacientes, evidenciou vegetações, principalmente nas válvulas tricúspide (25,0%, mitral (25,0% e na borda de CIV (28,6%. Treze (46,4% crianças apresentaram sepse concomitante, e três (10,7% infecção hospitalar. Houve um óbito (3,6%. CONCLUSÕES: A endocardite infecciosa em nosso meio é freqüente em crianças abaixo de dois anos de idade e com uma cardiopatia congênita. O S. aureus de origem comunitária foi o microorganismo isolado mais freqüentemente, e em crianças sem lesão cardíaca prévia. Endocardite infecciosa aguda, endocardite bacteriana, Staphylococcus aureus, ecocardiografia transtorácica.OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and laboratory data of infective endocarditis (IE in 28 children from Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 28 children aged 18 years and under admitted to the Infectious Diseases Unit of Nossa Senhora da Glória Children's Hospital with a diagnosis of IE from January 1993 to December 2001. The diagnosis of IE was based on the criteria established by the Duke Endocarditis Service (Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA: positive blood cultures and echocardiogram (primary criteria; and fever, history of heart disease, recent heart murmur, and vascular and immunological phenomena (secondary criteria. A specific protocol was filled out by interns and medical students and revised by physicians from the hospital medical team to obtain the following data: age, sex, clinical and laboratory findings, and results of transthoracic echocardiography. In all cases, three blood samples were collected under aseptic conditions and inoculated in aerobic and anaerobic environments. The samples were then incubated at 37º C and tested with the VITEC SYSTEM® automatized system (BIOLAB. RESULTS: Among 28 patients, 16 were boys. Age w

  7. Achados clínico-laboratoriais de uma série de casos com endocardite infecciosa / Clinical and laboratory findings in a series of cases of infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla A.Z., Pereira; Scheila C.G.P., Rocio; Maria-Fátima R., Ceolin; Ana-Paula N.B., Lima; Felippe, Borlot; Roberto S.T., Pereira; Sandra F., Moreira-Silva.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os achados clínico-laboratoriais da endocardite infecciosa (EI) em 28 crianças, em Vitória/ES. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de 28 crianças, com idade abaixo de 18 anos e diagnóstico de endocardite infecciosa, internadas no serviço de infectologia do Hospital Infan [...] til Nossa Senhora da Glória, em Vitória - Espírito Santo, no período de janeiro de 1993 a dezembro de 2001. Os critérios para diagnóstico de endocardite infecciosa foram os do Duke Endocarditis Service (Duke University, Durham, North Carolina - USA): critérios maiores (hemoculturas e ecocardiograma positivos) e critérios menores (febre, doença cardíaca prévia, sopro cardíaco recente, fenômenos vasculares e imunológicos). Através de protocolo específico, preenchido pelos médicos-residentes e acadêmicos do serviço de infectologia, e revisados pelos médicos da equipe, foram anotadas as idades, sexo, achados clínicos e laboratoriais, e os resultados da ecocardiografia transtorácica das 28 crianças que preenchiam os critérios clínicos e laboratoriais. Em todos os casos, as hemoculturas foram realizadas com coleta do sangue (três amostras), sob condições assépticas e com inoculação em meios aeróbicos e anaeróbicos, incubados a uma temperatura de 37ºC e testados com sistema automatizado Vitec System® (Biolab). RESULTADOS: Das 28 crianças, 16 eram do sexo masculino, com idade entre 3 e 180 meses (média 70,6±59,2 m), e a maioria (68%) era procedente da região metropolitana de Vitória. Metade apresentava cardiopatia prévia. Os achados clínicos mais freqüentes que levaram à suspeita de EI foram: febre prolongada (100%), sopro cardíaco (67,9%), dispnéia (57,1%), hepatomegalia (57,1%), fenômenos vasculares (32,2%), esplenomegalia (28,6%) e nódulos de Osler (7,1%). Foram colhidas hemoculturas dos 28 casos, sendo 16 (57,1%) positivas. O S. aureus adquirido na comunidade foi o germe mais freqüentemente isolado (9/16-56,6%). Houve persistência da febre, apesar do tratamento, duração da febre de 2,5 a 30 dias, mediana de 18,0 dias. O valor médio de leucócitos à internação foi de 11.657±7.085mm³. O ecocardiograma transtorácico, realizado em todos os pacientes, evidenciou vegetações, principalmente nas válvulas tricúspide (25,0%), mitral (25,0%) e na borda de CIV (28,6%). Treze (46,4%) crianças apresentaram sepse concomitante, e três (10,7%) infecção hospitalar. Houve um óbito (3,6%). CONCLUSÕES: A endocardite infecciosa em nosso meio é freqüente em crianças abaixo de dois anos de idade e com uma cardiopatia congênita. O S. aureus de origem comunitária foi o microorganismo isolado mais freqüentemente, e em crianças sem lesão cardíaca prévia. Endocardite infecciosa aguda, endocardite bacteriana, Staphylococcus aureus, ecocardiografia transtorácica. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and laboratory data of infective endocarditis (IE) in 28 children from Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 28 children aged 18 years and under admitted to the Infectious Diseases Unit of Nossa Senhora da Glória Childre [...] n's Hospital with a diagnosis of IE from January 1993 to December 2001. The diagnosis of IE was based on the criteria established by the Duke Endocarditis Service (Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA): positive blood cultures and echocardiogram (primary criteria); and fever, history of heart disease, recent heart murmur, and vascular and immunological phenomena (secondary criteria). A specific protocol was filled out by interns and medical students and revised by physicians from the hospital medical team to obtain the following data: age, sex, clinical and laboratory findings, and results of transthoracic echocardiography. In all cases, three blood samples were collected under aseptic conditions and inoculated in aerobic and anaerobic environments. The samples were then incubated at 37º C and tested with the VITEC SYSTEM® automatized system (BIOLAB). RESU

  8. Conhecimento dos pais sobre profilaxia de endocardite infecciosa em crianças portadoras de cardiopatias congênitas Parents' knowledge of infective endocarditis in children with congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Haag

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: As diretrizes para profilaxia de endocardite infecciosa mudaram, mas muitas cardiopatias congênitas seguem sendo consideradas de alto risco para o desenvolvimento da doença. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento dos pais ou responsáveis pelas crianças e adolescentes portadores de cardiopatias atendidos em um serviço de referência no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, sobre endocardite infecciosa e sua profilaxia. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 90 pacientes portadores de cardiopatias congênitas em acompanhamento ambulatorial regular. O conhecimento dos pais foi avaliado com o uso de questionário específico e os demais dados foram obtidos por meio da revisão de prontuários. RESULTADOS: A mediana da idade dos pacientes foi de 5,6 anos (3 meses - 14 anos e 7 meses, sendo 57,7% do sexo masculino. A mediana de tempo de acompanhamento no serviço foi de 3,49 anos (1,20-7,38 anos. Os anos de estudo formal dos pais apresentaram média de 7,67 ± 3,25 anos. De acordo com o escore previamente estabelecido, o conhecimento dos pais entrevistados foi considerado satisfatório em 37,7% dos casos, regular, em 33,3% e insatisfatório, em 28,8%. Houve correlação significativa entre o índice de conhecimento dos pais e tempo de acompanhamento das crianças no serviço (r=0,584; PINTRODUCTION: The guidelines to prophylaxis of infectious endocarditis changed, but many congenital heart diseases continue to be considered as high risk for the development of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge of parents or guardians of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease seen at a referral center in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil on infective endocarditis and its prevention. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 90 patients with congenital heart defects in regular outpatient treatment. The parents' knowledge was assessed using a specific questionnaire and other data were obtained through medical records. RESULTS: The median age of patients was 5.6 years (3 months -14 years, being 57,7% males. The median follow-up time in service was 3.49 years (1.20-7.38. The years of formal schooling of the parents had a mean of 7.67 ± 3.25 years. According to the score previously established, the knowledge of the interviewed parents was considered satisfactory in 37.7%, regular in 33.3% and unsatisfying in 28,8%. There was significant correlation between the index of parents' knowledge and monitoring of children at service (r=0.584; P=0.796. There was no correlation between parents' education and knowledge of them (r=0.028; P=0.796. CONCLUSION: The parents' knowledge about endocarditis and its prevention was inadequate, requiring greater attention to the orientations passed in consultations

  9. Conhecimento dos pais sobre profilaxia de endocardite infecciosa em crianças portadoras de cardiopatias congênitas / Parents' knowledge of infective endocarditis in children with congenital heart disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiana, Haag; Sílvia, Casonato; Fernanda, Varela; Cora, Firpo.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: As diretrizes para profilaxia de endocardite infecciosa mudaram, mas muitas cardiopatias congênitas seguem sendo consideradas de alto risco para o desenvolvimento da doença. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento dos pais ou responsáveis pelas crianças e adolescentes portadores de cardiopatias [...] atendidos em um serviço de referência no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, sobre endocardite infecciosa e sua profilaxia. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 90 pacientes portadores de cardiopatias congênitas em acompanhamento ambulatorial regular. O conhecimento dos pais foi avaliado com o uso de questionário específico e os demais dados foram obtidos por meio da revisão de prontuários. RESULTADOS: A mediana da idade dos pacientes foi de 5,6 anos (3 meses - 14 anos e 7 meses), sendo 57,7% do sexo masculino. A mediana de tempo de acompanhamento no serviço foi de 3,49 anos (1,20-7,38 anos). Os anos de estudo formal dos pais apresentaram média de 7,67 ± 3,25 anos. De acordo com o escore previamente estabelecido, o conhecimento dos pais entrevistados foi considerado satisfatório em 37,7% dos casos, regular, em 33,3% e insatisfatório, em 28,8%. Houve correlação significativa entre o índice de conhecimento dos pais e tempo de acompanhamento das crianças no serviço (r=0,584; P Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The guidelines to prophylaxis of infectious endocarditis changed, but many congenital heart diseases continue to be considered as high risk for the development of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge of parents or guardians of children and adolescents with congenital heart [...] disease seen at a referral center in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil on infective endocarditis and its prevention. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 90 patients with congenital heart defects in regular outpatient treatment. The parents' knowledge was assessed using a specific questionnaire and other data were obtained through medical records. RESULTS: The median age of patients was 5.6 years (3 months -14 years), being 57,7% males. The median follow-up time in service was 3.49 years (1.20-7.38). The years of formal schooling of the parents had a mean of 7.67 ± 3.25 years. According to the score previously established, the knowledge of the interviewed parents was considered satisfactory in 37.7%, regular in 33.3% and unsatisfying in 28,8%. There was significant correlation between the index of parents' knowledge and monitoring of children at service (r=0.584; P=0.796). There was no correlation between parents' education and knowledge of them (r=0.028; P=0.796). CONCLUSION: The parents' knowledge about endocarditis and its prevention was inadequate, requiring greater attention to the orientations passed in consultations

  10. Ventricular septal defect and bivalvular endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenkamp, Kate E; Jin, Jay J; Shivashankar, Raina; Jouni, Hayan; Baddour, Larry M; Blauwet, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    A 63-year-old man presented with generalized fatigue, chills, malaise, dyspnea, intermittent fevers, and 50-pound weight loss of 4 months' duration. Blood cultures were positive for pan-sensitive Streptococcus anginosus. Transesophageal echocardiography showed an 11 mm × 3 mm mobile mass attached to the mitral valve, a 16 mm × 16 mm mobile mass attached to the pulmonary valve, and a small membranous ventricular septal defect. The patient received 12 weeks of intravenous (IV) antibiotics with eventual resolution of the masses. Multi-valve endocarditis involving both the left and right chambers is rarely reported without prior history of IV drug use or infective endocarditis. Our case emphasizes the importance of careful assessment for ventricular septal defects or extra-cardiac shunts in individuals who present with simultaneous right and left-sided endocarditis. PMID:25625086

  11. Fusobacterium necrophorum causing infective endocarditis and liver and splenic abscesses Fusobacterium necrophorum causando endocardite infecciosa e abscesso hepático e esplênico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Zac Handler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old male without prior co-morbidities was admitted to hospital with Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteremia, where he was found to have liver and splenic abscesses. Further evaluation with echocardiography revealed a bicuspid aortic valve with severe insufficiency and a 1.68 x 0.86 cm vegetation. The patient required abscess drainage, intravenous antimicrobial therapy and aortic valve replacement. Complete resolution of the infection was achieved after valve replacement and a prolonged course of intravenous antimicrobial therapy. A brief analysis of the patient's clinical course and review of the literature is presented.Homem de 25 anos de idade, sem antecedentes mórbidos foi admitido ao hospital com bacteremia por Fusobacterium necrophorum e abscessos no fígado e no baço. Avaliação posterior com ecografia revelou válvula aórtica bicúspide com insuficiência severa e vegetação de 1,68 x 0,86 cm. Foi feita drenagem dos abscessos, terapia antimicrobiana intravenosa e substituição da válvula aórtica. Resolução completa da infecção foi conseguida após substituição valvular e curso prolongado de terapêutica intravenosa antimicrobiana. É apresentada breve análise do curso clínico do paciente e revisão da literatura.

  12. Fusobacterium necrophorum causing infective endocarditis and liver and splenic abscesses / Fusobacterium necrophorum causando endocardite infecciosa e abscesso hepático e esplênico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marc Zac, Handler; Benjamin, Miriovsky; Howard E., Gendelman; Uriel, Sandkovsky.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Homem de 25 anos de idade, sem antecedentes mórbidos foi admitido ao hospital com bacteremia por Fusobacterium necrophorum e abscessos no fígado e no baço. Avaliação posterior com ecografia revelou válvula aórtica bicúspide com insuficiência severa e vegetação de 1,68 x 0,86 cm. Foi feita drenagem d [...] os abscessos, terapia antimicrobiana intravenosa e substituição da válvula aórtica. Resolução completa da infecção foi conseguida após substituição valvular e curso prolongado de terapêutica intravenosa antimicrobiana. É apresentada breve análise do curso clínico do paciente e revisão da literatura. Abstract in english A 25-year-old male without prior co-morbidities was admitted to hospital with Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteremia, where he was found to have liver and splenic abscesses. Further evaluation with echocardiography revealed a bicuspid aortic valve with severe insufficiency and a 1.68 x 0.86 cm vegetat [...] ion. The patient required abscess drainage, intravenous antimicrobial therapy and aortic valve replacement. Complete resolution of the infection was achieved after valve replacement and a prolonged course of intravenous antimicrobial therapy. A brief analysis of the patient's clinical course and review of the literature is presented.

  13. Neisseria meningitidis endocarditis: a case report and review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Mohammed

    2012-02-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults, with an overall mortality rate of up to 25%, but it is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. We present herein a case of N. meningitidis meningitis complicated with infective endocarditis.

  14. Neisseria meningitidis endocarditis: A case report and review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Mohammed

    2011-04-08

    Abstract Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults, with an overall mortality rate of up to 25%, but it is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. We present herein a case of N. meningitidis meningitis complicated with infective endocarditis.

  15. The first reported case of Bartonella endocarditis in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Watt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species have been shown to cause acute, undifferentiated fever in Thailand. A study to identify causes of endocarditis that were blood culture-negative using routine methods led to the first reported case in Thailand of Bartonella endocarditis A 57 year-old male with underlying rheumatic heart disease presented with severe congestive heart failure and suspected infective endocarditis. The patient underwent aortic and mitral valve replacement. Routine hospital blood cultures were negative but B. henselae was identified by serology, PCR, immunohistochemistry and specific culture techniques.

  16. Clinical impact of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the extra cardiac work-up of patients with infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical importance of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT used in the extra cardiac work-up of patients with infective endocarditis (IE). BACKGROUND: IE is a serious condition with a significant mortality. Besides the degree of valvular involvement, the prognosis relies crucially on the presence of systemic infectious embolism. METHODS: Seventy-two patients (71% males and mean age 63 ± 17 years) with IE were evaluated with (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in addition to standard work-up including patient history, physical examination, conventional imaging modalities, and weekly interdisciplinary conferences. When previous unknown lesions detected by (18)F-FDG-PET/CT were confirmed by succeeding examinations, they were considered true positive new findings and were further assessed for their clinical importance. Number needed to investigate was calculated as the number of patients who needed to undergo (18)F-FDG-PET/CT to find at least one clinical important true positive new finding, not identified by standard work-up prior to (18)F-FDG-PET/CT. RESULTS: (18)F-FDG-PET/CT detected 114 lesions and 64 were true positive, of which 25 were new findings and detected in 17 patients. In 11 patients, the lesions were considered to have a clinical importance; osteomyelitis (n = 7), iliopsoas abscess (n = 1), gastrointestinal lesions (n = 2), and vascular prosthetic graft (n = 1). Number needed to investigate was 7 (11 of 72 patients). CONCLUSIONS: (18)F-FDG-PET/CT detected lesions of clinical importance in one of seven IE patients and may be a substantial imaging technique for tracing peripheral infectious embolism due to IE. Thus, (18)F-FDG-PET/CT may help to guide adequate therapy and thereby improve the prognosis of patients with IE.

  17. Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis in patients with an implanted cardiac device: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is widely underdiagnosed or diagnosed after a major delay. The diagnosis is currently based on the modified DUKE criteria, where the only validated imaging technique is echocardiography, and remains challenging especially in patients with an implantable cardiac device. The aim of this study was to assess the incremental diagnostic role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with an implanted cardiac device and suspected IE. We prospectively analysed 27 consecutive patients with an implantable device evaluated for suspected device-related IE between January 2011 and June 2013. The diagnostic probability of IE was defined at presentation according to the modified DUKE criteria. PET/CT was performed as soon as possible following the clinical suspicion of IE. Patients then underwent medical or surgical treatment based on the overall clinical evaluation. During follow-up, we considered: lead cultures in patients who underwent extraction, direct inspection and lead cultures in those who underwent surgery, and a clinical/instrumental reevaluation after at least 6 months in patients who received antimicrobial treatment or had an alternative diagnosis and were not treated for IE. After the follow-up period, the diagnosis was systematically reviewed by the multidisciplinary team using the modified DUKE criteria and considering the new findings. Among the ten patients with a positive PET/CT scan, seven received a final diagnosis of ''definite IE'', one of ''possible IE'' and two of ''IE rejected''. Among the 17 patients with a negative PET/CT scan, four were false-negative and received a final diagnosis of definite IE. These patients underwent PET/CT after having started antibiotic therapy (?48 h) or had a technically suboptimal examination. In patients with a cardiac device, PET/CT increases the diagnostic accuracy of the modified Duke criteria for IE, particularly in the subset of patients with possible IE in whom it may help the clinician manage a challenging situation. (orig.)

  18. A Complicated Case of Triple Valve Infective Endocarditis in an IV Drug User with a Bicuspid Aortic Valve Requiring Three Separate Salvage Operations: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahzad; Smyrlis, Athanasios; Yaranov, Dmitry; Oelberg, David; Jimenez, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the endocardium that involves valves and adjacent mural endocardium or a septal defect. Local complications include severe valvular insufficiency, which may lead to intractable congestive heart failure and myocardial abscesses. If left untreated, IE is generally fatal. Diagnosing IE can be straightforward in patients with the typical oslerian manifestations such as bacteremia, evidence of active valvulitis, peripheral emboli, and immunologic vascular phenomena. In the acute course, however, the classic peripheral stigmata may be few or absent, particularly among intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) patients in whom IE is often due to a S. aureus infection of right-sided heart valves. We present a complicated case of a very aggressive native aortic valve MSSA (methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus) IE in a young adult male with a past medical history of bicuspid aortic valve and IV drug abuse. His clinical course was complicated by aortic valve destruction and development of third-degree AV block, as well as an aorto-left atrial fistula requiring emergent operation for AV replacement and patch repair. The patient required two reoperations for recurrent endocarditis and its complications. PMID:26146571

  19. Molecular imaging in Libman-Sacks endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Schaadt, Bente K

    2015-01-01

    We present a 54-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), fever, pericardial effusion and a mitral valve vegetation. (18)F-Fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT ((18)F-FDG-PET-CT) showed very high accumulation of the isotope at the mitral valve. The patient underwent cardiothoracic surgery and pathologic examinations showed characteristic morphology of Libman-Sacks vegetations. All microbiological examinations including blood cultures, microscopy, culture and 16s PCR of the valve were negative and the diagnosis of Libman-Sacks endocarditis was convincing. It is difficult to distinguish Libman-Sacks endocarditis from culture-negative infective endocarditis (IE). Molecular imaging techniques are being used increasingly in cases of suspected IE but no studies have previously reported the use in patients with Libman-Sacks endocarditis. In the present case, (18)F-FDG-PET-CT clearly demonstrated the increased glucose uptake caused by infiltrating white blood cells in the ongoing inflammatory process at the mitral valve. In conclusion, (18)F-FDG-PET-CT cannot be used to distinguish between IE and non-infective Libman-Sacks vegetations.

  20. Lactococcus garvieae Endocarditis on a Prosthetic Biological Aortic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsur, A; Slutzki, T; Flusser, D

    2014-10-01

    Lactococcus garvieae (LG) endocarditis is a rare disease in humans. There are only about 16 reported cases in the world. We report a 76-year-old male patient with LG endocarditis. In depth interview with the patient revealed that 2 weeks prior to admission, he had eaten sushi containing raw fish. Unlike many of the other infections reported, which were on a native mitral valve, our patient's vegetation was on a prosthetic aortic valve. PMID:25295408

  1. Mycobacterial endocarditis: a comprehensive review / Endocardite micobacteriana: uma revisão abrangente

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shi-Min, Yuan.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Uma análise sistemática foi feita considerando epidemiologia, quadro clínico, diagnóstico, tratamento e principais resultados da endocardite micobacteriana. Métodos: Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica abrangente no MEDLINE, Highwire Press e no Google para publicações sobre endocardi [...] te micobacteriana, publicados entre 2000 e 2013. Resultados: As micobactérias de crescimento rápido tornam-se os patógenos predominantes, com Mycobacterium chelonae sendo a mais comum. Essa condição se alterou significativamente em termos de epidemiologia, desde o início do século 21, abrangendo faixa etária mais ampla, maior latência, prevalecendo infecções da valva mitral e melhor prognóstico. Conclusão: Endocardite micobacteriana é rara e os patógenos causadores são predominantemente as micobactérias de crescimento rápido. Amicacina, ciprofloxacina e claritromicina são os agentes antimicrobianos mais frequentemente utilizados, mas muitas vezes apresentam respostas pobres. Pacientes com infecções profundas podem justificar um procedimento cirúrgico ou retirada de linha. Com a poliquimioterapia periódica guiada por testes de sensibilidade às drogas, e abordagens cirúrgicas, os pacientes podem obter bons resultados terapêuticos. Abstract in english Objective: A systematic analysis was made in view of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and main outcomes of mycobacterial endocarditis. Methods: The data source of the present study was based on a comprehensive literature search in MEDLINE, Highwire Press and Google search e [...] ngine for publications on mycobacterial endocarditis published between 2000 and 2013. Results: The rapidly growing mycobacteria become the predominant pathogens with Mycobacterium chelonae being the most common. This condition has changed significantly in terms of epidemiology since the 21st century, with more broad patient age range, longer latency, prevailed mitral valve infections and better prognosis. Conclusion: Mycobacterial endocarditis is rare and the causative pathogens are predominantly the rapidly growing mycobacteria. Amikacin, ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin are the most frequently used targeted antimicrobial agents but often show poor responses. Patients with deep infections may warrant a surgical operation or line withdrawal. With periodic multidrug therapy guided by drug susceptibility testing, and surgical managements, patients may achieve good therapeutic results.

  2. Pediatric Endocarditis and Stroke: A Single Center Retrospective Review of Seven Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, Charu; Wainwright, Mark S

    2008-01-01

    The approach to the acute management of stroke in children with infective endocarditis is limited by the paucity of published data on their clinical course and outcome. We conducted a retrospective study at an urban tertiary care academic center to characterize the clinical course of seven pediatric patients with endocarditis and subsequent cerebral infarct. Among 115 patients with endocarditis, a stroke occurred in seven. Four patients had congenital heart disease. In 6 patients, the stroke ...

  3. Clinical evaluation of a fluorescent antibody test for the serological diagnosis of streptococcal endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Shanson, D. C.; Kirk, N.; Humphrey, R.

    1985-01-01

    Serum fluorescent streptococcal antibody tests were carried out on 71 patients with clinically suspected infective endocarditis, and a final diagnosis of endocarditis was obtained in 46 patients. A serological diagnosis of streptococcal endocarditis was obtained in 10 patients who had persistently negative blood cultures, as fluorescent streptococcal antibody titres equal to or greater than 400 were detected against at least one of four strains of streptococci used as heterologous antigens. T...

  4. Contribution of the Collagen Adhesin Acm to Pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in Experimental Endocarditis?

    OpenAIRE

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Singh, Kavindra V.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2008-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a multidrug-resistant opportunist causing difficult-to-treat nosocomial infections, including endocarditis, but there are no reports experimentally demonstrating E. faecium virulence determinants. Our previous studies showed that some clinical E. faecium isolates produce a cell wall-anchored collagen adhesin, Acm, and that an isogenic acm deletion mutant of the endocarditis-derived strain TX0082 lost collagen adherence. In this study, we show with a rat endocarditis mo...

  5. Capnocytophaga canimorsus endocarditis with root abscess in a patient with a bicuspid aortic valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Coutance

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis caused by a zoonotic micro organism is a rare clinical condition. Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a commensal bacterium living in the saliva of dogs and cats which produces rarely reported endocarditis whose incidence may be underestimated, considering its failure to grow on standard media. We reported the case of a 65-year-old man with bicuspid aortic valve endocarditis and multiple abscesses of the aortic wall caused by the canine bacteria C. canimorsus.

  6. Endocarditis por Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus / Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iago, Villamil; Marta, Serrano; Elisabeth, Prieto.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las especies Streptococcus equi subsp. equi y S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus son especies zoonóticas típicamente patógenas de animales, especialmente en caballos. Es una causa excepcional de enfermedad en humanos. Presentamos un caso de endocarditis por S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus tras un contacto co [...] n equinos, con buena evolución con tratamiento antibiótico. Abstract in english Zoonotic infections with S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus have been reported occasionally in individuáis with exposure to farm animals, especially horses. They exceptionally present as a human pathogen. We present a S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus well documented endocarditis after a horse's female genital [...] tract contact, and excellent surveillance with exclusive antibiotic management.

  7. Prevención de la Endocarditis Bacteriana :: Revisión de la Literatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia R, Guzmán H; Sonia M, Corte F; Mónica P., Delgado O..

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa es una infección del revestimiento de las cavidades del corazón y de las válvulas cardíacas, causadas por bacterias, hongos virus u otros microorganismos. La endocarditis bacteriana se refiere específicamente a la infección por agentes bacterianos. La mayoría de las person [...] as que desarrollan la endocarditis han padecido una enfermedad cardíaca previa. El origen de la infección podría ser una bacteremia transitoria, la cual es común durante diagnósticos y procedimientos quirúrgicos; ya sean dentales, urológicos, del tracto respiratorio o gastrointestinal. La endocarditis es una enfermedad que amenaza a la vida a pesar de ser poco frecuente, por lo que la prevención es lo más importante. La Asociación Americana del Corazón, realizó algunos cambios en las pautas a seguir para la prevención de esta enfermedad, como son: una reducción de la antibioticoterapia para la protección del paciente, tanto bajando la dosis de ataque como eliminando la dosis posterior al tratamiento. De igual forma se limitaron los tratamientos que ameritan la profilaxis antibiótica. Estas nuevas recomendaciones definen mejor a los pacientes en riesgo y los procedimientos dentales que requieren protección con antibióticos. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart and heart valves. Caused by bacterias, fungus, viruses or other micro-organisms. Bacterial endocarditis is refered especially to infection for bacterial agents. The most people that developes endocarditis has sufered a prior cardiac d [...] isease. Cardiac source may be a transient bacteremia, common during diagnosis and surgical procedures, such dental, genitourinary, upper respiratory tract or gastrointestinal. Endocarditis is a life-threatening disease, although it is relatively uncommon so prevention is the most important. The American Heart Association, made some changes in guidelines for prevention of this disease: an antibioticoterapy decrease for pacients’cover, as much as lowering attack dosis and eliminating the follow doses to treatment. This new recommendations define better pacients at risk and dental procedures that require antibiotic cover.

  8. Medical dental prophylaxis of endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina C., Basilio; Francisco E., Loducca; Paulo C., Haddad.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have long been the main reason for the increase in man's longevity. Since their discovery, man has tried to reduce the level of infection by treating with antibiotics. At the same time, prophylactic use has been suggested, although this is controversial. Their routine use is not recommen [...] ded, and empirical treatments at non-therapeutic doses, and indiscriminately, should be avoided, because they may become dangerous and harmful, causing among other things, the prevalence of resistant microorganisms and the eventual potentiation of an increase in morbid states. Infectious endocarditis is a systemic pathology that can start with a bacteremia, which comes either from dental procedures or/and chronic processes that already existed. Its etiopathogeny consists of a combination of bacteremia and two other factors: Cardiac injury, which can be congenital or/and acquired, and a debilitated immunological system (patients who have transplanted organs, or those who have auto-immune diseases, such as pemphigus vulgaris, systemic lupus erythematosus). The main goal is to prevent or to fight against the transient bacteremia, reducing its intensity and duration, and also to kill the bacteria in at-risk patients. In this way, infectious endocarditis can be prevented; the dental surgeon plays an important role in the prevention of this condition, which joins medical and dental aspects. This can be done by antibiotic prophylaxis. The dentist needs to be acquainted with the medical protocols of the heart health societies.

  9. Role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis in patients with an implanted cardiac device: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziosi, Maddalena; Lorenzini, Massimiliano; Diemberger, Igor; Pasquale, Ferdinando; Ziacchi, Matteo; Biffi, Mauro; Martignani, Cristian; Boriani, Giuseppe; Rapezzi, Claudio [Alma Mater-University of Bologna, and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Cardiology Unit, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Nanni, Cristina; Bonfiglioli, Rachele; Fanti, Stefano [Alma Mater-University of Bologna, and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Bartoletti, Michele; Tumietto, Fabio; Viale, Pier Luigi [Alma Mater-University of Bologna, and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is widely underdiagnosed or diagnosed after a major delay. The diagnosis is currently based on the modified DUKE criteria, where the only validated imaging technique is echocardiography, and remains challenging especially in patients with an implantable cardiac device. The aim of this study was to assess the incremental diagnostic role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with an implanted cardiac device and suspected IE. We prospectively analysed 27 consecutive patients with an implantable device evaluated for suspected device-related IE between January 2011 and June 2013. The diagnostic probability of IE was defined at presentation according to the modified DUKE criteria. PET/CT was performed as soon as possible following the clinical suspicion of IE. Patients then underwent medical or surgical treatment based on the overall clinical evaluation. During follow-up, we considered: lead cultures in patients who underwent extraction, direct inspection and lead cultures in those who underwent surgery, and a clinical/instrumental reevaluation after at least 6 months in patients who received antimicrobial treatment or had an alternative diagnosis and were not treated for IE. After the follow-up period, the diagnosis was systematically reviewed by the multidisciplinary team using the modified DUKE criteria and considering the new findings. Among the ten patients with a positive PET/CT scan, seven received a final diagnosis of ''definite IE'', one of ''possible IE'' and two of ''IE rejected''. Among the 17 patients with a negative PET/CT scan, four were false-negative and received a final diagnosis of definite IE. These patients underwent PET/CT after having started antibiotic therapy (?48 h) or had a technically suboptimal examination. In patients with a cardiac device, PET/CT increases the diagnostic accuracy of the modified Duke criteria for IE, particularly in the subset of patients with possible IE in whom it may help the clinician manage a challenging situation. (orig.)

  10. Endocarditis of the native aortic valve caused by Lactobacillus jensenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Soumya; Davila, Carlos Daniel; Chennupati, Anupama; Rubin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli are Gram-positive anaerobic rods or coccobacilli, commonly found as commensals in human mucosa. Rarely, they can cause serious infections such as infective endocarditis (IE), and the most frequently implicated species causing serious infections are L. casei and L. rhamnosus. IE caused by Lactobacillus jensenii is very rare, with only six reported cases so far, to the best of our knowledge. We present a case of native aortic valve endocarditis caused by L. jensenii, complicated by root abscess and complete heart block, and requiring emergent surgical intervention. PMID:25750218

  11. Association of Bartonella spp bacteremia with Chagas cardiomyopathy, endocarditis and arrythmias in patients from South America

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.G., Corrêa; C.L.S., Pontes; R.M.M., Verzola; J.C.P., Mateos; P.E.N.F., Velho; A.G., Schijman; H.S., Selistre-de-Araujo.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Bartonella spp may cause cardiac arrhythmias, myocarditis and endocarditis in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and endocarditis, arrhythmia and Chagas cardiomyopathy in patients from Brazil and Argentina. We [...] screened for the presence of bacterial 16S rRNA in human blood by PCR using oligonucleotides to amplify a 185-bp bacterial DNA fragment. Blood samples were taken from four groups of subjects in Brazil and Argentina: i) control patients without clinical disease, ii) patients with negative blood-culture endocarditis, iii) patients with arrhythmias, and iv) patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. PCR products were analyzed on 1.5% agarose gel to visualize the 185-bp fragment and then sequenced to confirm the identity of DNA. Sixty of 148 patients (40.5%) with cardiac disease and 1 of 56 subjects (1.8%) from the control group presented positive PCR amplification for Bartonella spp, suggesting a positive association of the bacteria with these diseases. Separate analysis of the four groups showed that the risk of a Brazilian patient with endocarditis being infected with Bartonella was 22 times higher than in the controls. In arrhythmic patients, the prevalence of infection was 45 times higher when compared to the same controls and 40 times higher for patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and Chagas disease. The present data may be useful for epidemiological and prevention studies in Brazil and Argentina.

  12. Association of Bartonella spp bacteremia with Chagas cardiomyopathy, endocarditis and arrythmias in patients from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Corrêa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Bartonella spp may cause cardiac arrhythmias, myocarditis and endocarditis in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and endocarditis, arrhythmia and Chagas cardiomyopathy in patients from Brazil and Argentina. We screened for the presence of bacterial 16S rRNA in human blood by PCR using oligonucleotides to amplify a 185-bp bacterial DNA fragment. Blood samples were taken from four groups of subjects in Brazil and Argentina: i control patients without clinical disease, ii patients with negative blood-culture endocarditis, iii patients with arrhythmias, and iv patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. PCR products were analyzed on 1.5% agarose gel to visualize the 185-bp fragment and then sequenced to confirm the identity of DNA. Sixty of 148 patients (40.5% with cardiac disease and 1 of 56 subjects (1.8% from the control group presented positive PCR amplification for Bartonella spp, suggesting a positive association of the bacteria with these diseases. Separate analysis of the four groups showed that the risk of a Brazilian patient with endocarditis being infected with Bartonella was 22 times higher than in the controls. In arrhythmic patients, the prevalence of infection was 45 times higher when compared to the same controls and 40 times higher for patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and Chagas disease. The present data may be useful for epidemiological and prevention studies in Brazil and Argentina.

