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Sample records for infective endocarditis analysis

  1. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning; Hassager, Christian; Bruun, Louise E; Lauridsen, Trine K; Moser, Claus; Sogaard, Peter; Arpi, Magnus; Bruun, Niels E

    2013-01-01

    Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations.

  2. Shewanella putrefaciens infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jonathan, Constant; Ivan, Chernev; Eric, Gomez.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella putrefaciens rarely causes infection in humans. In the last few decades a growing number of cases have been described. The following report outlines the case of a 40-year- old immunocompetent white man with S. putrefaciens infective endocarditis. This is the first known case of infective [...] endocarditis due to an apparently monomicrobial S. putrefaciens infection, and the second known case of S. putrefaciens-related infective endocarditis worldwide.

  3. Bacterial Zoonoses and Infective Endocarditis, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Benslimani, Akila; Fenollar, Florence; Lepidi, Hubert; Raoult, Didier

    2005-01-01

    Blood culture–negative endocarditis is common in Algeria. We describe the etiology of infective endocarditis in this country. Samples from 110 cases in 108 patients were collected in Algiers. Blood cultures were performed in Algeria. Serologic and molecular analysis of valves was performed in France. Infective endocarditis was classified as definite in 77 cases and possible in 33. Causative agents were detected by blood cultures in 48 cases. All 62 blood culture–negative endocarditis cases we...

  4. Infective endocarditis in neonates.

    OpenAIRE

    O'CALLAGHAN, C.; McDougall, P

    1988-01-01

    Five patients with neonatal infective endocarditis were reviewed, two of whom survived. Infection was caused by Staphylococcus aureus in four and by Candida albicans in one. All cases of bacterial endocarditis had clinical signs of septicaemia, positive blood cultures, thrombocytopenia, microscopic haematuria, and heart murmurs. Three developed skin abscesses early in their illnesses. Three patients had two dimensional echocardiographic studies that showed bacterial vegetations. One of these ...

  5. Analysis of clinical features and risk factors for infective endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the clinical features of infective endocarditis (IE) and explore the risk factors for it's prognosis. Methods: Clinical data of 65 patients with IE were acquired retrospectively, and its causes, clinical characteristics, pathogenic microorganism, clinical outcomes were analyzed. Results: The major occurring heart diseases for IE in all patients were rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, and there was no any previously known heart disease. The major clinical manifestations included fever and anemia. The major pathogenic bacteria is streptococcus, but percentage of other bacteria increased gradually. Thirteen patients were refractory, in hospital. Haematoglobin and seralbumin were significantly lower, and leucocyte, hsCRP, erythrocyte sedimentation were significantly higher in refractory group. Anaemia, lower seralbumin, higher hsCRP were independent predictors for bad prognosis. Conclusion: The proportion of rheumatic heart disease is decreasing as one of the risk factors for IE in recent years. Streptococcus is major pathogen of IE, and the mortality of IE is still very high. Anaemia, lower seralbumin, higher hsCRP are independent predictors for bad prognosis. (authors)

  6. Infective endocarditis due to brucella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwar S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the complications of brucellosis is infective endocarditis, which carries a high mortality rate if undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. We report a case of Brucella infective endocarditis, which was diagnosed serologically and by polymerase chain reaction. After Brucella specific treatment, patient showed dramatic improvement clinically, as evident by echocardiogram findings and other investigations.

  7. Infective endocarditis due to brucella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwar, S; Metgud, S C; Darshan, A; Mutnal, M B; Nagmoti, M B

    2006-10-01

    One of the complications of brucellosis is infective endocarditis, which carries a high mortality rate if undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. We report a case of Brucella infective endocarditis, which was diagnosed serologically and by polymerase chain reaction. After Brucella specific treatment, patient showed dramatic improvement clinically, as evident by echocardiogram findings and other investigations. PMID:17185849

  8. Infective endocarditis due to brucella

    OpenAIRE

    Purwar S; Metgud S; Darshan A; Mutnal M; Nagmoti M

    2006-01-01

    One of the complications of brucellosis is infective endocarditis, which carries a high mortality rate if undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. We report a case of Brucella infective endocarditis, which was diagnosed serologically and by polymerase chain reaction. After Brucella specific treatment, patient showed dramatic improvement clinically, as evident by echocardiogram findings and other investigations.

  9. Infective Endocarditis during Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Infective Endocarditis (IE) during pregnancy is a rare but grave condition. The diagnosis and management can be challenging, especially when the pregnant patient warrants a cardiac operation under cardiopulmonary bypass. The present article describes IE during pregnancy based on a series of published case reports in the literature. IE during pregnancy often causes embolic events and mycotic aneurysms. Two-thirds of IE in the pregnant patients requires timely or urgent cardiac surgery to alleviate patients deterioration. At least a 3-week antibiotic therapy is mandatory before cardiac surgery aiming at improving the patients. Conditions. During cardiac surgery, fetal heart rates may temporarily be slowed down but may gradually recover to normal after the operation. The fetal and maternal mortalities were 16.7% and 3.3%, respectively. The fetal deaths were apparently associated with a cardiac surgery during early pregnancy. Cardiopulmonary bypass, hypothermia and rewarming can adversely affect both the mother and the fetus by triggering placental deficits, fetal hypoxia and uterine contraction. Avoidance of cardiac operations before 24th gestation week and preferably deferred until after 28th gestation week have been a plausible argument as per the possible fetal deaths related to immaturity. (author)

  10. Metagenomic analysis for detecting pathogens in culture-negative infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yuto; Aoki, Kotaro; Okuma, Shinnosuke; Sato, Takahiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Pathogen identification is important for proper diagnosis and optimal treatment of infective endocarditis (IE). Blood and valve cultures are the gold standard for detecting pathogens responsible for IE. However, these tests only detect culturable pathogens, and have low sensitivity, especially in patients previously treated with antibiotics. Culture-negative IE is still a major clinical problem and a diagnostic challenge. Recently, metagenomic analysis using next generation sequencing has been used to detect pathogens directly from clinical samples. However, there are very few reports of the use of metagenomic analysis for pathogen identification in culture-negative IE cases and the usefulness of this new method is unknown. Here, we report a case of successful pathogen detection with metagenomic analysis in a patient of culture-negative IE. The patient underwent valve replacement surgery and received antibiotics for 5 weeks and survived. Using metagenomic analysis of resected vegetation, we detected Abiotrophia defectiva, which is often associated with culture-negative IE due to its fastidious growth. This method may be useful for pathogen identification in future cases of culture-negative IE. PMID:26360016

  11. Diagnostic value of echocardiography in infective endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the feature and value of echocardiography for diagnosing infective endocarditis. Methods: The shape, size, echogenicity, distribution of vegetations and valvular injury of the heart were observed in 30 patients with infective endocarditis. Results: The vegetations were located in the aortic valves (10 cases), bicuspid valves (5), tricuspid valve (1), pulmonary valve (2), main pulmonary artery with patent ductus arteriosus (2), and right ventricle with ventricular septal defect (2). The size of vegetation ranged from 2 to 27 mm and the echogenicity of vegetations was low to high. The location, size, shape and amount of vegetations observed on echocardiography correlated well with the operative findings. Echocardiography also demonstrated underlying heart disease and abnormal hemodynamics induced by infective endocarditis. Conclusion: Echocardiography can determine the location, size, shape, amount of vegetation and concomitant cardiac disease in patients with infective endocarditis. It play an important role in treatment and prognosis. (authors)

  12. Hairy Cell Leukemia Masquerading as Infective Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasamy, Chandramohan; Dubashi, Biswajit; Rekha, J. Sree; Basu, Debdatta; Jain, Ankit; Dutta, Tarun Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder affecting middle-aged adults, with the median age of 50–55 years. We report a case of hairy cell leukemia who presented with fever, splinter haemorrhages and moderate splenomegaly, simulating infective endocarditis. There was bicytopenia at presentation and hairy cells were seen in the peripheral blood.

  13. Timing of surgery in infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Duk-Hyun

    2015-11-15

    Although early surgery is performed in approximately half of patients for the treatment of infective endocarditis (IE), the optimal timing of surgery remains unclear. Appropriate early surgery can avoid death and severe complications, but nearly one-quarter of patients with indications for surgery do not receive surgical intervention. Multidisciplinary collaborations among cardiologists, cardiac surgeons and infectious disease specialists are required for appropriate decisions about indication and timing of surgical intervention. Moreover, the potential benefits of early surgery should be weighed against its operative risks and long-term consequences. The main indications for early surgery in patients with IE are heart failure (HF), uncontrolled infection and prevention of embolism. Role of early surgery has been expanding and a recent randomised trial demonstrated that early surgery performed within 48?h after the diagnosis of IE effectively reduced systemic embolisms without increasing operative mortality or recurrence of IE. Urgent surgery is indicated in patients who have moderate to severe HF, uncontrolled infection and large vegetations associated with severe valvular disease. However, surgery should be delayed for 2-4?weeks in patients with large cerebral infarction and for at least 4?weeks in those with intracerebral haemorrhage if possible, because early surgery may pose significant risks of neurological deterioration and perioperative cerebral bleeding. The decision for surgical timing should be based on individual risk-benefit analysis, and early surgery is strongly indicated if its benefits exceed operative risks. PMID:26285598

  14. Complete genome and comparative analysis of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, an emerging pathogen of infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreier Jens

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an important causative agent of infectious endocarditis, while the pathogenicity of this species is widely unclear. To gain insight into the pathomechanisms and the underlying genetic elements for lateral gene transfer, we sequenced the entire genome of this pathogen. Results We sequenced the whole genome of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain ATCC BAA-2069, consisting of a 2,356,444 bp circular DNA molecule with a G+C-content of 37.65% and a novel 20,765 bp plasmid designated as pSGG1. Bioinformatic analysis predicted 2,309 ORFs and the presence of 80 tRNAs and 21 rRNAs in the chromosome. Furthermore, 21 ORFs were detected on the plasmid pSGG1, including tetracycline resistance genes telL and tet(O/W/32/O. Screening of 41 S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates revealed one plasmid (pSGG2 homologous to pSGG1. We further predicted 21 surface proteins containing the cell wall-sorting motif LPxTG, which were shown to play a functional role in the adhesion of bacteria to host cells. In addition, we performed a whole genome comparison to the recently sequenced S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain UCN34, revealing significant differences. Conclusions The analysis of the whole genome sequence of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus promotes understanding of genetic factors concerning the pathogenesis and adhesion to ECM of this pathogen. For the first time we detected the presence of the mobilizable pSGG1 plasmid, which may play a functional role in lateral gene transfer and promote a selective advantage due to a tetracycline resistance.

  15. Endocarditis infecciosa activa: 152 casos / Active infective endocarditis: 152 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucía R., Kazelian; Luis A., Vidal; Roberto, Neme; Juan A., Gagliardi.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa es una enfermedad de baja incidencia que en las últimas décadas mostró modificaciones respecto de su presentación, posibilidad diagnóstica y tratamiento. A pesar de estos avances, la mortalidad hospitalaria sigue siendo muy elevada. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las caract [...] erísticas de los pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa activa y su relación con la mortalidad hospitalaria a lo largo de 16 años. Se realizó un registro prospectivo entre 1994 y 2010 de pacientes ingresados con endocarditis. Se analizaron características clínicas, evolución y tratamiento y se registraron los eventos intrahospitalarios. Ingresaron 152 pacientes, 64.5% varones, edad 45 ± 16 años, las causas más frecuentes de cardiopatía de base fueron: congénita 32 (21%) y reumática 20 (13.2%). Los motivos de internación fueron síndrome febril 116 (76.3%) e insuficiencia cardíaca 61 (40.1%). Se identificó el agente infeccioso en 106 (69.7%) de los casos, el más frecuente fue Streptococcus viridans. El ecocardiograma mostró vegetaciones en 123 (80.9%) de los pacientes y 88 (57.8%) presentaron complicaciones durante su internación, siendo la más frecuente la insuficiencia cardíaca. Se indicó tratamiento quirúrgico en 96 (63.1%) de los casos, fundamentalmente por insuficiencia cardíaca en 66. La mortalidad hospitalaria global fue 46 (30.2%). El desarrollo de complicaciones en la internación, la indicación de cirugía y la presencia de insuficiencia cardíaca refractaria al tratamiento fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad hospitalaria, mientras que la presencia de vegetaciones resultó un predictor independiente de mejor supervivencia. La identificación temprana de estos predictores descriptos podría ayudar a mejorar los resultados. Abstract in english Active infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of low incidence that has showed changes in presentation, diagnosis and treatment options during the past decades. Despite these advances, mortality remains very high. Our goal was to analyze the characteristics of patients with active IE and their rel [...] ationship with in-hospital mortality over 16 years. Between 1994 and 2010 we performed a prospective registry of 152 consecutive patients (64.5% male, age 45 ± 16 years) admitted with IE. Clinical characteristics, treatment and inpatient outcomes were analyzed. The most common causes of underlying heart disease were: congenital (21%) and rheumatic fever (13.2%). The reasons for hospitalization were fever (76.3%) and heart failure (40.1%). The infectious agent was identified in 69.7% of cases, and the most frequent was Streptococcus viridans. The echocardiogram showed vegetations in 80.9% of patients and 57.8% of them presented complications (the most frequent was heart failure) during hospitalization. Surgical treatment was indicated in 63.2% of cases, mainly due to heart failure. The overall hospital mortality was 30.2%. The presence of complications, requirement of surgical treatment and refractory heart failure were independent predictors of mortality whereas the single presence of vegetation showed better survival rate. The identification of these predictors could help to improve the outcomes in IE.

  16. [Management of Infective Endocarditis with Neurological Complication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Wakako; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Minakawa, Masahito; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2015-10-01

    Neurological complications in patients with infective endocarditis are frequent and mortality is higher in those with neurological complications than in those without. The spectrum of neurological complications includes cerebral infarction, intracranial hemorrhage, intracranial infectious aneurysm, transient ischemic attack (TIA), meningitis, encephalopathy and brain abscess. The appropriate timing of valve surgery following a cerebrovascular event remains controversial because cardiopulmonary bypass may exacerbate neurological deficits. Previous studies suggest delaying valve surgery for 2 to 4 weeks following embolic stroke and at least 4 weeks following hemorrhagic stroke however, urgent valve surgery may be needed depending on the hemodynamic state of the patient. In the event of intracranial infectious aneurysm, therapeutic management is not perfectly standardized. We retrospectively reviewed the surgical results of infective endocarditis patients with neurological complications. Current trends in surgical timing and therapeutic decision-making are discussed. PMID:26469254

  17. Infective endocarditis, rheumatoid factor, and anticardiolipin antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Asherson, R. A.; Tikly, M; Staub, H; Wilmshurst, P T; Coltart, D J; Khamashta, M; Hughes, G R

    1990-01-01

    Serum samples from 22 patients with infective endocarditis were analysed for the presence of antibodies to cardiolipin, false positive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, and rheumatoid factor in order to determine the prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies, their level, and to ascertain whether there was any correlation with the presence of rheumatoid factor. Although the latex test was positive in 10/22 (45%) patients, anticardiolipin antibodies, usually of a low level, were...

  18. [Mitral Valvuloplasty of Infective Endocarditis During Pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaki, Yasuko; Higami, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Natsuya; Takagi, Nobuyuki; Tachibana, Kazutoshi; Hagiwara, Takayuki

    2015-11-01

    This report describes a case in which we treated a patient who developed infective endocarditis in the mitral valve at 28 weeks' gestation. The condition was resolved by performing mitral valvuloplasty 2 days after an emergency cesarean section. Although the patient was in a relatively stable period at 32 weeks' gestation, the mother had an extremely high risk of embolism;thus, emergency surgery was required. We believe that an accurate diagnosis in a timely manner and a valvuloplasty shortly after cesarean section saved the life of the mother and child. PMID:26555912

  19. A severe infective endocarditis successfully treated with linezolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziano Antonio Minafra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in surgical and medical therapy, prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and is often associated with a severe prognosis. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman, with  PVE and bacterial endocarditis (Streptococcus bovis successfully treated with linezolid. Linezolid is a bacteriostatic oxazolidinone antibiotic that has been proven to be effective for the treatment of patients with pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections, and infections due to Gram-positive cocci. Linezolid is not yet recognised as a standard therapy for infective endocarditis, but its use becomes a necessity when infection is due to multidrug-resistant microorganisms.

  20. Infective endocarditis in the military patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Andrew; Clay, K; Williams, A; Jackson, S; Prendergast, B

    2015-09-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a potentially fatal cardiac infection associated with an inhospital mortality rate of up to 22%. Fifty per cent of IE cases develop in patients with no known history of valve disease. It is therefore important to remain vigilant to the possibility of the diagnosis in patients with a febrile illness and unknown source. From a military perspective, our patients are unique due to the breadth of pathogens they are exposed to, and blood-culture-negative IE is a risk. In particular, there should be awareness of Coxiella burnetii as a possible causative pathogen. In this review we incorporate the latest consensus from systematic reviews and publications identified by a literature search through Medline. We describe the diagnosis and management of IE with particular reference to the military population. PMID:26243804

  1. Infective Endocarditis: Identification of Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci from Blood Cultures by Partial 16S rRNA Gene Analysis and by Vitek 2 Examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Redha, Rawaa Jalil; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette M; Arpi, Magnus; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Streptococci, enterococci and Streptococcus-like bacteria are frequent etiologic agents of infective endocarditis and correct species identification can be a laboratory challenge. Viridans streptococci (VS) not seldomly cause contamination of blood cultures. Vitek 2 and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were applied in order to compare the results of both methods. STRAINS ORIGINATED FROM TWO GROUPS OF PATIENTS: 149 strains from patients with infective endocarditis and 181 strains assessed ...

  2. Infective endocarditis in chronic hemodialysis patients: Experience from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montasser Dina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, regular hemodialysis (HD was recognized as a risk factor for the development of infective endocarditis (IE, particularly at vascular access sites. The present report describes our experience at the Etat Major General Agadir, Morocco, of taking care of IE in patients on regular dialysis. A retrospective analysis was made of five cases of IE in patients receiving re-gular HD having arteriovenous fistula as vascular access. They were sent from four private centers and admitted in our formation between January 2004 and March 2009. Infective endocarditis was detected after 34.5 months following initiation of dialysis. The causative organisms included Sta-phylococcus and Enterococcus in two cases each and negative blood culture in one case. A recent history of infection (<3 months of the vascular access was found in three cases. Peripheric embolic phenomena were noted in two cases. A pre-existing heart disease was common and contributed to heart failure. Mortality was frequent due to valvular perforations and congestive heart failure, making the medical treatment alone unsatisfactory. Two patients survived and three of our patients received a prosthetic valve replacement, with a median survival after surgery of 10.3 months/person. The clinical diagnosis of infective endocarditis in regularly dialyzed patients remains difficult, with the presence of vascular calcification as a common risk factor. The vascular catheter infections are the cardinal gateway of pathogenic organisms, which are mainly Staphlococcus. The prognosis is bad and the mortality is significant, whereas medical and surgical treatments are often established in these patients who have many factors of comorbidity.

  3. Mycotic aneurysm: a rare and dreaded complication of infective endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, Vivek; Sharma, Rajni; Nagamani, A C; Manjunath, Cholenahally Nanjappa

    2013-01-01

    Mycotic cerebral aneurysm is a rare and potentially fatal complication of infective endocarditis. A young man was diagnosed with culture negative infective endocarditis of mitral valve with cerebral aneurysm. The patient was started on conservative management, but he died owing to intracerebral haemorrhage. In the absence of large randomised trials, there is a lack of consensus regarding the management of unruptured aneurysms. Since mycotic aneurysms are known to resolve or decrease in size w...

  4. Treated bacterial endocarditis as a histological mimic of fungal infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Roskell, D E; Bowler, I. C.; Barnes, P.

    1998-01-01

    Histological assessment of cardiac valve tissue contributes to the diagnosis of infective endocarditis and is of particular importance in cases in which no organism is cultured. Antibiotic treatment of bacterial endocarditis may lead to abnormal bacterial morphology and staining characteristics. Although in many cases the presence of some residual bacteria of normal appearance makes the diagnosis straightforward, in some only abnormal bacteria may be seen. Unless the appearances of these are ...

  5. Prevention of infective endocarditis in developing countries - justifiable caution?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andy, Parrish; Breminand, Maharaj.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The internationally accepted practice of prescribing prophylactic antibiotics to individuals at risk of infective endocarditis has come under scrutiny. There are no published high-quality randomised controlled trials of the intervention, but new insights have emerged. Bacteraemic episodes are common [...] following simple activities such as brushing teeth. Endocarditis following procedures is extremely rare, and systematic reviews of the evidence for prophylactic antibiotics have failed to demonstrate efficacy.

  6. Brain magnetic resonance findings in infective endocarditis with neurological complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosing infective endocarditis and its complications can be difficult because of the nonspecific symptoms. We reviewed findings of intracranial abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 14 patients with neurological complications and herein discuss the overall intracranial MRI findings. We retrospectively reviewed patients with infective endocarditis from August 2004 to August 2006. Brain MRI, the causative bacteria, and abnormal neurological symptoms were reviewed for 14 patients with neurological complications. Of the 14 patients, 13 showed intracranial abnormalities on MRI. Embolization was seen in 10 patients, hemorrhage in 3, abscess formation in 3, and encephalitis in 2. Hyperintense lesions with a central hypointense area on T2-weighted and/or T2*-weighted imaging (Bull's-eye-like lesion) were seen in four patients. A combination of these intracranial abnormalities was observed in 6 patients. The MRI findings associated with infective endocarditis are wide-ranging: embolization, hemorrhage, meningitis, cerebritis, abscess, the bull's-eye-like lesion. Clinicians should consider the possibility of infective endocarditis in patients with unknown fever and neurological abnormality. Brain MRI should be promptly performed for those patients, and T2*-weighted imaging is recommended for an early diagnosis of infective endocarditis. (author)

  7. Infective endocarditis presents as isolated splenomegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Rohani, Atoosheh; Akbari, Vahid; Homayoon, Kianoosh

    2011-01-01

    Sub acute left-sided bacterial endocarditis is a serious condition that may be overlooked due to highly variable clinical manifestations. We present the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with complaints of fullness in his abdomen and splenomegaly that referred to the surgery clinic. He underwent diagnostic splenectomy. 3 month after splenectomy endocarditis was diagnosed. We recommend echocardiography in the work up of isolated splenomegaly.

  8. Pacemaker Related Infective Endocarditis from Staphylococcus Lugdunensis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Michael; Kevin M. Boehm

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a common skin flora not typically associated with infection. There are, however, several cases reported in the literature of Staphylococcus lugdunensis as a causative bacterium of various infections. This paper reports an additional case of pacemaker associated endocarditis with Staphylococcus lugdunensis as the causative bacterium.

  9. Infective Endocarditis Involving the Pulmonary Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, William R; Connolly, Heidi M; DeSimone, Daniel C; Phillips, Sabrina D; Wilson, Walter R; Sohail, Muhammad R; Steckelberg, James M; Baddour, Larry M

    2015-12-15

    Pulmonary valve (PV) infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare entity, accounting for 1.5% to 2% of cases of IE. Published data are limited to a few case series and reports. We sought to review the Mayo Clinic experience and describe clinical, echocardiographic, and microbiologic features. We included all patients aged ?18 years seen from 2000 to 2014 who had a diagnosis of native PV IE and unequivocal echocardiographic involvement of the PV. Nine patients with PV IE were identified. Isolated PV IE was present in 7 (78%) of 9 cases. The median age was 59 years and 22% were women. Three patients had congenital heart disease, 2 had central venous catheters, and 3 had cardiovascular implantable electronic devices. Five patients (56%) received chronic immunosuppressive therapy. Enterococcus faecalis and viridans group streptococci were the most common pathogens, isolated in 22% of cases each. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) were done in 6 and 7 patients, respectively. Four patients underwent both procedures. TTE was diagnostic in all cases, but TEE failed to detect PV involvement in 1 patient. Median follow-up was 1.8 years. Five patients (56%) underwent PV replacement. There were no operative deaths. One patient had sudden death during follow-up, unrelated to his PV IE episode. Our results suggest that PV IE is rare but carries significant morbidity. TTE and TEE provide complementary information with TEE providing better visualization of other cardiac structures. Our findings of a high prevalence of immunosuppressive therapy and cardiovascular implantable electronic devices have not been previously reported and deserve further investigation. PMID:26611123

  10. Endocarditis infecciosa por enterococo: descripción de 12 casos / Enterococcal infective endocarditis: description of 12 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Martínez Odriozola; J., Muñoz Sánchez; P., Arriola Martínez; E., Lizarralde Palacios; J. M., Santamaría Jáuregui; J., Zuazo Meabe; R., Cisterna Cáncer; F. M. de, La Villa.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de identificar a los pacientes diagnosticados en nuestro hospital de endocarditis infecciosa por enterococo se ha realizado un estudio retrospectivo durante un período de 12 años (1994-2005), analizando sus características clínicas y microbiológicas, así como el tratamiento y la evol [...] ución de la enfermedad. Se encontraron 12 casos de endocarditis por enterococo, lo que representó el 6% del total de endocarditis y el 7% de las bacteriemias por enterococo. Se trataba de 8 hombres y 4 mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre los 37 y los 94 años. El microorganismo causante fue E. faecalis en 10 casos y E. faecium en 2 casos. Dos de los E. faecalis eran resistentes a aminoglucósidos. La válvula afectada con mayor frecuencia fue la aórtica, con 9 casos, seguida de la mitral, con 2 y de la tricúspide, 1 caso. En 10 pacientes la endocarditis se instaló sobre una válvula nativa y sólo en 2 casos sobre válvula protésica. Únicamente 5 pacientes tenían antecedentes de enfermedad valvular cardiaca. El tratamiento antimicrobiano más utilizado fue la combinación de ampicilina y gentamicina, que se empleó en 8 pacientes. Cuatro casos fueron tratados con monoterapia; 2 de ellos con ampicilina y 2 con vancomicina. Siete pacientes se complicaron con insuficiencia cardíaca, cinco de los cuales precisaron tratamiento quirúrgico de sustitución valvular aórtica. Los 4 enfermos tratados con monoterapia presentaron complicaciones graves, que provocaron la muerte de 2 pacientes. Abstract in english We have performed a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis due to Enterococcus in our hospital for a period of 12 years (1994-2005). We review clinical and microbiological aspects, therapy, and outcome. We found 12 cases that were 6 % of total endocarditis, and 7% of e [...] nterococcal bacteremia. Eight cases were male, and 4 were female, aged between 37 and 94 years. The causative organism of endocarditis was E. faecalis in 10 patients and E. faecium in 2. Two E. faecalis were resistant to aminoglycosides. Aortic valve was the most frequently affected with 9 cases, followed by mitral valve (2 cases), and tricuspid valve (1 case). In 10 cases endocarditis affected a native valve, and only in 2 cases a prosthetic valve. Only 5 patients had underlying valve disease. The most frequently used antimicrobial therapy was the combination of ampicillin plus gentamicin (8 patients). Four cases were treated with monotherapy, 2 with ampicillin, and 2 with vancomycin. Seven patients suffered heart failure, and five of them required surgical therapy with aortic valve replacement. All the patients treated with monotherapy had severe complications, that led to death in 2 of them.

  11. Aneurismas micóticos popliteos bilaterales asociados con endocarditis bacteriana / Bilateral Mycotic Popliteal Aneurysms Associated with Infective Endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gianina, Faliva Mai; Carlos A., Medina; Diego, Navarrete; Luis, Pizzini; Federico, Zabala; Luis, Medesani.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En la era posantibiótica, los aneurismas micóticos en arterias periféricas son una complicación poco frecuente de endocarditis infecciosa. El compromiso de la arteria poplítea es excepcional y más frecuente en hombres. El diagnóstico temprano, utilizando los métodos de imágenes ante una elevada sosp [...] echa clínica, tiene implicaciones pronósticas. El tamaño del aneurisma, la presencia de trombosis y el estado general del paciente son factores importantes para decidir un tratamiento oportuno. En esta presentación se describe el caso de un paciente de 48 años con aneurismas poplíteos bilaterales con punto de partida en una endocarditis mitroaórtica por Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistente, con embolias sépticas múltiples. Abstract in english Mycotic aneurysms are a rare complication of infective endocarditis in the post-antibiotic era. The involvement of the popliteal artery is an exception and is more common in men. When the clinical suspicion is high, early diagnosis using image tests has prognostic implications. The aneurysm size, th [...] e presence of thrombosis and the patient's general condition are important factors to decide the adequate treatment. We describe the case of a 48-year old male patient with bilateral aneurysms of the popliteal arteries originating from endocarditis of the mitral and aortic valves caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with multiple septic emboli.

  12. Surgical treatment of active infective endocarditis: A single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Fahad; Doddi, Sujatha; Penupolu, Sudheer; Dutta, Simanta; Alok, Anshu

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was undertaken to examine the outcomes of surgery for active infective endocarditis. Methods Fifty consecutive patients underwent surgery for active infective endocarditis in a tertiary care center between January 2000 and June 2003. Modified Duke Criteria was used to include the patients in the study. Results Mean age of the patients was 55.72 years (range 18-89 years). Underlying heart disease was the most common cause of acute infection, accounting for 30 % of all the cases. 16 % patients had a recent dental procedure and 10 % had a recent surgical procedure. The most common infective organism was staphylococcus aureus (24%), followed by streptococcus viridians (20%). The most common indications for surgery were congestive heart failure (CHF) (52%), embolic phenomenon (18%) and septic shock (10%). Most common postoperative complication was respiratory failure (30%) followed by renal failure (24%) pacemaker implantation 22%; stroke 18%, bleeding 16% and GI bleeding 2 %. Seven out of 50 patients died during hospital course that accounts for 14% of the motility rate. Conclusions Surgery for endocarditis continues to be challenging and associated with high operative mortality and morbidity. Age, shock, prosthetic valve endocarditis, impaired ventricular function, and recurrent infections adversely affect long-term survival. PMID:22263033

  13. Infective Endocarditis Presenting as Acute Renal Failure and Unusual Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luciano; Machado, Ana; Oliveira, Jorge; Almeida, Pedro; Bettencourt, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Infective endocarditis can be a diagnostic challenge. Few cases have so far reported infective endocarditis presenting as renal failure. Pseudoaneurysms of the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa and splenic abscess are rare complications of infective endocarditis. We herein report a case of an 80-year-old man admitted due to anorexia, malaise, edema of the legs and renal failure. A progressive degradation of the patient's renal function was documented and hemodialysis was started. Blood cultures revealed the presence of Enterococcus faecalis, and the patient was treated with ampicillin and gentamicin. The transesophageal echocardiogram findings showed pseudoaneurysms of the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa and in the aortic root wall. Due to abdominal pain, an abdominal CT scan was performed and showed a cystic lesion compatible with splenic abscess. The patient received 6 weeks of antibiotic treatment. There was progressive clinical improvement and regression of the splenic abscess, but no recovery of the renal function. This report illustrates an unusual clinical presentation of infective endocarditis with unusual complications that were successfully treated with antibiotics. PMID:25986267

  14. Endocardite infecciosa em adolescentes. Análise dos fatores de risco de mortalidade intra-hospitalar Infective endocarditis in adolescents. analysis of risk factors for in-hospital mortality

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    Nádia Barreto Tenório Aoun

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, terapêuticos e evolutivos da endocardite infecciosa (EI em grupo de pacientes com idade entre 12 e 20 (média de 15,5 anos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 33 pacientes consecutivos (14 do sexo masculino e 19 do feminino, admitidos com diagnóstico de EI. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade da EI foi de 42%. A cardiopatia reumática predominou como condição predisponente (63% dos casos, seguida das cardiopatias congênitas (24% e próteses cardíacas (12%. A maioria dos pacientes (78% encontrava-se na admissão em CF III e IV e apresentava mortalidade significativamente maior do que os que se encontravam na CF I e II (p=0,01. Complicações embólicas foram detectadas em 51% e determinaram maior mortalidade (p=0,05. O agente etiológico mais isolado foi o Staphylococcus aureus (em 42% das hemoculturas positivas, seguido do Staphylococcus viridans (em 21%. A análise multivariada mostrou que a contagem global de leucócitos acima de 10.000/mm ³, e a CF referidos na admissão (p=0,01 e p=0,04, e a ocorrência de embolias (p=0,03 eram preditores independentes de mortalidade intra-hospitalar. CONCLUSÃO: A cardiopatia reumática permanece, semelhante à população adulta, como principal fator predisponente da EI nos adolescentes, tendo como principal agente etiológico o S.aureus, semelhante à população pediátrica. A mortalidade é elevada e representam preditores de mortalidade intra-hospitalar a CF na admissão, a ocorrência da fenômenos embólicos e a leucocitose.PURPOSE: To study the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutive aspects of endocarditis in a group of patients aging 12 to 20 years-old ( mean 15.5. METHODS: Thirty-three consecutive patients (14 males, 19 females admitted with infective endocarditis were retrospectively studied. RESULTS: Infective endocarditismortality was 42%. Rheumatic heart disease was the predominant underlying condition in 63% of patients. Congenital heart disease (24% and cardiac prosthesis (12% were the other affections involved. The majority of patients (78% were in functional class III and IV, with more deaths than the 22% who were in functional class I and II (p=0.01. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated agent (42% of the positive blood cultures, followed by Staphylococcus viridans, 21%. Multivariate analysis identified total leukocyte count above 10,000/mm³ and functional class, both at admission (p=0.01 and p=0.004, respectively, and the occurrence of embolic complications (p=0.03 as independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Rheumatic heart disease remains, as in adults, the main predisposing factor for infective endocarditis in adolescents, and S.aureus is, like in children, the leading agent. Mortality is high and functional class at hospital admission, embolic complications and leukocytosis are independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.

  15. Epidemiology of infective endocarditis in Chennai, South India

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    Subramaniam Senthilkumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infective endocarditis (IE is an infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. Despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment, mortality rates remain high. Data on the prevalence, epidemiology and etiology of IE from India are sparse. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, laboratory, microbiological, and echocardiographic characteristics of IE patients in Chennai, south India. Materials and Methods: Patients were classified based on modified Duke criteria. Details of the clinical profile of the patients and laboratory data were recorded. Blood cultures were performed to establish the etiology. Results: Ninety six percent of patients had native valve endocarditis. Mitral valve was the most commonly affected valve. Conclusion: Rheumatic heart disease was the most common predisposing factor and fever was the most common clinical feature. Viridans group streptococci accounted of the culture positive cases.

  16. Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Høst, Ulla; Arpi, Magnus; Hassager, Christian; Johansen, Helle K; Korup, Eva; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Berning, Jens; Gill, Sabine; Rosenvinge, Flemming S; Fowler, Vance G; Møller, Jacob E; Skov, Robert L; Larsen, Carsten T; Hansen, Thomas F; Mard, Shan; Smit, Jesper; Andersen, Paal S; Bruun, Niels E

    2011-01-01

    Aims Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population. Methods and results From 1 January 2009 to 31 August 2010, a total of 244 patients with SAB at six Danish hospitals underwent screening echocardiography. The inclusion rate was 73% of all eligible patients (n=...

  17. Linezolid as rescue treatment for left-sided infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Bruun, L E; Rasmussen, R V; Arpi, M; Risum, N; Moser, C; Johansen, H K; Bundgaard, H; Hassager, C; Bruun, N E

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of resistant bacterial strains in infective endocarditis (IE) emphasizes the need for a constant development of antimicrobials. Linezolid is an oxazolidinone with an effect on Gram-positive cocci. Only a few casuistic reports describe its utilization in the treatment of IE. The objective of this study is to report our experience with linezolid from a large consecutive cohort of IE patients. In a retrospective cohort study, data on 550 consecutive IE patients were collected ...

  18. Infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus gallolyticus associated with colonic displasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, Edna; Pantarotto, Marcos; Moniz, João; Pardal, Nuno; Pinheiro, Maria Dolores; Gomes, Maria Helena; Sarmento, António

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus gallolyticus is a microorganism belonging to the Streptococcus bovis I group isolated in humans, bovines and equines pigeons, among other animals. Streptococcus bovis is a Streptococcus strain found in the rumen, and has been isolated in the milk of animals with mastitis. The authors describe a case of an adult immunocompetent patient with underlying valvular heart disease, with bacteraemia and infective endocarditis by Streptococcus gallolyticus, in whom adenomatous colonic polyps with dysplasia were identified. PMID:22521029

  19. Infective endocarditis cause: fastidious agents (Agentes fastidiosos, como causa de endocarditis infecciosa

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    Carpio-Deheza Gonzalo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Infective Endocarditis disease has infectious origin which affects endocardium, heart valve with vegetations and less frequently mural endocardium. The main etiology of endocarditidis infection is bacterium and next one is mycosis. Fastidious agents are inside of these one, they are bacterium with slow growth in cell culture. For its diagnosis it is necessary epidemic data, and a good anamnesis. That is the main reason to recognize its principal characteristics of presentation, diagnosis and treatment. –RESUMEN: Endocarditis Infecciosa, es una enfermedad de origen infeccioso que afecta al endocardio, que cursa con vegetaciones en las válvulas cardíacas y menos frecuentemente en el mismo endocardio mural. La principal etiología de la infección endocárdica es bacteriana, seguida por la micótica, y es dentro de estos agentes causales, que se encentran los agentes fastidiosos, los cuales, son bacterias de crecimiento lento en cultivos, por lo que, para poder diagnosticarlos, debemos de basarnos en la epidemiología de los mismos, además de realizar una buena anamnesis, y es en ese sentido que gira la importancia de saber reconocer sus características de presentación, diagnóstico y tratamiento.

  20. Tratamiento quirúrgico de la endocarditis infecciosa / Surgical treatment of infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alain, Eusse; Mauricio, Atehortúa; Luis, Vélez; Víctor, Bucheli; Carlos, Dallos; Gerardo, Flores; Ana M, Herrera; Sergio, Franco.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir las características epidemiológicas y los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico temprano de los pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa intervenidos en el Departamento de Cirugía Cardiovascular de la Clínica Medellín, Colombia. Métodos: estudio observacional, descrip [...] tivo, retrospectivo, de todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa tratados mediante cirugía en la Clínica Medellín, entre enero de 2003 y enero de 2010. Resultados: se incluyeron en total 54 pacientes, 37 (68,5%) de ellos de género masculino. La mediana de la edad fue 57,5 años (9 - 76 años). El 77,7% tenía algún factor de riesgo para desarrollar endocarditis infecciosa; entre los más destacados insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC) en hemodiálisis (18,5%) y prótesis valvulares cardiacas (18,5%). El 66,7% de los hemocultivos fue positivo. Staphylococcus aureus fue el principal germen aislado en el 40,7% del total de pacientes. El 81,4% de las válvulas comprometidas eran nativas con predominio de la válvula mitral (44,5%) y el 7,5% presentaba compromiso de dos válvulas. En el 68,5% el motivo de consulta fue falla cardiaca y 35,3% presentaron fenómenos embólicos como manifestación inicial o asociada (cerebral 16,7%, pulmonar 13%, esplénica 5,6%). En el 83,3% de los casos se realizó cirugía temprana; 66% recibieron válvulas mecánicas. La mortalidad total a tres meses fue del 13% (muerte intraoperatoria 3,7%, mortalidad a 30 días, 9%). La mediana en el tiempo de estancia hospitalaria fue de 36 días (7 a 130 días). En este estudio se reporta una mortalidad total que se encuentra en el límite inferior de lo reportado en el mundo. Una de las razones atribuibles a este hallazgo es el manejo quirúrgico temprano que se protocoliza en el servicio. Abstract in english Objective: to describe the epidemiological characteristics and the results of early surgical treatment of patients diagnosed with infectious endocarditis who underwent surgery in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery in the Medellin Clinic, Colombia. Methods: observational, descriptive, retrospec [...] tive study of all the patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis treated by surgery in the Medellin Clinic between January 2003 and January 2010. Results: a total of 54 patients were included. 37 (68.5%) were male. Mean age was 57.5 years (9-76 years). 77.7% had a risk factor for developing infective endocarditis; among the most prominent risk factors were chronic renal failure (CRF), patients on hemodialysis (18.5%) and heart valve prostheses (18.5%). 66.7% of the blood cultures were positive. Staphylococcus aureus was the main germ isolated in 40.7% of patients. 81.4% of the involved valves were native, with mitral valve predominance (44.5%) and 7.5% had involvement of two valves. In 68.5% the reason for the consultation was heart failure and 35.3% had embolic phenomena as the initial manifestation or associated (16.7% cerebral, pulmonary 13%, spleen 5.6%). In 83.3 % of cases early surgery was performed: 66% received mechanical valves. The three-month total mortality was 13% (3.7% intraoperative death, mortality at 30 days 9%). The median length of hospital stay was 36 days (7-130 days). In this study the total mortality reported is at the lower limit of the reported in the world. One of the reasons attributed to this finding is the early surgical management that is the protocol in the service.

  1. Embolic Events And Neurological Complications In Infective Endocarditis

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    Vesna Suknjaja

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is an infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. The intracardiac effects of this infection include severe valvular insuffi ciency, which may lead to congestive heart failure and many complications. Valvular infections have entered the era of IE caused by increased usage of intravascular devices and medical procedures. Typically, the diagnosis is made relatively late, compared to the onset of valvular infection. Complications of infective endocarditis result from embolization, slowly progressive valvular destruction and various immunological mechanisms. Complications are very frequent in IE, complicating 20–60% of cases of IE. Th e risk of embolism is the highest during the first 2 weeks of antibiotic therapy and is clearly related to the size and mobility of the vegetation. Risk is increased with large vegetations (>10 mm and particularly high with very mobile and even larger vegetations (>15 mm. Neurological complications develop in 20–40% of all patients with IE and are mainly the consequence of embolization. Rapid diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy especially antibiotics are of major importance to prevent a first or recurrent neurological complication.

  2. Infective Endocarditis: Identification of Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci from Blood Cultures by Partial 16S rRNA Gene Analysis and by Vitek 2 Examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Redha, Rawaa Jalil; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Streptococci, enterococci and Streptococcus-like bacteria are frequent etiologic agents of infective endocarditis and correct species identification can be a laboratory challenge. Viridans streptococci (VS) not seldomly cause contamination of blood cultures. Vitek 2 and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were applied in order to compare the results of both methods. STRAINS ORIGINATED FROM TWO GROUPS OF PATIENTS: 149 strains from patients with infective endocarditis and 181 strains assessed as blood culture contaminants. Of the 330 strains, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing results, 251 (76%) were VS strains, 10 (3%) were pyogenic streptococcal strains, 54 (16%) were E. faecalis strains and 15 (5%) strains belonged to a group of miscellaneous catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci. Among VS strains, respectively, 220 (87,6%) and 31 (12,3%) obtained agreeing and non-agreeing identifications with the two methods with respect to allocation to the same VS group. Non-agreeing species identification mostly occurred among strains in the contaminant group, while for endocarditis strains notably fewer disagreeing results were observed.Only 67 of 150 strains in the mitis group strains obtained identical species identifications by the two methods. Most VS strains belonging to the groups of salivarius, anginosus, and mutans obtained agreeing species identifications with the two methods, while this only was the case for 13 of the 21 bovis strains. Pyogenic strains (n=10), Enterococcus faecalis strains (n=54) and a miscellaneous group of catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci (n=15) seemed well identified by both methods, except that disagreements in identifications in the miscellaneous group of strains occurred for 6 of 15 strains.

  3. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis : a pilot study of the relationship between duration of gentamicin treatment and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V

    2013-01-01

    Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations.

  4. Case report: Infective endocarditis caused by Brevundimonas vesicularis

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    Chen Tun-Chieh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reports in the literature of invasive infection caused by Brevundimonas vesicularis in patients without immunosuppression or other predisposing factors. The choice of antimicrobial therapy for bacteremia caused by the pathogen requires more case experience to be determined. Case presentation The case of a 40-year-old previously healthy man with subacute endocarditis proposed to be contributed from an occult dental abscess is described. The infection was found to be caused by B. vesicularis on blood culture results. The patient recovered without sequelae after treatment with ceftriaxone followed by subsequent ciprofloxacin therapy owing to an allergic reaction to ceftriaxone and treatment failure with ampicillin/sulbactam. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. vesicularis as a cause of infective endocarditis. According to an overview of the literature and our experience, we suggest that third-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin/tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin are effective in treating invasive B. vesicularis infections, while the efficacy of ampicillin-sulbactam needs further evaluation.

  5. Insufficient Living : Experiences of Recovery After Infective Endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a traumatic health event, and recovery is often associated with massive physical deconditioning and reduced quality of life. Patients also report reduced cognitive functioning and are at risk of developing anxiety and depression as well as posttraumatic stress disorder. Although studies have found that survivors of IE have impaired physical functioning and mental health, little is known about patient experiences contributing to these findings. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to describe patient experiences of recovery after IE. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:: Within a phenomenological-hermeneutical framework, a qualitative interview study was conducted that included 6 men and 5 women (aged 29-86 years). Patients were interviewed 3 to 6 months after discharge. Analysis consisted of 3 levels: naive reading, structured analysis, and critical interpretation and discussion. FINDINGS:: The overall concept that emerged was "Insufficient Living." Patients all experienced a life after illness, which was perceived as insufficient. The overall concept can be interpreted in terms of the following 3 themes. The first was "an altered life," where participants described a phase of adaptation to a new life situation, which some perceived as manageable and temporary, whereas others found extremely distressing and prolonged. "Shocking weakness" was experienced physically, cognitively, and emotionally, and although it subsided quickly for a few, most experienced a persisting weakness and felt frustrated about the prolonged recovery phase. In "the road to recovery," support from relatives and healthcare professionals, as well as one's own actions, was emphasized as important in facilitating recovery. CONCLUSIONS:: Recovery after IE is perceived as "Insufficient Living." Patients experience an altered life and shocking weakness, and on the road to recovery, support is needed. Research in follow-up care, supporting patients' ability to cope with potential physical and psycho-emotional consequences of IE, is encouraged as a result of these findings.

  6. Endocardite infecciosa valvar submetida a tratamento cirúrgico: análise de 64 casos Infective valve endocarditis treated by surgery: analysis of 64 cases

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    Demóstenes G. Lima Ribeiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar aspectos clínico-laboratoriais da endocardite infecciosa valvar, tratada com cirurgia, no Hospital de Messejana, Fortaleza, CE, no período de 1988 a 2003. MÉTODO: Estudo observacional, retrospectivo, da fase hospitalar, de 64 pacientes portadores de endocardite infecciosa, submetidos à substituição valvar aórtica e/ou mitral, vegectomia e plastia da tricúspide e excisão da valva pulmonar, como parte do tratamento. Analisados o sexo, a idade, o tempo decorrido entre a internação e a cirurgia e entre a internação e a alta hospitalar, a valva acometida, o resultado da hemocultura, o procedimento cirúrgico efetuado e a mortalidade. RESULTADOS: A endocardite infecciosa valvar, tratada com cirurgia, preponderou na terceira década, 81,2% dos pacientes eram masculinos. O tempo decorrido entre a internamento e a cirurgia foi menor nos pacientes que faleceram. A valva aórtica, de modo isolado ou associado, foi acometida em 65% dos casos. Hemoculturas foram positivas em 42%; em 52,4% delas, isolou-se Estafilolococo aureus. Necessitaram de substituição valvar 93,7% dos pacientes. Houve mortalidade de 14,1%, não influenciada pela idade nem pelo resultado da hemocultura. CONCLUSÃO: Endocardite infecciosa valvar, submetida ao tratamento cirúrgico, foi mais freqüente em homens e na terceira década. Acometeu preferencialmente a valva aórtica. Estafilolococo aureus foi o patógeno mais comum. Na quase totalidade dos casos, procedeu-se substituição valvar e a mortalidade hospitalar foi de 14,1%.OBJECTIVE: To identify some aspects of the infective valve endocarditis treated by heart surgery, as well as antibiotic therapy, in a public hospital, in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil, from1988 to 2003. METHOD: A retrospective and observational study of 64 patients with Infective Valve Endocarditis who required aortic and/or mitral valve replacement, tricuspid vegectomy and repair or pulmonary valve valvulectomy, as well as antibiotic therapy, during their in-hospital stay. They were analyzed in respect to gender, age, time elapsed from hospital admission to the surgery, time elapsed from hospital admission to hospital discharge, valve lesion, blood culture result, surgical treatment and mortality. RESULTS: Infective valve endocarditis treated with heart surgery was more frequent in the third decade of life. Most of patients (81.2% were males. The patients who died spent a shorter time from hospital admission to the surgery than the patients who survived. The aortic valve was affected in 65% of cases. Positivity blood culture were seen in 42% and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 52.4% of these cases. Valve replacement was necessary in 93.7% of cases. The in-hospital mortality rate was 14.1% which was not influenced by the age of the patient or the blood culture result. CONCLUSION: Infective valve endocarditis treated by heart surgery was more frequent in men and in the third decade of life. It mostly affected the aortic valve. Staphylococcus aureus was the more common pathogen found. Almost all the patients needed replacement of the infected valve and the in-hospital mortality rate was 14.1%.

  7. Kocuria kristinae endocarditis related to diabetic foot infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citro, Rodolfo; Prota, Costantina; Greco, Luigi; Mirra, Marco; Masullo, Alfonso; Silverio, Angelo; Bossone, Eduardo; Piscione, Federico

    2013-06-01

    We report an unusual case of endocarditis occurring in a 74-year-old man with a history of systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus and minor amputation for left forefoot ulcer. The patient was hospitalized for vacuum-assisted closure therapy to aid in wound healing. After the first treatment session, the patient reported abdominal pain with haematemesis and fever (40 °C). Owing to persistent fever, three blood cultures were performed, all positive for Kocuria kristinae. The identification was based on biochemical tests and automated systems. The speciation of the micro-organism was achieved with MALDI-TOF and then confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Transthoracic echocardiographic examination showed the presence of a large vegetation (38×20 mm) on the posterior mitral leaflet and moderate mitral regurgitation. Since there are no current guidelines for the treatment of K. kristinae endocarditis, empiric antibiotic therapy with intravenous sulbactam/ampicillin (1.5 g twice daily) and gentamicin (6 mg kg(-1) per day) was started. After 7 days of hospitalization, the patient's condition suddenly worsened because of the occurrence of haemorrhagic stroke. Despite inotropic support and rifampicin infusion, the haemodynamic status progressively deteriorated. After an initial improvement, he worsened again, becoming stuporous, hypotensive and dyspnoeic. In the following days, the patient developed compartment syndrome resulting in right foot ischaemia. Unfortunately, 25 days after hospitalization, the patient died of multiple organ failure from overwhelming sepsis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of K. kristinae endocarditis on a native valve that is not related to a central venous catheter but associated with diabetic foot infection. PMID:23518651

  8. Acute Aortic Valve Rupture From Infective Endocarditis After Transrectal Prostate Biopsy: A Call to Revise the AHA Guidelines for Prevention of Infective Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Ansari; Gurkaran Singh Garcha; Henry Huang; Faisal G. Bakaeen; Salim S. Virani; Hani Jneid

    2013-01-01

    We describe the case of a 63-year-old man with a known murmur who presented with a 4-month history of intermittent fever and a progressive reduction in energy level after a transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB). He subsequently presented with acute heart failure secondary to aortic valve cusp rupture caused by endocarditis and underwent urgent aortic valve surgery. The 2008 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guideline update on infective endocarditis has narrowed the use o...

  9. Successful Treatment of Infective Endocarditis in Four Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pour-Reza-Gholi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is a serious complication in kidney transplantation, leading to graft loss and a high mortality rate. We report 4 successfully managed cases of IE in kidney transplant recipients. Blood culture revealed Enterococcus in 2 patients, group D Streptococcus in 1, and no bacteria in 1. All of the patients were diagnosed based on at least 2 major Duke criteria for diagnosis of IE. Although a mild increase in the serum creatinine level was observed in 3 out of 4 patients, no graft rejection occurred during the follow-up. Early diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, particularly intensive antibiotic therapy and surgical management can preserve the patient and the kidney allograft. Studies on previous recurrent infections and simultaneous diseases such as cytomegalovirus in these patients are warranted.

  10. Infective endocarditis and phlebotomies may have killed mozart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Simon Jong-Koo

    2010-12-01

    Thirty-five year-old Amadeus Mozart died in Vienna after an acute illness that lasted only 15 days but no consensus has been reached on the cause of his death. From many letters written by his farther it is almost certain that he experienced at least three episodes of acute rheumatic fever attack in his childhood, and a relapse of rheumatic fever was suggested to have killed Mozart, although death from acute rheumatic fever is very rare in adults. His last illness was characterized by high fever, massive edema, vomiting and skin rash. His last illness can be explained by infectious endocarditis and heart failure. During his last hours, he was given phlebotomy, possibly for the third time in two weeks, and soon after he became unconscious and died. As such, phlebotomy performed on a man dehydrated by high fever and vomiting may have caused systemic shock. In summary, Mozart probably died from chronic rheumatic heart disease complicated by infective endocarditis and heart failure, and repeated phlebotomy-induced hypovolemic shock. PMID:21267381

  11. Infective endocarditis in Turkey: aetiology, clinical features, and analysis of risk factors for mortality in 325 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap ?im?ek-Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In Turkey, IE occurs in relatively young patients and Brucella spp should always be taken into consideration as a cause of this infection. We should first consider streptococci as the causative agents of IE in young patients, those with CRHD or congenital heart valve disease, and cases of community-acquired IE. Staphylococci should be considered first in the case of pacemaker lead IE, when there are high levels of creatinine, and in cases of healthcare-associated IE. Enterococci could be the most probable causative agent of IE particularly in patients aged >50 years, those on dialysis, those with late prosthetic valve IE, and those with a perivalvular abscess. The early diagnosis and treatment of IE before complications develop is crucial because the mortality rate is high among cases with serious complications. The prevention of bacteraemia with the measures available among chronic haemodialysis patients should be a priority because of the higher mortality rate of subsequent IE among this group of patients.

  12. Infective endocarditis associated with acute leukemia: Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keino, Dai; Tsuzuki, Yoshimitsu; Mori, Takashi; Kakuage, Shiori; Nakano, Marie; Asoh, Kentaro; Mori, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Akitoshi; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2015-10-01

    There have been few reports regarding infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with leukemia. In the first case, a 15-year-old girl with Down syndrome was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. On admission, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was detected on blood culture. Echocardiography was performed because MSSA was detected repeatedly even after treatment. Vegetation in all of the atria and ventricles met the Duke criteria defining IE. She died of multiple organ failure 21?days after diagnosis. In the second case, an 11-year-old boy with acute myeloid leukemia underwent peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). He had fever 68 days after PBSCT, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected on blood culture. Echocardiography showed vegetation in the right atrium and ventricle. Daptomycin was administered for 7?weeks, and recurrence was not observed. IE should be considered when S. aureus bacteremia is documented even in patients with leukemia. PMID:26508186

  13. Endocarditis infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis asociada a instrumentación gastrointestinal / Infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Pila Pérez; Victor Adolfo, Holguín Prieto; Ever, Cetina Lozada; Rafael, Pila Peláez; Leandro, Segura Pujal.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis por Streptococcus bovis representa el 10% de los casos de endocarditis bacteriana, siendo frecuente su asociación con enfermedades intestinales y hepáticas. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 36 años con antecedentes de fiebre reumática en la niñez, quien hace un año comenzó con sin [...] tomatología digestiva, para la cual fue sometida a estudios clínicos invasivos como endoscopia y colonoscopia, desarrollando posteriormente una endocarditis con aislamiento microbiológico de Streptococcus bovis. Se detalla la fisiopatología, clínica, diagnóstico y los aspectos terapéuticos de esta entidad. Además se discuten las posibles relaciones de las enfermedades intestinales, las instrumentaciones del tubo digestivo y las hepatopatías con la bacteriemia por Streptococcus bovis biotipo I. Esta asociación sugiere un posible mecanismo de adherencia biotipo-específica que aún no ha sido fehacientemente demostrado. Por último se resalta la conveniencia de someter a exploración digestiva y ecocardiografía a todo paciente con hemocultivos positivos a este tipo de germen. (MÉD.UIS. 2012;25(3):251-8). Abstract in english Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis represents 10% of the cases of bacterial endocarditis and is frequently associated with intestinal and liver diseases. We present the case of a 36-year old female patient with a history of rheumatic fever in childhood. The gastrointestinal symptomatology be [...] gan one year before the bacterial endocarditis. Several invasive clinical investigations as endoscopy and colonoscopy, were performed and subsequently she developed endocarditis. Streptococcus bovis was isolated in microbiological studies. Pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment are detailed. The association between bacteremia from Streptococcus bovis biotype I and intestinal diseases, instrumentation of the digestive tract, and hepatopathy is reviewed. This association suggests a possible mechanism of bacteremia and endocarditis associated with biotype I but this has not been definitely confirmed. We have highlighted the importance of performing echocardiography in all patients with blood cultures positive for Streptococcus bovis who have had invasive studies of the gastrointestinal tract.(MÉD.UIS. 2012;25(3)251-8).

  14. Awareness of Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Infective Endocarditis Among Dental Students and Interns at a Teaching Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Bahammam, Maha A; Abdelaziz, Noha M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : Infective endocarditis is a serious infection of the heart endothelium and valves. It carries long-term health risks and compromises the heart condition. However, this condition has been rarely observed since the introduction of appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. Dentists play a major role in preventing infective endocarditis in susceptible patients. In this study, we assessed the levels of awareness about antibiotic prophylaxis for infective endocarditis among students and...

  15. Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: the value of screening with echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vinther; Høst, Ulla; Arpi, Rolf Magnus; Hassager, Christian; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Korup, Eva; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Berning, Jens; Gill, Sabine; Rosenvinge, Flemming S; Fowler, Vance G; Møller, Jacob; Skov, Robert L; Larsen, Carsten Toftager; Hansen, Thomas F; Mard, Shan; Smit, Jesper; Andersen, Paal S; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population.

  16. Prognostic criteria for the development of infective endocarditis in children with heart pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porokhnya N.G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the most informative prognostic signs of infectious endocarditis development in children with heart pathology on the background of bacterial infections clinical course of 15 cases of infective endocarditis in children aged from 1 month to 17 years was performed. The comparison group consisted of 40 children aged 5 - 17 years with mitral valve prolapse. Of 19 analyzed clinical-anamnestic predictive diagnostic features for the development of infective endocarditis in children, presence of febrile fever during infusion therapy, the operated congenital heart disease, treatment in an intensive therapy unit with mechanical ventilation, intravenous infusions through a catheter lasting more than three days, a positive blood culture during the disease course, diagnostic catheterization of large vessels were of high informative value. In a positive prognosis of infective endocarditis development with a probability of 95% and more, children underwent complex of therapeutic measures with the following observation of pediatric cardio-rheumatologist.

  17. Endovascular Treatment of Intracerebral Mycotic Aneurysm before Surgical Treatment of Infective Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogan, Hasan Basri; Erentug, Vedat; Bozbuga, Nilgun; Goksedef, Deniz; AKINCI, Esat; Yakut, Cevat

    2004-01-01

    Mycotic aneurysms are rarely seen in patients who have infective endocarditis, and the management of these patients remains controversial. We present the case of a patient who had infective endocarditis complicated by a mycotic aneurysm of the left middle cerebral artery. There was substantial mitral regurgitation, and Streptococcus viridans was isolated from the blood samples. Dysarthria appeared during the 4th week of the antibiotic therapy, but resolved completely 8 hours after onset. The ...

  18. Infective endocarditis complicated by aortic graft infection and osteomyelitis: case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zouein E; Wetz R; Mobarakai N; Hassan S.; Tong I

    2012-01-01

    Elie Zouein,1 Robert Wetz,1 Neville Mobarakai,1 Samer Hassan,1 Iris Tong21Department of Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, New York, NY USA; 2Department of Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Primary aortic graft infection early after aortic graft insertion is well described in the literature. Here, we present a unique case of late aortic graft infection 5 years after insertion secondary to mitral valve endocarditis, resulting fro...

  19. Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection and Endocarditis - A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moing, Vincent; Alla, François; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Delahaye, François; Piroth, Lionel; Chirouze, Catherine; Tattevin, Pierre; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Erpelding, Marie-Line; Hoen, Bruno; Vandenesch, François; Duval, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To update the epidemiology of S. aureus bloodstream infection (SAB) in a high-income country and its link with infective endocarditis (IE). Methods All consecutive adult patients with incident SAB (n = 2008) were prospectively enrolled between 2009 and 2011 in 8 university hospitals in France. Results SAB was nosocomial in 54%, non-nosocomial healthcare related in 18% and community-acquired in 26%. Methicillin resistance was present in 19% of isolates. SAB Incidence of nosocomial SAB was 0.159/1000 patients-days of hospitalization (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.111-0.219). A deep focus of infection was detected in 37%, the two most frequent were IE (11%) and pneumonia (8%). The higher rates of IE were observed in injecting drug users (IE: 38%) and patients with prosthetic (IE: 33%) or native valve disease (IE: 20%) but 40% of IE occurred in patients without heart disease nor injecting drug use. IE was more frequent in case of community-acquired (IE: 21%, adjusted odds-ratio (aOR) = 2.9, CI = 2.0-4.3) or non-nosocomial healthcare-related SAB (IE: 12%, aOR = 2.3, CI = 1.4-3.5). S. aureus meningitis (IE: 59%), persistent bacteremia at 48 hours (IE: 25%) and C-reactive protein > 190 mg/L (IE: 15%) were also independently associated with IE. Criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock were met in 30% of SAB without IE (overall in hospital mortality rate 24%) and in 51% of IE (overall in hospital mortality rate 35%). Conclusion SAB is still a severe disease, mostly related to healthcare in a high-income country. IE is the most frequent complication and occurs frequently in patients without known predisposing conditions. PMID:26020939

  20. Infective endocarditis of a rare etiology: Serratia marcescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?oki? Milomir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is a unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is a severe disease, fatal before penicillin discovery. Atypical presentations frequently led to delayed diagnosis and poor outcome. There was little information about the natural history of the vegetations during medical treatment or the relation of morphologic changes in vegetation to late complications. Application of a new diagnostic criteria and echocardiography, increased the number of definite diagnosis. Trans-thoracic and trans-esophageal echocardiography had an established role in the management of patients with IE. The evolution of vegetation size, its mobility, and consistency, the extent of the disease, and the severity of valvular regurgutation were related to late complications. With therapeutic options including modern antibiotic treatment and early surgical intervention IE turned out to be a curable disease. Reduction in mortality also depended on prevention. Antibiotic prophylaxis of IE was important, but low mortality was also the result of early treatment, especially in the event of early recognition of symptoms and signs of the disease.

  1. Successful surgical treatment for infective endocarditis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Koji; Nakazawa, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Natsuya; Haga, Manabu; Takahashi, Yoshiki; Kanazawa, Hiroshi

    2007-10-01

    We herein describe the case of a 31-year-old woman. In the 27th week of pregnancy, the patient was hospitalized because of fever and a lumbar backache. In the 29th week of pregnancy, she developed embolic symptom in her left lower limb. A cardiac murmur was detected, and a significant regurgitation of the mitral valve, along with a mobile vegetation at the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve, was detected by cardiac ultrasound examination, thus resulting in a diagnosis of infective endocarditis. At the time of diagnosis, the fetus was estimated to weigh 1400 g, and it was delivered by cesarian section, with a mitral valve repair being performed 4 days later. The mother did well and was discharged from the hospital after remission on the 30th hospital day. The infant was admitted to the NICU and was discharged from the hospital with good development and no complications at the age of 59 days, weighing 3066 g. Cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation in pregnant women is rare, and it is believed to have a high mortality rate for both the mothers and fetuses. On the other hand, the survival rate of low birth weight infants has improved as a consequence of progress in neonatal care. We herein report a case of mitral valve repair in the second trimester with a good outcome for both the mother and the infant. PMID:18018608

  2. Aortic Valve Replacement for Infective Endocarditis in a Renal Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masmoudi Sayda

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplant recipients are more prone to developing infections. We report a 37-year old renal transplant recipient who developed infective endocarditis of the aortic valve, heart failure and renal allograft dysfunction. He underwent aortic valve replacement which was followed by improvement in cardiac as well as allograft function.

  3. [Splenic abscess in the course of infective endocarditis--report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryczak, Elzbieta; Mosiewicz, Jerzy; Bi?an, Andrzej; Wallner, Grzegorz; Zinkiewicz, Krzysztof; Prystupa, Andrzej; Ignatowicz, Andrzej; Bie?ko-Baka, Grazyna

    2004-11-01

    Infective endocarditis is the most common condition predisposing a patient to splenic abscess. We report the case of man aged 65 who was admitted to the Internal Medicine Department to diagnose the fever of unknown origin. The fever lasted longer than one year. Clinical status and executed diagnostics, among others: echocardiography, blood cultures, abdominal ultrasonography, abdominal computed tomography allowed to give the diagnosis splenic abscess caused by Acinetobacter Baumanii in the course of infective endocarditis. Patient was treated by splenectomy and antibiotics. As a result of the treatment normalization of temperature and recovery was obtained. PMID:15773518

  4. Infective endocarditis (IE) first diagnosed at autopsy: analysis of 31 cases in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil Endocardite infecciosa (EI) com diagnóstico feito apenas à necrópsia: análise de 31 casos ocorridos entre 1992 e 1997, em Ribeirão Preto, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu M.; RUIZ-JUNIOR Everaldo; SCHIRMBECK Tarciso

    2001-01-01

    Thirty one infective endocarditis (IE) fatal cases whose diagnosis was first obtained at autopsy were studied. The clinical data of these patients (Group 1) showed significant differences compared to other 141 IE cases (Group 2). The average age of 53 years in Group 1 patients was 18 years higher than that of Group 2. The Group 1 patients had a low frequency of IE predisposing heart disease. Both patient groups presented fever (about 87%), but a significant low frequency of cardiac murmur (25...

  5. Aortocavitary fistula as a complication of infective endocarditis and subsequent complete heart block in a patient with severe anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose N. Galeas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis has different presentations depending on the involvement of valvular and perivalvular structures, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Aortocavitary fistula is a rare complication. We introduce the case of a 48-year-old female with native valve endocarditis, complicated by aortocavitary fistula to the right atrium, and consequently presented with syncope.

  6. Un brote epidémico de endocarditis por Pseudomonas aeruginosa secundario a angiografía coronaria / An outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infective endocarditis subsequent to coronary angiography

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Derya, Seyman; Dilara, Inan; Nevgun, Sepin Ozen; Dilara, Ogunc.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir un brote de endocarditis por Pseudomonas aeruginosa que afectó a tres pacientes tras habérseles efectuado una coronariografía en el Centro Médico de Cardiología y de Cirugía Cardiovascular (CMC-CCV) de un hospital privado. Métodos: Después de reconocer la aparición de un brote e [...] n un periodo de un mes, este hecho fue comunicado al Departamento de Salud de Antalya, iniciándose una exhaustiva investigación para precisar la más probable causa y/o fuente de las endocarditis nosocomiales. Se extrajo de los registros médicos los datos clínicos de los pacientes y se efectuaron entrevistas a los pacientes o sus familiares. Se extrajo 36 muestras medioambientales de vigilancia en busca de P. aeruginosa de diversos sitios dentro de la unidad de coronariografía. Un team que investigó el brote revisó los procedimientos en uso para la prevención de infecciones en el CMC-CCV. Se estudió la epidemiología de la P. aeruginosa mediante análisis de su fenotipos, incluyendo el perfil de susceptibilidad in vitro a antimicrobianos. Resultados: La auditoria comprobó el quiebre de diversas normas de control de infecciones. Sólo 1/36 de las muestras ambientales arrojó el cultivo de P. aeruginosa, a partir de una solución de medio radio-opaco dentro de una bomba inyectora empleada en las angiografías. Los aislados de P. aeruginosa desde la solución del medio radio-opaco tenían idéntico patrón de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana que las cepas recuperadas de los pacientes. Ambos tipos de muestras eran susceptibles a todos los antimicrobianos con actividad anti-pseudomonas. El brote pudo evitarse si se hubieran instaurado una serie de medidas de control de infecciones. Conclusiones: Este brote enfatiza la importancia de adherir a los estándares y prácticas de control de infecciones para la cateterización cardiaca, así como la necesidad de una estrecha colaboración entre el Comité de Control de Infecciones y el personal involucrado en el procedimiento de coronariografía. Abstract in english Objectives: To describe an endocarditis outbreak affecting three patients due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection post coronary angiography performed in the Cardiovascular Surgery and Cardiology Medical Center of a private hospital. Methods: After recognition of an infection cluster within a onemont [...] h period, the outbreak was reported to Antalya Department of Health and a broad investigation was initiated in order to determine the most probable cause and/or source of nosocomial pseudomonal endocarditis. Patient data were obtained by medical record review as well as interviews with patients or their next of kin. Thirty-six surveillance samples for P. aeruginosa were collected from various locations within the coronary angiography unit. The outbreak research team reviewed the private hospital's Cardiovascular Surgery and Cardiology Medical Center's infection control procedures. The epidemiology of P. aeruginosa was studied through analysis of phenotypic markers, including antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. Results: The infection control audit revealed multiple breaches of infection control procedures. Only 1/36 environmental samples yielded, which was isolated from a radio-opaque solution within an angiography injector pump. P. aeruginosa from the radio-opaque solution had an identical antimicrobial susceptibility pattern to the strain isolated from patients. Both samples were susceptible to all antipseudomonal agents. This outbreak could have been successfully controlled by instituting combined infection control measures. Conclusions: This outbreak emphasizes the important of adherence to infection control standards and practices for cardiac catheterization, as well as the need for closer collaboration between the Infection Control Committee and coronary angiography personnel.

  7. K2 Serotype Klebsiella pneumoniae Causing a Liver Abscess Associated with Infective Endocarditis?

    OpenAIRE

    Rivero, Andres; Gomez, Eric; Alland, David; Huang, David B; Chiang, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae primary liver abscess (KPLA) is an emerging disease that is associated with distant septic complications. We report the first case of KPLA associated with infective endocarditis. The K. pneumoniae strain was a hypermucoid K2 serotype carrying the rmpA virulence-associated gene.