  13. Endocarditis infecciosa por Nocardia en válvulas nativas aórtica y tricúspide Nocardia endocarditis in aortic and tricuspid native valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Chain

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa por Nocardia en válvula nativa es una infección excepcional, que afecta a pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 51 años con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa por Nocardia en válvulas nativas aórtica y tricúspide, que recibió terapia antimicrobiana específica y que requirió reemplazo valvular aórtico, con buena evolución clínica en el seguimiento a 6 meses.Nocardia endocarditis in native valve is an uncommon infection that usually arises in immunodepressed patients. We report a 51-year-old man diagnosed as having Nocardia endocarditis in aortic and tricuspid native valves, which received antimicrobial therapy and required aortic valve replacement. In 6 month follow up the patient remained asymptomatic with good clinical evolution.

  14. Endocarditis infecciosa por Nocardia en válvulas nativas aórtica y tricúspide / Nocardia endocarditis in aortic and tricuspid native valves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergio, Chain; Héctor, Luciardi; Gabriela, Feldman; Sofía, Berman; Cristina, Estrella.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa por Nocardia en válvula nativa es una infección excepcional, que afecta a pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 51 años con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa por Nocardia en válvulas nativas aórtica y tricúspide, que recibió terapia antimicrob [...] iana específica y que requirió reemplazo valvular aórtico, con buena evolución clínica en el seguimiento a 6 meses. Abstract in english Nocardia endocarditis in native valve is an uncommon infection that usually arises in immunodepressed patients. We report a 51-year-old man diagnosed as having Nocardia endocarditis in aortic and tricuspid native valves, which received antimicrobial therapy and required aortic valve replacement. In [...] 6 month follow up the patient remained asymptomatic with good clinical evolution.

  15. Mycobacterium neoaurum causing prosthetic valve endocarditis: a case report and review of the literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anupam, Kumar; George S., Pazhayattil; Aparna, Das; Harry A., Conte.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium neoaurum is a rare cause of bacteremia, and infection usually occurs in an immunocompromised host in the setting of an indwelling catheter. Prosthetic valve endocarditis due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria typically carries a dismal prognosis; we report a case ofM. neoaurum prosthetic [...] valve endocarditis with favorable response to antimicrobial therapy without surgical intervention.

  16. Comparison of heart valve culture between two Danish endocarditis centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, Marianne; Fuursted, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Background: The degree to which the results of valve culture depend on different laboratory procedures as well as other factors is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the results of heart valve culture at 2 different endocarditis centres in order to clarify this. Methods: The study included 223 patients with definitive endocarditis undergoing heart valve surgery at 2 Danish endocarditis centres (96 at the East centre and 127 at the West centre). The following data related to the samples were registered: transportation, time to inoculation, culture media used and duration of incubation, species distribution, and preoperative duration of appropriate antimicrobial treatment (DAAT). 16S polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of valve tissue was used to estimate the frequency of non-cultivable bacteria. Results: Valve culture was positive in 12.5% of cases at the East centre and 36.2% at the West centre (p <0.001). Valve cultures were positive in 10%, 45%, and 58% of cases of streptococcal, staphylococcal, and enterococcal infections, respectively. The median DAAT was 3 days for valve culture-positive cases and 11 days for valve culture-negative cases (p <0.001). By logistic regression analysis, DAAT, species distribution, and laboratory protocol were identified as independent risk determinants for positive valve culture. The adjusted odds ratio for positive culture by the West centre protocol was 3.0 (confidence interval 1.3-6.9; East = 1, p <0.01). The valve culture contamination rate was 4% at the East centre and 31% at the West centre (p <0.01). Conclusions: Our study showed that the duration of preoperative antibiotic treatment and species distribution must be taken into account when comparing valve culture results. Differences in laboratory protocol explained the 3-fold higher sensitivity of heart valve culture observed in the West centre compared to the East centre.

  17. Achados clínico-laboratoriais de uma série de casos com endocardite infecciosa Clinical and laboratory findings in a series of cases of infective endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Carla A.Z. Pereira; Scheila C.G.P. Rocio; Maria-Fátima R. Ceolin; Ana-Paula N.B. Lima; Felippe Borlot; Roberto S.T. Pereira; Sandra F Moreira-Silva

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever os achados clínico-laboratoriais da endocardite infecciosa (EI) em 28 crianças, em Vitória/ES. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de 28 crianças, com idade abaixo de 18 anos e diagnóstico de endocardite infecciosa, internadas no serviço de infectologia do Hospital Infantil Nossa Senhora da Glória, em Vitória - Espírito Santo, no período de janeiro de 1993 a dezembro de 2001. Os critérios para diagnóstico de endocardite infecciosa foram os do Duke Endocarditis Ser...

  18. Mitral valve endocarditis during brucellosis relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrenovi?-Kir?anski Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endocarditis is the most common cardiovascular manifestation of brucellosis with high mortality rate. Brucella is less accesable to antibiotic (but not for all and relapse can occur after a various period of clinical latency. Case report. A 55-year-old farmer was diagnozed with acute systemic Brucella infection in May 2008 and treated with antibiotic therapy in regional hospital for two months and for three months after discharge. He began to feel myalgia, arthralgia, malaise, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea and lost weight eight months after initial symptoms occured. Because symptoms progressed he was admitted to our hospital in February 2009. Based on a combination of epidemiological, clinical data (on admission he was catchetic, adynamic, dyspneic, hypotensive 80/50 mmHg, fever up to 39.50C, positive serological Wright test for brucellosis (1 : 5,120, and echocardiographic examination findings, the diagnosis of very severe relapse of brucellosis with mitral valve endocarditis, complicated with perforation of anterior mitral leaflet, severe mitral regurgitation and pulmonary hypertension was established. He was treated with a combined triple antibiotic therapy (vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin, and swiched to regimen with doxycycline, gentamicin and imipenem, replacing gentamicin by rifampicin for 4 weeks and for the next 2 weeks was receiving trimetoprime/sulfamethoxazole and rifampicin. The patients' condition was improved and he was operated. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis was confirmed intraoperatively. Mitral valve replacement was performed, and combined triple antibiotic treatment (amikacin + ciprofloxacin + cefazolin, for 2 weeks and cephazolin + doxycycline + rifampicin, for 2 weeks was continued, following with two antibiotics (doxycycline + rifampicin for 5 months. The patient completely recovered without any signs of infection 30 months postoperatively. Conclusion. A combined antibiotic therapy and surgery reduce complications and mortality associated with Brucella endocarditis and improve quality of patients' life.

  19. Comparison of species identification of endocarditis associated viridans streptococci using rnpB genotyping and 2 MALDI-TOF systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Jenny; Rasmussen, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Stadler, Liselott Svensson; Kurland, Siri; Olaison, Lars; Ek, Elisabeth; Herrmann, Björn

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus spp. are important causes of infective endocarditis but challenging in species identification. This study compared identification based on sequence determination of the rnpB gene with 2 systems of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, MALDI Biotyper (Bruker) and VITEK MS IVD (bioMérieux). Blood culture isolates of viridans streptococci from 63 patients with infective endocarditis were tested. The 3 methods showed full agreement for all 36 isolates identified in the Anginosus, Bovis, and Mutans groups or identified as Streptococcus cristatus, Streptococcus gordonii, or Streptococcus sanguinis. None of the methods could reliably identify the 23 isolates to the species level when designated as Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, or Streptococcus tigurinus. In 7 isolates classified to the Mitis group, the rnpB sequences deviated strikingly from all reference sequences, and additional analysis of sodA and groEL genes indicated the occurrence of yet unidentified Streptococcus spp. PMID:25616316

  20. Actualización sobre endocarditis infecciosa en válvula protésica / UP-Date in prosthetic valve endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nathalia, Badilla A; Ricardo, Zalaquett S.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic valve endocarditis is still a matter of controversy especially the type of treatment that should be chosen for an individual patient. Since the current knowledge of this patology is based mainly on the literature and in its many and varied exponents (clinical experience, sistematic review [...] , practice guideslines of cardiology associations, observational studies, etc), it is necessary to update the information continuously This review is focused mainly in the incidence, etiology diagnostics and treatment of prosthetic endocarditis. The principal microroganisms related to this patology are Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphyloccoco. Risk factors were identified for witch surgery is mandatory, such us Staphylococcus aureus infection and a complicated prosthetic valve endocarditis (cardiac failure, conduction abnormalities, abscess formation and recurrent embolism). With this information, patients that could have a medical treatment option can be recognized, as well as those who will require surgery. In order to present in a better way our conclusions, easily reading diagrams were included to facilitate the decisión process when facing up a prosthetic valve endocarditis. Abstract in english La endocarditis en válvulas protésicas es aún tema de controversia, en especial en referencia al tipo de tratamiento que se debe elegir. Debido a que los conocimientos actuales sobre esta patología están basados principalmente en la literatura y por ende, en sus variados exponentes (experiencias clí [...] nicas, revisiones sistemáticas, guía clínicas de diferentes sociedades de cardiología, estudios observacionales, entre otros), es necesario hacer una actualización continua de la información. Esta revisión bibliográfica se centra en la incidencia, etiología, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la endocarditis protésica. En ella se llega la conclusión de que los principales microorganismos productores de esta patología son el Estafilococo aureus y el Estafilococo coagulasa-negativo. También se reconocen aquellos factores de riesgo para los cuales la cirugía es mandatoria, entre los que destacan las infecciones por S. aureus y la endocarditis protésica complicada, ya sea por insuficiencia cardíaca, alteración de la conducción, formación de abscesos y/o embolias recurrentes. De esta manera, con la información recopilada, se identificaron aquellos pacientes con opción a tratamiento médico, y aquellos con indicación de manejo quirúrgico. Para presentar mejor nuestras conclusiones, se construyeron esquemas de fácil consulta y lectura, para apoyar la decisión del tipo de manejo frente a una endocarditis en válvulas protésicas.

  1. Actualización sobre endocarditis infecciosa en válvula protésica UP-Date in prosthetic valve endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Badilla A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic valve endocarditis is still a matter of controversy especially the type of treatment that should be chosen for an individual patient. Since the current knowledge of this patology is based mainly on the literature and in its many and varied exponents (clinical experience, sistematic review, practice guideslines of cardiology associations, observational studies, etc, it is necessary to update the information continuously This review is focused mainly in the incidence, etiology diagnostics and treatment of prosthetic endocarditis. The principal microroganisms related to this patology are Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphyloccoco. Risk factors were identified for witch surgery is mandatory, such us Staphylococcus aureus infection and a complicated prosthetic valve endocarditis (cardiac failure, conduction abnormalities, abscess formation and recurrent embolism. With this information, patients that could have a medical treatment option can be recognized, as well as those who will require surgery. In order to present in a better way our conclusions, easily reading diagrams were included to facilitate the decisión process when facing up a prosthetic valve endocarditis.La endocarditis en válvulas protésicas es aún tema de controversia, en especial en referencia al tipo de tratamiento que se debe elegir. Debido a que los conocimientos actuales sobre esta patología están basados principalmente en la literatura y por ende, en sus variados exponentes (experiencias clínicas, revisiones sistemáticas, guía clínicas de diferentes sociedades de cardiología, estudios observacionales, entre otros, es necesario hacer una actualización continua de la información. Esta revisión bibliográfica se centra en la incidencia, etiología, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la endocarditis protésica. En ella se llega la conclusión de que los principales microorganismos productores de esta patología son el Estafilococo aureus y el Estafilococo coagulasa-negativo. También se reconocen aquellos factores de riesgo para los cuales la cirugía es mandatoria, entre los que destacan las infecciones por S. aureus y la endocarditis protésica complicada, ya sea por insuficiencia cardíaca, alteración de la conducción, formación de abscesos y/o embolias recurrentes. De esta manera, con la información recopilada, se identificaron aquellos pacientes con opción a tratamiento médico, y aquellos con indicación de manejo quirúrgico. Para presentar mejor nuestras conclusiones, se construyeron esquemas de fácil consulta y lectura, para apoyar la decisión del tipo de manejo frente a una endocarditis en válvulas protésicas.

  2. Aortic valve replacement and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with infective endocarditis and anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the opposite sinus of valsalva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Sachi; Itatani, Keiichi; Kyo, Shunei; Aoyama, Rie; Tubokou, Yusuke; Fujimoto, Hajime; Harada, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    A 69-yrs-old woman with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the opposite sinus of Valsalva (ACAOS) was diagnosed as having infective endocarditis affecting the aortic valve. Transthoracic echocardiography showed severe aortic stenosis and vegetations on the cusp of the aortic valve, which necessitated aortic valve replacement. Before the operation, computed tomography showed a right-ACAOS, with the artery running an interarterial course between the aorta and pulmonary artery. ACAOS running an interarterial course has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of ischemic cardiac events and sudden death. The patient was treated successfully by the aortic valve replacement with concurrent coronary artery bypass grafting using a saphenous vein graft for the right coronary artery. PMID:23196657

  3. Endocarditis aguda estafilococcica fatal con periodontitis severa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfonso, Carranza; Patricia, Rivera; Rafael, Gutiérrez; Francisco, Hernández.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa usualmente está asociada con una alteración del endocardio, la cual promueve los depósitos de fibrina donde las bacterias, en su mayoría Streptococcus spp., se establecen y de ahí se descargan a la sangre. El diagnóstico se hace empleando imágenes de ecocardiografía, reali [...] zando hemocultivos e investigando los síntomas clínicos. El presente caso corresponde a una niña de un año y nueve meses de edad, que desarrolló una endocarditis asociada con una infección por Staphylococcus aureus. La causa de muerte se debió a un choque séptico con múltiples embolias sépticas en diversos órganos. La posible puerta de entrada la constituyó una sepsis oral con gingivitis sangrante y caries. Este caso indica que una higiene oral pobre representa un riesgo de invasión bacteriana con infección en tejidos cardiacos previamente normales. En nuestro país frecuentemente hay casos de niños con lesiones orales como las observadas en el presente caso. Por esta razón es importante una atención apropiada y el cuidado de estos pacientes. Abstract in english Infectious endocarditis is usually associated with alteration of the cardiac tissues that promotes deposits of fibrin in which bacteria, mainly Streptococcus spp., establish and shed to blood. The diagnosis is made with ecocardiograph images, blood cultures, clinical syntoms and signs. The present c [...] ase correspond to a child less than two years old that developed an endocarditis associated with Staphylococcus aureus infection. The cause of dead was due to a septic shock with multiple septic emboli in diverse organs. The possible entrance of the bacteria to the blood stream was a severe bleeding gingivitis. This case indicates that a poor oral hygiene represented a risk of bacterial invasion and infection of the normal cardiac tissues. In our country frequently there are cases of children with oral lesions like those observed in the present case. For this reason it is important a proper attention and care of these patients.

  4. Evaluación de 61 episodios de endocarditis infecciosa en pacientes adictos a drogas intravenosas e infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo-1 / Evaluation of 61 episodes of infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers and human immunodeficiency tipe-1 virus infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.E., Corti; O.J., Palmieri; M.F., Villafañe; N., Trione.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las características clínicas y de laboratorio de 61 episodios de endocarditis infecciosa (EI) en adictos a drogas intravenosas (ADIV) infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo-1 (HIV-1). Cuarenta y nueve hombres y 6 mujeres con edades comprendidas entre 15 y 55 años. L [...] a totalidad de los pacientes estudiados presentó 61 episodios de EI, los que tuvieron fiebre y soplo cardíaco. Cuarenta y tres (70,4%) presentaron hepatomegalia y 29 (47,5%) esplenomegalia. Treinta y ocho (62,3%) tuvieron tos, que en 9 (14,7%) resultó hemoptoica. En 25 casos (41%) se observó disnea y en 5 (8,2%) ingurgitación yugular. El fondo de ojo mostró alteraciones en 3 pacientes (4,9%). La confirmación bacteriológica se obtuvo en 41 episodios (67,2%). Se identificaron por hemocultivos: Staphylococcus aureus en 30 casos (73,1%), Streptococcus viridans en 8 (19,5%), Staphylococcus epidermidis en 1 (2,4%), Staphylococcus hominis en 1 (2,4%) y Streptococcuspneumoniae en 1 (2,4%). Se comprobó compromiso de la válvula tricúspide en 51 episodios (83,6%), aórtica en 6 (9,8%), mitral en 3 (4,9%) y pulmonar en 1 (1,6%). En 3 pacientes la afectación fue bivalvular: en 2 (3,2%) de la tricúspide y pulmonar y en 1 (1,6%) de la tricúspide y mitral. En 19 episodios (31,1%) se detectó derrame pericárdico. En la etapa aguda de la enfermedad fallecieron 6 (10,9%) pacientes. Abstract in english We conducted a retrospective evaluation to determine the clinical and microbiological characteristics of 61 episodes of infective endocarditis (IE) in intravenous drug abusers (IDA), HIV seropositive patients. Forty-nine males and 6 females between 15 and 42 years of age were included in the study. [...] All the included patients presented 61 episodes of IE. Fever and cardiac murmur were present in all episodes; 43 (70,4%) had hepatomegaly; 29 (47,5%) had splenomegaly. Thirty-eight (62,3%) presented cough (9 with hemoptysis); 25 (41%) had dyspnea, and 5 (8,2%) had jugular ingurgitation. Fundoscopy showed alterations in 3 patients (4,9%). Bacteriological confirmation was obtained in 41 episodes (67,2%); blood cultures revealed Staphylococcus aureus in 30 cases (73,1%), Streptococcus viridans in 8 (19,5%) patients, Staphylococcus epidermidis in 1 (2,4%), Staphylococcus hominis in 1 (2,4%) and Streptococcuspneumoniae in one case (2,4%). The tricuspid valve was involved in 51 episodes (83,6%), the aorta in 6 (9,8%), the mitral valve in 3 (4,9%) and the pulmonary valve in one (1,6%). There was evidence of right bivalvular involvement in 2 patients (3,2%) and tricuspid and mitral involvement in another (1,6%). Pericardial effusion was detected in 19 episodes (31,1%). Six patients (10,9%) died during the acute episode of IE.

  5. Contemporary management of prosthetic valve endocarditis: principals and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Cormac T; Kiernan, Thomas J

    2015-05-01

    Infective endocarditis involving prosthetic valves accounts for 20% of all endocarditis cases. Rising in prevalence due to increasing placement of valvular prostheses, prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is more difficult to diagnose by conventional methods, associated with more invasive infection and increased mortality. This report explores the existing literature in identifying a direct approach to the management of PVE; such as adjuncts to establishing a diagnosis (for instance positron emission tomography/computed tomography and radiolabeled leukocyte scintigraphy), the trends in specific pathogens associated with PVE and the recommended antimicrobials for each. The patterns of disease requiring surgical intervention are also highlighted and explored. In addition, a 5-year outlook offers consolidated knowledge on epidemiological trends of both culprit organisms and population subgroups suffering (and projected to suffer) from PVE. PMID:25865118

  6. Technical aspects of mitral valve replacement with an allograft for acute bacterial endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Conklin, L D; Reardon, M J

    1999-01-01

    Mitral valve replacement with a mitral valve allograft is receiving a resurgence of interest. We discuss the technical aspects of this procedure as it applies to cases of acute bacterial endocarditis infecting the mitral valve.

  7. A case of native valve endocarditis caused by Burkholderia cepacia without predisposing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infective endocarditis is rarely caused by Burkholderia cepacia. This infection is known to occur particularly in immunocompromised hosts, intravenous heroin users, and in patients with prosthetic valve replacement. Most patients with Burkholderia cepacia endocarditis usually need surgical treatment in addition to antimicrobial treatment. Case Presentation Here, we report the case of a patient who developed Burkholderia cepacia-induced native valve endocarditis with consequent cerebral involvement without any predisposing factors; she was successfully treated by antimicrobial agents only. Conclusion In this report, we also present literature review of relevant cases.

  8. A rare case of Neisseria bacilliformis native valve endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abandeh, Foad I; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Pancholi, Preeti; Risaliti, Carleen M; Maher, William E; Bazan, Jose A

    2012-08-01

    Neisseria bacilliformis has most often been associated with infections of the oral cavity and the respiratory tract. We report a case of N. bacilliformis mitral valve endocarditis in a previously healthy adult which required valve replacement, thus confirming the opportunistic nature and pathogenic potential of this novel organism. PMID:22673965

  9. Early detection of infantile endocarditis by gallium-67 scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardoff, R.; Luder, A.S.; Lorber, A.; Dembo, L.

    1989-04-01

    An infant with suspected soft tissue infection of the knee was studied by /sup 67/Ga-scintigraphy. In addition to knee and hip joint increased activity, heart uptake was also demonstrated prior to the development of clinical signs of endocarditis. The early detection and treatment resulted in satisfactory clinical resolution.

  10. Early detection of infantile endocarditis by gallium-67 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An infant with suspected soft tissue infection of the knee was studied by 67Ga-scintigraphy. In addition to knee and hip joint increased activity, heart uptake was also demonstrated prior to the development of clinical signs of endocarditis. The early detection and treatment resulted in satisfactory clinical resolution. (orig.)

  11. Acute limb ischemia due to Candida lusitaniae aortic valve endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amish; Almuti, Walid; Polenakovik, Hari

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 35-year-old male with history of intravenous heroin use, who presented with acute limb ischemia and was found to have Candida lusitaniae endocarditis. After an urgent intervention to salvage the right lower extremity, successful outcome of his infection was achieved by a combined surgical and antifungal treatment. PMID:24751340

  12. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meningitis, pneumonia, osteomyelitis (infection in the bone), and endocarditis. Symptoms Listeria infections may cause symptoms such as ... the body's ability to fight off the infection. Children whose immune systems are compromised by illness or ...

  13. Endocarditis infecciosa en la Unidad de Medicina Intensiva Infectious endocarditis in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Miranda-Montero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer las características, evolución y pronóstico de los pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa que requieren tratamiento en la Unidad de Medicina Intensiva. Diseño: Estudio observacional de cohortes prospectivo en pacientes ingresados por endocarditis infecciosa. Ámbito: Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, centro con 824 camas y población asignada de 493.145 personas. Pacientes: Todos los pacientes diagnosticados de endocarditis siguiendo los criterios de Duke entre el 1 de enero de 2005 y el 31 de julio de 2011. Variables de interés: Variables demográficas, clínicas, scores de gravedad, hallazgos microbiológicos y ecocardiográficos, mortalidad intrahospitalaria y complicaciones. Resultados: De 102 pacientes diagnosticados de endocarditis, 38 (37% ingresaron en Medicina Intensiva. Comparándolos con los que no lo hicieron, sufrieron con más frecuencia afectación mitral (OR= 7,13; IC del 95%, 2,12-24; p= 0,002 y embolia cerebral (OR= 3,89; IC del 95%, 1,06-14,3; p= 0,041. La mortalidad fue mayor (42,1 vs 18,8%, p= 0,011, así como la proporción de cirugías urgentes (45,8 vs 5,9%, pObjective: To study the characteristics, evolution and prognosis of patients with infectious endocarditis requiring treatment in the Intensive Care Unit. Design: A prospective, observational cohort study of patients admitted due to infectious endocarditis. Setting: Nuestra Señora de Candelaria University Hospital, a third - level center with a recruitment population of 493,145. Patients: All patients consecutively diagnosed with infectious endocarditis in our center according to the Duke criteria, between 1 January 2005 and 31 July 2011. Study variables: Demographic data, clinical severity scores, microbiological and echocardiographic data, hospital mortality and complications. Results: Out of 102 patients diagnosed with endocarditis, 38 (37% were admitted to Intensive Care. Compared with those patients not admitted to the ICU, these subjects suffered more frequent mitral valve alterations (OR= 7.13; 95%CI: 2.12-24; p= 0.002 and cerebral embolism (OR= 3.89; 95%CI: 1.06-14.3; p= 0.041. In turn, mortality was greater (42.1% vs 18.8%, p= 0.011, as was the proportion of emergency surgeries (45.8% vs 5.9%, p<0.001. The identified mortality predictors were Staphylococcus aureus infection (OR= 3.49; 95%CI 1.02-11.93; p=0.046, heart failure (OR=4.18; 95%CI: 1.17-14.94; p=0.028, cerebral embolism (OR= 8.45; 95%CI: 1.89-37.74; p=0.005 and the SAPS II upon admission (OR=1.09; 95%CI: 1.04-1.15; p<0.001. Conclusions: A large proportion of patients with endocarditis require admission to the Intensive Care Unit, presenting a much poorer prognosis. Staphylococcus aureus infection, heart failure, cerebral embolism and SAPS II scores are independent predictors of hospital mortality.

  14. Endocarditis by Kocuria rosea in an immunocompetent child

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Salomão, Moreira; Adriana Gut Lopes, Riccetto; Marcos Tadeu Nolasco da, Silva; Maria Marluce dos Santos, Vilela.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kocuria rosea belongs to genus Kocuria (Micrococcaceae family, suborder Micrococcineae, order Actinomycetales) that includes about 11 species of bacteria. Usually, Kocuria sp are commensal organisms that colonize oropharynx, skin and mucous membrane; Kocuria sp infections have been described in the [...] last decade commonly affecting immunocompromised patients, using intravenous catheter or peritoneal dialysis. These patients had mainly bacteremia/recurrent sepsis. We hereby describe the case of a 10-year-old girl, immunocompetent, who had endocarditis/sepsis by K. rosea which was identi?ed in ?ve different blood cultures by Vitek2 ID-GPC card (BioMérieux, France). Negative HIV serology, blood count within normal range of leukocytes/neutrophils and lymphocytes, normal fractions of the complement, normal level of immunoglobulins for the age; lymphocyte immunophenotyping was also within the expected values. Thymus image was normal at chest MRI. No catheters were required. Identi?cation of K. rosea was essential to this case, allowing the differentiation of coagulase-negative staphylococci and use of an effective antibiotic treatment. Careful labo- ratory analysis of Gram-positive blood-born infections may reveal more cases of Kocuria sp infections in immunocompetent patients, which may collaborate for a better understanding, prevention and early treatment of these infections in pediatrics.

  15. Endocarditis por Streptococcus pneumoniae en niños: Presentación de un caso clínico y revisión de la literatura / Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children: Case report and review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. Alejandra, Prado S; Nicole, Le Corre P; Tamara, Viviani S; Cecilia, Perret P.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis causada por Streptococcus pneumoniae es una patología muy poco frecuente en niños, correspondiendo sólo a 3 - 7% de los casos. Sin embargo, su importancia radica en que se puede presentar de forma muy agresiva, con complicaciones como destrucción valvular y abscesos, y con una mortal [...] idad reportada hasta 61%, de no mediar tratamiento antimicrobiano precoz y muchas veces cardiocirugía. En más del 50% se puede asociar a otros focos infecciosos, como meningitis, neumonía, sinusitis o mastoiditis. Se describe el caso de una lactante de 10 meses que presentó una meningitis asociada a endocarditis debidas a S. pneumoniae, con grave compromiso cardíaco, y que requirió reemplazo valvular. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura médica acerca de endocarditis por S. pneumoniae en niños Abstract in english Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children is an infrequent disease, corresponding to 3-7% of all cases of endocarditis. However, it is highly relevant because of its severity with the possibility of producing valvular ring abscesses and destruction, and high mortality that reaches [...] up to 61% if medical and surgical treatment are not started early in the course of the illness. Over 50% of cases are associated to other sites of infection such as meningitis, pneumonia, sinusitis or mastoiditis. We report a 10-months-old infant who was admitted with meningitis and endocarditis due to S. pneumoniae, who presented with severe heart failure and required aortic valve replacement. A review of the literature of endocarditis caused by S. pneumoniae in pediatrics is presented

  16. Endocarditis por Streptococcus pneumoniae en niños: Presentación de un caso clínico y revisión de la literatura Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children: Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alejandra Prado S

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis causada por Streptococcus pneumoniae es una patología muy poco frecuente en niños, correspondiendo sólo a 3 - 7% de los casos. Sin embargo, su importancia radica en que se puede presentar de forma muy agresiva, con complicaciones como destrucción valvular y abscesos, y con una mortalidad reportada hasta 61%, de no mediar tratamiento antimicrobiano precoz y muchas veces cardiocirugía. En más del 50% se puede asociar a otros focos infecciosos, como meningitis, neumonía, sinusitis o mastoiditis. Se describe el caso de una lactante de 10 meses que presentó una meningitis asociada a endocarditis debidas a S. pneumoniae, con grave compromiso cardíaco, y que requirió reemplazo valvular. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura médica acerca de endocarditis por S. pneumoniae en niñosEndocarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children is an infrequent disease, corresponding to 3-7% of all cases of endocarditis. However, it is highly relevant because of its severity with the possibility of producing valvular ring abscesses and destruction, and high mortality that reaches up to 61% if medical and surgical treatment are not started early in the course of the illness. Over 50% of cases are associated to other sites of infection such as meningitis, pneumonia, sinusitis or mastoiditis. We report a 10-months-old infant who was admitted with meningitis and endocarditis due to S. pneumoniae, who presented with severe heart failure and required aortic valve replacement. A review of the literature of endocarditis caused by S. pneumoniae in pediatrics is presented

  17. Native valve endocarditis caused by Neisseria elongata Subsp. nitroreducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuka, Hanako; Ichiki, Akito; Yamamoto, Masae; Kawahata, Daisuke; Saegusa, Yuki; Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Okubo, Shinji; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria elongata, a normal resident in the human oral cavity, rarely causes invasive infections. We herein report a case of endocarditis caused by Neisseria elongata subsp. nitroreducens that occurred in a patient without any apparent cardiac complications. The patient received aortic valve replacement following the administration of intravenous beta-lactam for five weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first published case in Japan of N. elongata infection in a patient without a prosthetic device. PMID:25832956

  18. Conservative surgery of the mitral valve in bacterial endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gammage, M D; Littler, W A; Abrams, L D

    1984-01-01

    Surgical repair of the mitral valve was undertaken in two young female patients during the active phase of bacterial endocarditis to eradicate persistent infection. Operation resulted in rapid resolution of infection with good haemodynamic results in both patients. A mitral valve prosthesis has the disadvantage for children of needing replacement because of growth, and for young women of leading to problems in pregnancy because of the need for lifelong anticoagulant treatment. Thus repair rat...

  19. Bartonella henselae Endocarditis in Laos – ‘The Unsought Will Go Undetected’

    OpenAIRE

    Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Chu, Vang; Frichitthavong, Khamthavy; Kesone, Pany; Mayxay, Mayfong; Mirabel, Mariana; Newton, Paul N

    2014-01-01

    Infection of heart valves (endocarditis) with bacteria is an important condition, especially afflicting those with rheumatic heart disease, and has a high mortality if untreated. Most of the evidence for optimal antibiotic and surgical management comes from wealthy countries. There are no published data from poorer countries in SE Asia despite a high burden of rheumatic heart disease. We investigated the bacterial infections of heart valves in the Lao PDR (Laos) through heart ultrasound scans...

  20. Mycobacterium abscessus: causing fatal endocarditis after cardiac catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S; Mishra, V; Sorabjee, J

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is an unusual cause of infection in immunocompetent patients. The intrinsic and acquired resistance of this organism to multiple antibiotics is a major issue in planning treatment regimens. We report a case of M. abscessus endocarditis of the native aortic valve in an immunocompetent patient following coronary angiography with a fatal outcome. The case highlights an unfortunate intervention-related nosocomial infection and the difficulties in chemotherapeutic options for this organism, particularly in the presence of renal failure. PMID:25766351

  1. Genotypic Diversity of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Causing Endocarditis: a Global Perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Cathy A.; Simmon, Keith E.; Miro, Jose M.; Hoen, Bruno; Marco, Francesc; Chu, Vivian H.; Athan, Eugene; Bukovski, Suzana; Bouza, Emilio; Bradley, Suzanne; Fowler, Vance G.; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Gordon, David; Reinbott, Porl; Korman, Tony; Lang, Selwyn; Garcia-de-la-Maria, Cristina; Raglio, Annibale; Morris, Arthur J.; Plesiat, Patrick; Ryan, Suzanne; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Tripodi, Francesca; Utili, Riccardo; Wray, Dannah; Federspiel, J. Jeffrey; Boisson, K.; Reller, L. Barth; Murdoch, David R.; Woods, Christopher W.

    2008-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important causes of infective endocarditis (IE), but their microbiological profiles are poorly described. We performed DNA target sequencing and susceptibility testing for 91 patients with definite CNS IE who were identified from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis—Microbiology, a large, multicenter, multinational consortium. A hierarchy of gene sequences demonstrated great genetic diversity within CNS from patients with definite endocarditis that represented diverse geographic regions. In particular, rpoB sequence data demonstrated unique genetic signatures with the potential to serve as an important tool for global surveillance. PMID:18367572

  2. Rothia aeria endocarditis in a patient with a bicuspid aortic valve: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Carlos, Nicodemo; Luiz Guilherme, Gonçalves; Fatuma Catherine Atieno, Odongo; Marines Dalla Valle, Martino; Jorge Luiz Mello, Sampaio.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rothia aeria is an uncommon pathogen mainly associated with endocarditis in case reports. In previous reports, endocarditis by R. aeria was complicated by central nervous system embolization. In the case we report herein, endocarditis by R. aeria was diagnosed after acute self-limited diarrhea. In a [...] ddition to the common translocation of R. aeria from the oral cavity, we hypothesize the possibility of intestinal translocation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and genetic sequencing are important tools that can contribute to early and more accurate etiologic diagnosis of severe infections caused by Gram-positive rods.

  3. Prosthetic valve endocarditis. A survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Ismail, M; Hannachi, N; Abid, F; Kaabar, Z; Rougé, J F

    1987-01-01

    Fifty eight patients (aged 8-59 years, mean 27) treated for prosthetic valve endocarditis from January 1966 to January 1985 were studied retrospectively by review of case notes. There were 12 cases of early and 46 cases of late prosthetic valve endocarditis. These developed in 28 patients with an isolated aortic valve, in 26 with an isolated mitral valve, and in four with both aortic and mitral prosthetic valves. Streptococci were the most commonly isolated microorganisms, followed by staphyl...

  4. Blood in, blood out: left ventricular pseudoaneurysm following mitral valve endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Sartipy, Ulrik; Ivert, Torbjo?rn; Ugander, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A 76-year old male on warfarin due to atrial fibrillation was admitted with Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia. Echocardiography demonstrated mitral valve endocarditis, and shortly thereafter, he suffered an intracranial haemorrhage as a result of septic embolism. Four weeks later, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed a newly formed pseudoaneurysm. A left ventricular pseudoaneurysm caused by infective endocarditis is very rare, but awareness of this unusual complication may allow surger...

  5. Cerebral ischemia caused by Streptococcus bovis aortic endocarditis: case report Isquemia cerebral causada por endocardite aórtica pelo Streptococcus bovis: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Leopoldo Santos-Neto; Camila Gangoni; Viviane Pereira; Rodrigo Corrêa-Lima

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral ischemic processes associated with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis are rare; only 2 cases having been reported. Here we report a case of a 50-year-old man with S. bovis endocarditis who presented signs of frontal, parietal and occipital lobe cerebral ischemia. This is the first case reported in which the presence of hemianopsia preceded the endocarditis diagnosis. Initially, the clinical manifestations suggested a systemic vasculitis. Later, vegetating lesions we...

  6. Endocarditis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina en niños: Report of a case due to penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae / Pneumococcal endocarditis in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. Soledad, Wenzel A; Marlis, Täger F; Roberto, Burgos L; M. Teresa, Bilbao M.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae es el principal agente de infección bacteriana invasora en niños; sin embargo, es extremadamente infrecuente como causa de endocarditis. Esta entidad clínica se manifiesta generalmente como una enfermedad aguda y grave con alta mortalidad, que requiere tratamiento médico-qui [...] rúrgico precoz, afectando con mayor frecuencia la válvula mitral. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 6 años 4 meses, de extrema ruralidad, que presentó endocarditis infecciosa (EI) de válvula mitral asociada a meningitis, aislándose en hemocultivos S. pneumoniae resistente a penicilina y se discute las estrategias terapéuticas Abstract in english Despite S. pneumoniae is one of main etiologies of invasive bacterial infection in children, it rarely causes infectious endocarditis in children. Pneumococcal endocarditis is a serious condition that affects mainly the mitral valve, with a rapidly destructive nature and a high fatality rate, demand [...] ing prompt medical and surgical treatment. We report a case of pneumococcal endocarditis in a school girl coming from extreme rurality who presented both meningitis and endocarditis, and whose blood cultures isolated penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae

  7. Endocarditis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina en niños: Report of a case due to penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumococcal endocarditis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soledad Wenzel A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae es el principal agente de infección bacteriana invasora en niños; sin embargo, es extremadamente infrecuente como causa de endocarditis. Esta entidad clínica se manifiesta generalmente como una enfermedad aguda y grave con alta mortalidad, que requiere tratamiento médico-quirúrgico precoz, afectando con mayor frecuencia la válvula mitral. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 6 años 4 meses, de extrema ruralidad, que presentó endocarditis infecciosa (EI de válvula mitral asociada a meningitis, aislándose en hemocultivos S. pneumoniae resistente a penicilina y se discute las estrategias terapéuticasDespite S. pneumoniae is one of main etiologies of invasive bacterial infection in children, it rarely causes infectious endocarditis in children. Pneumococcal endocarditis is a serious condition that affects mainly the mitral valve, with a rapidly destructive nature and a high fatality rate, demanding prompt medical and surgical treatment. We report a case of pneumococcal endocarditis in a school girl coming from extreme rurality who presented both meningitis and endocarditis, and whose blood cultures isolated penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae

  8. Triple valve endocarditis by mycobacterium tuberculosis. A case report

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    Shaikh Quratulain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granulomas caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis have been observed at autopsy in the heart, pre-dominantly in the myocardium and endocardium, but rarely involving the coronary vessels and valvular structures. Mycobacterium tuberculosis valvular endocarditis is extremely rare, with most reports coming from autopsy series. Case presentation We report the case of a 17 year old immunocompetent girl who presented with history of fever, malaise, foot gangrene and a left sided hemiparesis. On investigation she was found to have infective endocarditis involving the aortic, mitral and tricuspid valves. She had developed a right middle cerebral artery stroke. She underwent dual valve replacement and tricuspid repair. The vegetations showed granulomatous inflammation but blood cultures and other biological specimen cultures were negative for any organisms. She was started on antituberculous treatment and anticoagulation. Conclusion This is the first reported case of triple valve endocarditis by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in an immunocompetent host. Especially important is the fact that the right heart is involved which has been historically described in the setting of intravenous drug abuse. This implies that Tuberculosis should be considered in cases of culture negative endocarditis in endemic areas like Pakistan even in immunocompetent hosts.

  9. Aortic Root Pseudoaneurysm Following Surgery for Aortic Valve Endocarditis

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    Kuei-Ton Tsai

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic aortic valve replacement for aortic valve endocarditis remains a primarypractice of most cardiac surgeons. Usually it cures endocarditis and restores cardiac function.However, in advanced aortic valve endocarditis with complex annular destruction,complications following prosthetic aortic valve replacement do occur and present a formidablechallenge for reoperation.Herein, we describe a case of an adult man who was operated on initially for advancedaortic valve endocarditis with a large periannular abscess cavity and who developed congestiveheart failure 3 months later. Furthermore, he was diagnosed with a giant pseudoaneurysmaround the aortic root without evidence of recurrent infection or aortic prostheticincompetence. During his reoperation, a cryopreserved aortic homograft as a root replacementthat included reimplantation of bilateral coronary artery buttons was used to exteriorizethis pseudoaneurysm and reconstruct a left ventricular outflow tract. The postoperativecourse was unremarkable, and the patient, during a follow-up of 2 years, remained in NewYork Heart Association functional class I.Aortic root pseudoaneurysm following prosthetic aortic valve replacement for infectiveendocarditis is rare in clinical practice and can cause rapid hemodynamic deteriorationwhich requires imminent reoperation. Homograft aortic root replacement has proven to be aversatile treatment option of this complex disease.

  10. Diagnosis of endocarditis caused by Mycobacterium abscessus

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    Al-Benwan Khalifa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a fatal case of native valve endocarditis due to Mycobacterium abscessus in a hemodialysis patient. The diagnosis was based on culture isolation of acid-fast bacilli from peripheral blood and a permanent catheter tip, and their identification as M abscessus by a reverse hybridization-based assay and direct DNA sequencing of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region. Rapid diagnosis and combination therapy are essential to minimize mortality due to this pathogen. Although combination therapy was started with clarithromycin and tigecycline, the patient refused to take clarithromycin due to severe abdominal pain. The patient became afebrile after therapy with tigecycline alone although bacteremia persisted. He was discharged against medical advice and readmitted three months later for persistent fever. His blood cultures again yielded M abscessus and a transesophageal echocardiogram showed two mobile vegetations. The patient was noncompliant with therapy and died due to cardiac arrest and multiorgan failure. This report shows that M abscessus should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of infective endocarditis in hemodialysis patients.

  11. Tratamento ambulatorial da endocardite bacteriana estreptocócica / Ambulatory treatment of streptococcal bacterial endocarditis / Tratamiento clínico de la endocarditis bacteriana estreptocócica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sirio, Hassem Sobrinho; Carlos Henrique de, Marchi; Ulisses Alexandre, Croti; Cristiane Girotto de, Souza; Érico Vinícius Campos Moreira da, Silva; Moacir Fernandes de, Godoy.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A endocardite bacteriana é uma grave doença infecciosa cujo tratamento é tradicionalmente feito com o paciente internado. recebendo medicação intravenosa. A possibilidade de tratamento domiciliar ou ambulatorial. em casos estritamente selecionados. é atraente tanto do ponto de vista social quanto do [...] econômico. Apresentamos o relato de 6 pacientes com diagnóstico de endocardite bacteriana por Streptococcus. tratados parcial ou integralmente em regime ambulatorial. Todos evoluíram sem complicações e com resolução completa do quadro infeccioso. Abstract in spanish La endocarditis bacteriana es una severa enfermedad infecciosa cuyo tratamiento se hace tradicionalmente con el paciente internado, recibiendo medicación intravenosa. La posibilidad de tratamiento domiciliar o clínico, en casos estrictamente seleccionados, es atractivo desde el punto de vista social [...] como del económico. Presentamos el caso clínico de 6 pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis bacteriana por streptococcus, tratados parcial o integralmente en régimen ambulatorio. Todos evolucionaron sin complicaciones y con resolución completa del cuadro infeccioso. Abstract in english Bacterial endocarditis is a severe infectious disease. of which treatment is traditionally carried out in hospitalized patients through intravenous medication. The possibility of at-home or ambulatory treatment. for stringently selected cases. is attractive from the social as well as from the econom [...] ic point of view. We report 6 patients with a diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis caused by Streptococcus. treated partially or completely on an outpatient basis. All of them evolved without complications and presented complete resolution of the infection.

  12. Endocarditis infecciosa: Análisis de 5 años (1997-2001 en el Hospital "Hermanos Ameijeiras"

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    José Eugenio Negrín Expósito

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron 50 historias clínicas de pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa atendidos entre los años 1997 y 2001 para conocer sus características clínicas en un centro terciario y analizar los factores que influyen en la mortalidad. Se recogieron datos generales, válvula afectada, cardiopatía de base, gérmenes causales, complicaciones, antibióticos empleados, hallazgos ecocardiográficos y evolución final, cada variable se relacionó con la mortalidad. Se halló que la edad promedio fue de 51,5 años, predominó la valvulopatía degenerativa (24 %; el germen más aislado fue el Estafilococo coagulasa negativa (22 % y se hallaron vegetaciones en el 52 %. Las variables que se relacionaron con la mortalidad fueron: toma del sistema nervioso central (p = 0,01, infarto pulmonar (p = 0,001, endocarditis de válvula nativa aguda (p = 0,001 y endocarditis de válvula protésica precoz (p = 0,003. Se concluyó que la endocarditis infecciosa es una enfermedad fatal si no se sigue una atención agresiva de los casos agudos o precoces.50 medical histories from patients with infective endocarditis that recieved medical attention between 1997 and 2001 were reviewed to know their clinical characteristics in an institute and to analyze those factors influencing mortality. General data, affected valve, base heart disease, causal germs, complications, antibiotics used, echocardiographic findings and final evolution were collected. Each variable was related to mortality. It was found that the average age was 51.5 years old. There was a predominance of the degenerative valvulopathy (24 %. The negative Staphilococcus coagulase was the most isolated germ (22 % and vegetations were observed in 52 %. The variables connected with mortality were: taking of the central nervous system (p=0.01, lung infarction (p=0.001, endocarditis of acute native valve (p=0.001 and endocarditis of early prosthetic valve (p=0.003. It was concluded that infective endocarditis may be a fatal disease if the acute or early cases do not receive an aggressive attention .

  13. Healthcare-Associated Infective Endocarditis: a Case Series in a Referral Hospital from 2006 to 2011 / Endocardite Infecciosa Associada aos Cuidados de Saúde: Série de Casos em Hospital de Referência entre 2006 e 2011

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oslan, Francischetto; Luciana Almenara Pereira da, Silva; Katia Marie Simões e, Senna; Marcia Regina, Vasques; Giovanna Ferraiuoli, Barbosa; Clara, Weksler; Rosana Grandelle, Ramos; Wilma Felix, Golebiovski; Cristiane da Cruz, Lamas.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: A endocardite infecciosa associada aos cuidados de saúde (EI-ACS) é uma complicação grave associada aos cuidados médico-hospitalares, com uma incidência crescente na população. Objetivo: Avaliar a EI-ACS com relação à sua epidemiologia, etiologia, fatores de risco de aquisição, compli [...] cações, tratamento cirúrgico e quadro clínico. Métodos: Este estudo de caráter observacional e prospectivo avaliou uma série de casos reportados entre 2006 e 2011 em um hospital público no Rio de Janeiro. Resultados: Cinquenta e três pacientes com EI-ACS de um total de 151 casos de endocardite infecciosa (EI) foram incluídos no estudo, dos quais 26 (49%) eram do sexo masculino (idade média de 47 ± 18,7 anos), e 27 (51%) eram sexo feminino (idade média de 42 ± 20,1 anos). Quadros clínicos agudos de EI ocorreram em 37 casos (70%) e quadros subagudos em 16 casos (30%). A válvula mitral foi afetada em 19 casos (36%), e a valva aórtica em 12 casos (36%). As válvulas cardíacas protéticas foram afetadas em 23 casos (43%), e as válvulas cardíacas nativas em 30 casos (57%). O acesso venoso profundo foi usado em 43 pacientes (81%). Hemoculturas negativas foram observadas em amostras de 11 pacientes (21%). Nas hemoculturas positivas, Enterococcus faecalis foi identificado em 10 casos (19%), Staphylococcus aureus em 9 casos (17%) e Candida sp. em 7 casos (13%). Febre ocorreu em 49 pacientes (92%), esplenomegalia em 12 pacientes (23%), novo sopro de regurgitação valvar em 31 pacientes (58%) e proteína C reativa elevada em 44 pacientes (83%). O ecocardiograma apresentou critérios principais em 46 casos (87%). Trinta e quatro pacientes (64%) foram submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. A mortalidade ocorreu em 17 casos (32%). Conclusão: EI-ACS afeta pacientes mais jovens no Brasil. As válvulas cardíacas protéticas e nativas foram afetadas em proporção semelhante. A cirurgia não cardíaca foi um fator predisponente pouco frequente, ao passo que o acesso intravenoso foi um fator predisponente comum. Infecções por S. aureus foram significativamente mais frequentes em casos de EI-ACS envolvendo a válvula cardíaca nativa. A mortalidade por EI-ACS é elevada. Abstract in english Background: Healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HCA-IE), a severe complication of medical care, shows a growing incidence in literature. Objective: To evaluate epidemiology, etiology, risk factors for acquisition, complications, surgical treatment, and outcome of HCA-IE. Methods: Obse [...] rvational prospective case series study (2006-2011) in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Results: Fifty-three patients with HCA-IE from a total of 151 cases of infective endocarditis (IE) were included. There were 26 (49%) males (mean age of 47 ± 18.7 years), 27 (51%) females (mean age of 42 ± 20.1 years). IE was acute in 37 (70%) cases and subacute in 16 (30%) cases. The mitral valve was affected in 19 (36%) patients and the aortic valve in 12 (36%); prosthetic valves were affected in 23 (43%) patients and native valves in 30 (57%). Deep intravenous access was used in 43 (81%) cases. Negative blood cultures were observed in 11 (21%) patients, Enterococcus faecalis in 10 (19%), Staphylococcus aureus in 9 (17%), and Candida sp. in 7 (13%). Fever was present in 49 (92%) patients, splenomegaly in 12 (23%), new regurgitation murmur in 31 (58%), and elevated C-reactive protein in 44/53 (83%). Echocardiograms showed major criteria in 46 (87%) patients, and 34 (64%) patients were submitted to cardiac surgery. Overall mortality was 17/53 (32%). Conclusion: In Brazil HCA-IE affected young subjects. Patients with prosthetic and native valves were affected in a similar proportion, and non-cardiac surgery was an infrequent predisposing factor, whereas intravenous access was a common one. S. aureus was significantly frequent in native valve HCA-IE, and overall mortality was high.

  14. Abiotrophia endocarditis in children with no underlying heart disease: a rare but a virulent organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Deepti P; Nagaraju, Lakshmi; Asmar, Basim I; Aggarwal, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is extremely rare in children with structurally normal hearts. The most common etiological agents are staphylococcal and streptococcal species. Nutritionally variant streptococci also classified as Abiotrophia species are a group of fastidious organisms that account for only 5% to 6% of all cases of culture-negative infective endocarditis. Only seven cases of Abiotrophia infective endocarditis have been previously reported in children with no underlying structural heart disease. We report two cases of Abiotrophia infective endocarditis in children without any predisposing factors. Both patients presented with nonspecific symptoms leading to delay in diagnosis. While bacteriological clearance was achieved in both cases, both had a complicated course including development of brain mycotic aneurysms, splenic infarction, renal failure, and irreversible damage to the mitral valve. Both patients required surgical removal of the native mitral valve and replacement. We also present review of seven cases with similar diagnosis published previously in literature and highlight important differences. Our cases highlight special challenges in management of Abiotrophia endocarditis in pediatric patients. As the organism may not be isolated in routine culture media, may present with atypical clinical symptoms and may have a complicated course even without antibiotic failure, a high index of suspicion should be maintained in children with subacute symptoms even with no underlying structural cardiac disease. PMID:23682722

  15. Cardiac imaging in infectious endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Niels Eske; Habib, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Infectious endocarditis remains both a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. A positive outcome depends on a rapid diagnosis, accurate risk stratification, and a thorough follow-up. Imaging plays a key role in each of these steps and echocardiography remains the cornerstone of the methods in use. The technique of both transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography has been markedly improved across the last decades and most recently three-dimensional real-time echocardiography has been introduced in the management of endocarditis patients. Echocardiography depicts structural changes and abnormalities in the heart, but it does not uncover the underlying pathophysiological processes at the cellular or molecular level. This problem is addressed with introduction of new molecular imaging methods as (18)F-fluorodesoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET-CT and single photon emission computed tomography fused with conventional CT (SPECT/CT). Of these methods, (18)F-FDG PET-CT carries the best promise for a future role in endocarditis. But there are distinct limitations with both SPECT/CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT which should not be neglected. MRI and spiral CT are methods primarily used in the search for extra cardial infectious foci. A flowchart for the use of imaging in both left-sided and right-sided endocarditis is suggested.

  16. Systemic inflammatory response and local cytokine expression in porcine models of endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Johanna G; Jensen, Henrik E

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of systemic inflammation and local cytokine expression in porcine endocarditis models is limited, though it could provide valuable information about the pathogenesis and comparability to human endocarditis. Analyses of bacteriology and hematology were performed on blood samples from pigs with non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE, n = 11), Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE, n = 2), animals with S. aureus sepsis without endocarditis (n = 2) and controls (n = 2). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry was used to examine the local expression of IL-1? and IL-8. Bacterial blood cultures were continuously positive in IE pigs from inoculation to euthanasia, and negative in all other pigs at all times. The total white blood cell counts and total neutrophil counts were massively elevated in pigs with IE. Local IL-1? and IL-8 expression in IE pigs were moderate to high, and high, respectively. In addition, slight local expression of IL-1? and IL-8 was present in some NBTE pigs. In the IE model, both the systemic inflammatory response and the high local expression of IL-8 were comparable to the human disease. Furthermore, the results indicate IL-1? and IL-8 as important contributors in the endocarditis pathogenesis.

  17. Tropheryma whipplei tricuspid endocarditis: a case report and review of the literature

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    Greub Gilbert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The main clinical manifestations of Whipple's disease are weight loss, arthropathy, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Cardiac involvement is frequently described. However, endocarditis is rare and is not usually the initial presentation of the disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with Tropheryma whipplei tricuspid endocarditis without any other valve involved and not presenting signs of arthralgia and abdominal involvement. Case presentation We report a case of a 50-year-old Caucasian man with tricuspid endocarditis caused by Tropheryma whipplei, showing signs of severe shock and an absence of other more classic clinical signs of Whipple's disease, such as arthralgia, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Tropheryma whipplei was documented by polymerase chain reaction of the blood and pleural fluid. The infection was treated with a combined treatment of doxycycline, hydroxychloroquine and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim for one year. Conclusion Tropheryma whipplei infectious endocarditis should always be considered when facing a blood-culture negative endocarditis particularly in right-sided valves. Although not standardized yet, treatment of Tropheryma whipplei endocarditis should probably include a bactericidal antibiotic (such as doxycycline and should be given over a prolonged period of time (a minimum of one year.

  18. Histologic and bacteriologic findings in valvular endocarditis of slaughter-age pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik E.; Gyllensten, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Endocarditis lesions from 117 slaughter pigs were examined pathologically and etiologically in addition to 90 control hearts with cardiac valves. Lesions were located on the valves; however, the lesions had extended to the walls in 21 cases (18%). Lesions predominated on the mitral valve (59%). A total of 28 cases, from which no growth was obtained or a contamination flora was grown, were screened by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for bacteria (general bacterial probe) and probes specific for Streptococcus suis and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, respectively. Using FISH, an additional 10 cases of endocarditis due to S. suis and E. rhusiopathiae were disclosed. Within lesions, streptococci predominated (53%) followed by E. rhusiopathiae (30%). Distinct features of both the lesions and the shape and localization of bacterial colonies were related to streptococci and E. rhusiopathiae. The propensity for streptococci to be localized on more than 1 valve in single hearts may be because S. suis-infected pigs tend to have been infected for a longer period compared with E. rhusiopathiae. Mineralization of endocarditis lesions was significantly associated with infection by streptococci, and was seen in 71% of the cases, whereas it was present in only 28% of lesions caused by E. rhusiopathiae. In addition, areas with mineralization were significantly correlated to the presence of a granulomatous reaction. Granulomatous endocarditis is likely a result of a foreign body reaction due to dystrophic mineralization. Local proliferation of valvular endothelial cells, found in 9 hearts in the current study, may increase the risk of developing thrombosing endocarditis in pigs.

  19. INFLUENCE OF THIMALIN UPON IMMUNITY AND LYMPHOCYTE-PLATELET ADHESION IN CHILDREN WITH SECONDARY INFECTIOUS ENDOCARDITIS

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    A. B. Dolina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the children with secondary infective endocarditis, the contents of TNK cells was found to be decreased. Same patients exhibit low concentrations of total IgG and its subclasses, IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses decreased, whereas IgG4 levels are increased. Stimulated phagocytic response is also decreased in these patients, along with increased numbers of lymphocyte/platelet cell aggregates. Effect of a conventional treatment with addition of thymalin when treating secondary infective endocarditis, was more pronounced, in comparison with conventional therapy, with respect to restoration of humoral immunity, phagocytic activity of leukocytes and lymphocyte-platelet adhesion.

  20. [Endocarditis complicated by an aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatim, E G A; Hachimi, M-A; Madani, H; Atmani, N; Moutakillah, Y; Bamous, M; Abdou, A; Drissli, M; Aithoussa, M; Wahid, F-A; Boulahya, A; Haimer, C; Drissi Kamili, N

    2014-07-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare, polymorphic disease in children. Mycotic aneurysm is a rare condition that complicates about 2.5 to 10% of cases of endocarditis. It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality [1,2]. Mycotic aneurysms are often asymptomatic, physical examination is poor, but the diagnosis should be considered with the triad including fever, abdominal pain, and abdominal mass beating. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography are the most useful for the identification of the aneurysmal mass. However, angiography is an interesting addition to confirm the diagnosis and implement a treatment procedure [3]. The treatment of SMA aneurysms is largely surgical. IE treatment is based on antibiotic therapy combined with surgical repair. We report the case of a 15-year-old patient, first operated for an SMA aneurysm complicating the course of IE, who secondarily underwent mitral valve repair. We review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and care principles of mycotic aneurysms of the SMA. PMID:24947109

  1. What's New in the Treatment of Enterococcal Endocarditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigo, Masayuki; Munita, Jose M.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus spp. are among the common pathogens causing infective endocarditis (IE). Despite major medical advances and new potent antimicrobial agents, the mortality has not significantly improved for several decades. The usual lack of bactericidal activity of penicillin or ampicillin, the toxicity from the combination of penicillin plus aminoglycosides, and the increased reports of high-level resistance to aminoglycosides have led to the exploration of other regimens for treatment of Enterococcus faecalis IE. As an example, ampicillin plus ceftriaxone is now a well-recognized regimen for this organism. However, the emerging of new drug resistances in Enterococcus faecium dramatically reduces the therapeutic alternatives for this organism in IE which continues to be an immense challenge for clinicians even with the availability of newer antimicrobial agents. This article summarizes the current treatment options for enterococcal endocarditis and reviews of recent publications on the topic. PMID:25165018

  2. Streptococcus constellatus community acquired pneumonia with subsequent isolated pulmonic valve endocarditis and abscess formation in a structurally normal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhussein, Tarek Ali; Hutchison, Stuart James

    2014-06-01

    Pulmonic valve infective endocarditis in isolation is a rare clinical entity. The formation of an abscess in the right ventricular outflow tract as a consequence of vegetations affecting the pulmonic valve in a structurally normal heart is extremely rare and has not been reported. We report a case of isolated pulmonic valve endocarditis complicated by a regional abscess formed within the right ventricular outflow tract caused by Streptococcus Constellatus (S. Constellatus), a member of the Streptococcus Milleri group in a young male whose risk factor was alcohol abuse and he was treated medically, a comprehensive literature review on the subject is also reported. Our case is the first reported in literature with infective endocarditis caused by S. Constellatus affecting the pulmonic valve, and the first with pulmonic valve endocarditis and perivalvular abscess formation in a structurally normal heart. PMID:25031801

  3. Candida tropicalis causing Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraja P; Mathew T; Shetty D

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of endocarditis produced by the so-called "opportunists" as a complication of prosthetic valve surgery is progressively increasing in frequency and gradually transforming the clinical picture habitually associated with this disease. Candida endocarditis is an unusual but severe complication caused by Candida albicans or other fungal species. This case and a review of the literature indicate that Candida endocarditis treated with amphotericin B and prosthetic valve replacement...

  4. A Pediatric Case of Cardiobacterium Hominis Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Suresh; R. Alexander Blackwood

    2013-01-01

    Gram negative endocarditis is relatively rare in pediatrics but when they occur they are most frequently caused by one of the HACEK (Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C. hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae) group of microorganisms. Within the HACEK group of microorganisms there have been approximately 100 cases of Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis reported in the literature, but only 2 previous cases of endocarditis and one case of pericarditis have be...

  5. Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia and Endocarditis among HIV Patients: A cohort study

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    Stine Oscar C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV patients are at increased risk of development of infections and infection-associated poor health outcomes. We aimed to 1 assess the prevalence of USA300 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA among HIV-infected patients with S. aureus bloodstream infections and. 2 determine risk factors for infective endocarditis and in-hospital mortality among patients in this population. Methods All adult HIV-infected patients with documented S. aureus bacteremia admitted to the University of Maryland Medical Center between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2005 were included. CA-MRSA was defined as a USA300 MRSA isolate with the MBQBLO spa-type motif and positive for both the arginine catabolic mobile element and Panton-Valentin Leukocidin. Risk factors for S. aureus-associated infective endocarditis and mortality were determined using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Potential risk factors included demographic variables, comorbid illnesses, and intravenous drug use. Results Among 131 episodes of S. aureus bacteremia, 85 (66% were MRSA of which 47 (54% were CA-MRSA. Sixty-three patients (48% developed endocarditis and 10 patients (8% died in the hospital on the index admission Patients with CA-MRSA were significantly more likely to develop endocarditis (OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.30, 5.71. No other variables including comorbid conditions, current receipt of antiretroviral therapy, pre-culture severity of illness, or CD4 count were significantly associated with endocarditis and none were associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusions CA-MRSA was significantly associated with an increased incidence of endocarditis in this cohort of HIV patients with MRSA bacteremia. In populations such as these, in which the prevalence of intravenous drug use and probability of endocarditis are both high, efforts must be made for early detection, which may improve treatment outcomes.

  6. Reemplazo de válvula mitral consecutivo a endocarditis micótica / Mitral valve replacement due to mycotic endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yalili, Pouymiró Brooks; Iarmila, Pouymiró Brooks; Pedro Omar, Pouymiró Pubillones.

    1008-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso clínico de un niño de 15 meses de edad, el cual experimentó varias infecciones en la etapa neonatal (entre ellas por Candida albicans) y otras complicaciones; sin embargo, no pudo recibir el esquema terapéutico completo contra la candidiasis sistémica por habérsele diagnosticado [...] un daño funcional hepático. Posteriormente, al detectársele una endocarditis micótica, se le reemplazó la válvula mitral. En su último ingreso padecía, además, broncoespasmo asociado a neumonía bacteriana, anemia carencial, deshidratación isotónica moderada, acidosis metabólica e inmunodeficiencia mixta, causantes de una insuficiencia multiorgánica que le produjo la muerte al día siguiente de su admisión hospitalaria. Abstract in english A case report of a child aged 15 months who underwent several infections (i.e. due to Candida albicans) and other complications during the neonatal stage is presented. However, he could not receive the complete treatment against systemic candidiasis because of an impairment of liver function. Subseq [...] uently, mitral valve was replaced when detecting mycotic endocarditis. In addition, while being hospitalized for the last time, he underwent bronchial spasm associated with bacterial pneumonia, deficiency anemia, mild isotonic dehydration, non-respiratory acidosis, and mixed immunodeficiency which caused multiple organ failure and death the day after his hospital admission.

  7. Reemplazo de válvula mitral consecutivo a endocarditis micótica Mitral valve replacement due to mycotic endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalili Pouymiró Brooks

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso clínico de un niño de 15 meses de edad, el cual experimentó varias infecciones en la etapa neonatal (entre ellas por Candida albicans y otras complicaciones; sin embargo, no pudo recibir el esquema terapéutico completo contra la candidiasis sistémica por habérsele diagnosticado un daño funcional hepático. Posteriormente, al detectársele una endocarditis micótica, se le reemplazó la válvula mitral. En su último ingreso padecía, además, broncoespasmo asociado a neumonía bacteriana, anemia carencial, deshidratación isotónica moderada, acidosis metabólica e inmunodeficiencia mixta, causantes de una insuficiencia multiorgánica que le produjo la muerte al día siguiente de su admisión hospitalaria.A case report of a child aged 15 months who underwent several infections (i.e. due to Candida albicans and other complications during the neonatal stage is presented. However, he could not receive the complete treatment against systemic candidiasis because of an impairment of liver function. Subsequently, mitral valve was replaced when detecting mycotic endocarditis. In addition, while being hospitalized for the last time, he underwent bronchial spasm associated with bacterial pneumonia, deficiency anemia, mild isotonic dehydration, non-respiratory acidosis, and mixed immunodeficiency which caused multiple organ failure and death the day after his hospital admission.

  8. Afasia post acv de acm unilateral por embolia infecciosa en endocarditis bacteriana / Aphasia post unilateral cerebral media stroke associated to infectious embolism in acute bacterial endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Germán, Cantillo Mackenzie; Andersson L, Rozo A.; Juan Camilo, Suárez-Escudero.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un paciente con endocarditis infecciosa que sufre un accidente cerebro vascular (ACV) isquémico a nivel parieto-occipital e ínsula posterior izquierda, con manifestaciones afásicas de rasgos mixtos, donde prima la fluidez y los problemas de repetición, agresividad, agrafia y di [...] ficultades de lectura. Es un caso llamativo por la singularidad de los hallazgos y la mejoría funcional posterior al evento. Son escasos reportes en la literatura que muestren una complicación afásica por una endocarditis infecciosa con vegetaciones aórticas por Streptococo mitis versus S. oralis. El origen de la endocarditis infecciosa fue atribuido a procedimiento de endodoncia, y justificado en hallazgos de RMN, punción lumbar y ECO-TE. En la actualidad, el paciente posee un lenguaje funcional, con ciertas dificultades a nivel del lenguaje expresivo y de la comprensión. Abstract in english We present a clinical report of a patient with infective endocarditis who suffered an ischemic stroke at the parietal occipital and posterior insula, with aphasic demonstrations including mixed features, primordially exhibiting fluency and repetition problems, aggression, dysgraphia, and reading dif [...] ficulties. It is a striking case because of the uniqueness of the findings and the functional improvement after the event. There are few previous reports describing an association between these bacteria and this injury and the patient's improvement. The cause of the endocarditis was attributed to an endodontic procedure because other paraclinical tests made during medical care showed no other apparent cause. Currently the patient only has difficulty with expressive language and understanding certain commands.

  9. Austrian syndrome in the context of a fulminant pneumococcal native valve endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel, Wilbring; Sems-Malte, Tugtekin; Klaus, Matschke; Utz, Kappert.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the case of a young male suffering from Austrian syndrome, which is the triad of endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia due to invasive S. pneumoniae infection. He reported recurrent fever for six months without any antibiotic treatment, which may have determined the further course of the s [...] yndrome. Echocardiography revealed massive native valve endocarditis, and the patient was considered for ultima-ratio cardiac surgery. Intraoperative aspect presented extensive affection of the aortic root with full destruction of aortic valve, mitral valve, and aortomitral continuity. The myocardium showed a phlegmonlike infiltration. Microbiologic testing of intraoperatively collected specimens identified penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae. S. pneumoniae is a very uncommon cause for infective infiltrative endocarditis and is associated with severe clinical courses. Austrian syndrome is even more rare, with only a few reported cases worldwide. In those patients, only early diagnosis, immediate antibiotic treatment, and emergent cardiac surgery can save lives.

  10. Acute disseminated histoplasmosis and endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    SCAPELLATO Pablo G.; DESSE Javier; Ricardo NEGRONI

    1998-01-01

    Acute disseminated histoplasmosis is a frequent condition in HIV carriers. Thirty-five cases of endocarditis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum have been reported in international literature, and all these descriptions correspond to a context of subacute disseminated histoplasmosis. This paper presents the case of a HIV-positive patient with fever, dyspnea, weight loss, vomiting and polyadenopathies to whom histoplasmosis was diagnosed following blood-cultures and isolation of the agent respons...

  11. Endocarditis infecciosa sobre válvula tricúspide sin factores predisponentes asociados: a propósito de un caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis E, Pedrozo; Alejandro, Franco; Amanda, Menchaca; Dante, Picarelli.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa sobre válvula tricúspide en niños con corazón normal y sin antecedentes patológicos constituye una enfermedad rara, cuyo diagnóstico es difícil, pero con una incidencia que ha aumentado en las últimas décadas. Presentamos el caso clínico de un niño de 11 años, sin factores [...] predisponentes para endocarditis, en quien se realizó diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa de válvula tricúspide a Staphylococcus aureus complicada con embolia séptica pulmonar. Recibió tratamiento quirúrgico conservador en la etapa activa de la enfermedad por haber presentado reiteración de embolia pulmonar clínicamente evidente y características ecocardiográficas de la vegetación que sugerían alta probabilidad de nuevos eventos embólicos y falla en la respuesta al tratamiento antibiótico adecuado Abstract in english Infective endocarditis on a normal triscuspid valve in children without pathology constitute a rare disease with a difficult diagnosis but with an increasing incidence in the last decades. A clinical case of an eleven year old child without predisposing factors for endocarditis, in whom the diagnosi [...] s of Staphylococcus aureus infective ebdocarditis on tricuspid valve complicated with pulmonary septic emboli is presented. Conservative surgical treatment in the active phase of the disease was necessary because of the recurrent episodes of pulmonary emboli clinically evident and because of the ecocardiographic features suggesting high probability of new embolic events and failure of the antibiotic treatment

  12. Nosocomial Endocarditis Caused by Corynebacterium amycolatum and Other Nondiphtheriae Corynebacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, Karen L.; Holmes, Alison H.

    2002-01-01

    The nondiphtheriae corynebacteria are uncommon but increasingly recognized as important agents of community-acquired endocarditis in patients with underlying structural heart disease, as well as of prosthetic-valve endocarditis. We describe three cases of nondiphtheriae corynebacterial endocarditis, including the first reported case of endocarditis caused by Corynebacterium amycolatum, occurring over an 18-month period, all in association with indwelling intravascular devices.

  13. Brucella endocarditis on double valvular prosthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lezaun, R.; Teruel, J.; Mai?tre, M. J.; Artaza, M.

    1980-01-01

    The case is reported of a 48-year-old man suffering from Brucella endocarditis on a double prosthesis. The successful medical and surgical treatment is described. So far as the authors know, this is the first report of Brucella endocarditis from a heart valve prosthesis.