  8. K2 serotype Klebsiella pneumoniae causing a liver abscess associated with infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Andres; Gomez, Eric; Alland, David; Huang, David B; Chiang, Tom

    2010-02-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae primary liver abscess (KPLA) is an emerging disease that is associated with distant septic complications. We report the first case of KPLA associated with infective endocarditis. The K. pneumoniae strain was a hypermucoid K2 serotype carrying the rmpA virulence-associated gene. PMID:20007381

  9. Awareness of infective endocarditis prophylaxis in parents of children with congenital heart disease: A prospective survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective survey of parents of the children with congenital heart disesease was conducted to determine their awareness as regards the importance of oral hygiene and prophylaxis against infective endocarditis (IE). The results of this study demonstrated that only 8% of the parents were aware of the importance of good oro-dental hygiene and need for IE prophylaxis

  10. Necrotizing fasciitis and infective endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli in a hemodialysis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Fang, Yu-Wei; Hsieh, Shih-Chung

    2015-10-01

    Patients with uremia are often immunocompromised and uremia patients undergoing maintenance dialysis are often vulnerable to uncommon infections. We report a 40-year-old man who was undergoing maintenance hemodialysis and was initially diagnosed with monomicrobal necrotizing fasciitis of the lower limbs, based on blood and pus cultures that yielded Escherichia coli. His condition improved after surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy. However, he eventually died of intracranial hemorrhage related to septic emboli. Concurrent infective endocarditis was diagnosed based on an echocardiogram that indicated vegetation in the left ventricular region. Escherichia coli-related necrotizing fasciitis and infective endocarditis is rarely seen in clinical practice. There should be a high index of suspicion for multiple infections when a hemodialysis patient presents with an uncommon infection. PMID:25582556

  11. Pyogenic ventriculitis complicating Aggregatibacter aphrophilus infective endocarditis: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Gordon W; Michael D. Parkins; Church, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Pyogenic ventriculitis (PV) is an uncommon, but frequently fatal infection that results from inflammation of the ventricular ependymal lining associated with a purulent ventricular system. PV has been rarely reported as a secondary complication of infective endocarditis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with appropriate culture-directed antibiotics with adequate central nervous system penetration is crucial when managing patients who are suspected of having PV. The present study reports on a fa...

  12. Endocarditis infecciosa por Rhizobium radiobacter: Reporte de un caso / Infective endocarditis by Rhizobium radiobacter: A case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jean Félix, Piñerúa Gonsálvez; Rosanna del Carmen, Zambrano Infantino; Carlos, Calcaño; César, Montaño; Zaida, Fuenmayor; Henry, Rodney; Marianela, Rodney.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobium radiobacter es una bacteria Gram-negativa, fijadora de nitrógeno que se encuentra principalmente en el suelo. Rara vez causa infecciones en humanos. Ha sido asociada a bacteriemia secundaria a colonización de catéteres intravasculares en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. El objetivo de este t [...] rabajo es informar un caso de endocarditis infecciosa por R. radiobacter. Se trata de paciente masculino, de 47 años de edad, con diagnóstico de enfermedad renal crónica estadio 5 en tratamiento sustitutivo con hemodiálisis, quien acude a centro asistencial por presentar fiebre de dos semanas de evolución. Es hospitalizado, se toman muestras de sangre periférica para hemocultivo y se inicia antibioticoterapia empírica con cefotaxime más vancomicina. El ecocardiograma transtorácico revelo vegetación fusiforme en válvula tricúspide con regurgitación grado III-IV/IV. Al séptimo día del inicio de la antibioterapia el paciente presenta mejoría clínica y paraclínica. La bacteria identificada por hemocultivo es Rhizobium radiobacter resistente a ceftriaxona y sensible a imipenem, amikacina, ampicilina y ampicilina/sulbactam. Debido a la mejoría clínica se decide continuar tratamiento con vancomicina y se anexa imipenem. A los 14 días de iniciada la antibioterapia el paciente es dado de alta con tratamiento ambulatorio con imipenen hasta cumplir seis semanas de tratamiento. En el ecocardiograma control se evidencio ausencia de la vegetación en la válvula tricúspide. Este caso sugiere que R. radiobacter puede ser una causa de endocarditis en pacientes portadores de catéteres intravasculares. Abstract in english Rhizobium radiobacter is a Gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, which is found mainly on the ground. It rarely causes infections in humans. It has been associated with bacteremia, secondary to colonization of intravascular catheters, in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this paper was to r [...] eport the case of an infective endocarditis caused by R. radiobacter, in a 47-year-old male, diagnosed with chronic kidney disease stage 5, on replacement therapy with hemodialysis and who attended the medical center with fever of two weeks duration. The patient was hospitalized and samples of peripheral blood were taken for culture. Empirical antibiotic therapy was started with cefotaxime plus vancomycin. The transthoracic echocardiogram revealed fusiform vegetation on the tricuspid valve, with grade III-IV/IV regurgitation. On the seventh day after the start of antibiotic therapy, the patient had a clinical and paraclinical improvement. The bacterium identified by blood culture was Rhizobium radiobacter, ceftriaxone-resistant and sensitive to imipenem, amikacin, ampicillin and ampicillin/ sulbactam. Because of the clinical improvement, it was decided to continue treatment with vancomycin and additionally, with imipenem. At 14 days after the start of antibiotic therapy, the patient was discharged with outpatient treatment with imipenem up to six weeks of treatment. The control echocardiogram showed the absence of vegetation on the tricuspid valve. This case suggests that R. radiobacter can cause endocarditis in patients with intravascular catheters.

  13. NICE guideline on antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: attitudes to the guideline and implications for dental practice in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-03-28

    To investigate attitudes of Irish dental practitioners, cardiologists and patients with cardiac lesions to the new NICE guideline for antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis and to determine the implications of this guideline for dental practice in Ireland.

  14. Infective endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a young woman after ear piercing: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Mijeong; Durey Areum; Park Jae; Chung Moon-Hyun; Nah So-Yun; Lee Jin-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Ear piercing is a common practice among Korean adolescents and young women and usually is performed by nonmedical personnel, sometimes under suboptimal hygienic conditions. Consequently, ear piercing has been associated with various infectious complications, including fatal infective endocarditis. We report a case of infective endocarditis that was caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after ear piercing and that was accompanied by a ...

  15. Successful recovery of infective endocarditis-induced rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis by steroid therapy combined with antibiotics: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kikkawa Ryuichi; Shibuya Kazuyuki; Koya Daisuke; Haneda Masakazu

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The mortality rate among patients with infective endocarditis, especially associated with the presence of complications or coexisting conditions such as renal failure and the use of combined medical and surgical therapy remains still high. Prolonged parenteral administration of a bactericidal antimicrobial agent or combination of agents is usually recommended, however, the optimal therapy for infective endocarditis associated with renal injury is not adequately defined. Ca...

  16. Infective endocarditis due to Bartonella spp. and Coxiella burnetii: experience at a cardiology hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Rinaldo Focaccia; Strabelli, Tânia Mara; Zeigler, Rogério; Rodrigues, Cristhieni; Castelli, Jussara Bianchi; Grinberg, Max; Colombo, Silvia; da Silva, Luiz Jacintho; Mendes do Nascimento, Elvira Maria; Pereira dos Santos, Fabiana Cristina; Uip, David Everson

    2006-10-01

    Bartonella spp. and Coxiella burnetii are recognized as causative agents of blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE) in humans and there are no studies of their occurrences in Brazil. The purpose of this study is to investigate Bartonella spp. and C. burnetii as a causative agent of culture-negative endocarditis patients at a cardiology hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. From January 2004 to December 2004 patients with a diagnosis of endocarditis at our Institute were identified and recorded prospectively. They were considered to have possible or definite endocarditis according to the modified Duke criteria. Those with blood culture-negative were tested serologically using the indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) for Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, and C. burnetii. IFA-IgG titers >800 for Bartonella spp. and C. burnetii were considered positive. A total of 61 patients with endocarditis diagnosis were evaluated, 17 (27%) were culture-negative. Two have had IgG titer greater than 800 (>/=3,200) against Bartonella spp. and one against C. burnetii (phase I and II>/=6,400). Those with Bartonella-induced endocarditis had a fatal disease. Necropsy showed calcifications and extensive destruction of the valve tissue, which is diffusely infiltrated with mononuclear inflammatory cells predominantly by foamy macrophages. The patient with C. burnetii endocarditis received specific antibiotic therapy. Reports of infective endocartitis due to Bartonella spp. and C. burnetii in Brazil reveal the importance of investigating the infectious agents in culture-negative endocarditis. PMID:17114712

  17. Isolated Pulmonary Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hatamizadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is one of the most severe complications of parenteral drug abuse. The outstanding clinical feature of infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers is the high incidence of right-sided valve infection, and the tricuspid valve is involved in 60% to 70% of the cases. We herein report a case of isolated pulmonic valve infective endocarditis with a native pulmonary valve.

  18. One-year mortality in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Olaison, Lars; Andersson, Rune; Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten T; Hansen, Thomas Fritz; Køber, Lars; Hassager, Christian; Bruun, Niels E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in-hospital mortality and 12-month mortality in patients with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) compared to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infective endocarditis (IE). We used a prospective cohort study of 66 consecutive CoNS and 170 S. aureus IE patients, collected at 2 tertiary university hospitals in Copenhagen (Denmark) and at 1 tertiary university hospital in Gothenburg (Sweden). Median (range) C-reactive protein at admission was higher in ...

  19. Multiresistant-MRSA tricuspid valve infective endocarditis with ancient osteomyelitis locus

    OpenAIRE

    Gambarati Gianpaolo; Mestres Carlos A; Colli Andrea; Chesi Giuseppe; Boni Fabrizio; Gherli Tiziano

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with low susceptibility to glycopeptides is uncommon. Case presentation The case of a 50-year-old non-drug addict patient presenting with tricuspid valve infective endocarditis (IE) by MRSA resistant to vancomycin and linezolid is presented. There was response only to quinupristin/dalfopristin. He had a motorcycling accident four years before undergoing right above-the-knee amputation and orthopaedic fixation of the left limb. There w...

  20. Radiolabeled antibody in the detection of infection using endocarditis as a model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have examined a method to detect infections using radiolabeled antibodies. Staphylococcal endocarditis was chosen as a model because it poses a common clinical diagnostic problem. The experiments demonstrate that biologically active antibodies may be extracted and efficiently labeled by a relatively simple process. This has the potential to make the specificity of the in vivo antigen-antibody reaction available through the use of autologously extracted, labeled ?-globulin

  1. Mitral valve replacement in a patient with infective endocarditis and aneurysm of the cerebral artery: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senka Mesihovi?-Dinarevi?

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Endocarditis can have profound and devastating neurological consequences, with the vast majority of these complications in patients with left-sided valvular disease. The approach to the acute management of stroke in children with infective endocarditis is limited by the inadequacy of published data on their clinical course and outcome. Case report. This case report presents a 12 year old girl with diagnosed endocarditis, complicated with intracranial hemorrhage, due to the rupture of an aneurysm of the peripheral branch medial cerebral artery and gradient therapeutic approach, with an excellent final result. Conclusion. Congestive heart failure resulting from valvular insufficiency required mitral valve replacement, after cerebral aneurysm clipping.

  2. An unusual case of infective endocarditis presenting as acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Ng, Francesca; Nageh, Thuraia

    2009-01-01

    A 39-year-old Zimbabwean man presented with a 1 week history of fever, general malaise and acute onset chest pain. He had a urethral stricture, which had been managed with an indwelling supra-pubic catheter. The electrocardiography on admission showed inferior ST-T segments elevation. His chest pain and electrocardiography changes resolved subsequent to thrombolysis, and he remained haemodynamically stable. The 12 h troponin I was increased at 10.5 µg/l (NR mobile vegetation. Enterococci faecalis were grown on blood cultures. A diagnosis of enterococci infective endocarditis with concomitant acute myocardial infarction due to possible septic emboli was made. Despite the successful outcome from thrombolysis in the setting of acute myocardial infarction with infective endocarditis, the case highlights the current lack of definitive data on the optimal acute management of such an unusual clinical scenario. Although there is serious concern that thrombolytic treatment for myocardial infarction in the setting of infective endocarditis may be associated with higher risk of cerebral haemorrhage, there is little documented evidence supporting the safety of primary percutaneous coronary intervention with these patients. PMID:21686364

  3. Endocarditis infecciosa en pacientes con daño hepático crónico: Serie de 4 casos clínicos Infective endocarditis in patients with chronic hepatic failure: A four cases series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Oksenberg R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La asociación entre daño hepático y endocarditis infecciosa es infrecuente. Para analizar los factores predisponentes de esta asociación, la etiología microbiana y evolución clínica, se efectuó un análisis retrospectivo de los egresos por endocarditis infecciosa en pacientes con cirrosis hepática desde 1995 a junio de 2008. Se identificaron cuatro casos, asociados a categoría Child A en tres y en todos había una cardiopatía predisponente. Las manifestaciones clínicas fueron clásicas excepto en un caso que se presentó como descompensación hepática. Sólo un caso se asoció a un agente típico, otros a un agente nosocomial y Corynebacterium diphtheriae. En un caso no se identificó la etiología. Uno de los pacientes requirió cirugía de reemplazo valvular. Tres pacientes se recuperaron (Child A y el paciente en categoría Child C falleció. Aunque infrecuente, la asociación cirrosis y endocarditis ocurre en la práctica clínica, se puede asociar a agentes inhabituales y tener manifestaciones encubiertas.Infective endocarditis and liver cirrhosis is an infrequent association. A retrospective study was performed in order to characterize predisposing factors, microbial causes and evolution. Medical records between 1995 and 2008 (June were searched. Four cases were identified. In three cases liver cirrhosis was in stage Child A, and in all 4 there was a predisposing cardiac disease. Clinical manifestations were classical in 3 cases and in one presented as hepatic failure. Only in one case a typical agent was recovered. Other cases were associated to a nosocomial agent or Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and in one no agent was identified. One patient required valve replacement. Three patients recovered satisfactorily, all of them in Child A stage. One died of non-infectious causes (Child C. Infective endocarditis and liver cirrhosis is an infrequent association in clinical practice, it can be associated to unusual agents or clinical manifestations.

  4. Niveles de péptido natriurético tipo B y su asociación con la morbimortalidad en endocarditis infecciosa / Association Levels of brain natriuretic peptide with morbidity and mortality in infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oddir, Jáuregui Ruiz; Eduardo, Galván García; Cyntia Zulema, Machain Leyva.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una infección con alta morbimortalidad. Identificar a los pacientes con mayor riesgo de presentar complicaciones proporciona la oportunidad de establecer una terapéutica agresiva. El péptido natriurético tipo B es un estudio rápido y disponible, y se ha relacionado [...] a los niveles elevados con una mala evolución en la EI. Objetivos: Determinar la asociación entre los niveles de péptido natriurético tipo B y la morbimortalidad en pacientes con EI. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes ?15 años, durante el periodo de julio de 2010 a julio de 2012. Se dividieron en distintos grupos con base en los niveles de péptido natriurético tipo B: grupo 1, péptido natriurético tipo B Abstract in english Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection with high morbidity and mortality. Identify patients with increased risk for complications, provides the opportunity to establish an aggressive therapeutic. B-type natriuretic peptide is a quick, available and high levels has been linked with poor outcome [...] in IE. Objectives: To determine the association between B-type natriuretic peptide levels and morbidity and mortality in patients with infective endocarditis. Material and methods: We included patients ? 15 years, during the period July 2010 to July 2012. They were divided into groups based on the levels of B-type natriuretic peptide, group 1 B-type natriuretic peptide

  5. Severe infective endocarditis with systemic embolism due to community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST630

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Beiwen, Zheng; Saiping, Jiang; Zemin, Xu; Yonghong, Xiao; Lanjuan, Li.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are increasingly causing infective endocarditis over the past decade. Here we report a healthy man who developed a severe acute infective endocarditis with systemic embolism caused by CA- MRSA. The strain was recovered from r [...] epeated blood cultures and was characterized using molecular detection and genotyping. The S. aureus isolate was typed as ST630 SCCmecV with spa-type t4549, agrI/IV and was PVL-negative. This is the only case report, to our knowledge, of CA-MRSA infective endocarditis in China. This case highlights the emergence and geographical spread of life-threatening CA-MRSA infection within China.

  6. Cirurgia conservadora de próteses aórtica e mitral na endocardite infecciosa Conservative surgery for aortic and mitral prosthesis in infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanim Kalil KASSAB

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A endocardite infecciosa (EI acometendo próteses valvares é uma complicação freqüente, sendo tratada geralmente com cirurgia, devido ao seu difícil controle clínico e má resposta à antibioticoterapia. Este relato descreve o caso de uma paciente com EI, acometendo simultaneamente as biopróteses aórtica (Ao e mitral (Mi após vinte e quatro meses de cirurgia de implantes valvares, submetida a tratamento cirúrgico conservador, e com resultado favorável. Discutem-se as vantagens deste procedimento em situações específicas.Infective endocarditis is a frequent complication for valvar prosthesis currently treated with surgery, orving to its difficult control and poor response to therapy with antibiotics. Although conservative surgery for infective endocarditis of prosthesis is not a procedure of choice, this report shows a case of infective endocarditis of aortic and mitral prosthesis, after 24 months of implantation, treated by conservative surgery with favorable outcome.

  7. Cirurgia conservadora de próteses aórtica e mitral na endocardite infecciosa / Conservative surgery for aortic and mitral prosthesis in infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kanim Kalil, KASSAB; José Antônio Garcia, MENEGOLI; Vera Lúcia A. M., PICARDI; Marcos Cesar V. de, ALMEIDA; Emil, SABINO; Edgard, SAN JUAN; Ricardo Gomes, CAMACHO; César Morioki, OGIDO; Enoch Brandão de Souza, MEIRA.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A endocardite infecciosa (EI) acometendo próteses valvares é uma complicação freqüente, sendo tratada geralmente com cirurgia, devido ao seu difícil controle clínico e má resposta à antibioticoterapia. Este relato descreve o caso de uma paciente com EI, acometendo simultaneamente as biopróteses aórt [...] ica (Ao) e mitral (Mi) após vinte e quatro meses de cirurgia de implantes valvares, submetida a tratamento cirúrgico conservador, e com resultado favorável. Discutem-se as vantagens deste procedimento em situações específicas. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis is a frequent complication for valvar prosthesis currently treated with surgery, orving to its difficult control and poor response to therapy with antibiotics. Although conservative surgery for infective endocarditis of prosthesis is not a procedure of choice, this report show [...] s a case of infective endocarditis of aortic and mitral prosthesis, after 24 months of implantation, treated by conservative surgery with favorable outcome.

  8. Infective endocarditis caused by Scedosporium prolificans infection in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing induction chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Yotaro; Hiramoto, Nobuhiro; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Yonetani, Noboru; Doi, Asako; Ichikawa, Chihiro; Imai, Yukihiro; Ishikawa, Takayuki

    2015-06-01

    Disseminated Scedosporium prolificans infection occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. The mortality rate is high, as the fungus is resistant to most antifungal agents. Here, we present the case of a 66-year-old female with acute myeloid leukemia who developed infective endocarditis caused by S. prolificans infection during induction chemotherapy. Her 1,3-?-D-glucan levels were elevated and computed tomography revealed bilateral sinusitis and disseminated small nodular masses within the lungs and spleen; it nonetheless took 6 days to identify S. prolificans by blood culture. The patient died of multi-organ failure despite the combined use of voriconazole and terbinafine. Autopsy revealed numerous mycotic emboli within multiple organs (caused by mitral valve vegetation) and endocarditis (caused by S. prolificans). The geographic distribution of this infection is limited to Australia, the United States, and southern Europe, particularly Spain. The first Japanese case was reported in 2011, and four cases have been reported to date, including this one. Recently, the incidence of S. prolificans-disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients has increased in Japan. Therefore, clinicians should consider S. prolificans infection as a differential diagnosis when immunocompromised patients suffer disseminated infections with elevated 1,3-?-D-glucan levels. PMID:25630434

  9. Primer reporte en Cuba de endocarditis infecciosa a consecuencia de brucelosis / First report of infective endocarditis in Cuba as a result of brucellosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gloria Sofía, García González; Iraida María, Saborido Pérez; Lázaro, Ramírez Lana; Isabel, Ponce de León Ávila.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las manifestaciones clínicas por brucelosis han sido muy poco investigadas y no se profundiza en los síntomas y las posibles complicaciones que puede causar. Objetivo: reportar por primera vez en Cuba un caso de endocarditis infecciosa a consecuencia de brucelosis. Métodos: hombre blan [...] co, de 57 años, campesino, remitido desde Vertientes, que ingresó en diciembre de 2009 en el Hospital Provincial "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" de Camagüey, con diagnóstico presuntivo de endocarditis infecciosa por Brucella e insuficiencia aórtica moderada, que refirió presentar fiebre, malestar general, decaimiento, dolores musculares, articulares, artritis, astenia marcada, anorexia, signos neurológicos, sudoración y fuerte dolor en el pecho. En anteriores ingresos fue tratado con antimicrobianos, indicándole entre los complementarios, serología lenta en busca de brucelosis, pero por no disponibilidad de reactivos no se realizaron estas pruebas hasta enero de 2010. Se precisaron como antecedentes epidemiológicos el contacto directo con ganado vacuno y porcino y la presencia de heridas y microtraumatismos en manos y pies, propios de su labor. Su finca colinda con otra donde hay ganado afectado de brucelosis. Resultados: los exámenes de laboratorio resultaron positivos con elevados títulos serológicos, y aunque no fue posible el aislamiento del agente etiológico mediante el cultivo, se confirmó serológicamente la enfermedad y la endocarditis infecciosa como complicación sobreañadida; esto llevó tratamiento con antimicrobianos y medicamentos para la afección cardíaca. Se diagnostican muy poco estas complicaciones a consecuencia de brucelosis en la literatura internacional, este es el primer reporte para Cuba. Conclusiones: la descripción de este caso, constituye una alerta en el diagnóstico de las endocarditis infecciosas quizá asociadas a antecedentes epidemiológicos de brucelosis. Abstract in english Introduction: the clinical manifestations of brucellosis have been poorly researched on and the symptoms and possible complications have not been deeply studied either. Objective: to report a case of infective endocarditis caused by brucellosis for the first time in Cuba. Methods: a Caucasian male f [...] armer aged 57 years was referred from Vertientes municipality to be admitted at "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" provincial hospital in Camaguey province in December,2009. He had been presumptively diagnosed with infectious endocarditis caused by Brucella and with moderate aortic failure since he presented with fever, general malaise, fatigue, muscle and joint pains, arthritis, marked asthenia, anorexia, neurological signs, sweating and strong chest pain. In his previous hospitalization, he had been treated with antimicrobials after indication of supplementary tests such as slow serology for brucellosis; however, specific reagents were not available,so these tests were not performed until January 2010.The epidemiological history of this case included his direct contact with cows and pigs as well as wounds and minor traumas inflicted on his hands and feet resulting from his type of work. His farm is next to another farm where the cattle is also affected with brucellosis. Results: the lab tests were positive with high serological titres, and although it was not possible to isolate the etiologic agent through culturing, the disease and the infective endocarditis were serologically confirmed as additional complication; this required antimicrobial treatment and drugs for the heart disease. These complications from brucellosis are barely diagnosed in the international literature, and in Cuba, this is the first report of the disease. Conclusions: the description of this case is an alert to diagnosis of infective endocarditis that may be associated with epidemiological history of brucellosis.

  10. Infective endocarditis: a continuous challenge. The recent experience of a European tertiary center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jane B; Fuursted, Kurt; Petersen, Eskild; Wierup, Per; Mølgaard, Henning; Poulsen, Steen H; Egeblad, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aim was to monitor infective endocarditis (IE) before and after the condition was brought into focus in hospitals in the Aarhus region of Denmark. METHODS: A total of 172 patients with IE, all of whom had been referred to the regional tertiary center during 2000-2001 or during 2005-2006, was included prospectively into the study. RESULTS: Between 2000-1 (n = 51) and 2005-6 (n = 121), a very large (137%) increase occurred in the number of IE patients ref...

  11. Pathogenesis of Streptococcus infantarius subspecies coli Isolated from Sea Otters with Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Katrina L; Gill, Verena A; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; LeFebvre, Rance B; Byrne, Barbara A

    2015-06-01

    The Gram positive bacterial coccus Streptococcus infantarius subspecies coli is increasingly linked with development of fatal vegetative infective endocarditis and septicemia in humans, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) and other animals. However, the pathogenesis of these infections is poorly understood. Using S. infantarius subsp. coli strains isolated from sea otters with infective endocarditis, this study evaluated adherence and invasion of epithelial and endothelial cells, adherence to extracellular matrix components, and macrophage survival. Significant adherence to endothelial-derived cells was observed for 62% of isolates, 24% adhered to epithelial cell lines, and 95% invaded one or both cell types in vitro. The importance of the hyaluronic acid capsule in host cell adherence and invasion was also evaluated. Capsule removal significantly reduced epithelial adherence and invasion for most S. infantarius subsp. coli isolates, suggesting that the capsule facilitates attachment to and invasion of epithelium. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing revealed that all isolates adhered significantly to the extracellular matrix components collagen IV, fibronectin, laminin and hyaluronic acid. Finally, significant bacterial survival following phagocytosis by macrophages was apparent for 81% of isolates at one or more time points. Taken collectively these findings indicate that S. infantarius subsp. coli has multiple pathogenic properties that may be important to host colonization, invasion and disease. PMID:25838157

  12. Complicaciones posoperatorias y mortalidad en pacientes operados por endocarditis infecciosa / Postoperative complications and mortality observed in patients operated on from infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joaquín, Gómez Armando Gonga; Milvio B, Ramírez López; Horacio E, Pérez López; Fidel Manuel, Cáceres Loriga; José R, Llanes.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir las causas de morbilidad y mortalidad perioperatorias en los pacientes afectos de endocarditis infecciosa activa y significar cómo pueden ser disminuidas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de las complicaciones posoperatorias y mortalidad en 139 pacientes operados por [...] presentar endocarditis infecciosa en un período de 16 años. Se efectuaron 147 operaciones a los 139 pacientes de las cuales 83 (57,1 %) fueron electivas y 64 (42,9 %) fueron de urgencia. El 24 % de los pacientes fueron remitidos de otros centros en los que habían sido sometidos a tratamiento médico no exitoso por más de 4 semanas. Resultados: las operaciones efectuadas fueron: Sustituciones valvulares aórticas,mitrales y tricuspídeas 75 (41,1 %), extracción de electrodos de marcapasos o desfibriladores automáticos implantables del ventrículo derecho 57 (41 %) , otras operaciones en número de 7 (4,9 %)y 8 reintervenciones. La complicación más frecuente fue la sepsis generalizada (10,07 % p Abstract in english Objective: To describe the causes of perioperative morbidity and mortality of patients suffering active infectious endocarditis and to explain how both aspects can be reduced. Methods: A retrospective study of postoperative complications and mortality observed in 139 patients operated on from infect [...] ious endocarditis in 16 years. One hundred forty seven surgeries were performed, of which 83 (57.1 %) were elective and 64 (42.9 %) were emergency surgeries. In this group, 24 % had been referred from other medical centers where they had been unsuccessfully treated for 4 weeks. Results: The performed surgeries comprised 15 aortic, mitral and tricuspid valve replacements, 57 (41 %) removals of pacemaker electrodes or of implanted automatic defibrillators in the right ventricle, seven other types of surgeries and 8 reoperations. The most frequent complication was generalized sepsis ((10.07 % p

  13. Endocarditis infecciosa por S. aureus en la Argentina: EIRA 2. Análisis comparativo luego de 10 años de los estudios EIRA 1 y 2 / S. aureus Infective Endocarditis in Argentina: A Comparative Analysis after 10 Years of EIRA-1 and EIRA-2 Surveys

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernesto R., Ferreirós; José H., Casabé; Francisco, Nacinovich; Sandra, Swieszkowski; Hernán, Cohen Arazi; Claudia, Cortés; Juan Carlos, Modenesi; Sergio, Varini.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Comparar el perfil y la evolución de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI) en nuestro país a lo largo de 10 años, a través de los registros EIRA-1 y EIRA-2. Determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas y la evolución hospitalaria de la EI por Staphylococcus aureus (EISA) en la Argent [...] ina. Métodos El estudio EIRA-2 fue un registro prospectivo multicéntrico conducido en 82 hospitales de 16 provincias de la Argentina. En el presente análisis se incluyeron pacientes con EI definidas (clasificación de Duke) relevados en un período de 18 meses. Resultados Se registraron 390 episodios de EI definidas (108 EISA y 282 no EISA); edad media 58,5 ± 17,3 años, sexo masculino 70%. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las 108 EISA y las 282 no EISA con respecto a edad, sexo, endocarditis de válvula protésica, enfermedad valvular degenerativa, presencia de insuficiencia cardíaca y frecuencia de tratamiento quirúrgico. La comparación de los registros EIRA-2 y EIRA-1 demostró cambios importantes en el perfil de la enfermedad en la última década, actualmente caracterizada por pacientes de mayor edad (58 versus 51 años), mayor prevalencia de cardiopatía subyacente 67% versus 55% (en particular prótesis valvulares 19,2% versus 8,5%, enfermedades valvulares degenerativas 12,4% versus 4,8% y cardiopatías congénitas 9,5% versus 4,2%), mayor frecuencia de infección causada por S. aureus (30% versus 26%) y menor por Streptococcus viridans (30,8% versus 26,8%), con una reducción del tiempo hasta el diagnóstico definitivo (21,5 versus 33 días). No se encontraron modificaciones en la tasa de mortalidad de la enfermedad. Se observó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p Abstract in english Work Objective To analyze the evolution and profile of infective endocarditis (IE) in Argentina during the last 10 years through the comparison of EIRA-1 and EIRA-2 surveys. To determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, and in-hospital evolution of S. aureus IE (SAIE) in Argentina. [...] Research Design and Methods The EIRA-2 survey was a prospective, multicentric study performed in 82 hospitals belonging to 16 of the 24 Argentinean provinces. Patients with definitive diagnosis of IE (Duke criteria) were followed-up during an 18-month period. Results Three hundred and ninety episodes of definitive IE were reported (108 SAIE and 282 non-SAIE); mean age was 58.5±17.3 years, male sex 70%. No statistically significant differences were observed between SAIE and non-SAIE regarding mean age, sex, prosthetic valve IE, degenerative valve IE, prevalence of heart failure and surgical treatment. The comparison of the EIRA-2 and EIRA-1 surveys showed that IE profile has changed in the last decade in Argentina. Currently, patients are older (58 vs. 51 years), and have a higher prevalence of underlying heart disease (67% vs. 55%) particularly prosthetic valve (19.2% vs. 8.5%), degenerative valve disease (12.4% vs. 4.8%), and congenital heart disease (9.5% vs. 4.2%); infections were more frequently caused by S. aureus (30% vs. 26%) and less by S. viridans (30.8% vs. 26.8%) with a decreased time until final diagnosis (21.5 vs. 33 days). No significant changes were observed in the overall mortality rate. Patients with SAIE showed a significantly (p

  14. Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis versus bacteremia strains: Subtle genetic differences at stake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchiat, Coralie; Moreau, Karen; Devillard, Sébastien; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Mosnier, Amandine; Geissmann, Tom; Bes, Michèle; Tristan, Anne; Lina, Gérard; Laurent, Frédéric; Piroth, Lionel; Aissa, Nejla; Duval, Xavier; Le Moing, Vincent; Vandenesch, François

    2015-12-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE)((1)) is a severe condition complicating 10-25% of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Although host-related IE risk factors have been identified, the involvement of bacterial features in IE complication is still unclear. We characterized strictly defined IE and bacteremia isolates and searched for discriminant features. S. aureus isolates causing community-acquired, definite native-valve IE (n=72) and bacteremia (n=54) were collected prospectively as part of a French multicenter cohort. Phenotypic traits previously reported or hypothesized to be involved in staphylococcal IE pathogenesis were tested. In parallel, the genotypic profiles of all isolates, obtained by microarray, were analyzed by discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC)((2)). No significant difference was observed between IE and bacteremia strains, regarding either phenotypic or genotypic univariate analyses. However, the multivariate statistical tool DAPC, applied on microarray data, segregated IE and bacteremia isolates: IE isolates were correctly reassigned as such in 80.6% of the cases (C-statistic 0.83, P<0.001). The performance of this model was confirmed with an independent French collection IE and bacteremia isolates (78.8% reassignment, C-statistic 0.65, P<0.01). Finally, a simple linear discriminant function based on a subset of 8 genetic markers retained valuable performance both in study collection (86.1%, P<0.001) and in the independent validation collection (81.8%, P<0.01). We here show that community-acquired IE and bacteremia S. aureus isolates are genetically distinct based on subtle combinations of genetic markers. This finding provides the proof of concept that bacterial characteristics may contribute to the occurrence of IE in patients with S. aureus bacteremia. PMID:26318542

  15. A Case of Subacute Combined Degeneration of the Spinal Cord with Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Jiang; He, Jia; Qu, Wen-sheng; Tian, Dai-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Subacute combined degeneration (SCD) is a rare cause of demyelination of the dorsal and lateral columns of spinal cord and is a neurogenic complication due to cobalamin deficiency. Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) occurs in patients with acute or chronic immune activation, including infective endocarditis. It remains to be elucidated whether ACD patients are more sensitive to suffer from SCD. Little cases about SCD patients accompanied with ACD have been reported till now. Here we reported a 36-year-old man with SCD with a medical history of mitral inadequacy over 20 years, who was admitted and transported from another hospital to our hospital due to an 8-month history of gait disturbance, lower limb weakness and paresthesia, and loss of proprioception. Significant laboratory results and echocardiography suggest iron deficiency anemia and infective endocarditis (IE). The SCD diagnosis was confirmed by MRI, which showed selective demyelination in the dorsal and lateral columns of spinal cord. In conclusion, the ACD patients may suffer from SCD, which can be diagnosed by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Infective endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a young woman after ear piercing: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Mijeong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ear piercing is a common practice among Korean adolescents and young women and usually is performed by nonmedical personnel, sometimes under suboptimal hygienic conditions. Consequently, ear piercing has been associated with various infectious complications, including fatal infective endocarditis. We report a case of infective endocarditis that was caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after ear piercing and that was accompanied by a noticeable facial rash. Case presentation A 29-year-old Korean woman underwent ear piercing six days before hospitalization. On admission, she had fever, erythematous maculopapular rashes on her face, signs of generalized emboli, vegetation in her mitral valve, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. On the basis of the blood culture results, she was treated with vancomycin in combination with gentamicin. On day six of hospitalization, a rupture of the papillary muscle of her mitral valve developed, and emergency cardiac surgery replacing her mitral valve with a prosthetic valve was performed. After eight weeks of antibiotic therapy, she was treated successfully and discharged without significant sequelae. Conclusions Numerable cases of body piercing-related infective endocarditis have been reported, and since ear piercing is commonplace nowadays, the importance of risk recognition cannot be overemphasized. In our report, a patient developed infective endocarditis that was caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus after ear piercing and that was accompanied by an interesting feature, namely facial rash.

  17. Awareness of Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Infective Endocarditis Among Dental Students and Interns at a Teaching Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahammam, Maha A; Abdelaziz, Noha M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : Infective endocarditis is a serious infection of the heart endothelium and valves. It carries long-term health risks and compromises the heart condition. However, this condition has been rarely observed since the introduction of appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. Dentists play a major role in preventing infective endocarditis in susceptible patients. In this study, we assessed the levels of awareness about antibiotic prophylaxis for infective endocarditis among students and young dentists at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods : This cross-sectional study included 367 dental students and dental interns who answered a questionnaire designed to assess their awareness levels; it included questions pertaining to demographic information and questions examining the general knowledge of the participants with regard to antibiotic prophylaxis for infective endocarditis. Results : An average of 50% of the participants clearly lacked knowledge regarding the conditions that require antibiotic prophylaxis, while an average of 65% provided correct answers pertaining to the conditions that do not require prophylaxis. Regarding dental procedures that require prophylaxis, the majority of responses were correct with an average of 71.2%. With regard to the type of antibiotic to be prescribed, 63.5% of the participants chose to prescribe 2 g of amoxicillin as a first-line antibiotic. Conclusion : The results of this study showed that the levels of awareness about antibiotic prophylaxis for infective endocarditis are below 100%. Awareness is essential because of the cardiac risks associated with the lack of appropriate treatment. Up-to-date and accurate knowledge is mandatory for all dental students and interns who see and treat patients on a daily basis. PMID:26140064

  18. The tale of infective endocarditis: fatal then curable but rarely preventable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulyan, Harold; Blair, Donald C

    2015-08-01

    The story of infective endocarditis (IE) is a miracle of medical progress. In retrospect, it seems as a logical and orderly progression of remarkable events leading to the nearly complete conquest of the disease. IE was almost uniformly fatal until the 1st cures by surgery, followed by frequent cures with antibiotics, further improved when combined with valve surgery. Most recently, it has become almost a new disease with a change in the offending organisms, a change in the type of afflicted patients and the infection of implanted medical devices. Despite therapeutic success, prevention of IE has been elusive. In this review, the authors tell the story by highlighting major events, illustrating interconnections among branches of science that brought the authors to their present state and describing some well-known patients. For this summary, the authors are indebted to the more detailed descriptions of the IE history readily available for interested readers. PMID:26186378

  19. Endocarditis infecciosa por Listeria monocytogenes: revisión de la literatura a partir de un caso clínico / Infective endocarditis caused by Listeria monocytogenes: review of the literature and a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arnaldo, Marín; Nicole, Lustig; Ricardo, Cruz; Samuel, Córdova.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa por Listeria monocytogenes es una enfermedad extremadamente infrecuente, pero usualmente agresiva. Se ha observado en los últimos años un aumento en la edad de presentación y una predilección por pacientes con enfermedad valvular, especialmente válvula protésica. El tratam [...] iento de elección es ampicilina combinada con un aminoglucósido para obtener sinergismo. Aun con un tratamiento adecuado, la mortalidad es elevada y mayor que en otros tipos de endocarditis bacteriana. Con una terapia óptima, incluyendo la resolución quirúrgica, la mortalidad ha disminuido significativamente en los últimos años. Se presenta una revisión de la literatura científica a partir de un caso clínico de un paciente con un síndrome febril en el que se diagnosticó una endocarditis por L. monocytogenesque fue tratada en forma médica con un resultado exitoso. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis caused by Listeria monocytogenesis an extremely rare but usually aggressive disease. We have seen in recent years an increase in age of onset of this disease and a predilection for patients with valvular disease, especially prosthetic valve. The treatment of choice is ampicill [...] in, which is combined with gentamicin for synergy. It is known that even with treatment the mortality is very high and higher than in other types of bacterial endocarditis. With optimal therapy, that is medical-surgical, mortality has declined significantly in recent years. We presents a review of the literature and a clinical case of a patient with a febrile syndrome diagnosed as a infective endocarditis caused by L. monocytogenestreated medically with successful outcome to date.

  20. Endocardite infecciosa: 12 anos de tratamento cirúrgico / Infective endocarditis: 12 years of surgical treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antoninho Sanfins, ARNONI; Josué de, CASTRO NETO; Renato Tambellini, ARNONI; Antonio Flávio Sanches de, ALMEIDA; Camilo, ABDULMASSIH NETO; Jarbas J., DINKHUYSEN; Mario, ISSA; Paulo, CHACCUR; Paulo P., PAULISTA.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A endocardite é uma doença de tratamento difícil e que freqüentemente necessita da participação cirúrgica. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro de 1987 e janeiro de 1999, 159 pacientes foram operados em nosso Serviço, sendo 64,7% do sexo masculino. Este grupo apresentou idade média de 39, [...] 2 anos (2 a 78 anos), com peso médio de 57,1 kg. O acometimento valvar aórtico foi o mais freqüente (66 pacientes), sendo na valva nativa em 47 casos e em próteses em 19 (8 metálicas e 11 biológicas): a lesão mitral verificou-se em 53 pacientes, sendo mais comum em portadores de prótese (28 biológicas e 2 metálicas). O comprometimento das duas valvas esteve presente em 28 casos. Os demais pacientes eram portadores de defeitos congênitos ou de marcapasso definitivo. A operação foi indicada por refratariedade ao tratamento clínico, insuficiência cardíaca, quadro infeccioso levando a disfunção valvar ou de prótese, vazamento periprotético, ou ainda por arritmia. RESULTADOS: O estudo microbiológico evidenciou maior prevalência de infecção por Streptococcus viridans e Staphilococcus aureus. A operação realizada nos portadores de endocardite infecciosa em valva nativa propiciou a conservação da valva em 3 pacientes do grupo mitral e em 1 do grupo aórtico; nos demais pacientes empregaram-se próteses (a maioria metálica em aórticos e biológica em mitrais). As reoperações foram freqüentes, tendo pacientes com até quarta operação. A lesão congênita responsável pela maioria dos casos foi a comunicação interventricular (3 casos) e 4 pacientes apresentavam a endocardite em eletrodo de marcapasso. A mortalidade global foi de 16,3%, com maior incidência em portadores de prótese mitral e aórtica submetidos a reoperação. A presença de abscesso como complicação da endocardite infecciosa verificou-se em 18,2% dos pacientes, utilizando-se pericárdio bovino na reconstrução da maioria, com mortalidade de 17,2%. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que o tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite infecciosa representa um desafio para o cirurgião, apesar de todo o progresso adicionado ao arsenal diagnóstico e terapêutico desta patologia. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis is a disease of difficult and multidisciplinar treatment that frequently needs the surgical participation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 1987 and January 1999, 159 patients were operated on in our Service for infective endocarditis. Male group represented 6 [...] 4.7%. The mean age was 39.2 yr. (2 to 78 yr.) and the mean weight 57.1 kg. The aortic valve was affected most frequently (66 patients), the native valve was affected in 47 cases and the prostheses in 19 (11 bioprostheses and 8 mechanic valves). The mitral valve was affected in 53 patients, most commonly in prostheses (28 bioprostheses and 2 mechanical). Aortic and mitral valves were together affected in 28 cases. The other patients had congenital defects or definitive pacemaker. Surgical treatment was indicated in cases of heart failure, refractory to medical treatment, valvar or prosthesis dysfunction secondary to infection, leak or arrhythmia. RESULTS: Cultures revealed that Streptococcus viridans and Staphilococcus aureus were the most prevalent microorganisms. Valve repair was possible in 3 patients of mitral group and one of aortic group. For the others, prostheses were used (mechanical for aortic valve and bioprostetic for mitral valve in the majority of the cases). Reoperation was frequent. Ventricular septal defect was the most common congenital pathology (3 cases) and 4 patients presented infective endocarditis in pacemaker wire. The global mortality was 16.3%. Abscess as a complication was presented in 18.2% of the patients. We used bovine pericardium for reconstruction with a surgical mortality of 17.2%. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the treatment for infective endocarditis represents a surgical challenge, in spite of the progress added to the diagnostic and therapeutic armamentarium of this pathology.

  1. Syncope secondary to left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, an interesting presentation of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarbakhsh, Shohreh; Chowdhury, Mohammad; Farooqi, Fahad; Deaner, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of fever and lethargy, associated with an episode of cardiac syncope and exertional shortness of breath (SOB). She was diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus infective mural endocarditis (IE) and subsequent transoesophageal echocardiogram (TOE) confirmed this diagnosis. As the vegetative mass arose from the septal wall, an unusual location, it caused left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction and therefore behaved similarly to a subaortic valvular stenosis. There were no conduction abnormalities on the ECG and no clinical or echocardiographic features of congestive heart failure. The finding of LVOT obstruction explained the unusual presentation with syncope and exertional SOB making this case unique. Owing to the large vegetative mass and thereby its high risk of septic emboli, the patient underwent successful surgical resection of the mass with resolution of the obstruction. She successfully completed intravenous antibiotics and was discharged from hospital. PMID:26392460

  2. Infective endocarditis of the aortic valve in a Border collie dog with patent ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    AOKI, Takuma; SUNAHARA, Hiroshi; SUGIMOTO, Keisuke; ITO, Tetsuro; KANAI, Eiichi; FUJII, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) in dogs with cardiac shunts has not been reported previously. However, we encountered a dog with concurrent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and IE. The dog was a 1-year-old, 13.9-kg female Border collie and presented with anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia (40.4°C) and lameness. A continuous murmur with maximal intensity over the left heart base (Levine 5/6) was detected on auscultation. Echocardiography revealed a PDA and severe aortic stenosis (AS) caused by aortic-valve vegetative lesions. Corynebacterium spp. and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from blood cultures. The dog responded to aggressive antibiotic therapy, and the PDA was subsequently surgically corrected. After a series of treatments, the dog showed long-term improvement in clinical status. PMID:25391395

  3. Endocardite infecciosa num recém-nascido pré-termo / Infective endocarditis in a preterm newborn

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiana, Ribeiro; Marta, Rios; Luísa, Lopes; Sílvia, Álvares; Elisa, Proença; Ana, Guedes.

    Full Text Available Introdução: A endocardite infecciosa é uma situação rara mas grave no período neonatal. Caso clínico: Os autores descrevem o caso clínico de um recém-nascido, pré-termo de 31 semanas que ao 15º dia de vida apresentou quadro séptico pelo que iniciou antibioticoterapia. Nas hemoculturas efectuadas iso [...] lou-se Staphylococus aureus, sensível aos antibióticos prescritos e o cateter epicutâneo-cava introduzido no sexto dia de vida foi nesta altura substituído. Ao 25º dia detectou-se sopro sistólico grau II/VI, tendo o ecocardiograma mostrado imagem sugestiva de vegetação na válvula tricúspide (dimensões-8,5x4mm). Por suspeita de endocardite bacteriana, efectuou tratamento com vancomicina, gentamicina e rifampicina. As hemoculturas posteriores foram estéreis e não se verificou aumento do tamanho da vegetação. Em ambulatório manteve-se clinicamente bem e actualmente, com nove meses de idade corrigida apresenta vegetação de 3x3mm. Conclusão: A suspeita de endocardite bacteriana deve ser considerada nos recém-nascidos com sépsis hospitalar, internados numa Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos, com colocação de cateter venoso central, sobretudo se os agentes envolvidos são o Staphylococcus aureus ou fungos. A base do tratamento é um curso prolongado de antibioticoterapia com um regime bactericida apropriado. Contudo a mortalidade permanece elevada. Abstract in english Background: Infective endocarditis is a rare but serious illness in neonatal period. Case report: The authors describe the case of a preterm newborn, 31 weeks of gestation who presented at 15th day of life a condition consistent with neonatal sepsis and antibiotic therapy was administered. Staphyloc [...] ocus aureus, sensitive to antibiotics that were prescribed, were detected in blood cultures and the central venous line introduced at 6th day of life was replaced at this point. At 25th day an II/VI grade blowing systolic murmur was heard and the echocardiography showed a suggestive image of vegetation (size-8,5x4mm) in the tricuspid valve. Bacterial endocarditis was suspected and the newborn was treated with vancomycin, gentamicin and rifampicin. The subsequent blood cultures were negative and no increase on vegetation size was observed. In ambulatory, he remained clinically well and actually, with nine months of corrected age, the size of vegetation is 3x3mm. Conclusion: Suspicion of infective endocarditis must be considered in newborns with hospital sepsis in an intensive care setting, with an indwelling catheter, especially if the agents involved are Staphylococcus aureus or fungi. The cornerstone of treatment is a prolonged course of antibiotic treatment with an appropriate bactericidal regimen. However mortality remains high.

  4. Endocarditis infecciosa de alto riesgo embolígeno durante el embarazo: ¿manejo conservador o quirúrgico? / High risk infective endocarditis embolism during pregnancy: Medical or surgical management?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Eduardo, Echeverría; Antonio, Figueredo; Juan Carlos, Gómez; Leonardo Alberto, Salazar; Jaime Alberto, Rodriguez; Camilo Ernesto, Pizarro; Carlos Eduardo, Riaño; Addy, Perroni; Alba Lucía, Cuadros; María Cristina, Villamizar; Edwin Uriel, Suárez.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 22 años de edad con embarazo de 14 semanas y endocarditis infecciosa de válvula mitral nativa con una vegetación de 15 mm con amplia movilidad, acompañada de insuficiencia valvular severa. Inicialmente, y pese al riesgo embolígeno, se dio tratamiento antibiótic [...] o durante 4 semanas. Por persistencia del tamaño de la vegetación se decide llevar a cirugía para reparación mitral y remoción de la lesión en la semana 18 de gestación, considerando que el balance entre el riesgo fetal y materno estaba a favor del procedimiento quirúrgico. Se usaron técnicas de protección fetal intraoperatoria y se colocó una prótesis biológica previo intento de reparación. La evolución postintervención fue satisfactoria, lográndose parto por cesárea a las 30 semanas. Abstract in english A 22-year-old pregnant woman was seen at 14 weeks of pregnancy for infective endocarditis with a vegetation of 15 mm and wide mobility, which affected the native mitral valve accompanied by severe valvular insufficiency. Antibiotic treatment was given for 4 weeks despite the embolism risk. Due to pe [...] rsistence of vegetation size and after considering the fetal and maternal risk, the surgical procedure was favored. We decided to perform valvuloplasty and removal of lesion at 18 weeks of pregnancy. Fetal protection techniques were used and a bioprosthesis was placed before attempting a repair. The postoperative follow-up was satisfactory, achieving a successful birth by cesarean section at 30 weeks.

  5. Apuntes sobre la fisiopatología, etiología, diagnóstico, tratamiento y profilaxis de la endocarditis infecciosa / Notes on the physiopathology, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hiram, Tápanes Daumy; Elsa, Fleitas Ruisanchez; Eliobert, Díaz Bertot; Andrés, Savío Benavides; Maylin, Peña Fernández.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa es una afección de difícil diagnóstico en Cardiología, con características clínicas muy variadas y una epidemiología cambiante en los últimos años. En la presente revisión se tratan aspectos novedosos sobre su clasificación, etiología y fisiopatología; además, se presentan [...] las herramientas fundamentales para su diagnóstico, punto de partida para su tratamiento médico basado primordialmente en la terapia antimicrobiana, así como los criterios quirúrgicos y la conducta actual en la profilaxis antimicrobiana de esta compleja entidad. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis is a disease of difficult diagnosis in cardiology, with highly variable clinical characteristics and changing epidemiology in the last few years. The present review dealt with novel aspects on classification, etiology and physiopathology of the disease in addition to the prese [...] ntation of the fundamental tools for diagnosis, which is the starting point for the medical treatment basically supported on the antimicrobial therapy. It also set forth the surgical criteria and the present performance in the antimicrobial prophylaxis of this complex disease.

  6. Corynebacterium propinquum as the first cause of infective endocarditis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yu; Matsubara, Kousaku; Ishihara, Haruko; Nigami, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Aya; Kawaguchi, Koji; Fukaya, Takashi; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Kikuchi, Ken

    2014-05-01

    We here present a 7-year-old girl with ventricular septum defect and ventriculoatrial communication, who developed infective endocarditis (IE) due to Corynebacterium propinquum in the tricuspid valve. The patient was admitted because of an 8-day history of fever. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed non-pedunculated vegetation on the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve. Gram-positive coryneform bacteria grew from three consecutive sets of blood cultures taken on admission. C. propinquum was confirmed by 3 microbiological approaches; (i) biochemical testing using API Coryne panels, (ii) a sequence-based method using the 16S rRNA gene and partial rpoB sequencing, and (iii) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The isolates were susceptible to a wide variety of ?-lactams and vancomycin. The patient was successfully treated with antimicrobial agents without surgical intervention. There have only been available of clinical details of two adult cases of invasive C. propinquum infections; one of which was presented as IE, and the other was pleuritis in a patient with lung cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe C. propinquum as a cause of IE as well as that of invasive infections in a pediatric population. Multiple methods that reliably differentiated related species helped us to establish this rare organism. Our report expanded the clinical spectrum of C. propinquum infections. PMID:24486166

  7. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for early detection of embolism and metastatic infection in patients with infective endocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riet, Jelle van; Gheysens, Olivier; Mortelmans, Luc [University Hospital KU Leuven, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Hill, Evelyn E.; Herregods, Marie-Christine [University Hospital KU Leuven, Department of Cardiology, Leuven (Belgium); Dymarkowski, Steven [University Hospital KU Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Herijgers, Paul [University Hospital KU Leuven, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Leuven (Belgium); Peetermans, Willy E. [University Hospital KU Leuven, Department of Internal Medicine, Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    In the acute setting of endocarditis it is very important to assess both the vegetation itself, as well as potential life-threatening complications, in order to decide whether antibiotic therapy will be sufficient or urgent surgery is indicated. A single whole-body scan investigating inflammatory changes could be very helpful to achieve a swift and efficient assessment. In this study we assessed whether {sup 18}F-FDG can be used to detect and localize peripheral embolism or distant infection. Twenty-four patients with 25 episodes of endocarditis, enrolled between March 2006 and February 2008, underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging on a dedicated PET/CT scanner. PET/CT imaging revealed a focus of peripheral embolization and/or metastatic infection in 11 episodes (44%). One episode had a positive PET/CT scan result for both embolism and metastatic infection. PET/CT detected seven positive cases (28%) in which there was no clinical suspicion. Valve involvement of endocarditis was seen only in three patients (12%). PET/CT may be an important diagnostic tool for tracing peripheral embolism and metastatic infection in the acute setting of infective endocarditis, since a PET/CT scan detected a clinically occult focus in nearly one third of episodes. (orig.)

  8. Nosocomial vs. community-acquired infective endocarditis in Greece: changing epidemiological profile and mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitsioti, E; Skiadas, I; Antoniadou, A; Tsiodras, S; Kanavos, K; Triantafyllidi, H; Giamarellou, H

    2007-08-01

    Current epidemiological trends of infective endocarditis (IE) in Greece were investigated via a prospective cohort study of all cases of IE that fulfilled the Duke criteria during 2000-2004 in 14 tertiary and six general hospitals in the metropolitan area of Athens. Demographics, clinical data and outcome were compared for nosocomial IE (NIE) and community-acquired IE (CIE). NIE accounted for 42 (21.5%) and CIE for 153 (78.5%) of 195 cases. Intravenous drug use was associated exclusively with CIE, while co-morbidities (cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure requiring haemodialysis and malignancies) were more frequent in the NIE group (p 50% of NIE cases had a history of vascular intervention. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and enterococci were more frequent in cases of NIE than in cases of CIE (26.2% vs. 5.2%, p <0.01, and 30.9% vs. 16.3%, p 0.05, respectively). Enterococci accounted for 19.5% of total IE cases and were the leading cause of NIE. Staphylococcus aureus IE was hospital-acquired in only 11.9% of cases. In-hospital mortality was higher for NIE than for CIE (39.5% vs. 18.6%, p 0.02). Cardiac failure (New York Heart Association grade III-IV; OR 13.3, 95% CI 4.9-36.1, p <0.001) and prosthetic valve endocarditis (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3-10.6, p 0.01) were the most important predictors of mortality. PMID:17488327

  9. Fatores determinantes da letalidade após cirurgia para endocardite infecciosa Postoperative mortality in infective endocarditis: determinant factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles André

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos a influência de dados demográficos, fatores predisponentes, aspectos clínicos, variáveis operatórias sobre a evolução em 39 pacientes operados por endocardite infecciosa (EI. Utilizamos os testes t de Student, X²ou exato de Fisher em análises univariadas, regressão logística para determinação de fatores adversos independentes. O impacto do número destes fatores sobre a evolução foi estudado pelo teste exato de Fisher. Valvas mais afetadas: aórtica (20 e mitral (16; germes mais comuns: Staphylococcus aureus (12 e Streptococcus sp (10. Cirurgia de emergência e a presença de coma seis horas após a operação elevaram a letalidade (p=0,001 e p=0,0015, bem como infecção pelo S.aureus (p=0,023 e presença de complicações neurológicas (p=0,097. A concomitância de dois ou três destes fatores elevou particularmente a letalidade (>76,9%. Pacientes com EI devem receber cuidadosa avaliação quanto a indicação cirúrgica nas fases iniciais da doença, já que a concomitância de variáveis adversas e cirurgias em caráter de emergência elevam fortemente a letalidade por EI.The factors leading to high postoperative mortality in active infectious endocarditis (IE are poorly defined. We studied patients operated at an University Hospital between March 1978 and April 1992. We hipothesized that the summation of potential adverse factors would strongly increase mortality after surgery. We studied 39 patients (28 men, age range 13-70 years (mean±SD =32±16 operated during active IE (time from onset 52+48 days. Predisposing factor: rheumatic valvar disease in 14 cases, intravenous drug use in 5. Affected valves: aortic in 14, mitral in 10, tricuspid in 8, multiple structures in 7. In most cases, S aureus (12 or Streptoccocus sp (10 was isolated in blood cultures. Surgery was indicated in most patients because of heart failure (30, multiple embolic complications (17 or treatment failure (14. The possible adverse influence of specific demographic characteristics, clinical features and surgical variables was assessed by the Student t test or the %² test. Also, multple regression analysis was performed in order to identify independent adverse factors for increased mortality. Positive correlations were further investigated with the X² test to assess whether an increasing number of adverse factors could identify a special subset of patients with markedly elevated death risk. Fourteen patients (36% died after surgery. Emergency surgery (p = 0.001, the presence of coma 6 hours after surgery (p = 0.0015 and S. aureus infection (p = 0.023 were all associated with increased mortality. The presence of neurological complications was correlated with a high mortality (54% vs. 27%. However this increase was of dubious statistical significance (p = 0.097. Multiple regression analysis confirmed S. aureus and emergency surgery as independent adverse factors for increased mortality. When put together, an increasing number of adverse factors was highly predictive of a fatal outcome, even after exclusion of that evaluated after surgery (level of consciousness. Patients with two or three adverse factors had a very high mortality rate (>76.9%. Mortality following surgery for active IE is increased in patients operated on an emergency basis especially if the infection is caused by S. aureus. The presence of neurological complications may also be associated with worse outcome. Early consideration of surgery should reduce the high mortality in patients with active IE.

  10. Chest pain with ST segment elevation in a patient with prosthetic aortic valve infective endocarditis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Gamma Reto; Showkathali Refai; Luther Vishal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction secondary to atherosclerotic plaque rupture is a common medical emergency. This condition is effectively managed with percutaneous coronary intervention or thrombolysis. We report a rare case of acute myocardial infarction secondary to coronary embolisation of valvular vegetation in a patient with infective endocarditis, and we highlight how the management of this phenomenon may not be the same. Case presentation A 73-year...

  11. Successful recovery of infective endocarditis-induced rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis by steroid therapy combined with antibiotics: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikkawa Ryuichi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mortality rate among patients with infective endocarditis, especially associated with the presence of complications or coexisting conditions such as renal failure and the use of combined medical and surgical therapy remains still high. Prolonged parenteral administration of a bactericidal antimicrobial agent or combination of agents is usually recommended, however, the optimal therapy for infective endocarditis associated with renal injury is not adequately defined. Case presentation Patient was a 24-years old man who presented to our hospital with fever, fatigue, and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. He had a history of ventricular septum defect (VSD. A renal biopsy specimen revealed crescentic glomerulonephritis and echocardiogram revealed VSD with vegetation on the tricuspid valve. Specimens of blood demonstrated Propionibacterium Acnes. The intensive antibiotic therapy with penicillin G was started without clinical improvement of renal function or resolution of fever over the next 7 days. After the short-term treatment of low dose of corticosteroid combined with continuous antibiotics, high fever and renal insufficiency were dramatically improved. Conclusion Although renal function in our case worsened despite therapy with antibiotics, a short-term and low dose of corticosteroid therapy with antibiotics was able to recover renal function and the patient finally underwent tricuspid valve-plasty and VSD closure. We suggest that the patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis associated with infective endocarditis might be treated with a short-term and low dose of corticosteroid successfully.

  12. Streptococcus bovis endocarditis: analysis of cases between 2005 and 2014

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato, Mello; Marisa da Silva, Santos; Wilma, Golebiosvki; Clara, Weksler; Cristiane, Lamas.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus bovis is a classical etiology of endocarditis and is associated with colonic lesions. No series of cases from Brazil has been described. Objectives: To describe aspects of S. bovis endocarditis. Methods: This is a case series of patients admitted to a cardiac surgery refer [...] ral center, during the years 2005-2014. Clinical, laboratory, echochardiographic, colonoscopic, treatment, surgical and outcome variables were studied. Results: Nine patients with S. bovis endocarditis were included; all cases ful?lled the modi?ed Duke criteria. Incidence was 8/220 (4%) in years 2006-2014. There were seven male and two female patients; mean age was 56.7 years, standard deviation 13.4. All patients had native aortic valve involvement. Presentation was subacute in 7/9 (71%). Fever was present in 7/9 (77.7%), embolic lesions to solid organs occurred in three, and perivalvular abscess in two patients. All echocardiograms showed moderate to severe valvular regurgitation and vegetations. Microcytic anemia was seen in 7/7 patients. Colonoscopy showed abnormal ?ndings in 7/9 (77.7%). Surgery was indicated for 6/9 patients due to acute aortic regurgitation and left ventricular failure. All patients were discharged home. Conclusions: S. bovis most frequently affected the aortic valve of male patients. Colon disease was frequent. Surgery was indicated frequently due to hemodynamic compromise.

  13. A systematic review of biomarkers in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipsøyr, Magnus G; Ludvigsen, Maja; Petersen, Eskild; Wiggers, Henrik; Honoré, Bent

    2016-01-01

    Timely diagnosis of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE) is crucial, as mortality remains high in this severe bacterial infection, currently without any distinct biological markers. Our goal was to evaluate potential diagnostic biomarkers by reviewing current literature. The MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases were searched for articles published from 1980 through June 2015 restricted to English, Norwegian, Danish and Swedish. Eighteen studies qualified, providing a review of the most promising candidates for future studies. Several studies are inconclusive, since they are characterized by using improper control groups. Patients with IE have bacteremia, and control groups should therefore be patients with bacteremia without IE. Based on current research, N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) alone or in combination with Cystatin C (Cys C), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), troponins, aquaporin-9 (AQP9), S100 calcium binding protein A11 (S100A11), E-selectin (CD62E) and VCAM-1 (CD54) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are potential biomarkers for future studies. PMID:26447663

  14. Multiresistant-MRSA tricuspid valve infective endocarditis with ancient osteomyelitis locus

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    Gambarati Gianpaolo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA with low susceptibility to glycopeptides is uncommon. Case presentation The case of a 50-year-old non-drug addict patient presenting with tricuspid valve infective endocarditis (IE by MRSA resistant to vancomycin and linezolid is presented. There was response only to quinupristin/dalfopristin. He had a motorcycling accident four years before undergoing right above-the-knee amputation and orthopaedic fixation of the left limb. There were multiple episodes of left MRSA-osteomyelitis controlled after surgery and vancomycin therapy. MRSA isolated from the blood at the time of IE presented with the same profile than the isolated four years earlier. Sequential treatment with teicoplanin-cotrimoxazole and Linezolid associated to vancomycin – rifampicin – cotrimoxazole had no improvement. Infection was controlled after 28 days of therapy with quinupristin/dalfopristin. Conclusion The literature presents only a few cases of MRSA IE not susceptible to glycopeptides in not drug addicted patients. This case shows the comparison of a highly-resistant MRSA after previous S. aureus osteomyelitis treated with glycopeptides. This is the first description of successful treatment of resistant-MRSA IE of the tricuspid valve complicated by multiple pulmonary septic infarction with quinupristin/dalfopristin

  15. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty in pregnancy with severe aortic stenosis and infective endocarditis

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    Vinotha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven year old lady, previously diagnosed to have aortic stenosis, presented to the obstetric outpatient department at 19 weeks of gestation with fever and breathlessness, NYHA class 4, for one week. Two D Echo revealed left ventricular hypertrophy, a severely stenosed, calcified bicuspid aortic valve, with vegetations on aortic and mitral valves and severe mitral regurgitation. Blood cultures grew nutrionally variant streptococci and she was treated with crystalline penicillin and gentamicin. She stabilised clinically by 21 weeks, by which time, the risk of termination of pregnancy was comparable to continuing the pregnancy. She underwent balloon aortic valvuloplasty. Post balloon aortic valvuloplasty, she was stable. At 34+2 weeks, she underwent emergency LSCS, the indication being intrauterine growth restriction with fetal compromise and breech presentation. She delivered a baby girl, 1.6 kg, Apgar 9 & 10. Our case report highlights the fact that a timely, balloon aortic valvuloplasty can be life saving for patients with pregnancy complicated by severe aortic stenosis and infective endocarditis. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2012; 1(1.000: 69-71

  16. Diagnostic value of harmonic transthoracic echocardiography in native valve infective endocarditis: comparison with transesophageal echocardiography

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    Embil John M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although echocardiography has been incorporated into the diagnostic algorithm of patients with suspected infective endocarditis (IE, systematic usage in clinical practice remains ill defined. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of detecting vegetations using harmonic transthoracic echocardiography (hTTE as compared to transesophageal echocardiography (TEE in patients with an intermediate likelihood of native valve IE. Methods Between 2004 and 2005, 36 consecutive inpatients with an intermediate likelihood of disease were prospectively evaluated by hTTE and TEE. Results Of 36 patients (21 males with a mean age of 57 ± 15 years, range 32 to 86 years, 19 patients had definite IE by TEE. The sensitivity for the detection of vegetations by hTTE was 84%, specificity of 88%, positive predictive value (PPV of 89% and negative predictive value (NPV of 82%. The association between hTTE and TTE interpretation for the presence and absence of vegetations were high (kappa = 0.90 and 0.85 respectively. Conclusion In patients with an intermediate likelihood of native valve IE, TTE with harmonic imaging provides diagnostic quality images in the majority of cases, has excellent concordance with TEE and should be recommended as the first line test.

  17. Infective endocarditis complicated by splenic rupture and fatal intra-abdominal haemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad Fayaz; Ghani, Saqib

    2009-01-01

    This case report describes a rare presentation of Streptococcus mitis endocarditis of the aortic and mitral valves, complicated by spontaneous splenic rupture due to splenic infarction, which led to massive intra-abdominal bleeding and ultimately death.

  18. Gemella morbillorum Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Ural, Serap; Gul Yurtsever, Sureyya; Ormen, Bahar; Turker, Nesrin; Kaptan, Figen; El, Sibel; Akyildiz, Zehra Ilke; Coskun, Nejat Ali

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis caused by Gemella morbillorum is a rare disease. In this report 67-year-old male patient with G. morbillorum endocarditis was presented. The patient was hospitalized as he had a fever of unknown origin and in the two of the three sets of blood cultures taken at the first day of hospitalization G. morbillorum was identified. The transthoracic echogram revealed 14 × 10?mm vegetation on the aortic noncoronary cuspis. After 4 weeks of antibiotic therapy, the case was referr...

  19. Significado de la fiebre persistente o recurrente durante el tratamiento de la endocarditis infecciosa / Clinical significance of persistent or recurrent fever during the treatment of infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Carena; Guillermo, Marucci; Susana, Salomón.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 81 pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa con el objeto de establecer la significación clínica de la presencia de fiebre persistente (FP) y/o fiebre recurrente (FR) durante el tratamiento. Un total de 46 pacientes (56.8%) (Grupo 1) tuvieron FP y/o FR durante el tratamiento: 35 FP y 16 FR [...] , que se compararon con 35 sin FP/FR (Grupo 2). No hubo diferencias en la edad, sexo, permanencia hospitalaria, origen nosocomial, demora diagnóstica y comorbilidad asociada. El compromiso aórtico (47.8 vs 34.2%) y tricuspídeo (21.7 vs 11.4%) y la infección por Staphylococcus aureus (55.5 vs 28%) fueron más frecuentes en el Grupo 1, aunque no significativamente. El S. aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR) (22.2 vs 4%), las complicaciones (95.6 vs 65.7%), la disfunción renal (58.6 vs 31.4%), el embolismo mayor (60.8 vs 34%), los fenómenos microvasculares (43.4 vs 17.1%) y la cirugía valvular (34.7 vs 11.4%) ocurrieron significativamente en el Grupo 1 (p Abstract in english Patients with infective endocarditis (IE) were studied to assess incidence, clinical features and mortality in a population with either persistent (PF) or recurrent fever (RF) during treatment. A sample of 81 patients was evaluated. Of these, 46 patients (56.8%) had fever during treatment: 35 had PF [...] and 16 had RF (Group 1). This group was compared with 35 patients with IE without fever (Group 2). Age, sex, in-hospital days, nosocomial acquisition, delay in diagnosis, and co-morbidities were similar among each group. The aortic and tricuspid valve compromise, and Staphylococcus aureus as etiologic agent were more frequent in Group 1 (although not significantly). However, the development of complications (95.6 vs. 65.7%), renal dysfunction (58.6 vs. 31.4%), major vessel embolization (60.8 vs. 34%), microvascular phenomena (43.4 vs. 17.1%), infections with MRSA (22.2 vs. 4%) and valvular surgery (34.7 vs. 11.4%) were significantly higher in Group 1(p

  20. Endocarditis Due to Rare and Fastidious Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Brouqui, P.; Raoult, D.

    2001-01-01

    The etiologic diagnosis of infective endocarditis is easily made in the presence of continuous bacteremia with gram-positive cocci. However, the blood culture may contain a bacterium rarely associated with endocarditis, such as Lactobacillus spp., Klebsiella spp., or nontoxigenic Corynebacterium, Salmonella, Gemella, Campylobacter, Aeromonas, Yersinia, Nocardia, Pasteurella, Listeria, or Erysipelothrix spp., that requires further investigation to establish the relationship with endocarditis, ...

  1. [Infective endocarditis due to high level aminoglycoside resistant Enterococcus faecalis and methicillin resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci presenting with rheumatic manifestations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi?kin, Nihal; Akduman, Deniz; Aydemir, Hande; Celebi, Güven; Oztoprak, Nefise; Akta?, Elif

    2008-07-01

    Infective endocarditis has variable clinical presentations and may present with rheumatologic manifestations. Infective endocarditis due to high level aminoglycoside resistant enterococci represents a severe therapeutic challenge as none of the currently recommended treatment regimens are bactericidal against these isolates. In this report, a case of infective endocarditis with double aetiology, high level aminoglycoside resistant Enterococcus faecalis together with methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CNS), presenting with leukocytoclastic vasculitis and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, has been presented. A 48-years-old woman was admitted to our hospital with malaise and non-pruritic purpural rush on her lower extremities. On admission she had no fever or leukocytosis. Skin biopsy showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and steroid therapy was started. On 12th day of admission rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis was diagnosed and she received plasmapheresis and haemodialysis support. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) demonstrated 1 x 1.5 cm vegetation on the mitral valve. An initial diagnosis of infective endocarditis was made and empirical treatment with vancomycin and gentamicin was started. All blood cultures yielded high level aminoglycoside resistant E. faecalis and additionally two of them yielded MR-CNS. Vancomycin was administered in combination with high dose ampicillin and repeated blood cultures taken after administration of ampicillin, revealed no growth. The patient remained afebrile, renal functions improved and a repeat TTE done on 20th day of ampicillin therapy showed waning of the vegetation. On 42nd day of treatment repeat TTE showed new vegetation on the mitral valve and severe valve insufficiency, so the patient was scheduled for mitral valve replacement. She was treated for 12 weeks with vancomycin and ampicillin and recovered successfully. In conclusion; infective endocarditis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of leukocytoclastic vasculitis and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Physicians should document their treatment outcomes and experience with high level aminoglycoside resistant enterococcal infective endocarditis, which is a therapeutic challenge, so that the best therapeutic options can be identified. PMID:18822897

  2. Significado de la fiebre persistente o recurrente durante el tratamiento de la endocarditis infecciosa Clinical significance of persistent or recurrent fever during the treatment of infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carena

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 81 pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa con el objeto de establecer la significación clínica de la presencia de fiebre persistente (FP y/o fiebre recurrente (FR durante el tratamiento. Un total de 46 pacientes (56.8% (Grupo 1 tuvieron FP y/o FR durante el tratamiento: 35 FP y 16 FR, que se compararon con 35 sin FP/FR (Grupo 2. No hubo diferencias en la edad, sexo, permanencia hospitalaria, origen nosocomial, demora diagnóstica y comorbilidad asociada. El compromiso aórtico (47.8 vs 34.2% y tricuspídeo (21.7 vs 11.4% y la infección por Staphylococcus aureus (55.5 vs 28% fueron más frecuentes en el Grupo 1, aunque no significativamente. El S. aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR (22.2 vs 4%, las complicaciones (95.6 vs 65.7%, la disfunción renal (58.6 vs 31.4%, el embolismo mayor (60.8 vs 34%, los fenómenos microvasculares (43.4 vs 17.1% y la cirugía valvular (34.7 vs 11.4% ocurrieron significativamente en el Grupo 1 (pPatients with infective endocarditis (IE were studied to assess incidence, clinical features and mortality in a population with either persistent (PF or recurrent fever (RF during treatment. A sample of 81 patients was evaluated. Of these, 46 patients (56.8% had fever during treatment: 35 had PF and 16 had RF (Group 1. This group was compared with 35 patients with IE without fever (Group 2. Age, sex, in-hospital days, nosocomial acquisition, delay in diagnosis, and co-morbidities were similar among each group. The aortic and tricuspid valve compromise, and Staphylococcus aureus as etiologic agent were more frequent in Group 1 (although not significantly. However, the development of complications (95.6 vs. 65.7%, renal dysfunction (58.6 vs. 31.4%, major vessel embolization (60.8 vs. 34%, microvascular phenomena (43.4 vs. 17.1%, infections with MRSA (22.2 vs. 4% and valvular surgery (34.7 vs. 11.4% were significantly higher in Group 1(p<0.05. The most common causes of PF were microvascular phenomena (14/32 patients, systemic and pulmonary embolization (10, valvular abscesses (5, persistent bacteremia (4 and mycotic aneurysm (2. On the other hand, phlebitis (6/16, drug hypersensitivity (3 and nosocomial infections (3 were related with RF. The overall mortality was 39.5%, distributed as follows: 52.2% of Group 1 and in 22.9% of Group 2 (p=0.007. The presence of comorbidities, major vessel embolization, heart failure, MRSA infection and inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy were significantly associated with the increased mortality in Group 1(p<0.05. We propose an evaluation method during the treatment of patients affected by this type of fever.

  3. Echocardiographic findings suggestive of infective endocarditis in asymptomatic Danish injection drug users attending urban injection facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna; SØholm, Helle

    2014-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) account for a considerable number of the hospitalizations for infective endocarditis (IE), but the prevalence of diagnosed and unrecognized IE in IDUs is unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of valvular abnormalities suggestive of IE in IDUs attending a supervised injection facility. We performed transthoracic echocardiographic examinations on-site in the injection facilities. A total of 206 IDUs (mean age 43 ± 9 years, 23% women) with a median injection drug abuse of 18 years (interquartile range 10 to 26) were included. Fourteen IDUs (14 of 206, 7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4% to 11%) had a previous history of IE. IDUs with a history of IE were significantly older than IDUs without a history of IE (48 ± 8 vs 42 ± 9 years, respectively, p = 0.03) and had a longer duration of injection drug use (27 [18 to 36] vs 17 years [10 to 25], p = 0.008). In the subgroup of IDUs with a history of IE, 4 subjects (4 of 14, 29%, 95% CI 11% to 55%) had persistentor relapse vegetations. Of the remaining 10 IDUs with a history of IE, 5 (5 of 10, 50%, 95% CI 24% to 76%) had moderate-to-severe regurgitation. In the subgroup of IDUs without a history of IE, vegetations were seen in 9 subjects (9 of 192, 5%, 95% CI 2% to 9%). This group of IDUs with possibly unrecognized IE was older than IDUs without vegetations (48 ± 12 vs 42 ± 9, respectively, p = 0.04). Among the IDUs without a history of IE who did not have vegetations, 30 IDUs (30 of 183, 16%, 95% CI 11% to 22%) had moderate-to-severe regurgitation with or without concomitant thickening of leaflets. Thus, in IDUs without a history of IE, some extent of valvular abnormalities was seen in 20% (39 of 192, 95% CI 15% to 27%) of subjects. None of the IDUs with valvular vegetations had current symptoms consistent with active IE. In conclusion, valvular abnormalities assessed by echocardiography were prevalent in asymptomatic IDUs without a medical history of IE, and vegetations were seen in 5% of subjects.

  4. Morbimortalidad de la endocarditis infecciosa asociada a dispositivos electrónicos implantables permanentes / Morbimortality of infective endocarditis associated with permanent cardiovascular implantable electronic devices

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel, Pérez-Baztarrica; Flavio, Salvaggio; Norberto, Blanco; Héctor, Mazzetti; Ricardo, Levin; Alejandro, Botbol; Rafael, Porcile.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) asociada a dispositivos electrónicos implantables permanentes (DEIP) es una complicación de baja frecuencia pero alta mortalidad sin el tratamiento adecuado. El avance sobre el conocimiento de esta patología y el desarrollo de estrategias terapéuticas como el diagnóst [...] ico precoz, manejo de antibióticos, técnicas de extracción, entre otras, han mejorado el pronóstico de estos pacientes. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar la morbimortalidad intrahospitalaria y alejada y analizar algunos factores que justifican las diferencias con los datos de la mortalidad publicada. Se estudiaron en forma retrospectiva pacientes entre marzo/2002 y marzo/2011 con diagnóstico de EI asociada a DEIP. Se analizaron características basales, diagnósticas, terapéuticas, evolución intrahospitalaria y alejada. Se incluyeron 26 casos atendidos en nuestro hospital, 23 de los cuales fueron remitidos desde otros centros para su diagnóstico y tratamiento. La edad promedio fue de 67,5 años. Todos los pacientes recibieron antibióticos durante seis semanas y se les retiró el sistema en forma completa; en el 95% de los pacientes por vía percutánea y en 2 pacientes se requirió estereotomía mediana, atriotomía y colocación de marcapasos epicardíaco. La mortalidad fue del 4% y en el seguimiento fue nula. La morbilidad intrahospitalaria fue del 31%. En el seguimiento alejado no hubo reinfecciones u otra complicación. Como conclusión la EI es un cuadro grave que presenta una morbilidad elevada con estadías hospitalarias prolongadas, pero la mortalidad es baja. La explicación podría estar en las técnicas percutáneas, experiencia, extracción completa, el tiempo del reimplante del nuevo dispositivo y el tratamiento precoz, entre otros factores. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis (IE) associated with permanent cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is a complication of low frequency, but high mortality without adequate treatment. Progress on the knowledge of this disease and the development of therapeutic strategies such as early diagnos [...] is, antibiotic management and better extraction techniques, among others, have improved the prognosis of these patients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in-hospital and out-of-hospital morbidity, and analyze some factors that explain the differences among the published mortality data. Patients diagnosed with IE associated with CIEDs were studied, retrospectively, between March/2002 and March/2011. We analyzed baseline, diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics, and in-hospital and out-of-hospital courses of the disease. We included 26 cases treated in our hospital, 23 of whom were referred from other centers for diagnosis and treatment. The average age of the patients was 67.5 years. All patients received antibiotics for six weeks and underwent complete removal of the device system, in 95% of patients by percutaneous extraction and 2 patients required a median sternotomy, atriotomy and epicardial pacemaker placement. Mortality was 4% and the follow up mortality was zero. The in-hospital morbidity was 31%. In the follow-ups there were no reinfections or other complications. In conclusion, IE is a serious condition that has a high morbidity with prolonged hospital stays, but with a low mortality. The explanation may lie in the use percutaneous extraction techniques, experience, complete extraction of the device system, the time of reimplantation of the new device and early treatment, among other factors.

  5. Surgical treatment for infective endocarditis and hospital mortality in a Brazilian single-center Tratamento cirúrgico para endocardite infecciosa e mortalidade hospitalar em centro único brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Nassau Machado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patients underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis in an attempt to identify independent predictors of 30-day mortality. METHODS: We evaluated 837 consecutive patients underwent cardiac valve surgery from January 2003 to May 2010 in a tertiary hospital in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo (SP, Brazil. The study group comprised patients who underwent intervention in the presence of infective endocarditis and was compared to the control group (without infective endocarditis, evaluating perioperative clinical outcomes and 30-day all cause mortality. RESULTS: In our series, 64 patients (8% underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis, and 37.5% of them had surgical intervention in multiple valves. The study group had prolonged ICU length of stay (16%, greater need for dialysis (9% and higher 30-day mortality (17% compared to the control group (7%, P=0.020; 2%, P=0.002 and 9%, P=0.038; respectively. In a Cox regression analysis, age (P = 0.007, acute kidney injury (P = 0.004, dialysis (P = 0.026, redo surgery (P = 0.026, re-exploration for bleeding (P = 0.013, tracheal reintubation (P OBJETIVO: Avaliamos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia valvar em vigência de endocardite infecciosa na tentativa de identificar preditores independentes de mortalidade intrahospitalar em 30 dias. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 837 pacientes consecutivamente submetidos à cirurgia valvar, no período de janeiro de 2003 a maio de 2010, em um hospital terciário de São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brasil. O Grupo de Estudo compreendeu indivíduos submetidos à intervenção em vigência de endocardite infecciosa e foi comparado ao Grupo Controle, considerando complicações clínicas perioperatórias e óbito por todas as causas em 30 dias. RESULTADOS: Em nossa casuística, 64 (8% pacientes foram submetidos à cirurgia valvar em vigência de endocardite infecciosa, sendo 37,5% deles com indicação de intervenção cirúrgica em múltiplas valvas. O Grupo de Estudo apresentou maior permanência em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (16%, necessidade de diálise (9% e maior mortalidade em 30 dias (17% comparado ao Grupo Controle (7%, P=0,020; 2%, P=0,002 e 9%, P=0,038; respectivamente. A análise de regressão de Cox confirmou idade (P=0,007, lesão renal aguda (P=0,004, diálise (P=0,026, reoperação (P=0,026, reintervenção por sangramento (P=0,013, reintubação orotraqueal (P<0,001 e lesão neurológica tipo I (P<0,001 como preditores independentes para óbito. Embora a manifestação de endocardite infecciosa influencie na mortalidade na análise univariada, a regressão de Cox não confirmou tal variável como preditor independente de óbito em nossa casuística. CONCLUSÃO: Idade e complicações perioperatórias destacam-se como preditores de mortalidade hospitalar em população brasileira. Cirurgia valvar em vigência de infecção ativa não se confirma como preditor independente de óbito nesta casuística.

  6. Awareness of Iranian’s General Dentists Regarding the Latest Prophylaxis Guideline for Prevention of Infective Endocarditis

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    Ghaderi F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Dental procedures leading to oral tissue injuries may provoke bacterial release to the blood stream causing infective endocarditis (IE in vulnerable patients. The guideline which was proposed by AHA has been updated 9 times having the last update published in 2007. This study was endeavored to uncover the level of knowledge of general dental practitioners in Shiraz, concerning the 2007 AHA guidelines for endocarditis prophylaxis in patients with cardiac problems receiving dental treatments.Materials and Method: This cross- sectional and descriptive analytical study included 150 dentists as participants. All practitioners were given a self –report questionnaire which consisted of three sections. Questions were designed to assess their knowledge of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with cardiac disease. Results: Almost all participants (93% were aware of antibiotic prophylaxis to be essential for tooth extraction. Most participants did not believe in prophylaxis for noninvasive procedures (such as shedding of primary teeth, impression, intraoral radiography. From all of the respondents, 75% considered Amoxicillin to be the anti-biotic of choice and 57% were acquainted with the correct dose of Amoxicillin for high risk patients.Conclusion: The study identified a potential for under/over prescription of antibiotic prophylaxis under the current guideline. Burden of IE necessitates more accurate knowledge of antibiotic prophylaxis in the undergraduate curriculum and continuing education programs of dentistry.

  7. Aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial após endocardite infecciosa de valva mitral Infected aneurysm of brachial artery after mitral valve infective endocarditis

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    Heraldo Guedis Lobo Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial em paciente com endocardite infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis. Homem de 49 anos de idade se apresentou com febre, dispnéia e sopro regurgitativo em foco mitral com irradiação para axila. O ecocardiograma demonstrou vegetação em valva mitral nativa. Após troca valvar mitral com implante de prótese biológica, observou-se massa pulsátil de cinco centímetros de diâmetro em fossa antecubital direita. Foi feito o diagnóstico de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial, e o tratamento cirúrgico foi realizado com sucesso. O objetivo desse relato de caso é apresentar uma complicação pouco comum após endocardite infecciosa.We present a case of brachial artery infected aneurysm in a patient with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis. A 49-year-old man presented with fever dyspnea and a pansystolic murmur with irradiation to axilla. The echocardiogram revealed vegetation in native mitral valve. After mitral valve replacement with bioprosthesis, it was observed pulsatile mass of five centimeters in diameter at antecubital fossa of right upper limb. It was made the diagnosis of infected aneurysm of the brachial artery, and the surgery was performed successfully. The aim of this case report is to show a rare complication after infective endocarditis.

  8. Infective endocarditis following transcatheter aortic valve replacement- : Diagnostic and management challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poay Huan; Bundgaard, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) can improve the symptoms and prognosis of patients with severe aortic stenosis who, due to a high expected operative risk, would not have otherwise been treated surgically. If these patients develop prosthetic valve endocarditis, their presentations may be atypical causing a delay in the diagnosis and treatment. The management is also complicated by their comorbidities, and surgical treatment may not be feasible leading to a significant morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of an 85-year-old man with TAVI prosthetic valve endocarditis successfully treated medically, discuss the challenges in the diagnosis and management of such patients, and review available literature on the incidence and outcome of the condition. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Meningite como complicação de endocardite infecciosa / Meningitis as a complication of infective endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viviane Cordeiro, Veiga; Júlio César de, Carvalho; Luis Enrique Campodonico, Amaya; Marcos Sérgio, Martins; Salomón Soriano Ordinola, Rojas.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As complicações neurológicas estão presentes em aproximadamente 30% dos pacientes com endocardite infecciosa; no entanto, a meningite apresenta-se como uma complicação rara. Apresenta-se aqui o caso de paciente do gênero feminino com quadro de meningite decorrente de endocardite em valva mitral, que [...] necessitou de procedimento cirúrgico em razão de quadro agudo de insuficiência cardíaca por ruptura de cordoalha valvar. Abstract in english Although approximately 30% of patients with endocarditis present with neurological complications, the development of meningitis in these patients is rare. This case report describes a female patient who developed meningitis as a complication of mitral valve endocarditis, and surgery was required for [...] this patient due to acute heart failure resulting from the rupture of the chordae tendineae.

  10. Meningite como complicação de endocardite infecciosa Meningitis as a complication of infective endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Cordeiro Veiga; Júlio César de Carvalho; Luis Enrique Campodonico Amaya; Marcos Sérgio Martins; Salomón Soriano Ordinola Rojas

    2012-01-01

    As complicações neurológicas estão presentes em aproximadamente 30% dos pacientes com endocardite infecciosa; no entanto, a meningite apresenta-se como uma complicação rara. Apresenta-se aqui o caso de paciente do gênero feminino com quadro de meningite decorrente de endocardite em valva mitral, que necessitou de procedimento cirúrgico em razão de quadro agudo de insuficiência cardíaca por ruptura de cordoalha valvar.Although approximately 30% of patients with endocarditis present with neurol...

  11. Chest pain with ST segment elevation in a patient with prosthetic aortic valve infective endocarditis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamma Reto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction secondary to atherosclerotic plaque rupture is a common medical emergency. This condition is effectively managed with percutaneous coronary intervention or thrombolysis. We report a rare case of acute myocardial infarction secondary to coronary embolisation of valvular vegetation in a patient with infective endocarditis, and we highlight how the management of this phenomenon may not be the same. Case presentation A 73-year-old British Caucasian man with previous tissue aortic valve replacement was diagnosed with and treated for infective endocarditis of his native mitral valve. His condition deteriorated in hospital and repeat echocardiography revealed migration of vegetation to his aortic valve. Whilst waiting for surgery, our patient developed severe central crushing chest pain with associated anterior ST segment elevation on his electrocardiogram. Our patient had no history or risk factors for ischaemic heart disease. It was likely that coronary embolisation of part of the vegetation had occurred. Thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention treatments were not performed in this setting and a plan was made for urgent surgical intervention. However, our patient deteriorated rapidly and unfortunately died. Conclusion Clinicians need to be aware that atherosclerotic plaque rupture is not the only cause of acute myocardial infarction. In the case of septic vegetation embolisation, case report evidence reveals that adopting the current strategies used in the treatment of myocardial infarction can be dangerous. Thrombolysis risks intra-cerebral hemorrhage from mycotic aneurysm rupture. Percutaneous coronary intervention risks coronary mycotic aneurysm formation, stent infections as well as distal septic embolisation. As yet, there remains no defined treatment modality and we feel all cases should be referred to specialist cardiac centers to consider how best to proceed.

  12. Predictores de mortalidad intrahospitalaria de la endocarditis infecciosa en la República Argentina: resultados del EIRA-II / Predictors of In-hospital Mortality due to Infective Endocarditis in the Argentine Republic: Results of EIRA II Study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan C., Modenesi; Ernesto R., Ferreirós; Sandra, Swieskowski; Francisco M., Nacinovich; Claudia, Cortés; Hernán, Cohen Arazi; Lucía, Kazelián; Sergio, Varini; Mario, Ciruzzi; José Horacio, Casabé.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Determinar la mortalidad hospitalaria y los marcadores clínicos relacionados con la mortalidad de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI) en la República Argentina. Métodos Registro prospectivo, multicéntrico (82 centros de 16 provincias de la Argentina) de EI definidas o posibles según los criteri [...] os Duke, entre junio de 2001 y noviembre de 2002. Resultados Se evaluaron 470 episodios de EI en 452 pacientes (edad media: 58,1 ± 17,6 años; sexo masculino 69,7%; EI definida 83% y posible 17%). Bacteriología: Staphylococcus 38% (S. aureus 30%, Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo 8%), Streptococcus 39,4% (S. viridans 36,8%), Enterococcus 10,8%, HACEK 6,6%, hemocultivos negativos 17,7%. Existía cardiopatía subyacente en el 66,4% y EI de válvula protésica en el 19,2%. Se indicó tratamiento quirúrgico en el 33,3% de los pacientes. La mortalidad fue del 24,3%. En el análisis de regresión logística fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad: edad > 65 años (OR 2,1; IC 95%, 1,1- 3,96; p = 0,024); insuficiencia cardíaca en la evolución (OR 5,9; IC 95%, 3,1-10,9; p Abstract in english Work objective To determine the in-hospital mortality rate and the predictors of mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) in Argentina. Research Design and Methods Prospective, multicentric survey carried out in 82 hospitals all over the country (16 provinces). Patients were enrolled according to Du [...] ke criteria (definite or possible IE) during an 18-month period (June 2001-November 2002). Results Four hundred and seventy episodes in 452 patients were included (mean age 58.1±17.6 years, 69.7% male, 83% definite and 17% possible IE). Blood cultures were negative in 17.7%. The most frequent causative microorganisms were: Staphylococcus 38% (S. aureus 30%, S. coagulase-negative 8%), Streptococcus 39.4% (S. viridans 26.8%), Enterococcus 10,8%, S. coagulase-negative 8%, HACEK group 6,6% and S. bovis 5,5%. Underlying heart disease was present in 66.4% and prosthetic-valve IE was diagnosed in 19.2%. Surgical treatment was indicated in 33.3% and in-hospital mortality was 24.3%. In a logistic regression analysis the following variables were independent predictors of increased mortality: age > 65 years (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-3.96; p = 0.024); heart failure (OR 5.9; 95% CI 3.1-10.9; p

  13. Gemella morbillorum Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Serap; Gul Yurtsever, Sureyya; Ormen, Bahar; Turker, Nesrin; Kaptan, Figen; El, Sibel; Akyildiz, Zehra Ilke; Coskun, Nejat Ali

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis caused by Gemella morbillorum is a rare disease. In this report 67-year-old male patient with G. morbillorum endocarditis was presented. The patient was hospitalized as he had a fever of unknown origin and in the two of the three sets of blood cultures taken at the first day of hospitalization G. morbillorum was identified. The transthoracic echogram revealed 14 × 10?mm vegetation on the aortic noncoronary cuspis. After 4 weeks of antibiotic therapy, the case was referred to the clinic of cardiovascular surgery for valve surgery. PMID:25544914

  14. Septal endocarditis, bone infection and severe leg ischemia detected in Tc-99m labelled monoclonal anti granulocyte scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patient 28 years old has continued to have a persistent fever (39.2OC), despite ten days treatment by specific antibiotics for bacterial endocarditis associated to a recent claudication of the right lower leg. The persistent fever has motivated a 99mTc-labelled monoclonal anti granulocyte scan which has showed an important uptake in the myocardial septum, and other infection locations in temporal bone and in right tibial arteries. Two days after, a nanocolloids-99mTc WBS showed no uptake in the heart area, a total absence of uptake of the nanocolloids in the bone marrow of right tibia b and cranial SPECT views confirmed the infectious site in the right temporal bone. New antibiotic strategy was adopted successfully associated with surgical amputation of the right lower leg (au)

  15. A randomised clinical trial of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients treated for infective endocarditis--the CopenHeartIE trial protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Infective endocarditis (IE) is among the most serious infectious diseases in the western world. Treatment requires lengthy hospitalisation, high-dosage antibiotic therapy and possible valve replacement surgery. Despite advances in treatment, the 1-year mortality remains at 20-40%. Studies indicate that patients experience persisting physical symptoms, diminished quality of life and difficulties returning to work up to a year postdischarge. No studies investigating the effects of rehabilitation have been published. We present the rationale and design of the CopenHeart(IE) trial, which investigates the effect of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients treated for IE. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a randomised clinical trial to investigate the effects of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care on the physical and psychosocial functioning of patients treated for IE. The trial is a multicentre, parallel design trial with 1?:?1 individual randomisation to either the intervention or control group. The intervention consists of five psychoeducational consultations provided by specialised nurses and a 12-week exercise training programme. The primary outcome is mental health (MH) measured by the standardised Short Form 36 (SF-36). The secondary outcome is peak oxygen uptake measured by the bicycle ergospirometry test. Furthermore, a number of exploratory analyses will be performed. Based on sample size calculation, 150 patients treated for left-sided (native or prosthetic valve) or cardiac device endocarditis will be included in the trial. A qualitative and a survey-based complementary study will be undertaken, to investigate postdischarge experiences of the patients. A qualitative postintervention study will explore rehabilitation participation experiences. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the regional research ethics committee (no H-1-2011-129) and the Danish Data Protection Agency (no 2007-58-0015). Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01512615.

  16. Actinobacillus endocarditis associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Vanda Cristina; Araújo, Ana Carolina; Grilo, Ana; Noronha, Carla; Panarra, António; Riso, Nuno; Vaz Riscado, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Infective endocarditis can be associated with complex clinical presentations, sometimes with a difficult multi-disciplinary management. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans belongs to the Haemophilus species, Actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella species group, responsible for 5% to 10% of infective endocarditis in native heart valves. These organisms have slow fastidious growth pattern, often associated with negative cultures, and cause systemic emb...

  17. Endocardite infecciosa por Haemophilus aphrophilus: relato de caso Infective endocarditis due to Haemophilus aphrophilus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo M. Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o caso de uma criança com endocardite infecciosa causada por Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIÇÃO: Menino com febre e calafrios há 20 dias. À internação, apresentava-se febril, descorado e sem sinais de instabilidade hemodinâmica; à ausculta cardíaca, tinha sopro holosistólico em foco mitral. Os exames laboratoriais identificaram anemia (hemoglobina = 9,14 g/dL, leucócitos totais de 11.920 mm³, plaquetas de 250.000 mm³, velocidade de sedimentação das hemácias e proteína C reativa elevadas. O ecocardiograma revelou imagem em válvula mitral, sugestiva de vegetação. Com a hipótese de endocardite, foi iniciada antibioticoterapia com penicilina cristalina (200.000 UI/kg/dia associada à gentamicina (4 mg/kg/dia. No terceiro dia de tratamento, foi identificado Haemophilus aphrophilus em hemoculturas, sendo então trocado o esquema antibiótico para ceftriaxona (100 mg/kg/dia. No 20º dia de internação, encontrava-se pálido, mas sem febre e sem outras queixas. Os exames mostravam hemoglobina = 7,0 g/dL, leucócitos = 2.190 mm³, plaquetas = 98.000 mm³, razão normatizada internacional = 1,95 e R = 1,89. Foi feita hipótese de reação adversa ao ceftriaxona, que foi substituído por ciprofloxacina, 20 mg/kg/dia, até completar 6 semanas de tratamento. Após 72 horas da troca, houve normalização dos exames. Durante seguimento ambulatorial, apresentou insuficiência mitral grave, sendo submetido a troca de válvula por prótese metálica 9 meses após quadro agudo. Há 3 anos encontra-se bem, em acompanhamento ambulatorial. COMENTÁRIOS: É rara a identificação de agentes do grupo HACEK (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens e Kingella kingae em crianças com endocardite infecciosa. O caso apresentado, sem fatores de risco relacionados a esses agentes, reafirma a necessidade de tentar sempre identificar o agente etiológico das endocardites para adequação do tratamento.OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a child with infective endocarditis caused by Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIPTION: Boy with 20 days of fever and chills. On admission, he was febrile, pale and with no signs of hemodynamic instability; on cardiac auscultation, a mitral-related holosystolic murmur was observed. Laboratory examination identified anemia (hemoglobin = 9.14 g/dL, total leukocytes of 11,920 mm³, platelets of 250,000 mm³, elevated sedimentation velocity of red cells and elevated C-reactive protein. The echocardiogram revealed image on mitral valve, resembling vegetation. Considering endocarditis, antibiotic therapy was started with crystalline penicillin (200,000 UI/kg/day in association with gentamicin (4 mg/kg/day. On the third day of treatment, Haemophilus aphrophilus was identified in the blood cultures and the antibiotic scheme was replaced with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day. On the 20th day of evolution, the patient was pale but with no fever or other complaints. Examinations showed hemoglobin = 7.0 g/dL, leukocytes = 2,190 mm³, platelets = 98,000 mm³, international normalized ratio = 1.95 and R = 1.89. Considering the hypothesis of adverse reaction to ceftriaxone, a 6-week replacement treatment with ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg/day was started. Examination results normalized after 72 hours of the replacement therapy. During ambulatory follow-up, patient presented with severe mitral regurgitation, undergoing a valve replacement with a metallic prosthetic valve 9 months after acute event. Patient has done well throughout the 3-year ambulatory follow-up. COMMENTS: Identification of agents of the HACEK group (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae in children with infective endocarditis is rare. This case report, with no HACEK agent-related risk factors, reinforces the need for identification of the etiological agent of endocarditis to ensure adequate treatment.

  18. Endocardite infecciosa por Haemophilus aphrophilus: relato de caso / Infective endocarditis due to Haemophilus aphrophilus: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo M., Pereira; Fabio, Bucaretchi; Antonia T., Tresoldi.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o caso de uma criança com endocardite infecciosa causada por Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIÇÃO: Menino com febre e calafrios há 20 dias. À internação, apresentava-se febril, descorado e sem sinais de instabilidade hemodinâmica; à ausculta cardíaca, tinha sopro holosistólico em f [...] oco mitral. Os exames laboratoriais identificaram anemia (hemoglobina = 9,14 g/dL), leucócitos totais de 11.920 mm³, plaquetas de 250.000 mm³, velocidade de sedimentação das hemácias e proteína C reativa elevadas. O ecocardiograma revelou imagem em válvula mitral, sugestiva de vegetação. Com a hipótese de endocardite, foi iniciada antibioticoterapia com penicilina cristalina (200.000 UI/kg/dia) associada à gentamicina (4 mg/kg/dia). No terceiro dia de tratamento, foi identificado Haemophilus aphrophilus em hemoculturas, sendo então trocado o esquema antibiótico para ceftriaxona (100 mg/kg/dia). No 20º dia de internação, encontrava-se pálido, mas sem febre e sem outras queixas. Os exames mostravam hemoglobina = 7,0 g/dL, leucócitos = 2.190 mm³, plaquetas = 98.000 mm³, razão normatizada internacional = 1,95 e R = 1,89. Foi feita hipótese de reação adversa ao ceftriaxona, que foi substituído por ciprofloxacina, 20 mg/kg/dia, até completar 6 semanas de tratamento. Após 72 horas da troca, houve normalização dos exames. Durante seguimento ambulatorial, apresentou insuficiência mitral grave, sendo submetido a troca de válvula por prótese metálica 9 meses após quadro agudo. Há 3 anos encontra-se bem, em acompanhamento ambulatorial. COMENTÁRIOS: É rara a identificação de agentes do grupo HACEK (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens e Kingella kingae) em crianças com endocardite infecciosa. O caso apresentado, sem fatores de risco relacionados a esses agentes, reafirma a necessidade de tentar sempre identificar o agente etiológico das endocardites para adequação do tratamento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a child with infective endocarditis caused by Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIPTION: Boy with 20 days of fever and chills. On admission, he was febrile, pale and with no signs of hemodynamic instability; on cardiac auscultation, a mitral-related holosystolic murmur wa [...] s observed. Laboratory examination identified anemia (hemoglobin = 9.14 g/dL), total leukocytes of 11,920 mm³, platelets of 250,000 mm³, elevated sedimentation velocity of red cells and elevated C-reactive protein. The echocardiogram revealed image on mitral valve, resembling vegetation. Considering endocarditis, antibiotic therapy was started with crystalline penicillin (200,000 UI/kg/day) in association with gentamicin (4 mg/kg/day). On the third day of treatment, Haemophilus aphrophilus was identified in the blood cultures and the antibiotic scheme was replaced with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day). On the 20th day of evolution, the patient was pale but with no fever or other complaints. Examinations showed hemoglobin = 7.0 g/dL, leukocytes = 2,190 mm³, platelets = 98,000 mm³, international normalized ratio = 1.95 and R = 1.89. Considering the hypothesis of adverse reaction to ceftriaxone, a 6-week replacement treatment with ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg/day) was started. Examination results normalized after 72 hours of the replacement therapy. During ambulatory follow-up, patient presented with severe mitral regurgitation, undergoing a valve replacement with a metallic prosthetic valve 9 months after acute event. Patient has done well throughout the 3-year ambulatory follow-up. COMMENTS: Identification of agents of the HACEK group (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae) in children with infective endocarditis is rare. This case report, with no HACEK agent-related risk factors, reinforces the need for identification of the etiological agent of endocarditis to ensure adequate treatment.

  19. Current status of taxonomic groups of oral streptococci in endocarditis. Can virulence factors discriminate between endocarditis and non-endocarditis strains?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tove; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Infective endocarditis is frequently caused by oral streptococci, especially Streptococcus sanguis. In this group, many strains have recently been reclassified on the basis of new taxonomic schemes. The purpose of this study was to classify oral streptococci from patients with infective endocarditis and, further, to assess the importance of specific virulence factors for the development of streptococcal endocarditis. METHODS: Twenty-eight previously identified and 10 new streptococcal isolates from infective endocarditis were classified according to Kilian et al (1989) and compared to 30 streptococcal isolates from the oral cavities of periodontal patients without endocarditis. Subsequently, surface hydrophobicity was assessed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, production of extracellular dextran was determined by precipitation, and non-specific proteolytic activity was evaluated by determination of hydrolysis of gelatin, and casein-precipitating activity. RESULTS: Eight streptococcal species were represented in the endocarditis isolates. Most strains were highly hydrophobic and none showed non-specific proteolytic activity. Dextran was produced with similar frequency in endocarditis and non-endocarditis isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that infective endocarditis may be caused by a variety of oral streptococcal species. The possible virulence factors investigated were found in the same proportions in endocarditis and non-endocarditis isolates, and thus did not seem to be crucial for development of endocarditis.

  20. Utilidad diagnóstica de los nódulos de Osler en la endocarditis infecciosa en usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral (UDVP) / Diagnostic utility of Osler´s nodes in the infective endocarditis in intravenous drug users

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F. J., Espinosa Parra; J. M., Ramos Rincón; F., Herrero Huerta; L., Pretel Serrano; A. A., Lorenzo.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Se describen los datos clínicos, microbiológicos e histológicos de cinco episodios de endocarditis infecciosa (EI) con nódulos de Osler en usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral (UDVP). Pacientes y métodos: Se han estudiado de forma prospectiva 43 casos de EI en UDVP. En 4 pacientes se re [...] alizó punción aspiración y en otro biopsia de un nódulo de Osler, con tinción de Gram y cultivo de la muestra. Resultados: De los 43 episodios de EI 33 fueron derechas, 9 izquierdas y 1 mixta. Cinco de los 10 (50%) pacientes con endocarditis izquierda o mixta presentaron nódulos de Osler, pero no se encontraron en ninguno de los pacientes con EI derecha. En todas las muestras tomadas por punción aspiración se observaron cocos grampositivos en racimos en la tinción de Gram y se obtuvo crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus con el mismo antibiotipo que los aislados en los hemocultivos. En el único caso en el que se realizo biopsia del nódulo se apreciaba trombos sépticos en la microcirculación. Conclusiones: La tinción de Gram y el cultivo del material aspirado de los nódulos de Osler tiene una alta rentabilidad en el diagnóstico etiológico de la EI en los usuarios a drogras por vía parenteral. La presencia de nódulos de Osler en un paciente con EI nos debe sugerir que la localización es izquierda. Estos datos sugieren que los nódulos de Osler, en la EI por S. aureus en los UDVP se origina como consecuencia de embolismos sépticos microvasculares. Abstract in english Background: The objective of study is to describe of clinic, microbiological and histological data of five cases of infective endocarditis (IE) with Osler's nodes in intravenous drug users . Patients y methods: Prospectively, 43 cases of IE in intravenous drugs users was revised. In 4 patients, a as [...] pirate puncture of Osler's node was performed and in one patient a biopsy of Osler's node was done with Gram's stain and culture of specimen. Results: From 43 episodes of IE, 33 were right-side IE, 9 left-side y 1 right and left side. No patients with right-side IE presented Osler's nodes, however five of 10 (50%) patients with left-side endocarditis. In all of cases grampositive cocci were observed in Gram's strain and Staphylococcus aureus growth on culture of lesion with the same antibiotype than isolated from blood culture. One case a cutaneous biopsy was performed, and inflammatory infiltrate with necrosis was found. Conclusions: The Gram's strain and culture of specimen aspirated from Osler's nodes were of high utility in the diagnosis of IE in intravenous drugs users. The presence of Osler's nodes in a patient with infective endocarditis must be suggest that the location in left-side. These data suggest that Osler's nodes in infective endocarditis by S. aureus in intravenous drugs users was originated by microvascular septic emboli.

  1. A randomised clinical trial of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients treated for infective endocarditis--the CopenHeartIE trial protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Sibilitz, Kirstine Lærum; Risom, Signe Stelling; Bundgaard, Henning; Gluud, Christian Nyfeldt; Moons, Philip; Winkel, Per; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Hansen, Jane Lindschou; Norekvål, Tone Merete; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Infective endocarditis (IE) is among the most serious infectious diseases in the western world. Treatment requires lengthy hospitalisation, high-dosage antibiotic therapy and possible valve replacement surgery. Despite advances in treatment, the 1-year mortality remains at 20-40%. Studies indicate that patients experience persisting physical symptoms, diminished quality of life and difficulties returning to work up to a year postdischarge. No studies investigating the effects of re...

  2. Molecular Identification of Gemella Species from Three Patients with Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    1998-01-01

    Gemella morbillorum and Gemella haemolysans are opportunistic pathogens which cause endocarditis and other severe infections. We report on three patients with endocarditis, one with endocarditis caused by G. haemolysans and two with endocarditis caused by G. morbillorum. The paucity of reports concerning these bacteria is probably related to the difficulties associated with their identification. For example, one of the strains reported in this study was originally sent to our laboratory with ...

  3. The role of oral bacteria in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, K W; Hunter, N

    1991-08-01

    Various micro-organisms have been implicated as causative agents for bacterial endocarditis, including lactobacilli and in particular the viridans streptococci which are more commonly associated with dental caries. Of these, the most frequently isolated one has the descriptive name Streptococcus sanguis. The disease is characterized by growth of micro-organisms within a platelet-fibrin thrombus protruding from a valve leaflet. An understanding of the pathogenesis involves knowledge of the mechanisms of conversion of the normal vascular surface to a thrombogenic one and the adhesion of micro-organisms to such surfaces. Model systems to study this interaction include experimental animals, mammalian epithelial cells and platelets, and proteins such as fibronectin and fibrinogen. Microbial protein surface components (adhesins) and lipoteichoic acid have also been implicated. Capsular polysaccharides may be involved, but the role of dextrans formed from sucrose has been over-emphasized as the polymers are not formed in situ. Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients at risk is based on bacteriostatic or bactericidal action. However, bacterial cell surface components involved in adhesion may also be affected, and knowledge of such reactions could provide a more rational basis for antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:1789762

  4. Endocarditis caused by nonhemolytic group B streptococcus.

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, C.; Gámez, M I; Navarro, J. M.; Rosa-Fraile, M.

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of bacterial endocarditis caused by nonhemolytic group B streptococcus (GBS) in a 67-year-old man with no predisposing risk factors. Nonhemolytic GBS strains rarely cause illness and are usually detected in perinatal infections. We believe this to be the first reported case of endocarditis caused by a nonhemolytic strain of GBS.

  5. [Surgical Treatment of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis;Tips of Complete Resection of Infective Tissue and Valve Replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Yoshihito; Kondo, Shunichi; Tsuboi, Eitoshi; Rokkaku, Kyu; Nakanowatari, Hitoshi; Takano, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2015-10-01

    Fifteen consecutive prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) patients were operated from March 2009 to September 2014. The average age of patients was 68 years ( range 49 to 82) and 7 patients were male. The interval between initial surgery and reoperation was 62.4 months(range 2.6 to 340.9). Seven of these cases(47%) developed PVE within the 1st year after surgery were defined as early PVE. All microorganisms isolated from blood cultures in early PVE were Staphylococcus species. Generally, the infective prosthetic valve was removed 1st, then all infective tissues were excised from the periannular cavity. A new prosthetic valve was replaced in supra-annular fashion. One patient who had a severe discontinuity between the most part of left ventricle and aorta necessitated a root replacement. One patient in aortic PVE, needed an additional patch-plasty of anterior mitral leaflet. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic clamping times were 250 minutes( range 132 to 426) and 165 minutes( range 117 to 309), respectively. Four patients needed permanent pacemaker implanted for complete A-V block. Five patients had transient acute renal failure, and 1 required dialysis could be weaned at 40 post operative day. Average postoperative hospital stay was 39 days (range 21 to 108), and the operative mortality was 0%. The postoperative follow up was 3.1 years( range 0.6 to 6.0), all patients were doing well without re-infection and heart failure except 1 patient died by non-cardiac disease. PMID:26469259

  6. Increasing incidence and mortality of infective endocarditis: a population-based study through a record-linkage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buonfrate Dora

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few population-based studies provide epidemiological data on infective endocarditis (IE. Aim of the study is to analyze incidence and outcomes of IE in the Veneto Region (North-Eastern Italy. Methods Residents with a first hospitalization for IE in 2000-2008 were extracted from discharge data and linked to mortality records to estimate 365-days survival. Etiology was retrieved in subsets of this cohort by discharge codes and by linkage to a microbiological database. Risk factors for mortality were assessed through logistic regression. Results 1,863 subjects were hospitalized for IE, with a corresponding crude rate of 4.4 per 100,000 person-years, increasing from 4.1 in 2000-2002 to 4.9 in 2006-2008 (p = 0.003. Median age was 68 years; 39% of subjects were hospitalized in the three preceding months. 23% of patients underwent a cardiac valve procedure in the index admission or in the following year. Inhospital mortality was 14% (19% including hospital transfers; 90-days and 365-days mortality rose through the study years. Mortality increased with age and the Charlson comorbidity index, in subjects with previous hospitalizations for heart failure, and (in the subcohort with microbiological data in IE due to Staphylococci (40% of IE. Conclusions The study demonstrates an increasing incidence and mortality for IE over the last decade. Analyses of electronic archives provide a region-wide picture of IE, overcoming referral biases affecting single clinic or multicentric studies, and therefore represent a first fundamental step to detect critical issues related to IE.

  7. Clinical impact of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the extra cardiac work-up of patients with infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Ozcan, Cengiz; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Thomassen, Anders; Gill, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical importance of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT used in the extra cardiac work-up of patients with infective endocarditis (IE). BACKGROUND: IE is a serious condition with a significant mortality. Besides the degree of valvular involvement, the prognosis relies crucially on the presence of systemic infectious embolism. METHODS: Seventy-two patients (71% males and mean age 63 ± 17 years) with IE were evaluated with (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in addition to stan...

  8. Endocarditis associated with Comamonas acidovorans.

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, H.; Gilroy, S.; Feinstein, S; G. Gilardi

    1990-01-01

    A case of endocarditis caused by Comamonas acidovorans (Pseudomonas acidovorans) in a 42-year-old intravenous-drug abuser is described. This article appears to be the first detailed report of the isolation of this organism from a systemic clinical infection and its identification as a pathogen.

  9. Endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma M Al-Jasser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year–old man with pre-existing rheumatic heart disease and aortic regurgitation (AR presented with intermittent fever, ankle swelling and clinical evidence of endocarditis. Transoesophageal echocardiogram (TEE revealed vegetations and destruction of the aortic valve (AV. Blood cultures grew a gram positive coccobacillus which was phenotypically identified as Abiotrophia defectvia (A.defectiva. A diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE due to A.defectiva was made. Treatment, with penicillin and gentamicin, was administered for 4 weeks. Mechanical valve replacement was required few days after starting the antibiotic therapy. The patient had a favorable outcome on follow up.Although A.defectiva is an uncommon cause of endocarditis, early and correct identification of this pathogen is important to improve the outcome and the prognosis of patients with IE due to this organism.

  10. Are novel non-invasive imaging techniques needed in patients with suspected prosthetic heart valve endocarditis? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habets, Jesse; Mali, Willem P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Tanis, Wilco [Haga Teaching Hospital, Department of Cardiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Reitsma, Johannes B. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Brink, Renee B.A. van den [Academic Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chamuleau, Steven A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Budde, Ricardo P.J. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Multimodal non-invasive imaging plays a key role in establishing a diagnosis of PHV endocarditis. The objective of this study was to provide a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of TTE, TEE, and MDCT in patients with (suspected) PHV endocarditis. Studies published between 1985 and 2013 were identified via search and cross-reference of PubMed/Embase databases. Studies were included if (1) they reported on the non-invasive index tests TTE, TEE, or MDCT; (2) data was provided on PHV endocarditis as the condition of interest; and (3) imaging results were verified against either surgical inspection/autopsy or clinical follow-up reference standards, thereby enabling the extraction of 2-by-2 tables. Twenty articles (including 496 patients) met the inclusion criteria for PHV endocarditis. TTE, TEE, and MDCT + TEE had a pooled sensitivity/specificity for vegetations of 29/100 %; 82/95 %, and 88/94 %, respectively. The pooled sensitivity/specificity of TTE, TEE, and MDCT + TEE for periannular complications was 36/93 %, 86/98 %, and 100/94 %, respectively. TEE showed good sensitivity and specificity for establishing a diagnosis of PHV endocarditis. Although MDCT data are limited, this review showed that MDCT in addition to TEE may improve sensitivity in detecting life-threatening periannular complications. (orig.)

  11. Acute myocardial infarction in infectious endocarditis. Report of one case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acute myocardial infarction is a rare complication in the course of an acute endocarditis. It takes place in the first weeks infection. Although is not associated with any particular microorganism it has been associated with virulent microorganism and is common in aortic valve endocarditis insufficiency. This report is a case of a patient who suffered a myocardial infarction during a acute endocarditis of native valve

  12. Listeria monocytogenes endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinman, B D; Evans, T; Sage, R

    1985-01-01

    A fatal case of endocarditis due to Listeria monocytogenes is reported. Case reports of endocarditis due to this organism are rare but indicate a higher mortality than with many other causes of bacterial endocarditis. The size of the problem may be underestimated because the organism has a "diphtheroid' appearance and may be incorrectly dismissed as a contaminant. PMID:3991406

  13. Listeria monocytogenes endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sheinman, B D; Evans, T; Sage, R.

    1985-01-01

    A fatal case of endocarditis due to Listeria monocytogenes is reported. Case reports of endocarditis due to this organism are rare but indicate a higher mortality than with many other causes of bacterial endocarditis. The size of the problem may be underestimated because the organism has a "diphtheroid' appearance and may be incorrectly dismissed as a contaminant.

  14. Endocarditis bacteriana: reporte de caso / Bacterial endocarditis: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto, Dávila F; Miguel, Marroquín A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis bacteriana es una inflamación del endocardio donde hay colonización bacteriana que genera vegetaciones en alguna válvula del corazón, las cuales alteran la función cardiaca generando regurgitaciones y alteraciones hemodinámicas. Además, puede producir cuadros propios de la infección [...] como tromboembolismo séptico y alteraciones inflamatorias como complejos inmunes. En el presente estudio se describe el caso de un canino hembra de 2.5 años, que presentó fiebre, decaimiento, anorexia y un soplomarcado(IV/VI) en elladoizquierdodeltórax.Losexámenesdelaboratorioevidenciaron leucocitosis con desviación a la izquierda e insuficiencia renal aguda. Además, la ecocardiografía mostró un crecimiento a nivel de la válvula aórtica que alteraba el flujo sanguíneo produciendo un jet regurgitante diastólico. Se concluye que la lesión era compatible con una endocarditis bacteriana Abstract in english Bacterial endocarditis is an inflammation of the endocardium, where a bacterial colonization produces vegetation in the cardiac valve, which can alter its normal function causing regurgitations and hemodynamic alterations. Also, this infection can cause septic thromboembolism or inflammatory alterat [...] ions like immune complexes. The present study describes the case of a female canine of 2.5 years of age that presented fever, depression, anorexia and a severe murmur (IV/VI) on the left side of the thorax. Laboratory exams revealed leukocytosis with left shift and renal failure. Besides, the echocardiography showed vegetation at the aortic valve that altered the hemodynamics producing a diastolic regurgitation jet. It was concluded that the lesion was compatible with bacterial endocarditis

  15. A Complicated Case of Triple Valve Infective Endocarditis in an IV Drug User with a Bicuspid Aortic Valve Requiring Three Separate Salvage Operations: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Shahzad; Smyrlis, Athanasios; Yaranov, Dmitry; Oelberg, David; Jimenez, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the endocardium that involves valves and adjacent mural endocardium or a septal defect. Local complications include severe valvular insufficiency, which may lead to intractable congestive heart failure and myocardial abscesses. If left untreated, IE is generally fatal. Diagnosing IE can be straightforward in patients with the typical oslerian manifestations such as bacteremia, evidence of active valvulitis, peripheral emboli, and immunologic vasc...

  16. What Is Infective Endocarditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you have heart disease or have had a stroke, members of your family also may be at higher risk. It’s very important for them to make changes now to lower their risk. Call ... disease. For information on stroke, call 1-888-4-STROKE (1-888-478- ...

  17. Perfil clínico-epidemiológico de pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa, período 2003-2010 en el hospital de Temuco, Chile / Profile of patients with infective endocarditis admitted to a Chilean regional hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Benjamín, Stockins; Víctor, Neira; Alejandro, Paredes; Carlos, Castillo; Andrés, Troncoso.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Mortality due to infective endocarditis (IE) in Chile is close to 30%. Aim: To report the experience with patients admitted with the diagnosis of IE in a regional tertiary hospital. Material and Methods: Retrospective study of 107 patients aged 50 ± 16years (75% males) discharged with a [...] definitive diagnosis of IE according to modified DUKE criteria, between years 2003 and 2010. Demographic variables, severity scores, clinical characteristics, bacteriology and hospital evolution were recorded. Results: Fifty nine percent of patients had concomitant cardiovascular problems. APACHE II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores on admission were 8.4 ± 4.7 and 2.7 ± 2.8 respectively. Native valves were affected in 91% of cases (aortic and mitral valves in 62% and 50% of cases respectively). Prosthetic valves were affected in 9.3% of cases. Rheumatic heart disease was the predominant primary lesion in 10% of patients. Antibiotics were used in 45.1% before blood cultures were performed. In 68% of patients blood cultures were positive. S. viridans (30.8%), S.aureus (18.6%) and coagulase negative Streptocicci (5.6%) were the identified microorganisms. Intensive care unit admission was required in 48% of patients. Renal, heart and neurological deterioration was observed in 53, 34 and 14% of patients, respectively. Twenty percent of patients developed systemic embolism and 37% required heart surgery. Mean hospital stay was 28.3 ± 19.1 days and 27% of patients died. Conclusions: In this series of patients, IE has a high mortality. Most patients studied were admitted in bad conditions.

  18. Endocarditis infecciosa: análisis de 261 casos y resultados del tratamiento con un enfoque multidisciplinario Infective endocarditis: short and long term results in 261 cases managed by a multidiciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Braun J

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early diagnosis, an effective treatment and prompt recognition of complications are essential to improve the prognosis of infective endocarditis (IE Aim: To report the results of a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and management of patients with IE at the Universidad Católica de Chile Hospital. Patients and methods: The clinical history, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of 261 episodes (Duke criteria of IE admitted between January 1980 and January 1999 were analyzed. These included 185 episodes of native, 73 of prosthetic valve and 3 of nonvalvular IE. Results: Sixty nine percent of patients were men and the mean age was 49 ± 16 years. Seventy five percent had a definite diagnosis of IE (Duke. S. viridans, staphylococci and enterococci together constituted 85% of the isolated bacterial strains. Twenty seven had culture-negative IE, related to a high incidence of antibiotic therapy prior to diagnosis. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed in 102 cases and it detected vegetations in 91% of aortic and 96% of mitral IE, rupture or prosthesis dehiscence in 67% of aortic and 52% of mitral IE and abscesses in 51% of aortic and 15% of mitral IE. Fifty one percent developed heart failure and 34% had embolic events. S. aureus IE was associated to a higher incidence of embolic events, complications which contraindicated surgery and increased mortality rate (27%. Of all patients, 40% were treated exclusively with antibiotics, 52% were operated on and 8% had surgical indication but were nonoperable because of serious complications. The overall mortality was 16.3%: 13% in the medical, 9% in the surgical and 81% in the non-operable groups. The type of treatment and mortality rates did not differ between IE of native valves and prosthetic valves. Long term follow up showed survival rates of 73% at 5 years and 66% at 10 years. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach may be very helpful to improve the prognosis of IE. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 708-20.

  19. Endocarditis infecciosa: análisis de 261 casos y resultados del tratamiento con un enfoque multidisciplinario / Infective endocarditis: short and long term results in 261 cases managed by a multidiciplinary approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Braun J; Alex, Escalona P; Gastón, Chamorro S; Ramón, Corbalán H; Carlos, Pérez C; Jaime, Labarca L; Manuel José, Irarrázaval L; Ricardo, Zalaquett S; José Antonio, Rodríguez V; Pablo, Casanegra P.

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Early diagnosis, an effective treatment and prompt recognition of complications are essential to improve the prognosis of infective endocarditis (IE) Aim: To report the results of a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and management of patients with IE at the Universidad Católica de [...] Chile Hospital. Patients and methods: The clinical history, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of 261 episodes (Duke criteria) of IE admitted between January 1980 and January 1999 were analyzed. These included 185 episodes of native, 73 of prosthetic valve and 3 of nonvalvular IE. Results: Sixty nine percent of patients were men and the mean age was 49 ± 16 years. Seventy five percent had a definite diagnosis of IE (Duke). S. viridans, staphylococci and enterococci together constituted 85% of the isolated bacterial strains. Twenty seven had culture-negative IE, related to a high incidence of antibiotic therapy prior to diagnosis. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed in 102 cases and it detected vegetations in 91% of aortic and 96% of mitral IE, rupture or prosthesis dehiscence in 67% of aortic and 52% of mitral IE and abscesses in 51% of aortic and 15% of mitral IE. Fifty one percent developed heart failure and 34% had embolic events. S. aureus IE was associated to a higher incidence of embolic events, complications which contraindicated surgery and increased mortality rate (27%). Of all patients, 40% were treated exclusively with antibiotics, 52% were operated on and 8% had surgical indication but were nonoperable because of serious complications. The overall mortality was 16.3%: 13% in the medical, 9% in the surgical and 81% in the non-operable groups. The type of treatment and mortality rates did not differ between IE of native valves and prosthetic valves. Long term follow up showed survival rates of 73% at 5 years and 66% at 10 years. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach may be very helpful to improve the prognosis of IE. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 708-20).

  20. Perfil clínico-epidemiológico de pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa, período 2003-2010 en el hospital de Temuco, Chile Profile of patients with infective endocarditis admitted to a Chilean regional hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Stockins

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality due to infective endocarditis (IE in Chile is close to 30%. Aim: To report the experience with patients admitted with the diagnosis of IE in a regional tertiary hospital. Material and Methods: Retrospective study of 107 patients aged 50 ± 16years (75% males discharged with a definitive diagnosis of IE according to modified DUKE criteria, between years 2003 and 2010. Demographic variables, severity scores, clinical characteristics, bacteriology and hospital evolution were recorded. Results: Fifty nine percent of patients had concomitant cardiovascular problems. APACHE II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA scores on admission were 8.4 ± 4.7 and 2.7 ± 2.8 respectively. Native valves were affected in 91% of cases (aortic and mitral valves in 62% and 50% of cases respectively. Prosthetic valves were affected in 9.3% of cases. Rheumatic heart disease was the predominant primary lesion in 10% of patients. Antibiotics were used in 45.1% before blood cultures were performed. In 68% of patients blood cultures were positive. S. viridans (30.8%, S.aureus (18.6% and coagulase negative Streptocicci (5.6% were the identified microorganisms. Intensive care unit admission was required in 48% of patients. Renal, heart and neurological deterioration was observed in 53, 34 and 14% of patients, respectively. Twenty percent of patients developed systemic embolism and 37% required heart surgery. Mean hospital stay was 28.3 ± 19.1 days and 27% of patients died. Conclusions: In this series of patients, IE has a high mortality. Most patients studied were admitted in bad conditions.

  1. Musculoskeletal manifestations of bacterial endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Érika Bevilaqua, Rangel; Álvaro Nagib, Atallah.

    2000-09-07

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A incidência da Infecção estafilocócica vem aumentando durante os últimos 20 anos. OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de infecção estafilocócica precedida por sintomas músculo-esqueléticos, o que é uma forma rara de apresentação clínica. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Relado de caso. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente de 4 [...] 5 anos, sexo masculino, sem co-morbidades, não usuário de drogas endovenosas e com diagnóstico de endocardite bacteriana estafilocócica em válvula mitral, adquirida na comunidade e sem foco primário aparente. O diagnóstico foi precedido por dor lombar em cerca de 20 dias e complicada com eventos vasculares e petéquias, além de insuficiência mitral abordada apenas clinicamente. Abstract in english CONTEXT: The incidence of staphylococcal infection has been increasing during the last 20 years. OBJECTIVE: Report a case of staphylococcal endocarditis preceded by musculoskeletal manifestations, which is a rare form of clinical presentation. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old-man, wit [...] hout addictions and without known previous cardiopathy, was diagnosed as having definitive acute bacterial endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus. Its etiology was community-acquired, arising from a non-apparent primary focus. In addition, the musculoskeletal symptoms preceded the infective endocarditis (IE) by about 1 month, which occurred together with other symptoms, e.g. mycotic aneurysms and petechiae. Later, the patient showed perforation of the mitral valve and moderate mitral insufficiency with clinical control.

  2. Endocarditis por Abiotrophia defectiva en paciente adulto Endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Porte T.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abiotrophia defectiva es una cocácea grampositiva considerada anteriormente como parte del grupo de los estreptococos nutricionalmente variables. Es parte de la microbiota oral y puede ser causante de endocarditis bacteriana con cultivo negativo. Se reporta el caso de un paciente varón de 37 años de edad, alérgico a penicilina, con endocarditis infecciosa causada por A. defectiva y se realiza revisión de la literatura sobre las alternativas terapéuticas y el estado actual del diagnóstico microbiológico de este agenteAbiotrophia defectiva, formerly designated as a member of nutritionally variant streptococci, is part of normal oral flora and may be a cause of culture-negative endocarditis. We report a case of infective endocarditis caused by A. defectiva in a 37-year-old man, allergic to penicillin. We also review the literature for antibiotic treatment alternatives and the microbiological diagnostic possibilities at present

  3. Endocarditis por Abiotrophia defectiva en paciente adulto / Endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva in an adult patient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena, Porte T.; Juanita, Zamorano R.; Daniela, Pavéz A.; Gustavo, Monckeberg F.; Carmen, Varela A.; Patricia, González A.; M. Teresa, Ulloa F.; Carolina, Sepúlveda R..

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abiotrophia defectiva es una cocácea grampositiva considerada anteriormente como parte del grupo de los estreptococos nutricionalmente variables. Es parte de la microbiota oral y puede ser causante de endocarditis bacteriana con cultivo negativo. Se reporta el caso de un paciente varón de 37 años de [...] edad, alérgico a penicilina, con endocarditis infecciosa causada por A. defectiva y se realiza revisión de la literatura sobre las alternativas terapéuticas y el estado actual del diagnóstico microbiológico de este agente Abstract in english Abiotrophia defectiva, formerly designated as a member of nutritionally variant streptococci, is part of normal oral flora and may be a cause of culture-negative endocarditis. We report a case of infective endocarditis caused by A. defectiva in a 37-year-old man, allergic to penicillin. We also revi [...] ew the literature for antibiotic treatment alternatives and the microbiological diagnostic possibilities at present

  4. Spondylodiscitis and endocarditis caused by S. vestibularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Aydin Tufan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus vestibularis is a recently described member of the viridans group that was first isolated from the vestibular mucosa of the human oral cavity and described as a new species in 1988. It has been rarely associated with human infections. In few papers, it has been reported as a causal agent of systemic infection in immunosupressed adults and in those with other severe underlying diseases, like coronary valve diseases. A 65-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with complaints of fever for three months, general malaise, effort dyspnea, weight loss, back pain and myalgia. Both native aortic valve endocarditis and spondylodiscitis due to Streptococcus vestibularis were detected. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous potassium penicillin G and gentamicin for six weeks, followed by oral amoxicillin for three months, in addition to aortic valve replacement. In all patients with spondylodiscitis, infective endocarditis should be considered, particularly in patients with heart valve disease history, since spondylodiscitis may be the presenting sign of an infective endocarditis. Cardiac valve replacement surgery should be performed if the course of fever and inflammatory syndrome is unfavorable after appropriate antibiotic treatment. We report the first case with both native aortic valve endocarditis and spondylodiscitis due to Streptococcus vestibularis.

  5. Spondylodiscitis and endocarditis caused by S. vestibularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufan, Muge Aydin; Hamide, Kart-Koseoglu; Duygu, Ersozlu-Bozkirli; Ozlem, Azap; Kadir, Tufan; Eftal, Yucel Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus vestibularis is a recently described member of the viridans group that was first isolated from the vestibular mucosa of the human oral cavity and described as a new species in 1988. It has been rarely associated with human infections. In few papers, it has been reported as a causal agent of systemic infection in immunosupressed adults and in those with other severe underlying diseases, like coronary valve diseases. A 65-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with complaints of fever for three months, general malaise, effort dyspnea, weight loss, back pain and myalgia. Both native aortic valve endocarditis and spondylodiscitis due to Streptococcus vestibularis were detected. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous potassium penicillin G and gentamicin for six weeks, followed by oral amoxicillin for three months, in addition to aortic valve replacement. In all patients with spondylodiscitis, infective endocarditis should be considered, particularly in patients with heart valve disease history, since spondylodiscitis may be the presenting sign of an infective endocarditis. Cardiac valve replacement surgery should be performed if the course of fever and inflammatory syndrome is unfavorable after appropriate antibiotic treatment. We report the first case with both native aortic valve endocarditis and spondylodiscitis due to Streptococcus vestibularis. PMID:20963324

  6. Spondylodiscitis and endocarditis caused by S. vestibularis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Muge Aydin, Tufan; Kart-Koseoglu, Hamide; Ersozlu-Bozkirli, Duygu; Azap, Ozlem; Tufan, Kadir; Yucel Ahmet, Eftal.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus vestibularis is a recently described member of the viridans group that was first isolated from the vestibular mucosa of the human oral cavity and described as a new species in 1988. It has been rarely associated with human infections. In few papers, it has been reported as a causal age [...] nt of systemic infection in immunosupressed adults and in those with other severe underlying diseases, like coronary valve diseases. A 65-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with complaints of fever for three months, general malaise, effort dyspnea, weight loss, back pain and myalgia. Both native aortic valve endocarditis and spondylodiscitis due to Streptococcus vestibularis were detected. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous potassium penicillin G and gentamicin for six weeks, followed by oral amoxicillin for three months, in addition to aortic valve replacement. In all patients with spondylodiscitis, infective endocarditis should be considered, particularly in patients with heart valve disease history, since spondylodiscitis may be the presenting sign of an infective endocarditis. Cardiac valve replacement surgery should be performed if the course of fever and inflammatory syndrome is unfavorable after appropriate antibiotic treatment. We report the first case with both native aortic valve endocarditis and spondylodiscitis due to Streptococcus vestibularis.

  7. An Unusual Case of Early Onset Persistent Escherichia coli Septicemia Associated with Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin K. Gupta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli infection is very common cause of early onset septicemia especially in very low-birth-weight newborns, but E. coli endocarditis has not been described in newborns. E. coli endocarditis, even in the adult population, is a rare and not well-characterized disease and is associated with high mortality. We report a very unusual presentation of persistent E. coli infection associated with endocarditis.

  8. Fusobacterium necrophorum causing infective endocarditis and liver and splenic abscesses / Fusobacterium necrophorum causando endocardite infecciosa e abscesso hepático e esplênico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marc Zac, Handler; Benjamin, Miriovsky; Howard E., Gendelman; Uriel, Sandkovsky.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Homem de 25 anos de idade, sem antecedentes mórbidos foi admitido ao hospital com bacteremia por Fusobacterium necrophorum e abscessos no fígado e no baço. Avaliação posterior com ecografia revelou válvula aórtica bicúspide com insuficiência severa e vegetação de 1,68 x 0,86 cm. Foi feita drenagem d [...] os abscessos, terapia antimicrobiana intravenosa e substituição da válvula aórtica. Resolução completa da infecção foi conseguida após substituição valvular e curso prolongado de terapêutica intravenosa antimicrobiana. É apresentada breve análise do curso clínico do paciente e revisão da literatura. Abstract in english A 25-year-old male without prior co-morbidities was admitted to hospital with Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteremia, where he was found to have liver and splenic abscesses. Further evaluation with echocardiography revealed a bicuspid aortic valve with severe insufficiency and a 1.68 x 0.86 cm vegetat [...] ion. The patient required abscess drainage, intravenous antimicrobial therapy and aortic valve replacement. Complete resolution of the infection was achieved after valve replacement and a prolonged course of intravenous antimicrobial therapy. A brief analysis of the patient's clinical course and review of the literature is presented.

  9. Neisseria meningitidis endocarditis: A case report and review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Mohammed

    2011-04-08

    Abstract Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults, with an overall mortality rate of up to 25%, but it is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. We present herein a case of N. meningitidis meningitis complicated with infective endocarditis.

  10. Neisseria meningitidis endocarditis: a case report and review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Mohammed

    2012-02-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults, with an overall mortality rate of up to 25%, but it is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. We present herein a case of N. meningitidis meningitis complicated with infective endocarditis.

  11. The first reported case of Bartonella endocarditis in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orathai Pachirat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species have been shown to cause acute, undifferentiated fever in Thailand. A study to identify causes of endocarditis that were blood culture-negative using routine methods led to the first reported case in Thailand of Bartonella endocarditis A 57 year-old male with underlying rheumatic heart disease presented with severe congestive heart failure and suspected infective endocarditis. The patient underwent aortic and mitral valve replacement. Routine hospital blood cultures were negative but B. henselae was identified by serology, PCR, immunohistochemistry and specific culture techniques.

  12. Native valve endocarditis due to Streptococcus vestibularis and Streptococcus oralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyuk, Elif; Ormerod, Oliver J; Bowler, Ian C J W

    2002-07-01

    Viridans streptococci are the commonest cause of native valve infective endocarditis (IE). The taxonomy of this group is evolving allowing new disease associations to be made. Streptococcus vestibularis is a recently described member of the viridans group, first isolated from the vestibular mucosa of the human oral cavity. It has rarely been associated with human disease. Streptococcus oralis, another member of the viridans group resident in the human oral cavity is a well known cause of IE and bacteraemia in neutropenic patients. We report the first case of native mitral valve endocarditis due to S. vestibularis in a patient with co-existing S. oralis endocarditis. PMID:12217730

  13. Long-term outcome of infective endocarditis: A study on patients surviving over one year after the initial episode treated in a Finnish teaching hospital during 25 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engblom Erik

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a few previous studies have focused on the long-term prognosis of the patients with infective endocarditis (IE. Our purpose was to delineate factors potentially associated with the long-term outcome of IE, recurrences of IE and requirement for late valve surgery. Methods A total of 326 episodes of IE in 303 patients were treated during 1980–2004 in the Turku University Hospital. We evaluated the long-term outcome and requirement for late valve surgery for 243 of these episodes in 226 patients who survived longer than 1 year after the initial admission. Factors associated with recurrences were analysed both for the 1-year survivors and for all 303 patients. Results The mean (SD follow-up time for the 1-year survivors was 11.5 (7.3 years (range 25 days to 25.5 years. The overall survival was 95%, 82%, 66%, 51% and 45% at 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 years. In age and sex adjusted multivariate analyses, significant predictors for long-term overall mortality were heart failure within 3 months of admission (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.27 to 3.06; p = 0.003 and collagen disease (HR 2.54, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.19; p = 0.010 or alcohol abuse (HR 2.39, 95% CI 1.30 to 4.40; p = 0.005 as underlying conditions, while early surgery was significantly associated with lower overall mortality rates (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.58; p Conclusion Heart failure during the index episode of IE was the complication, which significantly predicted a poor long-term outcome. Patients who underwent surgery during the initial hospitalisation for IE faired significantly better than those who did not.

  14. Clinical impact of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the extra cardiac work-up of patients with infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical importance of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT used in the extra cardiac work-up of patients with infective endocarditis (IE). BACKGROUND: IE is a serious condition with a significant mortality. Besides the degree of valvular involvement, the prognosis relies crucially on the presence of systemic infectious embolism. METHODS: Seventy-two patients (71% males and mean age 63 ± 17 years) with IE were evaluated with (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in addition to standard work-up including patient history, physical examination, conventional imaging modalities, and weekly interdisciplinary conferences. When previous unknown lesions detected by (18)F-FDG-PET/CT were confirmed by succeeding examinations, they were considered true positive new findings and were further assessed for their clinical importance. Number needed to investigate was calculated as the number of patients who needed to undergo (18)F-FDG-PET/CT to find at least one clinical important true positive new finding, not identified by standard work-up prior to (18)F-FDG-PET/CT. RESULTS: (18)F-FDG-PET/CT detected 114 lesions and 64 were true positive, of which 25 were new findings and detected in 17 patients. In 11 patients, the lesions were considered to have a clinical importance; osteomyelitis (n = 7), iliopsoas abscess (n = 1), gastrointestinal lesions (n = 2), and vascular prosthetic graft (n = 1). Number needed to investigate was 7 (11 of 72 patients). CONCLUSIONS: (18)F-FDG-PET/CT detected lesions of clinical importance in one of seven IE patients and may be a substantial imaging technique for tracing peripheral infectious embolism due to IE. Thus, (18)F-FDG-PET/CT may help to guide adequate therapy and thereby improve the prognosis of patients with IE.