  14. Pacemaker endocarditis due to Haemophilus parainfluenza: case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sammut; Woodcock, H; Oswal, N; Kadalraja, R

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of pacemaker infective endocarditis in a 14 month old girl, caused by Haemophilus parainfluenzae. There are no other cases in children reported in the literature. We discuss the issues surrounding the case and the evidence which influenced our management.

  15. Pacemaker Lead Endocarditis Due to Multidrug-Resistant Corynebacterium striatum Detected with Sonication of the Device ?

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Alessandra; Belvisi, Valeria; IANNETTA, MARCO; Andreoni, Carolina; Mascellino, Maria T.; Lichtner, Miriam; Vullo, Vincenzo; Mastroianni, Claudio M

    2010-01-01

    Corynebacterium striatum is a commensal of human skin and has been recently recognized as an emerging pathogen. A case of nosocomial pacemaker lead endocarditis due to a multidrug-resistant C. striatum strain is described, highlighting the role of sonication as a diagnostic tool in cardiac device infections.

  16. Native Valve Endocarditis due to Ralstonia pickettii: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Joseph; Rivera-Bonilla, Tomas; Loli, Akil; Blattman, Negin N

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia pickettii is a rare pathogen and even more rare in healthy individuals. Here we report a case of R. pickettii bacteremia leading to aortic valve abscess and complete heart block. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Ralstonia species causing infective endocarditis with perivalvular abscess. PMID:25648998

  17. Brucellosis with p-ANCA-associated renal failure, leukocytoclastic vasculitis and endocarditis: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Turgay, Esin Ertu?rul, Orhan Küçük?ahin, Ali ?ahin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between brucellosis and p-antinuclear cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA-associated vasculitis (pAAV is a rare condition. Herein, we report a 52-year-old man who was diagnosed as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN and endocarditis due to brucellosis. He was treated with antimicrobial agents, steroids, plasmapheresis, renal replacement therapy and aortic valve replacement. According to our best of knowledge, no similar case has been reportedpreviously in the literature in regard to p-ANCA anti-lactoferrin antibodies associated-glomerulonephritis with brucellosis and endocarditis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1(1:31-34.

  18. Endocarditis bacteriana por Kocuria kristinae en paciente inmunocompetente: Reporte de un caso / Bacterial endocarditis by Kocuria kristinae in an inmunocompetent patient: Case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alirio R, Bastidas; Carlos A, Vélez; Carol V, Gutiérrez M; Nancy J, Bahamón.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por microorganismos del género Kocuria spp. han sido descritas con mayor frecuencia en pacientes con enfermedades crónicas y estados de inmunosupresión. Comúnmente, no se ha reportado su aislamiento como causa de endocarditis en pacientes jóvenes e inmunocompetentes. Se deben diferen [...] ciar de las infecciones producidas por Staphylococcus spp. ya que su evolución clínica puede ser similar y sólo el aislamiento y tipifi cación en cultivos permite hacer el diagnóstico etiológico defi nitivo y dirigir la terapia antibiótica adecuada. Se describe el caso de un paciente joven e inmunocompetente que cursó con endocarditis bacteriana, aislándose Kocuria kristinae en hemocultivos. Abstract in english Infections by microorganisms of the genus Kocuria spp. have been reported more frequently in patients with chronic diseases and immunosuppression. Its isolation has not been reported as cause of endocarditis in young and immunocompetent patients. It should be differentiated from infections caused by [...] Staphylococcus spp. given that their clinical course may be similar and that only the isolation and typification in cultures allows definitive etiologic diagnosis and direct appropriate antibiotic therapy. We describe the case of an immunocompetent young patient who presented bacterial endocarditis and in whose blood cultures kristinae Kocuria was isolated.

  19. Fatal aortitis: a complication of aspergillus endocarditis following coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Esmaeilzadeh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common fungal organism to cause endocarditis is Candida which is followed by Aspergillus. Aspergillusendocarditis can occur in either the native or prosthetic heart valves, usually occurring post operatively after cardiac surgery on implanted valves. The usual route of infection for invasive aspergillosis is through inhalation of organism into the lungs. Diagnosis is difficult because blood culture usually remains negative even with extensivedisease. Long term survival is limited even with surgical intervention.Herein, we present a 49-year-old man with previous history of coronary artery bypass graft and aortic valve endocarditis which was diagnosed as Aspergillus endocarditis after the valve surgery. Unfortunately the patient died because of late occurrence of progressive aortic invasion caused by Candida and Enterococci.

  20. Contribution of Sialic Acid-Binding Adhesin to Pathogenesis of Experimental Endocarditis Caused by Streptococcus gordonii DL1

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Yukihiro; Takashima, Eizo; Shimazu, Kisaki; Yagishita, Hisao; Aoba, Takaaki; Konishi, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    An insertional mutation in hsa, the gene encoding the sialic acid-binding adhesin of Streptococcus gordonii DL1, resulted in a significant reduction of the infection rate of the organism and an inflammatory reaction in the rat aortic valve with experimental endocarditis, suggesting that the adhesin contributes to the infectivity of the organism for heart valves.

  1. Endocarditis lenta-patient survived septic shock: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amra Maci? Džankovi?

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is defi ned as an infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. Its intracardiac effects include severe valvular insuffi ciency, which may lead to intractable congestive heart failure and myocardialabscesses. This disease still carries a poor prognosis and a high mortality.A severe case of infective endocarditis with its complications is presented. A man with aortic prosthetic valve due to earlier aortic stenosis and corrected aortal coarctation and implanted pacemaker presentedwith prolonged unexplained fever, malaise, sweating, weight loss (15 kg/4 months and lumbar pain. He was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics prior IE diagnosis was considered. Echocardiogram showedaortic vegetations and possible periaortal abscess formation. Nonspecifi c infl ammation parameters were high positive. Cultures were constantly negative. His condition had deteriorated suddenly, and he had presentedwith worsening of cutaneous vasculitis, subacute glomerulonephritis and subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock. This patient survived with residual bilateral necrosis of the feet andtoxic peroneal paresis. At the end transthoracic echocardiogram showed enlarged heart chambers, LV mild dilated and concentric hypertrophy with ejection fraction about 40%, degenerative postinfl ammatory mitralvalve changes, mild mitral regurgitation and tricuspid regurgitation, postinfl ammatory aortic root fi brosis and moderate aortic valve stenosis (AVPG max 50,9 mmHg, AVPG mean 24 mmHg with no pericardial effusion. Initial suspicion of Q fever was defi nitely excluded by serological testing showing nonspecifi c IgM positivity,probably rheumatoid factor related.

  2. Indium-111 leukocyte localization in infected prosthetic graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infective endocarditis can be difficult to prove, even in the face of strong clinical suspicion. A case in which standard methods of diagnosis failed to demonstrate endocarditis in a patient with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and porcine aortic valve is reported. An In-111 labelled leukocyte SPECT study demonstrated uptake in the aortic root and leaflets, and autopsy demonstrated vegetations on the leaflets. In-111 may prove useful in demonstrating endocarditis in patients with prosthetic valve infection

  3. Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: Early Outcome following Medical or Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Alinejad

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE is an important cause of morbidity and mortality associated with heart valve replacement surgery. The aim of the present study was to describe the early outcome of treatment in patients with PVE in a single center. Methods: The data of all the episodes of PVE registered at our institution between 2002 and 2007 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The patients were assessed using clinical criteria defined by Durack and colleagues (Duke criteria. The analysis included a detailed study of hospital records. The continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, and the discrete variables were presented as percentages.Results: Thirteen patients with PVE were diagnosed and treated at our center during the study period. In all the cases, mechanical prostheses were utilized. The patients' mean age was 46.9±12.8 years. Women made up 53.8% of all the cases. Early PVE was detected in 6 (46.2% patients, and late PVE occurred in 7 (53.8 %. Eleven (84.6% patients were treated with intravenous antimicrobial therapy, and the other two (15.4% required surgical removal and replacement of the infected prosthesis in addition to antibiotic therapy. Blood cultures became positive in 46.2% of the patients. Mortality rate was 15.4% (2 patients. Conclusion: It seems that in selected cases with PVE, i.e. in those who remain clinically stable and respond well to antimicrobial therapy, a cure could be achieved by antimicrobial treatment alone with acceptable morbidity and mortality risk.

  4. Association between HACEK bacteraemia and endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Haur Sen; Chambers, Stephen T; Roberts, Sally A; Holland, David J; Julian, Kylie A; Raymond, Nigel J; Beardsley, Justin; Read, Kerry M; Murdoch, David R

    2014-06-01

    We retrospectively examined medical records of 87 patients with bacteraemia caused by members of the HACEK group (Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, Aggregatibacter paraphrophilus, Cardiobacterium spp., Eikenella corrodens and Kingella spp.) to determine whether endocarditis was present, as defined by the Duke criteria. The overall positive predictive value (PPV) of HACEK bacteraemia for endocarditis was 60?%. The PPV varied with different HACEK species from 0?% (E. corrodens) to 100?% (A. actinomycetemcomitans). PMID:24681996

  5. Brucella Endocarditis Caused By Brucella Melitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Saçar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease endemically seen in Turkey, which occurs with various clinical findings. It can lead to complications affecting many systems. Endocarditis is an infrequent, but serious complication of brucellosis.The aim of this case presentation is to remind that endocarditis can be a complication of brucellosis and if is undiagnosed or misdiagnosed, progresses fatal in a high rate.

  6. Estudos sobre thrombose cardiaca e endocardite parietal de origem não valvular / On thrombosis of heart and on mural endocarditis of non-valvular origin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C. Magarinos, Torres.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english 1.-Since the parietal endocarditis represents a chapter generally neglected, owing to the relative lack of cases, and somewhat confused because there various terms have been applied to a very same morbid condition, it justifies the work which previously we tried to accomplish, of nosographic classif [...] ication. Taking into account the functional disturbances and the anatomical changes, all cases of parietal endocarditis referred to in the litterature were distributed by the following groups: A-Group-Valvulo-parietal endocarditis. 1st . type-Valvulo-parietal endocarditis per continuum. 2nd. type-Metastatic valvulo-parietal endocarditis. 3rd. type-Valvulo-parietal endocarditis of the mitral stenosis. B-Group-Genuine parietal endocarditis. a) with primary lesions in the myocardium. b) with primary lesions in the endocardium. 4th type-Fibrous chronic parietal endocarditis (B A Ü M L E R), « endocarditis parietalis simplex». 5th type-Septic acute parietal endocarditis (LESCHKE), «endocarditis parietalis septica». 6th type-Subacute parietal endocarditis (MAGARINOS TORRES), «endocarditis muralis lenta». 2.-Studying a group of 14 cases of fibrous endomyocarditis with formation of thrombi, and carrying together pathological and bacteriological examinations it has been found that some of such cases represent an infectious parietal endocarditis, sometimes post-puerperal, of subacute or slow course, the endocardic vegetations being contamined by pathogenic microörganisms of which the most frequent is the Diplococcus pneumoniae, in most cases of attenuated virulence. Along with the infectious parietal endocarditis, there occur arterial and venous thromboses (abdominal aorta, common illiac and femural arteries and external jugular veins). The case 5,120 is a typical one of this condition which we name subacute parietal endocarditis (endocarditis parietalis s. muralis lenta). 3.-The endocarditis muralis lenta encloses an affection reputed to be of rare occurrence, the «myocardite subaigüe primitive», of which JOSSERAND and GALLAVARDIN published in 1901 the first cases, and ROQUE and LEVY, another, in 1914. The «myocardite subaigüe primitive» was, wrongly, in our opinion, included by WALZER in the syndrome of myocardia of LAUBRY and WALZER, considering that, in the refered cases of JOSSERAND and GALLAVARDIN and in that of ROQUE and LEVY, there are described rather considerable inflammatory changes in the myocardium and endocardium. The designation «myocardia» was however especially created by LAUBRY and WALZER for the cases of heart failure in which the most careful aetiologic inquiries and the most minucious clinical examination were unable to explain, and in which, yet, the post-mortem examination did not reveal any anatomical change at all, it being forcible to admit, then, a primary functional change of the cardiac muscle fibre. This special cardiac condition is thoroughly exemplified in the observation that WALZER reproduces on pages 1 to 7 of his book. 4.-The clinical picture of the subacute parietal endocarditis is that of heart failure with oedemas, effusion in the serous cavities and passive chronic congestion of the lungs, liver, kideys and spleen associated, to that of an infectious disease of subacute course. The fever is rather transient oscillating around 99.5 F., being intersected with apyretic periods of irregular duration; it is not dependent on any evident extracardiac septic infection. In other cases the fever is slight, particularly in the final stage of the disease, when the heart failure is well established. The rule is to observe then, hypothermy. The cardiac-vascular signs consist of enlargement of the cardiac dullness, smoothing of the cardiac sounds, absence of organic murmurs and accentuated and persistent tachycardia up to a certain point independent of fever. The galloprhythm is present, in most cases. The signs of the pulmonary infarct are rather expressed by the aspect of the sputum, which is foamy and blood-streaked than by the classic signs

  7. Estudos sobre thrombose cardiaca e endocardite parietal de origem não valvular On thrombosis of heart and on mural endocarditis of non-valvular origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Magarinos Torres

    1928-01-01

    Full Text Available 1.-Since the parietal endocarditis represents a chapter generally neglected, owing to the relative lack of cases, and somewhat confused because there various terms have been applied to a very same morbid condition, it justifies the work which previously we tried to accomplish, of nosographic classification. Taking into account the functional disturbances and the anatomical changes, all cases of parietal endocarditis referred to in the litterature were distributed by the following groups: A-Group-Valvulo-parietal endocarditis. 1st . type-Valvulo-parietal endocarditis per continuum. 2nd. type-Metastatic valvulo-parietal endocarditis. 3rd. type-Valvulo-parietal endocarditis of the mitral stenosis. B-Group-Genuine parietal endocarditis. a with primary lesions in the myocardium. b with primary lesions in the endocardium. 4th type-Fibrous chronic parietal endocarditis (B A Ü M L E R, « endocarditis parietalis simplex». 5th type-Septic acute parietal endocarditis (LESCHKE, «endocarditis parietalis septica». 6th type-Subacute parietal endocarditis (MAGARINOS TORRES, «endocarditis muralis lenta». 2.-Studying a group of 14 cases of fibrous endomyocarditis with formation of thrombi, and carrying together pathological and bacteriological examinations it has been found that some of such cases represent an infectious parietal endocarditis, sometimes post-puerperal, of subacute or slow course, the endocardic vegetations being contamined by pathogenic microörganisms of which the most frequent is the Diplococcus pneumoniae, in most cases of attenuated virulence. Along with the infectious parietal endocarditis, there occur arterial and venous thromboses (abdominal aorta, common illiac and femural arteries and external jugular veins. The case 5,120 is a typical one of this condition which we name subacute parietal endocarditis (endocarditis parietalis s. muralis lenta. 3.-The endocarditis muralis lenta encloses an affection reputed to be of rare occurrence, the «myocardite subaigüe primitive», of which JOSSERAND and GALLAVARDIN published in 1901 the first cases, and ROQUE and LEVY, another, in 1914. The «myocardite subaigüe primitive» was, wrongly, in our opinion, included by WALZER in the syndrome of myocardia of LAUBRY and WALZER, considering that, in the refered cases of JOSSERAND and GALLAVARDIN and in that of ROQUE and LEVY, there are described rather considerable inflammatory changes in the myocardium and endocardium. The designation «myocardia» was however especially created by LAUBRY and WALZER for the cases of heart failure in which the most careful aetiologic inquiries and the most minucious clinical examination were unable to explain, and in which, yet, the post-mortem examination did not reveal any anatomical change at all, it being forcible to admit, then, a primary functional change of the cardiac muscle fibre. This special cardiac condition is thoroughly exemplified in the observation that WALZER reproduces on pages 1 to 7 of his book. 4.-The clinical picture of the subacute parietal endocarditis is that of heart failure with oedemas, effusion in the serous cavities and passive chronic congestion of the lungs, liver, kideys and spleen associated, to that of an infectious disease of subacute course. The fever is rather transient oscillating around 99.5 F., being intersected with apyretic periods of irregular duration; it is not dependent on any evident extracardiac septic infection. In other cases the fever is slight, particularly in the final stage of the disease, when the heart failure is well established. The rule is to observe then, hypothermy. The cardiac-vascular signs consist of enlargement of the cardiac dullness, smoothing of the cardiac sounds, absence of organic murmurs and accentuated and persistent tachycardia up to a certain point independent of fever. The galloprhythm is present, in most cases. The signs of the pulmonary infarct are rather expressed by the aspect of the sputum, which is foamy and blood-streaked than by the classic signs. Cerebral embolism was a terminal accid

  8. 18F-FDG PET/CT diagnosis of unexpected extracardiac septic embolisms in patients with suspected cardiac endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute infective endocarditis is a potentially life-threatening disease. Its outcome strongly depends on systemic embolization and extracardiac infections. When present, these conditions usually lead to a more aggressive therapeutic approach. However, the diagnosis of peripheral septic embolism is very challenging. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT has proven to be accurate for the detection of inflammatory diseases and occult infections. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of extracardiac embolisms in the evaluation of patients with suspected valvular endocarditis (VE). Seventy-one patients with suspected infective endocarditis, enrolled between June 2010 and December 2012, underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT with the standard procedure on a dedicated PET/CT scanner. Extracardiac findings were subsequently evaluated with other imaging procedures. Of the 71 patients with suspicion of infective endocarditis, we found unexpected extracardiac findings in 17 patients (24 %) without any clinical suspicion. Extracardiac findings were subsequently evaluated with other imaging procedures. PET/CT detected unexpected extra sites of infection in 24 % of cases, leading to changes in therapeutic management in a very relevant percentage of patients. These findings may have important therapeutic implications. (orig.)

  9. Endocarditis infecciosa de válvula pulmonar nativa / Infectious endocarditis of pulmonary native valve

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Franco, Romaní R; Fernando, Atencia M; José, Cuadra A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa en válvulas derechas es predominantemente en la válvula tricuspídea, mientras la válvula pulmonar es excepcionalmente afectada (menos de 1,5%), por lo que son pocos los casos reportados en la literatura mundial. Las manifestaciones clínicas de endocarditis en válvula pulmo [...] nar no son las clásicas de endocarditis infecciosa, como son los síntomas de embolismo séptico pulmonar. La endocarditis aislada de válvula pulmonar nativa es inusual en personas que no consumen drogas intravenosas. Se presenta el caso de un paciente varón con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y sin otro factor predisponente. Abstract in english Right sided endocarditis usually involves the tricuspid valve, while pulmonary valve is affected exceptionally (less than 1,5%), there fore few cases reported in the literature. The clinical of pulmonary valve endocarditis are not the classics of infectious endocarditis, as they are the symptoms of [...] lung septic embolism. Isolated pulmonary native valve endocarditis is an unusual clinical entity in non-users of intravenous drugs. We present a case of a male patient with diabetes mellitus type 2 and without other predisposing factor.

  10. Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus capitis: report of 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Yuko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Staphylococcus capitis is considered to be a rare causative organism for prosthetic valve endocarditis, we report 4 such cases that were encountered at our hospital over the past 2 years. Case 1 was a 79-year-old woman who underwent aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthetic valve and presented with fever 24 days later. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed an annular abscess in the aorto-mitral continuity and mild perivalvular regurgitation. We performed emergency surgery 5 days after the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis was made. Case 2 was a 79-year-old woman presenting with fever 40 days after aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis. Transesophageal echocardiography showed vegetation on the valve, and she underwent urgent surgery 2 days after prosthetic valve endocarditis was diagnosed. In case 3, a 76-year-old man presented with fever 53 days after aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis. Vegetation on the prosthetic leaflet could be seen by transesophageal echocardiography. He underwent emergency surgery 2 days after the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis was made. Case 4 was a 68-year-old woman who collapsed at her home 106 days after aortic and mitral valve replacement with bioprosthetic valves. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support was started immediately after massive mitral regurgitation due to prosthetic valve detachment was revealed by transesophageal echocardiography. She was transferred to our hospital by helicopter and received surgery immediately on arrival. In all cases, we re-implanted another bioprosthesis after removal of the infected valve and annular debridement. All patients recovered without severe complications after 2 months of antibiotic treatment, and none experienced re-infection during 163 to 630 days of observation. Since the time interval between diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis and valve re-replacement ranged from 0 to 5 days, early surgical removal of the infected prosthesis and an appropriate course of antibiotics were attributed to good clinical outcomes in our cases.

  11. A rare case of sinus of valsalva-right atrial fistula secondary to an abscess perforation from underlying aortic valve endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    John, Elizabeth S; Boyer, Joseph; Ledzian, Bradford; Steward, Howard; Moro, Richard; Bittner, Hartmuth B.

    2014-01-01

    Sinus of Valsalva-right atrial fistulas are abnormal connections between the aorta and the right atrium, and present challenging surgical conditions. An extremely rare etiology of aorto-right atrial fistula is infective endocarditis. This case report presents a 21 year old Caucasian female patient who had native aortic valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis complicated by sinus of Valsalva abscess perforation associated with an acute heart block, an aorto-right atrial fistula, severe heart ...

  12. Endocarditis-associated Brain Lesions in Slaughter Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstrup, C.C.; Jensen, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Left-sided valvular endocarditis (LSVE) is a common finding in slaughter pigs. The lesion is often associated with renal thromboembolism, but information on embolization to other organs is sparse. This study focuses on the presence and type of endocarditis-associated brain lesions (EABLs). The brains of 20 slaughter pigs with spontaneously arising LSVE and 11 controls were examined by sectioning half of a formalin-fixed brain into 4mm slices for histological examination. The aetiology of the endocarditis was determined by bacteriological and, in some cases, by fluorescence in-situ hybridization examinations. These examinations identified 11 cases of Streptococcus suis, six cases of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, one Streptococcus spp. and two cases that remained aetiologically undetermined. One of the S. suis cases had a dual infection with S. suis in the aortic valve lesions and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in the atrioventricular valve lesions. Renal infarcts were present in eight cases. Focal encephalitis was found in 12 cases, with the number of lesions ranging from one to 11. Most pigs had less than four microscopical lesions. Acute lesions were characterized by focal microabscesses without observable bacteria. Chronic lesions were characterized by astrocytosis and focal accumulation of mononuclear leucocytes. An infarct was observed in one animal. Perivascular inflammation was seen in 14 cases, mostly as two or three lesions, while focal leptomeningitis was found in eight cases. EABLs are therefore common in slaughter pigs with LSVE. The number of lesions per animal is small, which may explain the limited attention paid to this sequela of LSVE. EABLs have rarely been reported in domestic animals and mostly in patients with neurological signs. The frequent occurrence of EABLs in slaughter pigs suggests that this pathology should be investigated in other animal species with LSVE.

  13. Culture-Negative Endocarditis Due to Chlamydia pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Gdoura, R.; Pereyre, S.; Frikha, I.; Hammami, N.; Clerc, M.; Sahnoun, Y.; Bebear, C.; Daoud, M.; Barbeyrac, B.; Hammami, A.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the case of a 54-year-old woman diagnosed as having culture-negative endocarditis (clinical and histopathologic evidence compatible with a recent episode of endocarditis). The responsibility of Chlamydia pneumoniae in this episode of endocarditis was suggested by a serological study and was then confirmed by the positive results of PCR and in situ hybridization tests with aortic and mitral valves tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first case of endocarditis due to C. pneumoni...

  14. Aortic Root Pseudoaneurysm Following Surgery for Aortic Valve Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuei-Ton Tsai; Nye-Jen Cheng; Jaw-Ji Chu; Pyng Jing Lin

    2002-01-01

    Prosthetic aortic valve replacement for aortic valve endocarditis remains a primarypractice of most cardiac surgeons. Usually it cures endocarditis and restores cardiac function.However, in advanced aortic valve endocarditis with complex annular destruction,complications following prosthetic aortic valve replacement do occur and present a formidablechallenge for reoperation.Herein, we describe a case of an adult man who was operated on initially for advancedaortic valve endocarditis with a la...

  15. Endocarditis por Bartonella henselae: Presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura / Bartonella henselae endocarditis: Report of a case and review of the literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Cilla Eguiluz; M., Montes Ros; D., López García; B., Iraola Sierra; V., Aramburu Soraluce.

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella spp son bacilos Gran negativos aerobios, difíciles de aislar con los medios empleados habitualmente en los laboratorios, considerados patógenos humanos emergentes. Desde 1993, tres especies del género Bartonella (B. quintana, B. henselae y B. elizabethae) se han descrito como agentes caus [...] ales de endocarditis bacteriana. En el presente trabajo se describe el caso de una paciente de 43 años, con valvulopatía previa de posible origen reumático y dueña de gatos, que sufrió una endocarditis infecciosa por B. henselae sobre válvula aórtica. La paciente presentó un título de IgG frente a B. henselae de 1/4096 y de 1/256 frente a B. quintana detectándose IgM frente a ambas bacterias a título débil (1/64 y 1/32 respectivamente). La paciente fue tratada con antibióticos durante 12 semanas y sometida a recambio válvular ante la grave lesión existente en la válvula aórtica. En tejido endocárdico procedente de la válvula escindida se detectó DNA de B. henselae (reacción en cadena de la polimerasa). La evolución clínica fue buena. El diagnóstico de infección por Bartonella spp debe ser considerado en todos los pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa y hemocultivo negativo, y en particular B. henselae en pacientes con valvulopatía previa y contacto habitual con gatos Abstract in english Bartonella spp are small Gram-negative rods, aerobic and highly fastidious. They are difficult to culture, in the routine bacterial cultures. They are considered as emergent human pathogens. Since 1993, three species of Bartonella (B. quintana, B. henselae, and B. elizabethae) have been described as [...] causative agents of infectious endocarditis. In this paper we describe the case of a 43 year-old woman with a previous valvular heart disease, probably of rheumatic origin, owner of cats, that suffered an infectious endocarditis by Bartonella henselae in the aortic valve. This patient presented IgG titers against B. henselae of 1/4096 and against B. quintana of 1/256. She also had low IgM titers against B. henselae and B. quintana: 1/64 and 1/32, respectively. The patient received antibiotics for 12 weeks and suffered a valvular replacement due to the severe lesion on the aortic valve. On the endocardic tissue of the removed valve DNA of B. henselae was detected (polymerase chain reaction-based assay). Clinical evolution of the patient was good. Diagnosis of Bartonella spp infection must be considered in every patient with infectious endocarditis and negative blood cultures, and particularly B. henselae in patients with previous válvular heart disease and regular contact with cats

  16. Nosocomial endocarditis caused by Corynebacterium amycolatum and other nondiphtheriae corynebacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Karen L; Holmes, Alison H

    2002-01-01

    The nondiphtheriae corynebacteria are uncommon but increasingly recognized as agents of endocarditis in patients with underlying structural heart disease or prosthetic-valves. We describe three cases of nosocomial endocarditis caused by nondiphtheriae corynebacteria, including the first reported case of Corynebacterium amycolatum, endocarditis. These all occurred in association with indwelling intravascular devices. PMID:11749760

  17. Bacteroides fragilis endocarditis: a case report and review of literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristhieni, Rodrigues; Rinaldo Focaccia, Siciliano; Rogerio, Zeigler; Tania Mara Varejão, Strabelli.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocarditis due to Bacteroides fragilis is a rare disorder. This article describes a case of Bacteroides fragilis endocarditis associated with portal and superior mesenteric venous thrombosis in a patient without preexisting valvular heart disease and review the cases of endocarditis due to this an [...] aerobic bacterium in medical literature since 1980.

  18. Enterococcal endocarditis after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for nephrolithiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Zimhony, O; Goland, S; Malnick, S D; Singer, D; Geltner, D.

    1996-01-01

    We report a case of enterococcal endocarditis following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for ureteral stone. Although endocarditis following ESWL is very rare, transient bacteraemia occurs during ESWL. This case is a reminder that enterococcal endocarditis may follow innovative genitourinary procedures without appropriate prophylaxis.

  19. / Endocarditis por Bordetella holmesii en un paciente asplénico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rolando N, Soloaga; Natalia A, Carrion; Marisa, Almuzara; Claudia, Barberis; Juan C, Pidone; Liliana I, Guelfand; Carlos, Vay.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 52 años portadora de estenosis aórtica crítica, esplenectomizada, hipotiroidea, que tenía como antecedente linfoma de Hodgkin diagnosticado en 2004. En abril de 2011 ingresó al Servicio de Cardiología por insuficiencia cardíaca global y registros febriles, con [...] respuesta tórpida al tratamiento diurético-vasodilatador. El ecocardiograma transesofágico mostró imágenes ecodensas en válvulas aórtica, pulmonar y mitral compatibles con vegetaciones, por lo que el cuadro se interpretó como probable endocarditis infecciosa. En dos muestras de hemocultivos desarrolló un cocobacilo gram negativo que fue identificado como Bordetella holmesii. Se realizó tratamiento con ceftriaxona 1 g cada 12 h durante 28 días, y se observó una evolución favorable. Abstract in english The case of a 52-year-old female patient with a history of critical aortic stenosis, hypothyroidism and splenectomy as treatment for her Hodgkin's lymphoma is herein presented. In April 2011, the patient was admitted to the cardiology service due to global heart failure, fever and poor response to d [...] iuretic and vasodilator therapy. A transesophageal echocardiogram showed images compatible with vegetations in the aortic, pulmonary, and mitral valves. A diagnosis of infective endocarditis was made. Growth of gram-negative coccobacilli was observed in two blood culture sets. The microorganism was finally identified as Bordetella holmesii.The patient was treated with ceftriaxone 1 g every 12 hours for 28 days with favorable outcome.

  20. Cecocentral scotoma as the initial manifestation of subacute bacterial endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Savitsky Strauss

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Danielle Savitsky Strauss, Samuel Baharestani, Julia Nemiroff, Kiran Amesur, David HowardNew York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USAIntroduction: We report a case of a 67-year-old male who presented with a cecocentral scotoma caused by a septic embolus from subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE.Methods: A 67-year-old man presented with sudden, painless decreased vision in the left eye. A dilated fundoscopic exam, Humphrey visual field test, transthoracic echocardiogram, abdominal computed tomography (CT, and blood cultures were all performed.Results: A dilated fundoscopic exam revealed temporal segmental optic disc pallor on the left, and Humphrey visual field testing demonstrated a dense left cecocentral scotoma. When the patient developed fever (103.9°F and palpitations, transthoracic echocardiogram revealed valvular vegetations, and contrast CT of the abdomen revealed an abscess in the dome of the liver likely due to an infectious thrombus. Blood cultures grew viridians group streptococci in three separate peripheral collections.Conclusion: This case illustrates that a sudden cecocentral scotoma may be the initial manifestation of SBE. Keywords: endocarditis, scotoma, streptococcal infections, visual fields

  1. Contribution of the Enterococcal Surface Protein Esp to pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikens, Esther; Singh, Kavindra V.; Jacques-Palaz, Karen D.; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Oostdijk, Evelien A. N.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Murray, Barbara E.; Willems, Rob J. L.

    2011-01-01

    The enterococcal surface protein Esp, specifically linked to nosocomial Enterococcus faecium, is involved in biofilm formation. To assess the role of Esp in endocarditis, a biofilm-associated infection, an Esp-expressing E. faecium strain (E1162) or its Esp-deficient mutant (E1162?esp) were inoculated through a catheter into the left ventricle of rats. After 24 hours, less E1162?esp than E1162 were recovered from heart valve vegetations. In addition, anti-Esp antibodies were detected in Esp-positive E. faecium bacteremia and endocarditis patient sera. In conclusion, Esp contributes to colonization of E. faecium at the heart valves. Furthermore, systemic infection elicits an Esp-specific antibody response in humans. PMID:21911077

  2. Medical therapy of a left-sided native valve endocarditis with neurologic sequela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choon S; Mohamad, Shawal; Maskon, Oteh

    2015-06-01

    Infective endocarditis could present with a plethora of signs and symptoms. Among the rarity of its presentation is acute confusion associated with neurological deficits, mimicking stroke especially in the young population. We report a case of a 33-year-old young man with acute right-sided hemiparesis and confusion 2 weeks after  tooth extraction. The brain CT and MRI was consistent with new infarction on the left middle and anterior cerebral arteries' territory. Echocardiography unveiled the existence of posterior mitral valve leaflet vegetation. Blood culture grew Group B beta-haemolytic Streptococcus, sensitive to penicillin. Two weeks of intravenous gentamicin with 6 weeks of intravenous benzylpenicillin were administered. In this case report, we highlight the importance of recognition of infective endocarditis in a young patient presenting with cerebrovascular accident following tooth extraction. PMID:25987119

  3. Acute disseminated histoplasmosis and endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo G., SCAPELLATO; Javier, DESSE; Ricardo, NEGRONI.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmose disseminada aguda é uma entidade freqüente nos pacientes portadores do HIV. Na literatura internacional foram descritos trinta e cinco casos de endocardite causada por Histoplasma capsulatum, sendo todas as descrições correspondentes a histoplasmose disseminada subaguda. Este artigo re [...] lata o caso de um paciente HIV positivo com febre, dispnea, perda de peso, vômitos e poliadenopatias, no qual foi diagnosticado histoplasmose através de hemoculturas e isolamento do agente responsável das lesões cutâneas, e observadas vegetações na válvula aórtica durante uma ecocardiografia. O doente foi tratado com anfotericina B com boa evolução e as ecocardiografias posteriores não mostraram vegetações. Revisão da literautra sobre o tema foi realizada com ênfase especial quanto ao diagnóstico e tratamento dos casos anteriormente descritos. Abstract in english Acute disseminated histoplasmosis is a frequent condition in HIV carriers. Thirty-five cases of endocarditis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum have been reported in international literature, and all these descriptions correspond to a context of subacute disseminated histoplasmosis. This paper present [...] s the case of a HIV-positive patient with fever, dyspnea, weight loss, vomiting and polyadenopathies to whom histoplasmosis was diagnosed following blood-cultures and isolation of the agent responsible for cutaneous lesions, and in whom aortic-valve vegetations were found during an echocardiogram. The patient was treated with amphotericin B and had a good outcome; subsequent echocardiograms showed no vegetations. Literature on the subject is reviewed, with special emphasis on diagnosis and treatment of previously described cases.

  4. Reduced Vancomycin Susceptibility in an In Vitro Catheter-Related Biofilm Model Correlates with Poor Therapeutic Outcomes in Experimental Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhady, Wessam; Bayer, Arnold S.; Seidl, Kati; Nast, Cynthia C.; Kiedrowski, Megan R.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Yeaman, Michael R.; Xiong, Yan Q.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of endovascular infections, including catheter sepsis and infective endocarditis (IE). Vancomycin (VAN) is the primary choice for treatment of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections. However, high rates of VAN treatment failure in MRSA infections caused by VAN-susceptible strains have been increasingly reported. Biofilm-associated MRSA infections are especially prone to clinical antibiotic failure. The present studies examined potentia...