  15. Molecular imaging in Libman-Sacks endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Schaadt, Bente K

    2015-01-01

    We present a 54-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), fever, pericardial effusion and a mitral valve vegetation. (18)F-Fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT ((18)F-FDG-PET-CT) showed very high accumulation of the isotope at the mitral valve. The patient underwent cardiothoracic surgery and pathologic examinations showed characteristic morphology of Libman-Sacks vegetations. All microbiological examinations including blood cultures, microscopy, culture and 16s PCR of the valve were negative and the diagnosis of Libman-Sacks endocarditis was convincing. It is difficult to distinguish Libman-Sacks endocarditis from culture-negative infective endocarditis (IE). Molecular imaging techniques are being used increasingly in cases of suspected IE but no studies have previously reported the use in patients with Libman-Sacks endocarditis. In the present case, (18)F-FDG-PET-CT clearly demonstrated the increased glucose uptake caused by infiltrating white blood cells in the ongoing inflammatory process at the mitral valve. In conclusion, (18)F-FDG-PET-CT cannot be used to distinguish between IE and non-infective Libman-Sacks vegetations.

  16. Mycobacterial endocarditis: a comprehensive review / Endocardite micobacteriana: uma revisão abrangente

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shi-Min, Yuan.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Uma análise sistemática foi feita considerando epidemiologia, quadro clínico, diagnóstico, tratamento e principais resultados da endocardite micobacteriana. Métodos: Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica abrangente no MEDLINE, Highwire Press e no Google para publicações sobre endocardi [...] te micobacteriana, publicados entre 2000 e 2013. Resultados: As micobactérias de crescimento rápido tornam-se os patógenos predominantes, com Mycobacterium chelonae sendo a mais comum. Essa condição se alterou significativamente em termos de epidemiologia, desde o início do século 21, abrangendo faixa etária mais ampla, maior latência, prevalecendo infecções da valva mitral e melhor prognóstico. Conclusão: Endocardite micobacteriana é rara e os patógenos causadores são predominantemente as micobactérias de crescimento rápido. Amicacina, ciprofloxacina e claritromicina são os agentes antimicrobianos mais frequentemente utilizados, mas muitas vezes apresentam respostas pobres. Pacientes com infecções profundas podem justificar um procedimento cirúrgico ou retirada de linha. Com a poliquimioterapia periódica guiada por testes de sensibilidade às drogas, e abordagens cirúrgicas, os pacientes podem obter bons resultados terapêuticos. Abstract in english Objective: A systematic analysis was made in view of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and main outcomes of mycobacterial endocarditis. Methods: The data source of the present study was based on a comprehensive literature search in MEDLINE, Highwire Press and Google search e [...] ngine for publications on mycobacterial endocarditis published between 2000 and 2013. Results: The rapidly growing mycobacteria become the predominant pathogens with Mycobacterium chelonae being the most common. This condition has changed significantly in terms of epidemiology since the 21st century, with more broad patient age range, longer latency, prevailed mitral valve infections and better prognosis. Conclusion: Mycobacterial endocarditis is rare and the causative pathogens are predominantly the rapidly growing mycobacteria. Amikacin, ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin are the most frequently used targeted antimicrobial agents but often show poor responses. Patients with deep infections may warrant a surgical operation or line withdrawal. With periodic multidrug therapy guided by drug susceptibility testing, and surgical managements, patients may achieve good therapeutic results.

  17. A case of Kingella kingae endocarditis complicated by native mitral valve rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Bagherirad; Damoon Entesari-Tatafi; Sam Mirzaee; Allan Appelbe; Chenghon Yap; Eugene Athan

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of Kingella kingae endocarditis in a patient with a history of recent respiratory tract infection and dental extraction. This case is remarkable for embolic and vasculitic phenomena in association with a large valve vegetation and valve perforation. Kingella kingae is an organism known to cause endocarditis, however early major complications are uncommon. Our case of Kingella endocarditis behaved in a virulent fashion necessitating a combined approach of intravenous antibioti...

  18. Endocarditis por Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus / Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iago, Villamil; Marta, Serrano; Elisabeth, Prieto.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las especies Streptococcus equi subsp. equi y S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus son especies zoonóticas típicamente patógenas de animales, especialmente en caballos. Es una causa excepcional de enfermedad en humanos. Presentamos un caso de endocarditis por S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus tras un contacto co [...] n equinos, con buena evolución con tratamiento antibiótico. Abstract in english Zoonotic infections with S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus have been reported occasionally in individuáis with exposure to farm animals, especially horses. They exceptionally present as a human pathogen. We present a S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus well documented endocarditis after a horse's female genital [...] tract contact, and excellent surveillance with exclusive antibiotic management.

  19. Prevención de la Endocarditis Bacteriana :: Revisión de la Literatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia R, Guzmán H; Sonia M, Corte F; Mónica P., Delgado O..

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa es una infección del revestimiento de las cavidades del corazón y de las válvulas cardíacas, causadas por bacterias, hongos virus u otros microorganismos. La endocarditis bacteriana se refiere específicamente a la infección por agentes bacterianos. La mayoría de las person [...] as que desarrollan la endocarditis han padecido una enfermedad cardíaca previa. El origen de la infección podría ser una bacteremia transitoria, la cual es común durante diagnósticos y procedimientos quirúrgicos; ya sean dentales, urológicos, del tracto respiratorio o gastrointestinal. La endocarditis es una enfermedad que amenaza a la vida a pesar de ser poco frecuente, por lo que la prevención es lo más importante. La Asociación Americana del Corazón, realizó algunos cambios en las pautas a seguir para la prevención de esta enfermedad, como son: una reducción de la antibioticoterapia para la protección del paciente, tanto bajando la dosis de ataque como eliminando la dosis posterior al tratamiento. De igual forma se limitaron los tratamientos que ameritan la profilaxis antibiótica. Estas nuevas recomendaciones definen mejor a los pacientes en riesgo y los procedimientos dentales que requieren protección con antibióticos. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart and heart valves. Caused by bacterias, fungus, viruses or other micro-organisms. Bacterial endocarditis is refered especially to infection for bacterial agents. The most people that developes endocarditis has sufered a prior cardiac d [...] isease. Cardiac source may be a transient bacteremia, common during diagnosis and surgical procedures, such dental, genitourinary, upper respiratory tract or gastrointestinal. Endocarditis is a life-threatening disease, although it is relatively uncommon so prevention is the most important. The American Heart Association, made some changes in guidelines for prevention of this disease: an antibioticoterapy decrease for pacients’cover, as much as lowering attack dosis and eliminating the follow doses to treatment. This new recommendations define better pacients at risk and dental procedures that require antibiotic cover.

  20. Medical dental prophylaxis of endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina C., Basilio; Francisco E., Loducca; Paulo C., Haddad.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have long been the main reason for the increase in man's longevity. Since their discovery, man has tried to reduce the level of infection by treating with antibiotics. At the same time, prophylactic use has been suggested, although this is controversial. Their routine use is not recommen [...] ded, and empirical treatments at non-therapeutic doses, and indiscriminately, should be avoided, because they may become dangerous and harmful, causing among other things, the prevalence of resistant microorganisms and the eventual potentiation of an increase in morbid states. Infectious endocarditis is a systemic pathology that can start with a bacteremia, which comes either from dental procedures or/and chronic processes that already existed. Its etiopathogeny consists of a combination of bacteremia and two other factors: Cardiac injury, which can be congenital or/and acquired, and a debilitated immunological system (patients who have transplanted organs, or those who have auto-immune diseases, such as pemphigus vulgaris, systemic lupus erythematosus). The main goal is to prevent or to fight against the transient bacteremia, reducing its intensity and duration, and also to kill the bacteria in at-risk patients. In this way, infectious endocarditis can be prevented; the dental surgeon plays an important role in the prevention of this condition, which joins medical and dental aspects. This can be done by antibiotic prophylaxis. The dentist needs to be acquainted with the medical protocols of the heart health societies.

  1. Medical dental prophylaxis of endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C. Basilio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have long been the main reason for the increase in man's longevity. Since their discovery, man has tried to reduce the level of infection by treating with antibiotics. At the same time, prophylactic use has been suggested, although this is controversial. Their routine use is not recommended, and empirical treatments at non-therapeutic doses, and indiscriminately, should be avoided, because they may become dangerous and harmful, causing among other things, the prevalence of resistant microorganisms and the eventual potentiation of an increase in morbid states. Infectious endocarditis is a systemic pathology that can start with a bacteremia, which comes either from dental procedures or/and chronic processes that already existed. Its etiopathogeny consists of a combination of bacteremia and two other factors: Cardiac injury, which can be congenital or/and acquired, and a debilitated immunological system (patients who have transplanted organs, or those who have auto-immune diseases, such as pemphigus vulgaris, systemic lupus erythematosus. The main goal is to prevent or to fight against the transient bacteremia, reducing its intensity and duration, and also to kill the bacteria in at-risk patients. In this way, infectious endocarditis can be prevented; the dental surgeon plays an important role in the prevention of this condition, which joins medical and dental aspects. This can be done by antibiotic prophylaxis. The dentist needs to be acquainted with the medical protocols of the heart health societies.

  2. A case of Kingella kingae endocarditis complicated by native mitral valve rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagherirad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Kingella kingae endocarditis in a patient with a history of recent respiratory tract infection and dental extraction. This case is remarkable for embolic and vasculitic phenomena in association with a large valve vegetation and valve perforation. Kingella kingae is an organism known to cause endocarditis, however early major complications are uncommon. Our case of Kingella endocarditis behaved in a virulent fashion necessitating a combined approach of intravenous antibiotic therapy and a valve replacement. It highlights the importance of expedited investigation for endocarditis in patients with Kingella bacteraemia.

  3. Role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis in patients with an implanted cardiac device: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziosi, Maddalena; Lorenzini, Massimiliano; Diemberger, Igor; Pasquale, Ferdinando; Ziacchi, Matteo; Biffi, Mauro; Martignani, Cristian; Boriani, Giuseppe; Rapezzi, Claudio [Alma Mater-University of Bologna, and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Cardiology Unit, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Nanni, Cristina; Bonfiglioli, Rachele; Fanti, Stefano [Alma Mater-University of Bologna, and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Bartoletti, Michele; Tumietto, Fabio; Viale, Pier Luigi [Alma Mater-University of Bologna, and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is widely underdiagnosed or diagnosed after a major delay. The diagnosis is currently based on the modified DUKE criteria, where the only validated imaging technique is echocardiography, and remains challenging especially in patients with an implantable cardiac device. The aim of this study was to assess the incremental diagnostic role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with an implanted cardiac device and suspected IE. We prospectively analysed 27 consecutive patients with an implantable device evaluated for suspected device-related IE between January 2011 and June 2013. The diagnostic probability of IE was defined at presentation according to the modified DUKE criteria. PET/CT was performed as soon as possible following the clinical suspicion of IE. Patients then underwent medical or surgical treatment based on the overall clinical evaluation. During follow-up, we considered: lead cultures in patients who underwent extraction, direct inspection and lead cultures in those who underwent surgery, and a clinical/instrumental reevaluation after at least 6 months in patients who received antimicrobial treatment or had an alternative diagnosis and were not treated for IE. After the follow-up period, the diagnosis was systematically reviewed by the multidisciplinary team using the modified DUKE criteria and considering the new findings. Among the ten patients with a positive PET/CT scan, seven received a final diagnosis of ''definite IE'', one of ''possible IE'' and two of ''IE rejected''. Among the 17 patients with a negative PET/CT scan, four were false-negative and received a final diagnosis of definite IE. These patients underwent PET/CT after having started antibiotic therapy (?48 h) or had a technically suboptimal examination. In patients with a cardiac device, PET/CT increases the diagnostic accuracy of the modified Duke criteria for IE, particularly in the subset of patients with possible IE in whom it may help the clinician manage a challenging situation. (orig.)

  4. Relapse of Enterococcus hirae Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis?

    OpenAIRE

    Talarmin, J. P.; Pineau, S.; Guillouzouic, A.; Boutoille, D; Giraudeau, C.; Reynaud, A.; Lepelletier, D; Corvec, S.

    2011-01-01

    Enterococcus hirae, a Gram-positive bacterium, is a rare isolate in clinical specimens. We report an unusual case of a relapse of prosthetic valve endocarditis due to E. hirae 6 months after the initial episode. Clonal relationship was proven by genomic analysis.

  5. Endocarditis infecciosa por Nocardia en válvulas nativas aórtica y tricúspide / Nocardia endocarditis in aortic and tricuspid native valves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergio, Chain; Héctor, Luciardi; Gabriela, Feldman; Sofía, Berman; Cristina, Estrella.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa por Nocardia en válvula nativa es una infección excepcional, que afecta a pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 51 años con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa por Nocardia en válvulas nativas aórtica y tricúspide, que recibió terapia antimicrob [...] iana específica y que requirió reemplazo valvular aórtico, con buena evolución clínica en el seguimiento a 6 meses. Abstract in english Nocardia endocarditis in native valve is an uncommon infection that usually arises in immunodepressed patients. We report a 51-year-old man diagnosed as having Nocardia endocarditis in aortic and tricuspid native valves, which received antimicrobial therapy and required aortic valve replacement. In [...] 6 month follow up the patient remained asymptomatic with good clinical evolution.

  6. The challenge of staphylococcal pacemaker endocarditis in a patient with transposition of the great arteries endocarditis in congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of septicaemia and infective endocarditis. The overall incidence of staphylococcal bacteraemia is increasing, contributing to 16% of all hospital-acquired bacteraemias. The use of cardiac pacemakers has revolutionized the management of rhythm disturbances, yet this has also resulted in a group of patients at risk of pacemaker lead endocarditis and seeding in the range of 1% to 7%. We describe a 26-year-old man with transposition of the great arteries who had a pacemaker implanted and presented with S. aureus septicaemia 2 years postpacemaker implantation and went on to develop pacemaker lead endocarditis. This report illustrates the risk of endocarditis in the population with congenital heart disease and an intracardiac device

  7. A Misinterpreted Case of Aorta Prosthesis Endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Christian Johann; Haugan, Ketil Jørgen; Reimers, Jesper Irving; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2013-01-01

    A 17-year-old male with a history of newly implanted mechanical valve at the aortic position, presented with fever, rigors, and painful cutaneous abscesses on his lower extremities and was suspected for infective endocarditis. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed a vegetation-like structure following the movement of the mechanical heart valve (MHV), which eventually proved to be a product of degassing microbubbles (MB).

  8. Association of Bartonella spp bacteremia with Chagas cardiomyopathy, endocarditis and arrythmias in patients from South America

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.G., Corrêa; C.L.S., Pontes; R.M.M., Verzola; J.C.P., Mateos; P.E.N.F., Velho; A.G., Schijman; H.S., Selistre-de-Araujo.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Bartonella spp may cause cardiac arrhythmias, myocarditis and endocarditis in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and endocarditis, arrhythmia and Chagas cardiomyopathy in patients from Brazil and Argentina. We [...] screened for the presence of bacterial 16S rRNA in human blood by PCR using oligonucleotides to amplify a 185-bp bacterial DNA fragment. Blood samples were taken from four groups of subjects in Brazil and Argentina: i) control patients without clinical disease, ii) patients with negative blood-culture endocarditis, iii) patients with arrhythmias, and iv) patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. PCR products were analyzed on 1.5% agarose gel to visualize the 185-bp fragment and then sequenced to confirm the identity of DNA. Sixty of 148 patients (40.5%) with cardiac disease and 1 of 56 subjects (1.8%) from the control group presented positive PCR amplification for Bartonella spp, suggesting a positive association of the bacteria with these diseases. Separate analysis of the four groups showed that the risk of a Brazilian patient with endocarditis being infected with Bartonella was 22 times higher than in the controls. In arrhythmic patients, the prevalence of infection was 45 times higher when compared to the same controls and 40 times higher for patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and Chagas disease. The present data may be useful for epidemiological and prevention studies in Brazil and Argentina.

  9. Mycobacterium neoaurum causing prosthetic valve endocarditis: a case report and review of the literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anupam, Kumar; George S., Pazhayattil; Aparna, Das; Harry A., Conte.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium neoaurum is a rare cause of bacteremia, and infection usually occurs in an immunocompromised host in the setting of an indwelling catheter. Prosthetic valve endocarditis due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria typically carries a dismal prognosis; we report a case ofM. neoaurum prosthetic [...] valve endocarditis with favorable response to antimicrobial therapy without surgical intervention.

  10. Comparison of heart valve culture between two Danish endocarditis centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, Marianne; Fuursted, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Background: The degree to which the results of valve culture depend on different laboratory procedures as well as other factors is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the results of heart valve culture at 2 different endocarditis centres in order to clarify this. Methods: The study included 223 patients with definitive endocarditis undergoing heart valve surgery at 2 Danish endocarditis centres (96 at the East centre and 127 at the West centre). The following data related to the samples were registered: transportation, time to inoculation, culture media used and duration of incubation, species distribution, and preoperative duration of appropriate antimicrobial treatment (DAAT). 16S polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of valve tissue was used to estimate the frequency of non-cultivable bacteria. Results: Valve culture was positive in 12.5% of cases at the East centre and 36.2% at the West centre (p <0.001). Valve cultures were positive in 10%, 45%, and 58% of cases of streptococcal, staphylococcal, and enterococcal infections, respectively. The median DAAT was 3 days for valve culture-positive cases and 11 days for valve culture-negative cases (p <0.001). By logistic regression analysis, DAAT, species distribution, and laboratory protocol were identified as independent risk determinants for positive valve culture. The adjusted odds ratio for positive culture by the West centre protocol was 3.0 (confidence interval 1.3-6.9; East = 1, p <0.01). The valve culture contamination rate was 4% at the East centre and 31% at the West centre (p <0.01). Conclusions: Our study showed that the duration of preoperative antibiotic treatment and species distribution must be taken into account when comparing valve culture results. Differences in laboratory protocol explained the 3-fold higher sensitivity of heart valve culture observed in the West centre compared to the East centre.

  11. Mitral valve endocarditis during brucellosis relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrenovi?-Kir?anski Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endocarditis is the most common cardiovascular manifestation of brucellosis with high mortality rate. Brucella is less accesable to antibiotic (but not for all and relapse can occur after a various period of clinical latency. Case report. A 55-year-old farmer was diagnozed with acute systemic Brucella infection in May 2008 and treated with antibiotic therapy in regional hospital for two months and for three months after discharge. He began to feel myalgia, arthralgia, malaise, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea and lost weight eight months after initial symptoms occured. Because symptoms progressed he was admitted to our hospital in February 2009. Based on a combination of epidemiological, clinical data (on admission he was catchetic, adynamic, dyspneic, hypotensive 80/50 mmHg, fever up to 39.50C, positive serological Wright test for brucellosis (1 : 5,120, and echocardiographic examination findings, the diagnosis of very severe relapse of brucellosis with mitral valve endocarditis, complicated with perforation of anterior mitral leaflet, severe mitral regurgitation and pulmonary hypertension was established. He was treated with a combined triple antibiotic therapy (vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin, and swiched to regimen with doxycycline, gentamicin and imipenem, replacing gentamicin by rifampicin for 4 weeks and for the next 2 weeks was receiving trimetoprime/sulfamethoxazole and rifampicin. The patients' condition was improved and he was operated. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis was confirmed intraoperatively. Mitral valve replacement was performed, and combined triple antibiotic treatment (amikacin + ciprofloxacin + cefazolin, for 2 weeks and cephazolin + doxycycline + rifampicin, for 2 weeks was continued, following with two antibiotics (doxycycline + rifampicin for 5 months. The patient completely recovered without any signs of infection 30 months postoperatively. Conclusion. A combined antibiotic therapy and surgery reduce complications and mortality associated with Brucella endocarditis and improve quality of patients' life.

  12. Achados clínico-laboratoriais de uma série de casos com endocardite infecciosa Clinical and laboratory findings in a series of cases of infective endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Carla A.Z. Pereira; Scheila C.G.P. Rocio; Maria-Fátima R. Ceolin; Ana-Paula N.B. Lima; Felippe Borlot; Roberto S.T. Pereira; Moreira-Silva, Sandra F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever os achados clínico-laboratoriais da endocardite infecciosa (EI) em 28 crianças, em Vitória/ES. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de 28 crianças, com idade abaixo de 18 anos e diagnóstico de endocardite infecciosa, internadas no serviço de infectologia do Hospital Infantil Nossa Senhora da Glória, em Vitória - Espírito Santo, no período de janeiro de 1993 a dezembro de 2001. Os critérios para diagnóstico de endocardite infecciosa foram os do Duke Endocarditis Ser...

  13. Actualización sobre endocarditis infecciosa en válvula protésica / UP-Date in prosthetic valve endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nathalia, Badilla A; Ricardo, Zalaquett S.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic valve endocarditis is still a matter of controversy especially the type of treatment that should be chosen for an individual patient. Since the current knowledge of this patology is based mainly on the literature and in its many and varied exponents (clinical experience, sistematic review [...] , practice guideslines of cardiology associations, observational studies, etc), it is necessary to update the information continuously This review is focused mainly in the incidence, etiology diagnostics and treatment of prosthetic endocarditis. The principal microroganisms related to this patology are Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphyloccoco. Risk factors were identified for witch surgery is mandatory, such us Staphylococcus aureus infection and a complicated prosthetic valve endocarditis (cardiac failure, conduction abnormalities, abscess formation and recurrent embolism). With this information, patients that could have a medical treatment option can be recognized, as well as those who will require surgery. In order to present in a better way our conclusions, easily reading diagrams were included to facilitate the decisión process when facing up a prosthetic valve endocarditis. Abstract in english La endocarditis en válvulas protésicas es aún tema de controversia, en especial en referencia al tipo de tratamiento que se debe elegir. Debido a que los conocimientos actuales sobre esta patología están basados principalmente en la literatura y por ende, en sus variados exponentes (experiencias clí [...] nicas, revisiones sistemáticas, guía clínicas de diferentes sociedades de cardiología, estudios observacionales, entre otros), es necesario hacer una actualización continua de la información. Esta revisión bibliográfica se centra en la incidencia, etiología, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la endocarditis protésica. En ella se llega la conclusión de que los principales microorganismos productores de esta patología son el Estafilococo aureus y el Estafilococo coagulasa-negativo. También se reconocen aquellos factores de riesgo para los cuales la cirugía es mandatoria, entre los que destacan las infecciones por S. aureus y la endocarditis protésica complicada, ya sea por insuficiencia cardíaca, alteración de la conducción, formación de abscesos y/o embolias recurrentes. De esta manera, con la información recopilada, se identificaron aquellos pacientes con opción a tratamiento médico, y aquellos con indicación de manejo quirúrgico. Para presentar mejor nuestras conclusiones, se construyeron esquemas de fácil consulta y lectura, para apoyar la decisión del tipo de manejo frente a una endocarditis en válvulas protésicas.

  14. The Role of Endocarditis, Myocarditis and Pericarditis in Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Groneberg, David A; David Quarcoo; Stefanie Mache; Norman Schöffel; Karin Vitzthum

    2009-01-01

    The current study is the first scientometric analysis of research activity and output in the field of inflammatory disorders of the heart (endo-, myo- and pericarditis). Scientometric methods are used to compare scientific performance on national and on international scale to identify single areas of research interest. Interest and research productivity in inflammatory diseases of the heart have increased since 1990. The majority of publications about inflammatory heart disorders were publish...

  15. First case of infectious endocarditis caused by Parvimonas micra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carlos A; Gerber, Daniel A; Zambrano, Eduardo; Banaei, Niaz; Deresinski, Stan; Blackburn, Brian G

    2015-12-01

    P. micra is an anaerobic Gram-positive cocci, and a known commensal organism of the human oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Although it has been classically described in association with endodontic disease and peritonsillar infection, recent reports have highlighted the role of P. micra as the primary pathogen in the setting of invasive infections. In its most recent taxonomic classification, P. micra has never been reported causing infectious endocarditis in humans. Here, we describe a 71 year-old man who developed severe native valve endocarditis complicated by aortic valvular destruction and perivalvular abscess, requiring emergent surgical intervention. Molecular sequencing enabled identification of P. micra. PMID:26485192

  16. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no other pathogen was found. The case was further complicated by spondylodiscitis and bilateral endophthalmitis. Extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) are able to colonize tissue outside the gastrointestinal tract and contain a variety of virulence factors that may enable the pathogens to invade and induce infections in the cardiac endothelia. In these cases echocardiography as the imaging technology is of paramount importance for the correct diagnosis and treatment.

  17. A case of native valve endocarditis caused by Burkholderia cepacia without predisposing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infective endocarditis is rarely caused by Burkholderia cepacia. This infection is known to occur particularly in immunocompromised hosts, intravenous heroin users, and in patients with prosthetic valve replacement. Most patients with Burkholderia cepacia endocarditis usually need surgical treatment in addition to antimicrobial treatment. Case Presentation Here, we report the case of a patient who developed Burkholderia cepacia-induced native valve endocarditis with consequent cerebral involvement without any predisposing factors; she was successfully treated by antimicrobial agents only. Conclusion In this report, we also present literature review of relevant cases.

  18. Endocarditis de Libman-Sacks

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    Carolina Saldarriaga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis de Libman-Sacks es una manifestación cardiaca bien reconocida del lupus eritematoso sistémico en la que se observan vegetaciones valvulares estériles, con predominio en el lado izquierdo del corazón, especialmente en la válvula mitral. La mayoría de los pacientes son asintomáticos; sin embargo, en la presentación clínica la forma aguda puede imitar a la de una endocarditis infecciosa (endocarditis pseudoinfecciosa y complicar tanto el diagnóstico diferencial como el tratamiento. Se reporta el caso de un paciente de género masculino, de 63 años, quien manifestó signos y síntomas compatibles con endocarditis infecciosa, y cuyos diferentes estudios demostraron una endocarditis de Libman-Sacks que respondió de forma favorable al tratamiento inmunosupresor.

  19. BRUCELLA ENDOCARDITIS IN IRANIAN PATIENTS: COMBINED MEDICAL AND SURGICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Nematipour

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucella endocarditis is a Tare but serious complication ofbrucellosis and is the main cause of death reuuedto thisdisease: Itis not rare in the endemic areas and aaualiy accounts for up to 8~lO% ofendocarditis infections: We report seven adult cases of brucella endocarditis in lmam-Khorneini Hospual: Contrary to previous independent reports, female patients were not rare in this study and accountedfor three out ofseven. Four patients were cared for by combined medical and surgical treatment and were recovered Three of the patients that did not receive the combined theraPl could not he saved This report confirms the necessity of prompt combined medical and surgical treatment ofbrucella endocarditis.

  20. Endocarditis infecciosa en la Unidad de Medicina Intensiva Infectious endocarditis in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Miranda-Montero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer las características, evolución y pronóstico de los pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa que requieren tratamiento en la Unidad de Medicina Intensiva. Diseño: Estudio observacional de cohortes prospectivo en pacientes ingresados por endocarditis infecciosa. Ámbito: Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, centro con 824 camas y población asignada de 493.145 personas. Pacientes: Todos los pacientes diagnosticados de endocarditis siguiendo los criterios de Duke entre el 1 de enero de 2005 y el 31 de julio de 2011. Variables de interés: Variables demográficas, clínicas, scores de gravedad, hallazgos microbiológicos y ecocardiográficos, mortalidad intrahospitalaria y complicaciones. Resultados: De 102 pacientes diagnosticados de endocarditis, 38 (37% ingresaron en Medicina Intensiva. Comparándolos con los que no lo hicieron, sufrieron con más frecuencia afectación mitral (OR= 7,13; IC del 95%, 2,12-24; p= 0,002 y embolia cerebral (OR= 3,89; IC del 95%, 1,06-14,3; p= 0,041. La mortalidad fue mayor (42,1 vs 18,8%, p= 0,011, así como la proporción de cirugías urgentes (45,8 vs 5,9%, pObjective: To study the characteristics, evolution and prognosis of patients with infectious endocarditis requiring treatment in the Intensive Care Unit. Design: A prospective, observational cohort study of patients admitted due to infectious endocarditis. Setting: Nuestra Señora de Candelaria University Hospital, a third - level center with a recruitment population of 493,145. Patients: All patients consecutively diagnosed with infectious endocarditis in our center according to the Duke criteria, between 1 January 2005 and 31 July 2011. Study variables: Demographic data, clinical severity scores, microbiological and echocardiographic data, hospital mortality and complications. Results: Out of 102 patients diagnosed with endocarditis, 38 (37% were admitted to Intensive Care. Compared with those patients not admitted to the ICU, these subjects suffered more frequent mitral valve alterations (OR= 7.13; 95%CI: 2.12-24; p= 0.002 and cerebral embolism (OR= 3.89; 95%CI: 1.06-14.3; p= 0.041. In turn, mortality was greater (42.1% vs 18.8%, p= 0.011, as was the proportion of emergency surgeries (45.8% vs 5.9%, p<0.001. The identified mortality predictors were Staphylococcus aureus infection (OR= 3.49; 95%CI 1.02-11.93; p=0.046, heart failure (OR=4.18; 95%CI: 1.17-14.94; p=0.028, cerebral embolism (OR= 8.45; 95%CI: 1.89-37.74; p=0.005 and the SAPS II upon admission (OR=1.09; 95%CI: 1.04-1.15; p<0.001. Conclusions: A large proportion of patients with endocarditis require admission to the Intensive Care Unit, presenting a much poorer prognosis. Staphylococcus aureus infection, heart failure, cerebral embolism and SAPS II scores are independent predictors of hospital mortality.

  1. Endocarditis by Kocuria rosea in an immunocompetent child

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Salomão, Moreira; Adriana Gut Lopes, Riccetto; Marcos Tadeu Nolasco da, Silva; Maria Marluce dos Santos, Vilela.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kocuria rosea belongs to genus Kocuria (Micrococcaceae family, suborder Micrococcineae, order Actinomycetales) that includes about 11 species of bacteria. Usually, Kocuria sp are commensal organisms that colonize oropharynx, skin and mucous membrane; Kocuria sp infections have been described in the [...] last decade commonly affecting immunocompromised patients, using intravenous catheter or peritoneal dialysis. These patients had mainly bacteremia/recurrent sepsis. We hereby describe the case of a 10-year-old girl, immunocompetent, who had endocarditis/sepsis by K. rosea which was identi?ed in ?ve different blood cultures by Vitek2 ID-GPC card (BioMérieux, France). Negative HIV serology, blood count within normal range of leukocytes/neutrophils and lymphocytes, normal fractions of the complement, normal level of immunoglobulins for the age; lymphocyte immunophenotyping was also within the expected values. Thymus image was normal at chest MRI. No catheters were required. Identi?cation of K. rosea was essential to this case, allowing the differentiation of coagulase-negative staphylococci and use of an effective antibiotic treatment. Careful labo- ratory analysis of Gram-positive blood-born infections may reveal more cases of Kocuria sp infections in immunocompetent patients, which may collaborate for a better understanding, prevention and early treatment of these infections in pediatrics.

  2. Rothia aeria endocarditis in a patient with a bicuspid aortic valve: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Carlos, Nicodemo; Luiz Guilherme, Gonçalves; Fatuma Catherine Atieno, Odongo; Marines Dalla Valle, Martino; Jorge Luiz Mello, Sampaio.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rothia aeria is an uncommon pathogen mainly associated with endocarditis in case reports. In previous reports, endocarditis by R. aeria was complicated by central nervous system embolization. In the case we report herein, endocarditis by R. aeria was diagnosed after acute self-limited diarrhea. In a [...] ddition to the common translocation of R. aeria from the oral cavity, we hypothesize the possibility of intestinal translocation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and genetic sequencing are important tools that can contribute to early and more accurate etiologic diagnosis of severe infections caused by Gram-positive rods.

  3. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator lead-related methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis: Importance of heightened awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obiora F Anusionwu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA septicemia is associated with high morbidity and mortality especially in patients with immunosuppression, diabetes, renal disease and endocarditis. There has been an increase in implantation of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED with more cases of device-lead associated endocarditis been seen. A high index of suspicion is required to ensure patient outcomes are optimized. The excimer laser has been very efficient in helping to ensure successful lead extractions in patients with CIED infections. We present an unusual case report and literature review of MRSA septicemia from device-lead endocarditis and the importance of early recognition and prompt treatment.

  4. Native valve endocarditis and femoral embolism due to Granulicatella adiacens: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandana, K E; Mukhopadhyay, C; Rau, N R; Ajith, V; Rajath, P

    2010-01-01

    The fastidious Gram-positive cocci Granulicatella adiacens, previously known as nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS) are unusual but significant cause of endocarditis due to increased mortality and morbidity. Difficulties in reaching correct bacteriological identification, increased resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides and complicated clinical course have contributed to problems in management of cases of infective endocarditis caused by this bacterium. We present the first Indian case of endocarditis with arterial embolus by G. adiacens in an elderly male with no preexisting cardiac abnormality. PMID:21340307

  5. Native valve endocarditis and femoral embolism due to Granulicatella adiacens: a rare case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    KE, Vandana; C, Mukhopadhyay; NR, Rau; V, Ajith; P, Rajath.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fastidious Gram-positive cocci Granulicatella adiacens, previously known as nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS) are unusual but significant cause of endocarditis due to increased mortality and morbidity. Difficulties in reaching correct bacteriological identification, increased resistance t [...] o beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides and complicated clinical course have contributed to problems in management of cases of infective endocarditis caused by this bacterium. We present the first Indian case of endocarditis with arterial embolus by G. adiacens in an elderly male with no preexisting cardiac abnormality

  6. High Frequency of Tropheryma whipplei in Culture-Negative Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Geißdörfer, Walter; Moos, Verena; Moter, Annette; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Jansen, Andreas; Tandler, René; Morguet, Andreas J.; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Bogdan, Christian; Schneider, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    “Classical” Whipple's disease (cWD) is caused by Tropheryma whipplei and is characterized by arthropathy, weight loss, and diarrhea. T. whipplei infectious endocarditis (TWIE) is rarely reported, either in the context of cWD or as isolated TWIE without signs of systemic infection. The frequency of TWIE is unknown, and systematic studies are lacking. Here, we performed an observational cohort study on the incidence of T. whipplei infection in explanted heart valves in two German university cen...

  7. Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis With Group B Streptococcus After an Elective Abortion: The Need for New Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. David Hardy

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae, commonly known as Group B streptococcus (GBS, was originally discovered as a cause of bovine mastitis. GBS colonizes the genital tract of up to 40% of women and has become a major pathogen in neonatal meningitis. GBS endocarditis is thought to be an uncommon manifestation of this infection and carries a higher mortality compared to other streptococcal pathogens. Studies have shown that endocarditis after abortion has an incidence of about one per million. However, this figure was published prior to routine use of echocardiography for diagnosis. The American Heart Association has recently declared transesophageal echocardiography the gold standard for endocarditis diagnosis. This case report illustrates that, given the potentially devastating consequences of endocarditis, there is a need for updated studies to adequately assess the true incidence of this infection. Pending the outcome of these studies, routine GBS screening and prophylactic antibiotics prior to abortion should be recommended.

  8. Blood in, blood out: left ventricular pseudoaneurysm following mitral valve endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Sartipy, Ulrik; Ivert, Torbjörn; Ugander, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A 76-year old male on warfarin due to atrial fibrillation was admitted with Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia. Echocardiography demonstrated mitral valve endocarditis, and shortly thereafter, he suffered an intracranial haemorrhage as a result of septic embolism. Four weeks later, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed a newly formed pseudoaneurysm. A left ventricular pseudoaneurysm caused by infective endocarditis is very rare, but awareness of this unusual complication may allow surger...

  9. Isolation of Bartonella washoensis from a Dog with Mitral Valve Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Wey, Aaron C.; Kasten, Rickie W

    2003-01-01

    We report the first documented case of Bartonella washoensis bacteremia in a dog with mitral valve endocarditis. B. washoensis was isolated in 1995 from a human patient with cardiac disease. The main reservoir species appears to be ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) in the western United States. Based on echocardiographic findings, a diagnosis of infective vegetative valvular mitral endocarditis was made in a spayed 12-year-old female Doberman pinscher. A year prior to presentation, the...

  10. GLOMERULONEFRITIS POR INMUNOCOMPLEJOS EN LA ENDOCARDITIS INFECCIOSA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rommer Alex, Ortega Martínez; Paola Cecilia, Rodríguez Gil; Ricardo, Silvestre Arze; Luis, Mercado Maldonado; Juan Pablo, Barrenechea.

    Full Text Available Los pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa pueden desarrollar tres diferentes formas de enfermedad renal: Glomerulonefritis postinfecciosa mediada por complejos inmunes, nefritis intersticial aguda inducida por drogas o necrosis tubular aguda por aminoglucósidos y la enfermedad embólica renal. La glo [...] merulonefritis mediada por inmunocomplejos es similar a la glomerulonefritis post Estreptocócica o la glomerulonefritis membranoproliferativa con antigenemia larga y persistente. Las manifestaciones clínicas son similares a las de aquellos pacientes con otras formas de glomerulonefritis aguda. Presentamos el caso de una paciente que cumplió los requisitos para entrar dentro el grupo de glomerulonefritis por complejos inmunes, destacando el hecho de presentar alteraciones en la función renal y sedimento urinario disipadas con la resolución de la patología de base. Abstract in english Patients with infective endocarditis can develop three different forms of renal disease: post infectious immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis, drug induced acute intersticial nephritis or acute tubular necrosis due to aminoglucoside toxicity and renal embolic disease. Inmune complex glomerulon [...] ephritis is similar to post estreptococal glomerulonephritis or membrano proliferative glomerulonephritis with long standing and persistent antigenemia. The clinical manifestations are similar to those of other forms of glomerulonephritis. We present the case of a patient who fulfilled most criteria of immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis. emphasizing the fact that the alterations in renal function and urinary sediment resolved with the resolution of the primary disease.

  11. Dexamethasone as Adjuvant Therapy to Moxifloxacin Attenuates Valve Destruction in Experimental Aortic Valve Endocarditis Due to Staphylococcus aureus?

    OpenAIRE

    Skiadas, Ioannis; Pefanis, Angelos; Papalois, Apostolos; Kyroudi, Aspasia; Triantafyllidi, Helen; Tsaganos, Thomas; Giamarellou, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Although the beneficial effects of dexamethasone have frequently been investigated in various serious-infection settings, insufficient data on valve histology and cardiac function for infective endocarditis are available. The efficacy of moxifloxacin for the treatment of experimental aortic valve endocarditis due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and the long-term effects of dexamethasone were evaluated in the current study. Sixty-eight rabbits were randomly assigned to four gr...

  12. Endocarditis infecciosa: Análisis de 5 años (1997-2001 en el Hospital "Hermanos Ameijeiras"

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    José Eugenio Negrín Expósito

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron 50 historias clínicas de pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa atendidos entre los años 1997 y 2001 para conocer sus características clínicas en un centro terciario y analizar los factores que influyen en la mortalidad. Se recogieron datos generales, válvula afectada, cardiopatía de base, gérmenes causales, complicaciones, antibióticos empleados, hallazgos ecocardiográficos y evolución final, cada variable se relacionó con la mortalidad. Se halló que la edad promedio fue de 51,5 años, predominó la valvulopatía degenerativa (24 %; el germen más aislado fue el Estafilococo coagulasa negativa (22 % y se hallaron vegetaciones en el 52 %. Las variables que se relacionaron con la mortalidad fueron: toma del sistema nervioso central (p = 0,01, infarto pulmonar (p = 0,001, endocarditis de válvula nativa aguda (p = 0,001 y endocarditis de válvula protésica precoz (p = 0,003. Se concluyó que la endocarditis infecciosa es una enfermedad fatal si no se sigue una atención agresiva de los casos agudos o precoces.50 medical histories from patients with infective endocarditis that recieved medical attention between 1997 and 2001 were reviewed to know their clinical characteristics in an institute and to analyze those factors influencing mortality. General data, affected valve, base heart disease, causal germs, complications, antibiotics used, echocardiographic findings and final evolution were collected. Each variable was related to mortality. It was found that the average age was 51.5 years old. There was a predominance of the degenerative valvulopathy (24 %. The negative Staphilococcus coagulase was the most isolated germ (22 % and vegetations were observed in 52 %. The variables connected with mortality were: taking of the central nervous system (p=0.01, lung infarction (p=0.001, endocarditis of acute native valve (p=0.001 and endocarditis of early prosthetic valve (p=0.003. It was concluded that infective endocarditis may be a fatal disease if the acute or early cases do not receive an aggressive attention .

  13. Low efficacy of tobramycin in experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Christian Johann; Christophersen, L J; Trøstrup, H; Thomsen, K; Jensen, P Ø; Hougen, H P; Bundgaard, H; Høiby, N; Moser, C

    2015-01-01

    The empiric treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) varies widely and, in some places, a regimen of penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside is administered. The increasing incidence of Staphylococcus aureus IE, poor tissue penetration by aminoglycosides and low frequency of penicillin-susceptible S. aureus may potentially lead to functional tobramycin monotherapy. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate tobramycin monotherapy in an experimental S. aureus IE rat model. Catheter-induced ...

  14. Pacemaker endocarditis caused by Propionibacterium acnes in an adult patient with Ebstein's anomaly: a report of a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Karla R E; Franceschi, Vinicius; Campos, André C B; Monteiro, Thaíssa S; Barbosa, Giovanna I F; Dantas, Angela; Lamas, Cristiane C

    2014-10-01

    We report a rare case of a Brazilian adult woman with Ebstein's Anomaly who presented with pacemaker endocarditis caused by Propionibacterium acnes. Ebstein's Anomaly is a rare congenital malformation of the heart. Infective endocarditis is defined as an infection of heart valves, of the mural endocardium, of a septal defect, or of a cardiac electronic implantable device. Propionibacterium acnes is a skin commensal bacterium, that is usually considered as a contaminant, but can, on rare occasions, cause serious infections including endocarditis of prosthetic valves, native valves and cardiac electronic implantable devices. Diagnosis was made after nearly two years of investigation by identification of the organism by the MALDI-TOF technique and transoesophageal echocardiogram. The patient was successfully treated with daptomycin and device removal. She remains free of endocarditis after 32 months of follow-up. PMID:25047281

  15. Healthcare-Associated Infective Endocarditis: a Case Series in a Referral Hospital from 2006 to 2011 / Endocardite Infecciosa Associada aos Cuidados de Saúde: Série de Casos em Hospital de Referência entre 2006 e 2011

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oslan, Francischetto; Luciana Almenara Pereira da, Silva; Katia Marie Simões e, Senna; Marcia Regina, Vasques; Giovanna Ferraiuoli, Barbosa; Clara, Weksler; Rosana Grandelle, Ramos; Wilma Felix, Golebiovski; Cristiane da Cruz, Lamas.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: A endocardite infecciosa associada aos cuidados de saúde (EI-ACS) é uma complicação grave associada aos cuidados médico-hospitalares, com uma incidência crescente na população. Objetivo: Avaliar a EI-ACS com relação à sua epidemiologia, etiologia, fatores de risco de aquisição, compli [...] cações, tratamento cirúrgico e quadro clínico. Métodos: Este estudo de caráter observacional e prospectivo avaliou uma série de casos reportados entre 2006 e 2011 em um hospital público no Rio de Janeiro. Resultados: Cinquenta e três pacientes com EI-ACS de um total de 151 casos de endocardite infecciosa (EI) foram incluídos no estudo, dos quais 26 (49%) eram do sexo masculino (idade média de 47 ± 18,7 anos), e 27 (51%) eram sexo feminino (idade média de 42 ± 20,1 anos). Quadros clínicos agudos de EI ocorreram em 37 casos (70%) e quadros subagudos em 16 casos (30%). A válvula mitral foi afetada em 19 casos (36%), e a valva aórtica em 12 casos (36%). As válvulas cardíacas protéticas foram afetadas em 23 casos (43%), e as válvulas cardíacas nativas em 30 casos (57%). O acesso venoso profundo foi usado em 43 pacientes (81%). Hemoculturas negativas foram observadas em amostras de 11 pacientes (21%). Nas hemoculturas positivas, Enterococcus faecalis foi identificado em 10 casos (19%), Staphylococcus aureus em 9 casos (17%) e Candida sp. em 7 casos (13%). Febre ocorreu em 49 pacientes (92%), esplenomegalia em 12 pacientes (23%), novo sopro de regurgitação valvar em 31 pacientes (58%) e proteína C reativa elevada em 44 pacientes (83%). O ecocardiograma apresentou critérios principais em 46 casos (87%). Trinta e quatro pacientes (64%) foram submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. A mortalidade ocorreu em 17 casos (32%). Conclusão: EI-ACS afeta pacientes mais jovens no Brasil. As válvulas cardíacas protéticas e nativas foram afetadas em proporção semelhante. A cirurgia não cardíaca foi um fator predisponente pouco frequente, ao passo que o acesso intravenoso foi um fator predisponente comum. Infecções por S. aureus foram significativamente mais frequentes em casos de EI-ACS envolvendo a válvula cardíaca nativa. A mortalidade por EI-ACS é elevada. Abstract in english Background: Healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HCA-IE), a severe complication of medical care, shows a growing incidence in literature. Objective: To evaluate epidemiology, etiology, risk factors for acquisition, complications, surgical treatment, and outcome of HCA-IE. Methods: Obse [...] rvational prospective case series study (2006-2011) in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Results: Fifty-three patients with HCA-IE from a total of 151 cases of infective endocarditis (IE) were included. There were 26 (49%) males (mean age of 47 ± 18.7 years), 27 (51%) females (mean age of 42 ± 20.1 years). IE was acute in 37 (70%) cases and subacute in 16 (30%) cases. The mitral valve was affected in 19 (36%) patients and the aortic valve in 12 (36%); prosthetic valves were affected in 23 (43%) patients and native valves in 30 (57%). Deep intravenous access was used in 43 (81%) cases. Negative blood cultures were observed in 11 (21%) patients, Enterococcus faecalis in 10 (19%), Staphylococcus aureus in 9 (17%), and Candida sp. in 7 (13%). Fever was present in 49 (92%) patients, splenomegaly in 12 (23%), new regurgitation murmur in 31 (58%), and elevated C-reactive protein in 44/53 (83%). Echocardiograms showed major criteria in 46 (87%) patients, and 34 (64%) patients were submitted to cardiac surgery. Overall mortality was 17/53 (32%). Conclusion: In Brazil HCA-IE affected young subjects. Patients with prosthetic and native valves were affected in a similar proportion, and non-cardiac surgery was an infrequent predisposing factor, whereas intravenous access was a common one. S. aureus was significantly frequent in native valve HCA-IE, and overall mortality was high.

  16. Cardiac imaging in infectious endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Niels Eske; Habib, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Infectious endocarditis remains both a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. A positive outcome depends on a rapid diagnosis, accurate risk stratification, and a thorough follow-up. Imaging plays a key role in each of these steps and echocardiography remains the cornerstone of the methods in use. The technique of both transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography has been markedly improved across the last decades and most recently three-dimensional real-time echocardiography has been introduced in the management of endocarditis patients. Echocardiography depicts structural changes and abnormalities in the heart, but it does not uncover the underlying pathophysiological processes at the cellular or molecular level. This problem is addressed with introduction of new molecular imaging methods as (18)F-fluorodesoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET-CT and single photon emission computed tomography fused with conventional CT (SPECT/CT). Of these methods, (18)F-FDG PET-CT carries the best promise for a future role in endocarditis. But there are distinct limitations with both SPECT/CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT which should not be neglected. MRI and spiral CT are methods primarily used in the search for extra cardial infectious foci. A flowchart for the use of imaging in both left-sided and right-sided endocarditis is suggested.

  17. Cardiac Surgery in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Abad, Cipriano; Cárdenes, Miguel Angel; Jiménez, Pedro Conrado; Armas, Mario-Vicente; Betancor, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    From January 1991 through December 1999, 5 consecutive patients who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus presented in need of cardiac surgery. All were men; the median age was 44 years. Two of them presented with mitral and aortic infectious valve endocarditis, 1 with tricuspid endocarditis, 1 with prosthetic valve endocarditis, and 1 with pericarditis and pericardial tamponade.

  18. Endocarditis in Greenland with special reference to endocarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Gaarde; Ladefoged, Karin; Kjaergaard, Jens Jørgen; Andersen, Peter Stemann; Clemmesen, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence and outcome of infectious endocarditis in Greenland with an emphasis on pneumococcal endocarditis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, non-interventional study. METHODS: Review of files and medical history of all patients with infectious endocarditis from the Patient Registry in Greenland in the 11-year period 1995-2005. RESULTS: There were 25 cases of endocarditis, giving an incidence rate of 4.0/100,000 per year. Twenty-fo...

  19. Tropheryma whipplei tricuspid endocarditis: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greub Gilbert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The main clinical manifestations of Whipple's disease are weight loss, arthropathy, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Cardiac involvement is frequently described. However, endocarditis is rare and is not usually the initial presentation of the disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with Tropheryma whipplei tricuspid endocarditis without any other valve involved and not presenting signs of arthralgia and abdominal involvement. Case presentation We report a case of a 50-year-old Caucasian man with tricuspid endocarditis caused by Tropheryma whipplei, showing signs of severe shock and an absence of other more classic clinical signs of Whipple's disease, such as arthralgia, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Tropheryma whipplei was documented by polymerase chain reaction of the blood and pleural fluid. The infection was treated with a combined treatment of doxycycline, hydroxychloroquine and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim for one year. Conclusion Tropheryma whipplei infectious endocarditis should always be considered when facing a blood-culture negative endocarditis particularly in right-sided valves. Although not standardized yet, treatment of Tropheryma whipplei endocarditis should probably include a bactericidal antibiotic (such as doxycycline and should be given over a prolonged period of time (a minimum of one year.

  20. Granulicatella infection: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, James S; Scott, Katharine S; Gascoyne-Binzi, Deborah; Sandoe, Jonathan A T

    2012-06-01

    Granulicatella species, along with the genus Abiotrophia, were originally known as 'nutritionally variant streptococci'. They are a normal component of the oral flora, but have been associated with a variety of invasive infections in man and are most noted as a cause of bacterial endocarditis. It is often advised that Granulicatella endocarditis should be treated in the same way as enterococcal endocarditis. We review here the published data concerning diagnosis and treatment of Granulicatella infection, and include some observations from local cases, including four cases of endocarditis. PMID:22442291

  1. INFLUENCE OF THIMALIN UPON IMMUNITY AND LYMPHOCYTE-PLATELET ADHESION IN CHILDREN WITH SECONDARY INFECTIOUS ENDOCARDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Dolina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the children with secondary infective endocarditis, the contents of TNK cells was found to be decreased. Same patients exhibit low concentrations of total IgG and its subclasses, IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses decreased, whereas IgG4 levels are increased. Stimulated phagocytic response is also decreased in these patients, along with increased numbers of lymphocyte/platelet cell aggregates. Effect of a conventional treatment with addition of thymalin when treating secondary infective endocarditis, was more pronounced, in comparison with conventional therapy, with respect to restoration of humoral immunity, phagocytic activity of leukocytes and lymphocyte-platelet adhesion.

  2. The Uptake of Apoptotic Cells Drives Coxiella burnetii Replication and Macrophage Polarization: A Model for Q Fever Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, Marie; Ghigo, Eric; Capo, Christian; Raoult, Didier; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2008-01-01

    Patients with valvulopathy have the highest risk to develop infective endocarditis (IE), although the relationship between valvulopathy and IE is not clearly understood. Q fever endocarditis, an IE due to Coxiella burnetii, is accompanied by immune impairment. Patients with valvulopathy exhibited increased levels of circulating apoptotic leukocytes, as determined by the measurement of active caspases and nucleosome determination. The binding of apoptotic cells to monocytes and macrophages, th...

  3. Afasia post acv de acm unilateral por embolia infecciosa en endocarditis bacteriana / Aphasia post unilateral cerebral media stroke associated to infectious embolism in acute bacterial endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Germán, Cantillo Mackenzie; Andersson L, Rozo A.; Juan Camilo, Suárez-Escudero.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un paciente con endocarditis infecciosa que sufre un accidente cerebro vascular (ACV) isquémico a nivel parieto-occipital e ínsula posterior izquierda, con manifestaciones afásicas de rasgos mixtos, donde prima la fluidez y los problemas de repetición, agresividad, agrafia y di [...] ficultades de lectura. Es un caso llamativo por la singularidad de los hallazgos y la mejoría funcional posterior al evento. Son escasos reportes en la literatura que muestren una complicación afásica por una endocarditis infecciosa con vegetaciones aórticas por Streptococo mitis versus S. oralis. El origen de la endocarditis infecciosa fue atribuido a procedimiento de endodoncia, y justificado en hallazgos de RMN, punción lumbar y ECO-TE. En la actualidad, el paciente posee un lenguaje funcional, con ciertas dificultades a nivel del lenguaje expresivo y de la comprensión. Abstract in english We present a clinical report of a patient with infective endocarditis who suffered an ischemic stroke at the parietal occipital and posterior insula, with aphasic demonstrations including mixed features, primordially exhibiting fluency and repetition problems, aggression, dysgraphia, and reading dif [...] ficulties. It is a striking case because of the uniqueness of the findings and the functional improvement after the event. There are few previous reports describing an association between these bacteria and this injury and the patient's improvement. The cause of the endocarditis was attributed to an endodontic procedure because other paraclinical tests made during medical care showed no other apparent cause. Currently the patient only has difficulty with expressive language and understanding certain commands.

  4. Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia and Endocarditis among HIV Patients: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Oscar C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV patients are at increased risk of development of infections and infection-associated poor health outcomes. We aimed to 1 assess the prevalence of USA300 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA among HIV-infected patients with S. aureus bloodstream infections and. 2 determine risk factors for infective endocarditis and in-hospital mortality among patients in this population. Methods All adult HIV-infected patients with documented S. aureus bacteremia admitted to the University of Maryland Medical Center between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2005 were included. CA-MRSA was defined as a USA300 MRSA isolate with the MBQBLO spa-type motif and positive for both the arginine catabolic mobile element and Panton-Valentin Leukocidin. Risk factors for S. aureus-associated infective endocarditis and mortality were determined using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Potential risk factors included demographic variables, comorbid illnesses, and intravenous drug use. Results Among 131 episodes of S. aureus bacteremia, 85 (66% were MRSA of which 47 (54% were CA-MRSA. Sixty-three patients (48% developed endocarditis and 10 patients (8% died in the hospital on the index admission Patients with CA-MRSA were significantly more likely to develop endocarditis (OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.30, 5.71. No other variables including comorbid conditions, current receipt of antiretroviral therapy, pre-culture severity of illness, or CD4 count were significantly associated with endocarditis and none were associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusions CA-MRSA was significantly associated with an increased incidence of endocarditis in this cohort of HIV patients with MRSA bacteremia. In populations such as these, in which the prevalence of intravenous drug use and probability of endocarditis are both high, efforts must be made for early detection, which may improve treatment outcomes.

  5. Austrian syndrome in the context of a fulminant pneumococcal native valve endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel, Wilbring; Sems-Malte, Tugtekin; Klaus, Matschke; Utz, Kappert.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the case of a young male suffering from Austrian syndrome, which is the triad of endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia due to invasive S. pneumoniae infection. He reported recurrent fever for six months without any antibiotic treatment, which may have determined the further course of the s [...] yndrome. Echocardiography revealed massive native valve endocarditis, and the patient was considered for ultima-ratio cardiac surgery. Intraoperative aspect presented extensive affection of the aortic root with full destruction of aortic valve, mitral valve, and aortomitral continuity. The myocardium showed a phlegmonlike infiltration. Microbiologic testing of intraoperatively collected specimens identified penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae. S. pneumoniae is a very uncommon cause for infective infiltrative endocarditis and is associated with severe clinical courses. Austrian syndrome is even more rare, with only a few reported cases worldwide. In those patients, only early diagnosis, immediate antibiotic treatment, and emergent cardiac surgery can save lives.

  6. Brucella endocarditis on double valvular prosthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lezaun, R.; Teruel, J.; Maître, M. J.; Artaza, M

    1980-01-01

    The case is reported of a 48-year-old man suffering from Brucella endocarditis on a double prosthesis. The successful medical and surgical treatment is described. So far as the authors know, this is the first report of Brucella endocarditis from a heart valve prosthesis.

  7. Native Valve Endocarditis due to Ralstonia pickettii: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Orme, Joseph; Rivera-Bonilla, Tomas; Loli, Akil; Blattman, Negin N.

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia pickettii is a rare pathogen and even more rare in healthy individuals. Here we report a case of R. pickettii bacteremia leading to aortic valve abscess and complete heart block. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Ralstonia species causing infective endocarditis with perivalvular abscess.

  8. Septicemia and Aortic Valve Endocarditis due to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in a Homeless Man

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Campbell; Mark Cowan

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of bacterial endocarditis due to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in a homeless man with no animal exposure. His course was complicated by an allergic reaction to ampicillin, urinary bladder infection, respiratory failure, and acute kidney injury. He recovered completely after aortic valve replacement and a 6-week course of intravenous ceftriaxone.

  9. Late prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Cardiobacterium hominis, an unusual complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaprakasha S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Cardiobacterium hominis in a patient who had undergone atrial septal defect closure and mitral valve replacement of the heart in 1978. He presented with pyrexia of unknown origin and congestive cardiac failure. Investigations revealed infective endocarditis of prosthetic valve in mitral portion. Blood culture samples grew C. hominis . The patient was empirically started on vancomycin and gentamicin intravenously and ceftriaxone was added after isolation of the organism. Though subsequent blood cultures were negative, patient remained in congestive cardiac failure and died due to complications.

  10. Endocarditis bacteriana por Kocuria kristinae en paciente inmunocompetente: Reporte de un caso / Bacterial endocarditis by Kocuria kristinae in an inmunocompetent patient: Case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alirio R, Bastidas; Carlos A, Vélez; Carol V, Gutiérrez M; Nancy J, Bahamón.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por microorganismos del género Kocuria spp. han sido descritas con mayor frecuencia en pacientes con enfermedades crónicas y estados de inmunosupresión. Comúnmente, no se ha reportado su aislamiento como causa de endocarditis en pacientes jóvenes e inmunocompetentes. Se deben diferen [...] ciar de las infecciones producidas por Staphylococcus spp. ya que su evolución clínica puede ser similar y sólo el aislamiento y tipifi cación en cultivos permite hacer el diagnóstico etiológico defi nitivo y dirigir la terapia antibiótica adecuada. Se describe el caso de un paciente joven e inmunocompetente que cursó con endocarditis bacteriana, aislándose Kocuria kristinae en hemocultivos. Abstract in english Infections by microorganisms of the genus Kocuria spp. have been reported more frequently in patients with chronic diseases and immunosuppression. Its isolation has not been reported as cause of endocarditis in young and immunocompetent patients. It should be differentiated from infections caused by [...] Staphylococcus spp. given that their clinical course may be similar and that only the isolation and typification in cultures allows definitive etiologic diagnosis and direct appropriate antibiotic therapy. We describe the case of an immunocompetent young patient who presented bacterial endocarditis and in whose blood cultures kristinae Kocuria was isolated.

  11. A patient with bacteraemia and possible endocarditis caused by a recently-discovered genomospecies of Capnocytophaga: Capnocytophaga genomospecies AHN8471: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Jonathan M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Capnocytophaga are a genus of bacteria that have been found to be the causative organisms in a range of infections, including serious conditions such as bacteraemia, endocarditis and meningitis. This has been especially true amongst those with serious comorbidities and the immunocompromised populations. Although several species are known to cause human disease, historically, laboratories have often not identified isolates to species level due to the unreliable, laborious techniques needed. With the advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis, identification to species level is now frequently possible and desirable, as it may provide clues as to the source of infection and its treatment. Case presentation Here we describe a case of bacteraemia and possible endocarditis in a 64-year-old white British man caused by a newly identified genomospecies of Capnocytophaga in a patient subsequently diagnosed with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. The source of the bacteraemia was presumed to be from the patient's own oral flora. Conclusion Our case further confirms the potential for Capnocytophaga to cause systemic infections, highlights the availability and need for identification of isolates to species level and re-emphasises the difficulty in diagnosing Capnocytophaga infections due to their slow growth in the laboratory.

  12. Tricuspid endocarditis in hyper-IgE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyper-IgE syndrome is a congenitally acquired primary immune deficiency condition. We report a case of possible hyper-IgE syndrome who presented with multiple cold skin abscesses and chest infection due to Staphylococcus aureus and hyper-IgE findings. Patient also had tricuspid valve acute bacterial endocarditis with purulent pericarditis which is very rare. This case is presented to highlight that early diagnosis and treatment in such cases decreases the mortality and morbidity in phagocytic disorders.

  13. Relapsing tricuspid valve endocarditis by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 11 years: tricuspid valve replacement with an aortic valve homograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Seok; Chang, Hyoung Woo; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Kang, Dong Ki; Kim, Eui-Chong; Kim, Ki-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Eleven years ago, a 27-year-old non-drug abuser woman was admitted to the hospital due to a burn injury. During the treatment, she was diagnosed with tricuspid valve infective endocarditis caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). She underwent tricuspid valve replacement (TVR) using a bioprosthetic valve, followed by 6 weeks of meropenem antibiotic therapy. Ten years later, she was again diagnosed with prosthetic valve infective endocarditis caused by MDR P. aeruginosa. She underwent redo-TVR with a bioprosthetic valve and was treated with colistin and ciprofloxacin. Ten months later, she was again diagnosed with prosthetic valve infective endocarditis with MDR P. aeruginosa as a pathogen. She underwent a second redo-TVR with a tissue valve and was treated with colistin. Two months later, her fever recurred and she was again diagnosed with prosthetic valve infective endocarditis caused by MDR P. aeruginosa. She eventually underwent a third redo-TVR using an aortic valve homograft and was discharged from the hospital after additional 6 weeks' of antibiotic therapy. All the strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from each event of infective endocarditis were analyzed by repetitive deoxyribonucleic acid sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strain typing to determine the correlation of isolates. All of the pathogens in 11 years were similar enough to be classified as the same strain, and this is the first case report of TVR using an aortic valve homograft to treat relapsing endocarditis. PMID:26051245

  14. Serological diagnosis of experimental Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjerulf, A; Espersen, F

    1998-01-01

    A modified rat model of endocarditis with catheterization for 2 days was established in female Lewis rats using different inocula of Enterococcus faecalis (strain no. EF 19) in order to measure IgG antibodies in serum during the course of infection. Increasing the inocula intravenously resulted in an increase in the CFU/g vegetation and the CFU/g spleen, the ID50 being about 10 CFU/ml and the ID90 about 1x10(2) CFU/ml. The lowest bacterial inoculum infecting 100% of the rats was 3x10(3) CFU/ml, and for further investigations we used this inoculum size. Rats were sacrificed on day 2, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 28 after infection. The CFU/g vegetation and the CFU/g spleen increased until day 7 and then decreased. Serum samples were collected from 129 rats at different times after challenge. Three different ELISA systems were established to measure the IgG antibody responses: E. faecalis sonicate ELISA (a pool of four sonicates of strain no. EF 10, EF 11, EF 19 and EF 48), E. faecalis whole cell ELISA (strain no. EF 19) and E. faecalis purified cell wall ELISA (strain no. EF 19). An IgG antibody response was detected already on day 2, and except for a minor decrease on day 6/7 the antibody response continued to increase until day 14 (whole cell ELISA and sonicate ELISA) and day 21 (purified cell wall ELISA) when a plateau was reached. Significant increases in IgG antibody responses (p

  15. Prevention of Infective (Bacterial) Endocarditis: Wallet Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has approved this statement as it relates to dentistry. National Center 7272 Greenville Avenue Dallas, Texas 75231- ... second generation oral cephalosporin in equivalent adult or pediatric dosage. † Cephalosporins should not be used in an ...

  16. [Infective endocarditis due to Bartonella quintana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garré, Luis; Guaraglia, Walter; Cuatz, Daniel; Kaufman, Sara; Gil, Horacio; De Rosa, Antonio F

    2008-01-01

    We present the clinical case of a man of 68 years who was admitted for dizziness and sensation of loss of conscience. The clinical examination revealed a body temperature of 37.5 degrees C and a murmur of mitral regurgitation. The echocardiogram showed a severe mitral regurgitation and left cavitie's dilatation; transesophageal echocardiogram showed a vegetation in the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. In blood cultures grew a Gram-negative bacteria identified as Bartonella spp. A PCR demonstrated that it was a Bartonella quintana. The patient was treated with gentamicin, doxiciclin and ceftriaxone with satisfactory evolution. The remaining mitral insufficiency awaits surgical treatment. PMID:18499964

  17. [Surgical Treatment of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminishi, Yuichiro; Akutsu, Hirohiko; Sugaya, Akira; Kurumisawa, Soki; Takazawa, Ippei; Sato, Hirotaka; Muraoka, Arata; Aizawa, Kei; Ohki, Shinichi; Saito, Tsutomu; Kawahito, Koji; Misawa, Yoshio

    2015-10-01

    Between 2003 and 2014, at Jichi Medical University Hospital, 11 patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis(PVE) underwent re-operation. There was 1 in-hospital death and 2 late deaths. The cause of death was cirrhosis, heart failure and sepsis, respectively. Emergency surgery, previous double valve replacement (DVR) and Staphylococcus infection were common risk factors for all 3 cases. Two cases of patients that survived who underwent mitral valve replacement( MVR) and DVR for PVE after DVR were treated with multiple antibiotic courses for bacteremia associated with hemodialysis and colon cancer. One patient who underwent DVR after mitral valve plasty which was complicated with cerebral hemorrhage, had survived and was discharged. Of the aortic PVE patients, 2 cases of aortic valve replacement(AVR) using a mechanical valve, 1 case of aortic root replacement (ARR) using a mechanical valve, and 1 ARR using the homograft, were considered cured and never relapsed. A patient with aortic PVE, who underwent AVR after cesarean section for heart failure in birth period, has received ARR twice with the mechanical valve for recurrent pseudo-aneurysm of the left ventricular outflow tract. Since hemodialysis and colon cancer is a risk factor for recurrent PVE, it is necessary to consider the long-term administration of antibiotics after surgery. PMID:26469256

  18. Brucella Endocarditis Caused By Brucella Melitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Saçar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease endemically seen in Turkey, which occurs with various clinical findings. It can lead to complications affecting many systems. Endocarditis is an infrequent, but serious complication of brucellosis.The aim of this case presentation is to remind that endocarditis can be a complication of brucellosis and if is undiagnosed or misdiagnosed, progresses fatal in a high rate.

  19. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2011-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no...