  5. Complicaciones neurológicas como manifestación inicial de endocarditis infecciosa / Neurological manifestations as presentation of infectious endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. F., Varona.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Las complicaciones neurológicas de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI) son en ocasiones la primera manifestación clínica de la enfermedad y están asociadas con un importante incremento en su mortalidad. La principal forma de presentación es el ictus embólico, pero se han descrito otras muchas que abarca [...] n desde la hemorragia cerebral hasta la excepcionalmente descrita meningitis aséptica acelular. Presentamos 3 casos ilustrativos de este amplio espectro clínico. El diagnóstico de ictus isquémico cerebral en el primer paciente y de hemorragia intraparenquimatosa en el segundo precedió en varios días a la documentación de la EI. En el tercer caso un cuadro de meningitis aguda acelular fue la inusual forma de debut de EI. Debido a que muy raramente la EI es la causa subyacente a un infarto o a una hemorragia cerebral, es fundamental tener un alto grado de alerta para reconocer precozmente estas complicaciones y así establecer el diagnóstico de EI, iniciando rápidamente el tratamiento antibiótico y planteando el recambio valvular y el momento adecuado del mismo, para disminuir el riesgo de deterioro neurológico y evitar el desarrollo de nuevas complicaciones que empeoren el pronóstico. Abstract in english Neurologic complications of infective endocarditis (IE) are frequent. In many cases, they are the initial feature and considerably impair the prognosis of the disease. The most common neurologic manifestation is embolic stroke, but other many neurologic events have been described, ranged from cerebr [...] al hemorrhage due to rupture of mycotic aneurysm to the exceptional aseptic meningitis with acellular cerebrospinal fluid. We describe 3 cases that represent this wide spectrum of presentation. Ischemic stroke in the first patient and cerebral hemorrhage in the second were respectively documented several days before the diagnosis of IE. In the third case, acellular meningitis was the unusual clinical debut of aortic IE. Cerebral infarct or hemorrhage are exceptionally caused by an underlying IE, so a high level of suspicious is needed to recognize these complications. The best management to improve the prognosis has to be based on a rapid diagnosis and onset of antibiotic treatment, considering valve replacement in the adequate timing.

  6. Tricuspid valve endocarditis associated with intravenous nyoape use: A report of 3 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, Meel; F, Peters; M R, Essop.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report three cases of tricuspid valve infective endocarditis associated with intravenous nyoape use. Nyoape is a variable drug combination of an antiretroviral (efavirenz or ritonavir), heroin, metamphetamines and cannabis. Its use is becoming increasingly common among poor communities in South A [...] frica. All our patients were young HIV-positive men from disadvantaged backgrounds. They all presented with tricuspid regurgitation and septic pulmonary emboli. They were treated with prolonged intravenous antibiotic courses, and one required referral for surgery.

  7. Staphylococcus Lugdunensis Native Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis: a Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Ritesh; Patil, Trupti; Hussain, K. M. Anwar

    2011-01-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci are skin commensals and are generally disregarded as contaminants in clinical specimens. Repeated isolation of coagulase negative staphylococci in blood cultures should warrant a species identification to recognize unusually virulent organisms that demand aggressive treatment, such as Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Staphylococcus lugdunensis is known to cause a wide variety of infections, including a predominant left-sided endocarditis. We report a rare case of n...

  8. A Widely Used In Vitro Biofilm Assay Has Questionable Clinical Significance for Enterococcal Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Leuck, Anne-marie; Johnson, James R.; Dunny, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of infections caused by Enterococcus faecalis, including endocarditis. Most biofilm studies use a polystyrene dish assay to quantify biofilm biomass. However, recent studies of E. faecalis strains in tissue and animal models suggest that polystyrene dish results need to be interpreted with caution. We evaluated 158 clinical E. faecalis isolates using a polystyrene dish assay and found variation in biofilm formation, with many is...

  9. Aetiology and outcome in 53 cases of native valve staphylococcal endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Hricak, V; J. Kovacik; Marks, P; West, D.; Kromery, V

    1999-01-01

    Within the last 30 years the profile of infective endocarditis has altered considerably with regard to microbiological causation, clinical features, and natural history. A contributory factor has undoubtedly been the development of potent antibiotics and their sometimes indiscriminate use. The increase in intravenous drug abuse in urban centres, the use of immunosuppressive agents, and the use of prosthetic heart valves have also all contributed. Although cardiac surgery in the uninfected hea...

  10. Complication of nasal piercing by Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis: a case report and a review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliana, Battagin; Loredana, Sarmati; Pasquale, Sordillo; Giovanna, Picchi; Giorgio, Calisti; Laura, Ceccarelli; Pellegrino, Antonio; Paolo, Nardi; Luigi, Chiariello; Massimo, Andreoni

    2010-01-01

    Body piercing, a growing trend especially in young people, is often complicated by severe infections. We present a case of acute bacterial endocarditis by Staphylococcus aureus complicated by multiple cerebral, kidney, spleen embolisms in a young girl, with no known previous cardiac abnormalities, following the piercing of nasal septum. This case highlights the importance of education of patients with and without structural heart disease to the potential dangerous and even life threatening in...

  11. Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Candida lusitaniae, an uncommon pathogen: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Ross G; Kinasewitz Gary T; Drevets Douglas A; Levin Jeremy H; Warden Douglas W

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Candida lusitaniae was originally described as a human pathogen in 1979 and typically affects immunocompromised patients. Case presentation We describe a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis with Candida lusitaniae in an immunocompetent 62-year-old woman following aortic valve replacement. In vitro testing demonstrated that our isolate was sensitive to amphotericin B, caspofungin and fluconazole. Conclusion The infection was lethal despite aggressive medical and surgica...

  12. Chemoprophylaxis with oral amoxycillin against bacterial endocarditis: when should second doses be administered after dentistry?

    OpenAIRE

    Kumana, C. R.; Chau, K. K.; Chau, P. Y.; Kou, M.; Lauder, I.

    1986-01-01

    The adequacy of serum bactericidal activity after oral amoxycillin given as prophylaxis against infective endocarditis was studied using a double blind randomised protocol in healthy volunteers having dentistry. One hour before their procedure 38 patients received 3 g amoxycillin syrup and 12 received matching placebo. Venous blood samples were drawn before and one and nine hours after dosing and serum amoxycillin concentrations determined using a standard bioassay. Samples containing amoxyci...

  13. Histoplasma endocarditis on a stenosed aortic valve presenting as dysphagia and weight loss.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmshurst, P T; Venn, G E; Eykyn, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    A 40-year-old man with aortic stenosis and disseminated histoplasmosis did not respond to treatment with itraconazole. Though there was no haemodynamic deterioration, valvar regurgitation, or embolic phenomena a presumptive diagnosis of infective endocarditis was made. This was confirmed at aortic valve replacement. Antifungal treatment was continued for 18 months after valve replacement and serological tests for Histoplasma became progressively more negative during a three year follow up.

  14. A Misinterpreted Case of Aorta Prosthesis Endocarditis : Remember The Phenomenon of Microbubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Christian Johann; Haugan, Ketil JØrgen

    2013-01-01

    A 17-year-old male with a history of newly implanted mechanical valve at the aortic position, presented with fever, rigors, and painful cutaneous abscesses on his lower extremities and was suspected for infective endocarditis. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed a vegetation-like structure following the movement of the mechanical heart valve (MHV), which eventually proved to be a product of degassing microbubbles (MB).

  15. Endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana y neoplasia pulmonar / Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis and lung neoplasm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I. de la, Iglesia Fanjul; D., Alonso Rodríguez.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente diagnosticada de endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana asociada a adenocarcinoma pulmonar que debuta como ictus embólico de repetición, demostrándose vegetaciones en válvula mitral en ausencia de cuadro infeccioso agudo El caso es relevante por ser la habitual pre [...] sentación de la endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana y por la importancia de un diagnóstico clínico precoz. Abstract in english A woman with the final diagnosis of non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis associated to pulmonary adenocarcinoma is reported. She had had repetitive embolic strokes as the first manifestation, with vegetations on the mitral valve and without signs of acute infectious disease. The case is interesting [...] because is an usually case of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis and the importance of an early diagnostic.

  16. Endocardite por lactococcus garvieae: primeiro relato de caso da América Latina / Lactococcus garvieae endocarditis: first case report in Latin America / Endocarditis por lactococcus garvieae: primer relato de caso de América Latina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana Franco, Hirakawa; Fernando Augusto Alves da, Costa; Marcos Cairo, Vilela; Micheli, Rigon; Henry, Abensur; Maria Rita Elmor de, Araújo.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus garvieae, patógeno zoonótico emergente, é responsável por mastite em ruminantes e septicemia em peixes. Embora seja considerado oportunista e raramente causar infecções em humanos, sua incidência deve estar subestimada devido à dificuldade do diagnóstico. Há pouquíssimos relatos de osteo [...] mielite, abscesso hepático e peritonite, e apenas nove casos descritos na literatura mundial de endocardite. Relatamos o primeiro caso de endocardite por Lactococcus garvieae da América Latina em paciente portadora de prótese valvar metálica, com quadro de febre diária, calafrios, nodos de Osler e seis hemoculturas positivas para Lactococcus garvieae, que preenchiam os critérios de Duke para o diagnóstico de "endocardite infecciosa definitiva" Abstract in spanish Lactococcus garvieae, patógeno zoonótico emergente, es responsable por mastitis en rumiantes y septicemia en peces. Aunque sea considerado oportunista y raramente cause infecciones en humanos, su incidencia debe estar subestimada debido a la dificultad del diagnóstico. Hay poquísimos relatos de oste [...] omielitis, absceso hepático y peritonitis, y apenas nueve casos descriptos en la literatura mundial de endocarditis. Relatamos el primer caso de endocarditis por Lactococcus garvieae de América Latina en paciente portadora de prótesis valvar metálica, con cuadro de fiebre diaria, escalofríos, nódulos de Osler y seis hemocultivos positivos para Lactococcus garvieae, que llenaban los criterios de Duke para el diagnóstico de "endocarditis infecciosa definitiva" Abstract in english Lactococcus garvieae, an emerging zoonotic pathogen, is responsible for mastitis in rodents and sepsis in fish. Although deemed opportunistic and hardly ever causing infections in humans, its incidence is probably underestimated due to the difficulty in diagnosis. There are very few reports of osteo [...] myelitis, liver abscess, and peritonitis, and only nine cases of endocarditis described in worldwide literature. We describe the first case of Lactococcus garvieae endocarditis in Latin America, in a female patient with metallic prosthetic heart valve who presented with daily fever, chills, Osler nodes and six positive blood cultures for Lactococcus garvieae, which met Duke's criteria for the diagnosis of "definitive infective endocarditis"

  17. Probabilidad diagnóstica de endocarditis infecciosa antes de la realización del ecocardiograma.: Sobreutilización del ecocardiograma transesofágico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GUSTAVO, VIGNOLO; RAúL, CENTURIóN; ANíBAL, MANFREDI; ALEJANDRO, FERREIRO; RUBEN, CANO; MARCELA, VALENTINI; ROSANA, SCARPELLI; CARLOS, CODINA; VIRGINIA, MICHELIS; CARLOS, ROMERO.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El ecocardiograma es una herramienta ampliamente utilizada y de elevado valor para el diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa (EI). En nuestro centro hospitalario se indica en forma rutinaria el ecocardiograma transesofágico (ETE) para valorar este diagnóstico y sólo en caso de contraindicaci [...] ón se limita la valoración al ecocardiograma transtorácico (ETT). Objetivo: individualizar criterios clínicos y microbiológicos que permitan identificar una población en la que el ETE aporte información diagnóstica útil, racionalizando su uso. Material y método: registro prospectivo de 116 pacientes referidos para diagnóstico de EI por medio de ETE por el médico tratante. Se comparó el resultado ecocardiográfico con el diagnóstico de cierre de la historia clínica y con el que resultó de la aplicación en los criterios de Duke. Se realizó análisis univariado y multivariado para detectar condiciones clínicas asociadas con el diagnóstico de EI. Resultados: se comprobaron 23 casos de EI como diagnóstico de cierre de la historia clínica, de los cuales 14 fueron EI definida (EID), ocho posibles (EIP) en ausencia de hemocultivos (HC) positivos y uno rechazada, que fue excluida del resto del análisis. El ETE fue positivo en 20 casos (17,2%), que coincidieron con 20 de los casos positivos por cierre de la historia (90,9%). Los dos casos no diagnosticados por ETE fueron diagnosticados por ETT, por lo que el ecocardiograma en conjunto fue positivo en 100% de las EID y de las EI por cierre de la historia. El análisis multivariado mostró que la presencia de cardiopatía predisponente pre ETE, dos o más HC positivos y la ausencia de un foco no endovascular, implica una probabilidad de 88% de EID, en tanto que la ausencia de estos tres elementos implica una probabilidad de 0% de EID o 7,8% de EIP. Conclusiones: existe una sobreindicación de ETE para el diagnóstico de EI. La ausencia dos o más HC positivos, la existencia de cardiopatía predisponente y la ausencia de un foco infeccioso no endovascular podrían implicar la no realización de ETE. Si se hubiera limitado la realización de ETE a los pacientes que cumplieran con estos criterios se hubieran realizado 68 (58,6%) estudios menos inicialmente. Abstract in english SUMMARY Transesophage echocardiogram (ETE) is an efficient tool for infective endocarditis (EI). Objective: to individualize clinical criteria to identify populations in which ETE is efficient to diagnosis. Methods: a prospective study of 116 patients suspected of EI who underwent ETE. Echocardiogra [...] phic results were compared to those obtained by clinical history analysis and Duke criteria. Uni and multivaried analysis were used to determine clinical conditions associated with EI. Results: 23 cases of EI were found as conclusion of clinical history analysis, among them 14 were definitive (EID). ETE was positive in 22 cases (18.96%) included in the 23 cases above-mentioned; ETE was positive for suspected infective endocarditis (EIP) in 8 cases, without positive blood cultures (HC). Multivariate analysis showed that presence of cardiopathy prior to ETE, 2 or more positive HC and lack of non-endovascular focus implies an 88% probability of EID. Lack of these criteria indicates 0% probability of EID and 7.8% probability of EIP. Conclusions: there is an overindicated use of ETE for EI. Lack of 2 or more positive HC, predispositional cardiopathy and lack of infectious non-endovascular focus might imply no use of ETE. If ETE would have been limitated to these criteria, 67.9 (58.5%) could have been saved.

  18. Endocarditis por Coxiella burnetii: fiebre Q / Coxiella burnetii endocarditis: Q fever

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Alberto, Betancur; Ana G, Múnera.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La fiebre Q es una zoonosis causada por Coxiella burnetii; más frecuente en Europa pero reportada en otros continentes, puede cursar en forma aguda o crónica. La endocarditis es una forma de presentación crónica con curso insidioso y se asocia frecuentemente a fenómenos embólicos, representa 1% de t [...] odos los casos de endocarditis en el mundo. El diagnóstico se realiza por la sospecha clínica, cultivos negativos para patógenos convencionales y la confirmación serológica. Este artículo describe el caso clínico de un paciente con endocarditis causada por Coxiella burnetii y se revisa la literatura. (Acta Med Colomb 2012: 37: 31-33). Abstract in english Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Q fever may present as subacute or chronic endocarditis, has a high incidence of embolic phenomena and is often fatal, representing 1% of all cases of endocarditis worldwide. Q fever most commonly presents an insidious course. The diagnosis is made [...] by clinical suspicion after serial blood cultures for conventional pathogens are negative and by serological confirmation. This article describes the clinical case of a patient with endocarditis caused Coxiella burnetii and updated review of the literature. (Acta Med Colomb 2012: 37: 31-33).

  19. Endocarditis por Coxiella burnetii: fiebre Q Coxiella burnetii endocarditis: Q fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Betancur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La fiebre Q es una zoonosis causada por Coxiella burnetii; más frecuente en Europa pero reportada en otros continentes, puede cursar en forma aguda o crónica. La endocarditis es una forma de presentación crónica con curso insidioso y se asocia frecuentemente a fenómenos embólicos, representa 1% de todos los casos de endocarditis en el mundo. El diagnóstico se realiza por la sospecha clínica, cultivos negativos para patógenos convencionales y la confirmación serológica. Este artículo describe el caso clínico de un paciente con endocarditis causada por Coxiella burnetii y se revisa la literatura. (Acta Med Colomb 2012: 37: 31-33.Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Q fever may present as subacute or chronic endocarditis, has a high incidence of embolic phenomena and is often fatal, representing 1% of all cases of endocarditis worldwide. Q fever most commonly presents an insidious course. The diagnosis is made by clinical suspicion after serial blood cultures for conventional pathogens are negative and by serological confirmation. This article describes the clinical case of a patient with endocarditis caused Coxiella burnetii and updated review of the literature. (Acta Med Colomb 2012: 37: 31-33.

  20. Trombosis de vena cava inferior y endocarditis en un paciente prematuro: Caso clínico / Inferior vena cava thrombosis and endocarditis in a premature patient: Case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea, Parra Buitrago; Natalia Andrea, Valencia Zuluaga; Andrés Felipe, Uribe Murillo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La trombosis de la vena cava inferior corresponde a un porcentaje importante de las trombosis venosas en la etapa neonatal, generalmente asociado a factores de riesgo como el uso de catéter venoso central. La incidencia de endocarditis bacteriana en recién nacidos prematuros es baja. Objetivos: Cara [...] cterizar el caso de un neonato pretérmino en que se asociaron ambas patologías y detallar el espectro cambiante de esta enfermedad en la población neonatal y sus posibilidades terapéuticas. Caso clínico: Recién nacido prematuro de 31 + 5 semanas de gestación, que presentó bacteriemia por Enterococo faecalis, evolucionó con trombosis progresiva de la vena cava inferior y aurícula derecha secundaria al uso de catéter venoso umbilical, con posterior diagnóstico de endocarditis. Se manejó con anticoagulación con heparina de bajo peso molecular en forma subcutánea, dada evolución favorable, se decidió continuar manejo médico con terapia anticoagulante por 4-6 semanas, y al alta manejo con aspirina. Conclusiones: El neonato pretérmino con endocarditis infecciosa y trombo intracardiaco presentan un dilema interesante de manejo, por lo cual se debe individualizar el tratamiento según la evolución clínica y el perfil de seguridad de los agentes trombolíticos y/o anticoagulantes. La disponibilidad y las ventajas de la heparina de bajo peso molecular ha dado lugar a su uso como una alternativa de tratamiento en neonatos y niños con trombosis venosa profunda. Abstract in english Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava represents a significant percentage of all venous thrombosis that take place during the neonatal period, generally associated with risk factors such as the use of central venous catheter. The incidence of bacterial endocarditis in preterm infants is low. Objectiv [...] es: To characterize the case of a preterm neonate with both conditions and to detail the disease changing spectrum in the neonatal population and its therapeutic possibilities. Case report: Premature newborn, 31 + 5 weeks of gestation who presented Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia, developed progressive thrombosis of the inferior vena cava and right atrium secondary to the use of umbilical venous catheter, with subsequent diagnosis of endocarditis. He was treated with anticoagulation with subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin. Given a favorable evolution, it was decided to continue the anticoagulation therapy for 4-6 weeks, and at the time of discharge, aspirin treatment was given. Conclusions: The preterm infant with infective endocarditis and intracardiac thrombus presents an interesting management dilemma. Treatment should be individualized according to the clinical evolution and safety profile of thrombolytic and/or anticoagulant agents. Availability and advantages of low molecular weight heparin have led to its use as an alternative treatment in neonates and infants with deep venous thrombosis.

  1. Pediococcus acidilactici endocarditis successfully treated with daptomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwen, Peter C; Mindru, Cezarina; Kalil, Andre C; Florescu, Diana F

    2012-03-01

    This report describes the first case of persistent bacteremia with endocarditis caused by Pediococcus acidilactici in a 32-year-old male with a history of short gut syndrome following a small bowel transplant. The results showed the utility of sequencing the intergenic spacer region for species identification and successful treatment using daptomycin. PMID:22205795

  2. Intervenciones de enfermería especializada en la prevención de endocarditis infecciosa en niños con cardiopatía congénita / Specialized nursing interventions in the prevention of infectious endocarditis in children with congenital cardiopathies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Lizbeth, Garcés-Guerrero; Nancy Guadalupe, Rojas-Lule; Magdalena, Sierra Pacheco.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se encuentra la revisión bibliográfica respecto de medidas preventivas para coadyuvar en la disminución de riesgo de endocarditis infecciosa en niños con cardiopatía congénita. Actualmente la prevalencia de las malformaciones cardiacas reportada a nivel mundial va de 2.1 a 12.3 por [...] 1000 recién nacidos vivos; en México con base en la tasa de natalidad, se calcula que alrededor de 10 mil a 12 mil niños nacen con algún tipo de malformación cardiaca, las cuales colocan al niño en riesgo de contraer endocarditis infecciosa. Derivado de lo anterior las intervenciones de enfermería especializada - como parte del equipo interdisciplinario - deben estar dirigidas a la prevención para evitar complicaciones que pueden llegar a tener consecuencias y secuelas graves en la salud de la persona que presenta alguna alteración en la estructura cardiaca. Se realizó la búsqueda en diferentes fuentes de datos electrónicas como Pubmed, MEDLINE y Cochrane, así como en las distintas revistas de formato electrónico tanto nacionales como internacionales; las palabras clave introducidas fueron cardiopatías congénitas, endocarditis infecciosa, intervenciones de enfermería, prevención (infective endocarditis, children, congenital heart disease, nurse, y prophylaxis). Abstract in english This article is a bibliographic review on some preventive measures to assist in reducing risk of infective endocarditis in children with congenital heart disease, the prevalence of cardiac anomalies is reported worldwide from 2.1 to 12.3 per 1000 live newborns; Mexico based on the birth rate, it is [...] estimated that around 10 to 12 thousand children with some cardiac malformation, they canpredispose the child to have infective endocarditis, it is the reason why nursing interventions, must be aimed at the prevention and avoid the expected complications that may serious consequences on the health of the person submitting any alteration in the cardiac structure. Were searched in various electronic data bases such as PubMed, Med line and Cochrane. The electronic journals both national and international; key words were introduced infective endocarditis, children, congenital heart disease, nurse, and prophylaxis.

  3. Endocardite por Streptococcus gallolyticus em portadora de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico: avaliação pelo ecocardiograma tridimensional / Streptococcus gallolyticus infective endocarditis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: a three-dimensional echocardiography evaluation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rudyney Eduardo Uchôa de, Azevedo; Ana Clara Tude, Rodrigues; Lucas Arraes de, França; Maria Luciana Zacarias Hannouche da, Trindade; Marcelo Luiz Campos, Vieira; Claudio Henrique, Fischer; Samira Saady, Morhy.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mulher de 42 anos foi encaminhada ao hospital com história de febre e queda do estado geral há 30 dias. À admissão, apresentava taquicardia e sopro sistólico na região apical. Os exames de laboratório mostraram leucocitose com 13.100/mL, hemoglobina 8,4g/dL e anticorpos positivos para lúpus eritemat [...] oso sistêmico (anti-Ro/SSA, anti-La/SSB, anticardiolipina e anticorpo antinuclear); hemocultura foi positiva para Streptococcus gallolyticus. Foi realizado um ecocardiograma transesofágico tridimensional, que mostrou múltiplas vegetações na valva mitral, com perfuração do folheto e refluxo importante, além de grande vegetação aórtica com perfuração valvar e refluxo importante adicionalmente. Pequena vegetação foi identificada na valva tricúspide, com um refluxo significativo. O emprego da ecocardiografia transesofágica tridimensional proporcionou o diagnóstico de complicações decorrentes de endocardite infecciosa. Abstract in english A 42 year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a history of fever and poor general status for the last 30 days. She presented tachycardia and a systolic apical murmur. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis of 13,100/mL, hemoglobin of 8.4g/dL and positive systemic lupus erythematosus antibodi [...] es (anti-Ro/SSA, anti-La/SSB, anticardiolipin, and antinuclear antibodies); blood culture was positive for Streptococcus gallolyticus. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography was performed and revealed multiple mitral valve vegetations, with leaflet perforation and important mitral regurgitation, as well as large aortic vegetation, with cusp perforation and severe regurgitation. Additionally, a small vegetation was observed on the tricuspid valve, which presented moderate regurgitation. Threedimensional transesophageal echocardiography provides appropriate visualization of complications resulting from infectious endocarditis.

  4. Vancomycin for Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis in intravenous drug users.

    OpenAIRE

    Small, P. M.; Chambers, H. F.

    1990-01-01

    The clinical courses of 13 consecutive intravenous drug users with Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis treated principally with vancomycin were reviewed. Two patients, one with only right-sided endocarditis and the other with tricuspid and mitral valve endocarditis, had recurrences of positive blood cultures 2 days after completing a 4-week course of vancomycin. Two patients, both of whom eventually were cured, had modifications of therapy because of bacteremia persisting 7 and 16 days into th...

  5. Failure of clinical features of low probability endocarditis. The early echo remains essential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jane B; Fuursted, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To investigate if earlier reported retrospectively derived criteria for predicting absence of infective endocarditis (IE) on transthoracic echocardiography could be prospectively confirmed or improved with transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE). Design. Prospective analysis of the relationship between predefined clinical IE features and findings on TOE in 708 IE suspected patients. Results. The previously reported criteria were rejected as 1/10 of our confirmed IE patients fulfilled criteria for predicting absence of IE. However, our study generated another model of low probability of IE: This disease was absent in 99.4% of patients with negative blood cultures and absence of vascular phenomena and predisposing cardiac conditions. Such patients accounted for 25% of our population of patients suspected of IE. Conclusions. The utility of earlier reported clinical criteria for predicting absence of IE proved insufficient. Instead the study generated new simpler criteria of low probability ofIE. However, these included negative blood cultures, but echocardiography must not be postponed while awaiting the results of blood cultures. Therefore the proposed new criteria only apply to patients with documented negative blood cultures when the suspicion of IE arises, in our study only 10% of the population. Accordingly, the study documented the essential role of early echocardiography in suspected IE.

  6. Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Candida lusitaniae, an uncommon pathogen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Ross G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Candida lusitaniae was originally described as a human pathogen in 1979 and typically affects immunocompromised patients. Case presentation We describe a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis with Candida lusitaniae in an immunocompetent 62-year-old woman following aortic valve replacement. In vitro testing demonstrated that our isolate was sensitive to amphotericin B, caspofungin and fluconazole. Conclusion The infection was lethal despite aggressive medical and surgical management and sterilization of blood cultures. The outcome of our case illustrates the need to recognize Candida lusitaniae fungemia as a life-threatening infection in a patient with a prosthetic aortic valve.

  7. Aspergillus flavus endocarditis--to prevaricate is to posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, J F; Mullany, D; Natani, S; Chinthamuneedi, M; Hovarth, R

    2006-03-01

    Fungal endocarditis represents both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the treating team. The critical care physician will see a rising incidence as older and more immuno-compromised patients are being supported in their intensive care units. Aspergillus sp. endocarditis represents less than 25% of all cases of fungal endocarditis and is associated with a mortality of around 80%. Early diagnosis may assist with definitive management. We review a case of Aspergillus endocarditis, and review the literature as to optimal methods of detection, imaging modalities of choice, and management, both surgical and medical. PMID:16536720

  8. Endocarditis infecciosa, experiencia de diez años en un centro de referencia nacional / Infectious endocarditis, 10 years of experience in a national reference center

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elsa, Fleitas Ruisánchez; Andrés, Savío Benavides; Jorge, Ponce Bittar; Carlos, García Guevara; Xiomara, Calzadilla Mesa.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudiar las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y microbiológicas, así como el tratamiento médico quirúrgico de los pacientes ingresados con el diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa, con el propósito de profundizar en su estudio y contribuir a un mejor tratamiento a estos pacientes [...] . Métodos: se estudiaron 24 pacientes procedentes de todo el país, egresados con el diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa. Los datos fueron recogidos de las historias clínicas procedentes del archivo del Hospital "William Soler", y de la base de datos del servicio de cirugía del cardiocentro. Se determinó la frecuencia de las diferentes manifestaciones de la endocarditis infecciosa según: grupos etarios, factores de riesgo, y los datos clínicos, de laboratorio y microbiológicos más frecuentes. Además, se determinó la toma valvular predominante, la etiología y su respuesta a los antibióticos. Resultados: el grupo de edad más afectado fue entre 5 y 18 años; la cardiopatía previa fue el factor de riesgo predominante; los síntomas y signos más frecuentes fueron la fiebre, la anorexia y la pérdida de peso. La insuficiencia cardiaca y el embolismo pulmonar fueron complicaciones frecuentes. La mayoría de los pacientes tuvo una eritrosedimentación acelerada, y la cuarta parte de los casos presentaron hemocultivos negativos. Las válvulas aórtica y mitral resultaron las más afectadas, y el curso clínico que predominó fue el subagudo. En casi la mitad de los pacientes la infección tuvo un origen nosocomial. Los antimicrobianos más utilizados fueron la amikacina, la vancomicina y la ceftriaxona. Conclusiones: la endocarditis infecciosa es poco frecuente en nuestra institución, ocurre más a menudo en relación con las cardiopatías congénitas. Los hechos clínicos más constantes fueron la fiebre y el antecedente de cardiopatía previa. Abstract in english Objective: to study the clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristics as well as the surgical medical treatment of patients admitted diagnosed with infectious endocarditis to deepen in its study and to contribute to a better treatment for these patients. Methods: twenty four patients [...] from whole country, discharged with the diagnosis of infectious endocarditis. Data were collect from the medical records of the "William Soler" Children Hospital files and from the database of surgery service of heart center. The frequency of different manifestations of infectious endocarditis was determined according to: age groups, risk factors and the more frequent clinical, laboratory and microbiologic data. Also, the predominant valvular take, the etiology and the response to antibiotics were determined. Results: the more involved age group was between 5 and 18 years; the previous heart disease was the more predominant factor; the more frequent symptoms and signs were: fever, anorexia and weight loss. The heart failure and the pulmonary embolism were frequent complications. Most of patients had an accelerated erythrosedimentation and the fourth of cases had negative blood cultures. The aortic and mitral valves were the more involved and the predominant clinical course was the subacute. In almost the half of patients the infection had a nosocomial origin. The more used antimicrobial agents were amikacin, vancomycin and ceftriaxone. Conclusions: the infectious endocarditis is uncommon in our institution occurs more often in relation to congenital heart diseases. The more constant clinical facts were fever and a history of previous heart disease.

  9. Endocarditis infecciosa, experiencia de diez años en un centro de referencia nacional Infectious endocarditis, 10 years of experience in a national reference center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Fleitas Ruisánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudiar las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y microbiológicas, así como el tratamiento médico quirúrgico de los pacientes ingresados con el diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa, con el propósito de profundizar en su estudio y contribuir a un mejor tratamiento a estos pacientes. Métodos: se estudiaron 24 pacientes procedentes de todo el país, egresados con el diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa. Los datos fueron recogidos de las historias clínicas procedentes del archivo del Hospital "William Soler", y de la base de datos del servicio de cirugía del cardiocentro. Se determinó la frecuencia de las diferentes manifestaciones de la endocarditis infecciosa según: grupos etarios, factores de riesgo, y los datos clínicos, de laboratorio y microbiológicos más frecuentes. Además, se determinó la toma valvular predominante, la etiología y su respuesta a los antibióticos. Resultados: el grupo de edad más afectado fue entre 5 y 18 años; la cardiopatía previa fue el factor de riesgo predominante; los síntomas y signos más frecuentes fueron la fiebre, la anorexia y la pérdida de peso. La insuficiencia cardiaca y el embolismo pulmonar fueron complicaciones frecuentes. La mayoría de los pacientes tuvo una eritrosedimentación acelerada, y la cuarta parte de los casos presentaron hemocultivos negativos. Las válvulas aórtica y mitral resultaron las más afectadas, y el curso clínico que predominó fue el subagudo. En casi la mitad de los pacientes la infección tuvo un origen nosocomial. Los antimicrobianos más utilizados fueron la amikacina, la vancomicina y la ceftriaxona. Conclusiones: la endocarditis infecciosa es poco frecuente en nuestra institución, ocurre más a menudo en relación con las cardiopatías congénitas. Los hechos clínicos más constantes fueron la fiebre y el antecedente de cardiopatía previa.Objective: to study the clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristics as well as the surgical medical treatment of patients admitted diagnosed with infectious endocarditis to deepen in its study and to contribute to a better treatment for these patients. Methods: twenty four patients from whole country, discharged with the diagnosis of infectious endocarditis. Data were collect from the medical records of the "William Soler" Children Hospital files and from the database of surgery service of heart center. The frequency of different manifestations of infectious endocarditis was determined according to: age groups, risk factors and the more frequent clinical, laboratory and microbiologic data. Also, the predominant valvular take, the etiology and the response to antibiotics were determined. Results: the more involved age group was between 5 and 18 years; the previous heart disease was the more predominant factor; the more frequent symptoms and signs were: fever, anorexia and weight loss. The heart failure and the pulmonary embolism were frequent complications. Most of patients had an accelerated erythrosedimentation and the fourth of cases had negative blood cultures. The aortic and mitral valves were the more involved and the predominant clinical course was the subacute. In almost the half of patients the infection had a nosocomial origin. The more used antimicrobial agents were amikacin, vancomycin and ceftriaxone. Conclusions: the infectious endocarditis is uncommon in our institution occurs more often in relation to congenital heart diseases. The more constant clinical facts were fever and a history of previous heart disease.

  10. Are valve repairs associated with better outcomes than replacements in patients with native active valve endocarditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; Zhang, Benqing

    2014-12-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether valve replacement was associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates than valve repair in patients with native active valve endocarditis. Altogether 662 papers were found using the reported search, of which 7 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Traditionally, valve replacement has been the standard therapy for valve endocarditis when surgical treatment is indicated. But now valve repair is increasingly used as an alternative, which may avoid disadvantages of anticoagulation, lower the risk of prosthetic infection and improve postoperative survival. To compare outcomes of these two treatments between studies can be difficult because most of related papers contain raw data on prosthetic valve endocarditis or healed endocarditis, which were excluded from our manuscript. Studies only analysing the outcomes of either of these treatments without the comparison of valve repair and replacement were also excluded. Finally, seven papers were identified. The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology 2006 valvular guidelines recommended that mitral valve repair should be performed instead of replacement when at all possible. In three of the seven studies, there were significant differences between valve repair and replacement in long-term survival. One study found that aortic valve repair offered better outcomes in freedom from reoperation at 5 years (P = 0.021) and in survival at 4 years (repair vs replacement 88 vs 65%; P = 0.047). One study reported that there was improved event-free survival at 10 years in the mitral valve repair group (P = 0.015), although there was more previous septic embolization in this group. In one study, early and late mortality and event-free survival were better in patients undergoing mitral valve repair compared with replacement (P replacement was an independent risk factor for early and late death (P replacement for acute endocarditis demonstrated improved event-free survival and lower in-hospital mortality, but this failed to reach significance. The remaining two studies showed similar overall survival for both repair and replacement patients. With regard to native active mitral or aortic valve endocarditis, valve repair seems to offer better outcomes in morbidity and long-term survival compared with valve replacement. Whenever it is possible according to the preoperative conditions and intraoperative findings, valve repair should be preferred. PMID:25185570

  11. Haemophilus aphrophilus Endocarditis after Tongue Piercing

    OpenAIRE

    Akhondi, Hossein; Rahimi, Ali R.

    2002-01-01

    Piercing invades subcutaneous areas and has a high potential for infectious complications. The number of case reports of endocarditis associated with piercing is increasing. We studied a 25-year-old man with a pierced tongue, who arrived at Memorial Health University Medical Center with fever, chills, rigors, and shortness of breath of 6 days duration and had an aortic valvuloplasty for correction of congenital aortic stenosis.

  12. Gentamicin-resistant enterococci and endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Holliman, R.; Smyth, E.

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of endocarditis associated with a highly gentamicin-resistant enterococcus that failed to respond to conventional antibiotic combination therapy. Clinical resolution was achieved following cardiac surgery and antimicrobial treatment dictated by in vitro testing of the patient's organism. Laboratories should test blood culture isolates of enterococci for high level gentamicin resistance. Management of such cases requires individual assessment and extensive laboratory investiga...

  13. Actinomyces viscosus endocarditis requiring aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Kathleen G; de Flesco, Lindsay; Clarke, Loren E; Parent, Leslie J

    2005-05-01

    We report a case of primary Actinomyces viscosus endocarditis, an unusual manifestation of actinomycosis, in a 43-year-old farmer with an indolent febrile illness. As has occurred in previous cases, diagnosis was delayed in part because blood isolates were misidentified. Months later when she required aortic valve and root replacement, histologic exam of the diseased valve revealed branching filamentous organisms and the original blood isolates were retrospectively confirmed to be Actinomyces viscosus. PMID:15845438

  14. Brucella Endocarditis Caused by Brucella Melitensis

    OpenAIRE

    Suzan Saçar; Derya H?rç?n Cenger; Semra Toprak Kavas; Ali Asan; Melek Demir; Mustafa Saçar; Hüseyin Turgut

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We present a rare case of brucella endocarditis, forming a vegetation on the mitral valve. The definitive diagnosis has been made with clinical suspicion, positive serology, the demonstration of the vegetation with the echocardiography and with the production from the multiple blood culture of Brucella melitensis and from the excised valve. Our patient has been successfully treated with specific antibiotherapy and the surgery of replacement of mitral valve. Our aim in presenting the...

  15. A pediatric case of Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gram negative endocarditis is relatively rare in pediatrics but when they occur they are most frequently caused by one of the HACEK (Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C. hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae group of microorganisms. Within the HACEK group of microorganisms there have been approximately 100 cases of Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis reported in the literature, but only 2 previous cases of endocarditis and one case of pericarditis have been reported in children. In this report, we present a case of a 12-year-old boy with a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit for Tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia who presented at an annual cardiology examination with a 3 week history of fatigue and was found to have a vegetation on routine echocardiogram. Subsequent blood cultures grew Cardiobacterium hominis and the patient was treated successfully with 6 weeks of appropriate antibiotic therapy. We present this case and a review of the literature of the HACEK group of microorganisms in pediatrics.

  16. Prosthetic valve endocarditis with valvular obstruction after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabilona, Christine; Gitler, Bernard; Lederman, Jeffrey A; Miller, Donald; Keltz, Theodore N

    2015-04-01

    Patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high risk for open-heart surgery might be candidates for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). To our knowledge, this is the first report of Streptococcus viridans endocarditis that caused prosthetic valve obstruction after TAVR. A 77-year-old man who had undergone TAVR 17 months earlier was admitted because of evidence of prosthetic valve endocarditis. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a substantial increase in the transvalvular peak gradient and mean gradient in comparison with an echocardiogram of 7 months earlier. A transesophageal echocardiogram showed a 1.5-cm vegetation obstructing the valve. Blood cultures yielded penicillin-sensitive S. viridans. The patient was hemodynamically stable and was initially treated with vancomycin because of his previous penicillin allergy. Subsequent therapy with levofloxacin, oral penicillin (after a negative penicillin skin test), and intravenous penicillin eliminated the symptoms of the infection. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is a relatively new procedure, and sequelae are still being discovered. We recommend that physicians consider obstructive endocarditis as one of these. PMID:25873834

  17. Polymicrobial q Fever and enterococcal aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis with aortic root abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahav, Dafna; Kuznitz, Israel; Reisfeld, Sharon; Eliakim-Raz, Noa; Bishara, Jihad

    2015-05-01

    Polymicrobial endocarditis is uncommon. We present a case of polymicrobial endocarditis caused by Enterococcus faecalis and Coxiella burnetii and review previous cases of polymicrobial endocarditis involving Coxiella burnetii. Testing for Q fever should be considered in any patient with endocarditis living in an endemic area. PMID:25988443

  18. Bacterial endocarditis due to eikenella corrodens: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapatra A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Of all the causes of bacterial endocarditis, HACEK group consisting of Haemophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella Kingae are rare causative agents. We report a case of bacterial endocarditis by E. corrodens, which is one of the members of the HACEK group.

  19. Q Fever Endocarditis in Romania: The First Cases Confirmed by Direct Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Straut

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is a serious, life-threatening disease with highly variable clinical signs, making its diagnostic a real challenge. A diagnosis is readily made if blood cultures are positive, but in 2.5 to 31% of all infective endocarditis cases, routine blood cultures are negative. In such situations, alternative diagnostic approaches are necessary. Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp. are the etiological agents of blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE most frequently identified by serology. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of molecular assays, as complementary methods to the conventional serologic methods for the rapid confirmatory diagnostic of Q fever endocarditis in patients with BCNE. Currently, detection of C. burnetii by culture or an antiphase I IgG antibody titers >800 represents a major Duke criterion for defining IE, while a titers of >800 for IgG antibodies to either B. henselae or B. quintana is used for the diagnosis of endocarditis due to Bartonella spp. We used indirect immunofluorescence assays for the detection of IgG titers for C. burnetii, B. henselae and B. quintana in 57 serum samples from patients with clinical suspicion of IE. Thirty three samples originated from BCNE patients, whereas 24 were tested before obtaining the blood cultures results, which finally were positive. The results of serologic testing showed that nine out of 33 BCNE cases exhibited antiphase I C. burnetii IgG antibody titer >800, whereas none has IgG for B. henselae or B. quintana. Subsequently, we used nested-PCR assay for the amplification of C. burnetii DNA in the nine positive serum samples, and we obtained positive PCR results for all analyzed cases. Afterwards we used the DNA sequencing of amplicons for the repetitive element associated to htpAB gene to confirm the results of nested-PCR. The results of sequencing allowed us to confirm that C. burnetii is the causative microorganism responsible for BCNE. In conclusion, the nested PCR amplification followed by direct sequencing is a reliable and accurate method when applied to serum samples, and it may be used as an additional test to the serological methods for the confirmatory diagnosis of BCNE cases determined by C. burnetii.

  20. Endocarditis de válvula protésica por Salmonella no tifoidea / Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis due to Non-Typhoid Salmonella

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta E., Cardús; Romina E., Trossero; Jorge, Curotto Grasiosi; Antonio, Abdala; María J., Torres.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Existen varios factores predisponentes para el desarrollo de endocarditis infecciosa; entre ellos se destacan el antecedente de haber padecido endocarditis infecciosa y el recambio valvular con válvula protésica. La endocarditis infecciosa de válvula protésica producida por Salmonella es una entidad [...] de muy baja incidencia. En esta presentación se describe el caso de una paciente con antecedente de doble recambio valvular, mitral y aórtico, que ingresó con un cuadro de sepsis grave. Se llegó al diagnóstico etiológico de endocarditis infecciosa por Salmonella enteritidis a través de hemocultivos. La paciente tuvo una evolución fulminante y falleció antes de las 24 horas. Abstract in english There are several predisposing factors for the development of infectious endocarditis, among them, the history of infectious endocarditis and prosthetic valve replacement. Infectious endocarditis in prosthetic valve caused by Salmonella is an unusual entity. We report the case of a female patient wi [...] th a history of double-valve mitral and aortic replacement, who was admitted due to severe sepsis. The etiological diagnosis of infectious endocarditis by Salmonella enteritidis was reached through blood cultures. The clinical course was fulminant and she died within the first 24 hours.

  1. Tratamento clínico de endocardite em prótese valvar complicada por abscesso para-protético Successful medical management of prosthetic-valve endocarditis complicated by perivalvular abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Pereira Nunes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo relata o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 44 anos, com endocardite em prótese aórtica complicada por abscesso para-protético. Evoluiu com melhora do processo infeccioso apenas com o tratamento clínico. História prévia de doença reumática, submetido a três cirurgias cardíacas para troca valvar por disfunção de prótese e endocardite prévia. Neste relato de caso, discutiremos as características principais do abscesso para-protético como complicação de endocarditeWe present a case of a 44-year-old man with prosthetic aortic endocarditis complicated by a perivalvular abscess. He evolved with improvement of the infectious process only under clinical treatment. The patient presented a prior history of rheumatic fever and had previously been undergone three valve replacements due to prosthesis dysfunction and previous endocarditis. In this case report we discuss the main features of perivalvular abscess complicating infective endocarditis

  2. Tratamento clínico de endocardite em prótese valvar complicada por abscesso para-protético / Successful medical management of prosthetic-valve endocarditis complicated by perivalvular abscess

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria do Carmo Pereira, Nunes; Claudio Leo, Gelape; Felipe Batista Lima, Barbosa; Luciano Ribeiro, Leduc; Christiano Gonçalves de, Araújo; Lucas Fabel, Chalup; Marcela Ferreira, Nicoliello; Teresa Cristina Abreu, Ferrari.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo relata o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 44 anos, com endocardite em prótese aórtica complicada por abscesso para-protético. Evoluiu com melhora do processo infeccioso apenas com o tratamento clínico. História prévia de doença reumática, submetido a três cirurgias cardíacas [...] para troca valvar por disfunção de prótese e endocardite prévia. Neste relato de caso, discutiremos as características principais do abscesso para-protético como complicação de endocardite Abstract in english We present a case of a 44-year-old man with prosthetic aortic endocarditis complicated by a perivalvular abscess. He evolved with improvement of the infectious process only under clinical treatment. The patient presented a prior history of rheumatic fever and had previously been undergone three valv [...] e replacements due to prosthesis dysfunction and previous endocarditis. In this case report we discuss the main features of perivalvular abscess complicating infective endocarditis

  3. Endocardite infecciosa: uma suspeita sempre presente / Infectious endocarditis: an ever-present suspicion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Santos, Ferreira.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O diagnóstico de endocardite infecciosa requer um elevado grau de suspeição para ser estabelecido atempadamente. O médico de família, conhecendo os fatores de risco de cada doente, está numa posição privilegiada para a suspeita clínica de endocardite, podendo desempenhar um papel fulcral [...] no diagnóstico desta patologia. Descrição do Caso: Manuel, utente de 59 anos acompanhado na nossa consulta desde 2007, tem como antecedentes pessoais 3 episódios prévios de endocardite infecciosa, dois dos quais associados a prótese valvular colocada na sequência do primeiro episódio. Foi acompanhado na nossa consulta por um quadro de síndrome febril indeterminado, associado a parâmetros inflamatórios elevados, com dois ecocardiogramas negativos realizados a nível hospitalar. Por se tratar de um utente de risco elevado para recorrência de endocardite infecciosa, a médica de família nunca abandonou esta hipótese diagnóstica. Perante o quadro, pediu hemoculturas em ambulatório, que foram positivas para Enterococos faecalis. O doente foi novamente enviado ao hospital, desta vez realizando um ecocardiograma que revelou vegetação, tendo-se estabelecido o diagnóstico definitivo de endocardite infecciosa 20 dias após o início do quadro clínico. Foi internado e cumpriu antibioterapia. Contudo, no início do segundo mês de internamento, teve um episódio de AVC hemorrágico, tendo como consequências hemiparesia direita e disartria a longo prazo. Comentário: Apesar de se tratar de uma doença rara, a endocardite infecciosa associada a próteses valvulares está associada a elevada morbimortalidade. A forma de apresentação é variável, estando o médico dependente de um elevado grau de suspeição para conseguir estabelecer o diagnóstico atempadamente, minimizando as sequelas a longo prazo. Os critérios de Duke facilitam o estabelecimento adequado do diagnóstico; no entanto a sensibilidade destes critérios diminui em doentes com próteses valvulares. Trata-se de um quadro subagudo de endocardite, necessitando de 20 dias para se estabelecer o diagnóstico final, após o resultado de hemoculturas positivas. Foi a persistência da suspeita diagnóstica que permitiu o diagnóstico atempado. Abstract in english Introduction: An elevated level of suspicion is required to make a timely diagnosis of infective endocarditis. The family physician with knowledge of the risk factors of each patient is in a privileged position to diagnose this disease. Case Description: A 59 year-old male patient with a history of [...] 3 previous episodes of infective endocarditis has been treated in our practice since 2007. Two episodes were associated with a prosthetic valve (a consequence of the first episode). He was seen recently for an episode of fever of unknown origin associated with high serum levels of markers of inflammation. Two echocardiograms performed in hospital were non-diagnostic. The family physician retained a suspicion of infective endocarditis in this high-risk patient. Ambulatory blood cultures were positive for Enterococcus faecalis. The patient was again sent to the hospital and the echocardiogram now revealed a cardiac vegetation, confirming the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, 20 days after the initial onset of symptoms. At the beginning of the second month of his stay at the hospital, the patient suffered a hemorrhagic stroke, leaving him with dysarthria and a right hemiparesis. Discussion: Although infective endocarditis is a rare disease, it has high morbidity and mortality when associated with prosthetic heart valves. The presentation of the disease is variable, so the physician needs a high level of suspicion to make a prompt diagnosis and prevent long-term consequences. The Duke criteria may help with diagnosis. However, the sensitivity of the criteria is reduced in patients with prosthetic valves. This is a sub-acute case of endocarditis, in which the diagnosis was made with positive blood cultures after 20 days of symptoms. Persistent suspicion of endocardit

  4. Native valve endocarditis with aorta-to-left atrial fistula due to Corynebacterium amycolatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniëls, C; Schoors, D; Van Camp, G

    2003-03-01

    Infective endocarditis remains a pathology with a high rate of complications and mortality. One of the most dramatic complications is abscess formation. A rare evolution of abscess formation is the development of fistula. We describe an 88-year-old woman with an aortic root abscess and aorta-to-left atrial fistula. To our knowledge this has only been described with streptococcus species as causative micro-organism. In this case the abscess was caused by Corynebacterium amycolatum, which is an infrequently found micro-organism. PMID:12565065

  5. Failure of Vancomycin Continuous Infusion against Experimental Endocarditis Due to Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus ?

    OpenAIRE

    Entenza, J. M.; Veloso, T. R.; Vouillamoz, J.; Giddey, M.; Moreillon, P.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous infusion of vancomycin was evaluated against experimental endocarditis due to heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) and VISA. Animals were infected with hVISA PC1 (vancomycin MIC, 2 mg/liter) or VISA PC3 (vancomycin MIC, 8 mg/liter) and treated for 5 days with constant serum levels of 20 or 40 mg/liter. Vancomycin continuous infusion was unsuccessful, as 20 mg/liter was barely active against PC1 (6 of 13 sterile vegetations) and 40 mg/liter failed agai...

  6. The Changing Epidemiology of Pediatric Endocarditis at a Children's Hospital Over Seven Decades

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, Lauren B.; Feja, Kristina N.; Levasseur, Stéphanie M.; Alba, Luis R.; Gersony, Welton; Saiman, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether improvements in the care of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) have changed the epidemiology of infective endocarditis (IE). A retrospective study of patients 18 years of age and younger treated for IE from 1992 to 2004 (era 3) was conducted at the authors' children's hospital in New York City. This study was compared with two previous studies conducted at the same hospital from 1930 to 1959 (era 1) and from 1977 to 1992 (era 2). During the thr...

  7. Ciprofloxacin and rifampin, alone and in combination, for therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaatz, G. W.; Seo, S. M.; Barriere, S. L.; Albrecht, L. M.; Rybak, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    The therapeutic activities of ciprofloxacin (25 mg/kg every 8 h), rifampin (10 mg/kg every 24 h), ciprofloxacin plus rifampin, and vancomycin (17.5 mg/kg every 6 h) were compared by using the rabbit model of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Animals infected with one of two test strains (SA1199 or SA487) were randomized into treatment groups and received 6 days of therapy. For SA1199, ciprofloxacin plus rifampin was most effective at reducing vegetation bacterial counts. For SA487, ciproflo...

  8. Contribution of the Enterococcal Surface Protein Esp to pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Heikens, Esther; Singh, Kavindra V; Jacques-Palaz, Karen D.; Luit-asbroek, Miranda; Oostdijk, Evelien A. N.; Bonten, Marc J. M; Murray, Barbara E.; Willems, Rob J L

    2011-01-01

    The enterococcal surface protein Esp, specifically linked to nosocomial Enterococcus faecium, is involved in biofilm formation. To assess the role of Esp in endocarditis, a biofilm-associated infection, an Esp-expressing E. faecium strain (E1162) or its Esp-deficient mutant (E1162?esp) were inoculated through a catheter into the left ventricle of rats. After 24 hours, less E1162?esp than E1162 were recovered from heart valve vegetations. In addition, anti-Esp antibodies were detected in Esp...

  9. [Infectious endocarditis complicated with preoperative infectious intracranial aneurysm;report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezure, Masahiko; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Kimura, Chieri; Okada, Shuichi; Okonogi, Shuichi; Takihara, Hitomi; Naito, Noritsugu

    2015-02-01

    A 44-year-old man was admitted with the diagnosis of active infective endocarditis( IE) due to Streptococcus mitis, complicated with infectious intracranial aneurysm. Preoperative echocardiography showed mobile vegetation on the mitral leaflet, size of which was 20 mm. The magnetic resonance imaging( MRI) demonstrated that the size of aneurysm was increasing, and infectious intracranial aneurysm was treated surgically. Twenty one days after the operation, the mitral valve plasty was performed. He was discharged on foot without any neurological findings. The duration between the brain surgery and the cardiac surgery was thought to be important to prevent the new neurological complication. PMID:25743362

  10. Diagnóstico y manejo de la endocarditis infecciosa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jonathan, Poveda Fernández; Tatiana, Soriano Fallas; Alejandro, Cañas Coto; Leonardo, Rodríguez.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available La sospecha temprana, el diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento agresivo son fundamentales para el manejo de la endocarditis infecciosa. Actualmente, los organismos que causan ésta enfermedad han cambiado respecto a los que antiguamente se describían en la literatura. Además, los métodos diagnósticos h [...] an avanzado hacia un reconocimiento más temprano de la misma. Se comentan las nuevas guías clínicas y ecocardiográficas que se han establecido para el seguimiento de estos pacientes. En este artículo se presentan las manifestaciones clínicas que presenta la endocarditis infecciosa hoy en día. Además, se reconoce la ecocardiografía como herramienta indispensable para el diagnóstico y manejo de la enfermedad. Se amplian los conceptos sobre las diferencias diagnósticos que se pueden obtener de un ecocardiograma transtorácico y uno transesofágico. Se presentan, además, los hallazgos que se deben buscar en cada uno de estos exámenes y cómo estos mismos se pueden utilizar para el seguimiento del paciente. Se revisa, en detalle, los organismos nuevos y atípicos que se empiezan a presentar en esta enfermedad; y las complicaciones que se ven relacionadas a los mismos. Las complicaciones atípicas de este padecimiento también son abordadas, así como el tratamiento para los agentes etiológicos más frecuentes.

  11. Clinical analysis of deep neck space infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep neck space infections, which affect soft tissues and fascial compartments of the head and neck, can lead to lethal complications unless treated carefully and quickly, even with the advanced antibiotics available. We reviewed our seventeen patients with deep neck abscesses, analyzed their location by reviewing CT images, and discussed the treatment. Deep neck space infections were classified according to the degree of diffusion of infection diagnosed by CT images. Neck space infection in two cases was localized to the upper neck space above the hyoid bone (Stage I). Neck space infection in 12 cases extended to the lower neck space (Stage II), and further extended to the mediastinum in one case (Stage III). The two cases of Stage I and the four cases of Stage II were managed with incision and drainage through a submental approach. The seven cases of Stage II were managed with incision and drainage parallel to the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the ''Dean'' approach. The one case of Stage III received treatment through transcervicotomy and anterior mediastinal drainage through a subxiphodal incision. The parapharyngeal space played an important role in that the inflammatory change can spread to the neck space inferiorly. The anterior cervical space in the infrahyoid neck was important for mediastinal extension of parapharyngeal abscesses. It is important to diagnose deep neck space infections promptly and treat them adequately, and contrast-enhan treat them adequately, and contrast-enhanced CT is useful and indispensable for diagnosis. The point is which kind of drainage has to be performed. If the surgical method of drainage is chosen according to the level of involvement in the neck space and mediastinum, excellent results may be obtained in terms of survival and morbidity. (author)

  12. Endocarditis infecciosa producida por Bartonella quintana / Infective endocarditis due to Bartonella quintana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Garré; Walter, Guaraglia; Daniel, Cuatz; Sara, Kaufman; Horacio, Gil; Antonio F., De Rosa.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 68 años que ingresó por mareos y sensación de pérdida de la conciencia. El examen clínico reveló una temperatura de 37.5 °C y un soplo de regurgitación mitral. El ecocardiograma mostró una insuficiencia mitral grave con dilatación de las cavidades izquierdas, y el [...] ecocardiograma transesofágico una vegetación en la valva anterior de la mitral. Los hemocultivos demostraron una bacteria Gram-negativa que luego se identificó como Bartonella spp. La PCR demostró que se trataba de una Bartonella quintana. Se trató con gentamicina, doxiciclina y ceftriaxona, evolucionando satisfactoriamente. La insuficiencia mitral remanente espera el tratamiento quirúrgico. Abstract in english We present the clinical case of a man of 68 years who was admitted for dizziness and sensation of loss of conscience. The clinical examination revealed a body temperature of 37.5 °C and a murmur of mitral regurgitation. The echocardiogram showed a severe mitral regurgitation and left cavitie's dilat [...] ation; transesophageal echocardiogram showed a vegetation in the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. In blood cultures grew a Gram-negative bacteria identified as Bartonella spp. A PCR demonstrated that it was a Bartonella quintana. The patient was treated with gentamicin, doxiciclin and ceftriaxone with satisfactory evolution. The remaining mitral insufficiency awaits surgical treatment.

  13. Group B Streptococcal Endocarditis in Obstetric and Gynecologic Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Crespo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We describe a case and review ten other instances of group B streptococcal endocarditis in the setting of obstetric and gynecologic practice reported since the last review in 1985.

  14. Aseptic Endocarditis in Behçet's Disease Presenting as Tricuspid Valve Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun Sang; Choi, Won Suk; Kim, Kyun Hee; Kang, Jung Kyu; Kim, Na Young; Park, Sun Hee; Park, Youngwhi; Nam, Eon Jeong; Yang, Dong Heon; Park, Hun Sik; Cho, Yongkeun; Lee, Jong-myung; Chae, Shung-chull

    2011-01-01

    Aseptic endocarditis is an uncommon complication of Behçet's disease (BD). We describe a rare case of a 39-year-old female who had BD with aseptic endocarditis of the tricuspid valve (TV) presenting as tricuspid stenosis. She was diagnosed with BD four years ago. The mucocutaneous lesions were well-controlled with colchicine and short courses of corticosteroids. She remained free of signs and symptoms of BD for one year without any medication. Three months before admission, she gradually dev...

  15. Kingella kingae endocarditis: A rare case of mitral valve perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Anthony A; Hung, Tawny; Derek G. Human; Campbell, Andrew I M

    2011-01-01

    Kingella kingae, a HACEK (Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae) organism, is a common resident of the upper airway in children; it has been associated with endocarditis in children with pre-existing heart conditions. This case report describes K. kingae endocarditis leading to valvular damage in a previously healthy 18-month-old child. Our patient developed a K. kingae bact...

  16. Assessment of the incidence of infectious endocarditis in Limousin Poitou-Charentes and the buccodental follow-up of high-risk patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabarly P

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To assess the incidence of infectious endocarditis in Limousin Poitou-Charentes in 2000 and to study the buccodental health of high-risk patients and improve their follow-up. Method: We performed a two-part, retrospective, cross-sectional study. In the first part, by using the computer program for hospitalization medical records (PMSI, we looked for all patients who were hospitalized for infectious endocarditis in 2000 in Limousin Poitou-Charentes and determined the incidence of the disease. In the second part, we performed a buccodental examination of all the volunteer patients who were waived from co-payments for a cardiac disease carrying a risk for infectious endocarditis and who had not filed a reimbursement request for any buccodental care between September 1, 2000 to August 31, 2001. Results: The regional incidence of infectious endocarditis was 57.4 cases/1,000,000 inhabitants/year. In 13% of the 135 patients who had been hospitalized for this disorder, the infection had a buccodental origin. The total regional cost for initial hospital care related to endocarditis was estimated to be 12,127 € per patient. Among the 4,460 high-risk patients, 2,379 (53.3 % had not filed a reimbursement request for dental care during the course of the preceding year. Only 544 patients accepted to be examined by the medical service; 74,8 % of them had poor bucodental health. Conclusion: This study confirms the relative increase in infectious endocarditis occurring in healthy hearts and the reduction in the role played by a buccodental origin and in overall mortality. The average cost for initial hospital care was lower than data seen in previously published literature. We undertook incentives to improve the buccodental follow-up of patients in the region

  17. Pulmonary infections after kidney transplantation: analysis of CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To review the CT findings in patients with pulmonary infection after kidney transplantation and to determine the characteristic features in different infections. Methods: The medical records were reviewed in 446 patients with pulmonary infection after kidney transplantation and 121 patients who had pulmonary thin-section CT were included in this study. The pattern and distribution of the pulmonary abnormalities were interpreted independently by two thoracic radiologists. Statistical analysis was performed using the ?2 test and the Fisher's exact test. Results: (1) Time course: 65 (14.6%) patients initially had pulmonary infection in the first 30 days, 147 (32.9%) between 1 and 3 months, 91 (20.4%) between 3 and 6 months, 23 (5.2%) between 6 and 12 months, 120 (26.9%)after 12 months of transplantation. In the first month after procedure, bacterial infection (4/5,80.0%) was the most common infection, bacterial (34/41,82.9%), mixed (19/41,46.3%) and vires infections (11/41,26.8%) were seen commonly 1 to 6 months following transplant, the incidence of fungal (14/38, 36.8%) and mycobacterial (5/38,13.2%) infections was increased after 12 months of transplantation. (2)Pathogens: Bacterial (34,28%) and mixed infections (34,28%) were the most common, followed by fungus infection (9, 7%), TB(7,6%)and cytomegalovims (5,4%). (3)CT findings: Ground-glass attenuations (69,57.0%) was the most common findings of pneumonia, followed by reticular or linear opaciia, followed by reticular or linear opacities (68,56.2%), nodules (66,54.5%), pleural thickening (41,33.9%), consolidations (31,25.6%), tree-in-bud patterns (24, 19.8%), pleural effusion (22,18.2%), and bronchovascular bundle thickening (16,13.2%). Ground-glass attenuation was commonly seen in cytomegalovims pneumonia (4,80.0%), and nodule was commonly observed in bacterial infection (23,67.6%), tree-in-bud pattern was the most common finding in pulmonary tuberculosis(4, P=0.049). There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of other CT patterns (P>0.05). Conclusions: The peak incidence of pulmonary infection is in the 3 month after renal transplantation and bacterial infection is the most common. The CT diagnosis of infection can be made by combining the time course of infection, clinical laboratory data and lesion distribution. (authors)

  18. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

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    te Pas Marinus FW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars.

  19. Bacterial infections complicating tongue piercing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Catherine HY; Minnema, Brian J.; Wayne L. Gold

    2010-01-01

    Tongue piercing has become an increasingly popular form of body art. However, this procedure can occasionally be complicated by serious bacterial infections. The present article reports a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a Gemella species in a patient with a pierced tongue, and reviews 18 additional cases of local and systemic bacterial infections associated with tongue piercing. Infections localized to the oral cavity and head and neck region included molar abscess, glossal ab...

  20. Endocardite infecciosa em adolescentes. Análise dos fatores de risco de mortalidade intra-hospitalar Infective endocarditis in adolescents. analysis of risk factors for in-hospital mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Nádia Barreto Tenório Aoun; Francisco Manes Albanesi Fº; Maurício Bastos Freitas Rachid; Luíz André Vieira Fernandes; José Augusto da Silva Messias

    1997-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estudar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, terapêuticos e evolutivos da endocardite infecciosa (EI) em grupo de pacientes com idade entre 12 e 20 (média de 15,5) anos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 33 pacientes consecutivos (14 do sexo masculino e 19 do feminino), admitidos com diagnóstico de EI. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade da EI foi de 42%. A cardiopatia reumática predominou como condição predisponente (63% dos casos), seguida das cardiopatias congênitas (24%) e p...

  1. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of employees to community and nosocomial infections, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) . Nosocomial infections are infections that occur from exposure to infectious organisms found in facilities such ...

  2. Bicarbonate enhances expression of the endocarditis and biofilm associated pilus locus, ebpR-ebpABC, in Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson L Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously identified ebpR, encoding a potential member of the AtxA/Mga transcriptional regulator family, and showed that it is important for transcriptional activation of the Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis and biofilm associated pilus operon, ebpABC. Although ebpR is not absolutely essential for ebpABC expression (100-fold reduction, its deletion led to phenotypes similar to those of an ebpABC mutant such as absence of pili at the cell surface and, consequently, reduced biofilm formation. A non-piliated ebpABC mutant has been shown to be attenuated in a rat model of endocarditis and in a murine urinary tract infection model, indicating an important participation of the ebpR-ebpABC locus in virulence. However, there is no report relating to the environmental conditions that affect expression of the ebpR-ebpABC locus. Results In this study, we examined the effect of CO2/HCO3-, pH, and the Fsr system on the ebpR-ebpABC locus expression. The presence of 5% CO2/0.1 M HCO3- increased ebpR-ebpABC expression, while the Fsr system was confirmed to be a weak repressor of this locus. The mechanism by which the Fsr system repressed the ebpR-ebpABC locus expression appears independent of the effects of CO2- bicarbonate. Furthermore, by using an ebpA::lacZ fusion as a reporter, we showed that addition of 0.1 M sodium bicarbonate to TSBG (buffered at pH 7.5, but not the presence of 5% CO2, induced ebpA expression in TSBG broth. In addition, using microarray analysis, we found 73 genes affected by the presence of sodium bicarbonate (abs(fold > 2, P ebpA mRNA levels under the conditions tested. Conclusions This study reports that the ebp locus expression is enhanced by the presence of bicarbonate with a consequential increase in the number of cells producing pili. Although the molecular basis of the bicarbonate effect remains unclear, the pathway is independent of the Fsr system. In conclusion, E. faecalis joins the growing family of pathogens that regulates virulence gene expression in response to bicarbonate and/or CO2.

  3. Infectious endocarditis caused by Nocardia sp.: histological morphology as a guide for the specific diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jussara Bianchi, Castelli; Rinaldo Focaccia, Siciliano; Edson, Abdala; Vera Demarchi, Aiello.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nocardia is a rare opportunistic agent, which may affect immunocompromised individuals causing lung infections and exceptionally infective endocarditis (IE). There are few reports of IE caused by Nocardia sp., usually involving biological prostheses but rarely in natural valves. Its accurate microbi [...] ological identification may be hampered by the similarity with Rhodococcus equi and Corynebacterium spp. Here we report a case of native mitral valve IE caused by this agent in which the clinical absence of response to vancomycin and the suggestion of Nocardia sp. by histology pointed to the misdiagnosis of Corynebacterium spp. in blood cultures. The histological morphology can advise on the need for expansion of cultivation time and use of extra microbiological procedures that lead to the differential diagnosis with Corynebacterium spp. and other agents, which is essential to establish timely specific treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  4. Speech Analysis of Throat Infected People Using DSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.S.R. Chaudhari,

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are various ways of communication. Two people may communicate with each other through speech, gestures or graphical symbols. Man’s most natural way of communication is through speech. Though writing seems to be important means of communication and written words, appear to be more efficient means of transmitting intelligence, the amount of intelligence exchanged by speech is beyond comparison. Considering the importance of speech ,the speech analysis is carried out .Speech analysis is used in innovative way to find out parameters like Amplitude, frequency, energy and power, when throat gets infected because of viral infections or due to any other cause. Speech quality changes which changes the parameters. An experiment is carried out with the instrument DSO (Digital signal oscilloscope. Speech analysis of normal and infected throat that is performed without any treatment. The word “Hello” pronounced by 4 different persons in Normal health condition and when person when has infected throat. The main aim of this project is to compare signals of speech of normal throat person and infected throat person by analyzing Amplitude and frequency parameters which are obtained from DSO.The instrument set up consist of Input Module with Microphone (ST2108, DSO( Agilent Infiniti Vision 2000 X-Series oscilloscope. FFT software installed in computer for speech recording.