  20. Estudos sobre thrombose cardiaca e endocardite parietal de origem não valvular On thrombosis of heart and on mural endocarditis of non-valvular origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Magarinos Torres

    1928-01-01

    Full Text Available 1.-Since the parietal endocarditis represents a chapter generally neglected, owing to the relative lack of cases, and somewhat confused because there various terms have been applied to a very same morbid condition, it justifies the work which previously we tried to accomplish, of nosographic classification. Taking into account the functional disturbances and the anatomical changes, all cases of parietal endocarditis referred to in the litterature were distributed by the following groups: A-Group-Valvulo-parietal endocarditis. 1st . type-Valvulo-parietal endocarditis per continuum. 2nd. type-Metastatic valvulo-parietal endocarditis. 3rd. type-Valvulo-parietal endocarditis of the mitral stenosis. B-Group-Genuine parietal endocarditis. a with primary lesions in the myocardium. b with primary lesions in the endocardium. 4th type-Fibrous chronic parietal endocarditis (B A Ü M L E R, « endocarditis parietalis simplex». 5th type-Septic acute parietal endocarditis (LESCHKE, «endocarditis parietalis septica». 6th type-Subacute parietal endocarditis (MAGARINOS TORRES, «endocarditis muralis lenta». 2.-Studying a group of 14 cases of fibrous endomyocarditis with formation of thrombi, and carrying together pathological and bacteriological examinations it has been found that some of such cases represent an infectious parietal endocarditis, sometimes post-puerperal, of subacute or slow course, the endocardic vegetations being contamined by pathogenic microörganisms of which the most frequent is the Diplococcus pneumoniae, in most cases of attenuated virulence. Along with the infectious parietal endocarditis, there occur arterial and venous thromboses (abdominal aorta, common illiac and femural arteries and external jugular veins. The case 5,120 is a typical one of this condition which we name subacute parietal endocarditis (endocarditis parietalis s. muralis lenta. 3.-The endocarditis muralis lenta encloses an affection reputed to be of rare occurrence, the «myocardite subaigüe primitive», of which JOSSERAND and GALLAVARDIN published in 1901 the first cases, and ROQUE and LEVY, another, in 1914. The «myocardite subaigüe primitive» was, wrongly, in our opinion, included by WALZER in the syndrome of myocardia of LAUBRY and WALZER, considering that, in the refered cases of JOSSERAND and GALLAVARDIN and in that of ROQUE and LEVY, there are described rather considerable inflammatory changes in the myocardium and endocardium. The designation «myocardia» was however especially created by LAUBRY and WALZER for the cases of heart failure in which the most careful aetiologic inquiries and the most minucious clinical examination were unable to explain, and in which, yet, the post-mortem examination did not reveal any anatomical change at all, it being forcible to admit, then, a primary functional change of the cardiac muscle fibre. This special cardiac condition is thoroughly exemplified in the observation that WALZER reproduces on pages 1 to 7 of his book. 4.-The clinical picture of the subacute parietal endocarditis is that of heart failure with oedemas, effusion in the serous cavities and passive chronic congestion of the lungs, liver, kideys and spleen associated, to that of an infectious disease of subacute course. The fever is rather transient oscillating around 99.5 F., being intersected with apyretic periods of irregular duration; it is not dependent on any evident extracardiac septic infection. In other cases the fever is slight, particularly in the final stage of the disease, when the heart failure is well established. The rule is to observe then, hypothermy. The cardiac-vascular signs consist of enlargement of the cardiac dullness, smoothing of the cardiac sounds, absence of organic murmurs and accentuated and persistent tachycardia up to a certain point independent of fever. The galloprhythm is present, in most cases. The signs of the pulmonary infarct are rather expressed by the aspect of the sputum, which is foamy and blood-streaked than by the classic signs. Cerebral embolism was a terminal accid

  1. Estudos sobre thrombose cardiaca e endocardite parietal de origem não valvular / On thrombosis of heart and on mural endocarditis of non-valvular origin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C. Magarinos, Torres.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english 1.-Since the parietal endocarditis represents a chapter generally neglected, owing to the relative lack of cases, and somewhat confused because there various terms have been applied to a very same morbid condition, it justifies the work which previously we tried to accomplish, of nosographic classif [...] ication. Taking into account the functional disturbances and the anatomical changes, all cases of parietal endocarditis referred to in the litterature were distributed by the following groups: A-Group-Valvulo-parietal endocarditis. 1st . type-Valvulo-parietal endocarditis per continuum. 2nd. type-Metastatic valvulo-parietal endocarditis. 3rd. type-Valvulo-parietal endocarditis of the mitral stenosis. B-Group-Genuine parietal endocarditis. a) with primary lesions in the myocardium. b) with primary lesions in the endocardium. 4th type-Fibrous chronic parietal endocarditis (B A Ü M L E R), « endocarditis parietalis simplex». 5th type-Septic acute parietal endocarditis (LESCHKE), «endocarditis parietalis septica». 6th type-Subacute parietal endocarditis (MAGARINOS TORRES), «endocarditis muralis lenta». 2.-Studying a group of 14 cases of fibrous endomyocarditis with formation of thrombi, and carrying together pathological and bacteriological examinations it has been found that some of such cases represent an infectious parietal endocarditis, sometimes post-puerperal, of subacute or slow course, the endocardic vegetations being contamined by pathogenic microörganisms of which the most frequent is the Diplococcus pneumoniae, in most cases of attenuated virulence. Along with the infectious parietal endocarditis, there occur arterial and venous thromboses (abdominal aorta, common illiac and femural arteries and external jugular veins). The case 5,120 is a typical one of this condition which we name subacute parietal endocarditis (endocarditis parietalis s. muralis lenta). 3.-The endocarditis muralis lenta encloses an affection reputed to be of rare occurrence, the «myocardite subaigüe primitive», of which JOSSERAND and GALLAVARDIN published in 1901 the first cases, and ROQUE and LEVY, another, in 1914. The «myocardite subaigüe primitive» was, wrongly, in our opinion, included by WALZER in the syndrome of myocardia of LAUBRY and WALZER, considering that, in the refered cases of JOSSERAND and GALLAVARDIN and in that of ROQUE and LEVY, there are described rather considerable inflammatory changes in the myocardium and endocardium. The designation «myocardia» was however especially created by LAUBRY and WALZER for the cases of heart failure in which the most careful aetiologic inquiries and the most minucious clinical examination were unable to explain, and in which, yet, the post-mortem examination did not reveal any anatomical change at all, it being forcible to admit, then, a primary functional change of the cardiac muscle fibre. This special cardiac condition is thoroughly exemplified in the observation that WALZER reproduces on pages 1 to 7 of his book. 4.-The clinical picture of the subacute parietal endocarditis is that of heart failure with oedemas, effusion in the serous cavities and passive chronic congestion of the lungs, liver, kideys and spleen associated, to that of an infectious disease of subacute course. The fever is rather transient oscillating around 99.5 F., being intersected with apyretic periods of irregular duration; it is not dependent on any evident extracardiac septic infection. In other cases the fever is slight, particularly in the final stage of the disease, when the heart failure is well established. The rule is to observe then, hypothermy. The cardiac-vascular signs consist of enlargement of the cardiac dullness, smoothing of the cardiac sounds, absence of organic murmurs and accentuated and persistent tachycardia up to a certain point independent of fever. The galloprhythm is present, in most cases. The signs of the pulmonary infarct are rather expressed by the aspect of the sputum, which is foamy and blood-streaked than by the classic signs

  2. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT diagnosis of unexpected extracardiac septic embolisms in patients with suspected cardiac endocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfiglioli, Rachele; Nanni, Cristina; Morigi, Joshua James; Ambrosini, Valentina; Fanti, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Graziosi, Maddalena; Rapezzi, Claudio [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Cardiology, Bologna (Italy); Trapani, Filippo; Bartoletti, Michele; Tumietto, Fabio; Viale, Pier Luigi [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Infective Diseases, Bologna (Italy); Ferretti, Alice; Rubello, Domenico [Azienda Ospedaliera S. Maria della Misericordia, Nuclear Medicine, Radiology, Neuroradiology, Medical Physics, Rovigo (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Acute infective endocarditis is a potentially life-threatening disease. Its outcome strongly depends on systemic embolization and extracardiac infections. When present, these conditions usually lead to a more aggressive therapeutic approach. However, the diagnosis of peripheral septic embolism is very challenging. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT has proven to be accurate for the detection of inflammatory diseases and occult infections. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of extracardiac embolisms in the evaluation of patients with suspected valvular endocarditis (VE). Seventy-one patients with suspected infective endocarditis, enrolled between June 2010 and December 2012, underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT with the standard procedure on a dedicated PET/CT scanner. Extracardiac findings were subsequently evaluated with other imaging procedures. Of the 71 patients with suspicion of infective endocarditis, we found unexpected extracardiac findings in 17 patients (24 %) without any clinical suspicion. Extracardiac findings were subsequently evaluated with other imaging procedures. PET/CT detected unexpected extra sites of infection in 24 % of cases, leading to changes in therapeutic management in a very relevant percentage of patients. These findings may have important therapeutic implications. (orig.)

  3. Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus capitis: report of 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Yuko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Staphylococcus capitis is considered to be a rare causative organism for prosthetic valve endocarditis, we report 4 such cases that were encountered at our hospital over the past 2 years. Case 1 was a 79-year-old woman who underwent aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthetic valve and presented with fever 24 days later. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed an annular abscess in the aorto-mitral continuity and mild perivalvular regurgitation. We performed emergency surgery 5 days after the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis was made. Case 2 was a 79-year-old woman presenting with fever 40 days after aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis. Transesophageal echocardiography showed vegetation on the valve, and she underwent urgent surgery 2 days after prosthetic valve endocarditis was diagnosed. In case 3, a 76-year-old man presented with fever 53 days after aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis. Vegetation on the prosthetic leaflet could be seen by transesophageal echocardiography. He underwent emergency surgery 2 days after the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis was made. Case 4 was a 68-year-old woman who collapsed at her home 106 days after aortic and mitral valve replacement with bioprosthetic valves. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support was started immediately after massive mitral regurgitation due to prosthetic valve detachment was revealed by transesophageal echocardiography. She was transferred to our hospital by helicopter and received surgery immediately on arrival. In all cases, we re-implanted another bioprosthesis after removal of the infected valve and annular debridement. All patients recovered without severe complications after 2 months of antibiotic treatment, and none experienced re-infection during 163 to 630 days of observation. Since the time interval between diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis and valve re-replacement ranged from 0 to 5 days, early surgical removal of the infected prosthesis and an appropriate course of antibiotics were attributed to good clinical outcomes in our cases.

  4. [Fever, malaise and new onset mitral valve insufficiency. Subacute Streptococcus bovis mitral valve endocarditis ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, E; Laffer, R; Steuerwald, M; Cathomas, G; Zimmerli, W

    2004-05-01

    A 62-year-old patient with low grade fever, fatigue, arthralgia and newly discovered mitral regurgitation was diagnosed with subacute endocarditis. Streptococcus bovis grew from all six blood culture bottles. Streptococcus bovis is known to be associated with gastrointestinal neoplasias. Therefore a colonoscopy was performed and two polyps were removed. Histological analysis revealed a tubulovillous adenoma and a serrated adenoma. Colonoscopy is mandatory for all patients with Streptococcus bovis endocarditis even without any symptoms for colorectal neoplasia. The significance of Streptococcus bovis for the carcinogenesis of colorectal neoplasias and the possible alternative pathway for colorectal carcinomas through serrated adenomas will be discussed. PMID:15185488

  5. / Endocarditis por Bordetella holmesii en un paciente asplénico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rolando N, Soloaga; Natalia A, Carrion; Marisa, Almuzara; Claudia, Barberis; Juan C, Pidone; Liliana I, Guelfand; Carlos, Vay.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 52 años portadora de estenosis aórtica crítica, esplenectomizada, hipotiroidea, que tenía como antecedente linfoma de Hodgkin diagnosticado en 2004. En abril de 2011 ingresó al Servicio de Cardiología por insuficiencia cardíaca global y registros febriles, con [...] respuesta tórpida al tratamiento diurético-vasodilatador. El ecocardiograma transesofágico mostró imágenes ecodensas en válvulas aórtica, pulmonar y mitral compatibles con vegetaciones, por lo que el cuadro se interpretó como probable endocarditis infecciosa. En dos muestras de hemocultivos desarrolló un cocobacilo gram negativo que fue identificado como Bordetella holmesii. Se realizó tratamiento con ceftriaxona 1 g cada 12 h durante 28 días, y se observó una evolución favorable. Abstract in english The case of a 52-year-old female patient with a history of critical aortic stenosis, hypothyroidism and splenectomy as treatment for her Hodgkin's lymphoma is herein presented. In April 2011, the patient was admitted to the cardiology service due to global heart failure, fever and poor response to d [...] iuretic and vasodilator therapy. A transesophageal echocardiogram showed images compatible with vegetations in the aortic, pulmonary, and mitral valves. A diagnosis of infective endocarditis was made. Growth of gram-negative coccobacilli was observed in two blood culture sets. The microorganism was finally identified as Bordetella holmesii.The patient was treated with ceftriaxone 1 g every 12 hours for 28 days with favorable outcome.

  6. Endocarditis and meningitis associated to nape piercing in a young female: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Andrea; Pisapia, Raffaella; Abdeddaim, Amina; Taibi, Chiara; Rianda, Alessia; Vincenzi, Laura; D'Offizi, Gianpiero

    2015-09-01

    Body piercing is a social phenomenon on the rise especially among young people. This procedure may be complicated by serious bacterial and viral infections. We report a case of Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis and meningitis arising from the site of a nape piercing, after its removal. A 21-year-old Italian female was admitted to hospital with neurological impairment and sepsis. A diagnosis of endocarditis associated with meningitis by S. aureus, complicated by septic emboli in the brain, retina, skin and kidney, was formulated on the basis of modified Duke's criteria. The likely port-of-entry was the site of a nape piercing, removed two months before. In view of the widespread practice of body piercing, provision of correct and timely information concerning the associated serious risks is now imperative. Such information should emphasise the option for antibiotic prophylaxis, and the importance of careful local hygiene, even after piercing removal. PMID:26397300

  7. Coxiella burnetii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazar, Jan

    2005-12-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes a worldwide zoonosis, Q fever, and can be misused as a biological warfare agent. Infection in animals (coxiellosis) is mostly persistent. Infection in humans is often asymptomatic, but it can manifest as an acute disease (usually a self-limited flu-like illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis) or as a chronic form (mainly endocarditis, but also hepatitis and chronic fatigue syndrome). C. burnetii infection in pregnant women may result in abortions, premature deliveries, and stillbirths. Infection in nature is maintained and transmitted by ticks as the principal vector and reservoir. Cattle, sheep, and goats are the most important source of human infections. Humans contract C. burnetii infection mostly by aerosol in contact with contaminated environs, wind playing an important factor in spreading the infection. The wide distribution of C. burnetii contributes to a high resistance of its extracellular small cell variant to environmental conditions. Its intracellular large cell variant, adapted to survive under harsh conditions of phagolysosomes, enables long-term survival and persistence of C. burnetii, namely in monocytes/macrophages. Host factors such as underlying disease and cell-mediated immunity play a decisive role in the clinical expression of C. burnetii infection. Complete genome analysis of C. burnetii will certainly contribute to better understanding of the pathogenesis of C. burnetii infection and will improve Q fever diagnosis and immunoprophylaxis. PMID:16481501

  8. A Widely Used In Vitro Biofilm Assay Has Questionable Clinical Significance for Enterococcal Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Leuck, Anne-Marie; Johnson, James R; Dunny, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of infections caused by Enterococcus faecalis, including endocarditis. Most biofilm studies use a polystyrene dish assay to quantify biofilm biomass. However, recent studies of E. faecalis strains in tissue and animal models suggest that polystyrene dish results need to be interpreted with caution. We evaluated 158 clinical E. faecalis isolates using a polystyrene dish assay and found variation in biofilm formation, with many is...

  9. A Misinterpreted Case of Aorta Prosthesis Endocarditis : Remember The Phenomenon of Microbubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Christian Johann; Haugan, Ketil JØrgen

    2013-01-01

    A 17-year-old male with a history of newly implanted mechanical valve at the aortic position, presented with fever, rigors, and painful cutaneous abscesses on his lower extremities and was suspected for infective endocarditis. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed a vegetation-like structure following the movement of the mechanical heart valve (MHV), which eventually proved to be a product of degassing microbubbles (MB).

  10. Cardiac device-related endocarditis: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment – a review

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, Shimon; Yahalom, Malka

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac device-related endocarditis (CDE) is a phenomenon for which incidence is on the rise; it presents difficult management problems to the clinician. On one hand, there is the patient who needs the implanted device, and the potential morbidity and mortality associated with its removal. On the other hand, there is the problem of a persistent infection – usually acquired during insertion of an electrical device – that is resistant to many antibiotics, has a high recurrence rate, and necessi...

  11. Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Pasteurella in a penicillin allergic patient: challenges in diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Satta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is a rare cause of infective endocarditis with only a few cases described. This report involves a 38-year-old penicillin-allergic patient in an immunocompromised state with several co-morbidities. Two molecular microbiological techniques, 16S rRNA sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to confirm the species identification as P. multocida. Previous reports in the literature are also reviewed.

  12. Tricuspid valve endocarditis associated with intravenous nyoape use: A report of 3 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, Meel; F, Peters; M R, Essop.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report three cases of tricuspid valve infective endocarditis associated with intravenous nyoape use. Nyoape is a variable drug combination of an antiretroviral (efavirenz or ritonavir), heroin, metamphetamines and cannabis. Its use is becoming increasingly common among poor communities in South A [...] frica. All our patients were young HIV-positive men from disadvantaged backgrounds. They all presented with tricuspid regurgitation and septic pulmonary emboli. They were treated with prolonged intravenous antibiotic courses, and one required referral for surgery.

  13. Complication of nasal piercing by Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis: a case report and a review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliana, Battagin; Loredana, Sarmati; Pasquale, Sordillo; Giovanna, Picchi; Giorgio, Calisti; Laura, Ceccarelli; Pellegrino, Antonio; Paolo, Nardi; Luigi, Chiariello; Massimo, Andreoni

    2010-01-01

    Body piercing, a growing trend especially in young people, is often complicated by severe infections. We present a case of acute bacterial endocarditis by Staphylococcus aureus complicated by multiple cerebral, kidney, spleen embolisms in a young girl, with no known previous cardiac abnormalities, following the piercing of nasal septum. This case highlights the importance of education of patients with and without structural heart disease to the potential dangerous and even life threatening in...

  14. Endocardite por lactococcus garvieae: primeiro relato de caso da América Latina / Lactococcus garvieae endocarditis: first case report in Latin America / Endocarditis por lactococcus garvieae: primer relato de caso de América Latina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana Franco, Hirakawa; Fernando Augusto Alves da, Costa; Marcos Cairo, Vilela; Micheli, Rigon; Henry, Abensur; Maria Rita Elmor de, Araújo.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus garvieae, patógeno zoonótico emergente, é responsável por mastite em ruminantes e septicemia em peixes. Embora seja considerado oportunista e raramente causar infecções em humanos, sua incidência deve estar subestimada devido à dificuldade do diagnóstico. Há pouquíssimos relatos de osteo [...] mielite, abscesso hepático e peritonite, e apenas nove casos descritos na literatura mundial de endocardite. Relatamos o primeiro caso de endocardite por Lactococcus garvieae da América Latina em paciente portadora de prótese valvar metálica, com quadro de febre diária, calafrios, nodos de Osler e seis hemoculturas positivas para Lactococcus garvieae, que preenchiam os critérios de Duke para o diagnóstico de "endocardite infecciosa definitiva" Abstract in spanish Lactococcus garvieae, patógeno zoonótico emergente, es responsable por mastitis en rumiantes y septicemia en peces. Aunque sea considerado oportunista y raramente cause infecciones en humanos, su incidencia debe estar subestimada debido a la dificultad del diagnóstico. Hay poquísimos relatos de oste [...] omielitis, absceso hepático y peritonitis, y apenas nueve casos descriptos en la literatura mundial de endocarditis. Relatamos el primer caso de endocarditis por Lactococcus garvieae de América Latina en paciente portadora de prótesis valvar metálica, con cuadro de fiebre diaria, escalofríos, nódulos de Osler y seis hemocultivos positivos para Lactococcus garvieae, que llenaban los criterios de Duke para el diagnóstico de "endocarditis infecciosa definitiva" Abstract in english Lactococcus garvieae, an emerging zoonotic pathogen, is responsible for mastitis in rodents and sepsis in fish. Although deemed opportunistic and hardly ever causing infections in humans, its incidence is probably underestimated due to the difficulty in diagnosis. There are very few reports of osteo [...] myelitis, liver abscess, and peritonitis, and only nine cases of endocarditis described in worldwide literature. We describe the first case of Lactococcus garvieae endocarditis in Latin America, in a female patient with metallic prosthetic heart valve who presented with daily fever, chills, Osler nodes and six positive blood cultures for Lactococcus garvieae, which met Duke's criteria for the diagnosis of "definitive infective endocarditis"

  15. Endocarditis por Trichoderma longibrachiatum en paciente con nutrición parenteral domiciliaria / Endocarditis caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatum and parenteral nutrition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura I., Rodríguez Peralta; M.ª Reyes, Mañas Vera; Manuel J., García Delgado; Antonio J., Pérez De la Cruz.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La modalidad domiciliaria de la nutrición parenteral (NPD) mejora la calidad de vida de los pacientes, pero tiene complicaciones como infecciones asociadas a catéter (IAC) y complicaciones mecánicas. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con NPD por intestino corto que desarrolla una endocarditis sobre [...] catéter con matices especiales: asentar sobre un catéter abandonado en aurícula derecha y tratarse de una infección con participación de un microorganismo no descrito hasta el momento en esta patología, Trichoderma longibrachiatum. El catéter se extrajo mediante cirugía convencional. En la pieza quirúrgica se aislaron Staphylococcus epidermidis, Ochrobactrum anthropi y Trichoderma longibrachiatum. Combinando el tratamiento antibiótico y la eliminación del foco infeccioso se consiguió la recuperación completa. Ochrobactrum anthropi y Trichoderma longibrachiatum son microorganismos poco habituales, pero que cada vez adquieren mayor relevancia. Aunque no existe acuerdo en el manejo de los catéteres intravasculares "abandonados", es recomendable el seguimiento y eliminarlos en caso de complicación. Abstract in english Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) improves the quality of life of the patients although it has complications. Catheter-related infections and mechanical complications are the most frequent ones. We report the case of endocarditis over catheter in a man suffering from short bowel and receiving HPN. The [...] special features of the case are firstly the catheter was a remaining fragment on the right atrial and secondly the infection was caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an isolated fact regarding this pathology so far. Conventional surgery was applied to take the catheter out. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Trichoderma longibrachiatum were isolated from the surgical specimen. The extraction of the infected catheter along with antibiotic therapy led to the complete recovery of the subject. Ochrobactrum anthropi and Trichoderma longibrachiatum are unusual microorganisms but they are acquiring more relevance. Although there is no agreement about intravascular retained catheter management, the most recommended approach consists on monitoring them and removing the device in case of complications.

  16. Endocarditis por Coxiella burnetii: fiebre Q Coxiella burnetii endocarditis: Q fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Betancur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La fiebre Q es una zoonosis causada por Coxiella burnetii; más frecuente en Europa pero reportada en otros continentes, puede cursar en forma aguda o crónica. La endocarditis es una forma de presentación crónica con curso insidioso y se asocia frecuentemente a fenómenos embólicos, representa 1% de todos los casos de endocarditis en el mundo. El diagnóstico se realiza por la sospecha clínica, cultivos negativos para patógenos convencionales y la confirmación serológica. Este artículo describe el caso clínico de un paciente con endocarditis causada por Coxiella burnetii y se revisa la literatura. (Acta Med Colomb 2012: 37: 31-33.Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Q fever may present as subacute or chronic endocarditis, has a high incidence of embolic phenomena and is often fatal, representing 1% of all cases of endocarditis worldwide. Q fever most commonly presents an insidious course. The diagnosis is made by clinical suspicion after serial blood cultures for conventional pathogens are negative and by serological confirmation. This article describes the clinical case of a patient with endocarditis caused Coxiella burnetii and updated review of the literature. (Acta Med Colomb 2012: 37: 31-33.

  17. Endocarditis por Coxiella burnetii: fiebre Q / Coxiella burnetii endocarditis: Q fever

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Alberto, Betancur; Ana G, Múnera.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La fiebre Q es una zoonosis causada por Coxiella burnetii; más frecuente en Europa pero reportada en otros continentes, puede cursar en forma aguda o crónica. La endocarditis es una forma de presentación crónica con curso insidioso y se asocia frecuentemente a fenómenos embólicos, representa 1% de t [...] odos los casos de endocarditis en el mundo. El diagnóstico se realiza por la sospecha clínica, cultivos negativos para patógenos convencionales y la confirmación serológica. Este artículo describe el caso clínico de un paciente con endocarditis causada por Coxiella burnetii y se revisa la literatura. (Acta Med Colomb 2012: 37: 31-33). Abstract in english Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Q fever may present as subacute or chronic endocarditis, has a high incidence of embolic phenomena and is often fatal, representing 1% of all cases of endocarditis worldwide. Q fever most commonly presents an insidious course. The diagnosis is made [...] by clinical suspicion after serial blood cultures for conventional pathogens are negative and by serological confirmation. This article describes the clinical case of a patient with endocarditis caused Coxiella burnetii and updated review of the literature. (Acta Med Colomb 2012: 37: 31-33).

  18. Probabilidad diagnóstica de endocarditis infecciosa antes de la realización del ecocardiograma.: Sobreutilización del ecocardiograma transesofágico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GUSTAVO, VIGNOLO; RAúL, CENTURIóN; ANíBAL, MANFREDI; ALEJANDRO, FERREIRO; RUBEN, CANO; MARCELA, VALENTINI; ROSANA, SCARPELLI; CARLOS, CODINA; VIRGINIA, MICHELIS; CARLOS, ROMERO.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El ecocardiograma es una herramienta ampliamente utilizada y de elevado valor para el diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa (EI). En nuestro centro hospitalario se indica en forma rutinaria el ecocardiograma transesofágico (ETE) para valorar este diagnóstico y sólo en caso de contraindicaci [...] ón se limita la valoración al ecocardiograma transtorácico (ETT). Objetivo: individualizar criterios clínicos y microbiológicos que permitan identificar una población en la que el ETE aporte información diagnóstica útil, racionalizando su uso. Material y método: registro prospectivo de 116 pacientes referidos para diagnóstico de EI por medio de ETE por el médico tratante. Se comparó el resultado ecocardiográfico con el diagnóstico de cierre de la historia clínica y con el que resultó de la aplicación en los criterios de Duke. Se realizó análisis univariado y multivariado para detectar condiciones clínicas asociadas con el diagnóstico de EI. Resultados: se comprobaron 23 casos de EI como diagnóstico de cierre de la historia clínica, de los cuales 14 fueron EI definida (EID), ocho posibles (EIP) en ausencia de hemocultivos (HC) positivos y uno rechazada, que fue excluida del resto del análisis. El ETE fue positivo en 20 casos (17,2%), que coincidieron con 20 de los casos positivos por cierre de la historia (90,9%). Los dos casos no diagnosticados por ETE fueron diagnosticados por ETT, por lo que el ecocardiograma en conjunto fue positivo en 100% de las EID y de las EI por cierre de la historia. El análisis multivariado mostró que la presencia de cardiopatía predisponente pre ETE, dos o más HC positivos y la ausencia de un foco no endovascular, implica una probabilidad de 88% de EID, en tanto que la ausencia de estos tres elementos implica una probabilidad de 0% de EID o 7,8% de EIP. Conclusiones: existe una sobreindicación de ETE para el diagnóstico de EI. La ausencia dos o más HC positivos, la existencia de cardiopatía predisponente y la ausencia de un foco infeccioso no endovascular podrían implicar la no realización de ETE. Si se hubiera limitado la realización de ETE a los pacientes que cumplieran con estos criterios se hubieran realizado 68 (58,6%) estudios menos inicialmente. Abstract in english SUMMARY Transesophage echocardiogram (ETE) is an efficient tool for infective endocarditis (EI). Objective: to individualize clinical criteria to identify populations in which ETE is efficient to diagnosis. Methods: a prospective study of 116 patients suspected of EI who underwent ETE. Echocardiogra [...] phic results were compared to those obtained by clinical history analysis and Duke criteria. Uni and multivaried analysis were used to determine clinical conditions associated with EI. Results: 23 cases of EI were found as conclusion of clinical history analysis, among them 14 were definitive (EID). ETE was positive in 22 cases (18.96%) included in the 23 cases above-mentioned; ETE was positive for suspected infective endocarditis (EIP) in 8 cases, without positive blood cultures (HC). Multivariate analysis showed that presence of cardiopathy prior to ETE, 2 or more positive HC and lack of non-endovascular focus implies an 88% probability of EID. Lack of these criteria indicates 0% probability of EID and 7.8% probability of EIP. Conclusions: there is an overindicated use of ETE for EI. Lack of 2 or more positive HC, predispositional cardiopathy and lack of infectious non-endovascular focus might imply no use of ETE. If ETE would have been limitated to these criteria, 67.9 (58.5%) could have been saved.

  19. Scintigraphic detection of acute experimental endocarditis with the technetium-99m labelled glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist DMP444

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial endocarditis is an important clinical problem that may result in persistent bacteraemia and irreversible cardiac damage. Since endocarditis is characterized by aggregation of activated platelets, fibrin and bacteria, we studied DMP444, a technetium-99m labelled high-affinity antagonist of the GP IIb/IIIa receptor that is expressed on activated platelets. In seven Beagle dogs (11-15 kg), the left ventricle was catheterized via the right carotid artery. One hour later, 5 x 107 colony forming units of Staphylococcus aureus were injected intracardially. Half an hour later, the catheter was removed. Two extra dogs underwent a complete sham procedure. One day after the intervention, five infected and the two non-infected dogs were injected with 37 MBq/kg 99mTc-DMP444 and two infected dogs with 37 MBq/kg 99mTc-IgG (used as a non-specific control agent) and imaged up to 4 h after injection. Samples were obtained for tissue counting, microbiology and histology. From 1 to 2 h post injection onward, there was clear focal accumulation of DMP444 in the aortic valve region when endocarditis was present, and this accumulation increased with time. The non-infected and the 99mTc-IgG injected dogs showed only persisting blood pool activity without any focal abnormality. At 4 h post injection, the in vivo valve-to-blood pool ratios were 1.87±0.18 in endocarditis, 1.01±0.05 in non-infected controls and 1.09±0.02 in 99mTc-IgG injected dogs (P99mTc-labelled GP IIb/IIIa antagonist DMP444 allows a final diagnosis of experimental bacterial endocarditis within 4 h owing to high, specific and fast in vivo uptake. (orig.)

  20. Trombosis de vena cava inferior y endocarditis en un paciente prematuro: Caso clínico / Inferior vena cava thrombosis and endocarditis in a premature patient: Case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea, Parra Buitrago; Natalia Andrea, Valencia Zuluaga; Andrés Felipe, Uribe Murillo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La trombosis de la vena cava inferior corresponde a un porcentaje importante de las trombosis venosas en la etapa neonatal, generalmente asociado a factores de riesgo como el uso de catéter venoso central. La incidencia de endocarditis bacteriana en recién nacidos prematuros es baja. Objetivos: Cara [...] cterizar el caso de un neonato pretérmino en que se asociaron ambas patologías y detallar el espectro cambiante de esta enfermedad en la población neonatal y sus posibilidades terapéuticas. Caso clínico: Recién nacido prematuro de 31 + 5 semanas de gestación, que presentó bacteriemia por Enterococo faecalis, evolucionó con trombosis progresiva de la vena cava inferior y aurícula derecha secundaria al uso de catéter venoso umbilical, con posterior diagnóstico de endocarditis. Se manejó con anticoagulación con heparina de bajo peso molecular en forma subcutánea, dada evolución favorable, se decidió continuar manejo médico con terapia anticoagulante por 4-6 semanas, y al alta manejo con aspirina. Conclusiones: El neonato pretérmino con endocarditis infecciosa y trombo intracardiaco presentan un dilema interesante de manejo, por lo cual se debe individualizar el tratamiento según la evolución clínica y el perfil de seguridad de los agentes trombolíticos y/o anticoagulantes. La disponibilidad y las ventajas de la heparina de bajo peso molecular ha dado lugar a su uso como una alternativa de tratamiento en neonatos y niños con trombosis venosa profunda. Abstract in english Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava represents a significant percentage of all venous thrombosis that take place during the neonatal period, generally associated with risk factors such as the use of central venous catheter. The incidence of bacterial endocarditis in preterm infants is low. Objectiv [...] es: To characterize the case of a preterm neonate with both conditions and to detail the disease changing spectrum in the neonatal population and its therapeutic possibilities. Case report: Premature newborn, 31 + 5 weeks of gestation who presented Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia, developed progressive thrombosis of the inferior vena cava and right atrium secondary to the use of umbilical venous catheter, with subsequent diagnosis of endocarditis. He was treated with anticoagulation with subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin. Given a favorable evolution, it was decided to continue the anticoagulation therapy for 4-6 weeks, and at the time of discharge, aspirin treatment was given. Conclusions: The preterm infant with infective endocarditis and intracardiac thrombus presents an interesting management dilemma. Treatment should be individualized according to the clinical evolution and safety profile of thrombolytic and/or anticoagulant agents. Availability and advantages of low molecular weight heparin have led to its use as an alternative treatment in neonates and infants with deep venous thrombosis.

  1. An atypical temporal sequence for right heart endocarditis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Paloma

    2013-06-01

    In 2010, an 82-year-old patient received a diagnosis of stage IV chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, severe secondary pulmonary hypertension, atrial fibrillation with slow ventricular response, and severe tricuspid regurgitation. In December 2011, he was hospitalized for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The patient received antibiotics via injections (for 2 weeks through a peripheral venous catheter). In February 2012, he returned to the hospital with congestive heart failure and vascular purpura skin lesions. The echocardiography examination revealed a rupture of cordage afferent to the septal tricuspid valve. Because blood cultures were sterile after 10 days and no vegetation was revealed, the Duke criteria were not fulfilled. In March 2012, the patient returned with congestive heart failure, fatigue, and anorexia. Echocardiography evaluation then revealed attached septal tricuspid valve vegetation. The Duke criteria were now satisfied. The patient received antibiotics at doses recommended for infective endocarditis, with a favorable outcome. PMID:23803237

  2. Nocardial endocarditis of an aortic valve prosthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ertl, G.; Schaal, K P; Kochsiek, K

    1987-01-01

    The organism responsible for endocarditis of a prosthetic aortic valve was identified as Nocardia asteroides. The patient was treated with intravenous amikacin (250 mg four times a day) and intravenous imipenem (1.5 g four times a day). The valve was replaced under this new antibiotic regimen. This is the first report of survival after prosthetic valve nocardiosis.

  3. Löffler endocarditis with multiple cerebral embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuzhen; Wang, Aiqin; Guo, Bin; Zhu, Shaowei; Chi, Zhaofu; Zhao, Xiuhe

    2014-07-01

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome is an uncommon leukoproliferative systemic disorder characterized by the sustained eosinophilia and target organ damage. We report the case of a 56-year-old man presenting with multiple cerebral embolism, Löffler endocarditis, and hypereosinophilia. This patient also had pleural, bone marrow, and skin involvement. The unique feature was multifocal embolisms in the brain. PMID:24529355

  4. Surgical management of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the current era: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Matthew S; Coffey, Sean; Prendergast, Bernard D; Marasco, Silvana F; Zimmet, Adam D; McGiffin, David C; Saxena, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of isolated tricuspid valve infective endocarditis is increasing. Medical management is the mainstay of treatment but surgical intervention is required in a subset of patients. Surgical treatment options include valve excision and replacement or valve reconstruction. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane library to identify articles to be included in this review of surgical outcomes. References of selected articles were crosschecked for other relevant studies. Surgical management of tricuspid valve endocarditis can be achieved with satisfactory outcomes. However, the optimal indication and timing of surgery remain unclear, and the frequent association with intravenous drug use complicates management. Repair techniques are preferable though there is no clear evidence supporting one method over another. PMID:26386918

  5. Comparison of heart valve culture between two Danish endocarditis centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, Marianne; Fuursted, Kurt; Bruun, Niels Eske; Arpi, Rolf Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Background: The degree to which the results of valve culture depend on different laboratory procedures as well as other factors is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the results of heart valve culture at 2 different endocarditis centres in order to clarify this. Methods: The study included 223 patients with definitive endocarditis undergoing heart valve surgery at 2 Danish endocarditis centres (96 at the East centre and 127 at the West centre). The following data related to the sample...

  6. Endocardite por Streptococcus gallolyticus em portadora de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico: avaliação pelo ecocardiograma tridimensional / Streptococcus gallolyticus infective endocarditis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: a three-dimensional echocardiography evaluation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rudyney Eduardo Uchôa de, Azevedo; Ana Clara Tude, Rodrigues; Lucas Arraes de, França; Maria Luciana Zacarias Hannouche da, Trindade; Marcelo Luiz Campos, Vieira; Claudio Henrique, Fischer; Samira Saady, Morhy.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mulher de 42 anos foi encaminhada ao hospital com história de febre e queda do estado geral há 30 dias. À admissão, apresentava taquicardia e sopro sistólico na região apical. Os exames de laboratório mostraram leucocitose com 13.100/mL, hemoglobina 8,4g/dL e anticorpos positivos para lúpus eritemat [...] oso sistêmico (anti-Ro/SSA, anti-La/SSB, anticardiolipina e anticorpo antinuclear); hemocultura foi positiva para Streptococcus gallolyticus. Foi realizado um ecocardiograma transesofágico tridimensional, que mostrou múltiplas vegetações na valva mitral, com perfuração do folheto e refluxo importante, além de grande vegetação aórtica com perfuração valvar e refluxo importante adicionalmente. Pequena vegetação foi identificada na valva tricúspide, com um refluxo significativo. O emprego da ecocardiografia transesofágica tridimensional proporcionou o diagnóstico de complicações decorrentes de endocardite infecciosa. Abstract in english A 42 year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a history of fever and poor general status for the last 30 days. She presented tachycardia and a systolic apical murmur. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis of 13,100/mL, hemoglobin of 8.4g/dL and positive systemic lupus erythematosus antibodi [...] es (anti-Ro/SSA, anti-La/SSB, anticardiolipin, and antinuclear antibodies); blood culture was positive for Streptococcus gallolyticus. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography was performed and revealed multiple mitral valve vegetations, with leaflet perforation and important mitral regurgitation, as well as large aortic vegetation, with cusp perforation and severe regurgitation. Additionally, a small vegetation was observed on the tricuspid valve, which presented moderate regurgitation. Threedimensional transesophageal echocardiography provides appropriate visualization of complications resulting from infectious endocarditis.

  7. [Necrotising endocarditis of mitral valve due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Güven; Büyükate?, Mustafa; Do?an, Sait Mesut; Pi?kin, Nihal; Aydemir, Hande; Oztoprak, Nefise; Akta?, Elif; Bekta?, Sibel; Keskin, Ay?egül; Akduman, Deniz

    2009-04-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an infrequent cause of infective endocarditis (IE) and usually involves native valves of the heart. It causes life-threatening events such as rupture of cardiac valve or cerebral or pulmonary embolism due to necrosis on the endocardial tissue involved by the bacteria. Antibiotic therapy without cardiac surgery or delayed cardiac surgery usually follows a fatal course in S. lugdunensis endocarditis. In this report the first case of S. lugdunensis endocarditis from Turkey was presented. A 37-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with a 2-weeks history of fever chills and accompanying intermittent pain on the left side of the thorax. Other than recurrent folliculitis continuing for 20 years, his history was unremarkable. Echocardiography revealed vegetation on the mitral valve of the patient and vancomycin plus gentamicin were initiated with the diagnosis of IE. All blood cultures (5 sets) taken on admission and within the initial 48 hours of the antibiotic therapy yielded S. lugdunensis. According to the susceptibility test results, the antibiotic therapy was switched to ampicillin-sulbactam plus rifampin. Blood cultures became negative after the third day of therapy, however, cardiac failure was emerged due to rupture of mitral valve and chorda tendiniea on the 12th day of the therapy. Cardiac surgery revealed that mitral valve and surrounding tissue of the valve were evidently necrotic and fragile, anterior leaflet of the mitral valve was covered with vegetation, posterior leaflet and chorda tendiniea were ruptured. Vegetation was removed and the destructed mitral valve was replaced with a mechanical valve. Vegetation culture remained sterile, however, antibiotics were switched to vancomycin plus rifampin due to persistent fever on the 21st day of the therapy (9th day of operation). Fever resolved four days after the antibiotic switch. Antibiotics were stopped on the 9th weeks of admission and the patient was discharged. He had no problem in follow-up controls for one year. In conclusion, proper antibiotic therapy combined with early cardiac surgery seems to be the optimal therapeutic approach in IE caused by S. lugdunensis. PMID:19621620

  8. Propionibacterium acnes prosthetic valve endocarditis with abscess formation: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Endocarditis due to Propionibacterium acnes is a rare disease. Scant data on treatment of these infections is available and is based on case reports only. If the disease is complicated by abscess formation, surgical intervention combined with an antibiotic therapy might improve clinical outcome. In some cases, cardiac surgeons are reluctant to perform surgery, since they consider the intervention as high risk. Therefore, a conservative therapy is required, with little, if any evidence to choose the optimal antibiotic. We report the first case of a successfully treated patient with P. acnes prosthetic valve endocarditis without surgery. Case presentation We report the case of a 29-year-old patient with a prosthetic valve endocarditis and composite graft infection with abscess formation of the left ventricular outflow tract due to P. acnes. Since cardiac surgery was considered as high risk, the patient was treated intravenously with ceftriaxone 2 g qd and rifampin 600 mg bid for 7 weeks and was switched to an oral therapy with levofloxacin 500 mg bid and rifampin 600 mg bid for an additional 6 months. Two sets of blood cultures collected six weeks after completion of treatment remained negative. The patient is considered to be cured based on absence of clinical signs and symptoms, normal laboratory parameters, negative radiology scans and negative blood cultures, determined at site visits over two years after completion of treatment. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first successfully managed patient with P. acnes prosthetic valve endocarditis with abscess formation of the left ventricular outflow tract who was treated with antibiotics alone without a surgical intervention. A six month treatment with a rifampin and levofloxacin combination was chosen, based on the excellent activity against stationary-phase and adherent bacteria. PMID:24568204

  9. Endocarditis infecciosa, experiencia de diez años en un centro de referencia nacional / Infectious endocarditis, 10 years of experience in a national reference center

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elsa, Fleitas Ruisánchez; Andrés, Savío Benavides; Jorge, Ponce Bittar; Carlos, García Guevara; Xiomara, Calzadilla Mesa.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudiar las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y microbiológicas, así como el tratamiento médico quirúrgico de los pacientes ingresados con el diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa, con el propósito de profundizar en su estudio y contribuir a un mejor tratamiento a estos pacientes [...] . Métodos: se estudiaron 24 pacientes procedentes de todo el país, egresados con el diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa. Los datos fueron recogidos de las historias clínicas procedentes del archivo del Hospital "William Soler", y de la base de datos del servicio de cirugía del cardiocentro. Se determinó la frecuencia de las diferentes manifestaciones de la endocarditis infecciosa según: grupos etarios, factores de riesgo, y los datos clínicos, de laboratorio y microbiológicos más frecuentes. Además, se determinó la toma valvular predominante, la etiología y su respuesta a los antibióticos. Resultados: el grupo de edad más afectado fue entre 5 y 18 años; la cardiopatía previa fue el factor de riesgo predominante; los síntomas y signos más frecuentes fueron la fiebre, la anorexia y la pérdida de peso. La insuficiencia cardiaca y el embolismo pulmonar fueron complicaciones frecuentes. La mayoría de los pacientes tuvo una eritrosedimentación acelerada, y la cuarta parte de los casos presentaron hemocultivos negativos. Las válvulas aórtica y mitral resultaron las más afectadas, y el curso clínico que predominó fue el subagudo. En casi la mitad de los pacientes la infección tuvo un origen nosocomial. Los antimicrobianos más utilizados fueron la amikacina, la vancomicina y la ceftriaxona. Conclusiones: la endocarditis infecciosa es poco frecuente en nuestra institución, ocurre más a menudo en relación con las cardiopatías congénitas. Los hechos clínicos más constantes fueron la fiebre y el antecedente de cardiopatía previa. Abstract in english Objective: to study the clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristics as well as the surgical medical treatment of patients admitted diagnosed with infectious endocarditis to deepen in its study and to contribute to a better treatment for these patients. Methods: twenty four patients [...] from whole country, discharged with the diagnosis of infectious endocarditis. Data were collect from the medical records of the "William Soler" Children Hospital files and from the database of surgery service of heart center. The frequency of different manifestations of infectious endocarditis was determined according to: age groups, risk factors and the more frequent clinical, laboratory and microbiologic data. Also, the predominant valvular take, the etiology and the response to antibiotics were determined. Results: the more involved age group was between 5 and 18 years; the previous heart disease was the more predominant factor; the more frequent symptoms and signs were: fever, anorexia and weight loss. The heart failure and the pulmonary embolism were frequent complications. Most of patients had an accelerated erythrosedimentation and the fourth of cases had negative blood cultures. The aortic and mitral valves were the more involved and the predominant clinical course was the subacute. In almost the half of patients the infection had a nosocomial origin. The more used antimicrobial agents were amikacin, vancomycin and ceftriaxone. Conclusions: the infectious endocarditis is uncommon in our institution occurs more often in relation to congenital heart diseases. The more constant clinical facts were fever and a history of previous heart disease.

  10. Endocarditis infecciosa, experiencia de diez años en un centro de referencia nacional Infectious endocarditis, 10 years of experience in a national reference center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Fleitas Ruisánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudiar las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y microbiológicas, así como el tratamiento médico quirúrgico de los pacientes ingresados con el diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa, con el propósito de profundizar en su estudio y contribuir a un mejor tratamiento a estos pacientes. Métodos: se estudiaron 24 pacientes procedentes de todo el país, egresados con el diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa. Los datos fueron recogidos de las historias clínicas procedentes del archivo del Hospital "William Soler", y de la base de datos del servicio de cirugía del cardiocentro. Se determinó la frecuencia de las diferentes manifestaciones de la endocarditis infecciosa según: grupos etarios, factores de riesgo, y los datos clínicos, de laboratorio y microbiológicos más frecuentes. Además, se determinó la toma valvular predominante, la etiología y su respuesta a los antibióticos. Resultados: el grupo de edad más afectado fue entre 5 y 18 años; la cardiopatía previa fue el factor de riesgo predominante; los síntomas y signos más frecuentes fueron la fiebre, la anorexia y la pérdida de peso. La insuficiencia cardiaca y el embolismo pulmonar fueron complicaciones frecuentes. La mayoría de los pacientes tuvo una eritrosedimentación acelerada, y la cuarta parte de los casos presentaron hemocultivos negativos. Las válvulas aórtica y mitral resultaron las más afectadas, y el curso clínico que predominó fue el subagudo. En casi la mitad de los pacientes la infección tuvo un origen nosocomial. Los antimicrobianos más utilizados fueron la amikacina, la vancomicina y la ceftriaxona. Conclusiones: la endocarditis infecciosa es poco frecuente en nuestra institución, ocurre más a menudo en relación con las cardiopatías congénitas. Los hechos clínicos más constantes fueron la fiebre y el antecedente de cardiopatía previa.Objective: to study the clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristics as well as the surgical medical treatment of patients admitted diagnosed with infectious endocarditis to deepen in its study and to contribute to a better treatment for these patients. Methods: twenty four patients from whole country, discharged with the diagnosis of infectious endocarditis. Data were collect from the medical records of the "William Soler" Children Hospital files and from the database of surgery service of heart center. The frequency of different manifestations of infectious endocarditis was determined according to: age groups, risk factors and the more frequent clinical, laboratory and microbiologic data. Also, the predominant valvular take, the etiology and the response to antibiotics were determined. Results: the more involved age group was between 5 and 18 years; the previous heart disease was the more predominant factor; the more frequent symptoms and signs were: fever, anorexia and weight loss. The heart failure and the pulmonary embolism were frequent complications. Most of patients had an accelerated erythrosedimentation and the fourth of cases had negative blood cultures. The aortic and mitral valves were the more involved and the predominant clinical course was the subacute. In almost the half of patients the infection had a nosocomial origin. The more used antimicrobial agents were amikacin, vancomycin and ceftriaxone. Conclusions: the infectious endocarditis is uncommon in our institution occurs more often in relation to congenital heart diseases. The more constant clinical facts were fever and a history of previous heart disease.

  11. Radionuclide Imaging of Cardiovascular Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fozia Zahir; James, Jackie; Memmott, Matthew J; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2016-02-01

    Owing to expanding clinical indications, cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are being increasingly used. Despite improved surgical techniques and the use of prophylactic antimicrobial therapy, the rate of CIED-related infection is also increasing. Infection is a potentially serious complication, with clinical manifestations ranging from surgical site infection and local symptoms in the region of the generator pocket to fulminant endocarditis. The utility of radionuclide imaging as a stand-alone noninvasive diagnostic imaging test in patients with suspected endocarditis has been less frequently examined. This article summarizes the recent advances in radionuclide imaging for evaluation of patients with suspected cardiovascular infections. PMID:26590786

  12. [Infectious endocarditis in a patient with multiple sclerosis--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prystupa, Andrzej; Mosiewicz, Jerzy

    2003-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is chronic demyelination disease associated with complex immunological disorders, resulting in increased susceptibility to different infections. A case of woman, aged 40 with multiple sclerosis who was admitted to the Internal Medicine Ward because of severe general state, fever of seven-day duration and systolic murmur in apex area is discussed in this paper. Clinical status and performed diagnostics, among others; echocardiography, blood cultures, abdominal ultrasonography, allowed to diagnose infective endocarditis caused by Enterococcus faecalis. Antibiotics as follows: augmentin, cefuroxim, cefotaxim and vancomycin were administered parenterally. As a result of the treatment normalization of temperature and complete recovery were obtained. PMID:15058172

  13. [Early and Mid-term Outcomes of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin, Hajime; Takanashi, Shuichiro

    2015-10-01

    Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is associated with high mortality and reoperation rates despite diagnostic and therapeutic improvements. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 35 patients who had undergone reoperative cardiac surgery for PVE in our hospital between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2014. The mean age of the patients was 68±12 years, and 15( 42%) of those patients were women. Early PVE was defined as PVE that occurred within 1 year after the surgery;12 (34%) patients showed early PVE. The aortic valve was affected in 25;the mitral valve, in 18;and the tricuspid valve, in 2 patients. Streptococcal, staphylococcal, and other infections were observed in 4, 20, and 7 patients, respectively. Aortic valve replacement, mitral valve replacement, double valve replacement, and aortic root reconstruction was performed in 9, 10, 6, and 10, patients, respectively. The 30-day operative and hospital mortality occurred in 4 (11%) patients. All patients who died had developed early PVE and staphylococci infection. The overall 7-year survival and freedom from valve-related reoperation were 63% and 78%, respectively. Surgical management of PVE remains a challenge and is associated with remarkably high morbidity and mortality rates. In our series, early PVE and staphylococcal infection were associated with very poor prognosis. PMID:26469257

  14. Haemophilus aphrophilus Endocarditis after Tongue Piercing

    OpenAIRE

    Akhondi, Hossein; Rahimi, Ali R.

    2002-01-01

    Piercing invades subcutaneous areas and has a high potential for infectious complications. The number of case reports of endocarditis associated with piercing is increasing. We studied a 25-year-old man with a pierced tongue, who arrived at Memorial Health University Medical Center with fever, chills, rigors, and shortness of breath of 6 days duration and had an aortic valvuloplasty for correction of congenital aortic stenosis.

  15. Endocarditis infecciosa en la Unidad de Medicina Intensiva / Infectious endocarditis in the intensive care unit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Miranda-Montero; M., Rodríguez-Esteban; L., Álvarez-Acosta; S., Lubillo-Montenegro; H., Pérez-Hernández; R., Llorens-León.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer las características, evolución y pronóstico de los pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa que requieren tratamiento en la Unidad de Medicina Intensiva. Diseño: Estudio observacional de cohortes prospectivo en pacientes ingresados por endocarditis infecciosa. Ámbito: Hospital Univers [...] itario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, centro con 824 camas y población asignada de 493.145 personas. Pacientes: Todos los pacientes diagnosticados de endocarditis siguiendo los criterios de Duke entre el 1 de enero de 2005 y el 31 de julio de 2011. Variables de interés: Variables demográficas, clínicas, scores de gravedad, hallazgos microbiológicos y ecocardiográficos, mortalidad intrahospitalaria y complicaciones. Resultados: De 102 pacientes diagnosticados de endocarditis, 38 (37%) ingresaron en Medicina Intensiva. Comparándolos con los que no lo hicieron, sufrieron con más frecuencia afectación mitral (OR= 7,13; IC del 95%, 2,12-24; p= 0,002) y embolia cerebral (OR= 3,89; IC del 95%, 1,06-14,3; p= 0,041). La mortalidad fue mayor (42,1 vs 18,8%, p= 0,011), así como la proporción de cirugías urgentes (45,8 vs 5,9%, p Abstract in english Objective: To study the characteristics, evolution and prognosis of patients with infectious endocarditis requiring treatment in the Intensive Care Unit. Design: A prospective, observational cohort study of patients admitted due to infectious endocarditis. Setting: Nuestra Señora de Candelaria Unive [...] rsity Hospital, a third - level center with a recruitment population of 493,145. Patients: All patients consecutively diagnosed with infectious endocarditis in our center according to the Duke criteria, between 1 January 2005 and 31 July 2011. Study variables: Demographic data, clinical severity scores, microbiological and echocardiographic data, hospital mortality and complications. Results: Out of 102 patients diagnosed with endocarditis, 38 (37%) were admitted to Intensive Care. Compared with those patients not admitted to the ICU, these subjects suffered more frequent mitral valve alterations (OR= 7.13; 95%CI: 2.12-24; p= 0.002) and cerebral embolism (OR= 3.89; 95%CI: 1.06-14.3; p= 0.041). In turn, mortality was greater (42.1% vs 18.8%, p= 0.011), as was the proportion of emergency surgeries (45.8% vs 5.9%, p

  16. Acute endocarditis of a percutaneously placed pulmonary valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Karthik V; Olivieri, Laura; Jonas, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Endocarditis of percutaneously placed pulmonary valve is increasingly being recognized and reported as a potentially life-threatening complication. In this report, we discuss a 17-year-old male who presented with septic shock secondary to staphylococcal endocarditis of a percutaneously placed pulmonary valve.

  17. Bacterial endocarditis due to eikenella corrodens: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapatra A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Of all the causes of bacterial endocarditis, HACEK group consisting of Haemophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella Kingae are rare causative agents. We report a case of bacterial endocarditis by E. corrodens, which is one of the members of the HACEK group.

  18. Comparison of antimicrobial agents as therapy for experimental endocarditis: caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacar, Mustafa; Sacar, Suzan; Cevahir, Nural; Onem, Gokhan; Teke, Zafer; Asan, Ali; Turgut, Huseyin; Adali, Fahri; Kaleli, Ilknur; Susam, Ibrahim; Yaylali, Yalin Tolga; Baltalarli, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    We used an experimental rat model to compare the therapeutic efficacy of teicoplanin, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin with that of vancomycin as standard therapy for infective endocarditis.Aortic endocarditis was induced in rats by insertion of a polyethylene catheter into the left ventricle, followed by intravenous inoculation of 106 colony-forming units of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 24 hours later. Forty-eight hours after bacterial challenge, intravenous antibiotic therapies were initiated. There were 6 groups of 8 rats each: uninfected control; infected, untreated control; vancomycin-treated (40 mg/kg twice daily); teicoplanin-treated (20 mg/kg twice daily after a loading dose of 40 mg/kg); linezolid-treated (75 mg/kg 3 times daily for 1 day, then 75 mg/kg twice daily); and quinupristin/dalfopristin-treated (30 mg/kg twice daily and an additional 10 mg/kg dalfopristin infusion over 6 to 12 hr daily). At the end of therapy, the aortic valve vegetations in the drug-treated rats were evaluated microbiologically.Compared with the infected, untreated group, all drug-treated groups had significantly reduced bacterial titers in the vegetations. Vancomycin, teicoplanin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin all effectively reduced the quantitative bacterial cultures of aortic valve vegetations. In addition, there was no significant difference in the comparative efficacy of teicoplanin, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Vancomycin significantly reduced bacterial counts in comparison with linezolid, which was nonetheless also effective.Our experimental model showed that each of the investigated antimicrobial agents was effective in the treatment of infective endocarditis. PMID:20844611

  19. Comparison of Antimicrobial Agents as Therapy for Experimental Endocarditis Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacar, Mustafa; Sacar, Suzan; Cevahir, Nural; Onem, Gokhan; Teke, Zafer; Asan, Ali; Turgut, Huseyin; Adali, Fahri; Kaleli, Ilknur; Susam, Ibrahim; Yaylali, Yalin Tolga; Baltalarli, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    We used an experimental rat model to compare the therapeutic efficacy of teicoplanin, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin with that of vancomycin as standard therapy for infective endocarditis. Aortic endocarditis was induced in rats by insertion of a polyethylene catheter into the left ventricle, followed by intravenous inoculation of 106 colony-forming units of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 24 hours later. Forty-eight hours after bacterial challenge, intravenous antibiotic therapies were initiated. There were 6 groups of 8 rats each: uninfected control; infected, untreated control; vancomycin-treated (40 mg/kg twice daily); teicoplanin-treated (20 mg/kg twice daily after a loading dose of 40 mg/kg); linezolid-treated (75 mg/kg 3 times daily for 1 day, then 75 mg/kg twice daily); and quinupristin/dalfopristin-treated (30 mg/kg twice daily and an additional 10 mg/kg dalfopristin infusion over 6 to 12 hr daily). At the end of therapy, the aortic valve vegetations in the drug-treated rats were evaluated microbiologically. Compared with the infected, untreated group, all drug-treated groups had significantly reduced bacterial titers in the vegetations. Vancomycin, teicoplanin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin all effectively reduced the quantitative bacterial cultures of aortic valve vegetations. In addition, there was no significant difference in the comparative efficacy of teicoplanin, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Vancomycin significantly reduced bacterial counts in comparison with linezolid, which was nonetheless also effective. Our experimental model showed that each of the investigated antimicrobial agents was effective in the treatment of infective endocarditis. PMID:20844611

  20. Endocarditis de válvula protésica por Salmonella no tifoidea / Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis due to Non-Typhoid Salmonella

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta E., Cardús; Romina E., Trossero; Jorge, Curotto Grasiosi; Antonio, Abdala; María J., Torres.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Existen varios factores predisponentes para el desarrollo de endocarditis infecciosa; entre ellos se destacan el antecedente de haber padecido endocarditis infecciosa y el recambio valvular con válvula protésica. La endocarditis infecciosa de válvula protésica producida por Salmonella es una entidad [...] de muy baja incidencia. En esta presentación se describe el caso de una paciente con antecedente de doble recambio valvular, mitral y aórtico, que ingresó con un cuadro de sepsis grave. Se llegó al diagnóstico etiológico de endocarditis infecciosa por Salmonella enteritidis a través de hemocultivos. La paciente tuvo una evolución fulminante y falleció antes de las 24 horas. Abstract in english There are several predisposing factors for the development of infectious endocarditis, among them, the history of infectious endocarditis and prosthetic valve replacement. Infectious endocarditis in prosthetic valve caused by Salmonella is an unusual entity. We report the case of a female patient wi [...] th a history of double-valve mitral and aortic replacement, who was admitted due to severe sepsis. The etiological diagnosis of infectious endocarditis by Salmonella enteritidis was reached through blood cultures. The clinical course was fulminant and she died within the first 24 hours.

  1. Q Fever Endocarditis in Romania: The First Cases Confirmed by Direct Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Straut

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is a serious, life-threatening disease with highly variable clinical signs, making its diagnostic a real challenge. A diagnosis is readily made if blood cultures are positive, but in 2.5 to 31% of all infective endocarditis cases, routine blood cultures are negative. In such situations, alternative diagnostic approaches are necessary. Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp. are the etiological agents of blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE most frequently identified by serology. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of molecular assays, as complementary methods to the conventional serologic methods for the rapid confirmatory diagnostic of Q fever endocarditis in patients with BCNE. Currently, detection of C. burnetii by culture or an antiphase I IgG antibody titers >800 represents a major Duke criterion for defining IE, while a titers of >800 for IgG antibodies to either B. henselae or B. quintana is used for the diagnosis of endocarditis due to Bartonella spp. We used indirect immunofluorescence assays for the detection of IgG titers for C. burnetii, B. henselae and B. quintana in 57 serum samples from patients with clinical suspicion of IE. Thirty three samples originated from BCNE patients, whereas 24 were tested before obtaining the blood cultures results, which finally were positive. The results of serologic testing showed that nine out of 33 BCNE cases exhibited antiphase I C. burnetii IgG antibody titer >800, whereas none has IgG for B. henselae or B. quintana. Subsequently, we used nested-PCR assay for the amplification of C. burnetii DNA in the nine positive serum samples, and we obtained positive PCR results for all analyzed cases. Afterwards we used the DNA sequencing of amplicons for the repetitive element associated to htpAB gene to confirm the results of nested-PCR. The results of sequencing allowed us to confirm that C. burnetii is the causative microorganism responsible for BCNE. In conclusion, the nested PCR amplification followed by direct sequencing is a reliable and accurate method when applied to serum samples, and it may be used as an additional test to the serological methods for the confirmatory diagnosis of BCNE cases determined by C. burnetii.

  2. Beneficial Influence of Platelets on Antibiotic Efficacy in an In Vitro Model of Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier, Renee-Claude; Dietz, Robert M.; Mazzola, Jory L.; Arnold S. Bayer; Yeaman, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    Platelets contribute to antimicrobial host defense against infective endocarditis (IE) by releasing platelet microbicidal proteins (PMPs). We investigated the influence of thrombin-stimulated human platelets on the evolution of simulated IE in the presence and absence of vancomycin or nafcillin. Staphylococcus aureus strains differing in intrinsic susceptibility to PMPs or antibiotics were studied: ISP479C (thrombin-induced PMP-1 [tPMP-1] susceptible; nafcillin and vancomycin susceptible), IS...

  3. Clindamycin therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Scheld, W. M.; Johnson, M.L.; Gerhardt, E B; Sande, M A

    1982-01-01

    The efficacy of clindamycin in the treatment of experimental endocarditis in rabbits was compared with that of nafcillin. Both drugs were administered intramuscularly three times daily for 5 days, clindamycin at doses of 6.25, 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg and nafcillin at a dose of 200 mg/kg. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (0.125 microgram/ml) of clindamycin for the test strain of Staphylococcus aureus were very similar to the corresponding concentrations (0.25 microgram/ml) ...

  4. Tratamento clínico de endocardite em prótese valvar complicada por abscesso para-protético Successful medical management of prosthetic-valve endocarditis complicated by perivalvular abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Pereira Nunes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo relata o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 44 anos, com endocardite em prótese aórtica complicada por abscesso para-protético. Evoluiu com melhora do processo infeccioso apenas com o tratamento clínico. História prévia de doença reumática, submetido a três cirurgias cardíacas para troca valvar por disfunção de prótese e endocardite prévia. Neste relato de caso, discutiremos as características principais do abscesso para-protético como complicação de endocarditeWe present a case of a 44-year-old man with prosthetic aortic endocarditis complicated by a perivalvular abscess. He evolved with improvement of the infectious process only under clinical treatment. The patient presented a prior history of rheumatic fever and had previously been undergone three valve replacements due to prosthesis dysfunction and previous endocarditis. In this case report we discuss the main features of perivalvular abscess complicating infective endocarditis

  5. Tratamento clínico de endocardite em prótese valvar complicada por abscesso para-protético / Successful medical management of prosthetic-valve endocarditis complicated by perivalvular abscess

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria do Carmo Pereira, Nunes; Claudio Leo, Gelape; Felipe Batista Lima, Barbosa; Luciano Ribeiro, Leduc; Christiano Gonçalves de, Araújo; Lucas Fabel, Chalup; Marcela Ferreira, Nicoliello; Teresa Cristina Abreu, Ferrari.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo relata o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 44 anos, com endocardite em prótese aórtica complicada por abscesso para-protético. Evoluiu com melhora do processo infeccioso apenas com o tratamento clínico. História prévia de doença reumática, submetido a três cirurgias cardíacas [...] para troca valvar por disfunção de prótese e endocardite prévia. Neste relato de caso, discutiremos as características principais do abscesso para-protético como complicação de endocardite Abstract in english We present a case of a 44-year-old man with prosthetic aortic endocarditis complicated by a perivalvular abscess. He evolved with improvement of the infectious process only under clinical treatment. The patient presented a prior history of rheumatic fever and had previously been undergone three valv [...] e replacements due to prosthesis dysfunction and previous endocarditis. In this case report we discuss the main features of perivalvular abscess complicating infective endocarditis

  6. Endocardite infecciosa: uma suspeita sempre presente / Infectious endocarditis: an ever-present suspicion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Santos, Ferreira.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O diagnóstico de endocardite infecciosa requer um elevado grau de suspeição para ser estabelecido atempadamente. O médico de família, conhecendo os fatores de risco de cada doente, está numa posição privilegiada para a suspeita clínica de endocardite, podendo desempenhar um papel fulcral [...] no diagnóstico desta patologia. Descrição do Caso: Manuel, utente de 59 anos acompanhado na nossa consulta desde 2007, tem como antecedentes pessoais 3 episódios prévios de endocardite infecciosa, dois dos quais associados a prótese valvular colocada na sequência do primeiro episódio. Foi acompanhado na nossa consulta por um quadro de síndrome febril indeterminado, associado a parâmetros inflamatórios elevados, com dois ecocardiogramas negativos realizados a nível hospitalar. Por se tratar de um utente de risco elevado para recorrência de endocardite infecciosa, a médica de família nunca abandonou esta hipótese diagnóstica. Perante o quadro, pediu hemoculturas em ambulatório, que foram positivas para Enterococos faecalis. O doente foi novamente enviado ao hospital, desta vez realizando um ecocardiograma que revelou vegetação, tendo-se estabelecido o diagnóstico definitivo de endocardite infecciosa 20 dias após o início do quadro clínico. Foi internado e cumpriu antibioterapia. Contudo, no início do segundo mês de internamento, teve um episódio de AVC hemorrágico, tendo como consequências hemiparesia direita e disartria a longo prazo. Comentário: Apesar de se tratar de uma doença rara, a endocardite infecciosa associada a próteses valvulares está associada a elevada morbimortalidade. A forma de apresentação é variável, estando o médico dependente de um elevado grau de suspeição para conseguir estabelecer o diagnóstico atempadamente, minimizando as sequelas a longo prazo. Os critérios de Duke facilitam o estabelecimento adequado do diagnóstico; no entanto a sensibilidade destes critérios diminui em doentes com próteses valvulares. Trata-se de um quadro subagudo de endocardite, necessitando de 20 dias para se estabelecer o diagnóstico final, após o resultado de hemoculturas positivas. Foi a persistência da suspeita diagnóstica que permitiu o diagnóstico atempado. Abstract in english Introduction: An elevated level of suspicion is required to make a timely diagnosis of infective endocarditis. The family physician with knowledge of the risk factors of each patient is in a privileged position to diagnose this disease. Case Description: A 59 year-old male patient with a history of [...] 3 previous episodes of infective endocarditis has been treated in our practice since 2007. Two episodes were associated with a prosthetic valve (a consequence of the first episode). He was seen recently for an episode of fever of unknown origin associated with high serum levels of markers of inflammation. Two echocardiograms performed in hospital were non-diagnostic. The family physician retained a suspicion of infective endocarditis in this high-risk patient. Ambulatory blood cultures were positive for Enterococcus faecalis. The patient was again sent to the hospital and the echocardiogram now revealed a cardiac vegetation, confirming the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, 20 days after the initial onset of symptoms. At the beginning of the second month of his stay at the hospital, the patient suffered a hemorrhagic stroke, leaving him with dysarthria and a right hemiparesis. Discussion: Although infective endocarditis is a rare disease, it has high morbidity and mortality when associated with prosthetic heart valves. The presentation of the disease is variable, so the physician needs a high level of suspicion to make a prompt diagnosis and prevent long-term consequences. The Duke criteria may help with diagnosis. However, the sensitivity of the criteria is reduced in patients with prosthetic valves. This is a sub-acute case of endocarditis, in which the diagnosis was made with positive blood cultures after 20 days of symptoms. Persistent suspicion of endocardit

  7. Ciprofloxacin and rifampin, alone and in combination, for therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaatz, G.W.; Seo, S.M.; Barriere, S L; Albrecht, L M; Rybak, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    The therapeutic activities of ciprofloxacin (25 mg/kg every 8 h), rifampin (10 mg/kg every 24 h), ciprofloxacin plus rifampin, and vancomycin (17.5 mg/kg every 6 h) were compared by using the rabbit model of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Animals infected with one of two test strains (SA1199 or SA487) were randomized into treatment groups and received 6 days of therapy. For SA1199, ciprofloxacin plus rifampin was most effective at reducing vegetation bacterial counts. For SA487, ciproflo...

  8. Use of extracellular matrix materials in patients with endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sündermann, Simon Harald; Rodriguez Cetina Biefer, Héctor; Emmert, Maximilian Y; Falk, Volkmar

    2014-02-01

    Tissue replacement is sometimes necessary during surgery for endocarditis. Commonly used materials are Dacron, expanded polytetrafluoroethlyene, or bovine pericardium. Those materials have no potential for bioresorption and cannot restore regional functionality. Extracellular matrices became available lately as patch material. Here we present two cases of patients with endocarditis. CorMatrix ECM (CorMatrix Cardiovascular, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia, United States) was used to repair intracardiac structures with good results in follow-up up to 3 months. CorMatrix ECM may be an adequate alternative to foreign material for patients with endocarditis. PMID:23143861

  9. Infected total knee arthroplasty treatment outcome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoi?i? Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a topic of great importance, because its diagnosing and treatment requires a lot of resources, and often has an unsatisfactory outcome. The aim of this study was to analyze the outcome of the treatment of infection developed following TKA. Methods. This retrospective study of infected TKAs was performed in the period from 1998 to 2008 in the Orthopedics & Traumatology Clinic of the Military Medical Academy (MMA in Belgrade. A total of 654 primary and revised TKAs were performed in the said period. We registered and surgically treated 28 infected TKAs (primary TKAs: MMA - 22, other institutions - 6. The incidence of TKA infection in the MMA was 3.36%. The most common pathogens were: Staphylococcus aureus - 14 (50% cases, and Staph. epidermidis - 3 (10.7% cases. Other isolated pathogens were: Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneum., Klebsiella spp., Streptoccocus viridans, Seratia spp, Micrococcus luteus and Peptostreptococcus spp. In one case we had mixed anaerobic flora, and in 3 cases cultures were negative. We analyzed diagnostic challenges, risk factors (such as age and previous viscosupplementation and treatment outcomes in our series of infected TKAs. Results. In our series 2 infections healed after iv antibiotics and debridement, 1 patient responded to open debridement with component retention, 4 patients responded fully to one-stage reimplantation, 10 cases responded fully to two-stage reimplantation, 11 patients ended with arthrodesis and we had 1 patient with above knee amputation. Conclusion. Two-stage reimplantation remains gold standard for treatment of infected TKA, and we recommend it as treatment of choice for eradication of infection. The antibiotic loaded spacer prothesis concept in most cases allows infection eradication, good function and high patient satisfaction.

  10. [Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Castillo, Marcelo; Wainsztein, Nestor; Klein, Francisco; Manganello, Silvana; Orellana, Nora

    2004-01-01

    Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response. PMID:15628305

  11. Endocarditis infecciosa producida por Bartonella quintana / Infective endocarditis due to Bartonella quintana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Garré; Walter, Guaraglia; Daniel, Cuatz; Sara, Kaufman; Horacio, Gil; Antonio F., De Rosa.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 68 años que ingresó por mareos y sensación de pérdida de la conciencia. El examen clínico reveló una temperatura de 37.5 °C y un soplo de regurgitación mitral. El ecocardiograma mostró una insuficiencia mitral grave con dilatación de las cavidades izquierdas, y el [...] ecocardiograma transesofágico una vegetación en la valva anterior de la mitral. Los hemocultivos demostraron una bacteria Gram-negativa que luego se identificó como Bartonella spp. La PCR demostró que se trataba de una Bartonella quintana. Se trató con gentamicina, doxiciclina y ceftriaxona, evolucionando satisfactoriamente. La insuficiencia mitral remanente espera el tratamiento quirúrgico. Abstract in english We present the clinical case of a man of 68 years who was admitted for dizziness and sensation of loss of conscience. The clinical examination revealed a body temperature of 37.5 °C and a murmur of mitral regurgitation. The echocardiogram showed a severe mitral regurgitation and left cavitie's dilat [...] ation; transesophageal echocardiogram showed a vegetation in the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. In blood cultures grew a Gram-negative bacteria identified as Bartonella spp. A PCR demonstrated that it was a Bartonella quintana. The patient was treated with gentamicin, doxiciclin and ceftriaxone with satisfactory evolution. The remaining mitral insufficiency awaits surgical treatment.

  12. Identification of clinically relevant nonhemolytic Streptococci on the basis of sequence analysis of 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and partial gdh gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Dargis, Rimtas; Kemp, Michael; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Nonhemolytic streptococci (NHS) cause serious infections, such as endocarditis and septicemia. Many conventional phenotypic methods are insufficient for the identification of bacteria in this group to the species level. Genetic analysis has revealed that single-gene analysis is insufficient for the identification of all species in this group of bacteria. The aim of the present study was to establish a method based on sequence analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) region and the partial...