  5. Tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite infecciosa / Surgical treatment of infeccious endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antoninho S, Arnoni; Antônio Flávio Sanches de, Almeida; Juan Fernando Terrones, Caceres; Sérgio do Carmo, Jorge; Jarbas J, Dinkhuysen; Camilo, Abdulmassih Neto; Paulo, Chaccur; Adib D, Jatene; Luiz Carlos Bento de, Souza; Paulo P, Paulista.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available De janeiro de 1987 a janeiro de 1992, 105 pacientes portadores de endocardite foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico. Sessenta e quatro eram do sexo masculino e 41 do feminino. A idade média foi de 35,7 anos e o peso médio de 55,45 kg. Quarenta e cinco pacientes apresentavam acometimento da valva a [...] órtica, sendo 32 na nativa e 12 em próteses anteriormente implantadas (6 metálicas e 6 biológicas). Na correção, foram utilizadas sete próteses biológicas e 37 metálicas. O caso restante foi de plastia da valva. Doze pacientes necessitaram correção de abcessos que comprometiam o anel e as estruturas adjacentes. A endocardite na mitral foi tratada em 34 pacientes, sendo 18 na valva nativa e 16 em próteses artificiais, com um deles apresentando abcesso, que destruiu parte do anel valvar, e necessitando correção com pericárdio bovino, para posterior implante da prótese. Nesses pacientes fizemos 2 plastias e utilizamos 24 próteses biológicas e 8 metálicas. Em 18 pacientes, tanto a mitral como a aórtica estavam comprometidas, sendo 11 vezes nas valvas nativas, 6 em prótese biológica mitral com metálica aórtica e 1 vez com portador de prótese biológica mitral e aorta nativa. Em 11 deles usou-se prótese biológica mitral e metálica aórtica, em 4 prótese metálica em ambas as posições, em 1 prótese biológica nas 2 posições e, nos 2 casos restantes, plastia de 1 valva associada à prótese da outra. Em 1 dos pacientes que apresentava abcesso tanto na mitral como na aórtica, usou-se retalho único de pericárdio bovino, para corrigir os abcessos, e as próteses foram implantadas parcialmente nesse retalho. Os 8 restantes apresentavam endocardite em cardiopatias congênitas (6 casos), em fio de marcapasso endovitário (1 caso) e nas 3 valvas (mitro-aórtico-tricuspídeo 1 caso). A mortalidade cirúrgica foi de 18,09%, a maioria por síndrome de baixo débito ou septicemia. As endocardites em posição mitral tiveram o maior índice de mortalidade (23,5%) e as da posição aórtica o menor (15,5%), com os mitro-aórticos tendo uma mortalidade de 16,6%. A cirurgia para endocardite tem apresentado melhoria nos resultados, principalmente depois que os cirurgiões tornaram-se mais agressivos, retirando todo o tecido infectado, com amplas ressecções e corrigindo todos os defeitos adicionais, procurando restaurar a integridade do coração e a função valvar. Abstract in english From January 1987 to January 1992,105 patients (64 males; age x 35.7 years) were referred to surgery due to valvar edocarditis. Forty-five patients had the aortic valve involved (32 in the native valve and 12 in a prosthesis previously implanted (6 metalic and 6 biological and 1 case of previous val [...] ve suture). Twelve patients needed removal of abscess on the valve which was compromising the valvar ring and contiguous structures. Endocarditis in the mitral valve was treated in 34 patients (18 in native valve and 16 in artificial prosthesis). In such patients we performed 2 sutures of the valves and implanted 24 biological and 8 metalic valves. Involvement of both mitral and aortic apparatus, was present in 18 cases. In such patients, 11 received biological prosthesis in mitral position, and metalic prosthesis in aortic position. One of these cases, that presented an abscess in both mitral and aortic valve, received a single patch of bovinum pericardium and the prosthesis were partially implanted in such patch. The remained 8 cases presented endocarditis in congenital heart disease (6 cases), in pacemaker electrode (1 case) and 1 case in the 3 valves (aortic, mitral and tricuspid). The in-hosipital mortality rate was: 18% (23.5% to mitral; 15.5% to aortic and 16.6% to mitral-aortic valves endocarditis). We concluded that surgery for endocarditis has improved the results, mainly after surgeons became more aggressive pulling out the infected tissue with great resections and correcting the additional deffects, in an attempt to restore the heart integrity and valvular function.

  6. Tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite infecciosa Surgical treatment of infeccious endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoninho S Arnoni

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available De janeiro de 1987 a janeiro de 1992, 105 pacientes portadores de endocardite foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico. Sessenta e quatro eram do sexo masculino e 41 do feminino. A idade média foi de 35,7 anos e o peso médio de 55,45 kg. Quarenta e cinco pacientes apresentavam acometimento da valva aórtica, sendo 32 na nativa e 12 em próteses anteriormente implantadas (6 metálicas e 6 biológicas. Na correção, foram utilizadas sete próteses biológicas e 37 metálicas. O caso restante foi de plastia da valva. Doze pacientes necessitaram correção de abcessos que comprometiam o anel e as estruturas adjacentes. A endocardite na mitral foi tratada em 34 pacientes, sendo 18 na valva nativa e 16 em próteses artificiais, com um deles apresentando abcesso, que destruiu parte do anel valvar, e necessitando correção com pericárdio bovino, para posterior implante da prótese. Nesses pacientes fizemos 2 plastias e utilizamos 24 próteses biológicas e 8 metálicas. Em 18 pacientes, tanto a mitral como a aórtica estavam comprometidas, sendo 11 vezes nas valvas nativas, 6 em prótese biológica mitral com metálica aórtica e 1 vez com portador de prótese biológica mitral e aorta nativa. Em 11 deles usou-se prótese biológica mitral e metálica aórtica, em 4 prótese metálica em ambas as posições, em 1 prótese biológica nas 2 posições e, nos 2 casos restantes, plastia de 1 valva associada à prótese da outra. Em 1 dos pacientes que apresentava abcesso tanto na mitral como na aórtica, usou-se retalho único de pericárdio bovino, para corrigir os abcessos, e as próteses foram implantadas parcialmente nesse retalho. Os 8 restantes apresentavam endocardite em cardiopatias congênitas (6 casos, em fio de marcapasso endovitário (1 caso e nas 3 valvas (mitro-aórtico-tricuspídeo 1 caso. A mortalidade cirúrgica foi de 18,09%, a maioria por síndrome de baixo débito ou septicemia. As endocardites em posição mitral tiveram o maior índice de mortalidade (23,5% e as da posição aórtica o menor (15,5%, com os mitro-aórticos tendo uma mortalidade de 16,6%. A cirurgia para endocardite tem apresentado melhoria nos resultados, principalmente depois que os cirurgiões tornaram-se mais agressivos, retirando todo o tecido infectado, com amplas ressecções e corrigindo todos os defeitos adicionais, procurando restaurar a integridade do coração e a função valvar.From January 1987 to January 1992,105 patients (64 males; age x 35.7 years were referred to surgery due to valvar edocarditis. Forty-five patients had the aortic valve involved (32 in the native valve and 12 in a prosthesis previously implanted (6 metalic and 6 biological and 1 case of previous valve suture. Twelve patients needed removal of abscess on the valve which was compromising the valvar ring and contiguous structures. Endocarditis in the mitral valve was treated in 34 patients (18 in native valve and 16 in artificial prosthesis. In such patients we performed 2 sutures of the valves and implanted 24 biological and 8 metalic valves. Involvement of both mitral and aortic apparatus, was present in 18 cases. In such patients, 11 received biological prosthesis in mitral position, and metalic prosthesis in aortic position. One of these cases, that presented an abscess in both mitral and aortic valve, received a single patch of bovinum pericardium and the prosthesis were partially implanted in such patch. The remained 8 cases presented endocarditis in congenital heart disease (6 cases, in pacemaker electrode (1 case and 1 case in the 3 valves (aortic, mitral and tricuspid. The in-hosipital mortality rate was: 18% (23.5% to mitral; 15.5% to aortic and 16.6% to mitral-aortic valves endocarditis. We concluded that surgery for endocarditis has improved the results, mainly after surgeons became more aggressive pulling out the infected tissue with great resections and correcting the additional deffects, in an attempt to restore the heart integrity and valvular function.

  7. Pilin and sortase residues critical for endocarditis- and biofilm-associated pilus biogenesis in Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hailyn V; Flores-Mireles, Ana L; Kau, Andrew L; Kline, Kimberly A; Pinkner, Jerome S; Neiers, Fabrice; Normark, Staffan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Caparon, Michael G; Hultgren, Scott J

    2013-10-01

    Enterococci commonly cause hospital-acquired infections, such as infective endocarditis and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. In animal models of these infections, a long hairlike extracellular protein fiber known as the endocarditis- and biofilm-associated (Ebp) pilus is an important virulence factor for Enterococcus faecalis. For Ebp and other sortase-assembled pili, the pilus-associated sortases are essential for fiber formation as they create covalent isopeptide bonds between the sortase recognition motif and the pilin-like motif of the pilus subunits. However, the molecular requirements governing the incorporation of the three pilus subunits (EbpA, EbpB, and EbpC) have not been investigated in E. faecalis. Here, we show that a Lys residue within the pilin-like motif of the EbpC subunit was necessary for EbpC polymerization. However, incorporation of EbpA into the pilus fiber only required its sortase recognition motif (LPXTG), while incorporation of EbpB only required its pilin-like motif. Only the sortase recognition motif would be required for incorporation of the pilus tip subunit, while incorporation of the base subunit would only require the pilin recognition motif. Thus, these data support a model with EbpA at the tip and EbpB at the base of an EbpC polymer. In addition, the housekeeping sortase, SrtA, was found to process EbpB and its predicted catalytic Cys residue was required for efficient cell wall anchoring of mature Ebp pili. Thus, we have defined molecular interactions involved in fiber polymerization, minor subunit organization, and pilus subcellular compartmentalization in the E. faecalis Ebp pilus system. These studies advance our understanding of unique molecular mechanisms of sortase-assembled pilus biogenesis. PMID:23913319

  8. Histoplasma capsulatum endocarditis: multicenter case series with review of current diagnostic techniques and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, James; Kauffman, Carol A; Smith, Jeannina A; Assi, Maha; Blue, Sky; Buitrago, Martha I; Deresinski, Stan; Wright, Patty W; Drevets, Douglas A; Norris, Steven A; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Carson, Paul J; Vergidis, Paschalis; Carpenter, John; Seidenfeld, Steven M; Wheat, L Joseph

    2014-07-01

    Infective endocarditis is an uncommon manifestation of infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. The diagnosis is frequently missed, and outcomes historically have been poor. We present 14 cases of Histoplasma endocarditis seen in the last decade at medical centers throughout the United States. All patients were men, and 10 of the 14 had an infected prosthetic aortic valve. One patient had an infected left atrial myxoma. Symptoms were present a median of 7 weeks before the diagnosis was established. Blood cultures yielded H. capsulatum in only 6 (43%) patients. Histoplasma antigen was present in urine and/or serum in all but 3 of the patients and provided the first clue to the diagnosis of histoplasmosis for several patients. Antibody testing was positive for H. capsulatum in 6 of 8 patients in whom the test was performed. Eleven patients underwent surgery for valve replacement or myxoma removal. Large, friable vegetations were noted at surgery in most patients, confirming the preoperative transesophageal echocardiography findings. Histopathologic examination of valve tissue and the myxoma revealed granulomatous inflammation and large numbers of organisms in most specimens. Four of the excised valves and the atrial myxoma showed a mixture of both yeast and hyphal forms on histopathology. A lipid formulation of amphotericin B, administered for a median of 29 days, was the initial therapy in 11 of the 14 patients. This was followed by oral itraconazole therapy, in all but 2 patients. The length of itraconazole suppressive therapy ranged from 11 months to lifelong administration. Three patients (21%) died within 3 months of the date of diagnosis. All 3 deaths were in patients who had received either no or minimal (1 day and 1 week) amphotericin B. PMID:25181311

  9. Endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana como manifestación inicial de neoplasia pulmonar / Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis as initial event of lung cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Herrera de Pablo; E., Esteban Esteban; J. V., Giménez Soler; A., Pareja Martínez; J., Moscoso del Prado.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana (ETNB) es una causa poco frecuente de embolismo sistémico cuya presencia suele asociarse a enfermedades malignas y estados de hipercoagulabilidad. La ecocardiografía constituye una técnica útil para el diagnóstico. Sin embargo las lesiones valvulares de la ET [...] NB son ecográficamente indistinguibles de las vegetaciones observadas en la endocarditis infecciosa (EI), por lo cual es necesario establecer un diagnóstico diferencial con esta entidad. El tratamiento de la endocarditis trombótica es controvertido coincidiendo la literatura en el uso de heparina intravenosa. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 42 años de edad con infartos isquémicos cerebrales múltiples, en la cual la realización una ecocardiografía transesofágica (ETE) ayudó a establecer el diagnóstico de ETNB. La etiología infecciosa fue descartada tras practicar un estudio microbiológico exhaustivo. En la búsqueda de patologías causantes o relacionadas con la ETNB se encontró la presencia de un adenocarcinoma pulmonar como enfermedad subyacente. Abstract in english Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is a rare cause of peripheral embolism. NBTE is usually associated with malignant diseases and hipercoagulability states. Echocardiography is a very useful technique for the diagnosis. However valvular lesions in NBTE are similar to valvular vegetations ob [...] served from infectious endocarditis (IE), so it´s necessary to establish a differential diagnosis. The treatment of thrombotic endocarditis is controversial, but the literature coincides in the use of intravenous heparin. We describe the case of a 42 years old woman with stroke in which transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was useful in establishing the diagnosis of NBTE. The infectious origin was excluded with the realization of a exhaustive microbiologic study. In the search of causes for NBTE a lung adenocarcinoma was detected. In the present case the diagnosis of endocarditis preceded the neoplastic disease diagnosis.

  10. Haemophilus parainfluenzae aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) successfully treated with oral levofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Brahmbhatt, Kunal; Raza, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic treatment of native valve infective endocarditis (IE) traditionally consists of 4-6 weeks of intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy. Oral (PO) antibiotic therapy is being used more frequently, for part or all of treatment for IE but experience in treating IE with PO antibiotics is limited. Preferable agents for oral therapy of IE are antibiotics with a high degree of activity against the IE pathogen and that have high bioavailability (>90%) so that achievable serum and tissue levels are the same as with equivalent IV antibiotics. Oral antibiotic therapy of IE has several advantages over IV therapy given the long duration of treatment, i.e., 4-6 weeks for IE. Firstly, outpatient oral therapy for IE is easily administered over 4-6 weeks and decreases hospital length of stay (LOS). Secondly, oral antibiotics (administered at the same dose, frequency and duration) costs much less than their IV counterparts. Thirdly, with PO therapy for IE there are no central venous catheter (CVC) associated complications, e.g., phlebitis, bacteremia, fungemia. Compared to native valve IE, prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), depending on the IE pathogen, requires prolonged therapy and usually valve replacement. Haemophilus sp. IE is relatively virulent and often complicated by heart failure and/or embolic phenomena. We describe the first reported case of Haemophilus parainfluenzae aortic PVE successfully treated with oral levofloxacin without aortic valve replacement. PMID:25998992

  11. Two cases of aspergillus endocarditis in non neutropenic children on chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Velangi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endocarditis (FE is a rare complication in immunocompromised patients which is difficult to diagnose and has been characterized by excessive mortality (> 50% and morbidity, regardless of treatment. The lack of clinical trials due to the small number of cases contributes further to a poor outcome. In our two cases of aspergilllus endocarditis we reviewed the clinical features, echocardiographic findings, microbiologic data, treatment, and outcome of these 2 cases and provide a current characterization of the syndrome. In this paper we have demonstrated the diversity of presentation of a critical fungal infection in immunocompromised but non neutropenic paediatric patients. The prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment is crucial for a favourable outcome along with the use of double antifungal treatment with liposomal amphotericin and voriconazole initially which could be later switched to oral voriconazole with a good tissue penetration. Histological samples as well as radiological evidence and echocardiograms should be reviewed by experienced clinicians in order to aid diagnosis and promptly initiate treatment for these patients in order to achieve a favourable outcome

  12. Endocarditis por Brucella abortus: Reporte del primer caso en C.R Brucella abortus Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Villalobos-Zúñiga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Paciente masculino de 36 años de edad, proveniente de la zona rural de Costa Rica, con un cuadro clínico de 8 meses de evolución de fiebre, mialgias, artralgias, pérdida de peso y lumbalgia; referido por la detección de un soplo de insuficiencia aórtica. El ecocardiograma reveló endocarditis de la válvula aórtica, y se obtuvieron 4 hemocultivos positivos por Brucella abortus biotipo 3, con serologías negativas por brucelosis. Se inició tratamiento con antibióticos y luego se le realizó un reemplazo valvular aórtico; 4 meses después ingresó con dolor torácico que se atribuyó a una oclusión de la arteria descendente anterior, demostrada angiográficamente, por posible embolismo. En la actualidad cursa clínicamente estable con manejo médico para su cardiopatía, sin recaída infecciosa.The case of a 36-year-old patient from a rural area is presented. He came with an 8 month history of fever, myalgias, arthralgias, weight loss and lower back pain; who also had an aortic insufficiency murmur detected. The diagnosis of aortic valve endocarditis was made by echocardiography, and had 4 positive blood cultures for Brucella abortus biotype 3, and negative serologic test for brucellosis. He was started on antibiotics and later on underwent aortic valve replacement, with a late coronary cardioembolism as a complication.

  13. Endocarditis infecciosa sobre electrodo de marcapasos permanente / Infectious Endocarditis on electrode of permanent pacemaker

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raúl, Reyes Sánchez; José Arturo, de Dios Lorente; Yamilé, Acosta Pérez.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso clínico de un anciano de 84 años, con antecedentes de cardiopatía isquémica crónica, que fue remitido a la consulta de cardiología (para atender a los pacientes con marcapasos y arritmias) del Hospital Provincial Docente "Saturnino Lora" de Santiago de Cuba, donde se le diagnosti [...] có una disfunción sinusal y se le colocó un marcapasos permanente. Un mes después comenzó a presentar fiebre y otras manifestaciones clínicas de modo que reingresó por sospecha de endocarditis infecciosa aguda en la cavidad derecha, relacionada con la implantación del dispositivo intracardíaco, lo cual fue confirmado con los resultados de los hemocultivos y ecocardiogramas efectuados. El paciente evolucionó desfavorablemente y falleció. Abstract in english The case report of a 84 year-old elderly is presented, with history of chronic ischemic heart disease that was referred to the cardiology visit (to assist the patients with pacemakers and arrhythmias) of "Saturnino Lora" Teaching Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, where he was diagnosed a sinu [...] sal dysfuntion and he was inserted a permanent pacemaker. One month later he began to present fever and other clinical manifestations so that he was readmitted due to suspicion of acute infectious endocarditis in the right cavity, related to the placing of the intracardiac device, which was confirmed with the results of the hemoculture and echocardiograms. The clinical course of the patient was unfavorable and he died.

  14. Endocarditis por Brucella abortus: Reporte del primer caso en C.R / Brucella abortus Endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel Antonio, Villalobos-Zúñiga; Edith, Barrantes-Valverde; Patricia, Monge-Ortega.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Paciente masculino de 36 años de edad, proveniente de la zona rural de Costa Rica, con un cuadro clínico de 8 meses de evolución de fiebre, mialgias, artralgias, pérdida de peso y lumbalgia; referido por la detección de un soplo de insuficiencia aórtica. El ecocardiograma reveló endocarditis de la v [...] álvula aórtica, y se obtuvieron 4 hemocultivos positivos por Brucella abortus biotipo 3, con serologías negativas por brucelosis. Se inició tratamiento con antibióticos y luego se le realizó un reemplazo valvular aórtico; 4 meses después ingresó con dolor torácico que se atribuyó a una oclusión de la arteria descendente anterior, demostrada angiográficamente, por posible embolismo. En la actualidad cursa clínicamente estable con manejo médico para su cardiopatía, sin recaída infecciosa. Abstract in english The case of a 36-year-old patient from a rural area is presented. He came with an 8 month history of fever, myalgias, arthralgias, weight loss and lower back pain; who also had an aortic insufficiency murmur detected. The diagnosis of aortic valve endocarditis was made by echocardiography, and had 4 [...] positive blood cultures for Brucella abortus biotype 3, and negative serologic test for brucellosis. He was started on antibiotics and later on underwent aortic valve replacement, with a late coronary cardioembolism as a complication.

  15. Endocardite infecciosa causada por Eikenella corrodens Eikenella corrodens infective endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Novaes Cardoso; Marcelo Eidi Ochiai; Múcio T. Oliveira Jr.; Paulo Morgado; Robinson Munhoz; Fernanda E. Andretto; Alfredo José Mansur; Antonio Carlos Pereira Barretto

    2005-01-01

    Os microorganismos do grupo HACEK (Haemophilus spp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens e Kingella kingae) são responsáveis por 3% dos casos de endocardites. Eles apresentam propriedades clínicas e microbiológicas semelhantes entre si: são bacilos gram-negativos, isolados mais facilmente em meios aeróbicos, suas culturas necessitam de tempo prolongado de incubação para crescimento (média 3,3 dias) e podem ser considerados como parte da flora norm...

  16. Embolic occlusion of arteriovenous fistula due to infective endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, R.; Swarnalatha, G.; Mahapatra, S.; Dakshinamurty, K. V.

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old male on maintenance hemodialysis through right radio cephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) also had mitral regurgitation. He presented with fever and chills of 2 days duration along with pain and swelling at median cubital fossa of right upper limb. Local examination revealed warmth, redness, and tenderness at median cubital fossa. AVF thrill was absent. Echocardiography revealed vegetations on the mitral valve. An extensive search of literature did not reveal an instance of embo...

  17. Use of autologous pericardium for mitral leaflet reconstruction in a child with endocarditis / Uso de pericárdio autólogo para reconstrução de folheto mitral em criança com endocardite

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olcay Murat, Disli; Cemsit, Karakurt; Nevzat, Erdil; Bektas, Battaloglu.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de reparo bem-sucedido da valva mitral decorrente de endocardite infecciosa ativa. Reparo da valva mitral foi acompanhado de desbridamento da vegetação e do abscesso, ressecção e plastia do folheto mitral posterior, e anuloplastia posterior com pericárdio autólogo. Pós-operatóri [...] o sem evidências de infecção recorrente, e ecocardiograma demonstrou competência da valva mitral com regurgitação mitral trivial. Concluímos que o reparo valvar é uma escolha viável em caso de endocardite ativa nas crianças. Abstract in english We present a case of successful repair of the mitral valve for active infective endocarditis. Mitral valve repair was performed through debridement of vegetation and abscess, resection and repair of the posterior mitral leaflet and posterior repair with autologous pericardium. Postoperative period w [...] as uneventfully, with no evidence of recurrent infection, and echocardiogram showed mitral valve competence with mild mitral regurgitation. We demonstrate that valve repair is a feasible choice in cases of active endocarditis in children.

  18. In Vivo Effects of Cefazolin, Daptomycin, and Nafcillin in Experimental Endocarditis with a Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strain Showing an Inoculum Effect against Cefazolin

    OpenAIRE

    Nannini, Esteban C.; Singh, Kavindra V.; Arias, Cesar A.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have implicated the inoculum effect that some strains of type A beta-lactamase (Bla)-producing, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) show against cefazolin as the cause for clinical failures in certain serious deep-seated infections. Here, using a previously reported MSSA strain displaying this phenotype (TX0117), we obtained a Bla-cured derivative (TX0117c) with a combination of novobiocin and high temperature. Both isolates were then used in a rat endocarditi...

  19. Lactococcus garvieae endocarditis in a native valve identified by MALDI-TOF MS and PCR-based 16s rRNA in Spain: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras Cañas, V.; Pérez Ramirez, M.D.; Bermudez Jiménez, F.; Rojo Martin, M.D.; Miranda Casas, C.; Marin Arriaza, M.; Navarro Marí, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcus garvieae is a Gram-positive, catalase negative coccus arranged in pairs or short chains, well-known as a fish pathogen. We report a case of Infective Endocarditis (IE) by L. garvieae in a native valve from a 68-year-old male with unknown history of contact with raw fish and an extensive history of heart disease. This case highlights the reliability of MALDI-TOF MS compared to conventional methods in the identification of rare microorganisms like this.

  20. Acute pericarditis as presenting symptom of staphylococcal endocarditis: Mitral valve involvement with fistulous tract from LV to LA and subsequent pseudoaneurysm development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric McWilliams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pericarditis is an unusual presentation of bacterial endocarditis [1]. It is most commonly associated with staphylococcal aureus infection and more likely to occur in young males in association with the risk factors of alcohol or substance abuse or diabetes. Tamponade is a common presenting feature and the aortic valve is the most commonly involved valve. This condition carries a very high mortality whether treated with antibiotics alone or in combination with surgery.

  1. In Vivo Synergism of Ceftobiprole and Vancomycin against Experimental Endocarditis Due to Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus?

    OpenAIRE

    Entenza, J.M.; Veloso, T. R.; Vouillamoz, J.; Giddey, M.; Majcherczyk, P.; Moreillon, P.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of ceftobiprole combined with vancomycin was tested against two vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) strains, PC3 and Mu50, in rats with experimental endocarditis. Animals with infected aortic vegetations were treated for 3 days with doses simulating the kinetics after intravenous administration in humans of (i) the standard dose of ceftobiprole of 500 mg every 12 h (b.i.d.) (SD-ceftobiprole), (ii) a low dose of ceftobiprole of 250 mg b.i.d. (LD-ceftobiprole), (ii...

  2. Comparative analysis of serum protein electrophoresis’ ?profiles of people infected with HIV and those not infected ?with HIV in Kinshasa

    OpenAIRE

    KAMANGU NTAMBWE ERICK; KALALA LUNGANZA RICHARD; MVUMBI LELO ?GEORGES; MESIA KAHUNU GAUTHIER

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: It is necessary to consider the analysis of electrophoresis’ profiles of serum ?proteins as an alternative and less expensive for the biological monitoring of patients infected by ?HIV in countries with limited resources.?Objective: The aim of the study was to establish a comparison between the electrophoresis’ ?profile of sera proteins of people infected by HIV naïve of treatment and people not infected by ?HIV. ?Method: A transversal study was conducted at AMO...

  3. An outbreak of Candida parapsilosis prosthetic valve endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekema, D J; Messer, S A; Hollis, R J; Wenzel, R P; Pfaller, M A

    1997-11-01

    Candida parapsilosis, an important nosocomial pathogen and the most common species of Candida found on the hands of health care workers, is a rare cause of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). From March through June 1994, four cases of C. parapsilosis PVE were diagnosed at a 400-bed community hospital. The mean time to presentation after valve replacement surgery was 148 days (range, 20 to 345). Three of the four patients died of complications of PVE. Multiple environmental cultures were performed, and only one was positive for C. parapsilosis. Cultures from the bypass pump, cell saver, cardioplegia solution, and subsequent valves were all negative. All valve replacements were performed by the same operating room team. Interviews with the surgeon and physician assistant, the only personnel involved in all cases, revealed that their hypoallergenic gloves were subject to frequent tears during valve replacement procedures, often requiring several glove changes per procedure. Hand cultures of personnel were obtained, and cultures from 20 individuals (26%) were positive for C. parapsilosis. Hand cultures of the surgeon and physician assistant obtained 8 months after the last case had surgery were negative for yeasts. Molecular typing of the 3 available case isolates, 14 epidemiologically unrelated patient isolates, 1 environmental isolate, and 20 hand isolates was performed by electrophoretic karyotyping and restriction endonuclease analysis of genomic DNA using restriction enzymes BssHII and EagI followed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The three case isolates were identical by restriction endonuclease analysis of genomic DNA, and two of the three shared the same electrophoretic karyotyping profile. The remaining patient, environmental, and hand isolates represented 29 different DNA types and were distinctly different from the case isolates. All of the isolates tested were susceptible to amphotericin B, 5FC, fluconazole, and itraconazole. The circumstantial evidence suggests the probability of glove tears during valve replacement surgery and subsequent transmission of C. parapsilosis to patients. PMID:9401807

  4. Endocarditis fatal con localización mitral producida por Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Fatal mitral valve endocarditis by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Vallespi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso fatal de endocarditis en válvula mitral por Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, en un paciente varón de 45 años con antecedentes de etilismo crónico y sin contacto previo con animales. Presentaba un síndrome febril prolongado con poliartralgias, pérdida de peso y dolor en región lumbar y miembros inferiores. Los hemocultivos (2/2 fueron positivos a las 48 hs. de incubación y en el examen directo se observaron bacilos gram-positivos pleomórficos. En el subcultivo en agar sangre ovina al 5% desarrollaron colonias puntiformes con alfa hemólisis, catalasa y oxidasa negativas, PYR y LAP positivas y con producción de H2S en medio TSI. La cepa aislada fue identificada como E. rhusiopathiae de acuerdo a la metodología convencional y confirmada con API Coryne. El cuadro se asumió como una probable endocarditis demostrada mediante un ecocardiograma transtorácico. Se comenzó el tratamiento endovenoso con ampicilina y gentamicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente y se tornó afebril, sin embargo falleció a los 19 días de internación por edema agudo de pulmón. La prueba de sensibilidad por E-test demostró resistencia a vancomicina y gentamicina y sensibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima. Es importante valorar los aislamientos de bacilos gram-positivos pleomórficos, catalasa y oxidasa negativos y realizar la prueba de producción de SH2 en el medio TSI. La resistencia a vancomicina ayuda a la identificación y permite establecer una correcta terapia antimicrobiana. Si bien se considera que las infecciones por E. rhusiopathiae son de carácter ocupacional, el contacto con cerdos u otros animales puede no ser evidente.A fatal case of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae mitral valve endocarditis is described in a 45 years old male, with a history of chronic alcohol abuse and without animals contact. He presented intermittent fever, polyarthralgia, weight loss, and low back pain. In blood cultures (2 bottles, gram-positive pleomorphic rods grew after 48 hours of incubation. The subculture on blood agar media showed a small, alpha-hemolytic colony, catalase and oxidase negative, PYR and LAP positive and the production of H2S in triple sugar iron agar, was demonstrated. The isolate was initially identified as E. rhusiopathiae, and confirmed by API Coryne (BioMérieux. On the basis of these findings and a transthoracic echocardiogram, an endocarditis was confirmed. Intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin treatment was initiated. The patient became afever, nevertheless he died on day 19 after admission as a consequence of acute pulmonary edema. Susceptibility testing by E-test showed that the microorganism was resistant to vancomycin and gentamicin, and susceptible to penicillin and cefotaxime. We emphasize the importance to consider the isolates of gram-positive pleomorphic rods, catalase and oxidase negative, and the addition of H2S production test in TSI medium. Vancomycin-resistance helps in the identification, and to establish the correct antimicrobial therapy. Although E. rhusiopathiae is usually reported as an occupational pathogen, the contact with pigs and other farm animals may be underestimated.

  5. Prophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis: a general practice audit

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Ian

    1988-01-01

    A method of identifying patients at r,sk from bacterial endocarditis is described. All at-risk patients in one practice were identified, contacted and counselled. Twothirds of these at-risk patients had no contact with the appropriate hospital outpatient department. It is suggested that the general practitioner has the primary role in the prevention of this disease.

  6. The first reported cases of Q fever endocarditis in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Raoult

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the first two reported cases of Q fever endocarditis in Thailand. Both patients were male, had pre-existing heart valve damage and had contact with cattle. Heightened awareness of Q fever could improve diagnosis and case management and stimulate efforts to identify risk factors and preventive measures.

  7. Infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Satya S; Hall, Anne V.; David W. Wareham; Britton, Keith E.

    2002-01-01

    Infection continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine has an important role in aiding the diagnosis of particularly deep-seated infections such as abscesses, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and infections of prosthetic devices. Established techniques such as radiolabelled leucocytes are sensitive and specific for inflammation but do not distinguish between infective and non-infective inflammation. The challenge for Nuclear medicine in in...

  8. Chemoprophylaxis with oral amoxycillin against bacterial endocarditis: when should second doses be administered after dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumana, C R; Chau, K K; Chau, P Y; Kou, M; Lauder, I

    1986-12-13

    The adequacy of serum bactericidal activity after oral amoxycillin given as prophylaxis against infective endocarditis was studied using a double blind randomised protocol in healthy volunteers having dentistry. One hour before their procedure 38 patients received 3 g amoxycillin syrup and 12 received matching placebo. Venous blood samples were drawn before and one and nine hours after dosing and serum amoxycillin concentrations determined using a standard bioassay. Samples containing amoxycillin had inhibitory titres measured against two reference isolates of viridans streptococci known to have caused infective endocarditis. The susceptibility to amoxycillin of one strain was high and the other low, respective minimal bactericidal and inhibitory concentrations being 0.08 and 0.04 mumol/l (0.03 and 0.015 microgram/ml) and 2.74 and 1.37 mumol/l (1 and 0.5 microgram/ml). Amoxycillin was detected in only post-treatment samples of patients given the active drug. There were no significant correlations between one or nine hour drug concentrations and age or physical characteristics, nor was there any relation to preceding food consumption. Correlations between drug concentrations at one and nine hours were weak (r = 0.34; p less than 0.05), but between corresponding drug concentrations and serum inhibitory titres there were consistent correlations (r = 0.46-0.48; p less than 0.005). Against the low susceptibility reference isolate bactericidal amoxycillin concentrations were encountered in only 20 of the 38 nine hour samples (95% confidence limits 34% and 66%). When repeat doses of amoxycillin are indicated after dentistry they should be given about four hours later, not eight hours later as commonly practised. PMID:3099944

  9. Endocarditis infecciosa aguda por estreptococo beta hemolítico de grupo A

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SILVANA, SANGUINETTI; ROSANA, RAINA; MALBINA, LANGENHIN; JAVIER, PREGO; OSVALDO, BELLO.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A incidência de endocarditis infecciosa na idade pediátrica tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Produziram-se mudanças nos fatores de risco, patógenos e condições predisponentes desta doença. A endocarditis infecciosa sobre válvula nativa sem cardiopatia prévia é pouco freqüênte, de evolução aguda, acom [...] panhada de insuficiência cardíaca e manifestações sistemáticas. A causa por estreptococo beta-hemolítico de grupo A é rara, embora nos últimos anos tenha aumentado a freqüência de doenças invasivas graves por este patógeno. Apresenta-se um caso clínico de uma criança de sexo masculino de 7 anos, previamente sadio, com uma endocaditis aguda sobre válvula mitral por estreptococo beta-hemolítico de grupo A. A forma clínica foi aguda, severa com insuficiência cardíaca progressiva e sepse, requerendo cirurgia em duas oportunidades Abstract in spanish La incidencia de endocarditis infecciosa en la edad pediátrica ha aumentado en los últimos años. Se han producido cambios en los factores de riesgo, agentes patógenos y condiciones predisponentes de esta enfermedad. La endocarditis infecciosa sobre válvula nativa sin cardiopatía subyacente es poco f [...] recuente, de evolución aguda, acompañada de insuficiencia cardíaca y manifestaciones sistémicas. La causada por estreptococo beta-hemolítico de grupo A es rara, aunque en los últimos años ha aumentado la frecuencia de enfermedades invasivas graves por este agente patógeno. Se presenta el caso clínico de un varón de siete años, previamente sano, con una endocarditis aguda sobre válvula mitral por estreptococo beta-hemolítico de grupo A. La forma clínica fue aguda, severa, con insuficiencia cardíaca progresiva y sepsis, requiriendo cirugía en dos oportunidades. Abstract in english The incidence of infectious endocarditis in pediatric ages has increased during the last years. It has been produced changes in danger, pathogen factors, and predispose conditions of this illness. The infectious endocarditic on native valve without structural cardiac disease is not common, the acute [...] evolution, joined of cardiac failure and systematic manifestations. The etiology by beta hemolytic group A streptococcal (GAS) is rare although the frequency of invading serious illness by this pathogen has increased on the last years. It is shown the clinical case of a 7 year old previously healthy, with an acute endocarditis on mitral valve by GAS. The clinical form was acute, severe with progressive cardiac failure and sepsis, needing surgery twice.

  10. Evolución y letalidad por endocarditis infecciosa en pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo / Infectious endocarditis evolution and lethality in patients attended at Dos de Mayo National Hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evelyn, Sánchez; César, Gutiérrez.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la evolución y letalidad de los pacientes portadores de endocarditis infecciosa, así como la presencia de complicaciones y la influencia de estas sobre la mortalidad. Diseño: Estudio longitudinal no concurrente. Lugar: Servicio de cardiología del Hospital 2 de Mayo, hospital univer [...] sitario. Pacientes: Pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa. Intervenciones: Se revisó las historias clínicas de los pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa atendidos entre junio de 1999 y junio de 2005. Se evaluó los criterios clínicos, de laboratorio y ecocardiográficos (criterios de Duke) empleados en el diagnóstico. Para el análisis estadístico, se realizó el análisis descriptivo y comparativo con el empleo de las pruebas de Fisher y t de Student y la comparación de las curvas de Kaplan Meier, para evaluar la supervivencia a través de la prueba de rango logarítmico. Principales medidas de resultados: Evaluación de supervivencia: Complicaciones y mortalidad en pacientes en endocarditis infecciosa. Resultados: Se estudió 75 pacientes, la edad promedio fue 42,1±20,4 años, 66,7% del sexo masculino. El 93,3% tenía cardiopatía de base. La presentación clínica incluyó insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva (73,3%), encefalopatía (17,3%) y fenómenos embólicos (50,6%). Se evaluó la evolución de los parámetros de laboratorio, evidenciándose deterioro de la función renal. El ecocardiograma evidenció presencia de vegetaciones en 97,3% y complicaciones, como rotura valvar (8%), abscesos valvares (4%). Durante la evolución, se sometió a cirugía a 14,7%. La letalidad general fue 14,7%, la cual estuvo influenciada por el número de complicaciones, en particular las complicaciones sépticas y renales, que impactaron de igual manera en la probabilidad de supervivencia de estos pacientes. Conclusiones: Se registró una letalidad general de 14,7%. La probabilidad de supervivencia se vio afectada significativamente por el número de complicaciones presentes, entre ellas significativamente las complicaciones sépticas y renales. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate infectious endocarditis evolution and lethality as well as complications and their influence on mortality. Design: Non-concurrent longitudinal study. Setting: Dos de Mayo Hospital Cardiology service, a teaching hospital. Patients: Patients with infectious endocarditis. Interve [...] ntions: Clinical charts, laboratory and echocardiographic (Dukes criteria) studies of patients with infectious endocarditis attended between June 1999 and June 2005 were reviewed. Fisher and Sudent t tests were used for statistical analysis and Kaplan Meier curves comparison and logarithmic range test to evaluate survival. Main outcome measures: Infectious endocarditis complications and mortality. Results: Seventy-five patients were studied, mean age 42,1±20,4 years, 66,7% males; 93,3% presented cardiopathy. Clinical presentation included heart failure (73,3%), encephalopathy (17,3%), and embolic phenomena (50,6%). Laboratory evolution showed worsening renal function. Echocardiography demonstrated presence of vegetations in 97,3% and complications like valve breakage (8%), valve abscesses (4%); 14,7% of patients had surgery. Mortality was 14,7%, caused by renal and septic complications affecting patients' survival. Conclusions: Mortality in this group was 14,7%. Survival was affected by the number of complications, mainly renal and septic complications.

  11. Global analysis of viral infection in an archaeal model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JosephSteffens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The origin and evolutionary relationship of viruses is poorly understood. This makes archaeal virus-host of particular interest because the hosts generally root near the base of phylogenetic trees, while some of the viruses have clear structural similarities to those that infect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Despite the advantageous position for use in evolutionary studies, little is known about archaeal viruses or how they interact with their hosts, compared to viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition, many archaeal viruses have been isolated from extreme environments and present a unique opportunity for elucidating factors that are important for existence at the extremes.. In this article we focus on virus-host interactions using a proteomics approach to study Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus (STIV infection of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2. Using cultures grown from the ATCC cell stock, a single cycle of STIV infection was sampled 6 times over a 72 hr period. More than 700 proteins were identified throughout the course of the experiments. Seventy one host proteins were found to change by nearly two-fold (p<0.05 with 40 becoming more abundant and 31 less abundant. The modulated proteins represent 30 different cell pathways and 14 COG groups. 2D gel analysis showed that changes in post translational modifications were a common feature of the affected proteins. The results from these studies showed that the prokaryotic antiviral adaptive immune system CRISPR associated proteins (CAS proteins were regulated in response to the virus infection. It was found that regulated proteins come from mRNAs with a shorter than average half-life. In addition, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP profiling on 2D gels showed caspase, hydrolase and tyrosine phosphatase enzyme activity labeling at the protein isoform level. Together, this data provides a more detailed global view of archaeal cellular responses to viral infection, demonstrates the power of qua

  12. Congenital TORCH infections of the brain--CT manifestation (with analysis of 7 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the neuropathologic changes and CT manifestations in congenital TORCH infection of the brain. Analysis of 7 cases of congenital TORCH infection of the neonates and infants demonstrated by serum examination was performed. There were congenital toxoplasmosis 3 cases, congenital syncytial virus infection 1 case, congenital rubella virus infection 1 case, congenital cytomegalovirus infection 2 cases, and congenital herpes simplex virus infection 1 case. Cerebral hypoplasia, ventricular dilatation or hydrocephalus, subependymal and parenchymal calcifications, microcephalic focal cortical migration anomalies, schizencephaly polymicrogyria, et al, were demonstrated by CT with congenital TORCH infection. The earlier the infection, the more severe the brain developmental anomalies. The extent and appearance of calcification in brain were related to the degree, extent and course of TORCH infection. Basal ganglia calcification of unknown cause in infant was suggestive of congenital TORCH infection. Typical CT manifestations together with clinical picture may suggest congenital TORCH infection, while serological test can be diagnostic

  13. Root cause analysis to support infection control in healthcare premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, A-G

    2015-04-01

    Infection control teams (ICTs) seek to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). They undertake surveillance and prevention, promote safety and quality of care, and evaluate and manage risk. Root cause analysis (RCA) can support this work but is not widely used by ICTs. This paper describes how ICTs can use RCA to enhance their day-to-day work. Many different tools and methods exist for RCA. Its primary aim is to identify the factors that have led to HCAI, but RCA can also be used for near-misses. A team effort and multidisciplinary work are usually required. Published accounts and personal experience in the field indicate that an ICT that correctly uses RCA implements more effective prevention measures, improves practice and collaborative working, enhances teamwork, and reduces the risk of HCAI. RCA should be promoted among ICTs because it adds value to their work and helps to develop a hospital culture that anticipates and pre-empts problems. PMID:25634490

  14. Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on infections of the foot and ankle that can occur at any age. Clinical presentation varies with the patient's age, clinical status (i.e., immunosuppressed, debilitating disease, postoperative, etc.), location of infection and type of organism. Symptoms may have an abrupt onset, or a more chronic or subacute course leading to diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for clinicians and radiologists

  15. Infection!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amercian Museum of Natural History - New York

    Play Infection! the game where you're the germ. And while you play, learn about the way your body fights infections.The game works best in Netscape 4 and Internet Explorer 4 or later. You will need to download Shockwave, but don't worry, you can do that right from the site.

  16. Successful treatment of Candida parapsilosis mural endocarditis with combined caspofungin and voriconazole

    OpenAIRE

    de Juan-Romero Miguel; de la Torre-Fernández María J; Sanz-Rodríguez César; León Cristóbal; Castro-Orjales María J; López-Ciudad Víctor; Collell-Llach María D; Díaz-López María D

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Fungal mural endocarditis is a rare entity in which the antemortem diagnosis is seldom made. Seven cases of mural endocarditis caused by Candida spp. have been collected from literature and six of these patients died after treatment with amphotericin B. Case presentation We report a case of mural endocarditis diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiogram and positive blood cultures to Candida parapsilosis. Because blood cultures continued to yield C. parapsilosis despite cas...

  17. Cerebral ischemia caused by Streptococcus bovis aortic endocarditis: case report / Isquemia cerebral causada por endocardite aórtica pelo Streptococcus bovis: relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leopoldo, Santos-Neto; Camila, Gangoni; Viviane, Pereira; Rodrigo, Corrêa-Lima.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A associação de isquemia cerebral e endocardite por Streptococcus bovis é um evento raro, tendo sido publicados apenas 2 casos anteriormente. Nós relatamos o caso de um homem de 50 anos com endocardite por S. bovis que apresentou sinais isquêmicos nos lobos frontal, parietal e occipital. Este é o pr [...] imeiro caso em que a hemianopsia precedeu o diagnóstico de endocardite. Inicialmente, o quadro foi confundido com vasculite. Posteriormente, foi confirmada a presença de vegetações na válvula aórtica e a hemocultura identificou S. bovis. Os eventos tromboembólicos foram controlados com o uso de antibióticos e a troca da válvula aórtica. Estudo videocolonoscópico não identificou nenhuma lesão, apesar de lesões colônicas serem descritas em até 70% dos casos de indivíduos com endocardite por S. bovis. Abstract in english Cerebral ischemic processes associated with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis are rare; only 2 cases having been reported. Here we report a case of a 50-year-old man with S. bovis endocarditis who presented signs of frontal, parietal and occipital lobe cerebral ischemia. This is t [...] he first case reported in which the presence of hemianopsia preceded the endocarditis diagnosis. Initially, the clinical manifestations suggested a systemic vasculitis. Later, vegetating lesions were identified in the aortic valve and S. bovis grew in blood cultures. Antibiotic use and aortic valve replacement eliminated the infection and ceased thromboembolic events. A videocolonoscopy examination revealed no mucosal lesions as a portal of entry in this case, although such lesions have been encountered in up to 70% of reported cases of S. bovis endocarditis.

  18. Successful treatment of Candida parapsilosis mural endocarditis with combined caspofungin and voriconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Juan-Romero Miguel

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungal mural endocarditis is a rare entity in which the antemortem diagnosis is seldom made. Seven cases of mural endocarditis caused by Candida spp. have been collected from literature and six of these patients died after treatment with amphotericin B. Case presentation We report a case of mural endocarditis diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiogram and positive blood cultures to Candida parapsilosis. Because blood cultures continued to yield C. parapsilosis despite caspofungin monotherapy, treatment with voriconazole was added. Conclusion This is the first description of successful treatment of C. parapsilosis mural endocarditis with caspofungin and voriconazole.

  19. Pulmonary valve endocarditis associated to a septal interventricular defect and infundibular and pulmonary valve Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventricular septal defects generate 10% of all adult congenital cardiopathies. 4% to 8% of patients to whom the defect has not been corrected are in risk of developing endocarditis. Pulmonary valve endocarditis is a rare event (1.5% to 2% of all endocarditis cases) and its mean etiology is intravenous drug abuse. The most frequently isolated microorganism in these cases is staphylococcus aurous. We report a case of pulmonary valve endocarditis associated with ventricular septal defect and valvular and infundibular pulmonary stenosis caused by streptococcus sp. in a patient without past medical history of drug abuse, alcoholism or previous invasive procedures

  20. Staphylococcus aureus infections: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Steven Y C; Davis, Joshua S; Eichenberger, Emily; Holland, Thomas L; Fowler, Vance G

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical infections. It is a leading cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis as well as osteoarticular, skin and soft tissue, pleuropulmonary, and device-related infections. This review comprehensively covers the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management of each of these clinical entities. The past 2 decades have witnessed two clear shifts in the epidemiology of S. aureus infections: first, a growing number of health care-associated infections, particularly seen in infective endocarditis and prosthetic device infections, and second, an epidemic of community-associated skin and soft tissue infections driven by strains with certain virulence factors and resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics. In reviewing the literature to support management strategies for these clinical manifestations, we also highlight the paucity of high-quality evidence for many key clinical questions. PMID:26016486

  1. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory of Medical Tests Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Blood Culture Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel Stool Tests Strep Test: Throat Culture Urine Tests Parasitic Infections (Worms, Lice, etc.) Amebiasis ...

  2. In vivo synergism of ceftobiprole and vancomycin against experimental endocarditis due to vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Entenza, J M; Veloso, T R; Vouillamoz, J; Giddey, M; Majcherczyk, P; Moreillon, P

    2011-09-01

    The efficacy of ceftobiprole combined with vancomycin was tested against two vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) strains, PC3 and Mu50, in rats with experimental endocarditis. Animals with infected aortic vegetations were treated for 3 days with doses simulating the kinetics after intravenous administration in humans of (i) the standard dose of ceftobiprole of 500 mg every 12 h (b.i.d.) (SD-ceftobiprole), (ii) a low dose of ceftobiprole of 250 mg b.i.d. (LD-ceftobiprole), (iii) a very low dose of ceftobiprole of 125 mg b.i.d. (VLD-ceftobiprole), (iv) SD-vancomycin of 1 g b.i.d., or (v) LD- or VLD-ceftobiprole combined with SD-vancomycin. Low dosages of ceftobiprole were purposely used to highlight positive drug interactions. Treatment with SD-ceftobiprole sterilized 12 of 14 (86%) and 10 of 13 (77%) vegetations infected with PC3 and Mu50, respectively (P Mu50 (P > 0.05 versus controls). VLD-ceftobiprole and SD-vancomycin alone were ineffective against both strains (?8% sterile vegetations). In contrast, the combination of VLD-ceftobiprole and SD-vancomycin sterilized 7 of 9 (78%) and 6 of 14 (43%) vegetations infected with PC3 and Mu50, respectively, and the combination of LD-ceftobiprole and SD-vancomycin sterilized 5 of 6 (83%) vegetations infected with Mu50 (P < 0.05 versus controls and monotherapy). Thus, ceftobiprole monotherapy simulating standard therapeutic doses was active against VISA experimental endocarditis. Moreover, subtherapeutic LD- and VLD-ceftobiprole synergized with ineffective vancomycin to restore efficacy. Hence, combining ceftobiprole with vancomycin broadens the therapeutic margin of these two compounds against VISA infections. PMID:21730114

  3. Colonoscopy is mandatory after Streptococcus bovis endocarditis: a lesson still not learned. Case report

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    Cavazzi Emma

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though the relationship between certain bacterial infections and neoplastic lesions of the colon is well-recognized, this knowledge has not been sufficiently translated into routine practice yet. Case presentation We describe the case of a 51-year-old man who was admitted to our Surgical Department due to rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. Preoperative colonoscopy, staging exams and subsequent surgery demonstrated a stenotic adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon, invading the left urinary tract and the homolateral bladder wall, with regional lymph nodes involvement and massive bilobar liver metastases (T4N1M1. After Hartmann's rectosigmoidectomy and despite systemic chemotherapy, a rapid progression occurred and the patient survived for only 5 months after diagnosis. Five years before detecting this advanced colonic cancer, the patient underwent aortic valve replacement due to a severe Streptococcus bovis endocarditis. Subsequent to this infection he never underwent a colonoscopy until overt intestinal symptoms appeared. Conclusion As this case illustrates, in the unusual setting of a Streptococcus bovis infection, it is necessary to timely and carefully rule out occult colon cancer and other malignancies during hospitalization and, if a tumor is not found, to schedule endoscopic follow-up. Rigorous application of these recommendations in the case described would have likely led to an earlier diagnosis of cancer and maybe saved the patient's life.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of resistant soybean roots infected by Meloidogyne javanica

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    Maria Eugênia Lisei de Sá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important crop for Brazilian agribusiness. However, many factors can limit its production, especially root-knot nematode infection. Studies on the mechanisms employed by the resistant soybean genotypes to prevent infection by these nematodes are of great interest for breeders. For these reasons, the aim of this work is to characterize the transcriptome of soybean line PI 595099-Meloidogyne javanica interaction through expression analysis. Two cDNA libraries were obtained using a pool of RNA from PI 595099 uninfected and M. javanica (J2 infected roots, collected at 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144 and 192 h after inoculation. Around 800 ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags were sequenced and clustered into 195 clusters. In silico subtraction analysis identified eleven differentially expressed genes encoding putative proteins sharing amino acid sequence similarities by using BlastX: metallothionein, SLAH4 (SLAC1 Homologue 4, SLAH1 (SLAC1 Homologue 1, zinc-finger proteins, AN1-type proteins, auxin-repressed proteins, thioredoxin and nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF-2. Other genes were also found exclusively in nematode stressed soybean roots, such as NAC domain-containing proteins, MADS-box proteins, SOC1 (suppressor of overexpression of constans 1 proteins, thioredoxin-like protein 4-Coumarate-CoA ligase and the transcription factor (TF MYBZ2. Among the genes identified in non-stressed roots only were Ser/Thr protein kinases, wound-induced basic protein, ethylene-responsive family protein, metallothionein-like protein cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin and Putative Kunitz trypsin protease inhibitor. An understanding of the roles of these differentially expressed genes will provide insights into the resistance mechanisms and candidate genes involved in soybean-M. javanica interaction and contribute to more effective control of this pathogen.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of resistant soybean roots infected by Meloidogyne javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Eugênia Lisei de, Sá; Marcus José Conceição, Lopes; Magnólia de Araújo, Campos; Luciano Vilela, Paiva; Regina Maria Santos de, Amorim; Magda Aparecida, Beneventi; Alexandre Augusto Pereira, Firmino; Maria Fátima Grossi de, Sá.

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important crop for Brazilian agribusiness. However, many factors can limit its production, especially root-knot nematode infection. Studies on the mechanisms employed by the resistant soybean genotypes to prevent infection by these nematodes are of great interest for breeders. For thes [...] e reasons, the aim of this work is to characterize the transcriptome of soybean line PI 595099-Meloidogyne javanica interaction through expression analysis. Two cDNA libraries were obtained using a pool of RNA from PI 595099 uninfected and M. javanica (J2) infected roots, collected at 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144 and 192 h after inoculation. Around 800 ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) were sequenced and clustered into 195 clusters. In silico subtraction analysis identified eleven differentially expressed genes encoding putative proteins sharing amino acid sequence similarities by using BlastX: metallothionein, SLAH4 (SLAC1 Homologue 4), SLAH1 (SLAC1 Homologue 1), zinc-finger proteins, AN1-type proteins, auxin-repressed proteins, thioredoxin and nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF-2). Other genes were also found exclusively in nematode stressed soybean roots, such as NAC domain-containing proteins, MADS-box proteins, SOC1 (suppressor of overexpression of constans 1) proteins, thioredoxin-like protein 4-Coumarate-CoA ligase and the transcription factor (TF) MYBZ2. Among the genes identified in non-stressed roots only were Ser/Thr protein kinases, wound-induced basic protein, ethylene-responsive family protein, metallothionein-like protein cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) and Putative Kunitz trypsin protease inhibitor. An understanding of the roles of these differentially expressed genes will provide insights into the resistance mechanisms and candidate genes involved in soybean-M. javanica interaction and contribute to more effective control of this pathogen.

  6. Aseptic Endocarditis in Behçet's Disease Presenting as Tricuspid Valve Stenosis.

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    Lee, Hyun Sang; Choi, Won Suk; Kim, Kyun Hee; Kang, Jung Kyu; Kim, Na Young; Park, Sun Hee; Park, Youngwhi; Nam, Eon Jeong; Yang, Dong Heon; Park, Hun Sik; Cho, Yongkeun; Lee, Jong-Myung; Chae, Shung-Chull

    2011-07-01

    Aseptic endocarditis is an uncommon complication of Behçet's disease (BD). We describe a rare case of a 39-year-old female who had BD with aseptic endocarditis of the tricuspid valve (TV) presenting as tricuspid stenosis. She was diagnosed with BD four years ago. The mucocutaneous lesions were well-controlled with colchicine and short courses of corticosteroids. She remained free of signs and symptoms of BD for one year without any medication. Three months before admission, she gradually developed dyspnea on exertion and peripheral edema. Echocardiography revealed dilated right atrium and markedly thickened TV with severe stenosis. TV replacement was performed. Pathologic examination of the valve showed fibrinoid necrotic material and inflammatory cell infiltration. Blood cultures and cultures of the excised valve were negative for microorganisms. PMID:21860642

  7. Behçet's disease with endocarditis and the Budd-Chiari syndrome.

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    Mcdonald, G. S.; Gad-al-rab, J.

    1980-01-01

    Endocarditis of the mitral and aortic valves is described for the first time in a patient with Behçet's disease. A second patient had minor changes in the mitral valve similar to that seen in the vasculitis which occurs in this condition. Valvulitis in Behçet's disease probably has the same pathogenesis as the vasculitis. The second patient also had a rare combination of Behçet's disease and the Budd-Chiari syndrome, and the necropsy findings are described.

  8. Effects of monocytopenia and anticoagulation in experimental Streptococcus sanguis endocarditis.

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    Tho?rig, L.; Thompson, J.; Eulderink, F.; Emeis, J. J.; Furth, R.

    1980-01-01

    The role of blood monocytes in the attachment of streptococci to endocardial vegetations was investigated in an experimental Streptococcus sanguis endocarditis by depletion of blood monocytes with the cytostatic drug VP 16-213 alone and combined with anticoagulant treatment with warfarin sodium. The numbers of streptococci in the vegetations of control, monocytopenic, and monocytopenic/anticoagulated rabbits were comparable. In the vegetations streptococci were found mainly in areas free of p...

  9. Candida tropicalis endocarditis: Treatment in a resource-poor setting

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    KUMAR Prashant; Muranjan, Mamta N; Tullu, Milind S.; Vaideeswar, Pradeep; Kher, Archana; Lahiri, Keya R

    2010-01-01

    Fungal endocarditis (FE) is rare in children and does not usually occur in structurally normal hearts. The commonest causative agent is Candida albicans. We report a 5-year-old female child presenting with high-grade fever and cardiac failure. Anemia, leukocytosis and high CRP were found, but bacterial blood culture was sterile. There was no response to antimicrobial agents. Two-dimensional echocardiography revealed a large heterogeneous mass attached to the right ventricle and tricuspid valv...

  10. An Early Diagnosis of Endocarditis Facilitated by the Electronic Stethoscope

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    Walid Barake; Amer M. Johri

    2014-01-01

    The practice of cardiac auscultation is a critical tool used by physicians to detect alterations in the cardiovascular system. A case of both left and right sided endocarditis initially detected by electronic auscultation in a woman with a history of injection drug use is described. The electronic stethoscope, with the ability to amplify heart sounds, established the presence of both a systolic and diastolic murmur when standard auscultation failed to detect the diastolic component. Urge...

  11. Brucella Endocarditis of Pseudoaneurysm of an Aortic Composite Graft

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    Sharifkazemi, Mohammad Bagher; Moarref, Ali Reza; Rezaian, Shahed; Rezaian, Gholam Reza

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of Brucella endocarditis following Bentall operation is a rare and life threatening condition, particularly when it is complicated by development of a pseudoaneurysm. Here we present a 40-year-old veterinarian with bicuspid aortic valve, who developed type A aortic root dissection and required Bentall operation. His past medical history was positive for an episode of treated brucellosis. Four months after the operation, he developed signs, symptoms and serological findings of b...

  12. Comparison of difloxacin, enoxacin, and cefazolin for the treatment of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis.

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    Boscia, J. A.; Kobasa, W. D.; Kaye, D.

    1988-01-01

    This study compared difloxacin administered orally, enoxacin administered orally, and cefazolin administered intramuscularly for the treatment of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Difloxacin significantly reduced bacterial counts of vegetations compared with enoxacin. This study demonstrated that difloxacin was significantly more effective than enoxacin and as effective as cefazolin for the treatment of S. aureus endocarditis in rabbits.

  13. Native Valve Bacillus cereus Endocarditis in a Non-Intravenous-Drug-Abusing Patient

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    Thomas, Benjamin S.; Bankowski, Matthew J.; Lau, William K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a rare cause of endocarditis, typically associated with intravenous drug abuse, rheumatic heart disease, prosthetic heart valves, pacemakers, or immunodeficiency. We present the first case of native valve Bacillus cereus endocarditis with no apparent risk factors. The patient had a fulminant course requiring emergent valve replacement.

  14. Cirugía valvular reparadora en endocarditis infecciosa Valve repair surgery in infectious endocarditis

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    Ricardo Zalaquett S

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Valve replacement has been the treatment of choice for patients with valvular complications of infectious endocarditis (IE. However, excellent results with valve repair allowed it to become a new therapeutic alternative for these patients. Aim: To evaluate the results of valve repair in patients with valvular complications of IE. Patients and Methods: From January 1991 to December 2000, 14 patients with valvular complications of IE underwent valve repair. Mean age was 37.9 ± 14.9. Results: New York Heart Association (NYHA class was 2.8 ± 0.9. IE was located in the aortic in 6 (42%, in the mitral valve in 4 (29% and in both valves in 4 cases (29%. Surgical indication was hemodynamic in 50% of the cases, echocardiographic in 29% and septic in 21%. Five aortic valves were bicuspid, 3 mitral valves were myxomatous and the rest were normal. The most common septic lesions were vegetations and leaflet perforations. A total of 23 aortic and 21 mitral valve repair procedures were performed. There were no deaths. Only 1 patient had a surgical complication (renal failure and prolonged mechanical ventilation. Follow-up was 100% complete. There was not late mortality. One patient with bone marrow aplasia required reoperation for a new episode of IE 19 months later. At the end of the follow-up NYHA class was 1.3 ± 0.6 and echocardiography showed a mild or absence of valve regurgitation in most patients. Conclusions: Valve repair surgery in IE has good results, with advantages over valve replacement (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 307-15.

  15. Cirugía valvular reparadora en endocarditis infecciosa / Valve repair surgery in infectious endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Zalaquett S; Luis, Garrido O; Francisca, Casas R; Sergio, Morán V; Manuel J, Irarrázaval Ll; Pedro, Becker R; Sandra, Braun J; Samuel, Córdova A; Gastón, Chamorro S; Iván, Godoy J; Fernando, Yáñez D; Jaime, Labarca L; Carlos, Pérez C.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Valve replacement has been the treatment of choice for patients with valvular complications of infectious endocarditis (IE). However, excellent results with valve repair allowed it to become a new therapeutic alternative for these patients. Aim: To evaluate the results of valve repair in [...] patients with valvular complications of IE. Patients and Methods: From January 1991 to December 2000, 14 patients with valvular complications of IE underwent valve repair. Mean age was 37.9 ± 14.9. Results: New York Heart Association (NYHA) class was 2.8 ± 0.9. IE was located in the aortic in 6 (42%), in the mitral valve in 4 (29%) and in both valves in 4 cases (29%). Surgical indication was hemodynamic in 50% of the cases, echocardiographic in 29% and septic in 21%. Five aortic valves were bicuspid, 3 mitral valves were myxomatous and the rest were normal. The most common septic lesions were vegetations and leaflet perforations. A total of 23 aortic and 21 mitral valve repair procedures were performed. There were no deaths. Only 1 patient had a surgical complication (renal failure and prolonged mechanical ventilation). Follow-up was 100% complete. There was not late mortality. One patient with bone marrow aplasia required reoperation for a new episode of IE 19 months later. At the end of the follow-up NYHA class was 1.3 ± 0.6 and echocardiography showed a mild or absence of valve regurgitation in most patients. Conclusions: Valve repair surgery in IE has good results, with advantages over valve replacement (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 307-15).

  16. GeXPS multiplex PCR analysis of the simian varicella virus transcriptome in productively infected cells in culture and acutely infected ganglia

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    Nagel, Maria A.; Choe, Alexander; Gilden, Don; Traina-Dorge, Vicki; Cohrs, Randall J.; Mahalingam, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Simian varicella zoster virus (SVV) infection of non-human primates serves as a model to study varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection and pathogenesis in humans. While macroarray analysis detected all 69 predicted unique open reading frames (ORFs) in SVV-infected cells in culture, it lacked the sensitivity to detect the low-abundance transcripts expressed in latently infected monkey ganglia. Recently, a multiplex RT-PCR assay using the GenomeLab Genetic Analysis System (GeXPS) identified 10 V...

  17. AIDS/HIV infection and cerebrovascular disease

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    Pinto, A.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of cerebrovascular disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been reported mainly in advanced stages of the disease and was generally associated with nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, opportunistic infections, or tumors, although in recent series a large number of cryptogenic strokes were found, probably related to HIV vasculopathy. Recently a population-based study reported a strong association between acquired immunodeficiency syndrom...

  18. Tratamiento con caspofungina de endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol

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    Marcelo del Castillo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las endocarditis causadas por hongos, (Candida en particular, requieren tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, siendo la anfotericina B la droga de elección. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con gran actividad sobre Candida y Aspergillus. Se presenta un paciente con una endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol tratado con caspofungina bajo un esquema de salvataje, luego de haber presentado efectos adversos por anfotericina B. El paciente tuvo respuesta microbiológica.Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response.

  19. Autoimmunity as a possible predisposing factor for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia endocarditis / Autoinmunidad como posible factor predisponente para endocarditis por Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

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    Jorge R., Carrillo-Córdova; Luis M., Amezcua-Guerra.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente sólo existen 40 casos descritos de endocarditis por Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia), ninguno de los cuales tenía una enfermedad autoinmune subyacente. Una mujer de 23 años con imbricación de lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) y artritis reuma-Artritis reumatoide; toide (AR), [...] ingresó a nuestro Instituto por endocarditis de la válvula tricúspide adquirida en México comunidad. La paciente presentó como complicaciones tromboembolia pulmonar y neumonía, se encontraron anticuerpos contra péptidos cíclicos citrulinados (anti-CCP), antinucleares, anti-Sm, anti-Ro/SSA, anti-cardiolipina y anti-(?2 glucoproteína 1, factor reumatoide (FR), complementopenia, linfopenia y proteína C reactiva (PCR) de 425 mg/L. Se observó crecimiento de S. maltophilia en hemocultivos seriados y el tratamiento antimicrobiano empírico no fue efectivo, sino hasta que se incluyó trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol (TMP/SMX). Después de un mes de hospitalización, la paciente fue sometida a remplazo quirúrgico de la válvula tricúspide y la evolución clínica subsecuente fue satisfactoria, permitiendo su egreso 14 días después. Actualmente, la paciente se encuentra asintomática y su función cardiaca, renal y pulmonar es estable. Llama la atención que todos los autoanticuerpos han permanecido elevados a través del tiempo. Presentamos una recopilación de la información disponible acerca de la endocarditis por S. maltophilia, y proponemos que la autoinmunidad podría ser incluida como un nuevo factor de predisposición para esta entidad. Abstract in english Only 40 cases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) endocarditis have been reported to date, and there is no description in patients with underlying autoimmunity. A 23-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) overlapping rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and no risk factors for endo [...] carditis was admitted in our hospital because of community-acquired tricuspid valve endocarditis. During hospitalization, she was complicated with pulmonary thromboembolism and pneumonia. Laboratory showed autoimmune diathesis featured by anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), anti-Sm, anti-Ro/SSA, anti-cardiolipin, anti-(?2 glycoprotein 1, and antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor (RF), low complement, lymphopenia and C-reactive protein (CRP) of 425 mg/L. S. maltophilia grew in serial blood culture sets. Empirical broad-spectrum antimicrobials were ineffective until trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) was added to therapy. One month after admission, the patient underwent successful surgical replacement of the tricuspid valve and the subsequent course was satisfactory, allowing her to be discharged 14 days after. Nowadays, she remains free of complaints and her cardiac, renal and pulmonary functioning is stable. Noteworthy is that all auto-antibodies have been persistently raised over time. Here, we present a compilation of the available information about S. maltophilia endocarditis, and suggest that autoimmunity could be included as a novel predisposing factor for S. maltophilia endocarditis.

  20. Endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana bivalvular asociada a cáncer y ecocardiograma transesofágico / Bivalvular non bacterial thrombotic endocarditis associated with cancer and transesophageal echocardiography

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    Marcelo, Zylberman; Fernando A., Díaz Couselo; Flavio, Sánchez; Daniel, Santos; Adrián, Nervo.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana es la causa más frecuente de accidente cerebrovascular isquémico en pacientes con cáncer. En estos pacientes se hallaron vegetaciones valvulares hasta en el 9% de las autopsias. Sin embargo, la afección bivalvular es poco frecuente, observándose en el 9% de l [...] as endocarditis trombóticas. Se presenta una paciente con cáncer de ovario que presentó afasia e imágenes compatibles con isquemia cerebral. El ecocardiograma transtorácico fue normal. El ecocardiograma transesofágico evidenció vegetaciones en las válvulas aórtica y mitral. Se enfatiza la importancia de sospechar endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana en enfermos con cáncer y embolismo sistémico y en la escasa frecuencia de afección bivalvular. Abstract in english Non bacterial thrombotic endocarditis is the most frequent cause of ischemic stroke in cancer patients. Up to 9% of autopsies of cancer patients show non infectious valvular masses. However, bivalvular involvement is not frequently occurring in 9% of non bacterial thrombotic endocarditis. We report [...] a patient with ovarian cancer who presented aphasia. The MRI was compatible with cerebral ischemia. The transthoracic echocardiogram was normal and a transesophageal echocardiogram showed vegetations in aortic and mitral valves. We emphasize the importance of suspecting non bacterial thrombotic endocarditis in patients with cancer and systemic embolism and the low frequency of bivalvular involvement.

  1. A CASE OF ACUTE ENDOCARDITIS CAUSED BY MICROCOCCUS ZYMOGENES (NOV. SPEC.), WITH A DESCRIPTION OF THE MICROORGANISM.

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    Maccallum, W G; Hastings, T W

    1899-09-01

    From a case of acute endocarditis of the aortic and mitral valves with infarctions m the spleen and kidneys a micrococcus was twice isolated in pure culture from the blood during life and was demonstrated after death both microscopically and in pure culture in large numbers in the valvular vegetations, the infarctions and other parts. No other species of microorganism was found. This micrococcus is very small, occurs mainly in pairs, sometimes in short chains, stains by Gram's method, grows in small, pale, grayish-white colonies on gelatine and agar, at first clouds bouillon, which then becomes clear with a whitish sediment, does not produce gas in glucose media, liquefies gelatine slowly and to some extent also blood serum, and is especially characterized by its behavior in milk, which it acidifies, coagulates and subsequently liquefies. It produces a milk-curdling ferment and also a proteolytic ferment, each of which is separable from the bacterial cells. It remains viable for months in old cultures and is tolerably resistant to the action of heat and antiseptics. The micrococcus is pathogenic for mice and rabbits, causing either abscesses or general infections. Typical acute vegetative endocarditis was experimentally produced by intravenous inoculation of the organism in a rabbit and a dog, and the cocci were demonstrated in pure culture in the vegetations and other parts of these animals after death. Although the micrococcus here described has some points of resemblance to the pneumococcus and Streptococcus pyogenes on the one hand and to the pyogenic staphylococci on the other, it is readily distinguished from each of these species by cultural features which have been described and which are so obvious that the differentiation of these species from our micrococcus need not be discussed in detail. We have searched through the records concerning microorganisms described in association with endocarditis and other diseases, as well as those isolated from water, soil and other sources, and have been unable to find a description of a micrococcus identical in all particulars with that here described. Such points as staining by Gram, liquefaction of gelatine, coagulation and peptonization of milk, served singly or in c