  13. Identification of Clinically Relevant Nonhemolytic Streptococci on the Basis of Sequence Analysis of 16S-23S Intergenic Spacer Region and Partial gdh Gene?

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Dargis, Rimtas; Kemp, Michael; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Nonhemolytic streptococci (NHS) cause serious infections, such as endocarditis and septicemia. Many conventional phenotypic methods are insufficient for the identification of bacteria in this group to the species level. Genetic analysis has revealed that single-gene analysis is insufficient for the identification of all species in this group of bacteria. The aim of the present study was to establish a method based on sequence analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) region and the part...

  14. Victim of fashion: Endocarditis after oral piercing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubose, Joseph; Pratt, Jerry W

    2004-01-01

    A case report of endocarditis after tongue piercing is presented. Body piercing is a form of self-expression that is achieving greater acceptance and wider practice in modern society. Even in healthy individuals, significant health risks exist with this type of physical adornment. Despite this fact, no significant regulatory mechanisms are currently in place to guide practitioners of this craft or to protect the recipients of body piercing. Medical professionals should join the American Dental Association in their opposition of the practice of intraoral/perioral piercing and should call for the development of legislation protecting the recipients of such practices, particularly the population of young people in whom this type of body art is becoming increasingly prevalent. PMID:15475098

  15. Tropheryma whipplei endocarditis without gastrointestinal involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Susannah M.; Morrison, Lindsay; Appleby, Clare; Modi, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Whipple's disease, caused by the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei, is a rare chronic multi-system illness commonly affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and presenting with a triad of diarrhoea, weight loss and malabsorption. While 20–55% of patients with a diagnosis of Whipple's disease have clinically evident cardiac manifestations, the initial presentation with isolated valvular disease, without any GI symptoms, is rare. Whereas cardiac involvement usually involves a single valve, cases of double-valve involvement are extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with T. whipplei native aortic and mitral valvular endocarditis, without GI involvement, who presented with the new-onset cardiac failure and ventricular arrhythmias, which required urgent double-valve replacement. This case report is accompanied by a review of the relevant literature. PMID:22499804

  16. Septic sacroiliitis revealing an infectious endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Hariz, Anis; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old man admitted for right hip ache and fever. Physical examination revealed a fever, an ache at the manipulation of the sacroiliac joint and a limitation of abduction and external rotation of the right hip. There was no murmur in cardiac auscultation. No anomaly was found at the conventional radiographs of the sacroiliac joint, while the pelvic MRI confirmed a right sacroiliitis. A sacroiliac puncture with a study of synovial fluid demonstrated the presence of Streptococcus viridans. The blood culture revealed the same germ. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography confirmed infectious endocarditis with vegetation in the mitral valve. He received penicillin G and gentamicin relayed by pristinamycin because of an allergy to penicillin G with a total duration of treatment of 40?days. His symptoms and the laboratory and radiological tests abnormalities resolved totally with no recurrence. PMID:25123569

  17. Moraxella catarrhalis bacteraemia and prosthetic valve endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahani, Lokesh; Tavakoli Tabasi, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis, once considered a non-pathogenic coloniser of the oropharynx, has now been recognised as a true pathogen and is reported in cases of bacteraemia. A 63-year-old man with an aortic bioprosthetic valve was brought to the emergency room with altered mental status. Initial blood cultures revealed Gram-negative diplococci on Gram stain; echocardiogram showed a 5?mm vegetation on the aortic bioprosthetic valve. The blood cultures grew M. catarrhalis and the patient was treated medically for prosthetic valve endocarditis with 6?weeks of ceftriaxone and had a favourable clinical outcome. M. catarrhalis has a high prevalence of ?-lactamase production and hence the patient was treated with ceftriaxone. This case highlights the importance of considering M. catarrhalis as a pathogen in cases of invasive disease. PMID:26498667

  18. Fungal endocarditis with right ventricular candidal mycetoma in a premature neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Purkayastha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal mycetoma or endocarditis is rare in premature neonates and it is often associated with high mortality. In the majority of the cases diagnosis is made postmortem. Here we report a 0-week-old preterm neonate who developed Candida albicans blood stream infection complicated by endocarditis and subsequent mycetoma. Initially, this neonate had Klebsiella sepsis requiring multiple antibiotic courses. A peripherally inserted central venous catheter was used to give total parenteral nutrition. On day 24 of life, he developed candidemia, treated with 14 day course of fluconazole and shown improvement. Further, on day 60 of life he developed cholestasis, deranged liver function tests and persistent thrombocytopenia along with apnea, bradycardia and desaturations. Blood culture again grew again C. albicansEchocardiography showed large fungal vegetation on tricuspid valve with a mycetoma filling the right ventricle. He was treated with intravenous amphotericin B, fluconazole and upportive measures, but he deteriorated and succumbed after two weeks. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(3: 142-145

  19. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Maurin, M; Raoult, D.

    1996-01-01

    Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) quintana is the etiological agent of trench fever, a disease extensively reported during the World Wars. Recent molecular biology approaches have allowed dramatic extension of the spectrum of Bartonella infections. B. quintana is now also recognized as an etiological agent of fever and bacteremia, endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis, and chronic lymphadenopathy. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and/or homeless people are the most vulnerable to ...

  20. Efficacy of clarithromycin versus that of clindamycin for single-dose prophylaxis of experimental streptococcal endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Vermot, D; Entenza, J.M.; Vouillamoz, J.; Glauser, M. P.; Moreillon, P.

    1996-01-01

    Clarithromycin is compared with clindamycin for single-dose prophylaxis of streptococcal endocarditis in rats. Human-like kinetics of the two antibiotics prevented endocarditis in animals challenged with both small and large amounts of bacterial inocula. Clarithromycin was marginally superior to clindamycin against small amounts of inocula. Clarithromycin may be considered for endocarditis chemoprophylaxis in human.

  1. Bacterial infections complicating tongue piercing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Catherine HY; Minnema, Brian J.; Gold, Wayne L

    2010-01-01

    Tongue piercing has become an increasingly popular form of body art. However, this procedure can occasionally be complicated by serious bacterial infections. The present article reports a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a Gemella species in a patient with a pierced tongue, and reviews 18 additional cases of local and systemic bacterial infections associated with tongue piercing. Infections localized to the oral cavity and head and neck region included molar abscess, glossal ab...

  2. Pulmonary infections after kidney transplantation: analysis of CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To review the CT findings in patients with pulmonary infection after kidney transplantation and to determine the characteristic features in different infections. Methods: The medical records were reviewed in 446 patients with pulmonary infection after kidney transplantation and 121 patients who had pulmonary thin-section CT were included in this study. The pattern and distribution of the pulmonary abnormalities were interpreted independently by two thoracic radiologists. Statistical analysis was performed using the ?2 test and the Fisher's exact test. Results: (1) Time course: 65 (14.6%) patients initially had pulmonary infection in the first 30 days, 147 (32.9%) between 1 and 3 months, 91 (20.4%) between 3 and 6 months, 23 (5.2%) between 6 and 12 months, 120 (26.9%)after 12 months of transplantation. In the first month after procedure, bacterial infection (4/5,80.0%) was the most common infection, bacterial (34/41,82.9%), mixed (19/41,46.3%) and vires infections (11/41,26.8%) were seen commonly 1 to 6 months following transplant, the incidence of fungal (14/38, 36.8%) and mycobacterial (5/38,13.2%) infections was increased after 12 months of transplantation. (2)Pathogens: Bacterial (34,28%) and mixed infections (34,28%) were the most common, followed by fungus infection (9, 7%), TB(7,6%)and cytomegalovims (5,4%). (3)CT findings: Ground-glass attenuations (69,57.0%) was the most common findings of pneumonia, followed by reticular or linear opacities (68,56.2%), nodules (66,54.5%), pleural thickening (41,33.9%), consolidations (31,25.6%), tree-in-bud patterns (24, 19.8%), pleural effusion (22,18.2%), and bronchovascular bundle thickening (16,13.2%). Ground-glass attenuation was commonly seen in cytomegalovims pneumonia (4,80.0%), and nodule was commonly observed in bacterial infection (23,67.6%), tree-in-bud pattern was the most common finding in pulmonary tuberculosis(4, P=0.049). There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of other CT patterns (P>0.05). Conclusions: The peak incidence of pulmonary infection is in the 3 month after renal transplantation and bacterial infection is the most common. The CT diagnosis of infection can be made by combining the time course of infection, clinical laboratory data and lesion distribution. (authors)

  3. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Pas Marinus FW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars.

  4. The uptake of apoptotic cells drives Coxiella burnetii replication and macrophage polarization: a model for Q fever endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Marie; Ghigo, Eric; Capo, Christian; Raoult, Didier; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2008-05-01

    Patients with valvulopathy have the highest risk to develop infective endocarditis (IE), although the relationship between valvulopathy and IE is not clearly understood. Q fever endocarditis, an IE due to Coxiella burnetii, is accompanied by immune impairment. Patients with valvulopathy exhibited increased levels of circulating apoptotic leukocytes, as determined by the measurement of active caspases and nucleosome determination. The binding of apoptotic cells to monocytes and macrophages, the hosts of C. burnetii, may be responsible for the immune impairment observed in Q fever endocarditis. Apoptotic lymphocytes (AL) increased C. burnetii replication in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in a cell-contact dependent manner, as determined by quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. AL binding induced a M2 program in monocytes and macrophages stimulated with C. burnetii as determined by a cDNA chip containing 440 arrayed sequences and functional tests, but this program was in part different in monocytes and macrophages. While monocytes that had bound AL released high levels of IL-10 and IL-6, low levels of TNF and increased CD14 expression, macrophages that had bound AL released high levels of TGF-beta1 and expressed mannose receptor. The neutralization of IL-10 and TGF-beta1 prevented the replication of C. burnetii due to the binding of AL, suggesting that they were critically involved in bacterial replication. In contrast, the binding of necrotic cells to monocytes and macrophages led to C. burnetii killing and typical M1 polarization. Finally, interferon-gamma corrected the immune deactivation induced by apoptotic cells: it prevented the replication of C. burnetii and re-directed monocytes and macrophages toward a M1 program, which was deleterious for C. burnetii. We suggest that leukocyte apoptosis associated with valvulopathy may be critical for the pathogenesis of Q fever endocarditis by deactivating immune cells and creating a favorable environment for bacterial persistence. PMID:18483547

  5. Two cases of aspergillus endocarditis in non neutropenic children on chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Nikolousis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endocarditis (FE is a rare complication in immunocompromised patients which is difficult to diagnose and has been characterized by excessive mortality (> 50% and morbidity, regardless of treatment. The lack of clinical trials due to the small number of cases contributes further to a poor outcome. In our two cases of aspergilllus endocarditis we reviewed the clinical features, echocardiographic findings, microbiologic data, treatment, and outcome of these 2 cases and provide a current characterization of the syndrome. In this paper we have demonstrated the diversity of presentation of a critical fungal infection in immunocompromised but non neutropenic paediatric patients. The prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment is crucial for a favourable outcome along with the use of double antifungal treatment with liposomal amphotericin and voriconazole initially which could be later switched to oral voriconazole with a good tissue penetration. Histological samples as well as radiological evidence and echocardiograms should be reviewed by experienced clinicians in order to aid diagnosis and promptly initiate treatment for these patients in order to achieve a favourable outcome

  6. Endocarditis por Brucella abortus: Reporte del primer caso en C.R / Brucella abortus Endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel Antonio, Villalobos-Zúñiga; Edith, Barrantes-Valverde; Patricia, Monge-Ortega.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Paciente masculino de 36 años de edad, proveniente de la zona rural de Costa Rica, con un cuadro clínico de 8 meses de evolución de fiebre, mialgias, artralgias, pérdida de peso y lumbalgia; referido por la detección de un soplo de insuficiencia aórtica. El ecocardiograma reveló endocarditis de la v [...] álvula aórtica, y se obtuvieron 4 hemocultivos positivos por Brucella abortus biotipo 3, con serologías negativas por brucelosis. Se inició tratamiento con antibióticos y luego se le realizó un reemplazo valvular aórtico; 4 meses después ingresó con dolor torácico que se atribuyó a una oclusión de la arteria descendente anterior, demostrada angiográficamente, por posible embolismo. En la actualidad cursa clínicamente estable con manejo médico para su cardiopatía, sin recaída infecciosa. Abstract in english The case of a 36-year-old patient from a rural area is presented. He came with an 8 month history of fever, myalgias, arthralgias, weight loss and lower back pain; who also had an aortic insufficiency murmur detected. The diagnosis of aortic valve endocarditis was made by echocardiography, and had 4 [...] positive blood cultures for Brucella abortus biotype 3, and negative serologic test for brucellosis. He was started on antibiotics and later on underwent aortic valve replacement, with a late coronary cardioembolism as a complication.

  7. Endocarditis por Brucella abortus: Reporte del primer caso en C.R Brucella abortus Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Villalobos-Zúñiga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Paciente masculino de 36 años de edad, proveniente de la zona rural de Costa Rica, con un cuadro clínico de 8 meses de evolución de fiebre, mialgias, artralgias, pérdida de peso y lumbalgia; referido por la detección de un soplo de insuficiencia aórtica. El ecocardiograma reveló endocarditis de la válvula aórtica, y se obtuvieron 4 hemocultivos positivos por Brucella abortus biotipo 3, con serologías negativas por brucelosis. Se inició tratamiento con antibióticos y luego se le realizó un reemplazo valvular aórtico; 4 meses después ingresó con dolor torácico que se atribuyó a una oclusión de la arteria descendente anterior, demostrada angiográficamente, por posible embolismo. En la actualidad cursa clínicamente estable con manejo médico para su cardiopatía, sin recaída infecciosa.The case of a 36-year-old patient from a rural area is presented. He came with an 8 month history of fever, myalgias, arthralgias, weight loss and lower back pain; who also had an aortic insufficiency murmur detected. The diagnosis of aortic valve endocarditis was made by echocardiography, and had 4 positive blood cultures for Brucella abortus biotype 3, and negative serologic test for brucellosis. He was started on antibiotics and later on underwent aortic valve replacement, with a late coronary cardioembolism as a complication.

  8. Use of autologous pericardium for mitral leaflet reconstruction in a child with endocarditis / Uso de pericárdio autólogo para reconstrução de folheto mitral em criança com endocardite

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olcay Murat, Disli; Cemsit, Karakurt; Nevzat, Erdil; Bektas, Battaloglu.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de reparo bem-sucedido da valva mitral decorrente de endocardite infecciosa ativa. Reparo da valva mitral foi acompanhado de desbridamento da vegetação e do abscesso, ressecção e plastia do folheto mitral posterior, e anuloplastia posterior com pericárdio autólogo. Pós-operatóri [...] o sem evidências de infecção recorrente, e ecocardiograma demonstrou competência da valva mitral com regurgitação mitral trivial. Concluímos que o reparo valvar é uma escolha viável em caso de endocardite ativa nas crianças. Abstract in english We present a case of successful repair of the mitral valve for active infective endocarditis. Mitral valve repair was performed through debridement of vegetation and abscess, resection and repair of the posterior mitral leaflet and posterior repair with autologous pericardium. Postoperative period w [...] as uneventfully, with no evidence of recurrent infection, and echocardiogram showed mitral valve competence with mild mitral regurgitation. We demonstrate that valve repair is a feasible choice in cases of active endocarditis in children.

  9. Streptococcus pyogenes aortic aneurysm infection: forgotten but not gone

    OpenAIRE

    Korman, Tony M.; Timothy Buckenham; Ming Yii; Bradley J. Gardiner; Joy Wong

    2013-01-01

    Historically, Streptococcus pyogenes was a common cause of endocarditis and infected aortic aneurysm. Today, endovascular infections due to this organism have become exceedingly rare. We report the first case of aortic aneurysm infection due to S. pyogenes treated with initial endoluminal repair, review previous reports and discuss current treatment options.

  10. Infective Endocarditis and Phlebotomies May Have Killed Mozart

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Simon Jong-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-five year-old Amadeus Mozart died in Vienna after an acute illness that lasted only 15 days but no consensus has been reached on the cause of his death. From many letters written by his farther it is almost certain that he experienced at least three episodes of acute rheumatic fever attack in his childhood, and a relapse of rheumatic fever was suggested to have killed Mozart, although death from acute rheumatic fever is very rare in adults. His last illness was characterized by high fe...

  11. Speech Analysis of Throat Infected People Using DSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.S.R. Chaudhari,

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are various ways of communication. Two people may communicate with each other through speech, gestures or graphical symbols. Man’s most natural way of communication is through speech. Though writing seems to be important means of communication and written words, appear to be more efficient means of transmitting intelligence, the amount of intelligence exchanged by speech is beyond comparison. Considering the importance of speech ,the speech analysis is carried out .Speech analysis is used in innovative way to find out parameters like Amplitude, frequency, energy and power, when throat gets infected because of viral infections or due to any other cause. Speech quality changes which changes the parameters. An experiment is carried out with the instrument DSO (Digital signal oscilloscope. Speech analysis of normal and infected throat that is performed without any treatment. The word “Hello” pronounced by 4 different persons in Normal health condition and when person when has infected throat. The main aim of this project is to compare signals of speech of normal throat person and infected throat person by analyzing Amplitude and frequency parameters which are obtained from DSO.The instrument set up consist of Input Module with Microphone (ST2108, DSO( Agilent Infiniti Vision 2000 X-Series oscilloscope. FFT software installed in computer for speech recording.

  12. Efficacy of ciprofloxacin in experimental aortic valve endocarditis caused by a multiply beta-lactam-resistant variant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stably derepressed for beta-lactamase production.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, A S; Lindsay, P; Yih, J; Hirano, L; LEE, D.; Blomquist, I K

    1986-01-01

    The emergence of multi-beta-lactam resistance is a limiting factor in treating invasive Pseudomonas infections with newer cephalosporins. The in vivo efficacy of ciprofloxacin, a new carboxy-quinolone, was evaluated in experimental aortic valve endocarditis caused by a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which is stably derepressed for beta-lactamase production and is resistant to ceftazidime and multiple other beta-lactam agents. A total of 51 catheterized rabbits with aortic catheters in place...

  13. Endocarditis fatal con localización mitral producida por Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Fatal mitral valve endocarditis by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Vallespi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso fatal de endocarditis en válvula mitral por Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, en un paciente varón de 45 años con antecedentes de etilismo crónico y sin contacto previo con animales. Presentaba un síndrome febril prolongado con poliartralgias, pérdida de peso y dolor en región lumbar y miembros inferiores. Los hemocultivos (2/2 fueron positivos a las 48 hs. de incubación y en el examen directo se observaron bacilos gram-positivos pleomórficos. En el subcultivo en agar sangre ovina al 5% desarrollaron colonias puntiformes con alfa hemólisis, catalasa y oxidasa negativas, PYR y LAP positivas y con producción de H2S en medio TSI. La cepa aislada fue identificada como E. rhusiopathiae de acuerdo a la metodología convencional y confirmada con API Coryne. El cuadro se asumió como una probable endocarditis demostrada mediante un ecocardiograma transtorácico. Se comenzó el tratamiento endovenoso con ampicilina y gentamicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente y se tornó afebril, sin embargo falleció a los 19 días de internación por edema agudo de pulmón. La prueba de sensibilidad por E-test demostró resistencia a vancomicina y gentamicina y sensibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima. Es importante valorar los aislamientos de bacilos gram-positivos pleomórficos, catalasa y oxidasa negativos y realizar la prueba de producción de SH2 en el medio TSI. La resistencia a vancomicina ayuda a la identificación y permite establecer una correcta terapia antimicrobiana. Si bien se considera que las infecciones por E. rhusiopathiae son de carácter ocupacional, el contacto con cerdos u otros animales puede no ser evidente.A fatal case of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae mitral valve endocarditis is described in a 45 years old male, with a history of chronic alcohol abuse and without animals contact. He presented intermittent fever, polyarthralgia, weight loss, and low back pain. In blood cultures (2 bottles, gram-positive pleomorphic rods grew after 48 hours of incubation. The subculture on blood agar media showed a small, alpha-hemolytic colony, catalase and oxidase negative, PYR and LAP positive and the production of H2S in triple sugar iron agar, was demonstrated. The isolate was initially identified as E. rhusiopathiae, and confirmed by API Coryne (BioMérieux. On the basis of these findings and a transthoracic echocardiogram, an endocarditis was confirmed. Intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin treatment was initiated. The patient became afever, nevertheless he died on day 19 after admission as a consequence of acute pulmonary edema. Susceptibility testing by E-test showed that the microorganism was resistant to vancomycin and gentamicin, and susceptible to penicillin and cefotaxime. We emphasize the importance to consider the isolates of gram-positive pleomorphic rods, catalase and oxidase negative, and the addition of H2S production test in TSI medium. Vancomycin-resistance helps in the identification, and to establish the correct antimicrobial therapy. Although E. rhusiopathiae is usually reported as an occupational pathogen, the contact with pigs and other farm animals may be underestimated.

  14. Endocarditis fatal con localización mitral producida por Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae / Fatal mitral valve endocarditis by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.V., Vallespi; D.A., Pipet; S.A., Mattoni; H.A., Lopardo.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso fatal de endocarditis en válvula mitral por Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, en un paciente varón de 45 años con antecedentes de etilismo crónico y sin contacto previo con animales. Presentaba un síndrome febril prolongado con poliartralgias, pérdida de peso y dolor en región lumbar [...] y miembros inferiores. Los hemocultivos (2/2) fueron positivos a las 48 hs. de incubación y en el examen directo se observaron bacilos gram-positivos pleomórficos. En el subcultivo en agar sangre ovina al 5% desarrollaron colonias puntiformes con alfa hemólisis, catalasa y oxidasa negativas, PYR y LAP positivas y con producción de H2S en medio TSI. La cepa aislada fue identificada como E. rhusiopathiae de acuerdo a la metodología convencional y confirmada con API Coryne. El cuadro se asumió como una probable endocarditis demostrada mediante un ecocardiograma transtorácico. Se comenzó el tratamiento endovenoso con ampicilina y gentamicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente y se tornó afebril, sin embargo falleció a los 19 días de internación por edema agudo de pulmón. La prueba de sensibilidad por E-test demostró resistencia a vancomicina y gentamicina y sensibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima. Es importante valorar los aislamientos de bacilos gram-positivos pleomórficos, catalasa y oxidasa negativos y realizar la prueba de producción de SH2 en el medio TSI. La resistencia a vancomicina ayuda a la identificación y permite establecer una correcta terapia antimicrobiana. Si bien se considera que las infecciones por E. rhusiopathiae son de carácter ocupacional, el contacto con cerdos u otros animales puede no ser evidente. Abstract in english A fatal case of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae mitral valve endocarditis is described in a 45 years old male, with a history of chronic alcohol abuse and without animals contact. He presented intermittent fever, polyarthralgia, weight loss, and low back pain. In blood cultures (2 bottles), gram-positi [...] ve pleomorphic rods grew after 48 hours of incubation. The subculture on blood agar media showed a small, alpha-hemolytic colony, catalase and oxidase negative, PYR and LAP positive and the production of H2S in triple sugar iron agar, was demonstrated. The isolate was initially identified as E. rhusiopathiae, and confirmed by API Coryne (BioMérieux). On the basis of these findings and a transthoracic echocardiogram, an endocarditis was confirmed. Intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin treatment was initiated. The patient became afever, nevertheless he died on day 19 after admission as a consequence of acute pulmonary edema. Susceptibility testing by E-test showed that the microorganism was resistant to vancomycin and gentamicin, and susceptible to penicillin and cefotaxime. We emphasize the importance to consider the isolates of gram-positive pleomorphic rods, catalase and oxidase negative, and the addition of H2S production test in TSI medium. Vancomycin-resistance helps in the identification, and to establish the correct antimicrobial therapy. Although E. rhusiopathiae is usually reported as an occupational pathogen, the contact with pigs and other farm animals may be underestimated.

  15. Analysis of prognostic factors for infantile rotavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, R; Xu, J L; Wu, D; Tang, J L

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the prognostic factors of infantile rotavirus (RV) infection. A total of 102 infants with RV enteritis were divided into 2 groups according to the standards of improvement and cure at the time of discharge from the hospital: improvement group (N = 58; 47 males and 11 females with an average age of 15.19 ± 5.03 months) and the cure group (N = 44; 34 males and 10 females with an average age of 10.02 ± 4.92 months). Both groups were phlebotomized for the detection of serum glutamic oxaloacetic aminotransferase, creatine kinase-MB, and lactate dehydrogenase. Prognostic factors and clinical data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic analysis. Among the 102 cases of RV infection, 58 were cured and 44 were improved. Univariate analysis showed that the 2 groups were significantly different in age, feeding pattern, concentrations of serum glutamic oxaloacetic aminotransferase, creatine kinase-MB, and lactate dehydrogenase, and central nervous system damage. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, feeding, and central nervous system damage were significant independent prognostic factors for RV enteritis (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in gender, course of disease, and respiratory infection (P < 0.05). Both myocardial and hepatic damages presented a temporary feature in the infants and had no significant influence on prognosis. Age, feeding pattern, and central nervous system damage are significant independent prognostic factors for RV infection. These factors should be carefully considered in clinical practice. PMID:25730018

  16. Dexamethasone as adjuvant therapy to moxifloxacin attenuates valve destruction in experimental aortic valve endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiadas, Ioannis; Pefanis, Angelos; Papalois, Apostolos; Kyroudi, Aspasia; Triantafyllidi, Helen; Tsaganos, Thomas; Giamarellou, Helen

    2007-08-01

    Although the beneficial effects of dexamethasone have frequently been investigated in various serious-infection settings, insufficient data on valve histology and cardiac function for infective endocarditis are available. The efficacy of moxifloxacin for the treatment of experimental aortic valve endocarditis due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and the long-term effects of dexamethasone were evaluated in the current study. Sixty-eight rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups: A, B, C, and D. Group A consisted of 18 animals and functioned as a control group. Groups B and C consisted of 11 and 23 subjects, respectively, which received moxifloxacin for 5 days in a human-like pharmacokinetic simulation. Group D consisted of 16 animals that were administered moxifloxacin plus dexamethasone (0.25 mg/kg of body weight twice a day intravenously). The group B animals were sacrificed a day after the completion of treatment, and group C and D animals were sacrificed after 12 days in order to monitor any possible relapse and allow microbiological, histopathological, and echocardiographic evaluation of the long-term effects of glucocorticoids. No differences in survival, sterilization rates, or inflammatory infiltration and calcification of valve tissue were observed among the treated groups. However, the degrees of valve damage and collagenization were significantly worse, the fibroblast content was higher, and fractional shortening of the left ventricle fluctuated significantly in group C compared to group D (all groups, P < 0.05). We concluded that dexamethasone treatment for experimental S. aureus endocarditis attenuates valve destruction and preserves overall cardiac function without impeding the efficacy of moxifloxacin. PMID:17562794

  17. Reducing bias in bacterial community analysis of lower respiratory infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Geraint B.; Cuthbertson, Leah; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Wing, Peter A.C.; Pope, Christopher; Hooftman, Danny A. P.; Lilley, Andrew K.; Oliver, Anna; Carroll, Mary P; Bruce , Kenneth D.; van der Gast, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis offer greatly improved accuracy and depth of characterisation of lower respiratory infections. However, such approaches suffer from an inability to distinguish between DNA derived from viable and non-viable bacteria. This discrimination represents an important step in characterising microbial communities, particularly in contexts with poor clearance of material or high antimicrobial stress, as non-viable bacteria...

  18. Spondylodiscitis and endocarditis caused by S. vestibularis

    OpenAIRE

    Muge Aydin Tufan; Kart-Koseoglu Hamide; Ersozlu-Bozkirli Duygu; Azap Ozlem; Tufan Kadir; Yucel Ahmet Eftal

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus vestibularis is a recently described member of the viridans group that was first isolated from the vestibular mucosa of the human oral cavity and described as a new species in 1988. It has been rarely associated with human infections. In few papers, it has been reported as a causal agent of systemic infection in immunosupressed adults and in those with other severe underlying diseases, like coronary valve diseases. A 65-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with complaints...

  19. An investigation on the level of dental senior students knowledge about endocarditis prophylaxis incases with cardiac disease receiving dental treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhraee AH

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Dental practices such as oral, periodontal and endodontic surgeries cause damages to"nthe intraoral tissues, so having knowledge of the dental procedures that necessiciate endocarditis prophylaxis"nis of high importance."nPurpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the knowledge level of dental senior students in"nTehran dental faculties about endocarditis,"nMaterials and Methods: In this cross- sectional descriptive- analytic study, 253 senior students of four"ndentistry faculties in Tehran took part as follows: Tehran University: 71 students (M:42, F:29, Shahid"nBeheshti University: 74 students (M:40, F:34, Shahed University: 35 students (M:35, F:38, Azad University:"n73 students (M:35, F:38. The questionnaire used in this research consisted of three parts as follows: part one:"ninformation on cardiac diseases, part two: dental procedures requiring endocarditis prophylaxis, part three:"nantibiotic diet in endocarditis prophylaxis. Sex and place of education of the students were also studied in"ndetail. For statistical analysis, Chi-square test was used."nResults: On the basis of the sex, the correct answers of the female respondents of different universities were"nranked as: Azad University: 72.5%, Tehran University: 71.1%, Shahid Beheshti: 57%, ShahedUniversity:"n55.7%. In the same way, the male respondents were reported as: Tehran Universitys: 71.6%, Azad University:"n66.2%, Shahed University: 57.3%, Shahid Behesti University: 52.1%, On the basis of the place of education,"nthe following results were reported: Tehran University students managed to answer 71.3% , Azad University,"nShahed University and Shahid Beheshti University students could answer 69.5%, 56.5% and 54.6%,"nrespectively. All these differences were statistically significant, indicating that first ranked students have more"ninformation than the students of other schools."nConclusion: It is recommended to develop more practical training programme in dental schools on cardiac"ndiseases, dental procedures requiring endocarditis prophylaxis and antibiotic diets.

  20. Colonoscopy is mandatory after Streptococcus bovis endocarditis: a lesson still not learned. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavazzi Emma

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though the relationship between certain bacterial infections and neoplastic lesions of the colon is well-recognized, this knowledge has not been sufficiently translated into routine practice yet. Case presentation We describe the case of a 51-year-old man who was admitted to our Surgical Department due to rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. Preoperative colonoscopy, staging exams and subsequent surgery demonstrated a stenotic adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon, invading the left urinary tract and the homolateral bladder wall, with regional lymph nodes involvement and massive bilobar liver metastases (T4N1M1. After Hartmann's rectosigmoidectomy and despite systemic chemotherapy, a rapid progression occurred and the patient survived for only 5 months after diagnosis. Five years before detecting this advanced colonic cancer, the patient underwent aortic valve replacement due to a severe Streptococcus bovis endocarditis. Subsequent to this infection he never underwent a colonoscopy until overt intestinal symptoms appeared. Conclusion As this case illustrates, in the unusual setting of a Streptococcus bovis infection, it is necessary to timely and carefully rule out occult colon cancer and other malignancies during hospitalization and, if a tumor is not found, to schedule endoscopic follow-up. Rigorous application of these recommendations in the case described would have likely led to an earlier diagnosis of cancer and maybe saved the patient's life.

  1. Congenital TORCH infections of the brain--CT manifestation (with analysis of 7 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the neuropathologic changes and CT manifestations in congenital TORCH infection of the brain. Analysis of 7 cases of congenital TORCH infection of the neonates and infants demonstrated by serum examination was performed. There were congenital toxoplasmosis 3 cases, congenital syncytial virus infection 1 case, congenital rubella virus infection 1 case, congenital cytomegalovirus infection 2 cases, and congenital herpes simplex virus infection 1 case. Cerebral hypoplasia, ventricular dilatation or hydrocephalus, subependymal and parenchymal calcifications, microcephalic focal cortical migration anomalies, schizencephaly polymicrogyria, et al, were demonstrated by CT with congenital TORCH infection. The earlier the infection, the more severe the brain developmental anomalies. The extent and appearance of calcification in brain were related to the degree, extent and course of TORCH infection. Basal ganglia calcification of unknown cause in infant was suggestive of congenital TORCH infection. Typical CT manifestations together with clinical picture may suggest congenital TORCH infection, while serological test can be diagnostic

  2. Surgical treatment of aortic valve endocarditis: a 26-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Adademir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have retrospectively analyzed the results of the operations made for aortic valve endocarditis in a single center in 26 years. Methods: From June 1985 to January 2011, 174 patients were operated for aortic valve endocarditis. One hundred and thirty-eight (79.3% patients were male and the mean age was 39.3±14.4 (9-77 years. Twenty-seven (15.5% patients had prosthetic valve endocarditis. The mean duration of follow-up was 7.3±4.2 years (0.1-18.2 adding up to a total of 1030.8 patient/years. Results: Two hundred and eighty-two procedures were performed. The most frequently performed procedure was aortic valve replacement with mechanical prosthesis (81.6%. In-hospital mortality occurred in 27 (15.5% cases. Postoperatively, 25 (14.4% patients had low cardiac output and 17 (9.8% heart block. The actuarial survival rates for 10 and 15 years were 74.6±3.7% and 61.1±10.3%, respectively. In-hospital mortality was found to be associated with female gender, emergency operation, postoperative renal failure and low cardiac output. The long term mortality was significantly associated with mitral valve involvement. Male gender was found to be a significant risk factor for recurrence in the follow-up. Conclusion: Surgery for aortic valve endocarditis has significant mortality. Emergency operation, female gender, postoperative renal failure and low cardiac output are significant risk factors. Risk for recurrence and need for reoperation is low.

  3. Diphtheroids as a cause of endocarditis in a haemodialysis patient

    OpenAIRE

    Nagassar, Rajeev Peeyush; Nicholson, Alison Merle; Williams, Winston; Bridgelal-Nagassar, Roma Jaanki

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a fatal case of Corynebacterium sp. endocarditis. Corynebacterium spp. are non-sporulating, pleomorphic Gram-positive bacilli. In particular the authors have identified a species of Corynebacterium very closely related to C striatum. This is C simulans. The authors were able to identify the genus and species using various phenotypic tests. Highlighted here is the importance of identifying diphtheroids as a significant pathogen in the appropriate setting and the need to star...

  4. Loeffler's endocarditis presenting with acute abdominal aortic obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Sang-Hoon; Song, Pil-Sang; Kim, Dong-Kie; Kim, Ki-Hun; Kim, Doo-Il; Han, Yang-Chun

    2013-11-01

    Loeffler's endocarditis is a complication of diseases associated with the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, which is characterised by persistently elevated blood eosinophil counts with symptoms and signs of organ involvement especially in the heart, vascular system, nervous system and bone marrow. We report the involvements of the endocardium and aorta, without endomyocardial fibrosis and the complete resolution of the endocardial eosinophilic infiltration with steroids and anticoagulation therapy. PMID:23548334

  5. Löffler endocarditis: a rare cause of acute cardiac failure

    OpenAIRE

    Niemeijer Nicolasine D; van Daele Paul LA; Caliskan Kadir; Oei Frans BS; Loosveld Olaf JL; van der Meer Nardo JM

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We describe a patient with acute cardiogenic shock due to cardiac involvement in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (Löffler endocarditis). At the echocardiography, there was a huge mass in the left ventricular cavity, resulting in inflow- and outflow tract obstruction. The posterior leaflet of the mitral valve apparatus was completely embedded in a big (organized) thrombus mass. The patient was treated with high dose corticosteroids, however without effect. Partial remission was ...

  6. Root cause analysis to support infection control in healthcare premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, A-G

    2015-04-01

    Infection control teams (ICTs) seek to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). They undertake surveillance and prevention, promote safety and quality of care, and evaluate and manage risk. Root cause analysis (RCA) can support this work but is not widely used by ICTs. This paper describes how ICTs can use RCA to enhance their day-to-day work. Many different tools and methods exist for RCA. Its primary aim is to identify the factors that have led to HCAI, but RCA can also be used for near-misses. A team effort and multidisciplinary work are usually required. Published accounts and personal experience in the field indicate that an ICT that correctly uses RCA implements more effective prevention measures, improves practice and collaborative working, enhances teamwork, and reduces the risk of HCAI. RCA should be promoted among ICTs because it adds value to their work and helps to develop a hospital culture that anticipates and pre-empts problems. PMID:25634490

  7. Native Valve Bacillus cereus Endocarditis in a Non-Intravenous-Drug-Abusing Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Benjamin S.; Bankowski, Matthew J.; Lau, William K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a rare cause of endocarditis, typically associated with intravenous drug abuse, rheumatic heart disease, prosthetic heart valves, pacemakers, or immunodeficiency. We present the first case of native valve Bacillus cereus endocarditis with no apparent risk factors. The patient had a fulminant course requiring emergent valve replacement.

  8. Bartonella spp. and Coxiella burnetii Associated with Community-Acquired, Culture-Negative Endocarditis, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Rinaldo Focaccia; Castelli, Jussara Bianchi; Mansur, Alfredo Jose; Pereira dos Santos, Fabiana; Colombo, Silvia; do Nascimento, Elvira Mendes; Paddock, Christopher D; Brasil, Roosecelis Araújo; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Grinberg, Max; Strabelli, Tania Mara Varejao

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated culture-negative, community-acquired endocarditis by using indirect immunofluorescent assays and molecular analyses for Bartonella spp. and Coxiella burnetii and found a prevalence of 19.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Our findings reinforce the need to study these organisms in patients with culture-negative, community-acquired endocarditis, especially B. henselae in cat owners. PMID:26197233

  9. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel Stool Tests Strep Test: Throat ... Disease Genital Herpes Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Hives (Urticaria) Impetigo Infections That Pets Carry Lyme Disease ...

  10. Tratamiento con caspofungina de endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo del Castillo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las endocarditis causadas por hongos, (Candida en particular, requieren tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, siendo la anfotericina B la droga de elección. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con gran actividad sobre Candida y Aspergillus. Se presenta un paciente con una endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol tratado con caspofungina bajo un esquema de salvataje, luego de haber presentado efectos adversos por anfotericina B. El paciente tuvo respuesta microbiológica.Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of resistant soybean roots infected by Meloidogyne javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Eugênia Lisei de, Sá; Marcus José Conceição, Lopes; Magnólia de Araújo, Campos; Luciano Vilela, Paiva; Regina Maria Santos de, Amorim; Magda Aparecida, Beneventi; Alexandre Augusto Pereira, Firmino; Maria Fátima Grossi de, Sá.

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important crop for Brazilian agribusiness. However, many factors can limit its production, especially root-knot nematode infection. Studies on the mechanisms employed by the resistant soybean genotypes to prevent infection by these nematodes are of great interest for breeders. For thes [...] e reasons, the aim of this work is to characterize the transcriptome of soybean line PI 595099-Meloidogyne javanica interaction through expression analysis. Two cDNA libraries were obtained using a pool of RNA from PI 595099 uninfected and M. javanica (J2) infected roots, collected at 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144 and 192 h after inoculation. Around 800 ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) were sequenced and clustered into 195 clusters. In silico subtraction analysis identified eleven differentially expressed genes encoding putative proteins sharing amino acid sequence similarities by using BlastX: metallothionein, SLAH4 (SLAC1 Homologue 4), SLAH1 (SLAC1 Homologue 1), zinc-finger proteins, AN1-type proteins, auxin-repressed proteins, thioredoxin and nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF-2). Other genes were also found exclusively in nematode stressed soybean roots, such as NAC domain-containing proteins, MADS-box proteins, SOC1 (suppressor of overexpression of constans 1) proteins, thioredoxin-like protein 4-Coumarate-CoA ligase and the transcription factor (TF) MYBZ2. Among the genes identified in non-stressed roots only were Ser/Thr protein kinases, wound-induced basic protein, ethylene-responsive family protein, metallothionein-like protein cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) and Putative Kunitz trypsin protease inhibitor. An understanding of the roles of these differentially expressed genes will provide insights into the resistance mechanisms and candidate genes involved in soybean-M. javanica interaction and contribute to more effective control of this pathogen.

  12. Autoimmunity as a possible predisposing factor for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia endocarditis / Autoinmunidad como posible factor predisponente para endocarditis por Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge R., Carrillo-Córdova; Luis M., Amezcua-Guerra.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente sólo existen 40 casos descritos de endocarditis por Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia), ninguno de los cuales tenía una enfermedad autoinmune subyacente. Una mujer de 23 años con imbricación de lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) y artritis reuma-Artritis reumatoide; toide (AR), [...] ingresó a nuestro Instituto por endocarditis de la válvula tricúspide adquirida en México comunidad. La paciente presentó como complicaciones tromboembolia pulmonar y neumonía, se encontraron anticuerpos contra péptidos cíclicos citrulinados (anti-CCP), antinucleares, anti-Sm, anti-Ro/SSA, anti-cardiolipina y anti-(?2 glucoproteína 1, factor reumatoide (FR), complementopenia, linfopenia y proteína C reactiva (PCR) de 425 mg/L. Se observó crecimiento de S. maltophilia en hemocultivos seriados y el tratamiento antimicrobiano empírico no fue efectivo, sino hasta que se incluyó trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol (TMP/SMX). Después de un mes de hospitalización, la paciente fue sometida a remplazo quirúrgico de la válvula tricúspide y la evolución clínica subsecuente fue satisfactoria, permitiendo su egreso 14 días después. Actualmente, la paciente se encuentra asintomática y su función cardiaca, renal y pulmonar es estable. Llama la atención que todos los autoanticuerpos han permanecido elevados a través del tiempo. Presentamos una recopilación de la información disponible acerca de la endocarditis por S. maltophilia, y proponemos que la autoinmunidad podría ser incluida como un nuevo factor de predisposición para esta entidad. Abstract in english Only 40 cases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) endocarditis have been reported to date, and there is no description in patients with underlying autoimmunity. A 23-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) overlapping rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and no risk factors for endo [...] carditis was admitted in our hospital because of community-acquired tricuspid valve endocarditis. During hospitalization, she was complicated with pulmonary thromboembolism and pneumonia. Laboratory showed autoimmune diathesis featured by anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), anti-Sm, anti-Ro/SSA, anti-cardiolipin, anti-(?2 glycoprotein 1, and antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor (RF), low complement, lymphopenia and C-reactive protein (CRP) of 425 mg/L. S. maltophilia grew in serial blood culture sets. Empirical broad-spectrum antimicrobials were ineffective until trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) was added to therapy. One month after admission, the patient underwent successful surgical replacement of the tricuspid valve and the subsequent course was satisfactory, allowing her to be discharged 14 days after. Nowadays, she remains free of complaints and her cardiac, renal and pulmonary functioning is stable. Noteworthy is that all auto-antibodies have been persistently raised over time. Here, we present a compilation of the available information about S. maltophilia endocarditis, and suggest that autoimmunity could be included as a novel predisposing factor for S. maltophilia endocarditis.

  13. Detection of microbial diversity in endocarditis using cultivation-independent molecular techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Tine Y; Moser, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) could be improved using molecular tools in addition to standard microscopy and cultivation methods. Methods: Cultivation was performed on blood or tissue samples as recommended in the modified Duke criteria. The molecular tools included a broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and a more detailed identification by constructing clone libraries followed by sequencing. Results: Of 14 patients, 12 were positive by blood or tissue cultivation and all were monomicrobial. Molecular methods showed the presence of DNA from multiple bacterial species in 6 of the samples and indicated a larger variety of bacteria in the different samples than identified by cultivation. For 8 of the patients there was a good correlation between the results of cultivation and molecular methods, and for these samples the identified bacteria are known to be frequently involved with IE. Many of the additional bacteria only identified by the molecular methods are not reported as common causes of IE. Conclusions: Application of molecular tools in addition to cultivation indicated that polymicrobial infections might be of importance in IE. However, the significance of the more unknown microorganisms needs to be investigated further.

  14. Endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana bivalvular asociada a cáncer y ecocardiograma transesofágico / Bivalvular non bacterial thrombotic endocarditis associated with cancer and transesophageal echocardiography

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo, Zylberman; Fernando A., Díaz Couselo; Flavio, Sánchez; Daniel, Santos; Adrián, Nervo.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana es la causa más frecuente de accidente cerebrovascular isquémico en pacientes con cáncer. En estos pacientes se hallaron vegetaciones valvulares hasta en el 9% de las autopsias. Sin embargo, la afección bivalvular es poco frecuente, observándose en el 9% de l [...] as endocarditis trombóticas. Se presenta una paciente con cáncer de ovario que presentó afasia e imágenes compatibles con isquemia cerebral. El ecocardiograma transtorácico fue normal. El ecocardiograma transesofágico evidenció vegetaciones en las válvulas aórtica y mitral. Se enfatiza la importancia de sospechar endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana en enfermos con cáncer y embolismo sistémico y en la escasa frecuencia de afección bivalvular. Abstract in english Non bacterial thrombotic endocarditis is the most frequent cause of ischemic stroke in cancer patients. Up to 9% of autopsies of cancer patients show non infectious valvular masses. However, bivalvular involvement is not frequently occurring in 9% of non bacterial thrombotic endocarditis. We report [...] a patient with ovarian cancer who presented aphasia. The MRI was compatible with cerebral ischemia. The transthoracic echocardiogram was normal and a transesophageal echocardiogram showed vegetations in aortic and mitral valves. We emphasize the importance of suspecting non bacterial thrombotic endocarditis in patients with cancer and systemic embolism and the low frequency of bivalvular involvement.

  15. AIDS/HIV infection and cerebrovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, A.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of cerebrovascular disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been reported mainly in advanced stages of the disease and was generally associated with nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, opportunistic infections, or tumors, although in recent series a large number of cryptogenic strokes were found, probably related to HIV vasculopathy. Recently a population-based study reported a strong association between acquired immunodeficiency syndrom...

  16. Post-stroke infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkgraaf Marcel G; Vermeij Jan-Dirk; Nederkoorn Paul J; Westendorp Willeke F; de Beek Diederik van

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background stroke is the main cause of disability in high-income countries, and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Patients with acute stroke are at risk for infections, but reported post-stroke infection rates vary considerably. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the pooled post-stroke infection rate and its effect on outcome. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for studies on post-stroke infection. Cohort studies and randomized clinical tri...

  17. A CASE OF ACUTE ENDOCARDITIS CAUSED BY MICROCOCCUS ZYMOGENES (NOV. SPEC.), WITH A DESCRIPTION OF THE MICROORGANISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccallum, W G; Hastings, T W

    1899-09-01

    From a case of acute endocarditis of the aortic and mitral valves with infarctions m the spleen and kidneys a micrococcus was twice isolated in pure culture from the blood during life and was demonstrated after death both microscopically and in pure culture in large numbers in the valvular vegetations, the infarctions and other parts. No other species of microorganism was found. This micrococcus is very small, occurs mainly in pairs, sometimes in short chains, stains by Gram's method, grows in small, pale, grayish-white colonies on gelatine and agar, at first clouds bouillon, which then becomes clear with a whitish sediment, does not produce gas in glucose media, liquefies gelatine slowly and to some extent also blood serum, and is especially characterized by its behavior in milk, which it acidifies, coagulates and subsequently liquefies. It produces a milk-curdling ferment and also a proteolytic ferment, each of which is separable from the bacterial cells. It remains viable for months in old cultures and is tolerably resistant to the action of heat and antiseptics. The micrococcus is pathogenic for mice and rabbits, causing either abscesses or general infections. Typical acute vegetative endocarditis was experimentally produced by intravenous inoculation of the organism in a rabbit and a dog, and the cocci were demonstrated in pure culture in the vegetations and other parts of these animals after death. Although the micrococcus here described has some points of resemblance to the pneumococcus and Streptococcus pyogenes on the one hand and to the pyogenic staphylococci on the other, it is readily distinguished from each of these species by cultural features which have been described and which are so obvious that the differentiation of these species from our micrococcus need not be discussed in detail. We have searched through the records concerning microorganisms described in association with endocarditis and other diseases, as well as those isolated from water, soil and other sources, and have been unable to find a description of a micrococcus identical in all particulars with that here described. Such points as staining by Gram, liquefaction of gelatine, coagulation and peptonization of milk, served singly or in combination to distinguish our micrococcus from other forms which in some respects might resemble it. We feel justified, therefore, in recognizing this organism as a new species and from its fermentative properties propose for it the name "Micrococcus zymogenes." Micrococcus zymogenes must be added to the already considerable list of bacteria which have been found as the specific infective agents in endocarditis. That it was the cause of this affection in our case was conclusively demonstrated by its repeated isolation in pure culture from the blood during life, by its presence in pure culture and large numbers after death in the cardiac vegetations, the infarctions, and other parts of the body, and by the experimental proof of its pathogenic properties, and notably its capacity to produce vegetative endocarditis by intravenous inoculation in animals. PMID:19866921

  18. Diphtheroids as a cause of endocarditis in a haemodialysis patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagassar, Rajeev Peeyush; Nicholson, Alison Merle; Williams, Winston; Bridgelal-Nagassar, Roma Jaanki

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a fatal case of Corynebacterium sp. endocarditis. Corynebacterium spp. are non-sporulating, pleomorphic Gram-positive bacilli. In particular the authors have identified a species of Corynebacterium very closely related to C striatum. This is C simulans. The authors were able to identify the genus and species using various phenotypic tests. Highlighted here is the importance of identifying diphtheroids as a significant pathogen in the appropriate setting and the need to start antibiotic therapy if this is suspected. PMID:22605849

  19. Löffler endocarditis: a rare cause of acute cardiac failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemeijer Nicolasine D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe a patient with acute cardiogenic shock due to cardiac involvement in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (Löffler endocarditis. At the echocardiography, there was a huge mass in the left ventricular cavity, resulting in inflow- and outflow tract obstruction. The posterior leaflet of the mitral valve apparatus was completely embedded in a big (organized thrombus mass. The patient was treated with high dose corticosteroids, however without effect. Partial remission was achieved after treatment with hydroxycarbamide. He was also treated with anticoagulants and high dose beta-blockers. The patient’s condition improved remarkably after correction of the mitral valve insufficiency by a mitral valve bioprosthesis.

  20. Löffler endocarditis: a rare cause of acute cardiac failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Nicolasine D; van Daele, Paul L A; Caliskan, Kadir; Oei, Frans B S; Loosveld, Olaf J L; van der Meer, Nardo J M

    2012-01-01

    We describe a patient with acute cardiogenic shock due to cardiac involvement in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (Löffler endocarditis). At the echocardiography, there was a huge mass in the left ventricular cavity, resulting in inflow- and outflow tract obstruction. The posterior leaflet of the mitral valve apparatus was completely embedded in a big (organized) thrombus mass. The patient was treated with high dose corticosteroids, however without effect. Partial remission was achieved after treatment with hydroxycarbamide. He was also treated with anticoagulants and high dose beta-blockers. The patient's condition improved remarkably after correction of the mitral valve insufficiency by a mitral valve bioprosthesis. PMID:23046536

  1. Lactococcus garvieae endocarditis in a native valve identified by MALDI-TOF MS and PCR-based 16s rRNA in Spain: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Heras Cañas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus garvieae is a Gram-positive, catalase negative coccus arranged in pairs or short chains, well-known as a fish pathogen. We report a case of Infective Endocarditis (IE by L. garvieae in a native valve from a 68-year-old male with unknown history of contact with raw fish and an extensive history of heart disease. This case highlights the reliability of MALDI-TOF MS compared to conventional methods in the identification of rare microorganisms like this.

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro

    2015-07-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinically applicable. The capacity of HIV to generate genetic diversity, in association with the constitutional characteristics of the CNS, facilitates the generation of HIV quasispecies in the CNS that are distinct from HIV in the systemic circulation. CSF analysis has a well-defined and valuable role in the diagnosis of CNS infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Further research is necessary to establish a clinically applicable biomarker for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:26200059

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinically applicable. The capacity of HIV to generate genetic diversity, in association with the constitutional characteristics of the CNS, facilitates the generation of HIV quasispecies in the CNS that are distinct from HIV in the systemic circulation. CSF analysis has a well-defined and valuable role in the diagnosis of CNS infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Further research is necessary to establish a clinically applicable biomarker for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

  4. Interactions between endocarditis-derived Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates and human endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreier Jens

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an important causative agent of infective endocarditis (IE but the knowledge on virulence factors is limited and the pathogenesis of the infection is poorly understood. In the present study, we established an experimental in vitro IE cell culture model using EA.hy926 and HUVEC cells to investigate the adhesion and invasion characteristics of 23 Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strains from different origins (human IE-derived isolates, other human clinical isolates, animal isolates. Adhesion to eight components of the extracellular matrix (ECM and the ability to form biofilms in vitro was examined in order to reveal features of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus endothelial infection. In addition, the strains were analyzed for the presence of the three virulence factors gtf, pilB, and fimB by PCR. Results The adherence to and invasion characteristics of the examined S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strains to the endothelial cell line EA.hy926 differ significantly among themselves. In contrast, the usage of three different in vitro models (EA.hy926 cells, primary endothelial cells (HUVECs, mechanical stretched cells revealed no differences regarding the adherence to and invasion characteristics of different strains. Adherence to the ECM proteins collagen I, II and IV revealed the highest values, followed by fibrinogen, tenascin and laminin. Moreover, a strong correlation was observed in binding to these proteins by the analyzed strains. All strains show the capability to adhere to polystyrole surfaces and form biofilms. We further confirmed the presence of the genes of two known virulence factors (fimB: all strains, gtf: 19 of 23 strains and demonstrated the presence of the gene of one new putative virulence factor (pilB: 9 of 23 strains by PCR. Conclusion Our study provides the first description of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus adhesion and invasion of human endothelial cells, revealing important initial information of strain variability, behaviour and characteristics of this as yet barely analyzed pathogen.

  5. Surgical site infection surveillance: analysis of adherence to recommendations for routine infection control practices

    OpenAIRE

    Zotti, Carla Maria; CHARRIER, Lorena

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the application of surgical site infection control procedures in general surgery departments in hospitals in the Piemonte region of Italy. DESIGN: The descriptive study entailed 1 week of observation in the general surgery departments and 1 week of observation in the operating rooms of 49 hospitals in Piemonte; the survey was conducted in 2003. METHODS: Data collection forms were designed to record information about presurgical patient preparation (form 1) and infection...

  6. Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the Reservoir for a Human Pathogenic Bartonella sp.: Molecular Epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii Infection in Coyotes from Central Coastal California

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chao-Chin; Kasten, Rickie W; Chomel, Bruno B.; Simpson, Darren C.; Hew, Carrie M.; Kordick, Dorsey L.; Heller, Remy; Piemont, Yves; Edward B. Breitschwerdt

    2000-01-01

    Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was originally isolated from a dog suffering infectious endocarditis and was recently identified as a zoonotic agent causing human endocarditis. Following the coyote bite of a child who developed clinical signs compatible with Bartonella infection in Santa Clara County, Calif., this epidemiological study was conducted. Among 109 coyotes (Canis latrans) from central coastal California, 31 animals (28%) were found to be bacteremic with B. vinsonii subsp. be...

  7. Prevalence of feline haemoplasma infection in cats in Southern Bavaria, Germany, and infection risk factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberke, Silja; Just, Frank; Pfister, Kurt; Hartmann, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    In this prospective study performed from samples of 296 cats from Southern Bavaria, Germany, a conventional PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assay for detection of Mycoplasma haemofelis and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" and a real-time PCR for "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" were used to test blood samples from ill cats with anaemia (n = 79), ill cats with a normal haematocrit (n = 98), and healthy cats (n = 119). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of feline haemoplasma infection and associated risk factors in cats in Southern Bavaria, Germany. Thirty-six cats (12.2%) were PCR positive: 9.5% were infected with "Candidatus M. haemominutum, 1.4% with M. haemofelis, and 0.3% with "Candidatus M. turicensis". Three cats (1.0%) were coinfected with two haemoplasma species (one cat with "Candidatus M. haemominutum"and M. haemofelis, and two cats with "Candidatus M. haemominutum"and "Candidatus M. turicensis"). Risk factors for infection were outdoor access, male gender, coinfection with feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), and domestic shorthair breed. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of haemoplasma infection between the three groups and none of the positive cats had clinical signs of haemoplasma infection. The authors conclude that feline haemoplasma infection does not appear to be a common cause of anaemia in cats in Southern Bavaria, Germany. PMID:20135909

  8. Antibiotic-impregnated heart valve sewing rings for treatment and prophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cimbollek, M; Nies, B.; Wenz, R; Kreuter, J.

    1996-01-01

    Prosthetic heart valve sewing rings were impregnated with gentamicin crobefat (EMD 46217), a poorly soluble gentamicin salt, gentamicin sulfate, and clindamycin palmitate to prevent early prosthetic endocarditis. MICs and MBCs of gentamicin and/or clindamycin were tested against several pathogens of early prosthetic endocarditis. The combination of gentamicin and clindamycin was found to be effective against most relevant bacterial pathogens. With an in vitro pharmacokinetic model, the antiba...

  9. Mitral regurgitation jet around neoannulus: Mitral valve replacement in erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Basu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old male presented with erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (ER endocarditis of the mitral valve, severe mitral regurgitation, and heart failure. The ER endocarditis destroyed the native mitral annulus therefore a new annulus was created for the suspension of the mitral bioprosthesis. Postoperative neoannulus dehiscence and leak prompted to redo surgery where transesophageal echocardiography (TEE played an important role in pointing out the exact location of perineoannular leaks for repair.

  10. Treatment of experimental endocarditis due to ampicillin-susceptible or ampicillin-resistant Salmonella enteritidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Guerrero, M L; Torres Perea, R; Verdejo Morcillo, C; Fernández Roblas, R; Górgolas, M.

    1996-01-01

    Using two strains of Salmonella enteritidis, one susceptible and one resistant to ampicillin, we studied the efficacies of ampicillin, gentamicin, ampicillin plus gentamicin, ofloxacin, and cefotaxime for the treatment of experimental salmonella endocarditis. Rabbits were treated for 3 days with dosages of antibiotic selected to achieve concentrations in serum equivalent to those obtained in humans during therapy. Aortic salmonella endocarditis seemed to be very difficult to treat, and all an...

  11. Detection of fastidious bacteria in cardiac valves in cases of blood culture negative endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Bruneval, P.; Choucair, J; Paraf, F; Casalta, J; Raoult, D.; Scherchen, F; Mainardi, J

    2001-01-01

    The diagnosis of blood culture negative endocarditis is still a problem. Fastidious bacteria such as bartonella and coxiella are responsible for cases of blood culture negative endocarditis, the identification of which is mainly based on serological and DNA studies only available in specialised centres. Therefore, a routine technique is needed in surgical pathology laboratories to detect these bacteria in cardiac valve tissue sections. This report describes a staining technique, the Giménez s...

  12. Therapeutic Efficacy of GAR-936, a Novel Glycylcycline, in a Rat Model of Experimental Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Timothy M.; Deitz, Jacqueline M.; Peter J. Petersen; Mikels, Susan M.; Weiss, William J.

    2000-01-01

    GAR-936, a novel glycylcycline, was investigated with a rat model of experimental endocarditis. It was compared with vancomycin against both vancomycin-susceptible and -resistant Enterococcus faecalis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. GAR-936 exhibited the lowest MICs (?0.12 ?g/ml) in vitro against each of the isolates tested. Endocarditis was established by placement of a catheter across the aortic valve, followed by intravenous injection of 106 CFU of bacteria 48 h later. Tre...

  13. 99mTc-labelled anti NCA-95 antibodies in prosthetic heart valve endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 54-y old women with earlier replacement of the mitral and aortic valves and clinical signs of localized endocarditis was studied with 99mTc-labelled anti NCA-95 antibody. Whereas echocardiographic findings were negative, increased radionuclide uptake was observed left parasternal over the mitral valve as a sign of prosthetic valve endocarditis. This result could be confirmed by a similar study with leukocytes labelled in vitro with 111In-oxine. (orig.)

  14. Ciprofloxacin versus vancomycin in the therapy of experimental methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaatz, G.W.; Barriere, S L; Schaberg, D.R.; Fekety, R

    1987-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of ciprofloxacin with that of vancomycin by using the rabbit model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Endocarditis was treated with ciprofloxacin (25 mg/kg [body weight] intravenously every 8 h) or vancomycin (17.5 mg/kg intravenously every 6 h) for 3 days. Vancomycin and ciprofloxacin were equally efficacious in clearing bacteremia. Both reduced vegetation bacterial counts by 5 log10 CFU/g and renal and splenic bacterial counts by more than ...

  15. The value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in diagnosing infectious endocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouijzer, Ilse J.E. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Internal Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Vos, Fidel J. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Internal Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Janssen, Marcel J.R. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Dijk, Arie P.J. van [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Cardiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation and Immunity (N4i), Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Internal Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation and Immunity (N4i), Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Early detection of infectious endocarditis is challenging. For diagnosing infectious endocarditis, the revised Duke criteria are the gold standard. Evidence of endocardial involvement on echocardiography is a major criterion, but sensitivity and specificity of echocardiography are not optimal. Here we investigated the utility of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) to diagnose infectious endocarditis in patients with gram-positive bacteraemia. Seventy-two patients with gram-positive bacteraemia were prospectively included. Patients with a positive blood culture growing Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus species or Enterococcus species were eligible when a risk factor for developing metastatic infectious foci was present. Infectious endocarditis was defined according to the revised Duke criteria. All patients underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and echocardiography. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in or around the heart valves was evaluated independently by two nuclear medicine physicians. Sensitivity for diagnosing infectious endocarditis with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was 39 % and specificity was 93 %. The positive predictive value was 64 % and negative predictive value was 82 %. The mortality rate in patients without infectious endocarditis and without increased {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in or around the heart valves was 18 %, and in patients without infectious endocarditis but with high {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in or around the heart valves the mortality rate was 50 % (p = 0.181). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is currently not sufficiently adequate for the diagnosis of infectious endocarditis because of its low sensitivity. Improvements such as patient preparation with low carbohydrate-fat allowed diet and technical advances in the newest PET/CT scanners may increase sensitivity in future studies. (orig.)

  16. Helicobacter pylori Infection Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Hyperemesis Gravidarum: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    LI, Lin; Li, Lingling; Zhou, Xiaoying; Xiao, Shuping; Gu, Huiyuan; Zhang, Guoxin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Several studies have shown a possible involvement of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in individuals with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), but the relationship remains controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to validate and strengthen the association between HG and H. pylori infection. Methods. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases up to March 20, 2014, were searched to select studies on the prevalence of H. pylori infection between pregnant women with HG and t...

  17. Proteomic analysis of primary duck hepatocytes infected with duck hepatitis B virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Tianlun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a major cause of liver infection in human. Because of the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for supporting HBV infection efficiently, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hepadnavirus infection remain incompletely understood. Duck heptatitis B virus (DHBV can naturally infect primary duck hepatocytes (PDHs that provide valuable model systems for studying hepadnavirus infection in vitro. In this report, we explored global changes in cellular protein expression in DHBV infected PDHs by two-dimension gel electrophoresis (2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Results The effects of hepadnavirus infection on hepatocytes were investigated in DHBV infected PDHs by the 2-DE analysis. Proteomic profile of PDHs infected with DHBV were analyzed at 24, 72 and 120 h post-infection by comparing with uninfected PDHs, and 75 differentially expressed protein spots were revealed by 2-DE analysis. Among the selected protein spots, 51 spots were identified corresponding to 42 proteins by MS/MS analysis; most of them were matched to orthologous proteins of Gallus gallus, Anas platyrhynchos or other avian species, including alpha-enolase, lamin A, aconitase 2, cofilin-2 and annexin A2, etc. The down-regulated expression of beta-actin and annexin A2 was confirmed by Western blot analysis, and potential roles of some differentially expressed proteins in the virus-infected cells have been discussed. Conclusions Differentially expressed proteins of DHBV infected PDHs revealed by 2-DE, are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, stress responses and cytoskeleton processes etc, providing the insight to understanding of interactions between hepadnavirus and hepatocytes and molecular mechanisms of hepadnavirus pathogenesis.

  18. Post-stroke infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkgraaf Marcel G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background stroke is the main cause of disability in high-income countries, and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Patients with acute stroke are at risk for infections, but reported post-stroke infection rates vary considerably. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the pooled post-stroke infection rate and its effect on outcome. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for studies on post-stroke infection. Cohort studies and randomized clinical trials were included when post-stroke infection rate was reported. Rates of infection were pooled after assessment of heterogeneity. Associations between population- and study characteristics and infection rates were quantified. Finally, we reviewed the association between infection and outcome. Results 87 studies were included involving 137817 patients. 8 studies were restricted to patients admitted on the intensive care unit (ICU. There was significant heterogeneity between studies (P 2 = 97%. The overall pooled infection rate was 30% (24-36%; rates of pneumonia and urinary tract infection were 10% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9-10% and 10% (95%CI 9-12%. For ICU studies, these rates were substantially higher with 45% (95% CI 38-52%, 28% (95%CI 18-38% and 20% (95%CI 0-40%. Rates of pneumonia were higher in studies that specifically evaluated infections and in consecutive studies. Studies including older patients or more females reported higher rates of urinary tract infection. Pneumonia was significantly associated with death (odds ratio 3.62 (95%CI 2.80-4.68. Conclusions Infection complicated acute stroke in 30% of patients. Rates of pneumonia and urinary tract infection after stroke were 10%. Pneumonia was associated with death. Our study stresses the need to prevent infections in patients with stroke.

  19. Morphometric analysis of hepatic steatosis in chronic hepatitis C infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Alia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To quantitatively assess steatosis by a morphometric method and to study its relationship with other histological features of chronic hepatitis C (CHC. This was a comparative descriptive study. The study was carried out in the Department of Histopathology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from March 2006 to March 2007. Methods: Patients who had undergone a liver biopsy for the evaluation of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection were included in the study. Demographic characteristics and laboratory data were collected at the time of biopsy. The first hundred biopsy specimens that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for grades of steatosis (semiquantitatively, diameter of fat globules (by a morphometric method, necroinflammation, and fibrosis (semiquantitatively. Liver biopsies were processed for paraffin embedding, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, whereas Gomori?s Reticulin stain was used for the evaluation of fibrosis. Results: Out of 46 cases showing fatty change, pansteatosis was observed in 24 (52% patients: 12 (26% cases had a pericentral and mid zonal distribution of fat globules and eight (17.5% cases revealed a mid zonal pattern only. There were two (4.5% cases in which fat globules were found in periportal and mid zonal areas. None of the histological parameters (the stage of fibrosis and grades of inflammation had any significant correlation with these distribution patterns of steatosis. The diameter of fat droplets was quantified by morphometry. A mixed pattern of steatosis was observed more frequently (21 out of 46 cases: 17 cases had microglobules and eight biopsies showed macroglobules. The size of the fat globules exhibited a significant correlation with the stage of fibrosis ( P < 0.0001. The analysis of the grades of necroinflammation did not reveal any significant relationship with the diameter of fat globules. Conclusions: A mixed pattern of fat globules is more frequently observed in CHC, but macrovesicular steatosis is associated with a higher stage of fibrosis. Morphometry is recommended as one of the important tools for the follow-up of HCV-infected patients. Whether an accurate assessment of fat globule size by morphometry is preferred for the evaluation of patients before and after the antiviral therapy needs further research.

  20. ENDOCARDITIS BACTERIANA POR ACTINOBACILLUS ACTINOMYCETEMCOMITANS. REPORTE DE UN CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Salas Valderá

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de endocarditis bacteriana, niño de seis años ingresado en el Hospital Pediátrico Provincial Docente "Dr. Eduardo Agramonte Piña" en el mes de enero de 2006, con una sintomatología que puede inferir la presencia sospechosa de dengue. Se potenciaron exámenes que permitieron descartar esta enfermedad. En el primer hemocultivo realizado se aisló un Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, este microorganismo es un cocobacilo gram negativo, anaerobio facultativo, inmóvil, no formador de esporas que fermenta carbohidratos sin producción de gas, forma parte de la flora normal de la boca humana y es muy sensible a los antimicrobianos, resolvió con el tratamiento antibacteriano impuesto, de ceftriaxona y ciprofloxacina que fue sustituido por gentamicina y ampicillín.

  1. Síndrome de ortodeoxia-platipnea y embolia luego de endocarditis derecha complicada: consecuencias del Foramen Oval Permeable / Platypnea-Orthodeoxia syndrome and embolism after complicated right side endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aníbal, Arias; Diego, Funes; Pablo, Oberti; Rodolfo, Pizarro; Mariano, Falconi; César, Belziti.

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso clínico de una mujer de 63 años de edad con Endocarditis de la Válvula Tricúspide que desarrolló tromboembolismo pulmonar y un síndrome de platipnea-ortodeoxia explicado por la presencia de un formen oval permeable. La paciente se recuperó satisfactoriamente después de un reempla [...] zo de la válvula tricúspide. Abstract in english The case of 63 year old woman with Endocarditis at the Tricuspid Valve, pulmonary and paradoxical embolism with platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome is presented. The patient recovered after surgical replacement of the tricuspid valve. [...

  2. Flooding and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Case-Crossover Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia J. Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that can spread by water. It often causes acute gastrointestinal illness in older adults who are hospitalized and/or receiving antibiotics; however, community-associated infections affecting otherwise healthy individuals have become more commonly reported. A case-crossover study was used to assess emergency room (ER and outpatient visits for C. difficile infection following flood events in Massachusetts from 2003 through 2007. Exposure status was based on whether or not a flood occurred prior to the case/control date during the following risk periods: 0–6 days, 7–13 days, 14–20 days, and 21–27 days. Fixed-effects logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of diagnosis with C. difficile infection following a flood. There were 129 flood events and 1575 diagnoses of C. difficile infection. Among working age adults (19–64 years, ER and outpatient visits for C. difficile infection were elevated during the 7–13 days following a flood (Odds Ratio, OR = 1.69; 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 0.84, 3.37. This association was more substantial among males (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.01–10.19. Associations during other risk periods were not observed (p < 0.05. Although we were unable to differentiate community-associated versus nosocomial infections, a potential increase in C. difficile infections should be considered as more flooding is projected due to climate change.

  3. [Infection in severe neutropenia: analysis of 140 episodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, J; Bronfman, L; Lorca, J; Pinto, M E; Torrens, M; Garcia, M E; Barrientos, A; Palma, T

    1989-10-01

    We analyzed infections complicating 140 episodes of severe neutropenia in 86 patients. The underlying diagnosis was acute leukemia in 64, lymphoma in 12 and isolated cases of bone marrow aplasia, agranulocytosis, dysmyelopoiesis and solid tumors. No fever developed in 35 (25%) episodes. No cause for the fever was identified in 40% of the remaining episodes. Clinical evidence of an infection was present in 20%, with positive bacteriologic findings in 27%. Respiratory infection (16%), pneumonia (11%) and sepsis (10%) were the most common infectious processes. Infectious agents isolated were gram negative bacilli (72%), gram positive cocci (19%) and fungi (9%). The association of amikacin and carbenicillin or cephalosporins proved to be superior to gentamycin-penicillin (p less than 0.01). 16 patients died for an overall mortality of 11%. Pneumonia and infection by K pneumoniae or C albicans were associated to a poorer prognosis. PMID:2519358

  4. Spatial Analysis of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cougars

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, David C.; Waller, Lance A; Biek, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large predatory feline found widely in the Americas that is susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a fast-evolving lentivirus found in wild feline species that is analogous to simian immunodeficiency viruses in wild primates and belongs to the same family of viruses as human immunodeficiency virus. FIV infection in cougars can lead to a weakened immune system that creates opportunities for other infecting agents. FIV prevalence and lineages have be...

  5. Analysis of virus infected cell by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Kamila; Ohtani, Kiyoshi; Myrzakozha, Diyas; Zhanserkenova, Orik; Andriana, Bibin B.; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2014-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a promising tool for detection of virus infection in live cells. In the present study, we demonstrate its feasibility to observe dynamic reaction of the live cell infected by virus. The Raman spectra of the adenovirus infected live cell (293 HEK) are analyzed by comparing with those of control cells. Principal component analysis (PCA) is employed also to analyze the spectra in detail. A band at 1650 cm-1 increases its intensity in the spectra measured at 24 hours after the virus infection. The infection of the virus is also examined by immune-staining and transmission electron microscope (TEM), and the virus infection is confirmed with these method also. It should be noted that the present technique does not require specifying the type of virus in advance.

  6. A rare case of aortic sinuses of valsalva fistula to multiple cardiac chambers secondary to periannular aortic abscess formation from underlying Brucella endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabzi, Feridoun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The concomitant presence of abnormal connection from three aortic valsalva sinuses to cardiac chambers is a rare complication of native aortic endocarditis. This case report presents a 37-year-old Iranian female patient who had native aortic valve endocarditis complicated by periannular abscess formation and subsequent perforation to multi-cardiac chambers associated with congestive heart failure and left bundle branch block. Multiple aorto-cavitary fistulas to right atrium, main pulmonary artery, and formation of a pocket over left atrial roof were detected by transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE. She had received a full course of antibiotics therapy in a local hospital and was referred to our center for further surgery. TTE not only detected multiple aorto-cavitary fistulas but also revealed large vegetation in aortic and mitral valve leaflets and also small vegetation in the entrance of fistula to right atrium. However, the tricuspid valve was not involved in infective endocarditis. She underwent open cardiac surgery with double valve replacement with biologic valves and reconstruction of left sinus of valsalva fistula to supra left atrial pocket by pericardial patch repair. The two other fistulas to main pulmonary artery and right atrium were closed via related chambers. The post-operative course was complicated by renal failure and prolonged dependency to ventilator that was managed accordingly with peritoneal dialysis and tracheostomy. The patient was discharged on the 25 day after admission in relatively good condition. The TTE follow-up one year after discharge revealed mild paravalvular leakage in aortic valve position, but the function of mitral valve was normal and no residual fistulas were detected.

  7. Tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite em prótese valvular cardíaca Surgical treatment of endocarditis in prosthetic valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M. A Pomerantzeff

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available No período de janeiro de 1983 a março de 1988, 1.512 pacientes foram submetidos a substituição valvar, no Instituto do Coração, sendo 28 (1,85% deles por endocardite em prótese valvular. Dezessete doentes eram do sexo masculino e a idade variou de 18 a 67 anbs, com média e desvio padrão de 36,7 ± 12,9. A avaliação da classe funcional (CF. revelou 11 pacientes em CF. IV, 12 em C. F. III e 5 em CF . II. Oito (28,5% pacientes foram operados em condições de emergência. Um paciente era portador e válvula mecânica e 27, de válvula biológica. As hemoculturas foram positivas em 14 (50% pacientes; o agente mais encontrado foi o Streptococcus viridans em 5 casos. O ecocardiograma realizado no pré-operatório em 27 pacientes mostrou correlação com os achados cirúrgicos em 26 (96,2%. Na cirurgia, 17 doentes apresentavam vegetação na prótese e 11, abscesso no anel. Na retroca, foram utilizadas biopróteses em 27 (96,4% pacientes. A mortalidade imediata foi de 28,5% (8 doentes, ocorrendo 1 óbito tardio. A análise da associação óbito e tempo de aparecimento da endocardite, condição cirúrgica e resultado da cultura foi feita pelo teste de Qui-Quadrado (?2. Podemos concluir que as condições clínicas pré-operatórias interferem, decisivamente, no resultado cirúrgico; a cirurgia de emergência tem resultados piores, devido às condições mais críticas dos doentes; as endocardites mais precoces são mais graves; a manipulação de focos infecciosos em pacientes com prótese valvular deve ser cuidadosa e precedida de antibioticoterapia e, nos doentes sobreviventes à operação, a evolução a longo prazo apresenta melhora significativa da classe funcional.From January/1983 to March/1988, 1512 patients were submitted to valve replacement in the Instituto do Coração, Of these, 28 (1.8% presented endocarditis in a valvular prosthesis. Seventeen patients were males, their ages varying from 18 to 67 years, with an average and standard deviation of 36.7 ± 12.9. The evolution of the functional class (F. C. revealed 11 patients in (F. C. IV, 12 in F. C. III and 5 in F. C. II (NYHA. Eight (28.5% patients were operated on under emergency conditions. One patient had a mechanical valve and 27 had biological valves. The blood cultures were positive in 14 (50% patients, the agent most commonly found being Streptococcus viridans (5 cases. Preoperative echocardiogram in 27 patients showed good correlation with the surgical findings in 26 (96.2%. At surgery, 17 patients presented vegetations in the prosthesis and 11 had an abscess in the valvular ring. Bioprosthesis were used as valvular replacement in 27 patients (96,4%. Immediate mortality was 28,5% (8 patients, one death occurring later. An analysis of the association between death, time from onset of the endocarditis, surgical conditions and result of the cultures was carried out by the Chi-Squared (?2 test. We conclude that the clinical preoperative conditions influence decisively the surgical results. Surgery under emergency conditions has the poorest results because of the patient's more critical condition: the more premature cases of endocarditis are also the more severe. Manipulation of infectious foci in patients with a valvular prosthesis should be careful and preceded by antibiotic administration. The longterm evolution of the surviving patients demonstrated significant functional class improvement.

  8. Tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite em prótese valvular cardíaca / Surgical treatment of endocarditis in prosthetic valves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo M. A, Pomerantzeff; Paulo M, Pêgo-Fernandes; Yukio, Kioka; Rita H. A, Cardoso; Silvana D. D, Galucci; Alfredo, Mansur; Altamiro Ribeiro, Dias; Max, Grinberg; Delmont, Bittencourt; Noedir A. G, Stolf; Geraldo, Verginelli; Adib D, Jatene.

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available No período de janeiro de 1983 a março de 1988, 1.512 pacientes foram submetidos a substituição valvar, no Instituto do Coração, sendo 28 (1,85%) deles por endocardite em prótese valvular. Dezessete doentes eram do sexo masculino e a idade variou de 18 a 67 anbs, com média e desvio padrão de 36,7 ± 1 [...] 2,9. A avaliação da classe funcional (CF.) revelou 11 pacientes em CF. IV, 12 em C. F. III e 5 em CF . II. Oito (28,5%) pacientes foram operados em condições de emergência. Um paciente era portador e válvula mecânica e 27, de válvula biológica. As hemoculturas foram positivas em 14 (50%) pacientes; o agente mais encontrado foi o Streptococcus viridans em 5 casos. O ecocardiograma realizado no pré-operatório em 27 pacientes mostrou correlação com os achados cirúrgicos em 26 (96,2%). Na cirurgia, 17 doentes apresentavam vegetação na prótese e 11, abscesso no anel. Na retroca, foram utilizadas biopróteses em 27 (96,4%) pacientes. A mortalidade imediata foi de 28,5% (8 doentes), ocorrendo 1 óbito tardio. A análise da associação óbito e tempo de aparecimento da endocardite, condição cirúrgica e resultado da cultura foi feita pelo teste de Qui-Quadrado (?2). Podemos concluir que as condições clínicas pré-operatórias interferem, decisivamente, no resultado cirúrgico; a cirurgia de emergência tem resultados piores, devido às condições mais críticas dos doentes; as endocardites mais precoces são mais graves; a manipulação de focos infecciosos em pacientes com prótese valvular deve ser cuidadosa e precedida de antibioticoterapia e, nos doentes sobreviventes à operação, a evolução a longo prazo apresenta melhora significativa da classe funcional. Abstract in english From January/1983 to March/1988, 1512 patients were submitted to valve replacement in the Instituto do Coração, Of these, 28 (1.8%) presented endocarditis in a valvular prosthesis. Seventeen patients were males, their ages varying from 18 to 67 years, with an average and standard deviation of 36.7 ± [...] 12.9. The evolution of the functional class (F. C.) revealed 11 patients in (F. C.) IV, 12 in F. C. III and 5 in F. C. II (NYHA). Eight (28.5%) patients were operated on under emergency conditions. One patient had a mechanical valve and 27 had biological valves. The blood cultures were positive in 14 (50%) patients, the agent most commonly found being Streptococcus viridans (5 cases). Preoperative echocardiogram in 27 patients showed good correlation with the surgical findings in 26 (96.2%). At surgery, 17 patients presented vegetations in the prosthesis and 11 had an abscess in the valvular ring. Bioprosthesis were used as valvular replacement in 27 patients (96,4%). Immediate mortality was 28,5% (8 patients), one death occurring later. An analysis of the association between death, time from onset of the endocarditis, surgical conditions and result of the cultures was carried out by the Chi-Squared (?2) test. We conclude that the clinical preoperative conditions influence decisively the surgical results. Surgery under emergency conditions has the poorest results because of the patient's more critical condition: the more premature cases of endocarditis are also the more severe. Manipulation of infectious foci in patients with a valvular prosthesis should be careful and preceded by antibiotic administration. The longterm evolution of the surviving patients demonstrated significant functional class improvement.

  9. Bromide-dependent toxicity of eosinophil peroxidase for endothelium and isolated working rat hearts: a model for eosinophilic endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Eosinophilic endocarditis is a potentially lethal complication of chronic peripheral blood hypereosinophilia. We hypothesized that eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), an abundant eosinophil (EO) cationic granule protein, promotes eosinophilic endocarditis by binding to negatively charged endocardium, and there generating cytotoxic oxidants. Using an immunocytochemical technique, we demonstrated endocardial deposition of EPO in the heart of a patient with hypereosinophilic heart disease. Because EPO ...

  10. Propionibacterium acnes as a cause of aggressive aortic valve endocarditis and importance of tissue grinding: case report and review.

    OpenAIRE

    Günthard, H; Hany, A; Turina, M.; Wüst, J.

    1994-01-01

    A case of prosthetic valve endocarditis with Propionibacterium acnes is described. The diagnosis was documented by histology and isolation of P. acnes from both blood and anulus tissue. Grinding of the tissue, which was first omitted to avoid contamination, was indispensable for cultivating the agent. The literature for P. acnes endocarditis is reviewed.

  11. Clostridium difficile infection: A critical analysis of the guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Ann-Marie

    A recent report by the Department of Health, Clostridium Difficile Infection: How to deal with the problem - a board to ward approach, is a revised set of guidelines based on best practice and key recommendations for the NHS to ensure the control of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). It takes into account a national framework for clinical governance which did not previously exist, a framework that gives significant weight to infection control as a matter of patient safety, and highlights that all clinicians have a personal responsibility for infection prevention and control. It puts the onus on Trust management and PCTs to ensure that measures are in place to prevent and manage CDI according to best evidence. However, the report fails to explain how these measures will have an impact on finance and resources on an already burdened system. The author explains how much of the report is comparable with the one published in 1994, and highlights many of its limitations within the busy hospital setting. Reducing CDI is achievable, as many hospitals are showing large reductions in their CDI rates. Healthcare workers must be applauded for their success in reducing CDI, but there is more to be done. PMID:20081684

  12. Addition of gentamicin or rifampin does not enhance the effectiveness of daptomycin in treatment of experimental endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, J M; García-de-la-Mària, C; Armero, Y; Soy, D; Moreno, A; del Río, A; Almela, M; Sarasa, M; Mestres, C A; Gatell, J M; Jiménez de Anta, M T; Marco, F

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated the activity of daptomycin combined with either gentamicin or rifampin against three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates in vitro and one isolate in vivo against a representative strain (MRSA-572). Time-kill experiments showed that daptomycin was bactericidal against these strains at concentrations over the MIC. Daptomycin at sub-MIC concentrations plus gentamicin at 1x and 2x the MIC yielded synergy, while the addition of rifampin at 2 to 4 microg/ml resulted in indifference (two strains) or antagonism (one strain). The in vivo activity of daptomycin (6 mg/kg of body weight once a day) was evaluated +/- gentamicin (1 mg/kg intravenously [i.v.] every 8 h [q8h]) or rifampin (300 mg i.v. q8h) in a rabbit model of infective endocarditis by simulating human pharmacokinetics. Daptomycin plus gentamicin (median, 0 [interquartile range, 0 to 2] log10 CFU/g vegetation) was as effective as daptomycin alone (0 [0 to 2] log10 CFU/g vegetation) in reducing the density of bacteria in valve vegetations (P = 0.83), and both were more effective than daptomycin plus rifampin (3 [2 to 3.5] log10 CFU/g vegetation; P MIC rose to 2 microg/ml among the recovered bacteria. In conclusion, the addition of gentamicin or rifampin does not enhance the effectiveness of daptomycin in the treatment of experimental endocarditis due to MRSA. PMID:19620326

  13. Anemia and growth failure among HIV-infected children in India: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shet Anita

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia and poor nutrition have been previously described as independent risk factors for death among HIV-infected children. We sought to describe nutritional status, anemia burden and HIV disease correlates among infected children in India. Methods We analyzed retrospective data from 248 HIV-infected children aged 1–12 years attending three outpatient clinics in South India (2004–2006. Standard WHO definitions were used for anemia, HIV staging and growth parameters. Statistical analysis included chi square, t tests, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The overall prevalence of anemia (defined as hemoglobin Conclusion The high prevalence and strong interrelationship of anemia and poor nutrition among HIV-infected children in India, particularly those living in rural areas underscores the need for incorporating targeted nutritional interventions during national scale up of care, support and treatment among HIV-infected children.

  14. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of infections with liver flukes in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Frankena, K.

    Liver fluke infection, also known as fasciolosis, is a world-wide prevalent zoonotic parasitic disease infecting a wide range of host species and is caused by Fasciola hepatica. Despite of the substantial economic and animal welfare effects of the disease, knowledge on its prevalence and the factors related to its occurrence and distribution are scarce in Denmark. A retrospective study was performed using liver inspection data of approximately 1.5 million cattle for the period 2011 to 2013. Spatial analysis was carried out to explore whether the data on F. hepatica infection was clustered in space as this could help understand whether or not the infection was driven by local environmental factors. Both global and local spatial autocorrelation techniques were used. Herd level and environmental risk factors were evaluated for their association with prevalence of F. hepatica infection using Generalized Estimating Equations.

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of Paulownia infected by Paulownia witches'-broom Phytoplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Hai-Qing; Lu, Jie; Zhu, Shui-Fang; Lin, Cai-Li; Tian, Guo-Zhong; Xu, Xia; Zhao, Wen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are plant pathogenic bacteria that have no cell wall and are responsible for major crop losses throughout the world. Phytoplasma-infected plants show a variety of symptoms and the mechanisms they use to physiologically alter the host plants are of considerable interest, but poorly understood. In this study we undertook a detailed analysis of Paulownia infected by Paulownia witches'-broom (PaWB) Phytoplasma using high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and digital gene expression (DGE). RNA-Seq analysis identified 74,831 unigenes, which were subsequently used as reference sequences for DGE analysis of diseased and healthy Paulownia in field grown and tissue cultured plants. Our study revealed that dramatic changes occurred in the gene expression profile of Paulownia after PaWB Phytoplasma infection. Genes encoding key enzymes in cytokinin biosynthesis, such as isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase and isopentenyltransferase, were significantly induced in the infected Paulownia. Genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis and degradation were largely up-regulated and genes related to photosynthesis were down-regulated after PaWB Phytoplasma infection. Our systematic analysis provides comprehensive transcriptomic data about plants infected by Phytoplasma. This information will help further our understanding of the detailed interaction mechanisms between plants and Phytoplasma. PMID:24130859

  16. Aortic vascular graft infection caused by Cardiobacterium valvarum: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiya, Hideharu; Kokeguchi, Susumu; Ogawa, Hiroko; Terasaka, Tomohiro; Kimura, Kosuke; Waseda, Koichi; Hanayama, Yoshihisa; Oda, Kaori; Mori, Hisatoshi; Miyoshi, Toru; Otsuka, Fumio

    2014-12-01

    A 53-year-old man with a past medical history of total arch replacement surgery and severe aortic regurgitation presented with a 1-month history of persistent general malaise, anorexia, body weight loss and night sweats. His recent history included gingival hyperplasia for 6 years, gingivitis after tooth extraction 3 years before, prolonged inflammatory status for 4 months, fundal hemorrhage and leg tenderness for 2 months. A pathogen was detected from blood culture, but conventional microbiological examination failed to identify the pathogen. The organism was eventually identified as Cardiobacterium valvarum by 16S rRNA analysis, and the patient was diagnosed with infective endocarditis and prosthetic vascular graft infection. The patient received intravenous antibiotic therapy using a combination of ceftriaxone and levofloxacin for 5 weeks and was discharged with a good clinical course. C. valvarum is a rare human pathogen in clinical settings. Only 10 cases have been reported to date worldwide, and therefore, the clinical characteristics of C. valvarum infection are not fully known. This is a first well-described case of C. valvarum infection in Japan, and further, a first report of aortic prosthetic vascular graft infection worldwide. Identification of C. valvarum is usually difficult due to its phenotypic characteristics, and molecular approaches would be required for both clinicians and microbiologists to facilitate more reliable diagnosis and uncover its clinical picture more clearly. PMID:25242585

  17. Analysis of Viral Load in Children Infected with Human Metapneumovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghong Peng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a respiratory pathogen responsible for disease and subsequent hospitalizations in young children around the world. The disease pathology, including how viral load correlates with respiratory disease severity, remains unclear. This study investigated the correlation between viral load and clinical characteristics of hMPV infections.Methods:Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA samples collected from 18 infants hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs in winter were tested for hMPV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Their NPA samples were collected every-other-day to monitor changes in hMPV viral load during hospitalization. Also all these 18 patients were monitored to characterize clinically their illness.Findings:hMPV load was not correlated with infection severity (P=0.5?0.9?0.5. In contrast, the log10 of hMPV viral load was significantly different between those lasted for 6-11 days and those for less than 5 days (P=0.01, also the significant difference was shown between those of 6-11 days duration and those of more than 11 days (P=0.006, but there was no significant difference between those lasted for less than 5 days and those for more than 11 days (P=0.4. Additionally, high hMPV viral shedding occured between 6 and 11days.Conclusion:hMPV load was significantly correlated with the course of illness. The association between hMPV viral load and the course of disease suggested that hMPV is an important pathogen in lower respiratory tract infection in children. But hMPV did not always lead to more severe respiratory illness.

  18. HIV infection in refugees: a case–control analysis of refugees in Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Curt G.; DeLong, Allison K.; Desjardins, Simon F.; Gillani, Fizza; Bazerman, Lauri; Mitty, Jennifer A.; Ross, Heather; Cu-Uvin, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives: The number of HIV-infected refugees entering the USA is increasing. There is little data describing the HIV-infected refugee population and the challenges encountered when caring for them. We performed a retrospective case–control analysis of HIV-infected refugees in order to characterize their co-morbidities, baseline HIV characteristics, and longitudinal care compared to HIV-infected non-refugees. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of HIV-infected refugees and non-refugees who were matched for gender, age, and time of establishment of initial HIV care. Results: The refugee population studied was largely from West Africa. Refugees were more likely than non-refugees to have heterosexual risk for HIV infection, latent tuberculosis infection, and active hepatitis B. Refugees were less likely than non-refugees to have a history of substance use, start antiretrovirals, and be enrolled in a clinical study. The baseline CD4 counts and HIV plasma viral loads were similar between the two groups. Conclusions: Clinicians caring for West African HIV-infected refugees should be knowledgeable about likely co-morbidities and the impact of cultural differences on HIV care. Further studies are needed to develop culturally competent HIV treatment, education, and prevention programs for refugees who are beginning a new life in the USA. PMID:18771943

  19. Effectiveness analysis of resistance and tolerance to infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detilleux Johann C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tolerance and resistance provide animals with two distinct strategies to fight infectious pathogens and may exhibit different evolutionary dynamics. However, few studies have investigated these mechanisms in the case of animal diseases under commercial constraints. Methods The paper proposes a method to simultaneously describe (1 the dynamics of transmission of a contagious pathogen between animals, (2 the growth and death of the pathogen within infected hosts and (3 the effects on their performances. The effectiveness of increasing individual levels of tolerance and resistance is evaluated by the number of infected animals and the performance at the population level. Results The model is applied to a particular set of parameters and different combinations of values. Given these imputed values, it is shown that higher levels of individual tolerance should be more effective than increased levels of resistance in commercial populations. As a practical example, a method is proposed to measure levels of animal tolerance to bovine mastitis. Conclusions The model provides a general framework and some tools to maximize health and performances of a population under infection. Limits and assumptions of the model are clearly identified so it can be improved for different epidemiological settings.

  20. Analysis of resistance and tolerance to virus infection in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkling, Sarah H; van Rij, Ronald P

    2015-07-01

    Host defense to virus infection involves both resistance mechanisms that reduce viral burden and tolerance mechanisms that limit detrimental effects of infection. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a model for identifying and characterizing the genetic basis of resistance and tolerance. This protocol describes how to analyze host responses to virus infection in Drosophila, and it covers the preparation of virus stocks, experimental inoculation of flies and assessment of host survival and virus production, which are indicative of resistance or tolerance. It also provides guidance on how to account for recently identified confounding factors, including natural genetic variation in the pastrel locus and contamination of fly stocks with persistent viruses and the symbiotic bacterium Wolbachia. Our protocol aims to be accessible to newcomers to the field and, although optimized for virus research using Drosophila, some of the techniques could be adapted to other host organisms and/or other microbial pathogens. Preparation of fly stocks requires ?1 month, virus stock preparation requires 17-20 d, virus injection and survival assays require 10-15 d and virus titration requires 14 d. PMID:26110714

  1. Iliopsoas abscess associated with endovascular infection: an acute case of chronic Q fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barten, Dennis G; Gulikers, Donné E J; Versteegen, Marieke G J; Thimister, Willie P W L; de Mast, Quirijn; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P

    2015-06-01

    fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which occurs worldwide. After acute Q fever infection, 1% to 5% of patients develop chronic Q fever. Chronic Q fever usually presents as endocarditis or endovascular infection. The diagnosis and localization of chronic Q fever are challenging, as most patients present with nonspecific symptoms. Moreover, it often occurs in patients without a known episode of acute infection. PMID:25601161

  2. Transcriptomic Analysis of Paulownia Infected by Paulownia Witches'-Broom Phytoplasma

    OpenAIRE

    Mou, Hai-Qing; Lu, Jie; Zhu, Shui-Fang; Lin, Cai-Li; Tian, Guo-Zhong; Xu, Xia; Zhao, Wen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are plant pathogenic bacteria that have no cell wall and are responsible for major crop losses throughout the world. Phytoplasma-infected plants show a variety of symptoms and the mechanisms they use to physiologically alter the host plants are of considerable interest, but poorly understood. In this study we undertook a detailed analysis of Paulownia infected by Paulownia witches’-broom (PaWB) Phytoplasma using high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and digital gene expressio...

  3. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Antimicrobial Treatment Effect Estimation in Complicated Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Krishan P.; LI Gang; Mitrani-Gold, Fanny S.; Kurtinecz, Milena; Wetherington, Jeffrey; Tomayko, John F.; Mundy, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Noninferiority trial design and analyses are commonly used to establish the effectiveness of a new antimicrobial drug for treatment of serious infections such as complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI). A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to estimate the treatment effects of three potential active comparator drugs for the design of a noninferiority trial. The systematic review identified no placebo trials of cUTI, four clinical trials of cUTI with uncomplicated urinary tra...

  4. Aortic regurgitation associated with chronic bacterial endocarditis in one adult thoroughbred gelding / Regurgitación aórtica asociada a endocarditis bacteriana crónica en un equino fina sangre inglés adulto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CA, Dörner; D, Sáez; J, Larenas; AF, Godoy.

    Full Text Available Este reporte describe un caso de endocarditis bacteriana crónica como causante de una regurgitación aórtica en un equino Fina Sangre Inglés de 25 años de edad utilizado para equitación. El ejemplar se presentó con signos de depresión, intolerancia al ejercicio y pérdida de peso. Se identificó un sop [...] lo pandiastólico a la auscultación, sin embargo, no se detectaron otros signos sugerentes de endocarditis bacteriana. El hemograma, perfil bioquímico y urianálisis no mostraron anormalidades de importancia para el caso. En el electrocardiograma se evidenció una arritmia fisiológica que no fue de relevancia. La ecocardiografía reveló dilatación del ventrículo izquierdo (VI), un nódulo en el velo coronario izquierdo de la válvula aortica y regurgitación aórtica. Basado en la prevalencia de las afecciones de la válvula aortica en equinos geriátricos, se sospechó de una degeneración mixomatosa no inflamatoria. De acuerdo a la información recopilada y debido a la ausencia de una insuficiencia cardiaca, se optó por un tratamiento conservador basado en la no exigencia física del ejemplar con una dieta de buena calidad. Varios meses después el ejemplar sufrió una fractura de fémur por lo que fue eutanasiado. A la necropsia se observó hipertrófía excéntrica del ventrículo izquierdo. La válvula aortica presentó pérdida de elasticidad, textura firme y presencia de 2 nódulos en el velo coronario izquierdo. Histopatológicamente la válvula reveló la presencia de bacterias, lo que llevó al diagnóstico de endocarditis bacteriana crónica. Abstract in english This article describes chronic bacterial endocarditis as the cause of aortic regurgitation in a 25-year-old Thoroughbred used for horseback riding. The horse presented signs of depression, exercise intolerance, and weight loss. A pandiastolic murmur was identified, but no other clinical signs of bac [...] terial endocarditis were identified. Haematological, serum biochemical, and urine analyses did not show any particular abnormalities. Electrocardiography showed a physiological dysrhythmia that was not pertinent to this case. Echocardiography revealed left ventricle (LV) dilatation and a nodule in the left coronary cusp of the aortic valve associated with regurgitation. Based on the prevalence of aortic valve pathology in geriatric horses, a noninfectious condition with a myxomatous noninflammatory infiltrate was suspected; therefore, no special treatment was prescribed due to the absence of heart failure. Several months later, the animal was euthanised after experiencing a femur fracture. At necropsy, the horse showed an eccentric left ventricle hypertrophy and 2 nodules in the left coronary cusp of the aortic valve. Histological examination revealed the presence of bacteria, which led to the diagnosis of chronic bacterial endocarditis.

  5. Tratamiento quirúrgico de la endocarditis infecciosa en un hospital general: Indicaciones y morbi-mortalidad / Surgical treatment of infectious endocarditis in a general hospital: Indications for and morbi-mortality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla, Saito; Miguel, Padilla; Andrea, Valle; Enrique, Castañeda.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las indicaciones de tratamiento quirúrgico de la endocarditis infecciosa, el momento de indicación quirúrgica, tipo de cirugía y morbi-mortalidad post-operatoria. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes con diagnóstico de Endocarditis Inf [...] ecciosa (EI) definido según los Criterios de Duke, que no respondieron al tratamiento médico y que además contaban con indicación de tratamiento quirúrgico de acuerdo a la evaluación de los especialistas del Servicio de Cirugía Cardiovascular del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, desde enero del 2000 a diciembre de 2013. Se revisaron las historias clínicas y se determinaron las características clínicas de la población, indicaciones quirúrgicas, momento y tipo de cirugía, mortalidad y complicaciones. Resultados: De 27 pacientes con diagnóstico de EI e indicación de tratamiento quirúrgico, el 74,07% tuvo indicación de cirugía por riesgo de embolismo, el 70,37% por insuficiencia cardiaca refractaria a tratamiento médico y el 51,85% por infección no controlada. El 77,78% tuvo indicación de cirugía de urgencia y el 22,22% indicación de cirugía de emergencia. El 25,93% de los pacientes fue intervenido quirúrgicamente. A 6 pacientes se les realizó cambio valvular. Un paciente falleció luego de la cirugía y otros 3 presentaron complicaciones post-quirúrgicas. Conclusiones: La indicación más frecuente fue el riesgo de embolismo indicado como cirugía de urgencia. La válvula mitral fue la más afectada y la mayoría fue sometida a cirugía de cambio valvular. La mortalidad post-operatoria fue 14,28% y las complicaciones post-operatorias frecuentes fueron sangrado torácico y coagulopatía. Abstract in english Objectives: To describe the indications for surgical management of infective endocarditis (IE), timing of surgical intervention, type of surgery and post-operative morbi-mortality. Methods: Retrospective study that enrolled patients with IE following Duke´s criteria that did not respond to medical t [...] reatment, with indications for surgical management based on an evaluation by cardiothoracic specialists of Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia from January 2008 to December 2013. Clinical charts were reviewed in search for indications for surgical management of IE, timing of surgical intervention, type of surgery and post-operative morbi-mortality. Results: A total of 27 patients were diagnosed with IE during the study period; 40.7% had indications for surgical intervention due to risk of embolization; 70.37% for heart failure not responding to medical treatment and 51.85% for uncontrolled infection; 77.78% had indication for urgent intervention and 22.2% of emergency intervention. A total of 25.93% were surgically intervened; 6 patients underwent valve exchange. One patient died after surgery and 3-presented post-surgical complications. Conclusions: The most frequent reason for surgical intervention was risk of embolism, the mitral valve was the most affected and valve exchange was the most common procedure performed. Post-operative mortality was 14.28%, post-surgical bleeding and coagulopathy were the most frequent post-operative complications.

  6. The analysis of the patients with first urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ayça Vitrinel; Yasemin Ak?n; Gülay Çiler Erda?; Turgut A?z?kuru; Bar?s Y?lmaz; Emine Y?lmaz

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the demographic and clinical features, and radiologic findings of children between 0-14 years old with first urinary tract infection (UTI). Material and Methods: Our study included 97 children admitted to our emergency and outpatient clinics, between 01/02/2004 to 03/06/2004. The cases were classified as group1 (1-12 months), group 2 (13-60 months) and group 3 (>60 months). Data belonging to this study were evaluated by using Ki-square and Ka...

  7. Analysis of gene expression in fetal and adult cells infected with rubella virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital infection with rubella virus (RUB) leads to persistent infection and congenital defects and we showed previously that primary human fetal fibroblasts did not undergo apoptosis when infected with RUB, which could promote fetal virus persistence [Adamo, P., Asis, L., Silveyra, P., Cuffini, C., Pedranti, M., Zapata, M., 2004. Rubella virus does not induce apoptosis in primary human embryo fibroblasts cultures: a possible way of viral persistence in congenital infection. Viral Immunol. 17, 87-100]. To extend this observation, gene chip analysis was performed on a line of primary human fetal fibroblasts (10 weeks gestation) and a line of human adult lung fibroblasts (which underwent apoptosis in response to RUB infection) to compare gene expression in infected and uninfected cells. A total of 632 and 516 genes were upregulated or downregulated in the infected fetal and adult cells respectively in comparison to uninfected cells, however only 52 genes were regulated in both cell types. Although the regulated genes were different, across functional gene categories the patterns of gene regulation were similar. In general, regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes following infection appeared to favor apoptosis in the adult cells and lack of apoptosis in the fetal cells, however there was a greater relative expression of anti-apoptotic genes and reduced expression of pro-apoptotic genes in uninfected fetal cells versus uninfected adult cells and thus the lack of apoptosis in fetal cells following RUB infection was also due to the prevailing background of gene expression that is antagonistic to apoptosis. In support of this hypothesis, it was found that of a battery of five chemicals known to induce apoptosis, two induced apoptosis in the adult cells, but not in fetal cells, and two induced apoptosis more rapidly in the adult cells than in fetal cells (the fifth did not induce apoptosis in either). A robust interferon-stimulated gene response was induced following infection of both fetal and adult cells and many of the genes upregulated in both cell types were those involved in establishment of an antiviral state; this is the first demonstration of an interferon response at this early stage of human embryonic development. In both fetal and adult cells, interferon controlled but did not eliminate virus spread and apoptosis was not induced in infected fetal cells in the absence of interferon. In addition to the interferon response, chemokines were induced in both infected fetal and adult cells. Thus, it is possible that fetal damage following congenital RUB infection, which involves cell proliferation and differentiation, could be due to induction of the innate immune response as well as frank virus infection

  8. Proteomic analysis of rice seedlings infected by Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Feng; Yang, Pingfang; Han, Feng; Jing, Yuxiang; Shen, Shihua

    2010-05-01

    Rhizobial endophytes infect and colonize not only leguminous plants, but several non-leguminous species as well. Using green fluorescent protein tagging technique, it has been shown that Rhizobia infect different varieties of rice species and migrate from plant roots to aerial tissues such as leaf sheaths and leaves. The interaction between them was found to promote the growth of rice. The growth promotion is the cumulative result of enhanced photosynthesis and stress resistance. In addition, indole-3-acetic acid also contributes to the promotion. Gel-based comparative proteomic approaches were applied to analyze the protein profiles of three different tissues (root, leaf sheath and leaf) of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 inoculated rice in order to get an understanding about the molecular mechanism. Upon the inoculation of rhizobia, proteins involved in nine different functional categories were either up-regulated or down-regulated. Photosynthesis related proteins were up-regulated only in leaf sheath and leaf, while the up-regulated proteins in root were exclusively defense related. The results implied that there might have been an increase in the import and transport of proteins involved in light and dark reactions to the chloroplast as well as more efficient distribution of nutrients, hence enhanced photosynthesis. Although the initiation of defensive reactions mainly occurred in roots, some different defense mechanisms were also evoked in the aerial tissues. PMID:20213677

  9. Invasive lung infection by Scedosporium apiospermum in an immunocompetent individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Agatha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scedosporium apiospermum previously known as Monospermum apiospermum is a ubiquitous fungus found in soil, polluted water and sewage. It causes broad spectrum of diseases, including soft tissue infections, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, ophthalmic infections, sinusitis, pneumonia, meningitis, brain abscesses, endocarditis and disseminated infection. In recent years, it has been shown to be pathogenic for both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. It is a significant opportunist with very high levels of antifungal resistance. We report here a case of invasive lung infection due to S. apiospermum in an immunocompetent patient who responded to antifungal therapy and surgical treatment.

  10. Hepatitis viruses infection and risk of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yanming

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the association between Hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC have reported inconsistent findings. We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to explore this relationship. Methods A comprehensive search was conducted to identify the eligible studies of hepatitis infections and ICC risk up to September 2011. Summary odds ratios (OR with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated with random-effects models using Review Manager version 5.0. Results Thirteen case–control studies and 3 cohort studies were included in the final analysis. The combined risk estimate of all studies showed statistically significant increased risk of ICC incidence with HBV and HCV infection (OR?=?3.17, 95% CI, 1.88-5.34, and OR?=?3.42, 95% CI, 1.96-5.99, respectively. For case–control studies alone, the combined OR of infection with HBV and HCV were 2.86 (95% CI, 1.60-5.11 and 3.63 (95% CI, 1.86-7.05, respectively, and for cohort studies alone, the OR of HBV and HCV infection were 5.39 (95% CI, 2.34-12.44 and 2.60 (95% CI, 1.36-4.97, respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that both HBV and HCV infection are associated with an increased risk of ICC.

  11. Differential Analysis of the Secretome of WRL68 Cells Infected with the Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Christina Li-Ping; Yusof, Rohana; Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Bahari, Syareena; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2015-01-01

    The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod borne virus. In the last 50 years, it has been the cause of numerous outbreaks in tropical and temperate regions, worldwide. There is limited understanding regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in CHIKV replication and how the virus interacts with its host. In the present study, comparative proteomics was used to identify secreted host proteins that changed in abundance in response to early CHIKV infection. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyse and compare the secretome profiles of WRL-68 cells infected with CHIKV against mock control WRL-68 cells. The analysis identified 25 regulated proteins in CHIKV infected cells. STRING network analysis was then used to predict biological processes that may be affected by these proteins. The processes predicted to be affected include signal transduction, cellular component and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, regulation of cytokine stimulus and immune response. These results provide an initial view of CHIKV may affect the secretome of infected cells during early infection. The results presented here will compliment earlier results from the study of late host response. However, functional characterization will be necessary to further enhance our understanding of the roles played by these proteins in the early stages of CHIKV infection in humans. PMID:26083627

  12. Aerococci and aerococcal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Magnus

    2013-06-01

    Aerococcus is a genus that comprises seven species, of which Aerococcus urinae, and Aerococcus sanguinicola are emerging human pathogens. Aerococci are gram positive cocci that are easily misidentified as streptococci or staphylococci, and thus the incidence of aerococcal infections has been underestimated. With the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) clinical microbiologists now have access to a rapid and accurate method to identify aerococci. A. urinae and A. sanguinicola are isolated in a small proportion of urinary specimens in many laboratories and many patients with bacteriuria with aerococci have symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI). A. urinae, and also A. sanguinicola, cause invasive infections including infective endocarditis (IE) with many reported fatalities. Especially older men with urinary tract abnormalities are at risk for bacteraemia with A. urinae but the prognosis of bacteraemia without IE is favourable. Penicillin is appropriate for treatment of invasive infections and in IE, addition of an aminoglycoside should be considered. Treatment of UTI with aerococci is complicated by uncertainty about the effect of trimethoprim-sulphametoxazole and fluoroquinolones on aerococci. This review will discuss identification of Aerococcus spp., antibiotic resistance, the clinical presentation and management of aerococcal infections as well as the virulence mechanisms of these bacteria. PMID:23277106

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Pichinde virus Infection Identifies Differential Expression of Prothymosin-?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin C. Bowick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The arenaviruses include a number of important pathogens including Lassa virus and Junin virus. Presently, the only treatment is supportive care and the antiviral Ribavirin. In the event of an epidemic, patient triage may be required to more effectively manage resources; the development of prognostic biomarker signatures, correlating with disease severity, would allow rational triage. Using a pair of arenaviruses, which cause mild or severe disease, we analyzed extracts from infected cells using SELDI mass spectrometry to characterize potential biomarker profiles. EDGE analysis was used to analyze longitudinal expression differences. Extracts from infected guinea pigs revealed protein peaks which could discriminate between mild or severe infection and between times post-infection. Tandem mass-spectrometry identified several peaks, including the transcriptional regulator prothymosin-?. Further investigation revealed differences in secretion of this peptide. These data show proof of concept that proteomic profiling of host markers could be used as prognostic markers of infectious disease.

  14. Factores asociados a mortalidad en la cirugía de reemplazo valvular por endocarditis complicada / Risk factors related to mortality in heart valve replacement for complicated endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JUAN CARLOS, BAHAMONDES S; JUAN, SALMAN A; GUSTAVO, MERIÑO S; ABELARDO, SILVA V; JEAN PIERRE, DROGUETT G; IVAN, REDEL S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La Endocarditis Infecciosa (El) es una enfermedad grave, dada por la agresividad del agente sobre el aparato cardiovascular y otros órganos. La cirugía de reemplazo valvular (CRV) es el tratamiento definitivo frente al fracaso del tratamiento médico, la cual está asociada a una elevada mortalidad al [...] presentarse con daño estructural severo. Objetivo: Evaluar los factores asociados a mortalidad en pacientes sometidos a CRV por El. Pacientes y método: Estudio descriptivo de 32 pacientes consecutivos sometidos a CRV en el período 1993-2005, consignando antecedentes clínicos que determinen una probable mortalidad. Resultados: La mortalidad global fue de 25%, principalmente en los primeros 15 días (60%). Los principales factores asociados son sepsis (p =0.002), la cirugía mitro-aórtica (p Abstract in english Infectious endocarditis is a severe illness related to the aggressiveness of the microbial agent to the cardiovascular system. Heart valve replacement surgery is the definitive treatment in these patients but is related to high mortality when the structural damage is severe. Objective: To assess ris [...] k factors related to mortality in patients operated for complicated endocarditis. Patients and method: Descriptive study of 32 patients operated between 1993-2005 period in which clinical factors were evaluated and related to mortality. Results: Overall mortality was 25%, mainly in the first two weeks after surgery (60%). Mortality related risk factors were sepsis (p =0.002), mitro-aortic replacement (p

  15. Endocarditis caused by a group B Streptococcus strain, type III, in a nonencapsulated phase.

    OpenAIRE

    Sellin, M.; Linderholm, M; Norgren, M; Håkansson, S.

    1992-01-01

    A nontypeable blood isolate of group B streptococci (GBS) from a patient with endocarditis is suggested to be the nonencapsulated phase of a GBS strain, type III. From the original high-density isolate, a low-density, encapsulated phase was selected by Percoll gradient centrifugation. This phenomenon should be considered before a GBS strain is classified as truly nontypeable.

  16. Rapid Diagnosis of Histoplasma capsulatum Endocarditis Using the AccuProbe on an Excised Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Chemaly, Roy F; Tomford, J. Walton; Hall, Gerri S.; Sholtis, Mary; Chua, Jimmy D.; Procop, Gary W.

    2001-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is an infrequent but serious cause of endocarditis. The definitive diagnosis requires culture, which may require a long incubation. We demonstrated the ability of the Histoplasma capsulatum AccuProbe to accurately identify this organism when applied directly on an excised valve that contained abundant yeast forms consistent with H. capsulatum.

  17. Case of Staphylococcus schleiferi Endocarditis and a Simple Scheme To Identify Clumping Factor-Positive Staphylococci

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Michael J.; Nuttall, Nichalas; Mazur, Margaret; Taddei, Tania L.; McComish, Michael; Pearman, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus schleiferi is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus infrequently reported as a human pathogen. We report a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis attributed to this organism, contrast it to another Staphylococcus species that gives similar clumping factor results (S. lugdunensis), and propose a simple, effective identification scheme for identification of clumping factor-positive staphylococci.

  18. [Rapidly progressive ANCA positive glomerulonephritis as the presenting feature of infectious endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, W; Serre, J-E; Salmon, J-H; Fabien, N; Ginon, I; Dijoud, F; Trolliet, P

    2011-12-01

    The association of positive cytoplasmic antineutrophil antibody (ANCA) necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis with endocarditis raises diagnostic issues. Indeed, it is often difficult to determine if the kidney injury is either secondary to an infectious disease or caused by an ANCA-associated small vessel vasculitis. We report a 59-year-old man admitted in nephrology for acute glomerular syndrome in whom the renal biopsy showed a crescentic necrotizing glomerulonephritis. A diagnosis of vasculitis was initially considered in the presence of high titer of ANCA (anti-proteinase 3). Because of associated Staphyloccocus aureus endocarditis the patient received both corticosteroids and antibiotics that allowed remission of both kidney injury and endocarditis. The renal presentation and the disappearance of ANCA support the infectious etiology of this glomerulonephritis rather than an ANCA-associated small vessel vasculitis. It is important to be cautious in the presence of ANCA positive extracapillary glomerulonephritis and endocarditis should be ruled out before initiation of corticosteroids that may be nevertheless necessary in severe acute glomerulonephritis. PMID:21277658

  19. Simplified Serological Diagnosis of Endocarditis Due to Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella

    OpenAIRE

    Rolain, J. M.; Lecam, C.; Raoult, D.

    2003-01-01

    We tested a single-step serological assay against Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella species and found a sensitivity of 100%, and a positive predictive value of 98% for the diagnosis of blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE). This assay should be considered as a possible commercial test for the diagnosis of BCNE.

  20. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite (liver fluke), infects a wide range of host species causing fasciolosis. The disease is prevalent world-wide and causes considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. Fasciolosis is regarded as an emerging food-borne zoonosis. To promote awareness among farmers and to implement strategies to control the infection, this study examined the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish cattle herds. Methods: A retrospective population based study was performed using meat inspection data of approximately 1.5 million cattle slaughtered in the period 2011 to 2013. Annual cumulative prevalence of recorded liver fluke findings was calculated for each year. Global and local spatial cluster analysis was used to identify and map spatial patterns of Fasciola hepatica positive and negative herds to explore environmental indicators of infection. Herd level, trade and environmental risk factors were evaluated for association with infection using logistic regression. Herd infection status as predicted from the final risk factor model was compared with the observed status using heat maps to assess how well the model fitted the observed spatial pattern. Results: During the investigated period (2011-2013), an increase in annual herd prevalence was noted (2011-25.6%; 2012-28.4%; 2013-29.3%). The spatial analysis suggested significant clustering of positive and negative herds. Presence of streams, wetlands and pastures on farms showed a significant association with the presence of infection in cattle herds. Buying animals from positive herds was a risk factor on conventional farms. Additionally, risk of being infected with Fasciola hepatica was higher in non-dairy herds of medium size (>= 30 and = 100) cattle herds. The observed spatial pattern could be reproduced by predictions of the risk factor model. Conclusions: This study showed an increase in annual herd level prevalence (2011 to 2013) indicating that an increasing proportion of herds are infected with Fasciola hepatica infection every year in Denmark. Fasciolosis was found to be associated with both herd and environmental factors where the infection was influenced by local factors that clustered geographically.

  1. Endocarditis por Brucella canis: primer caso documentado en un paciente adulto en Argentina Brucella canis endocarditis: first documented case in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Manias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el primer caso documentado de endocarditis por Brucella canis en Argentina. El paciente fue un varón adulto que consultó por edemas en miembros inferiores, registros febriles aislados de 2 meses de evolución y dolor precordial opresivo que irradiaba a brazo izquierdo. Negaba contacto con animales de cría o consumo de productos sin pasteurización. Estudios cardiológicos constataron endocarditis infecciosa. Se resuelve cirugía de recambio valvular ante fracaso terapéutico empírico con cefalotina, ampicilina y gentamicina. Los hemocultivos fueron positivos (4 de 4 muestras con bacilos gram negativos. Se realizó la identificación con técnica API 20 NE (bioMérieux, el método automatizado Phoenix (BD y las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales, sin concluir género ni especie. Se derivó la cepa al departamento de Bacteriología Especial INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" donde se identificó al aislamiento como Brucella canis. Se rotó el esquema terapéutico a doxiciclina, rifampicina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol con buena evolución. La importancia del caso radica en la posible falla del tratamiento antimicrobiano empírico administrado para endocarditis, ya que B. canis no responde a los antimicrobianos convencionales para esta patología.We herein present the case of an adult male patient who consulted for lower extremity edema, a 2- month history of fever and oppressive chest pain radiating to the left arm. He referred neither contact with breeding animals nor consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. A diagnosis of endocarditis was confirmed by cardiac studies. Since the empirical treatment with cephalotin, ampicillin and gentamicin failed, the patient underwent aortic valve replacement. A total of four blood cultures were positive with a gram-negative rod. Bacterial identification was performed using the API 20 NE technique (bioMerieux, the Phoenix automated method (BD and conventional biochemical tests which were unable to classify the isolate as to genus and species. The strain was sent to the INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbran" where it was identified as Brucella canis. The antimicrobial treatment was switched to doxycycline, rifampicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with good evolution of the patient. The clinical significance of this case report lies in the possible failure of the empiric antibiotic therapy administered for endocarditis, since B. canis did not respond to the conventional antimicrobial treatment for this pathology.

  2. Endocarditis por Brucella canis: primer caso documentado en un paciente adulto en Argentina / Brucella canis endocarditis: first documented case in Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valeria, Manias; Alicia, Nagel; Analía, Mollerach; María A, Mendosa; Hugo, Freyre; Abel, Gómez; Elisa, Ferrara; Carlos, Vay; Emilce De Los A, Méndez.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el primer caso documentado de endocarditis por Brucella canis en Argentina. El paciente fue un varón adulto que consultó por edemas en miembros inferiores, registros febriles aislados de 2 meses de evolución y dolor precordial opresivo que irradiaba a brazo izquierdo. Negaba contacto con [...] animales de cría o consumo de productos sin pasteurización. Estudios cardiológicos constataron endocarditis infecciosa. Se resuelve cirugía de recambio valvular ante fracaso terapéutico empírico con cefalotina, ampicilina y gentamicina. Los hemocultivos fueron positivos (4 de 4 muestras) con bacilos gram negativos. Se realizó la identificación con técnica API 20 NE (bioMérieux), el método automatizado Phoenix (BD) y las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales, sin concluir género ni especie. Se derivó la cepa al departamento de Bacteriología Especial INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" donde se identificó al aislamiento como Brucella canis. Se rotó el esquema terapéutico a doxiciclina, rifampicina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol con buena evolución. La importancia del caso radica en la posible falla del tratamiento antimicrobiano empírico administrado para endocarditis, ya que B. canis no responde a los antimicrobianos convencionales para esta patología. Abstract in english We herein present the case of an adult male patient who consulted for lower extremity edema, a 2- month history of fever and oppressive chest pain radiating to the left arm. He referred neither contact with breeding animals nor consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. A diagnosis of endocarditis [...] was confirmed by cardiac studies. Since the empirical treatment with cephalotin, ampicillin and gentamicin failed, the patient underwent aortic valve replacement. A total of four blood cultures were positive with a gram-negative rod. Bacterial identification was performed using the API 20 NE technique (bioMerieux), the Phoenix automated method (BD) and conventional biochemical tests which were unable to classify the isolate as to genus and species. The strain was sent to the INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbran" where it was identified as Brucella canis. The antimicrobial treatment was switched to doxycycline, rifampicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with good evolution of the patient. The clinical significance of this case report lies in the possible failure of the empiric antibiotic therapy administered for endocarditis, since B. canis did not respond to the conventional antimicrobial treatment for this pathology.

  3. Endocarditis due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus raffinosus successfully treated with linezolid: case report and review of literature Endocarditis por Enterococcus raffinosus resistente a vancomicina exitosamente tratada con linezolid: caso clínico y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jasovich

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus raffinosus is scarcely found in clinical samples and even less frequently as etiologic agent of endocarditis. We are herein presenting one case of mitral prosthetic-valve endocarditis in a 77-y-o male due to a vancomycinresistant Enterococcus raffinosus isolate, successfully treated with 6 weeks of linezolid, and a two-year follow up.Enterococcus raffinosus es una especie poco frecuente en materiales clínicos y menos aún como agente etiológico de endocarditis. En este trabajo se presenta un caso de endocarditis de válvula mitral protésica en un paciente de 77 años debida a Enterococcus raffinosus resistente a vancomicina y que fue exitosamente tratada con linezolid durante 6 semanas, con un seguimiento de 2 años.

  4. Deep-neck infection. Clinical analysis of 299 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep-neck infection (DNI) remains potentially fatal. We retrospectively analyzed 299 surgically treated DNI cases between January 1997 and October 2007 by reviewing computed tomography (CT) results and discuss treatment and risk factors. Subjects were divided into two groups by abscess-site; peritonsillar abscess (PTA) (n=251) and deep-neck abscess (DNA) (n=48). Age, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI) and bacteriological histories were collected from clinical records and compared by group. DNI and PTA severity parameters were C-reactive protein (CRP) titer and hospitalization length. Median subject age in DNI was 51.0 years and peak incidence in the 50 s. Median subject age in PTA was 31.0 years and the peak incidence in the 20 s. Smoker prevalence was higher in both groups than in normal healthy subjects. The DNI group had higher BMI and diabetes mellitus. Factors potentially most affecting illness were complications such as obesity and diabetes mellitus in DNI and age in PTA. (author)

  5. A Spiral in the Heart: Mitral Valve Endocarditis with Unusual Vegetation Shape Potentially Affecting Effectiveness of Antibiotic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibbi, Veronica; Ballo, Piercarlo; Abbondanti, Alessandro; Nannini, Marco; Fazi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We report an unusual case of infective endocarditis (IE) in an 88-year-old woman, occurring on a prolapsing mitral valve and characterized by an atypical vegetation shape resembling a spiral-like appearance. After the patient refused surgical correction, persistent IE despite prolonged antibiotic therapy was observed, resulting in an ischemic stroke probably secondary to septic embolus. The importance of vegetation shape in the management of patients with IE was classically related to the increased risk of embolization associated with pedunculated, irregular, and multilobed masses. We hypothesize that the unusual spiral-like vegetation shape in our patient may have favored IE persistence by two mechanisms, namely, a decrease of the exposed vegetation surface with creation of an internal core where the penetration of antimicrobial agents was obstacled and the creation of blood turbulence within the vegetation preventing a prolonged contact with circulating antibiotics. These considerations suggest that vegetation shape might be considered of importance in patients with IE not only because of its classical association with embolization risk, but also because of its potential effect on the efficacy of antibiotic therapy.

  6. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization for the identification of bacterial species in archival heart valve sections of canine bacterial endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, B G; Craven, M; McDonough, S P; Nydam, D V; Scorza, V; Assarasakorn, S; Lappin, M; Simpson, K W

    2012-05-01

    Bacterial endocarditis (BE) is defined as inflammation of cardiac valve structures and/or the endocardium secondary to bacterial infection. Canine valvular BE is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and ante-mortem diagnosis and post-mortem identification of causative organisms is problematic. Identification of bacteria in canine BE has traditionally relied on visualization of organisms on histological sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE), Gram and modified Steiner's stains. Each of these staining techniques has limitations with respect to identification of bacterial species in cases of BE. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) has been introduced recently as a technique to identify bacteria in biological specimens. To our knowledge, FISH has not been used previously to identify bacteria in archival samples of heart valves from dogs with naturally occurring BE. We sought to determine whether FISH could detect the presence and species of bacteria in archival heart valve sections from dogs with BE, and to compare FISH to histochemical stains in the identification of bacteria. FISH detected bacteria in seven of 17 cases of canine BE and showed near perfect agreement with modified Steiner's stain for the detection of bacteria. FISH identified Streptococcus spp. and/or Staphylococcus spp. in all of these cases, but Bartonella spp. were not identified. PMID:22030263

  7. Predicting frequency distribution and influence of sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors of Schistosoma mansoni infection and analysis of co-infection with intestinal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla V.V. Rollemberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial analysis was used to study the epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal parasites and co-infections in an area (Ilha das Flores in Sergipe, Brazil. We collected individually georeferenced sociodemographic, behavioral and parasitological data from 500 subjects, analyzed them by conventional statistics, and produced risk maps by Kernel estimation. The prevalence rates found were: S. mansoni (24.0%, Trichuris trichiura (54.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides (49.2%, Hookworm (17.6% and Entamoeba histolytica (7.0%. Only 59/500 (11.8% individuals did not present any of these infections, whereas 279/500 (55.8% were simultaneously infected by three or more parasites. We observed associations between S. mansoni infection and various variables such as male gender, being rice farmer or fisherman, low educational level, low income, water contact and drinking untreated water. The Kernel estimator indicated that high-risk areas coincide with the poorest regions of the villages as well as with the part of the villages without an adequate sewage system. We also noted associations between both A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections with low education and low income. A. lumbricoides infection and T. trichiura infection were both associated with drinking untreated water and residential open-air sewage. These findings call for an integrated approach to effectively control multiple parasitic infections.

  8. Genetic Analysis of Glycopeptide-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains from Bone and Joint Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremniter, Julie; Sivadon-Tardy, Valérie; Caulliez, Charlotte; Bauer, Thomas; Porcher, Raphaël; Lortat-Jacob, Alain; Piriou, Philippe; Judet, Thierry; Aegerter, Philippe; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Gaillard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Glycopeptide-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (GRSE) strains are of increasing concern in bone and joint infections (BJIs). Using multilocus sequence typing and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis, we show that BJI-associated GRSE strains are genetically diverse but arise from related, multiresistant hospital sequence types (STs), mostly ST2, ST5, and ST23. PMID:23269734

  9. Genetic Analysis of Glycopeptide-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains from Bone and Joint Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Cremniter, Julie; Sivadon-Tardy, Valérie; Caulliez, Charlotte; Bauer, Thomas; Porcher, Raphaël; Lortat-Jacob, Alain; Piriou, Philippe; Judet, Thierry; Aegerter, Philippe; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Rottman, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Glycopeptide-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (GRSE) strains are of increasing concern in bone and joint infections (BJIs). Using multilocus sequence typing and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis, we show that BJI-associated GRSE strains are genetically diverse but arise from related, multiresistant hospital sequence types (STs), mostly ST2, ST5, and ST23.

  10. First genome analysis and molecular characterization of Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus Egyptian isolate infecting squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Inas Farouk; Taha, Omnia; El-Ashry, Abdel Nasser

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to identifying and characterizing some molecular properties of geminiviruses co-infection in squash field crop cultivated in Egypt. Squash crops observed to be heavily infected with several insect vectors, also severe chlorosis and stunting was observed. Electron microscopic analysis has revealed geminate capsid particles which indicate the infection of Geminiviruses, especially SqLCV which represent an economic problem to squash filed crop in Egypt. We have investigated possible mixed infections with different plant viruses associated with chlorotic stunt diseases and or other genus groups of geminiviruses. The main objective of this study is to investigate the recombination events, possible recombinants and variants among these genera in the same family differing in vector transmission. This is the first report of the molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and putative recombination events of the full length genome of the Chickpea Chlorotic Dwarf Mastrevirus in Egypt. And the first report of co-infection with another begomovirus infecting squash plants. A full length clone of both viruses were isolated and characterized at the molecular level. The complete nucleotide sequence of DNA-A was determined (2,572 bp) and submitted to the genbank under accession no. KF692356. The isolate from Egypt has about 97.8 % homology with the Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV) isolate from Syria DNA-A isolate FR687959, a 83.2 % homology with the Sudan isolate AM933134 and a 82.7 % homology with Pakistan isolate FR687960. To best of our knowledge this is the first report of complete genome of CpCDV that infect squash plants in Egypt and worldwide. PMID:26436119

  11. Ruptured mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery secondary to bacterial endocarditis in a 6-year-old-girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By non-invasive examination we demonstrated as false mycotic aneurysm on a branch of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). It suddenly ruptured but was managed successfully. The patient had mitral valve disease and probably bacterial endocarditis also. (orig.)

  12. Novel Bartonella infection in northern and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris nereis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Kasten, Rickie W; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Byrne, Barbara A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Miller, Melissa A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-06-01

    Since 2002, vegetative valvular endocarditis (VVE), septicemia and meningoencephalitis have contributed to an Unusual Mortality Event (UME) of northern sea otters in southcentral Alaska. Streptococcal organisms were commonly isolated from vegetative lesions and organs from these sea otters. Bartonella infection has also been associated with bacteremia and VVE in terrestrial mammals, but little is known regarding its pathogenic significance in marine mammals. Our study evaluated whether Streptococcus bovis/equinus (SB/E) and Bartonella infections were associated with UME-related disease characterized by VVE and septicemia in Alaskan sea otter carcasses recovered 2004-2008. These bacteria were also evaluated in southern sea otters in California. Streptococcus bovis/equinus were cultured from 45% (23/51) of northern sea otter heart valves, and biochemical testing and sequencing identified these isolates as Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. One-third of sea otter hearts were co-infected with Bartonella spp. Our analysis demonstrated that SB/E was strongly associated with UME-related disease in northern sea otters (Potters examined, respectively, it was not associated with disease. Phylogenetic analysis of the Bartonella ITS region allowed detection of two Bartonella species, one novel species closely related to Bartonella spp. JM-1, B. washoensis and Candidatus B. volans and another molecularly identical to B. henselae. Our findings help to elucidate the role of pathogens in northern sea otter mortalities during this UME and suggested that Bartonella spp. is common in sea otters from Alaska and California. PMID:24629902

  13. Bloodstream and endovascular infections due to Abiotrophia defectiva and Granulicatella species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bille Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abiotrophia and Granulicatella species, previously referred to as nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS, are significant causative agents of endocarditis and bacteraemia. In this study, we reviewed the clinical manifestations of infections due to A. defectiva and Granulicatella species that occurred at our institution between 1998 and 2004. Methods The analysis included all strains of NVS that were isolated from blood cultures or vascular graft specimens. All strains were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Patients' medical charts were reviewed for each case of infection. Results Eleven strains of NVS were isolated during the 6-year period. Identification of the strains by 16S rRNA showed 2 genogroups: Abiotrophia defectiva (3 and Granulicatella adiacens (6 or "para-adiacens" (2. The three A. defectiva strains were isolated from immunocompetent patients with endovascular infections, whereas 7 of 8 Granulicatella spp. strains were isolated from immunosuppressed patients, mainly febrile neutropenic patients. We report the first case of "G. para-adiacens" bacteraemia in the setting of febrile neutropenia. Conclusion We propose that Granulicatella spp. be considered as a possible agent of bacteraemia in neutropenic patients.

  14. Expression analysis of Foxp3 in T-cells from bovine leukemia virus infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Saori; Konnai, Satoru; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Shirai, Tatsuya; Sunden, Yuji; Mingala, Claro N; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we monitored the Foxp3(+) T cells in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle. By flow cytometric analysis, the proportion of Foxp3(+) CD4(+) cells from persistent lymphocytotic cattle were significantly increased compared to control and aleukemic cattle. Interestingly, the proportion of Foxp3(+) CD4(+) cells correlated positively with the increased number of lymphocytes, virus titer and virus load whilst on the contrary, it inversely correlated with IFN-? mRNA expression, suggesting that Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T cells in cattle have a potentially immunosuppressive function. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the detailed mechanism behind the increased Treg during BLV-infection. PMID:23734958

  15. Expression analysis of Foxp3 in T cells from bovine leukemia virus infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Saori; Konnai, Satoru; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Shirai, Tatsuya; Sunden, Yuji; Mingala, Claro N; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we monitored Foxp3(+) T cells in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle. By flow cytometric analysis, the proportion of Foxp3(+) CD4(+) cells from persistent lymphocytotic cattle was significantly increased compared to control and AL cattle. Interestingly, the proportion of Foxp3(+) CD4(+) cells correlated positively with the increased number of lymphocytes, virus titer and virus load, whereas it inversely correlated with IFN-? mRNA expression, suggesting that Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T cells in cattle have a potentially immunosuppressive function. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the detailed mechanism behind the increased Treg during BLV infection. PMID:23945026

  16. Functional analysis of erythrocyte determinants of Plasmodium infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bei, Amy K.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.

    2012-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum parasite is an obligate intracellular pathogen whose invasion and remodeling of the human erythrocyte results in the clinical manifestations of malarial disease. The functional analysis of erythrocyte determinants of invasion and growth is a relatively unexplored frontier in malaria research, encompassing studies of natural variation of the erythrocyte, as well as genomic, biochemical and chemical biological and transgenic approaches. These studies have allowed the f...

  17. Bacterial adaptation during chronic infection revealed by independent component analysis of transcriptomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lei; Rau, Martin Holm

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bacteria employ a variety of adaptation strategies during the course of chronic infections. Understanding bacterial adaptation can facilitate the identification of novel drug targets for better treatment of infectious diseases. Transcriptome profiling is a comprehensive and high-throughput approach for characterization of bacterial clinical isolates from infections. However, exploitation of the complex, noisy and high-dimensional transcriptomic dataset is difficult and often hindered by low statistical power. Results: In this study, we have applied two kinds of unsupervised analysis methods, principle component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA), to extract and characterize the most informative features from transcriptomic dataset generated from cystic fibrosis (CF) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. ICA was shown to be able to efficiently extract biological meaningful features from the transcriptomic dataset and improve clustering patterns of CF isolates. Decomposition of the transcriptomic dataset by ICA also facilitates gene identification and gene ontology enrichment. Conclusions: Our results show that P. aeruginosa employs multiple patient-specific adaption strategies during the early stage infections while certain essential adaptations are evolved in parallel during the chronic infections.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF AWARENESS OF RECOMMEN-DATIONS FOR PREVENTION OF BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS AMONG A GROUP OF 136 IRANIAN DENTAL AND MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Zarei; N. Navabie G. Chamani

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial endocarditis is a serious disease that could occur after invasive dental procedures. Despite a large number of papers written about the knowledge of prevention of bacterial endocarditis among health care workers in western countries, little is known about awareness of this subject among practitioners and students in other countries. The purpose of the present study was to assess the knowledge of recommendations for prevention of bacterial endocarditis among a group of Iranian dental...

  19. Relationship between hepatitis C virus infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus: Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Naing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the association between hepatitis C infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Observational studies assessing the relationship between hepatitis C infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified via electronic and hand searches. Studies published between 1988 to March 2011 were screened, according to the inclusion criteria set for the present analysis. Authors performed separate analyses for the comparisons between hepatitis C virus (HCV infected and not infected, and HCV infected and hepatitis B virus infected. The included studies were further subgrouped according to the study design. Heterogenity was assessed using I2 statistics. The summary odds ratios with their corresponding 95% CIs were calculated based on a random-effects model. The included studies were subgrouped according to the study design. To assess any factor that could potentially affect the outcome, results were further stratified by age group (proportion of ? 40 years, gender (proportion of male gender, body mass index (BMI (proportion of BMI ? 27, and family history of diabetes (i.e., self reported. For stability of results, a sensitivity analysis was conducted including only prospective studies. RESULTS: Combining the electronic database and hand searches, a total of 35 observational studies (in 31 articles were identified for the final analysis. Based on random-effects model, 17 studies (n = 286?084 compared hepatitis C-infected patients with those who were uninfected [summary odds ratio (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.15-2.45]. Of these 17 studies, 7 were both a cross-sectional design (41.2% and cohort design (41.2%, while 3 were case-control studies (17.6%. Nineteen studies (n = 51?156 compared hepatitis C-infected participants with hepatitis B-infected (summary OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.41-2.62. Of these 19 studies, 4 (21.1%, 6 (31.6% and 9 (47.4% were cross-sectional, cohort and case-control studies, respectively. A sensitivity analysis with 3 prospective studies indicated that hepatitis C-infected patients had a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with uninfected controls (summary odds ratio: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.17-1.7; I2 = 0%. Among hepatitis C-infected patients, male patients (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03-1.54 with age over 40 years (summary OR: 7.39, 95% CI: 3.82-9.38 had an increased frequency of type 2 diabetes. Some caution must be taken in the interpretation of these results because there may be unmeasured confounding factors which may introduce bias. CONCLUSION: The findings support the association between hepatitis C infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The direction of association remains to be determined, however. Prospective studies with adequate sample sizes are recommended.

  20. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Eliseeva, Ekaterina A.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2010-11-15

    Dampness and mold have been shown in qualitative reviews to be associated with a variety of adverse respiratory health effects, including respiratory tract infections. Several published meta-analyses have provided quantitative summaries for some of these associations, but not for respiratory infections. Demonstrating a causal relationship between dampness-related agents, which are preventable exposures, and respiratory tract infections would suggest important new public health strategies. We report the results of quantitative meta-analyses of published studies that examined the association of dampness or mold in homes with respiratory infections and bronchitis. For primary studies meeting eligibility criteria, we transformed reported odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) to the log scale. Both fixed and random effects models were applied to the log ORs and their variances. Most studies contained multiple estimated ORs. Models accounted for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed. One set of analyses was performed with all eligible studies, and another set restricted to studies that controlled for age, gender, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Subgroups of studies were assessed to explore heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. The resulting summary estimates of ORs from random effects models based on all studies ranged from 1.38 to 1.50, with 95% CIs excluding the null in all cases. Use of different analysis models and restricting analyses based on control of multiple confounding variables changed findings only slightly. ORs (95% CIs) from random effects models using studies adjusting for major confounding variables were, for bronchitis, 1.45 (1.32-1.59); for respiratory infections, 1.44 (1.31-1.59); for respiratory infections excluding nonspecific upper respiratory infections, 1.50 (1.32-1.70), and for respiratory infections in children or infants, 1.48 (1.33-1.65). Little effect of publication bias was evident. Estimated attributable risk proportions ranged from 8% to 20%. Residential dampness and mold are associated with substantial and statistically significant increases in both respiratory infections and bronchitis. If these associations were confirmed as causal, effective control of dampness and mold in buildings would prevent a substantial proportion of respiratory infections.

  1. Beneficial Influence of Platelets on Antibiotic Efficacy in an In Vitro Model of Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Renee-Claude; Dietz, Robert M.; Mazzola, Jory L.; Bayer, Arnold S.; Yeaman, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    Platelets contribute to antimicrobial host defense against infective endocarditis (IE) by releasing platelet microbicidal proteins (PMPs). We investigated the influence of thrombin-stimulated human platelets on the evolution of simulated IE in the presence and absence of vancomycin or nafcillin. Staphylococcus aureus strains differing in intrinsic susceptibility to PMPs or antibiotics were studied: ISP479C (thrombin-induced PMP-1 [tPMP-1] susceptible; nafcillin and vancomycin susceptible), ISP479R (tPMP-1 resistant; nafcillin and vancomycin susceptible), and GISA-NJ (tPMP-1 intermediate-susceptible; vancomycin intermediate-susceptible). Platelets were introduced and thrombin activated within the in vitro IE model 30 min prior to inoculation with S. aureus. At 0 to 24 h postinoculation, bacterial densities in chamber fluid and simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs) were quantified and compared among groups. Activated platelets alone, or in combination with antibiotics, inhibited the proliferation of ISP479C in chamber fluid or SEVs over the initial 4-h period (P < 0.05 versus controls). Moreover, nafcillin-containing regimens exerted inhibitory effects beyond 4 h against ISP479C in both model phases. By comparison, activated platelets inhibited GISA-NJ proliferation in SEVs but not in chamber fluid. The combination of platelets plus nafcillin or vancomycin significantly inhibited proliferation of the GISA-NJ strain in SEVs compared to the effect of platelets or antibiotics alone (P < 0.05). In contrast, platelets did not significantly alter the antistaphylococcal efficacies of nafcillin or vancomycin against ISP479R. These data support our hypothesis that a beneficial antimicrobial effect may result from the interaction among platelets, PMPs, and anti-infective agents against antibiotic-susceptible or -resistant staphylococci that exhibit a tPMP-1-susceptible or -intermediate-susceptible phenotype. PMID:15215108

  2. DNA microarray global gene expression analysis of influenza virus-infected chicken and duck cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V. Kuchipudi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article pertain to the article by Kuchipudi et al. (2014 titled “Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Chickens But Not Ducks Is Associated with Elevated Host Immune and Pro-inflammatory Responses” [1]. While infection of chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes often leads to 100% mortality within 1 to 2 days, infection of ducks in contrast causes mild or no clinical signs. The rapid onset of fatal disease in chickens, but with no evidence of severe clinical symptoms in ducks, suggests underlying differences in their innate immune mechanisms. We used Chicken Genechip microarrays (Affymetrix to analyse the gene expression profiles of primary chicken and duck lung cells infected with a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI H2N3 virus and two HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes to understand the molecular basis of host susceptibility and resistance in chickens and ducks. Here, we described the experimental design, quality control and analysis that were performed on the data set. The data are publicly available through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEOdatabase with accession number GSE33389, and the analysis and interpretation of these data are included in Kuchipudi et al. (2014 [1].

  3. Perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with chlamydial infection: a meta-analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Penna Maisonnette de Attayde Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy on perinatal morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis in an electronic database and manual, combining high sensitivity specific descriptors seeking to answer the research objective. The articles considered to be of high methodological quality (score above 6 on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were assessed by meta-analysis. RESULTS: Summary estimates of 12 studies were calculated by means of Mantel-Haenszel test with 95% confidence interval. It was observed that Chlamydia infection during pregnancy increased risk of preterm labor (relative risk (RR = 1.35 [1.11, 1.63], low birth weight (RR = 1.52 [1.24, 1.87] and perinatal mortality (RR = 1.84 [1.15, 2.94]. No evidence of increased risk was associated with Chlamydia infection in regard to premature rupture of membranes (RR = 1.13 [0.95, 1.34], abortion and postpartum endometritis (RR = 1.20 [0.65, 2.20] and 0.89 [0.49, 1.61] respectively. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis and treatment of Chlamydia cervicitis during pregnancy can reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with this infection. However, clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  4. Perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with chlamydial infection: a meta-analysis study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria José Penna Maisonnette de Attayde, Silva; Gilzandra Lira Dantas, Florêncio; José Roberto Erbolato, Gabiatti; Rose Luce do, Amaral; José, Eleutério Júnior; Ana Katherine da Silveira, Gonçalves.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy on perinatal morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis in an electronic database and manual, combining high sensitivity specific descriptors seeking to answer the research objective. The [...] articles considered to be of high methodological quality (score above 6 on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale) were assessed by meta-analysis. RESULTS: Summary estimates of 12 studies were calculated by means of Mantel-Haenszel test with 95% confidence interval. It was observed that Chlamydia infection during pregnancy increased risk of preterm labor (relative risk (RR) = 1.35 [1.11, 1.63]), low birth weight (RR = 1.52 [1.24, 1.87]) and perinatal mortality (RR = 1.84 [1.15, 2.94]). No evidence of increased risk was associated with Chlamydia infection in regard to premature rupture of membranes (RR = 1.13 [0.95, 1.34]), abortion and postpartum endometritis (RR = 1.20 [0.65, 2.20] and 0.89 [0.49, 1.61] respectively). CONCLUSION: The diagnosis and treatment of Chlamydia cervicitis during pregnancy can reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with this infection. However, clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  5. Proteomic analysis of Lawsonia intracellularis reveals expression of outer membrane proteins during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Eleanor; Alberdi, M Pilar; Inglis, Neil F; Lainson, Alex; Porter, Megan E; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Mclean, Kevin; Smith, David G E

    2014-12-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is the aetiological agent of the commercially significant porcine disease, proliferative enteropathy. Current understanding of host-pathogen interaction is limited due to the fastidious microaerophilic obligate intracellular nature of the bacterium. In the present study, expression of bacterial proteins during infection was investigated using a mass spectrometry approach. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of two isolates of L. intracellularis from heavily-infected epithelial cell cultures and database mining using fully annotated L. intracellularis genome sequences identified 19 proteins. According to the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) functional classification, proteins were identified with roles in cell metabolism, protein synthesis and oxidative stress protection; seven proteins with putative or unknown function were also identified. Detailed bioinformatic analyses of five uncharacterised proteins, which were expressed by both isolates, identified domains and motifs common to other outer membrane-associated proteins with important roles in pathogenesis including adherence and invasion. Analysis of recombinant proteins on Western blots using immune sera from L. intracellularis-infected pigs identified two proteins, LI0841 and LI0902 as antigenic. The detection of five outer membrane proteins expressed during infection, including two antigenic proteins, demonstrates the potential of this approach to interrogate L. intracellularis host-pathogen interactions and identify novel targets which may be exploited in disease control. PMID:25457368

  6. Ecological analysis of social risk factors for Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany, 2007–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilking Hendrik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors are increasingly recognised as related to health inequalities in Germany and are also identified as important contributing factors for an increased risk of acquiring infections. The aim of the present study was to describe in an ecological analysis the impact of different social factors on the risk of acquiring infectious diseases in an urban setting. The specific outcome of interest was the distribution of Rotavirus infections, which are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among infants and also a burden in the elderly in Germany. The results may help to generate more specific hypothesis for infectious disease transmission. Methods We analysed the spatial distribution of hospitalized patients with Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany. The association between the small area incidence and different socio-demographic and economic variables was investigated in order to identify spatial relations and risk factors. Our spatial analysis included 447 neighbourhood areas of similar population size in the city of Berlin. We included all laboratory-confirmed cases of patients hospitalized due to Rotavirus infections and notified between 01/01/2007 and 31/12/2009. We excluded travel-associated and nosocomial infections. A spatial Bayesian Poisson regression model was used for the statistical analysis of incidences at neighbourhood level in relation to socio-demographic variables. Results Altogether, 2,370 patients fulfilled the case definition. The disease mapping indicates a number of urban quarters to be highly affected by the disease. In the multivariable spatial regression model, two risk factors were identified for infants ( Conclusions Neighbourhoods with a high unemployment rate and high day care attendance rate appear to be particularly affected by Rotavirus in the population of Berlin. Public health promotion programs should be developed for the affected areas. Due to the ecological study-design, risk pathways on an individual patient level remain to be elucidated.

  7. Factores asociados a mortalidad en la cirugía de reemplazo valvular por endocarditis complicada Risk factors related to mortality in heart valve replacement for complicated endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN CARLOS BAHAMONDES S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La Endocarditis Infecciosa (El es una enfermedad grave, dada por la agresividad del agente sobre el aparato cardiovascular y otros órganos. La cirugía de reemplazo valvular (CRV es el tratamiento definitivo frente al fracaso del tratamiento médico, la cual está asociada a una elevada mortalidad al presentarse con daño estructural severo. Objetivo: Evaluar los factores asociados a mortalidad en pacientes sometidos a CRV por El. Pacientes y método: Estudio descriptivo de 32 pacientes consecutivos sometidos a CRV en el período 1993-2005, consignando antecedentes clínicos que determinen una probable mortalidad. Resultados: La mortalidad global fue de 25%, principalmente en los primeros 15 días (60%. Los principales factores asociados son sepsis (p =0.002, la cirugía mitro-aórtica (p Infectious endocarditis is a severe illness related to the aggressiveness of the microbial agent to the cardiovascular system. Heart valve replacement surgery is the definitive treatment in these patients but is related to high mortality when the structural damage is severe. Objective: To assess risk factors related to mortality in patients operated for complicated endocarditis. Patients and method: Descriptive study of 32 patients operated between 1993-2005 period in which clinical factors were evaluated and related to mortality. Results: Overall mortality was 25%, mainly in the first two weeks after surgery (60%. Mortality related risk factors were sepsis (p =0.002, mitro-aortic replacement (p <0.001 and alcoholism (p =0.049. Actuarial survival probability is 78% to 146 months in the group. Conclusion: Mortality is similar to others cardiac centres and is higher in the first two weeks alter surgery. Mitro aortic replacement and sepsis are the main factors of early mortality risk

  8. Differentiating Taenia solium and Taenia saginata Infections by Simple Hematoxylin-Eosin Staining and PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mayta, H.; Talley, A.; Gilman, R. H.; Jimenez, J.; Verastegui, M; Ruiz, M.; Garcia, H. H.; Gonzalez, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    Species-specific identification of human tapeworm infections is important for public health purposes, because prompt identification of Taenia solium carriers may prevent further human cysticercosis infections (a major cause of acquired epilepsy). Two practical methods for the differentiation of cestode proglottids, (i) routine embedding, sectioning, and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and (ii) PCR with restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), were tested on samples from 40 individuals infected ...

  9. Cowpea-Meloidogyne incognita interaction: Root proteomic analysis during early stages of nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeth, Gabriela R C; Carmo, Lilian S T; Silva, Luciano P; Fontes, Wagner; Grynberg, Priscila; Saraiva, Mario; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Carneiro, Regina M D; Oliveira, José T A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Mehta, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume species well adapted to low fertility soils and prolonged drought periods. One of the main problems that cause severe yield losses in cowpea is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The aim of this work was to analyze the differential expression of proteins in the contrasting cultivars of cowpea CE 31 (highly resistant) and CE 109 (slightly resistant) during early stages of M. incognita infection. Cowpea roots were collected at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation and used for protein extraction and 2-DE analysis. From a total of 59 differential spots, 37 proteins were identified, mostly involved in plant defense, such as spermidine synthase, patatin, proteasome component, and nitrile-specifier protein. A follow-up study was performed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine selected proteins and the results revealed a very similar upregulation trend between the protein expression profiles and the corresponding transcripts. This study also identified ACT and GAPDH as a good combination of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the pathosystem cowpea/nematode. Additionally, an interactome analysis showed three major pathways affected by nematode infection: proteasome endopeptidase complex, oxidative phosphorylation, and flavonoid biosynthesis. Taken together, the results obtained by proteome, transcriptome, and interactome approaches suggest that oxidative stress, ubiquitination, and glucosinolate degradation may be part of cowpea CE 31 resistance mechanisms in response to nematode infection. PMID:25736976

  10. Transcriptome analysis of maize leaf systemic symptom infected by Bipolaris zeicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Gao, Jian; Yin, Fuqiang; Gong, Guoshu; Qin, Cheng; Ye, Kunhao; Zhang, Min; Sun, Xiaofang; Zhou, You; Zhang, Youju

    2015-01-01

    Bipolaris zeicola is a fungal pathogen that causes Northern corn leaf spot (NCLS), which is a serious foliar disease in maize and one of the most significant pathogens affecting global food security. Here, we report a genome-wide transcriptional profile analysis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of maize leaf development after inoculation with B. zeicola. We performed High-Throughput Digital Gene Expression analysis to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in resistant inbred Mo17 lines after infection with B. zeicola at four successive disease development stages--CP (contact period), PP (penetration period), IP (incubation period), and DP (disease period); the expression of the genes was compared with those in a CK (mock-treatment) control. In addition, a sensitive maize line (Zheng58) was used for the comparisons with the Mo17. Among all tested genes, 466 differentially expressed genes were identified in all libraries, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of these genes suggested that they are involved in many biological processes related to systemic symptom development, such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and photosynthesis. Our systematic analysis provides comprehensive transcriptomic information regarding systemic symptom development in fungal-infected plants. This information will help in furthering our understanding of the detailed mechanisms of plant responses to fungal infection. PMID:25781606

  11. Exhaled breath analysis using electronic nose in cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia patients with chronic pulmonary infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Odin; Paff, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The current diagnostic work-up and monitoring of pulmonary infections may be perceived as invasive, is time consuming and expensive. In this explorative study, we investigated whether or not a non-invasive exhaled breath analysis using an electronic nose would discriminate between cystic fibrosis (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) with or without various well characterized chronic pulmonary infections. We recruited 64 patients with CF and 21 with PCD based on known chronic infection status. 21 healthy volunteers served as controls. An electronic nose was employed to analyze exhaled breath samples. Principal component reduction and discriminant analysis were used to construct internally cross-validated receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Breath profiles of CF and PCD patients differed significantly from healthy controls p?=?0.001 and p?=?0.005, respectively. Profiles of CF patients having a chronic P. aeruginosa infection differed significantly from to non-chronically infected CF patients p?=?0.044. We confirmed the previously established discriminative power of exhaled breath analysis in separation between healthy subjects and patients with CF or PCD. Furthermore, this method significantly discriminates CF patients suffering from a chronic pulmonary P. aeruginosa (PA) infection from CF patients without a chronic pulmonary infection. Further studies are needed for verification and to investigate the role of electronic nose technology in the very early diagnostic workup of pulmonary infections before the establishment of a chronic infection.

  12. Valvulopathy consistent with endocarditis in an Argentine boa (Boa constrictor occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernick, Morena B; Novo-Matos, José; Ebling, Alessia; Kühn, Karolin; Ruetten, Maja; Hilbe, Monika; Howard, Judith; Chang, Rita; Prohaska, Sarah; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-01

    An Argentine boa (Boa constrictor occidentalis) of 5 yr 7 mo of age was presented for respiratory problems and regurgitation. Radiographs revealed evidence of cardiomegaly and pneumonia. Blood smear examination revealed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in peripheral lymphocytes, consistent with inclusion body disease. Cultures of a tracheal wash sample resulted in growth of Ochrobactrum intermedium and Pseudomonas putida. Echocardiographic examination revealed a large vegetative lesion on the right atrioventricular valve with valvular insufficiency, a mildly dilated right atrium, and pulmonary hypertension. Postmortem examination confirmed the presence of pneumonia and bacterial endocarditis with dystrophic mineralization of the right atrioventricular valve, associated with different bacteria than those cultured from the tracheal wash. The present case is the first report of endocarditis in a boa constrictor and contributes to the rare reports of cardiac disease in snakes. PMID:25831585

  13. Subacute bacterial endocarditis and subsequent shunt nephritis from ventriculoatrial shunting 14?years after shunt implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, Gustav; Andresen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Fourteen years after shunt implantation, a 26-year-old patient with myelomeningocele, concomitant hydrocephalus and a ventriculoatrial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt presented with brief but recurrent episodes of fever predominantly when taking showers or during physical exertion. After 4?years of inconclusive multidisciplinary investigations, the patient progressed into end-stage renal disease before an echocardiogram revealed a vegetative plaque on the tendinous chords of the tricuspid valve. CSF cultures were grown from the shunt valve, confirming bacterial growth of Propionibacterium acnes suspected of causing subacute bacterial endocarditis and subsequent shunt nephritis. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotics combined with ventriculoatrial shunt removal and endoscopic third ventriculocisternostomy (VCS). This case illustrates the nowadays rare, but potentially severe complication of subacute bacterial endocarditis and shunt nephritis. It also exemplifies the VCS as an alternative to implanting foreign shunt systems for CSF diversion.

  14. Subacute bacterial endocarditis and subsequent shunt nephritis from ventriculoatrial shunting 14?years after shunt implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burström, Gustav; Andresen, Morten; Bartek, Jiri; Fytagoridis, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Fourteen years after shunt implantation, a 26-year-old patient with myelomeningocele, concomitant hydrocephalus and a ventriculoatrial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt presented with brief but recurrent episodes of fever predominantly when taking showers or during physical exertion. After 4?years of inconclusive multidisciplinary investigations, the patient progressed into end-stage renal disease before an echocardiogram revealed a vegetative plaque on the tendinous chords of the tricuspid valve. CSF cultures were grown from the shunt valve, confirming bacterial growth of Propionibacterium acnes suspected of causing subacute bacterial endocarditis and subsequent shunt nephritis. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotics combined with ventriculoatrial shunt removal and endoscopic third ventriculocisternostomy (VCS). This case illustrates the nowadays rare, but potentially severe complication of subacute bacterial endocarditis and shunt nephritis. It also exemplifies the VCS as an alternative to implanting foreign shunt systems for CSF diversion. PMID:24962489

  15. Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis presenting as acalculous cholecystitis in a previously well woman.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brewer, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the unusual presentation of a previously very well woman with Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis in the emergency department. History, examination and preliminary laboratory and radiological investigations supported a diagnosis of acalculous cholecystitis, for which she was given intravenous broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy. One day following admission, the patient deteriorated and became unresponsive. Subsequent MRI of the brain revealed multiple bihemispheric cerebral emboli and a large, mobile mitral valve thrombus was visualised on her transoesophageal echocardiogram. S agalactiae was cultured from venous blood samples and her antimicrobial cover was adjusted accordingly. Despite her presumed guarded prognosis, this patient made a remarkable recovery. To our knowledge, the association of S agalactiae endocarditis with acalculous cholecystitis has not been previously described.

  16. Bartonella native valve endocarditis: the first brazilian case alive and well

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Lamas; A., Favacho; R.G., Ramos; M.S., Santos; G.I., Ferravoli; C., Weksler; T., Rozental; M.N., Bóia; E.R.S., Lemos.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella is an important cause of blood culture-negative endocarditis in recent studies. Seroprevalence studies in the States of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro have shown Bartonella IgG positivity around 14% in healthy adults and 40% in HIV seropositive adults, respectively. A case report of a 46 [...] -year-old white male with moderate aortic regurgitation (AR) due to rheumatic heart disease (RHD), admitted due to worsening heart failure, is presented. Clinical features were apyrexia, anemia, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, hematuria and splenomegaly. He was submitted to surgery due to worsening AR. Histopathology of the excised valve showed active bacterial endocarditis and underlying RHD. Routine blood cultures were negative. Indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) assays for Coxiella burnetii were non-reactive. Bartonella henselae IgG titer was 1:4096 prior to antibiotics and 1:512 14 months after treatment. History of close contact with a young cat during the months preceding his admission was elicited.

  17. Bartonella native valve endocarditis: the first brazilian case alive and well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lamas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella is an important cause of blood culture-negative endocarditis in recent studies. Seroprevalence studies in the States of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro have shown Bartonella IgG positivity around 14% in healthy adults and 40% in HIV seropositive adults, respectively. A case report of a 46-year-old white male with moderate aortic regurgitation (AR due to rheumatic heart disease (RHD, admitted due to worsening heart failure, is presented. Clinical features were apyrexia, anemia, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, hematuria and splenomegaly. He was submitted to surgery due to worsening AR. Histopathology of the excised valve showed active bacterial endocarditis and underlying RHD. Routine blood cultures were negative. Indirect immunofluorescence (IFI assays for Coxiella burnetii were non-reactive. Bartonella henselae IgG titer was 1:4096 prior to antibiotics and 1:512 14 months after treatment. History of close contact with a young cat during the months preceding his admission was elicited.

  18. Varicella-zoster virus infections in immunocompromised patients - a single centre 6-years analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liese Johannes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV contemporaneously with malignant disease or immunosuppression represents a particular challenge and requires individualized decisions and treatment. Although the increasing use of varicella-vaccines in the general population and rapid initiation of VZV-immunoglobulins and acyclovir in case of exposure has been beneficial for some patients, immunocompromised individuals are still at risk for unfavourable courses. Methods In this single center, 6-year analysis we review incidence, hospitalization and complication rates of VZV-infections in our center and compare them to published data. Furthermore, we report three instructive cases. Results Hospitalization rate of referred children with VZV-infections was 45%, among these 17% with malignancies and 9% under immunosuppressive therapy. Rate of complications was not elevated in these two high-risk cohorts, but one ALL-patient died due to VZV-related complications. We report one 4-year old boy with initial diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who showed a rapidly fatal outcome of his simultaneous varicella-infection, one 1.8-year old boy with an identical situation but a mild course of his disease, and an 8.5-year old boy with a steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. This boy developed severe hepatic involvement during his varicella-infection but responded to immediate withdrawl of steroids and administration of acyclovir plus single-dose cidofovir after nonresponse to acyclovir after 48 h. Conclusion Our data show that patients with malignant diseases or immunosuppressive therapy should be hospitalized and treated immediately with antiviral agents. Despite these measures the course of VZV-infections can be highly variable in these patients. We discuss aids to individual decision-making for these difficult situations.

  19. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in normal and white spot syndrome virus infected Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hsueh-Fen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White spot syndrome (WSS is a viral disease that affects most of the commercially important shrimps and causes serious economic losses to the shrimp farming industry worldwide. However, little information is available in terms of the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction. In this study, we used an expressed sequence tag (EST approach to observe global gene expression changes in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV-infected postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. Results Sequencing of the complementary DNA clones of two libraries constructed from normal and WSSV-infected postlarvae produced a total of 15,981 high-quality ESTs. Of these ESTs, 46% were successfully matched against annotated genes in National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI non-redundant (nr database and 44% were functionally classified using the Gene Ontology (GO scheme. Comparative EST analyses suggested that, in postlarval shrimp, WSSV infection strongly modulates the gene expression patterns in several organs or tissues, including the hepatopancreas, muscle, eyestalk and cuticle. Our data suggest that several basic cellular metabolic processes are likely to be affected, including oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, the glycolytic pathway, and calcium ion balance. A group of immune-related chitin-binding protein genes is also likely to be strongly up regulated after WSSV infection. A database containing all the sequence data and analysis results is accessible at http://xbio.lifescience.ntu.edu.tw/pm/. Conclusion This study suggests that WSSV infection modulates expression of various kinds of genes. The predicted gene expression pattern changes not only reflect the possible responses of shrimp to the virus infection but also suggest how WSSV subverts cellular functions for virus multiplication. In addition, the ESTs reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp.

  20. Left-Sided Endocarditis Associated with Multi-Drug Resistance Acinetobacter Lwoffii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Moshtaghi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter lwoffii, an important nosocomial pathogen, is a gram-negative aerobic bacillus that is a component of the normal flora on the skin, oropharynx, and perineum of about 20-25% of healthy individuals. We herein present a case of a 66-year-old man with combined mitral and aortic valve endocarditis associated with multi-drug resistance acinetobacter lowffii bacteremia.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis with fast development of aortic root abscess despite relevant antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Hansen, Thomas Fritz; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis in which a large abscess was formed in only 4 days, despite specific intravenous antibiotics and only few vague signs of disease progression. Our case seems to be the first to show echocardiographic documentation of how quickly an intracardiac abscess can develop despite relevant antibiotics. Clinically, the patient is remarkably unaffected, and thus even small signs of progression should lead to considerations about repeating the diagnosti...

  2. Endocarditis caused by Haemophilus parainfluenzae identified by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing.

    OpenAIRE

    Das, I.(Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay (IPNO), Université Paris-Sud, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay, France); deGiovanni, J V; Gray, J

    1997-01-01

    Haemophilus parainfluenzae, a human commensal, is an infrequent cause of serious disease. A case of endocarditis caused by this organism in a five year old boy with complex congenital heart disease is reported. The course of this disease was very aggressive, leading to heart failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiorgan failure in spite of appropriate antibiotics and surgical intervention. The difficulties in the detection and identification of H parainfluenzae using conventi...

  3. A mycotic pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with candida endocarditis: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of a mycotic pulmonary aneurysm associated with Candida endocarditis in a 53-year-old male with lymphoma. The initial diagnosis was a pulmonary artery aneurysm attributable to vasculitis, such as that associated with Behcet's disease, but a mycotic pulmonary artery aneurysm was later considered as a differential diagnosis. Identification of valve vegetation on the chest CT was helpful in this regard. We review the literature on the disease etiology, radiological findings, and management options.

  4. A mycotic pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with candida endocarditis: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jin Il; Lee, Ji Won; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Song, Seung Hwan [Pusan National University School of Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We report a case of a mycotic pulmonary aneurysm associated with Candida endocarditis in a 53-year-old male with lymphoma. The initial diagnosis was a pulmonary artery aneurysm attributable to vasculitis, such as that associated with Behcet's disease, but a mycotic pulmonary artery aneurysm was later considered as a differential diagnosis. Identification of valve vegetation on the chest CT was helpful in this regard. We review the literature on the disease etiology, radiological findings, and management options.

  5. Isolation of Coxiella burnetii from heart valves of patients treated for Q fever endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlemann, K.; Matter, L; Meyer, B.; Schopfer, K

    1995-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii was isolated from the valve material of two patients who underwent valvectomy because of progressive congestive heart failure due to endocarditis. In each case antibiotic therapy was administered for several months prior to valvectomy. Classical histopathological examination of the valves did not reveal an etiology. However, coxiella-like organisms were demonstrated in valvular material with Köster, Stamp, and Giemsa stains, and the organisms were grown in cell culture. Anti...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Coxiella burnetii Strain Cb196, an Agent of Endocarditis in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    D’Amato, Felicetta; Robert, Catherine; Azhar, E. I.; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii Cb196, with a 2,006,415-bp genome, is a strain isolated from a 45-year-old man in Saudi Arabia with endocarditis. It belongs to the genotype MST51, which was detected for the first time only in this country. Cb196 shows more similarity to C. burnetii CbuK_Q154, belonging to genotype 8, which was phylogenetically close to MST51.

  7. Analysis of phenolic and indole acetic acids in Meloidogyne graminicola infected rice plants (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Amitabh Singh; Ritesh Kumar Jaiswal; Sudarshan Maurya; Udai Pratap Singh

    2013-01-01

    Meloidogyne spp. incite root-knot disease in the roots of Solanaceous and Cereal crop plants inflicting heavy damage to the crops. M. graminicola, a root-knot nematode is ubiquitous as a rice pathogen wherever rice is grown. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of phenolic acids in healthy and root-knot infected plant parts of rice indicated that phenolic acid contents were highly variable in both the cases. Upper leaves of healthy plants had seven phenolic acids in which g...

  8. Hypereosinophilic syndrome with isolated Loeffler?s endocarditis: Complete resolution with corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES is classically defined as prolonged, unexplained peripheral eosinophilia in a patient presenting with evidence of end-organ damage. The heart is involved in two forms; endomyocardial fibrosis (Davies disease and eosinophilic endocarditis (Loffler?s endocarditis. It was first reported in 1968 by Hard and Anderson. Chusid and co-workers formulated a definition with strict criteria for the diagnosis of HES as 1 peripheral blood eosinophilia more than 1500 cells/cu mm for at least six months duration 2signs, symptoms of end-organ (heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, skin, bone-marrow, brain involvement with eosinophil tissue infiltration/injury 3 exclusion of known secondary causes of eosinophilia. We report a case of hypereosinophilic syndrome with Loffler?s endocarditis, in the absence of endomyocardial fibrosis. The patient presented with a eosinophilic vegetation over the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve. There was complete resolution of the vegetation after two months of corticosteroid therapy.

  9. A meta-analysis of ef?cacy and safety of doripenem for treating bacterial infections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Xiao-Yu, Qu; Ting-Ting, Hu; Wei, Zhou.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this article is to compare the ef?cacy and safety of doripenem for bacterial infections. Methods: We included six randomized clinical trials identi?ed from PubMed and Embase up to July 31, 2014. The included trials compared ef?cacy and safety of doripenem for complicated intra [...] -abdominal infections, complicated urinary tract infection, nosocomial pneumonia, and acute biliary tract infection. The meta-analysis was carried on by the statistical software of Review Manager, version 5.2. Results: Compared with empirical antimicrobial agents on overall treatment ef?cacy, doripenem was associated with similar clinical and microbiological treatment success rates (for the clinical evaluable population, odds ratio [OR] = 1.26, 95% con?dence interval [CI] 0.93-1.69, p = 0.13; for clinical modi?ed intent-to-treatment population, OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.55-1.41, p = 0.60; for microbiology evaluable population, OR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.90-1.50, p = 0.26; for microbiological modi?ed intent-to-treatment (m-mITT), OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.81-1.20, p = 0.87). We compared incidence of adverse events and all-cause mortality to analyze treatment safety. The outcomes suggested that doripenem was similar to comparators in terms of incidence of adverse events and all-cause mortality on modi?ed intent-to-treatment population (for incidence of AEs, OR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.90-1.35, p = 0.33; for all-cause mortality, OR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.77-1.51, p = 0.67). In nosocomial pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia treatment, doripenem was not inferior to other antibacterial agents in terms of ef?cacy and safety. Conclusion: From this meta-analysis, we can conclude that doripenem is as valuable and well-tolerated than empirical antimicrobial agents for complicated intra-abdominal infections, complicated urinary tract infection, acute biliary tract infection and nosocomial pneumonia treatment.

  10. Comparative analysis of the acute response of zebrafish Danio rerio skin to two different bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Aijun; Hu, Xiucai; Wang, Yi; Shen, Xiaojing; Zhu, Aihua; Shen, Lulu; Ming, Qinglei; Feng, Zhaojun

    2013-12-01

    Skin is an important innate immune organ in fish; however, little is known about the skin's immune response to infectious pathogens. We conducted a comparative analysis of the acute immune response of Zebrafish Danio rerio skin against gram-positive (Staphylococcus chromogenes) and gram-negative (Citrobacter freundii) bacterial infections. Gene expression profiles induced from the two different infections were identified by microarray hybridization, with many genes demonstrating an acute immune response in the skin. Differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in response to stress and stimulus, complement activation, acute-phase response, and defense and immune response. Compared with transcription patterns of skin from the two infections, a similar innate immunity (e.g., transferrin, coagulation factor, complements, and lectins) was observed but with different acute-phase genes (e.g., ceruloplasmin, alpha-1-microglobulin, vitellogenin, and heat shock protein). These results suggest that the skin of fish plays an important role in the innate immune responses to bacterial infection. PMID:24341765

  11. A flow-FISH assay for the quantitative analysis of parvovirus B19 infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaresi, Elisabetta; Bua, Gloria; Bonvicini, Francesca; Gallinella, Giorgio

    2015-10-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) replication is a process highly dependent on the cellular environment, therefore methodologies allowing for analysis at single cell level could represent effective tools to understand cell-to cell differences in the replication process and to investigate cell-virus interactions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be combined with flow cytometry (flow-FISH) to enable the detection of target nucleic acid sequences in thousands of individual cells in a short amount of time. In the present study, a flow-FISH assay based on the use of a digoxigenin-labeled genomic probe has been developed to discriminate B19V infected cells following in vitro infection of UT7/EpoS1 cell line and EPCs (erythroid progenitor cells) generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In B19V infected UT7/EpoS1 and EPCs, viral nucleic acids were detected by the flow-FISH assay starting from 24 hpi up to 48 hpi. The method, used together with quantitative PCR techniques, can be very useful to describe the kinetics of B19V infection within a heterogeneous cell population. PMID:26231787

  12. Postoperative Deep Infection After Cemented Versus Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Byung-Ho; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2015-10-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA). The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the PJI rate between cemented and cementless THAs. Eight clinical studies (2 randomized controlled trials and 6 observational studies) were available for the analysis. Meta-analysis (with a fixed-effects model) and subgroup analysis were performed by research design and meta-regression was performed by continuous moderator. The overall incidence of PJI was 0.4% (357/84,200). The incidence was 0.5% (310/67,531) in cemented group, and 0.3% (47/16,669) in cementless group (P=0.008). The meta-analysis revealed that the use of cement in THA was associated with an increased risk of PJI (odds ratio 1.53; 95% confidence interval 1.120 to 2.100; P=0.008). PMID:26021907

  13. Probiotics for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of C. difficile Infections: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne V. McFarland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infections are a global clinical concern and are one of the leading causes of nosocomial outbreaks. Preventing these infections has benefited from multidisciplinary infection control strategies and new antibiotics, but the problem persists. Probiotics are effective in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and may also be a beneficial strategy for C. difficile infections, but randomized controlled trials are scarce. This meta-analysis pools 21 randomized, controlled trials for primary prevention of C. difficile infections (CDI and four trials for secondary prevention of C. difficile recurrences and assesses the efficacy of specific probiotic strains. Four probiotics significantly improved primary CDI prevention: (Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus casei DN114001, a mixture of L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, and a mixture of L. acidophilus, L. casei and L. rhamnosus. None of the tested probiotics significantly improved secondary prevention of CDI. More confirmatory randomized trials are needed to establish if probiotics are useful for preventing C. difficile infections. v

  14. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty in pregnancy with severe aortic stenosis and infective endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Vinotha; Ruby Jose

    2012-01-01

    Twenty seven year old lady, previously diagnosed to have aortic stenosis, presented to the obstetric outpatient department at 19 weeks of gestation with fever and breathlessness, NYHA class 4, for one week. Two D Echo revealed left ventricular hypertrophy, a severely stenosed, calcified bicuspid aortic valve, with vegetations on aortic and mitral valves and severe mitral regurgitation. Blood cultures grew nutrionally variant streptococci and she was treated with crystalline penicillin and gen...

  15. 10-year epidemiology of infective endocarditis - correlations between histopathology, microbiology and clinical presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Zauner, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Hintergrund: Eine optimale Behandlung der infektiösen Endokarditis setzt einen frühen Erregernachweis, ein gründliches Wissen über die klinische Präsentation, das lokale Erregerspektrum, und die adäquate antimikrobielle und chirurgische Behandlung voraus. Ziele: I) Erfassen von Epidemiologie und klinischem Auftreten von infektiöser Endokarditis (IE) bei Patienten mit Herzklappenoperationen wegen IE am Klinikum der Universität Regensburg. Vergleich dieser Daten mit anderen nationalen und i...

  16. An unusual case of infective endocarditis presenting as acute myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhong; Ng, Francesca; Nageh, Thuraia

    2009-01-01

    A 39?year?old Zimbabwean man presented with a 1?week history of fever, general malaise and acute?onset chest pain. He had a urethral stricture, which had been managed with an indwelling supra?pubic catheter. The electrocardiography on admission showed inferior ST?T segments elevation. His chest pain and electrocardiography changes resolved subsequent to thrombolysis, and he remained haemodynamically stable. The 12?h troponin I was increased at 10.5??g/l (NR

  17. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is associated with increased risk of preterm birth: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q-T; Huang, Q; Zhong, M; Wei, S-S; Luo, W; Li, F; Yu, Y-H

    2015-12-01

    Although several epidemiological studies reported that maternal chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection had significantly increased risk of undergoing adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcomes, studies on the relationship between HCV infection and risk of preterm birth (PTB) have yielded inconclusive and inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between HCV infection and PTB. The electronic database was searched until 1 September 2014. Relevant studies reporting the association between HCV infection and the risk of PTB were included for further evaluation. Statistical analysis was performed using revmen 5.3 and stata 10.0. Nine studies involving 4186698 participants and 5218 HCV infection cases were included. A significant association between HCV infection and PTB was observed (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% CI 1.48-1.76, P HCV infection had a high risk for PTB. Findings from our meta-analysis suggested that maternal HCV infection was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. In the future, pathophysiological studies are warranted to ascertain the causality and explore the possible biological mechanisms involved. PMID:26081198

  18. Prevalence of infection in kidney transplantation from living versus deceased donor: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Taminato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To verify if the type of donor is a risk factor for infection in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS Systematic Review of Literature with Meta-analysis with searches conducted in the databases MEDLINE, LILACS, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, SciELO and CINAHL. RESULTS We selected 198 studies and included four observational studies describing infections among patients distinguishing the type of donor. Through meta-analysis, it was shown that in patients undergoing deceased donor transplant, the outcome infection was 2.65 higher, than those who received an organ from a living donor. CONCLUSION The study showed that deceased kidney donor recipients are at an increased risk for developing infections and so the need for establishing and enforcing protocols from proper management of ischemic time to the prevention and control of infection in this population emerges.

  19. Analysis of phenolic and indole acetic acids in Meloidogyne graminicola infected rice plants (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Singh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne spp. incite root-knot disease in the roots of Solanaceous and Cereal crop plants inflicting heavy damage to the crops. M. graminicola, a root-knot nematode is ubiquitous as a rice pathogen wherever rice is grown. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC analysis of phenolic acids in healthy and root-knot infected plant parts of rice indicated that phenolic acid contents were highly variable in both the cases. Upper leaves of healthy plants had seven phenolic acids in which gallic acid was maximum (140.3 ?g/g fresh wt followed by ferulic, tannic and vanillic acids. However, in root knot-infected plants, upper leaves had six phenolic acids in which gallic acid was maximum (190.68 ?g followed by caffeic, ferulic, o-coumeric, cinnamic and salicylic acids. In healthy leaf sheath gallic acid was the maximum (8.6 ?g followed by tannic, ferulic, vanillic, caffeic acid but o-coumeric, cinnamic and Indole Acetic Acid (IAA were detected in traces. Root knot-infected leaf sheath had nine phenolic acids, where gallic was the maximum (26.84 ?g followed by vanillic, ferulic, o-coumeric and tannic acids but other phenolic acids, viz., cinnamic, salicylic and IAA were present in traces. Roots of healthy rice plants had seven phenolic acids while infected roots had nine phenolic acids. Moreover, in infected roots without root-knot had eight phenolic acids, in which gallic was the maximum (29.30 ?g followed by ferulic, caffeic, vanillic, tannic and o-coumeric acids but salicylic and IAA were present in traces.

  20. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of haemoplasmas from cats infected with multiple species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Larissa Campos; Hicks, Chelsea A E; Scalon, Marcela C; Lima, Maíra G da M; Lemos, Marcelle dos S; Paludo, Giane Regina; Helps, Chris R; Tasker, Séverine

    2014-12-01

    Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ (CMhm) and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ (CMt) are agents of feline haemoplasmosis and can induce anaemia in cats. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and phylogeny of haemoplasma species in cats from Brazil's capital and surrounding areas, and whether correlation with haematological abnormalities existed. Feline haemoplasmas were found in 13.8% of 432 cats. CMhm was the most prevalent species (in 13.8% of cats), followed by Mhf (11.1%) and CMt (4.4%). Over 80% of haemoplasma-infected cats harboured two or more feline haemoplasma species: 7.1% of cats were co-infected with Mhf/CMhm, 0.4% with CMhm/CMt and 3.9% with Mhf/CMhm/CMt. Male gender was significantly associated with haemoplasma infections. No association was found between qPCR haemoplasma status and haematological variables, however CMhm relative copy numbers were correlated with red blood cell (RBC) numbers and packed cell volume (PCV). Haemoplasma 16S rRNA gene sequences (> 1 Kb) were derived from co-infected cats using novel haemoplasma species-specific primers. This allowed 16S rRNA gene sequences to be obtained despite the high level of co-infection, which precluded the use of universal 16S rRNA gene primers. Within each species, the Mhf, CMhm and CMt sequences showed > 99.8%, > 98.5% and > 98.8% identity, respectively. The Mhf, CMhm and CMt sequences showed > 99.2%, > 98.4% and > 97.8% identity, respectively, with GenBank sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed all Mhf sequences to reside in a single clade, whereas the CMhm and CMt sequences each grouped into three distinct subclades. These phylogeny findings suggest the existence of different CMhm and CMt strains. PMID:25447887

  1. Analysis of a viral infection model with immune impairment, intracellular delay and general non-linear incidence rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we study the dynamical behaviour of a intracellular delayed viral infection with immune impairment model and general non-linear incidence rate. Several techniques, including a non-linear stability analysis by means of the Lyapunov theory and sensitivity analysis, have been used to reveal features of the model dynamics. The classical threshold for the basic reproductive number is obtained: if the basic reproductive number of the virus is less than one, the infection-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the infected equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if the basic reproductive number is higher than one

  2. Analysis of CCR5 and SDF-1 genetic variants and HIV infection in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Padh, Harish

    2015-08-01

    HIV-1 infection and progression exhibits interindividual variation. The polymorphism in the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, the principal coreceptors for HIV-1 and their ligands like SDF-1 have a profound effect in altering the HIV-1 disease progression rate. A single nucleotide polymorphism designated SDF1-3'UTR-801G-A has been associated with resistance to HIV-1 infection or delayed progression to AIDS. In this study, the SDF1-3'A polymorphism, CCR5?32 polymorphism and CCR5 promoter polymorphism at positions 58934 G/T, 59029 G/A, 59353 T/C, 59356 C/T, 59402 A/G and 59653 C/T were analysed in Indian population. The polymorphisms in HIV-1 patients and healthy individuals were evaluated by conventional PCR, RFLP-PCR and direct sequencing techniques. The CCR5?32 mutant allele was found to be almost absent in Indian population. The analysis of the CCR5-59356C/T polymorphism revealed a trend towards an association of the C allele with an increased risk of HIV-1 infection. The frequency of allele CCR5-59356C was higher in HIV-1 patients (100%) as compared to healthy control subjects (89%, P = 0.003). The correlation of SDF1-3'A and CCR5 promoter CCR5-58934G/T, CCR5-59029G/A, CCR5-59353T/C, CCR5-59402 A/G and CCR5-59653C/T polymorphisms and protection to HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS was found to be nonsignificant. Nine haplotypes with more than 1% frequency were detected but were not significant in their protective role against HIV. Comparative analysis with global populations showed a noteworthy difference in CCR5 and SDF-1 polymorphisms' frequency distribution, indicating the ethnic variability of Indians. Although susceptibility to infections cannot be completely dependent on one or few genetic variants, it is important to remember that SDF-1 and CCR5 variants have been correlated globally with HIV-1 infection and disease progression. In the light of that, higher frequency of SDF-1 variants in the Indian population is noteworthy. PMID:26096543

  3. Infections associated with permanent pacemakers and implanted cardioverter-defibrillator devices. A 10-year regional study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Jesper; Korup, Eva; Schønheyder, Henrik C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Endocarditis and localized pocket infections are recognized as serious adverse events in patients with implanted cardiac impulse generators. We have undertaken a 10-y retrospective study in North Denmark Region (population 0.5 million) in order to elucidate the clinical spectrum, causative microorganisms, management and outcome. Infections associated with permanent pacemakers (PPM) and implanted cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) devices were identified by searching hospital databases. Ni...

  4. Profilaxis de la Endocarditis Infecciosa en la Consulta Odontológica. Normas Actuales de la Asociación Americana del Corazón

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Merino Morras.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de las condiciones sistémicas y las diferentes enfermedades que presenta el paciente cuando acude a una consulta odontológica, supone de una gran importancia y responsabilidad por parte del profesional; ya que de esto depende en gran parte las medidas preventiva a considerar y el tra [...] tamiento, evitando así futuros riesgos y complicaciones severas que puedan conducir en el peor de los casos a la muerte del paciente. Los diferentes tratamientos odontológicos pueden originar bacteriemias transitorias en el 50% de los pacientes. Se ha sugerido que estas bacteriemias son el punto de partida de infecciones en sujetos con diábetes, leucemias, y cardiopatías entre otras. Es por ello que en estos pacientes se utilizan antibióticos con fines preventivos. La siguiente revisión bibliográfica tiene por propósito establecer un protocolo profiláctico actualizado propuesto por la American Heart Association (AHA Asociación Americana del Corazón), el cual debe ser del conocimiento por parte del odontólogo adoptando una conducta a seguir frente a los diversos tratamientos odontológicos para prevenir la Endocarditis Infecciosa. Abstract in english It is of upmost importance on the part of the dentist to be aware of any sistemic condition or disease that the patient might have before proceding with any dental work. The dentist must take preventive measures and design treatment specific to each case, to avoid risk to the patient that could caus [...] e acute complicatios, wich in the most extreme cases, could result in the patient death. Various dental procedures produce transitory bacteraemia in 50% of all patients. It is though that these bacteraemia are the starting point for infection in people suffering from diseases such as diabetes, leukemia, cardiopathy. For this reason, antibiotics are prescribed for patients with these diseases as a preventive measure. The purpose of the following overview is to present the most recent guidelines proposed by the American Heart Association (AHA), as well as to create an awarness among those in the dental profession as to danger s involved when treating patients with special medical problems.

  5. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Penaeus monodon hemocytes after Vibrio harveyi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Lo Chu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral and bacterial diseases can cause mass mortalities in commercial shrimp aquaculture. In contrast to studies on the antiviral response, the responses of shrimps to bacterial infections by high throughput techniques have been reported only at the transcriptional level and not at the translational level. In this study, a proteomic analysis of shrimp hemocytes to identify differentially expressed proteins in response to a luminous bacterium Vibrio harveyi was evaluated for its feasibility and is reported for the first time. Results The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE patterns of the hemocyte proteins from the unchallenged and V. harveyi challenged shrimp, Penaeus monodon, at 24 and 48 h post infection were compared. From this, 27 differentially expressed protein spots, and a further 12 weakly to non-differentially regulated control spots, were selected for further analyses by the LC-ESI-MS/MS. The 21 differentially expressed proteins that could be identified by homologous annotation were comprised of proteins that are directly involved in the host defense responses, such as hemocyanin, prophenoloxidase, serine proteinase-like protein, heat shock protein 90 and alpha-2-macroglobulin, and those involved in signal transduction, such as the14-3-3 protein epsilon and calmodulin. Western blot analysis confirmed the up-regulation of hemocyanin expression upon bacterial infection. The expression of the selected proteins which were the representatives of the down-regulated proteins (the 14-3-3 protein epsilon and alpha-2-macroglobulin and of the up-regulated proteins (hemocyanin was further assessed at the transcription level using real-time RT-PCR. Conclusions This work suggests the usefulness of a proteomic approach to the study of shrimp immunity and revealed hemocyte proteins whose expression were up regulated upon V. harveyi infection such as hemocyanin, arginine kinase and down regulated such as alpha-2-macroglobulin, calmodulin and 14-3-3 protein epsilon. The information is useful for understanding the immune system of shrimp against pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Infecciones por Listeria monocytogenes, una experiencia de dos décadas: A two decade experience / Infections by Listeria monocytogenes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rocío, Sedano; Alberto, Fica; Dannette, Guiñez; Stephanie, Braun; Lorena, Porte; Jeannette, Dabanch; Thomas, Weitzel; Andrés, Soto.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las infecciones por Listeria monocytogenes representan una zoonosis con escasa caracterización clínica en Chile. Objetivo: Analizar manifestaciones clínicas y factores de riesgo asociados a desenlace fatal. Pacientes yMétodos: Estudio retrospectivo de casos desde 1991 a 2012. Resultado [...] s: Se identificaron 23 casos, dos de ellos de aparición nosocomial (8,7%). La edad promedio fue 68,4 años (rango 44-90). El 70% de los casos ha ocurrido desde el año 2003. Los factores predisponentes más frecuentes fueron edad > 65 años (60,9%), diabetes mellitus (40,9%) e inmunosupresión (27,3%). No se encontraron casos asociados a embarazo, infección por VIH o neonatos. La presentación clínica correspondió a infección del SNC (39%,) con ocho casos de meningitis y uno de romboencefalitis (5%); bacteriemias (43,5%) con un caso de endocarditis infecciosa; abscesos (8,7%) y un caso de neumonía y de peritonitis bacteriana espontánea (8,7%). El consumo de alimentos de riesgo fue buscado en cinco pacientes y confirmado en cuatro (80%). Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes fueron fiebre (90,9%) y compromiso de conciencia (63,6%). La presencia de cefalea (OR 21 p Abstract in english Background: Listeria monocytogenes infections have been poorly characterized in Chile. ^4im: To evaluate clinical manifestations and risk factors associated to a fatal outcome in a series of patients. Methods: retrospective analysis of cases from 1991 to 2012. Results: Twenty three cases were identi [...] fied, including 2 diagnosed after prolonged hospitalization (8.7%) with an average age of 68.4 years (range 44-90). Known predisposing factors were age > 65 years (60.9%), diabetes mellitus (40.9%), and immunosuppression (27.3%). Most cases presented after 2003 (70%). No cases associated with neonates, pregnancy or HIV infections were recorded. Patients presented with central nervous system (CNS) infection (39%), including 8 cases of meningitis and one of rhomboencephalitis; bacteremia (43.5%), including one case with endocarditis; abscesses (8.7%); and other infections (spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and pneumonia; 8.7%). Risky food consumption was found in 80% of those asked about it. Predominant clinical manifestations were fever (90.9%), and confusion (63.6%). CNS infections were associated to headache (OR 21, p

  7. Diagnostic performance of FDG PET or PET/CT in prosthetic infection after arthroplasty: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis of published data regarding the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) in prosthetic infection after arthroplasty. A comprehensive computer literature search of studies published through May 31, 2012 regarding PET or PET/CT in patients suspicious of prosthetic infection was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET or PET/CT in patients suspicious of prosthetic infection on a per prosthesis-based analysis were calculated. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to measure the accuracy of PET or PET/CT in patients with suspicious of prosthetic infection. Fourteen studies comprising 838 prosthesis with suspicious of prosthetic infection after arthroplasty were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity of PET or PET/CT in detecting prosthetic infection was 86% (95% confidence interval [CI] 82-90%) on a per prosthesis-based analysis. The pooled specificity of PET or PET/CT in detecting prosthetic infection was 86% (95% CI 83-89%) on a per prosthesis-based analysis. The area under the ROC curve was 0.93 on a per prosthesis-based analysis. In patients suspicious of prosthetic infection, FDG PET or PET/CT demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. FDG PET or PET/CT are accurate methods in this setting. Nevertheless, possible sources of false positive results and influcing factors should kept in mind.

  8. Infecções cervicais profundas: análise de 80 casos / Deep neck infection: analysis of 80 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Babá, Suehara; Antonio José, Gonçalves; Fernando Antonio Maria Claret, Alcadipani; Norberto Kodi, Kavabata; Marcelo Benedito, Menezes.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As infecções cervicais profundas são afecções graves que acometem os diversos espaços do pescoço. A mais temível complicação é a mediastinite necrosante descendente, que necessita de diagnóstico precoce e tratamento, por vezes, agressivo. OBJETIVOS: Analisar os 80 casos tratados de infecção cervical [...] profunda e propor uma diretriz de conduta. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Os autores realizaram um estudo retrospectivo de 80 casos de infecções cervicais profundas tratados no período de junho de 1997 a junho de 2003. RESULTADOS: As causas odontogênicas e amigdalianas foram as mais comumente encontradas. Os espaços mais acometidos foram o submandibular e parafaríngeo. Os principais microorganismos envolvidos foram o Staphylococcus aureus e o Streptococcus sp. CONCLUSÃO: O manejo da via aérea difícil nas infecções cervicais profundas deve ter cuidado especial, quando da indicação cirúrgica, de preferência com intubação sob visão endoscópica e sem uso de miorrelaxantes. Drenagem cirúrgica ampla permanece o tratamento padrão das infecções cervicais profundas. A tomografia computadorizada é o exame de escolha para o diagnóstico das infecções cervicais profundas. Essas infecções apresentam alta morbimortalidade, quando associada ao choque séptico e à mediastinite. Nossa mortalidade foi de 11,2% e dos cinco doentes com mediastinite apenas um sobreviveu. Abstract in english Deep neck infections are serious diseases that involve several spaces in the neck. The most dreadful complication is descending necrotizing fasciitis, which needs early diagnosis and aggressive treatment. AIM: To analyze 80 treated cases of deep neck infection and propose a schematic guideline for m [...] anaging this disease. METHOD: The authors present a retrospective analysis of 80 treated cases of deep neck infection, from June 1997 to June 2003. RESULTS: Odontogenic and tonsilar causes were the more frequent ones. Submandibular and parapharyngeal spaces were the most frequent location of deep neck infection. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp were the microorganisms more commonly isolated. CONCLUSIONS: Airway control should be priority in managing deep neck infections and if the patient has to be submitted to surgery special care should be taken at the moment of intubation - when curare must never be used. CT scan is the gold-standard imaging evaluation for the diagnosis of deep neck infection. Morbi-mortality is high when associated with septic shock and mediastinitis. Our mortality rate was 11.2% and only one, in five patients with mediastinitis, survived.

  9. Comparative analysis of ESTs involved in grape responses to Xylella fastidiosa infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Yuri

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gram-negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf is the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD in grape as well as diseases of many fruit and ornamental plants. The current molecular breeding efforts have identified genetic basis of PD resistance in grapes. However, the transcriptome level characterization of the host response to this pathogen is lacking. Results Twelve tissue specific subtractive suppression hybridization (SSH cDNA libraries derived from a time course sampling scheme were constructed from stems, leaves and shoots of PD resistant and susceptible sibling genotypes (V. rupestris × V. arizonica in response to Xf infection. A total of 5,794 sequences were obtained from these cDNA libraries from which 993 contigs and 949 singletons were derived. Using Gene Ontology (GO hierarchy, the non-redundant sequences were classified into the three principal categories: molecular function (30%, cellular components (9% and biological processes (7%. Comparative analysis found variations in EST expression pattern between infected and non-infected PD resistant and PD susceptible grape genotypes. Among the three tissues, libraries from stem tissues showed significant differences in transcript quality suggesting their important role in grape-Xylella interaction. Conclusion This study constitutes the first attempt to characterize the Vitis differential transcriptome associated with host-pathogen interactions from different explants and genotypes. All the generated ESTs have been submitted to GenBank and are also available through our website for further functional studies.

  10. Spatial analysis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus among pregnant women1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Holanda, Eliane Rolim; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Paiva, Simone de Sousa; de Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the spatial distribution of reported cases of pregnant women infected by the human immunodeficiency virus and to identify the urban areas with greater social vulnerability to the infection among pregnant women. METHOD: ecological study, developed by means of spatial analysis techniques of area data. Secondary data were used from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System for the city of Recife, Pernambuco. Birth data were obtained from the Brazilian Information System on Live Births and socioeconomic data from the 2010 Demographic Census. RESULTS: the presence of spatial self-correlation was verified. Moran's Index was significant for the distribution. Clusters were identified, considered as high-risk areas, located in grouped neighborhoods, with equally high infection rates among pregnant women. A neighborhood located in the Northwest of the city was distinguished, considered in an epidemiological transition phase. CONCLUSION: precarious living conditions, as evidenced by the indicators illiteracy, absence of prenatal care and poverty, were relevant for the risk of vertical HIV transmission, converging to the grouping of cases among disadvantaged regions. PMID:26155005

  11. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Dyani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in Australian sub-populations is limited by heterogeneity within surveyed populations, and variations in sampling methodologies and data reporting. There is a need for more large, population-based studies and prospective cohort studies to compliment mandatory notification data.

  12. Comparative genome analysis: selection pressure on the Borrelia vls cassettes is essential for infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilske Bettina

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At least three species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl cause tick-borne Lyme disease. Previous work including the genome analysis of B. burgdorferi B31 and B. garinii PBi suggested a highly variable plasmid part. The frequent occurrence of duplicated sequence stretches, the observed plasmid redundancy, as well as the mainly unknown function and variability of plasmid encoded genes rendered the relationships between plasmids within and between species largely unresolvable. Results To gain further insight into Borreliae genome properties we completed the plasmid sequences of B. garinii PBi, added the genome of a further species, B. afzelii PKo, to our analysis, and compared for both species the genomes of pathogenic and apathogenic strains. The core of all Bbsl genomes consists of the chromosome and two plasmids collinear between all species. We also found additional groups of plasmids, which share large parts of their sequences. This makes it very likely that these plasmids are relatively stable and share common ancestors before the diversification of Borrelia species. The analysis of the differences between B. garinii PBi and B. afzelii PKo genomes of low and high passages revealed that the loss of infectivity is accompanied in both species by a loss of similar genetic material. Whereas B. garinii PBi suffered only from the break-off of a plasmid end, B. afzelii PKo lost more material, probably an entire plasmid. In both cases the vls gene locus encoding for variable surface proteins is affected. Conclusion The complete genome sequences of a B. garinii and a B. afzelii strain facilitate further comparative studies within the genus Borrellia. Our study shows that loss of infectivity can be traced back to only one single event in B. garinii PBi: the loss of the vls cassettes possibly due to error prone gene conversion. Similar albeit extended losses in B. afzelii PKo support the hypothesis that infectivity of Borrelia species depends heavily on the evasion from the host response.

  13. Endocardite infecciosa com apresentação inicial de abdome agudo / Infective endocarditis with initial presentation of acute abdomen / Endocarditis infecciosa con presentación inicial de abdomen agudo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Humberto F. G, Freitas; Paulo R, Chizzola; Flavio C, Pinha; Luiz G, Velloso.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de 35 anos de idade foi atendido em Serviço de Emergência com seis horas de dor em fossa ilíaca direita e febre. Feita hipótese diagnóstica de apendicite aguda e realizada laparotomia exploradora. com apendicectomia. O paciente retornou ao hospital três dias após alta hospitalar. prostrado. [...] febril. com alteração de fala. diminuição de nível de consciência e com hemiparesia completa à esquerda. CT scan de crânio e punção de líquor normal. RMN de encéfalo revelou aspectos compatíveis com AVC isquêmico vertebro-basilar. Ecocardiograma transesofágico demonstrou vegetação em valva aórtica e insuficiência aórtica moderada e hemoculturas foram positivas para Enterococcus bovis. Abstract in spanish Paciente de 35 años de edad ingresó en el servicio de emergencia con seis horas de dolor en fosa ilíaca derecha y fiebre. Se llevó a cabo la hipótesis diagnóstica de apendicitis aguda y realizada laparotomía exploradora, con apendicectomía. El paciente regresó al hospital tres días tras alta hospita [...] laria, prostrado, febril, con alteración de habla, disminución de nivel de conciencia y con hemiparesia izquierda completa. Scanner de cráneo y punción de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) normal. RMN de encéfalo reveló aspectos compatibles con ACV isquémico vertebrobasilar. El ecocardiograma transesofágico demostró vegetación en válvula aórtica y insuficiencia aórtica moderada y hemocultivos fueron positivas para Enterococcus bovis. Abstract in english A 35-year-old patient was seen in an Emergency Department. with six hours of pain in the right iliac fossa and fever. The hypothesis diagnosis was acute appendicitis and an exploring laparotomy for appendectomy was carried out. The patient returned to the hospital three days after having been discha [...] rged. debilitated. feverish. having alterations in speech. reduction in the level of consciousness and complete hemiparesis to the left. The computed tomography scan of the skull and the liquor puncture were normal. Cerebral magnetic resonance image showed aspects compatible with vertebrobasilar ischemic stroke. Transesphofagic echocardiogram showed vegetation of the aortic valve and moderate aortic insufficiency. Blood cultures were positive for Enterococcus bovis.

  14. Endocardite infecciosa com apresentação inicial de abdome agudo Endocarditis infecciosa con presentación inicial de abdomen agudo Infective endocarditis with initial presentation of acute abdomen

    OpenAIRE

    Humberto F. G. Freitas; Chizzola, Paulo R.; Flavio C Pinha; Luiz G Velloso

    2010-01-01

    Paciente de 35 anos de idade foi atendido em Serviço de Emergência com seis horas de dor em fossa ilíaca direita e febre. Feita hipótese diagnóstica de apendicite aguda e realizada laparotomia exploradora. com apendicectomia. O paciente retornou ao hospital três dias após alta hospitalar. prostrado. febril. com alteração de fala. diminuição de nível de consciência e com hemiparesia completa à esquerda. CT scan de crânio e punção de líquor normal. RMN de encéfalo revelou aspectos compatíveis c...

  15. Infective endocarditis and caseous calcification of the mitral annulus: The odd couple / La endocarditis infecciosa y la calcificación caseosa del anillo mitral: la extraña pareja

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Esmeralda, Capín; Diego, León; María Luisa, Rodríguez; Cecilia, Corros; Ana, García-Campos; Jesús, de la Hera; María, Martín.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La calcificación caseosa del anillo mitral es un hallazgo ecocardiográfico poco frecuente. Debe hacerse el diagnóstico diferencial con otras entidades tales como tumores, abscesos o trombos. Para su diagnóstico definitivo además del ecocardiograma tanto el TC cardiaco como la Cardio RM pueden ser de [...] utilidad. Abstract in english Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus is an infrequent echocardiographic finding. The differential diagnosis includes other entities like tumors, abscess or thrombus. Both cardiac CT and cardiac MRI may be useful for its definitive diagnosis. [...

  16. Vitamin D deficiency in a cohort of HIV-infected patients: clinical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vandercam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Observational studies have noted very high rates of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD3] levels in both general and HIV-infected populations. In HIV-infected patients, low 25(OHD3 levels are secondary to a combination of usual risk factors and HIV-specific risk factors, like antiretroviral therapy [1]. The objective of our study is to analyse the magnitude of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency and the role of various factors such as age, sex, ethnicity, season, and antiretroviral medications in our cohort of HIV-infected patients. Methods: We prospectively collected data on 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels sampled between January 2009 and June 2011 from our cohort of 930 HIV-infected patients. Vitamin D dosage was performed using immunoassay (‘Diasorin’ - Saluggia, Italy. We divided vitamin D levels into 3 categories: 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <20 mg/nl were considered deficient, insufficient between 20 and 29 ng/ml. Levels ?30 ng/ml were defined as normal [2]. Data on demographic features (age, ethnicity, season, heterosexuality vs homosexuality, clinical features and laboratory findings (CD4 cell count, viral load, HAART, BMI were collected from patients’ medical records using our institutional database ‘Medical explorer v3r9, 2009’. Summary of results: Overall, 848 patients were included in our study (Table 1. Low levels of serum 25(OHD3 were seen in 89.3% of the study population, from which 69.5% were deficient and 19.8% were insufficient. On univariate analysis, female sex, high BMI, black African, heterosexuality, undetectable viral load and antiretroviral treatment were all predictors of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Treatment with efavirenz and tenofovir were the most associated with low vitamin D levels. On multivariate analysis (multiple linear regression model only female sex (OR=1.14; 95% CI 0.84–0.96; p<0.001, dosage during winter months (OR=1.14; 95% CI 1–1.15; p<0.05 and HAART (OR=1.12; 95% CI 1.04–1.19; p=0.002 were identified as independent risk factors of low 25(OHD3 levels. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is frequent in HIV-infected populations (69.5%. Patients on antiretroviral therapy are at higher risk of vitamin D deficiency. In our cohort, black women and dosage during winter were also independent risk factors for low vitamin D levels.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections between HIV+/AIDS Patients and Non-HIV Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB Kia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% and 11.6%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups. The prevalence of infection for each helminth and pathogenic protozoan, in every group, was as follows: Group I: Blastocystis hominis (6.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.2%; Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%; Isospora belli (0.26%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.26%; Hymenolepis nana (0.13%; and Rhabditis axei (0.13%. Group II: Blastocystis hominis (6.5%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.33%; Hymenolepis nana (0.16%; and Trichostrongylus sp. (0.16%. Although the prevalence of infection for extracellular parasites was not statistically different between two groups, however, the infection rates for enteric coccidians including Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli were significantly higher in patients at AIDS stage than Group II. Conclusion: The results emphasize the needs for especial consideration of enteropathogenic intracellular coccidians in immunocompromised patients.

  18. Biofilms bacterianos e infección Bacterial biofilms and infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lasa

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available En los países desarrollados tendemos a pensar que las principales causas de mortalidad son las enfermedades cardiovasculares y el cáncer en sus múltiples modalidades. Sin embargo, los datos en Europa resultan elocuentes; las enfermedades infecciosas representan la segunda causa de mortalidad (14,9 millones de muertes, después de las enfermedades cardiovasculares (16,9 millones de muertes y causan el doble de muertes que el cáncer (7,1 millones de muertes (datos del World Health Organization, WHO, 2002. Los agentes infecciosos responsables de mortalidad en el hombre han ido evolucionando a medida que las medidas higiénicas y las técnicas médicas han ido evolucionando. Actualmente, las enfermedades infecciosas agudas causadas por bacterias patógenas especializadas como la difteria, tétanos, peste, cólera o la tosferina, que representaban la principal causa de muerte a principios del siglo XX, han sido controladas gracias a la acción de los antibióticos y de las vacunas. En su lugar, más de la mitad de las infecciones que afectan a pacientes ligeramente inmunocomprometidos son producidas por bacterias ubicuas, capaces de producir infecciones de tipo crónico, que responden pobremente a los tratamientos antibióticos y no pueden prevenirse mediante inmunización. Ejemplos de estas infecciones son la otitis media, endocarditis de válvulas nativas, infecciones urinarias crónicas, infecciones de próstata, osteomielitis y todas las infecciones relacionadas con implantes. El análisis directo de los implantes y tejidos de estas infecciones muestra claramente que en la mayoría de los casos la bacteria responsable de la infección crece adherida sobre el tejido o el implante formando comunidades de bacterias a las que se les ha denominado "biofilms". Dentro del biofilm, las bacterias están protegidas de la acción de los anticuerpos, del ataque de las células fagocíticas y de los tratamientos antimicrobianos. En este artículo se describe el papel que juegan los biofilms en infecciones humanas persistentes.In developed countries we tend to think of heart disease and the numerous forms of cancer as the main causes of mortality, but on a global scale infectious diseases come close, or may even be ahead: 14.9 million deaths in 2002 compared to cardiovascular diseases (16.9 million deaths and cancer (7.1 million deaths (WHO report 2004. The infectious agents responsible for human mortality have evolved as medical techniques and hygienic measures have changed. Modern-day acute infectious diseases caused by specialized bacterial pathogens such as diphtheria, tetanus, cholera, plague, which represented the main causes of death at the beginning of XX century, have been effectively controlled with antibiotics and vaccines. In their place, more than half of the infectious diseases that affect mildly immunocompromised patients involve bacterial species that are commensal with the human body; these can produce chronic infections, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and there is no effective vaccine against them. Examples of these infections are the otitis media, native valve endocarditis, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis and all the infections related to medical devices. Direct analysis of the surface of medical devices or of tissues that have been foci of chronic infections shows the presence of large numbers of bacteria surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix, which has been named the "biofilm". Inside the biofilm, bacteria grow protected from the action of the antibodies, phagocytic cells and antimicrobial treatments. In this article, we describe the role of bacterial biofilms in human persistent infections.

  19. Biofilms bacterianos e infección / Bacterial biofilms and infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I., Lasa; J. L. del, Pozo; J. R., Penadés; J., Leiva.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available En los países desarrollados tendemos a pensar que las principales causas de mortalidad son las enfermedades cardiovasculares y el cáncer en sus múltiples modalidades. Sin embargo, los datos en Europa resultan elocuentes; las enfermedades infecciosas representan la segunda causa de mortalidad (14,9 m [...] illones de muertes), después de las enfermedades cardiovasculares (16,9 millones de muertes) y causan el doble de muertes que el cáncer (7,1 millones de muertes) (datos del World Health Organization, WHO, 2002). Los agentes infecciosos responsables de mortalidad en el hombre han ido evolucionando a medida que las medidas higiénicas y las técnicas médicas han ido evolucionando. Actualmente, las enfermedades infecciosas agudas causadas por bacterias patógenas especializadas como la difteria, tétanos, peste, cólera o la tosferina, que representaban la principal causa de muerte a principios del siglo XX, han sido controladas gracias a la acción de los antibióticos y de las vacunas. En su lugar, más de la mitad de las infecciones que afectan a pacientes ligeramente inmunocomprometidos son producidas por bacterias ubicuas, capaces de producir infecciones de tipo crónico, que responden pobremente a los tratamientos antibióticos y no pueden prevenirse mediante inmunización. Ejemplos de estas infecciones son la otitis media, endocarditis de válvulas nativas, infecciones urinarias crónicas, infecciones de próstata, osteomielitis y todas las infecciones relacionadas con implantes. El análisis directo de los implantes y tejidos de estas infecciones muestra claramente que en la mayoría de los casos la bacteria responsable de la infección crece adherida sobre el tejido o el implante formando comunidades de bacterias a las que se les ha denominado "biofilms". Dentro del biofilm, las bacterias están protegidas de la acción de los anticuerpos, del ataque de las células fagocíticas y de los tratamientos antimicrobianos. En este artículo se describe el papel que juegan los biofilms en infecciones humanas persistentes. Abstract in english In developed countries we tend to think of heart disease and the numerous forms of cancer as the main causes of mortality, but on a global scale infectious diseases come close, or may even be ahead: 14.9 million deaths in 2002 compared to cardiovascular diseases (16.9 million deaths) and cancer (7.1 [...] million deaths) (WHO report 2004). The infectious agents responsible for human mortality have evolved as medical techniques and hygienic measures have changed. Modern-day acute infectious diseases caused by specialized bacterial pathogens such as diphtheria, tetanus, cholera, plague, which represented the main causes of death at the beginning of XX century, have been effectively controlled with antibiotics and vaccines. In their place, more than half of the infectious diseases that affect mildly immunocompromised patients involve bacterial species that are commensal with the human body; these can produce chronic infections, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and there is no effective vaccine against them. Examples of these infections are the otitis media, native valve endocarditis, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis and all the infections related to medical devices. Direct analysis of the surface of medical devices or of tissues that have been foci of chronic infections shows the presence of large numbers of bacteria surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix, which has been named the "biofilm". Inside the biofilm, bacteria grow protected from the action of the antibodies, phagocytic cells and antimicrobial treatments. In this article, we describe the role of bacterial biofilms in human persistent infections.

  20. Japanese features of native valve endocarditis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci: case reports and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizaki, Yuji; Yamagami, Shinichiro; Joki, Yusuke; Takahashi, Shuuhei; Sesoko, Masahiro; Yamashita, Haruyo; Yokoyama, Takayuki; Uehara, Yuki; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Although coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is a frequent cause of prosthetic valve endocarditis, native valve endocarditis (NVE) caused by CoNS is not commonly seen. Its high mortality is well known; however, there are no systematic reports published in Japan. We herein report the cases of two Japanese patients with CoNS NVE who were admitted to our hospital located in Tokyo and conduct literature searches on CoNS NVE in Japan from 1983 to March 2012 using PubMed and ICHUSHI WEB (Japan Medical Abstract Society). We also summarize the features of 22 Japanese patients with CoNS NVE, including our patients. PMID:23448766